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Sample records for kaoma zambia dry

  1. Hepatitis B viral load in dried blood spots: a validation study in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinikoor, Michael J.; Zürcher, Samuel; Musukuma, Kalo; Kachuwaire, Obert; Rauch, Andri; Chi, Benjamin H.; Gorgievski, Meri; Zwahlen, Marcel; Wandeler, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to hepatitis B viral load (VL) testing is poor in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) due to economic and logistical reasons. Objectives To demonstrate the feasibility of testing dried blood spots (DBS) for hepatitis B virus (HBV) VL in a laboratory in Lusaka, Zambia, and to compare HBV VLs between DBS and plasma samples. Study design Paired plasma and DBS samples from HIV-HBV co-infected Zambian adults were analyzed for HBV VL using the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV test (Version 2.0) and for genotype by direct sequencing. We used Bland-Altman analysis to compare VLs between sample types and by HBV genotype. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the probability of an undetectable DBS result by plasma VL. Results Among 68 participants, median age was 34 years, 61.8% were men, and median plasma HBV VL was 3.98 log IU/ml (interquartile range, 2.04–5.95). Among sequenced viruses, 28 were genotype A1 and 27 were genotype E. Bland-Altman plots suggested strong agreement between DBS and plasma VLs. DBS VLs were on average 1.59 log IU/ml lower compared to plasma with 95% limits of agreement of −2.40 to −0.83 log IU/ml. At a plasma VL ≥2,000 IU/ml, the probability of an undetectable DBS result was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.5–6.6). At plasma VL ≥20,000 IU/ml this probability reduced to 0.2% (95% CI: 0.03–1.7). Conclusions In a Zambian laboratory, we observed strong agreement between DBS and plasma VLs and high sensitivity in DBS at plasma VL ≥2,000 IU/ml. As HBV treatment expands, DBS could increase access to HBV VL testing in SSA settings. PMID:26356987

  2. Single genome amplification of proviral HIV-1 DNA from dried blood spot specimens collected during early infant screening programs in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seu, Lillian; Mwape, Innocent; Guffey, M Bradford

    2014-07-01

    The ability to evaluate individual HIV-1 virions from the quasispecies of vertically infected infants was evaluated in a field setting at the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. Infant heel-prick blood specimens were spotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) filter paper cards at government health clinics. Nucleic acid was extracted and used as a template for HIV-1 proviral DNA detection by a commercial Amplicor HIV-1 PCR test (Roche, version 1.5). On samples that tested positive by commercial diagnostic assay, amplification of DNA was performed using an in-house assay of the 5' and 3' region of the HIV-1 genome. Additionally, fragments covering 1200 nucleotides within pol (full length protease and partial reverse transcriptase) and 1400 nucleotides within env (variable 1-variable 5 region) were further analyzed by single genome amplification (SGA). In summary, we have demonstrated an in-house assay for amplifying the 5' and 3' proviral HIV-1 DNA as well as pol and env proviral DNA fragments from DBS cards collected and analyzed entirely in Zambia. In conclusion, this study shows the feasibility of utilizing DBS cards to amplify the whole proviral HIV-1 genome as well as perform SGA on key HIV-1 genes.

  3. Biochar effect on maize yield and soil characteristics in five conservation farming sites in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Martinsen, Vegard; Shitumbanuma, Victor; Alling, Vanja; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rutherford, David W.; Sparrevik, Magnus; Hale, Sarah E.; Obia, Alfred; Mulder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06) and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1) of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site) with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2) and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2) of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC), no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2). In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an

  4. Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Obia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination

  5. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  6. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  7. Parity Differences in Heat Expression of Dairy Cows Synchronized with GnRH, CIDR and PGF2α during Dry Season in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Mwaanga*, K. Choongo, H. Simukoko and C. Chama1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate parity differences in heat expression of dairy cows heat-synchronized during the dry season when feed scarcity is common. Cyclic cows (n=65 aged 2 to 10 years with parity range of 0 to 7 were selected from small-holder dairy farms around Lusaka. Cows were divided into 3 groups of nulliparous, primiparous and pluriparous. Heat-was synchronized using gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH and controlled intra-vaginal drug releasing device (CIDR. Heat detection was observed after CIDR withdraw. The study showed a significantly (P<0.05 lower number of primiparous cows (68% coming into heat compared to nulliparous (81.8% and pluriparous cows (83.3%. It was concluded that parity influences estrus expression rate in dairy cows following synchronization with GnRH, CIDR and PGF2α during the dry season in the sub-tropics.

  8. Novel arenavirus, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Moonga, Ladslav; Nakamura, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Aiko; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2011-10-01

    To investigate arenavirus in Zambia, we characterized virus from the kidneys of 5 arenavirus RNA-positive rodents (Mastomys natalensis) among 263 captured. Full-genome sequences of the viruses suggested that they were new strains similar to Lassa virus-related arenaviruses. Analyzing samples from additional rodents and other species can elucidate epizootiologic aspects of arenaviruses.

  9. Novel Arenavirus, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Moonga, Ladslav; Nakamura, Ichiro; OHNUMA, Aiko; Hang’ombe, Bernard; Takada, Ayato; MWEENE, Aaron; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    To investigate arenavirus in Zambia, we characterized virus from the kidneys of 5 arenavirus RNA–positive rodents (Mastomys natalensis) among 263 captured. Full-genome sequences of the viruses suggested that they were new strains similar to Lassa virus–related arenaviruses. Analyzing samples from additional rodents and other species can elucidate epizootiologic aspects of arenaviruses.

  10. Agricultural Development in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Hampwaye, Godfrey; Phiri, Douglas

    industry. The study, which is the first of its kind in Zambia, reveals that a major part of the interviewed firms find that they have performed above industry average the last five years. A minor part states performance below industry average. Close to 80% of the firms views government and business...

  11. Intercomparison of AirMISR, CAR, and MISR Observations of Bidirectional Reflectance Factor, Mongu Tower, Zambia, During SAFARI 2000 Dry Season Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conel, J. E.; Abdou, W. A.; Pilorz, S. H.; Diner, D. J.; Privette, J. L.; Gatebe, C. K.; Holben, B. L.; Exk, T.; King, M. D.

    2001-12-01

    The SAFARI 2000 Dry Season Campaign was carried out across southern Africa in August and September, 2000. The campaign had as goals: (1) study of aerosol sources, transport, modification, and deposition, (2) the impact of atmospheric constituents on African ecosystems, (3) the field measurement of surface reflectance and atmospheric aerosol properties, and (4) measurement of atmospheric and surface properties from MISR and other instruments aboard TERRA. The validation of space platform measurements would permit extension in space and time of the platform measurements. An integral component was making coordinated observations by surface and aircraft measurements. The present work focussed on validation of bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) by the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR, the TERRA Platform), the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR, GSFC, CV-580 Aircraft, University of Washington), and AirMISR (ER-2, NASA DFRC, JPL). Numerous sorties were flown by both the ER-2 (20 km altitude) and CV-580 (altitude ~1 km). A single coincident flight covering miombo woodland was achieved at Mongu Tower (-15.438 deg lat, 23.253 deg long) on Sept 06, 2000 under cloud-free but hazy conditions. BRF intrcomparisons are under development between MISR (Sept 10, 2000 overpass) AirMISR and CAR. The value of CAR is that a bidirectional reflectance is measured rapidly over all azimuths and can be used to compare BRF at other azimuths of observation such as those of AirMISR and MISR. Twenty three BRF recoveries from MISR have subsequently been made covering the interval Sept. 06, 2000 - July 25, 2001. These are under screening for residual clouds to seek seasonal or other reflectance variations present. Such MISR time series provide basis for study of system impacts on a multiyear basis, a principal goal of the SAFARI 2000 experiment.

  12. Floodwaters Renew Zambia's Kafue Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Not all floods are unwanted. Heavy rainfall in southern Africa between December 2003 and April 2004 provided central Zambia with floodwaters needed to support the diverse uses of water within the Kafue Flats area. The Kafue Flats are home to about one million people and provide a rich inland fishery, habitat for an array of unique wildlife, and the means for hydroelectricity production. The Flats falls between two dams: Upstream to the west (not visible here) is the Izhi-tezhi, and downstream (middle right of the images) is the Kafue Gorge dam. Since the construction of these dams, the flooded area has been reduced and the timing and intensity of the inundation has changed. During June 2004 an agreement was made with the hydroelectricity company to restore water releases from the dams according to a more natural flooding regime. These images from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate surface changes to the wetlands and other surfaces in central Zambia resulting from an unusually lengthy wet season. The Kafue Flats appear relatively dry on July 19, 2003 (upper images), with the Kafue River visible as a slender dark line that snakes from east to west on its way to join the Zambezi (visible in the lower right-hand corner). On July 21, 2004 (lower images), well into the dry season, much of the 6,500-square kilometer area of the Kafue Flats remains inundated. To the east of the Kafue Flats is Lusaka, the Zambian capital, visible as a pale area in the middle right of the picture, north of the river. In the upper portions of these images is the prominent roundish shape of the Lukanga Swamp, another important wetland. The images along the left are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera, and the images along the right are angular composites in which red band data from MISR's 46o forward, nadir, and 46o backward viewing cameras is displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In order to preserve brightness variations among the various

  13. Country watch. Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapyepye, E

    1994-01-01

    In Mansa District, Zambia, people are unaware of the risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To remedy this, the District HIV Prevention and Care Team invited a member of the Positive and Living Squad (PALS), John Luonde, to speak at educational sessions for various target audiences. Goals included providing information, dissipating misinformation, alleviating community fears, and mobilizing people through specific activities that addressed identified needs. The sessions began with the testimony of John Luonde and a simple question and answer period, which were followed by focus groups, often with a video, for more difficult or sensitive topics. Information materials were distributed and a condom demonstration was conducted. Although some institutions initially refused permission because of the holiday season or the possible impact on staff, Luonde returned to cover the missed groups. More than 105 people from 9 sectors of the community participated. Groups that were represented included the Mansa Sports Club, the Mutende Deaf Branch, a factory, the local army and police, and physicians from the Mansa Hospital Board. Questions from the different groups were similar. Participants saw that, although anyone could contract AIDS (the central theme of the project), they could still hope for productive years with proper treatment, self-care, and diet. Most participants wanted to change their sexual behavior and Luonde was asked to return. Women and people with physical disabilities need to be targeted. Although condoms were previously seen as promoting promiscuity, institutions are now requesting their distribution. The team is collaborating with a social marketing organization on condom use promotion. Distribution sites include bars, restaurants, filling stations, supermarkets, and hair dressers. At the request of the community, a meeting was held with the director of the Mansa Hospital Board to develop policy

  14. Zambia moves towards reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Several events in Zambia this year have marked the development of an integrated approach to reproductive health. A team met in March to draw up a national safe motherhood policy, plus strategies and guidelines. These were completed by April and are being distributed for comments. Clinical guidelines for safe motherhood in health centers have also been developed. These aim to reduce mortality and morbidity among mothers and infants by helping health workers to provide quality care to women at every stage of pregnancy and delivery. A reproductive health workshop was held in Ngwerere in May to create awareness of the concept of reproductive health, identify reproductive health problems in the area, propose solutions and outline activities. The 75 participants included community health workers, community leaders, teachers, youth leaders, and community members, as well as health workers and policymakers. The workshop was conducted in the local language so that those present were able to participate fully. June 1997 saw the official launch of Zambia's new policy framework, guidelines and strategy on family planning within reproductive health. The country's Minister of Health, Dr. Katele Kalumba, said the family planning guidelines were a sign of the government's commitment to providing a basic health care package for all Zambians. To promote widespread discussion of the whole concept of reproductive health, local newspapers printed feature articles with the headline "Let's talk reproductive health." The articles raised a variety of sensitive issues that ranged from safe sex and adolescent sexuality to safe motherhood and HIV prevention. Plans are going ahead in Zambia for drawing up a national training curriculum for safe motherhood and family planning. The curriculum for health workers will cover both pre-service and in-service training. full text

  15. Journal of Science and Technology (Zambia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University of Zambia Journal of Science and Technology provides an outlet ... of science and technology found to be relevant for national and international ... The bi-annual journal is intended, in its publications, to stimulate new research ...

  16. Medical Journal of Zambia: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Medical Journal of Zambia is a peer-reviewed quarterly journal intended for the publication of papers from all specialities of medicine (Internal Medicine, ... This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that ...

  17. Help for the hippos of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Deanne

    2008-01-01

    Its name means "water horse," apt for the hippopotamus, which spends most of its life in deep water holes. But in Zambia's Luangwa River region, drought, deforestation, and farming are threatening the streams the hippos call home. Using aerial and satellite images, rain gauges, and soil and water samples, Conrad Heatwole, associate professor of biological systems engineering, is studying how agriculture, commerce, and tourism affect the water supply and, in turn, the wildlife in Zambia's Sout...

  18. Will savannas survive outside the parks? A lesson from Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, W.; Merbold, L.; Scholes, B.; Mukelabai, M.

    2012-04-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

  19. Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…

  20. Power instability in rural Zambia, case Macha

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mudenda, C

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides insights on the nature of electricity supply in the rural village Macha, Zambia. It reports on case study research. Use of Information and Communication Technologies and access to e-services are constrained by the availability...

  1. Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, Dusan; Gorter, de Harry; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2016-01-01

    Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of its entire petroleum demand in the face of ample supply of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. However, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been

  2. Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, Dusan; Gorter, de Harry; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2016-01-01

    Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of its entire petroleum demand in the face of ample supply of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. However, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been

  3. Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…

  4. Proximate Determinants of Fertility in Zambia: Analysis of the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumbi Chola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of proximate determinants in influencing fertility has been well documented worldwide. Bongaarts’ aggregate model of the proximate determinants (which focuses on marriage, contraception, abortion, and sterility has been widely used to analyse the influence of proximate determinants on fertility. In Zambia, however, there is limited understanding of their effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of proximate determinants of fertility in Zambia using Bongaarts’ model. This was a cross-sectional analysis of women’s data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS. A total of 7,146 women aged 15 to 49 years participated in the ZDHS. Bongaarts’ model was employed in the data analysis. Results showed that, overall, mean age was 27.8 years and rural-urban distribution was 56% and 44%, respectively. Marriage (40% and postpartum infecundity (22% accounted for the largest inhibiting effect on natural fertility from its biological maximum of 19.10. Contraception use accounted for only 3%. Therefore, in order to manage fertility in Zambia, policies and programmes should consider the effects of marriage, postpartum infecundity, and contraception on fertility. Without such targeted interventions, managing and maintaining population growth will remain a challenge in Zambia.

  5. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.

  6. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A White

    Full Text Available Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014, this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.

  7. Orthopoxvirus infection among wildlife in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Ogawa, Hirohito; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    Human monkeypox is a viral zoonosis caused by monkeypox virus, an orthopoxvirus (OPXV). The majority of human monkeypox cases have been reported in moist forested regions in West and Central Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In this study we investigated zoonotic OPXV infection among wild animals in Zambia, which shares a border with DRC, to assess the geographical distribution of OPXV. We screened for OPXV antibodies in sera from non-human primates (NHPs), rodents and shrews by ELISA, and performed real-time PCR to detect OPXV DNA in spleen samples. Serological analysis indicated that 38 of 259 (14.7 %) rodents, 14 of 42 (33.3 %) shrews and 4 of 188 (2.1 %) NHPs had antibodies against OPXV. The OPXV DNA could not be detected in spleens from any animals tested. Our results indicated that wild animals living in rural human habitation areas of Zambia have been infected with OPXV.

  8. Zambia Economic Brief, June 2015, Issue 5

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    After several years of strong economic performance, Zambia now confronts several important challenges that must be managed carefully to ensure sustained and inclusive growth in the future. On the one hand, the economy grew by an estimated 5.5–6.0 percent in 2014, somewhat above the average for African economies. Monthly copper production increased by an average of 8 percent during the seco...

  9. Bringing internet connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthee, K.W.; Mweemba, G.; Pais, A.V.; Starn, G.V.; Rijken, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an initiative to bring connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach. In particular, it focuses on a proof-of-concept Internet service that has been implemented in rural Macha located in the Southern Province of Zambia. The service operates using satellite terminals

  10. Human parainfluenza virus type 3 in wild nonhuman primates, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Michihito; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Thomas, Yuka; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Mweene, Aaron S; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) genome was detected in 4 baboons in Zambia. Antibody for HPIV3 was detected in 13 baboons and 6 vervet monkeys in 2 distinct areas in Zambia. Our findings suggest that wild nonhuman primates are susceptible to HPIV3 infection.

  11. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Ageing in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapoma, Christopher C.; Masaiti, Gift

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects part of the wider outlook on ageing in general in Zambia and was intended to investigate perceptions of and attitudes towards the aged and ageing in Zambia by members of the community who, by definition and chronologically are not classified as aged i.e. not yet 60 years and over. Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were used to…

  12. Constraints on the development of biotechnology in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewanika, M M; Mulenga, K D

    1996-09-01

    Biotechnology can play an essential role in fostering the economic and social development of developing countries like Zambia. However, due to a number of constraints, Zambia is not in a position to exploit the emerging opportunities from biotechnology. Prominent among these constraints are the lack of a biotechnology policy, an insufficient number of trained personnel, a poor science and technology base and very little basic research in universities and research institutions. The challenge Zambia must overcome is to establish a capacity and capability to innovate its own biotechnology as well as to adapt biotechnologies developed elsewhere to the Zambian conditions and environment. Despite all the hurdles and setbacks Zambia will face as she endeavours to enter the world of biotechnology, Zambia cannot afford to be a mere spectator as the rest of the world invests and benefits from the promise of biotechnology.

  13. Climate Trends and Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenga, Brian P; Wineman, Ayala; Sitko, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies use meteorological records to analyze climate trends and assess the impact of climate change on agricultural yields. While these provide quantitative evidence on climate trends and the likely effects thereof, they incorporate limited qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change and/or variability. The present study builds on the quantitative methods used elsewhere to analyze climate trends, and in addition compares local narratives of climate change with evidence found in meteorological records in Zambia. Farmers offer remarkably consistent reports of a rainy season that is growing shorter and less predictable. For some climate parameters-notably, rising average temperature-there is a clear overlap between farmers' observations and patterns found in the meteorological records. However, the data do not support the perception that the rainy season used to begin earlier, and we generally do not detect a reported increase in the frequency of dry spells. Several explanations for these discrepancies are offered. Further, we provide policy recommendations to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability, as well as suggestions to shape future climate change policies, programs, and research in developing countries.

  14. Climate Trends and Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenga, Brian P.; Wineman, Ayala; Sitko, Nicholas J.

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies use meteorological records to analyze climate trends and assess the impact of climate change on agricultural yields. While these provide quantitative evidence on climate trends and the likely effects thereof, they incorporate limited qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change and/or variability. The present study builds on the quantitative methods used elsewhere to analyze climate trends, and in addition compares local narratives of climate change with evidence found in meteorological records in Zambia. Farmers offer remarkably consistent reports of a rainy season that is growing shorter and less predictable. For some climate parameters—notably, rising average temperature—there is a clear overlap between farmers' observations and patterns found in the meteorological records. However, the data do not support the perception that the rainy season used to begin earlier, and we generally do not detect a reported increase in the frequency of dry spells. Several explanations for these discrepancies are offered. Further, we provide policy recommendations to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability, as well as suggestions to shape future climate change policies, programs, and research in developing countries.

  15. Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers: A threat to Zambia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katendi Changula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers (FVHF are caused by agents belonging to Filoviridae family, Ebola and Marburg viruses. They are amongst the most lethal pathogens known to infect humans. Incidence of FVHF outbreaks are increasing, with affected number of patients on the rise. Whilst there has been no report yet of FVHF in Zambia, its proximity to Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo, which have recorded major outbreaks, as well as the open borders, increased trade and annual migration of bats between these countries, puts Zambia at present and increased risk. Previous studies have indicated bats as potential reservoir hosts for filoviruses. An increasing population with an increasing demand for resources has forced incursion into previously uninhabited land, potentially bringing them into contact with unknown pathogens, reservoir hosts and/or amplifying hosts. The recent discovery of a novel arenavirus, Lujo, highlights the potential that every region, including Zambia, has for being the epicentre or primary focus for emerging and re-emerging infections. It is therefore imperative that surveillance for potential emerging infections, such as viral haemorrhagic fevers be instituted. In order to accomplish this surveillance, rapid detection, identification and monitoring of agents in patients and potential reservoirs is needed. International co-operation is the strategy of choice for the surveillance and fight against emerging infections. Due to the extensive area in which filoviral infections can occur, a regional approach to surveillance activities is required, with regional referral centres. There is a need to adopt shared policies for the prevention and control of infectious diseases. There is also need for optimisation of currently available tests and development of new diagnostic tests, in order to have robust, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tests that can be used even where there are inadequate laboratories and diagnostic services.

  16. African Independent Churches in Zambia (Lusaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildnerová Kateřina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The African Independent churches (AICs in Zambia, as elsewhere in Africa, from their very beginning formed a protest movement against the cultural imperialism undertaken by the missionary representatives of the historic mission churches and also played an important role in the anti-colonial political struggles. In Zambia, the early AICs were closely related to witchcraft eradication movements such as the Mchape, or socially and politically oriented prophet-healing churches such as The Lumpa church of Alice Lenshina. Since the 1970s and in particular in the 1990s the Christianity in Zambia has been significantly marked by the proliferation of the African Independent Churches - both of Pentecostal and prophet-healing type. These churches that started mushrooming particularly in urban settings became part of the strengthening charismatic movement, particularly within Protestantism. A typical feature of AICs is focus on spiritual healing and religious syncretism - the local traditional customs and beliefs in dangerous ghosts, ancestral spirits, or witches are placed within the biblical religious framework where the Holy Spirit (Muzimu Oyela is considered to be the only source of healing whereas other ‘inferior spirits’ are labelled as demons. The traditional methods of healing are creatively combined with Christian healing by means of prayers, spiritual blessings, laying on of hands on patients and demon exorcism - it is believed that only a body rid of bad spirits can receive the Holy Spirit, and thus be healed. The paper draws on both secondary literature concerning African Independent Churches and primary data issued from fieldwork in Lusaka (2008-2009.

  17. Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale

    2014-01-01

    volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1...... to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning...

  18. Milking the region? South African capital and Zambia's dairy industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    companies in Zambia's dairy chain? One prominent ... Retailers and especially processors are more likely to consider sourcing locally because ... continues to find ways to supply Zambian retail outlets with highly subsidized cheese and butter ...

  19. Cholera Epidemiology in Zambia from 2000 to 2010: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholera Epidemiology in Zambia from 2000 to 2010: Implications for ... we make recommendations for improving cholera prevention and control in country. ... compared to 2003) and 115 deaths (CFR 1.6%) of the disease were reported with ...

  20. Mental illness - stigma and discrimination in Zambia : original article

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mwanza, J; Lund, C; Flisher, A.J; Mwape, L; Sikwese, A; Cooper, S; Kakuma, R; Kapungwe, A

    2010-01-01

    Objective : The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the presence, causes and means of addressing individual and systemic stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness in Zambia...

  1. Social Cash Transfer Scale-up for Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanfield Michelo

    2015-01-01

    What started as an experiment on the desirability and feasibility of a social cash transfer programme in Zambia has now mutated into the national flagship social protection programme. How did this happen?(?)

  2. The Confucius Institute at the University of Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter; Hampwaye, Godfrey

    2016-01-01

    , and what the implications of these differences are for the chances of producing locally relevant knowledge in Africa. This is done through a case study of the newly established Confucius Institute at the University of Zambia in Lusaka, Zambia. This case enables us to further our understanding of how...... the Confucius Institute operates, how it is governed and, more importantly, how it affects the University of Zambia’s room for manoeuvre in determining (and funding) its own vision and strategy....

  3. Diabetes mellitus and comorbid depression in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hapunda, Given; Abubakar, Amina; Pouwer, F

    2015-01-01

    Zambian patients with diabetes completed the Major Depression Inventory and a list of demographic indicators. RESULTS: Compared with control subjects (mean ± sd Major Depression Inventory score 15.10 ± 9.19), depressive symptoms were significantly more common in patients with diabetes (mean ± sd Major......AIMS: To replicate, in Zambia, a recent global study by the WHO, which reported that the odds of depression were not increased in African people with diabetes, and to explore the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with depression. METHODS: A total of 773 control subjects and 157...... Depression Inventory score 19.12 ± 8.95; P depression. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to the WHO study, we...

  4. The return of chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, Sydney; Joshi, Sudhaunshu; Nambozi, Michael; Chileshe, Justin; Malunga, Phidelis; Kabuya, Jean-Bertin Bukasa; Hachizovu, Sebastian; Manyando, Christine; Mulenga, Modest; Laufer, Miriam

    2016-12-05

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to anti-malarial drugs remains a major obstacle to malaria control and elimination. The parasite has developed resistance to every anti-malarial drug introduced for wide-scale treatment. However, the spread of resistance may be reversible. Malawi was the first country to discontinue chloroquine use due to widespread resistance. Within a decade of the removal of drug pressure, the molecular marker of chloroquine-resistant malaria had disappeared and the drug was shown to have excellent clinical efficacy. Many countries have observed decreases in the prevalence of chloroquine resistance with the discontinuation of chloroquine use. In Zambia, chloroquine was used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria until treatment failures led the Ministry of Health to replace it with artemether-lumefantrine in 2003. Specimens from a recent study were analysed to evaluate prevalence of chloroquine-resistant malaria in Nchelenge district a decade after chloroquine use was discontinued. Parasite DNA was extracted from dried blood spots collected by finger-prick in pregnant women who were enrolling in a clinical trial. The specimens underwent pyrosequencing to determine the genotype of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter, the gene that is associated with CQ resistance. Three-hundred and two specimens were successfully analysed. No chloroquine-resistant genotypes were detected. The study found the disappearance of chloroquine-resistant malaria after the removal of chloroquine drug pressure. Chloroquine may have a role for malaria prevention or treatment in Zambia and throughout the region in the future.

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... inches) in length may be imported into the continental United States from Zambia only under the...

  6. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  7. The Use of Insects as Human Food in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The life cycle and culture structure of two commonly eaten worms in Zambia (Isoberlinia paniculata and Miombo/Mopani were evaluated. The worms were grown on an artificial medium to evaluate the potential of producing them on a commercial scale. Approach: An interesting characteristic of the worms studied was that they reached their maximum weight and maximum length at the same time. Results: The larvae started to decrease in weight soon after reaching their maximum size suggesting that they should be harvested shortly before reaching their maximum length (36 days old. Only 10% mortality was observed with the older larvae of the Miombo/Mopani worm. A system where eggs are separated from adults and hatched in separate chambers would alleviate the danger of losing the population due to microbial infection. The high moisture content of the live larvae (60.5-60.9% could cause handling and storage problems. Drying and grinding the larvae would reduce them to easily manageable forms and would improve their marketability as a novel food. The results obtained from this study showed the potential of using these insects as a protein source for human consumption. They had structured animal protein that contained the essential amino acids, lipids, vitamins, minerals and energy required for human growth and their nutrition contents are comparable to those of conventional foods. These worms are harvested from trees in Africa but the industry is facing droughts and overexploitation that has lead to local extinctions in several areas. Conclusion/Recommendations: Therefore, further research is required to evaluate their growth on low substrates and to assess the effects of environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and heat production on food consumption and protein yield and quality. This information will aid in the design of an optimal commercial insect production system. Appropriate processing and marketing

  8. Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Dautu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no reports of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005−2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.

  9. Mental illness--stigma and discrimination in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapungwe, A; Cooper, S; Mwanza, J; Mwape, L; Sikwese, A; Kakuma, R; Lund, C; Flisher, A J

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the presence, causes and means of addressing individual and systemic stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness in Zambia. This is to facilitate the development of tailor-made antistigma initiatives that are culturally sensitive for Zambia and other low-income African countries. This is the first in-depth study on mental illness stigma in Zambia. Fifty semi-structured interviews and 6 focus group discussions were conducted with key stakeholders drawn from 3 districts in Zambia (Lusaka, Kabwe and Sinazongwe). Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Mental illness stigma and discrimination is pervasive across Zambian society, prevailing within the general community, amongst family members, amid general and mental health care providers, and at the level of government. Such stigma appears to be fuelled by misunderstandings of mental illness aetiology; fears of contagion and the perceived dangerousness of people with mental illness; and associations between HIV/AIDS and mental illness. Strategies suggested for reducing stigma and discrimination in Zambia included education campaigns, the transformation of mental health policy and legislation and expanding the social and economic opportunities of the mentally ill. In Zambia, as in many other low-income African countries, very little attention is devoted to addressing the negative beliefs and behaviours surrounding mental illness, despite the devastating costs that ensue. The results from this study underscore the need for greater commitment from governments and policy-makers in African countries to start prioritizing mental illness stigma as a major public health and development issue.

  10. Measuring access to emergency obstetric care in rural Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Adam C.; Regan H Marsh; Nelson, Sara W.; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Burke, Thomas F

    2008-01-01

    Background Global health experts identify emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as the most important intervention to improve maternal survival in low- and middle-income countries. In Zambia, 1 in 27 women will die of maternal causes, yet the level of availability of EmOC is not known at the provincial level. Aims Our goal was to develop a tool to measure the availability of EmOC in rural Zambia in order to estimate pregnant women?s access to this life-saving intervention. Methods We created an ins...

  11. Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale;

    2014-01-01

    volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1...... presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed...

  12. Measuring access to emergency obstetric care in rural Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Adam C; Marsh, Regan H.; Nelson, Sara W.; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Burke, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Global health experts identify emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as the most important intervention to improve maternal survival in low- and middle-income countries. In Zambia, 1 in 27 women will die of maternal causes, yet the level of availability of EmOC is not known at the provincial level. Aims Our goal was to develop a tool to measure the availability of EmOC in rural Zambia in order to estimate pregnant women’s access to this life-saving intervention. Methods We created an ins...

  13. Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a co...... = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors....... of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P

  14. Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance in Zambia: Progress towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    months after onset of paralysis to assess recovery of the children. In Zambia AFP cases are followed up regularly but there is ... vaccination status, 77% of the cases had received 1 to 4 doses of the ... fever, malaise, headache, muscle pain, nausea and vomiting to .... the PEI management, to the Ministry of Health and to the.

  15. Cost Sharing in Zambia's Public Universities: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaiti, Gift; Shen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This research paper explores the concept of "cost sharing" which became more prominent in Zambia education with the advent of democratic form of governance in 1991. As a way of responding to the ever diminishing tax revenues, government through the education policy of 1996, allowed higher education institutions including public…

  16. Social Isolation and Aging in Zambia: Examining the Possible Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chabila Mapoma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper examined social isolation and aging in Zambia by examining possible predictors. The paper produces evidence on risk factors likely to engender social isolation among the elderly population of Zambia. Snowball sampling was undertaken to select 690 adults aged 60 and over in communities as well as those living in homes for the aged. A structured questionnaire was used to solicit information from respondents. Results show that old people in Zambia experience forms of social isolation which exhibit themselves (but not limited to through such factors as loss of appetite, stress, moody, hopeless, useless, unhappy, and lonely. On balance, however, the direction of association and the number of statistically significant findings suggest that associations between variables examined and risk factors associated with social isolation amongst older people in this analysis could explain the overall situation occuring currently in Zambia and probably other developing countries. In view of this, this study recommends that further work is needed to identify and explain details of factors of social isolation using techniques such as focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with key informants. Such approaches may even help to explain why, for example, sex seems not to be significant in determining indicators of social isolation.

  17. Opportunities and challenges of E-learning in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information System Committee (JISC) which guides on using ... “this was the first time I did an e-learning trial and I thought it was going .... host to an ICT based project that provides 24 hour access to medical ... which could be a real role model for rural Zambia. ... the students and aiming for differentiated, deeper, and more ...

  18. Cucumis zambianus (Cucurbitaceae): A New Species from Northwestern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    During germplasm explorations within Zambia in 1984, seven Cucumis accessions were collected that could not be identified to species. Two of the accessions were studied in-depth. Based on phenotypic characters, they were closest to Cucumis pustulatus. In ITS analyses of all available Cucumis spec...

  19. The Implementation of School Based Continuous Assessment (CA) in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapambwe, William M.

    2010-01-01

    In Zambia, continuous assessment (CA) is defined as an on-going, diagnostic, classroom-based process that uses a variety of assessment tools to measure learner performance (MOE, 2005:5). Over the years, examinations have been used for selection and certification, without formal considerations on school-based continuous assessment as a component in…

  20. Textbooks and Learning Materials Program: Zambia. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi Consortium for International Development's (MCID's) intervention involved the development, publication and distribution of an Integrated Foundations of Learning Kit, focused on numeracy. This intervention was aligned with Zambia's priorities and strategies and matched the requirements of the Textbooks and Learning Materials Program…

  1. Improvement of wheat in Zambia using incomplete resistance against rusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milliano, de W.A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The programme of wheat improvement developed in Zambia used local facilities (finance, personnel, infrastructure), low budget, and few personnel. Incomplete resistance against rusts was used to obtain durable resistance.
    The abiotic conditions, socio-economic status of the farmers,

  2. Mental Health of HIV Positive Adolescents in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    around the world, especially in developing countries. Young people ... particularly affected in terms of transmission, vulnerability and ... risky sexual behaviour . Keywords: HIV, adolescents, mental health, SDQ, Zambia. 1 ..... Physiologically HIV may affect the brain structures involved in emotional and behavioural regulation.

  3. Measuring access to emergency obstetric care in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Adam C; Marsh, Regan H; Nelson, Sara W; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Burke, Thomas F

    2008-06-01

    Global health experts identify emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as the most important intervention to improve maternal survival in low- and middle-income countries. In Zambia, 1 in 27 women will die of maternal causes, yet the level of availability of EmOC is not known at the provincial level. Our goal was to develop a tool to measure the availability of EmOC in rural Zambia in order to estimate pregnant women's access to this life-saving intervention. We created an instrument for determining the availability of EmOC based on the supplies and medicines in stock at health facilities as well as the skill level of health workers. We then surveyed a random sample of 35 health centres in the Central Province of Zambia using our novel instrument. We graded health centres based on their ability to provide the six basic functions of EmOC: administering parenteral antibiotics, administering parenteral oxytocics, administering parenteral anticonvulsants, performing manual removal of the placenta, removing retained products of conception and performing assisted vaginal delivery. Of the 29 health centres providing delivery care, 65% (19) were graded as level 1 or 2, 28% (8) as level 3 or 4 and 7% (2) as level 5. No health centre received a grade of level 6. The availability of EmOC in the Central Province of Zambia is extremely limited; the majority of health centres provide only one or two basic functions of EmOC, and no health centres perform all six functions. Our grading system allows for inter- and intra-country comparisons by providing a systematic process for monitoring access to EmOC in rural, low-income countries similar to Zambia.

  4. Effect of seasonal variation on adult clinical laboratory parameters in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda: implications for HIV biomedical prevention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Ruzagira

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of seasonal variation on adult clinical laboratory parameters in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda and determine its implications for HIV prevention and other clinical trials.Volunteers in a cross-sectional study to establish laboratory reference intervals were asked to return for a seasonal visit after the local season had changed from dry to rainy or vice versa. Volunteers had to be clinically healthy, not pregnant and negative for HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and syphilis infection at both visits. At each visit, blood was taken for measurement of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, red blood cells, platelets, total white blood cells (WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, CD4/CD8 T cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, total immunoglobulin gamma, total protein, creatinine, total amylase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Consensus dry season reference intervals were applied to rainy season values (and vice versa and the proportion of 'out-of-range' values determined. Percentage differences between dry and rainy season parameter mean values were estimated.In this cohort of 903 volunteers, less than 10.0% of consensus parameter (except LDH values in one season were "out-of-range" in the other. Twenty-two (22 percent of rainy season LDH values fell outside of the consensus dry season interval with the higher values observed in the rainy season. Variability between consensus seasonal means ranged from 0.0% (total WBC, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and direct bilirubin to 40.0% (eosinophils. Within sites, the largest seasonal variations were observed for monocytes (Masaka, 11.5%, LDH (Lusaka, 21.7%, and basophils (Kigali, 22.2%.Seasonality had minimal impact on adult clinical laboratory parameter values in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda. Seasonal variation may not be an important factor in the

  5. A retrospective study and predictive modelling of Newcastle Disease trends among rural poultry of eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubamba, C; Ramsay, G; Abolnik, C; Dautu, G; Gummow, B

    2016-10-01

    Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly infectious disease of poultry that seriously impacts on food security and livelihoods of livestock farmers and communities in tropical regions of the world. ND is a constant problem in the eastern province of Zambia which has more than 740 000 rural poultry. Very few studies give a situational analysis of the disease that can be used for disease control planning in the region. With this background in mind, a retrospective epidemiological study was conducted using Newcastle Disease data submitted to the eastern province headquarters for the period from 1989 to 2014. The study found that Newcastle Disease cases in eastern Zambia followed a seasonal and cyclic pattern with peaks in the hot dry season (Overall Seasonal Index 1.1) as well as cycles every three years with an estimated provincial incidence range of 0.16 to 1.7% per year. Annual trends were compared with major intervention policies implemented by the Zambian government, which often received donor support from the international community during the study period. Aid delivered through government programmes appeared to have no major impact on ND trends between 1989 and 2014 and reasons for this are discussed. There were apparent spatial shifts in districts with outbreaks over time which could be as a result of veterinary interventions chasing outbreaks rather than implementing uniform control. Data was also fitted to a predictive time series model for ND which could be used to plan for future ND control. Time series modelling showed an increasing trend in ND annual incidence over 25 years if existing interventions continue. A different approach to controlling the disease is needed if this trend is to be halted. Conversely, the positive trend may be a function of improved reporting by farmers as a result of more awareness of the disease.

  6. Cigarette price and other factors associated with brand choice and brand loyalty in Zambia: findings from the ITC Zambia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Goma, Fastone; Chelwa, Grieve; Cheng, Xi; Zulu, Richard; Kaai, Susan C; Quah, Anne C K; Thrasher, James F; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about cigarette pricing and brand loyalty in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines these issues in Zambia, analysing data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Zambia Survey. Data from Wave 1 of the ITC Zambia Survey (2012) were analysed for current smokers of factory-made (FM) cigarettes compared with those who smoked both FM and roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes, using multivariate logistic regression models to identify the predictors of brand loyalty and reasons for brand choice. 75% of FM-only smokers and 64% of FM+RYO smokers reported having a regular brand. Compared with FM-only smokers, FM+RYO smokers were, on average, older (28% vs 20% ≥40 years), low income (64% vs 43%) and had lower education (76% vs 44% 1 year) if they were aged 15-17 years (vs 40-54 years) and if they had moderate (vs low) income. Brand choice was predicted mostly by friends, taste and brand popularity. Price was more likely to be a reason for brand loyalty among FM+RYO smokers, among ≥55-year-old smokers and among those who reported being more addicted to cigarettes. These results in Zambia document the high levels of brand loyalty in a market where price variation is fairly small across cigarette brands. Future research is needed on longitudinal trends to evaluate the effect of tobacco control policies in Zambia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Epidemiology of injuries, outcomes, and hospital resource utilisation at a tertiary teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Seidenberg

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Limited dataset trauma registries can capture important epidemiologic data that can characterise injury care, identify patterns of injury, and inform hospital-based intervention strategies in Zambia.

  8. Local perceptions, cultural beliefs and practices that shape umbilical cord care: a qualitative study in Southern Province, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Herlihy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust, lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces. Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers. CONCLUSION: Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural

  9. Democracy in Reverse: The 2016 General Election in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Goldring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On 11 August 2016, Zambia held elections for the presidency, National Assembly, local councillors, and mayors. Concurrently, a referendum was held on whether to enhance the Bill of Rights in the Constitution of Zambia. The elections were significant for several reasons: It was the first contest under a newly amended Constitution, which introduced important changes to the electoral framework. It also marked a break with Zambia’s positive historical record of arranging generally peaceful elections. Moreover, the election featured an electoral playing field that was notably tilted in favour of the incumbent party. Ultimately, the incumbent president, Edgar Lungu of the Patriotic Front, edged out opposition challenger Hakainde Hichilema of the United Party for National Development. The election was controversial and the opposition mounted an unsuccessful legal challenge to the final results. The 2016 elections represent a reversal in the quality of Zambian democracy and raise questions about the country’s prospects for democratic consolidation.

  10. The Role of Open and Distance Learning in the Implementation of the Right to Education in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaciwena, Richard; Lubinda, Foster

    2008-01-01

    As a member of the United Nations, Zambia is committed to the observance of human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. This is evidenced, among others, by the fact that Zambia is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Zambia has a…

  11. The Urgent Need to Train Teachers for Multigrade Pedagogy in African Schooling Contexts: Lessons from Uganda and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Our research project funded by the British Council on multigrade teaching capacity building in Uganda and Zambia found that Uganda does not have a single higher education institution training teachers in multigrade pedagogy and Zambia has only one located at Serenje village in rural Zambia. Yet the research found that in both countries many…

  12. HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth C Kapembwa; GOLDMAN, Jason D.; Shabir Lakhi; Yolan Banda; Kasonde Bowa; Vermund, Sten H.; Joseph Mulenga; David Chama; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART). Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab) at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of...

  13. Tuberculosis Infection in Zambia: The Association with Relative Wealth

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between household socioeconomic position and tuberculosis (TB) infection in two communities of Zambia. For this purpose we implemented a cross-sectional investigation, nested within a larger case control study. Infection was assessed using Quantiferon-TB Gold. A socioeconomic position index was constructed through principal component analysis combining data on human resources, food availability, housing quality, and access to services and infrastruct...

  14. A Brief History of Kafue National Park, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Mwima

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first documentation of the history of Zambia's oldest and largest national park: Kafue National Park. The movement of people out of the park is systematically presented. Furthermore, access and resource use and exploitation rights granted to people who lived inside the park are summarised. The paper looks at park administration, wildlife management, tourism and briefly presents areas for future studies.

  15. CPPCC Vice Chairman Abdul’ ahat Abdulrixit Visits Zambia and Namibia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Zambia and Namibia are two African countries that have traditionally been strongly supported by China in their efforts for sustained development,and to further promote ties,Abdul’ahat Abdulrixit,Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and President of the Chinese-African People’s Friendship Association (CAPFA),led a CAPFA delegation to visit the two countries from April 14 to 20.

  16. Quaternary fossil fauna from the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, LC; Barham, LS; Ditchfield, P.; Elton, S; Harcourt-Smith, WH; Dawkins, P

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a large collection of Quaternary fossil fauna from the Luangwa rift valley, Zambia. Stone Age artefacts have been recovered from stratified fluvial contexts, but no in situ fossil fauna have yet been recovered. We report on 500 fossil specimens collected from the surface of point bars exposed seasonally along the banks of the main Luangwa river channel. We used non-destructive x-ray fluorescence analysis of the fossils' chemical signatures to determine whether they derive...

  17. Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Freddie Masaninga; Mac Otten; Ibrahima Soce Fall; Olusegun Babaniyi; Emmanuel Chanda; Pascalina Chanda-Kapata; Busiku Hamainza; Hieronymo T Masendu; Mulakwa Kamuliwo; Wambinji Kapelwa; John Chimumbwa; John Govere

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria reduction (66%) in in-patient cases and deaths, particularly between 2000-2008. These changes occurred following the (re-)introduction and expansion of indoor residual spraying up to 90%coverage, scale-up of coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in household from 50%to 70%, and artemisin-based combination therapy nationwide. However, malaria cases and deaths re-surged, increasing in 2009-2010 in the northern-eastern parts of Zambia. Delays in the disbursement of funds affected the implementation of interventions, which resulted in resurgence of cases and deaths. In spite of a decline in malaria disease burden over the past decade in Zambia, a reversal in impact is notable in the year 2009-2010, signifying that control gains are fragile and must be sustained toeliminate malaria.

  18. Integrating active tuberculosis case finding in antenatal services in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheya, N; Luhanga, D; Harris, J B; Morse, J; Kapata, N; Bweupe, M; Henostroza, G; Reid, S E

    2014-12-01

    Three out-patient antenatal care (ANC) clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. To estimate tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and symptomatic, non-HIV-infected pregnant women and explore the feasibility of routine TB screening in ANC settings. Peer educators administered TB symptom questionnaires to pregnant women attending their first ANC clinic visit. Presumptive TB patients were defined as all HIV-infected women and symptomatic non-HIV-infected women. Sputum samples were tested using smear microscopy and culture to estimate TB prevalence. All 5033 (100%) women invited to participate in the study agreed, and 17% reported one or more TB symptoms. Among 1152 presumed TB patients, 17 (1.5%) had previously undiagnosed culture-confirmed TB; 2 (12%) were smear-positive. Stratified by HIV status, TB prevalence was 10/664 (1.5%, 95%CI 0. 7-2.8) among HIV-infected women and 7/488 (1.4%, 95%CI 0.6-2.9) among symptomatic non-HIV-infected women. In HIV-infected women, the only symptom significantly associated with TB was productive cough; symptom screening was only 50% sensitive. There is a sizable burden of TB in pregnant women in Zambia, which may lead to adverse maternal and infant outcomes. TB screening in ANC settings in Zambia is acceptable and feasible. More sensitive diagnostics are needed.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

  20. Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Masaninga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000–2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria reduction (66% in in-patient cases and deaths, particularly between 2000–2008. These changes occurred following the (re-introduction and expansion of indoor residual spraying up to 90% coverage, scale-up of coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in household from 50% to 70%, and artemisin-based combination therapy nationwide. However, malaria cases and deaths re-surged, increasing in 2009–2010 in the northern-eastern parts of Zambia. Delays in the disbursement of funds affected the implementation of interventions, which resulted in resurgence of cases and deaths. In spite of a decline in malaria disease burden over the past decade in Zambia, a reversal in impact is notable in the year 2009–2010, signifying that control gains are fragile and must be sustained toeliminate malaria.

  1. 77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... with the ] Republic of Zambia aimed at reducing poverty through economic growth (the ``Compact''). The... percent of the world's emeralds.'', add the following text: Water The Government of Zambia has entered... agency that works to reduce poverty through economic growth. The Compact will address one of...

  2. Personal and Environmental Predictors of the Intention to Use Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Low maternal healthcare service utilization contributes to poor maternal and new born health outcomes in rural Zambia. The purpose of this study was to identify important factors influencing women's intention to use these services in Kalomo, Zambia. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 1007 women of reproductive…

  3. Labour migration and the generation conflict : an essay on social change in Central Western Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Abridged abstract: Antagonism between older and younger men constitutes a striking feature of a rural community in post-independent Zambia. In the local political processes surrounding the 1973 Zambia general elections, a small group of young men organised themselves within a framework suggested by

  4. Bismarck in the Bush: Year 12 Write Zambia's History for Zambian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Peter Gray explains how his Year 12 students came to research and write a resource on the history of Zambia, for history teachers "in" Zambia. The construction of the resource stretched the Year 12 students in new ways: the Internet was useless and there were no easy digests in A-Level textbooks to get them started. They would have to read whole…

  5. Bismarck in the Bush: Year 12 Write Zambia's History for Zambian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Peter Gray explains how his Year 12 students came to research and write a resource on the history of Zambia, for history teachers "in" Zambia. The construction of the resource stretched the Year 12 students in new ways: the Internet was useless and there were no easy digests in A-Level textbooks to get them started. They would have to…

  6. Personal and Environmental Predictors of the Intention to Use Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Low maternal healthcare service utilization contributes to poor maternal and new born health outcomes in rural Zambia. The purpose of this study was to identify important factors influencing women's intention to use these services in Kalomo, Zambia. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 1007 women of reproductive…

  7. 77 FR 60966 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November 26- 30, 2012, to revise the dates of the application deadline from October... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY:...

  8. Personal and Environmental Predictors of the Intention to Use Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Low maternal healthcare service utilization contributes to poor maternal and new born health outcomes in rural Zambia. The purpose of this study was to identify important factors influencing women's intention to use these services in Kalomo, Zambia. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 1007 women of…

  9. Why Context Matters: Understanding the Material Conditions of School-Based Caring in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized in-depth interviewing, participant observation, and student diaries completed by participants to examine the quality of teacher-student relationships at a low-cost private school in the townships of Ndola, Zambia. Amidst economic decline and the HIV/AIDS epidemic facing Zambia today, teachers and students developed strong…

  10. Child Abuse and Aids-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior among Adolescents in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…

  11. Strategies for Living with the Challenges of HIV and Antiretroviral Use in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah; Zulu, Isaac; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Vamos, Szonja; Gomez, Jacqueline; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to identify strategies for living with the challenges of HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) use among new medication users in urban Zambia. Participants (n = 160) were recruited from urban Lusaka, Zambia. Qualitative Data was drawn from monthly ARV treatment education intervention groups addressing HIV and antiretroviral use. Themes…

  12. Explorations in the history and sociology of territorial cults in Zambia (1500-1950 CE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Aim of this volume, which brings together seven studies of religious change in Zambia, is to describe the processes of religious change in this country during the last few centuries. These studies are: 1) Towards a theory of religious change in Central Africa. 2) Possession and mediumship in Zambia:

  13. Increased Economic Relations Between China and Zambia in the Last Decade: Implications on Zambia’s Existing Bilateral Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Committee on Human Rights Studies by Mr. Micheal Chilufya Sata in 2007, prior to his becoming the President of Zambia. The paper highlighted...continent. In his paper, Sata stated that China’s recent march into Africa was in search of natural resources, especially oil, timber and base metals to...especially in the 48 African countries that have diplomatic ties with China.60 Sata argued that the increased China and Zambia relations had negative

  14. Understanding local water conflict and cooperation: The case of Namwala District, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, Mikkel; Mweemba, Carol; Nyambe, Imasiku; van Koppen, Barbara; Ravnborg, Helle Munk

    Understanding the nature of water conflict and cooperation is a crucial element in water governance within Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). Much of the recent attention to the issue has however focused on transboundary aspects, while we know rather less about the nature and dynamics of local water conflict and cooperation. Drawing on the work of the collaborative Competing for Water Research Programme, this article presents selected findings from a quantitative and qualitative mapping and exploration of water conflict and cooperation events in Namwala District of Zambia. It is found that local water competition situations often involve both conflictive and cooperative events in a dynamic succession of each other, but also that the majority of events are conflictive, and that they primarily take place between different types of water uses, and less frequently among the same types of uses. There is a distinct tendency for both conflictive and cooperative events to originate in the dry season, and many events are associated with water infrastructure development, particularly boreholes. The study found that most conflictive and cooperative events took place within individual communities, and only to a lesser extent between two or more communities or between districts. While third parties are involved in some events, these are primarily local village institutions such as Headmen. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these findings for local water governance, including the need to ensure that the very localized nature of such conflict and cooperation events is taken into consideration in the institutional development of IWRM.

  15. Nursing the critically ill surgical patient in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Chris; Snell, David

    2016-11-10

    Critical illness in the developing world is a substantial burden for individuals, families, communities and healthcare services. The management of these patients will depend on the resources available. Simple conditions such as a fractured leg or a strangulated hernia can have devastating effects on individuals, families and communities. The recent Lancet Commission on Global Surgery and the World Health Organization promise to strengthen emergency and essential care will increase the focus on surgical services within the developing world. This article provides an overview of nursing the critically ill surgical patient in Zambia, a lower middle income country (LMIC) in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    1996-01-01

    effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away......In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific...

  17. Perinatal transmission of HIV-I in Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hira, S K; Kamanga, J.; Bhat, G J; Mwale, C; Tembo, G.; Luo, N; Perine, P L

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the occurrence of vertical transmission of HIV-I from women positive for the virus and the prognosis for their babies. DESIGN--Women presenting in labour were tested for HIV-I. Their newborn babies were also tested. Women positive for the virus were followed up with their babies for two years. SETTING--Teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. SUBJECTS--1954 Women, of whom 227 were seropositive. Of 205 babies, 192 were positive for HIV-I. After birth 109 seropositive mother...

  18. Filarial infections in domestic dogs in Lusaka, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, Joyce; Mwase, Enala T.; Nejsum, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in Lusaka, Zambia. Giemsa stained blood smear and Knott...... not identified in any of the dogs and the status of this infection remains unclear. Further studies are needed to explore the occurrence of filariae in Zambian dogs and the zoonotic potential for humans....

  19. Costs and cost-effectiveness of a large-scale mass testing and treatment intervention for malaria in Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silumbe, Kafula; Yukich, Joshua O; Hamainza, Busiku; Bennett, Adam; Earle, Duncan; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Steketee, Richard W; Eisele, Thomas P; Miller, John M

    2015-05-20

    A cluster, randomized, control trial of three dry-season rounds of a mass testing and treatment intervention (MTAT) using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was conducted in four districts in Southern Province, Zambia. Data were collected on the costs and logistics of the intervention and paired with effectiveness estimated from a community randomized control trial for the purpose of conducting a provider perspective cost-effectiveness analysis of MTAT vs no MTAT (Standard of Care). Dry-season MTAT in this setting did not reduce malaria transmission sufficiently to permit transition to a case-investigation strategy to then pursue malaria elimination, however, the intervention did substantially reduce malaria illness and was a highly cost-effective intervention for malaria burden reduction in this moderate transmission area. The cost per RDT administered was estimated to be USD4.39 (range: USD1.62-13.96) while the cost per AL treatment administered was estimated to be USD34.74 (range: USD3.87-3,835). The net cost per disability adjusted life year averted (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio) was estimated to be USD804. The intervention appears to be highly cost-effective relative to World Health Organization thresholds for malaria burden reduction in Zambia as compared to no MTAT. However, it was estimated that population-wide mass drug administration is likely to be more cost-effective for burden reduction and for transmission reduction compared to MTAT.

  20. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the factors having the most influence on the alleviation of poverty amongst the households adopting microfinance in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Socio-demographic primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire instrument. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents were indeed alleviated from poverty through microfinance. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.

  1. e-Government for Development Information Exchange (DIE): Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bwalya Kelvin

    In most parts of the world, political systems which utilize authoritative rule and mostly employ top-down decision-making processes are slowly transcending towards democratic norms. Information Technology Systems have been identified and adopted as one of the most efficient vehicles for appropriate, transparent and inclusive / participatory decision making. Zambia has shown a higher propensity to indigenous knowledge systems which are full of inefficiencies, a lot of red tape in public service delivery, and prone to corrupt practices. Despite that being the case, it is slowly trying to implement e-government. The adoption of e-government promises a sharp paradigm shift where public institutions will be more responsive and transparent, promote efficient PPP (Public Private Partnerships), and empower citizens by making knowledge and other resources more directly accessible. This paper examines three cases from Zambia where ICT in support of e-government has been implemented for Development Information Exchange (DIE) - knowledge-based decision making. The paper also assesses the challenges, opportunities, and issues together with e-government adoption criteria regarding successful encapsulation of e-government into the Zambian contextual environment. I propose a conceptual model which offers balanced e-government adoption criteria involving a combination of electronic and participatory services. This conceptual e-government adoption model can later be replicated to be used at the Southern African Development Community (SADC) level given the similarity in the contextual environment.

  2. Telemedicine in Primary Health: The Virtual Doctor Project Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustarde Paul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-to-reach due to rugged natural terrain and have very limited telecommunications infrastructure. The lack of these and other basic services makes it difficult for medical personnel to settle in these areas, which leads to an acute shortage of medical personnel. We comment on this problem and how it is addressed by 'The Virtual Doctor Project', emphasizing that while the telemedicine concept is not new in sub-Saharan Africa, the combination of mobility and connectivity to service a number of villages 'on the go' is an important variation in the shift back to the 1978 Alma Ata principles of the United Nations World Health Organization [WHO]. This overview of the Virtual Doctor Project in Zambia provides insight into both the potential for ICT, and the problems and limitations that any "real-world" articulation of this technology must confront.

  3. Bacteria Isolations from Broiler and Layer Chicks in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chick mortality (CM is one of the major constraints to the expansion of the poultry industry in Zambia. Of the 2,829 avian disease cases submitted to the national diagnostic laboratory based at the Central Veterinary Research Institute in Lusaka between 1995 and 2007, 34.39% (973/2,829 were from CM cases. The disease accounted for 40.2% (218,787/544,903 mortality in the affected flocks with 89.6% (196,112/218,787 of the affected birds dying within seven days. Major bacteria species involved were Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarum, and Proteus species being isolated from 84.58%, 46.15%, and 26.93% of the reported CM cases (n=973, respectively. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella dublin indicates that poultry has the potential of transmitting zoonotic pathogenic bacteria to humans. The proportion of Salmonella gallinarum reactors in the adult breeding stock was generally low (<0.5% throughout the study period although its prevalence in CM cases was correlated (r=0.68, P<0.011 with seroprevalence of the same pathogen in the adult breeding stock. Given that the disease accounts for a large proportion of the avian diseases in Zambia as shown in the present study (34.39%, n=2,829, it is imperative that an effective disease control strategy aimed at reducing its occurrence should be developed.

  4. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    Production of large-area flat panel displays (FPDs) involves several pattern transfer and device fabrication steps that can be performed with dry etching technologies. Even though the dry etching using capacitively coupled plasma is generally used to maintain high etch uniformity, due to the need...... for the higher processing rates in FPDs, high-density plasma processing tools that can handle larger-area substrate uniformly are more intensively studied especially for the dry etching of polysilicon thin films. In the case of FPD processing, the current substrate size ranges from 730 × 920 mm (fourth...... generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  5. determinants of intra-industry trade between zambia and it's trading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    IIT between Zambia and its trading partners in the SADC region and to identify .... preference for diversity but because of economies of scale, it is not profitable to ... Historically, Asia was the largest export market for Zambian commodities, ...

  6. Aspergillus section Flavi community structure in Zambia influences aflatoxin contamination of Maize and Groundnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus popula...

  7. The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Meekers, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    .... To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented...

  8. Zhejiang Daheng Group Newly Acquired the Mining Right of Copper Mines in Zambia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Recently,Daheng Group,a company headquartered in Zhuji,Zhejiang,has acquired themining right of two coppermines in Zambia. It has been learned that these two coppermines have an area of over 300sq km

  9. Food Sector Transformation and Standards in Zambia: Smallholder Farmer Participation and Growth in the Dairy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Neven, David; Katjiuongua, Hikuepi; Adjosoediro, Ingrid; Reardon, Thomas; Chuzu, Pia Nwanza; Tembo, Gelson; Ndiyoi, Mukelabai

    2006-01-01

    Market liberalization in Zambia has led to a rapid and fundamental transformation of its dairy sector. Mainly through foreign direct investment and international partnerships, a new formal dairy sector, characterized by institutional, organizational and technological innovation, emerged from the ashes of abandoned government projects. Sensing the development opportunity that arose from an untapped milk supply potential in Zambia's traditional smallholder livestock production and a growing mil...

  10. Strategies of Successful Poverty Reduction: Case Studies of Tanzania and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    SUCCESSFUL POVERTY REDUCTION: CASE STUDIES OF TANZANIA AND ZAMBIA by Jacqueline A. Natter March 2015 Thesis Co-Advisors: Robert E. Looney...March 2015 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS S1RA 1EGIES OF SUCCESSF1JL POVERTY REDUCTION: CASE STUDIES OF TANZANIA AND...growth in the 21st century, Tanzania has been able to translate that growth into poverty reduction while Zambia has not. A contextual picture of the two

  11. Isolation and characterization of non tuberculous mycobacteria from humans and animals in Namwala District of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Malama, Sydney; Munyeme, Musso; Mwanza, Sydney; Muma, John Bwalya

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Mycobacterium contains more than 100 species, most of which are classified as non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). In Zambia, the NTM are slowly becoming recognized as pathogens of major public health significance with the advent of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed at reporting the isolated NTM and ascertains their zoonotic potential and diagnostic significance in Zambia. Method A total of 100 sputum samples...

  12. century drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  13. Human impact on Karst: the example of Lusaka (Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Waele Jo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lusaka, the capital of Zambia with over 2,000,000 inhabitants, is built on an extensive plateau composed mainly of schists and dolomitic marbles, constituting a very important aquifer that provides the city with almost half of its drinking water needs. Recent demographic growth, leading to uncontrolled urban expansion, and mismanagement of the water resource and of urban waste has lead, in the past 20 years, to an overexploitation of the aquifer and to a generalised water quality depletion, putting in serious danger the future social and economical development of the capital. This third world city has, for these reasons, become a terrifying example of human impact on a vulnerable karst environment, and if no measures will be taken in the very near future, quality of life in the city will be at serious risk.

  14. Tuberculosis Infection in Zambia: The Association with Relative Wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Delia; Hargreaves, James; Ayles, Helen; Fielding, Katherine; Simwinga, Musonda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between household socioeconomic position and tuberculosis (TB) infection in two communities of Zambia. For this purpose we implemented a cross-sectional investigation, nested within a larger case control study. Infection was assessed using Quantiferon-TB Gold. A socioeconomic position index was constructed through principal component analysis combining data on human resources, food availability, housing quality, and access to services and infrastructures. In this study, higher socioeconomic position, rather than lower, was associated with significantly higher risk of TB infection. None of the traditional risk factors for TB infection mediated this association, suggesting that in these two communities TB transmission may occur through exposure to as yet undefined risk factors that are associated with higher socioeconomic position. Although further studies are needed, these results suggest emerging new patterns of TB transmission and a role of socioeconomic position on the risk of TB infection opposite to that expected. PMID:19478266

  15. Lymphatic filariasis in Luangwa District, South-East Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawa, Sheila Tamara; Mwase, Enala T.; Pedersen, Erling Møller

    2013-01-01

    in an endemic area of Luangwa District, South-East Zambia, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods. Two neighbouring rural communities were registered and a questionnaire survey undertaken. Clinical examination, and sampling of blood for circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker...... of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 antigen (marker of exposure to transmission), were carried out during the daytime. Blood from CFA positive individuals was examined for microfilariae (mf) at night. Vector surveys were carried out in selected households, using light traps. Results: 985...... individuals aged ≥ 1 year were registered. The CFA prevalence increased with age from 1.2% in age group 1-14 years to 20.6% in age group 50+ years (overall 8.6%). Wuchereria bancrofti mf were identified in 10.9% of CFA positive individuals (corresponding to a community prevalence of 0.9%). Prevalence...

  16. Acceptability of neonatal male circumcision in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Emily; Stringer, Elizabeth; Mugisa, Bridget; Temba, Salome; Bowa, Kasonde; Linyama, David

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal male circumcision (NMC) is being scaled up in Zambia and elsewhere in Southern Africa as a long-term HIV prevention strategy. We conducted 12 focus group discussions with 129 parents and grandparents in Lusaka, recruited from two sites providing free NMC services and information about NMC, to explore the acceptability of circumcising newborn boys. Most participants recognized the benefits of circumcision for HIV prevention, and the advantages of circumcising their children and grandchildren at a young age. Fear of negative outcomes, concerns about pain, and issues around cultural identity may challenge NMC uptake. To effectively promote the service, the upper age limit for NMC must be emphasized, and fathers must be targeted by messaging campaigns.

  17. Filarial infections in domestic dogs in Lusaka, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, Joyce; Mwase, Enala T.; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in Lusaka, Zambia. Giemsa stained blood smear and Knott......'s concentration methods revealed microfilariae in 16 (5.9%) of the dogs. PCR confirmed that most of these dogs had Acanthocheilonema reconditum infection. Ten (4.0%) of the examined dogs were positive for Dirofilaria immitis circulating antigen (by DiroCHEK(®) test), but D. immitis microfilariae were...... not identified in any of the dogs and the status of this infection remains unclear. Further studies are needed to explore the occurrence of filariae in Zambian dogs and the zoonotic potential for humans....

  18. Child spacing and contraception among the poor in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K Pillai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vijayan K Pillai1, Rashmi Gupta21School of Social Work, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA; 2Department of Social Work, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: For decades, family planning programs have targeted women in developing countries. These programs bestow a great deal of autonomy on women with respect to fertility decision making. It is well known that a number of close relatives in multigenerational and extended family systems influence women’s fertility decisions with respect to child spacing and contraceptive use. One approach toward a systematic study of fertility decision making is to explicitly consider the husband’s influences on fertility decision making. This study examines the effects of a selected number of factors on the desired birth interval lengths. We interviewed husbands and wives separately from 165 randomly selected households from two poor neighborhoods in the city of Kitwe, Zambia. Three ordinal birth interval groups were obtained for both husbands and wives separately. The effect of selected factors on the likelihood of influencing the three groups was examined using ordinal logistic regression methods. Data from husbands and wives were analyzed separately. Qualitative methods such as semistructured interviews were used to gather extensive information on the various factors that husbands and wives perceive to influence their child spacing decisions. We found differences in accounts with respect to child spacing between husbands and wives, likely due to a lack of communication. A gender-sensitive approach is necessary to promote spacing methods among poor couples in Zambia.Keywords: child spacing, contraceptive use, correspondence analysis, couple decision making

  19. Identification of a novel polyomavirus from vervet monkeys in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi; Orba, Yasuko

    2013-06-01

    To examine polyomavirus (PyV) infection in wildlife, we investigated the presence of PyVs in Zambia with permission from the Zambia Wildlife Authority. We analysed 200 DNA samples from the spleens and kidneys (n = 100 each) of yellow baboons and vervet monkeys (VMs) (n = 50 each). We detected seven PyV genome fragments in 200 DNA samples using a nested broad-spectrum PCR method, and identified five full-length viral genomes using an inverse PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis of virally encoded proteins revealed that four PyVs were closely related to either African green monkey PyV or simian agent 12. Only one virus detected from a VM spleen was found to be related, with relatively low nucleotide sequence identity (74 %), to the chimpanzee PyV, which shares 48 % nucleotide sequence identity with the human Merkel cell PyV identified from Merkel cell carcinoma. The obtained entire genome of this virus was 5157 bp and had large T- and small t-antigens, and VP1 and VP2 ORFs. This virus was tentatively named vervet monkey PyV 1 (VmPyV1) as a novel PyV. Comparison with other PyVs revealed that VmPyV1, like chimpanzee PyV, had a longer VP1 ORF. To examine whether the VmPyV1 genome could produce viral proteins in cultured cells, the whole genome was transfected into HEK293T cells. We detected VP1 protein expression in the transfected HEK293T cells by immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses. Thus, we identified a novel PyV genome from VM spleen.

  20. Health worker perspectives on user fee removal in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carasso Barbara S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background User fees for primary care services were removed in rural districts in Zambia in 2006. Experience from other countries has suggested that health workers play a key role in determining the success of a fee removal policy, but also find the implementation of such a policy challenging. The policy was introduced against a backdrop of a major shortage in qualified health staff. Methods As part of a larger study on the experience and effect of user fee removal in Zambia, a number of case studies at the facility level were conducted. As part of these, quantitative and qualitative data were collected to evaluate health workers’ satisfaction and experiences in charging and non-charging facilities. Results Our findings show that health-care workers have mixed feelings about the policy change and its consequences. We found some evidence that personnel motivation was higher in non-charging facilities compared to facilities still charging. Yet it is unclear whether this effect was due to differences in the user fee policy or to the fact that a lot of staff interviewed in non-charging facilities were working in mission facilities, where we found a significantly higher motivation. Health workers expressed satisfaction with an apparent increase in the number of patients visiting the facilities and the removal of a deterring factor for many needy patients, but also complained about an increased workload. Furthermore, working conditions were said to have worsened, which staff felt was linked to the absence of additional resources to deal with the increased demand or replace the loss of revenue generated by fees. Conclusion These findings highlight the need to pay attention to supply-side measures when removing demand-side barriers such as user fees and in particular to be concerned about the burden that increased demand can place on already over-stretched health workers.

  1. Social factors affecting ART adherence in rural settings in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Ikuma; Dube, Christopher; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Norio; Simpungwe, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that influence ART adherence arising in rural settings in Zambia. A survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and written informed consent was obtained at ART sites in Mumbwa District in rural Zambia. The questionnaire included items such as the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, support for adherence, ways to remember when to take ARVs at scheduled times, and the current status of adherence. Valid responses were obtained from 518 research participants. The mean age of the respondents was 38.3 years and the average treatment period was 12.5 months. More than half of the respondents (51%) were farmers, about half (49%) did not own a watch, and 10% of them used the position of the sun to remember when to take ARVs. Sixteen percent of respondents experienced fear of stigma resulting from taking ARVs at work or home, and 10% felt pressured to share ARVs with someone. Eighty-eight percent of the participants reported that they had never missed ARVs in the past four days. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified age (38 years old or less, odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3–4.8, p = 0.005), “remembering when to take ARVs based on the position of the sun” (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.3–8.8, p = 0.016), and “feeling pressured to share ARVs with someone” (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.6–12.0, p = 0.004) as independent factors for low adherence. As ART services expand to rural areas, program implementers should pay more attention to more specific factors arising in rural settings since they may differ from those in urban settings. PMID:21400314

  2. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  3. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Rural Health-Care Facilities: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Amy; Bowling, J Michael; Bartram, Jamie; Kayser, Georgia

    2017-07-31

    Safe and sufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) prevent the spread of disease in health-care facilities (HCFs). Little research has been conducted on WaSH in HCF in sub-Saharan Africa. We carried out a cross-sectional study of WaSH in 1,318 randomly selected rural HCF (hospitals, health centers, health posts, and clinics) in regions throughout Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. Methods included questionnaires with head doctors and nurses to document WaSH access, continuity, quality, quantity and reliability, and analysis of drinking water samples for Escherichia coli. We found that fewer than 50% of rural HCFs had access to improved water sources on premises, improved sanitation, and consistent access to water and soap for handwashing (Ethiopia [7%), Kenya [30%], Mozambique [29%], Rwanda [50%], Uganda [30%], and Zambia [21%]). Adequate hand hygiene reduces disease transmission and health-care-acquired infections, but fewer than 25% of HCF in each country reported that a combination of water, soap, and hand-drying materials were always available. Our research points to a lack of basic WaSH services in rural HCFs in regions of sub-Saharan Africa, which poses a threat to the health of patients and health-care workers in these settings.

  4. Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use a fluoride rinse or brush-on fluoride gel before bedtime. See your dentist at least twice yearly to have your teeth examined and plaque removed, to help prevent tooth decay. Several herbal remedies have been used historically to treat dry ...

  5. Provision of Learning and Teaching Materials for Pupils with Visual Impairment: Results from a National Survey in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akakandelwa, Akakandelwa; Munsanje, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the provision of learning and teaching materials for pupils with visual impairment in basic and high schools of Zambia. A survey approach utilizing a questionnaire, interviews and a review of the literature was adopted for the study. The findings demonstrated that most schools in Zambia did not provide…

  6. Provision of Learning and Teaching Materials for Pupils with Visual Impairment: Results from a National Survey in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akakandelwa, Akakandelwa; Munsanje, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the provision of learning and teaching materials for pupils with visual impairment in basic and high schools of Zambia. A survey approach utilizing a questionnaire, interviews and a review of the literature was adopted for the study. The findings demonstrated that most schools in Zambia did not provide…

  7. University Adult Education in Independent Zambia: The Role of a Department of Extra-Mural Studies in National Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Clement Abiazem

    1971-01-01

    Like other African countries, Zambia's most pragmatic approach to national development must lie in adult education. The University of Zambia is one agency involved toward this goal and its emphasis is on rapid expansion of university-type education and the training of adult educators. (Author/JB)

  8. Moving Towards Inclusive Education Policies and Practices? Basic Education for AIDS Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Sue; Kanyanta, Sylvester Bonaventure

    2007-01-01

    The global spread of HIV and AIDS has presented a major threat to development, affecting the health of the poor and many aspects of social and economic development. The greatest impact of the epidemic has been felt in sub-Saharan Africa, and Zambia ranks among the worst hit countries. The Free Basic Education Policy in Zambia upholds the right of…

  9. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  11. Health Seeking Behaviour among Individuals with Presumptive Tuberculosis in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapata, Nathan; Masiye, Felix; Maboshe, Mwendaweli; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys offer a unique opportunity to study health seeking behaviour at the population level because they identify individuals with symptoms that should ideally prompt a health consultation. Objective To assess the health-seeking behaviour among individuals who were presumptive TB cases in a national population based TB prevalence survey. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 among 66 survey clusters in Zambia. Clusters were census supervisory areas (CSAs). Participants (presumptive TB cases) were individuals aged 15 years and above; having either cough, fever or chest pain for 2 weeks or more; and/or having an abnormal or inconclusive chest x-ray image. All survey participants were interviewed about symptoms and had a chest X-ray taken. An in-depth interview was conducted to collect information on health seeking behaviour and previous TB treatment. Results Of the 6,708 participants, the majority reported at least a history of chest pain (3,426; 51.1%) followed by cough (2,405; 35.9%), and fever (1,030; 15.4%) for two weeks or more. Only 34.9% (2,340) had sought care for their symptoms, mainly (92%) at government health facilities. Of those who sought care, 13.9% (326) and 12.1% (283) had chest x-ray and sputum examinations, respectively. Those ever treated for TB were 9.6% (644); while 1.7% (114) was currently on treatment. The average time (in weeks) from onset of symptoms to first care-seeking was 3 for the presumptive TB cases. Males, urban dwellers and individuals in the highest wealth quintile were less likely to seek care for their symptoms. The likelihood of having ever been treated for TB was highest among males, urban dwellers; respondents aged 35–64 years, individuals in the highest wealth quintile, or HIV positive. Conclusion Some presumptive TB patients delay care-seeking for their symptoms. The health system misses opportunities to diagnose TB among those who seek care. Improving

  12. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Vegetation Coverage in the Kafue River, Zambia and Comparison to Climatic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for

  13. Experiences of the first female physics graduates of the University of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwewa, Chilufya; Namumba, Brenda; Mofya, Mwape

    2013-03-01

    Although the Department of Physics was established together with the University of Zambia in 1966, it has only graduated eight females to date. This calls for concern since the University of Zambia is the only institution that offers a physics degree program in Zambia. In this paper, three of these females discuss their understanding of the factors that have led to members of their gender shunning physics. They outline the way they themselves came to do physics and they discuss the problems they faced as they studied physics and the rewards they received from this. They propose ways and means of motivating other females to take up physics and of making studies easier and more fulfilling for those who opt to do so.

  14. Temporal changes and determinants of childhood nutritional status in Kenya and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daniel; Cacciola, Thomas; Barrios, Pamela; Simon, James

    2017-06-05

    The prevalence of undernutrition is decreasing in many parts of the developing world, but challenges remain in many countries. The objective of this study was to determine factors influencing childhood nutrition status in Kenya and Zambia. The objective of this study is to determine factors associated with temporal changes in childhood nutritional status in two countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Data from national demographic and health surveys from the World Bank for Kenya (1998-2009) and Zambia (1996-2014) were used to select the youngest child of each household with complete data for all variables studied. Multiple linear regression analyses were used for data from 2902 and 11,335 children from Kenya and Zambia, respectively, in each year to determine the relationship between social and economic factors and measures of nutritional status, including wasting, stunting, and overweight. There was a decreased prevalence of stunting (35% in Kenya and 40% in Zambia), while the prevalence of wasting was unchanged (6-8% in both countries). From 1998 to 2009, there was a protective effect against stunting for wealthier families and households with electricity, for both countries. Finally, better educated mothers were less likely to have stunted children and girls were less likely to be stunted than boys. Based on the data analyzed, there was a higher risk of stunting in both Kenya and Zambia, for those with lower literacy, less education, no electricity, living in rural areas, no formal toilet, no car ownership, and those with an overall lower wealth index. Improving the education of mothers was also a significant determinant in improving the nutritional status of children in Kenya and Zambia. More broad-based efforts to reduce the prevalence of undernutrition need to focus on reducing the prevalence of undernutrition without promoting excess weight gain. Future economic advances need to consider integrated approaches to improving economic standings of households without

  15. From vision to reality: implementing health reforms in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, S

    1997-06-01

    This study describes how members of a health team, from the national health system to the local population, implement reform directives and activities in Lusaka, Zambia. In order to determine the influence of the different actors in the health system on the policy outcomes, the study applied the three-dimensional definition of power by Luke and the concept of veto point of Pressman and Wildavsky. This research showed that the different actors expressed agreement on the nature of the National Strategic Health Plan by the Ministry of Health, which became operational in 1995, but the consensus was nevertheless accompanied with opposing attitudes especially on its strong democratization tone. The information provided by the actors also differs in terms of the rationale and implementation mode of policies. Furthermore, in the Lusaka health system, the Minister, district managers, and in-charges were seen as influential on the implementation processes of the reform, sitting in a critical veto point and exercising three types of powers which were expressed through overt, covert, and latent conflicts.

  16. Seroprevalence of Canine Parvovirus in Dogs in Lusaka District, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis is a highly contagious enteric disease of young dogs. Limited studies have been done in Zambia to investigate the prevalence of CPV in dogs. Blood was collected from dogs from three veterinary clinics (clinic samples, n = 174) and one township of Lusaka (field samples, n = 56). Each dog's age, sex, breed, and vaccination status were recorded. A haemagglutination assay using pig erythrocytes and modified live parvovirus vaccine as the antigen was used. Antibodies to CPV were detected in 100% of dogs (unvaccinated or vaccinated). The titres ranged from 160 to 10240 with a median of 1280. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher antibody titres compared to unvaccinated (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in titres of clinic samples compared to field samples (p < 0.0001) but not within breed (p = 0.098) or sex (p = 0.572). Multiple regression analysis showed that only age and vaccination status were significant predictors of antibody titres. The presence of antibody in all dogs suggests that the CPV infection is ubiquitous and the disease is endemic, hence the need for research to determine the protection conferred by vaccination and natural exposure to the virus under local conditions. PMID:27699205

  17. Urban women's informal savings and credit systems in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'reilly, C

    1996-05-01

    This article is based on findings from semi-structured interviews and discussions among "chilimba" groups in Zambia. Chilimba groups are primarily women's groups that engage in credit and savings programs. Group membership ranges from 4 to 20 members. The women agree on a fixed, regular cash contribution that is given in turn to each member in a specified order. Market groups tend to be larger and contributions of about a dollar are made daily. Smaller groups tend to make larger, but less frequent contributions. Default is rare, as the commitment is taken very seriously. New members are added at the end of the rotation. Loans can be used for domestic or business use. Chilimba groups are evidence that very poor people desire savings. Chilimba brings together people with similar financial needs and resources. Chilimba does not require formal, written procedures or formal institutional frameworks. Chilimba is not a remedy for reducing overall poverty. It is appropriate only for people with some regular source of income. It does not serve as a safety net in emergencies. Long-term loans are not possible. A limitation is its openness and lack of structure that permit potential abuse. It is a livelihood strategy for women, but benefits could be gained from including men. It is urged that groups consider whether the position of the poor is being enhanced or undermined. Different models need to be tested. Members themselves must decide on the type and phasing of activities.

  18. Seroprevalence of Canine Parvovirus in Dogs in Lusaka District, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngonda Saasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV enteritis is a highly contagious enteric disease of young dogs. Limited studies have been done in Zambia to investigate the prevalence of CPV in dogs. Blood was collected from dogs from three veterinary clinics (clinic samples, n=174 and one township of Lusaka (field samples, n=56. Each dog’s age, sex, breed, and vaccination status were recorded. A haemagglutination assay using pig erythrocytes and modified live parvovirus vaccine as the antigen was used. Antibodies to CPV were detected in 100% of dogs (unvaccinated or vaccinated. The titres ranged from 160 to 10240 with a median of 1280. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher antibody titres compared to unvaccinated (p<0.001. There was a significant difference in titres of clinic samples compared to field samples (p<0.0001 but not within breed (p=0.098 or sex (p=0.572. Multiple regression analysis showed that only age and vaccination status were significant predictors of antibody titres. The presence of antibody in all dogs suggests that the CPV infection is ubiquitous and the disease is endemic, hence the need for research to determine the protection conferred by vaccination and natural exposure to the virus under local conditions.

  19. Coal prospects in Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-01

    Increasing demand for coal in Asia is stimulating interest in the potentially large coal resources in Southern African countries such as Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia. These countries have been slow to utilise their coal as local demand has been limited and the means to export coal has been inadequate. The governments in these regions are now recognising coal as a strategically important commodity, capable of earning foreign revenue but also adding value to the economy by generating much needed electricity. This report looks in turn at the role of coal in the energy economies of each of these countries. As in most emerging economies, the provision of a reliable and cost-effective supply of electricity to industries and people is essential for economic growth and the welfare of communities. Demand for Africa's mineral commodities such as diamonds and copper is driving a massive need for electricity and coal will play a major role. Not only does the mining industry need power, but with these growing industries come communities and commerce which are also in need of energy.

  20. Acceptability and uptake of neonatal male circumcision in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Emily; Li, Michelle; Mugisa, Bridget; Bowa, Kasonde; Linyama, David; Stringer, Elizabeth; Stringer, Jeffrey

    2013-07-01

    Neonatal male circumcision (NMC) is an uncommon procedure in Southern Africa, but is being scaled up in Zambia for long-term HIV prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional survey on NMC with a convenience sample of mothers of newborn boys at two public clinics in Lusaka. Following the survey, mothers received information on availability of NMC, and uptake of the service was tracked. Predictors of uptake were assessed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Of the 1,249 eligible mothers approached, 1000 (80%) agreed to participate. Although 97% of surveyed mothers said they definitely or probably planned to have their newborn son circumcised, only 11% of participants brought their newborn sons for NMC. Significant predictors of uptake in adjusted models included: Older maternal age (AOR 3.77, 95% CI 1.48-9.63 for age 36 and above compared to mothers age 25 and below), having attended antenatal care at an NMC site (AOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.32-3.44), older paternal age (AOR 4.36, 95% CI 1.28-14.91 for age 26-35 compared to fathers age 25 and below), and the infant's father being circumcised (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35-3.62). While acceptability studies in Southern Africa have suggested strong support for MC among parents for having their sons circumcised, this may not translate to high uptake of newly-introduced NMC services.

  1. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  2. Urban and Rural Ozone Pollution Over Lusaka (Zambia, 15.5S, 25E) During SAFARI-2000 (September 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Herman, J. R.; Witte, J. C.; Phahlane, A.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Mukula, C.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In early September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and the production of charcoal for cooking leads to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. Ozone soundings made over Lusaka during a six-day period in early September 2000 recorded layers of high ozone (greater than 125 ppbv at 5 km) during two stagnant periods, interspersed by a frontal passage that reduced boundary layer ozone by 30 percent. Smoke aerosol column variations aloft and total ozone were monitored by a sun photometer. During the 6-day measurement period, surface ozone concentrations ranged from 50-95 ppbv and integrated tropospheric ozone from the soundings was 39- 54 Dobson Units (note 1.3 km elevation at the launch site). High ozone concentrations above the mixed and inversion layers were advected from rural burning regions in western Zambia where SAFARI aircraft and ground-based instruments observed intense biomass fires and elevated aerosol and trace gas amounts. TOMS tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols products show the distribution of biomass burning and associated pollution throughout southern Africa in September 2000. Animations of satellite images and trajectories confirm pollutant recirculation over south central African fires, exit of ozone from Mozambique and Tanzania to the Indian Ocean and the characteristic buildup of tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic from western African outflow.

  3. Molecular epidemiology and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for diagnosis of infection with rabies virus in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleya, Walter; Namangala, Boniface; Mweene, Aaron; Zulu, Luke; Fandamu, Paul; Banda, Douglas; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi; Ishii, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The National Livestock Epidemiology and Information Center (NALEIC) in Zambia reported over 132 cases of canine rabies diagnosed by the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) from 2004 to 2009. In this study, the lineage of rabies virus (RABV) in Zambia was determined by phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) gene sequences. Total RNA was extracted from 87-DFAT brain specimens out of which only 35 (40%) were positive on nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for each gene, and 26 being positive for both genes. Positive specimens for the N (n=33) and G (n=35) genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the N gene showed two phylogenetic clusters in Zambia belonging to the Africa 1b lineage present in eastern and southern Africa. While one cluster exclusively comprised Zambian strains, the other was more heterogeneous regarding the RABV origins and included strains from Tanzania, Mozambique and Zambia. Phylogenetic analysis of the G gene revealed similar RABV strains in different hosts and regions of Zambia. We designed primers for reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay from the consensus sequence of the N gene in an attempt to improve the molecular diagnosis of RABV in Zambia. The specificity and reproducibility of the RT-LAMP assay was confirmed with actual clinical specimens. Therefore, the RT-LAMP assay presented in this study may prove to be useful for routine diagnosis of rabies in Zambia.

  4. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiff Clive

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation data (DEM were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  6. Perspectives on literacy, gender and change: a case for Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwansa, D M

    1995-01-01

    This study examines illiterate participants' perceptions of literacy training that was conducted after 6-12 months of training in one urban Copperbelt province and one center in rural Luapula province in Zambia. Interviews were conducted among 29 female and 11 male participants and 15 male and 3 female officials. Analysis is based on interviews, observations, and written records. The researcher identified five broad areas of change: affective, attitudinal, pedagogic, economic, and sociopolitical. This study shows that literacy in rural areas is beneficial to people personally, to gender relations, and to socioeconomic development. The findings support the arguments advanced by Rockhill (1987), Bhola (1981), Freire (1970), and Nyerere (1978) about the need to reduce the fears and insecurities associated with being illiterate and the gain from developing people and not just production. The literacy training did not enrich people culturally nor did it alleviate poverty; it concentrated on integrating people into new modes of production. Affective changes included changes in self-esteem and feeling happier. Attitudinal changes included positive learning experiences about child care among both men and women. Nutrition and sanitation improved. Couples reported a greater effort at demonstrating polite behavior and respect toward each other. Literacy increased their status among friends and was accepted in steps, such as being proud of knowing how to write their name. Some participants changed their attitudes toward family planning, and clinic attendance increased. Literacy gave some more confidence and awareness of social relations. Literacy helped read seed and fertilizer labels. Lack of reading materials was a problem. Participants reported reading the Bible and magazines and writing letters. Participants tended to participate in church or literacy groups rather than political ones.

  7. Diagnostic approaches to malaria in Zambia, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukonka, Victor M; Chanda, Emmanuel; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Elbadry, Maha A; Wamulume, Pauline K; Mwanza-Ingwe, Mercy; Lubinda, Jailos; Laytner, Lindsey A; Zhang, Wenyi; Mushinge, Gabriel; Haque, Ubydul

    2015-06-03

    Malaria is an important health burden in Zambia with proper diagnosis remaining as one of the biggest challenges. The need for reliable diagnostics is being addressed through the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, without sufficient laboratory amenities in many parts of the country, diagnosis often still relies on non-specific, clinical symptoms. In this study, geographical information systems were used to both visualize and analyze the spatial distribution and the risk factors related to the diagnosis of malaria. The monthly reported, district-level number of malaria cases from January 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the National Malaria Control Center (NMCC). Spatial statistics were used to reveal cluster tendencies that were subsequently linked to possible risk factors, using a non-spatial regression model. Significant, spatio-temporal clusters of malaria were spotted while the introduction of RDTs made the number of clinically diagnosed malaria cases decrease by 33% from 2009 to 2014. The limited access to road network(s) was found to be associated with higher levels of malaria, which can be traced by the expansion of health promotion interventions by the NMCC, indicating enhanced diagnostic capability. The capacity of health facilities has been strengthened with the increased availability of proper diagnostic tools and through retraining of community health workers. To further enhance spatial decision support systems, a multifaceted approach is required to ensure mobilization and availability of human, infrastructural and technological resources. Surveillance based on standardized geospatial or other analytical methods should be used by program managers to design, target, monitor and assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of malaria diagnostic resources country-wide.

  8. Nutrient and carbon cycling in the Kafue River (Zambia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbruegg, R.; Senn, D.; Lehmann, M.; Wamulume, J.; Nyambe, I.; Wehrli, B.

    2008-12-01

    The lower Kafue River in central Zambia flows through the Kafue Flats (830 sq. km), a sensitive floodplain ecosystem (Ramsar site), and serves as an important subsistence fishery. The lower Kafue River (Qavg ~ 300 m3/s) is heavily impacted by two dams that regulate flow and flooding, and in so doing have substantially degraded the habitats. While the hydrology and ecology of the system have been studied extensively in some sections, there have been no systematic studies of the dam impacts on floodplain biogeochemistry. In May 2008 we initiated a study of C, N, and P cycling in the lower Kafue River through sampling at 10-20 km resolution along 300 km of river. Low inorganic nitrogen levels (40 uM), suggesting that the riverine N budget is dominated by organic N. Phosphate concentrations increased by a factor of 4 along the river (0.2 uM to 0.8 uM), and transitioned from representing only a small fraction of total P upstream to accounting for nearly 100% of total P at downstream stations. Along one short (35 km; travel time ~ 16 h), relatively pristine stretch of river with a substantial flow rate (400 m3/s) and no visible tributaries, dissolved oxygen levels decreased from >5 mg/l to 1 mg/l. A drop in pH from (7.9 to 7.2) accompanied the sharp oxygen decline, consistent with respiration occurring either within the river or in the adjacent floodplain. Low dissolved oxygen levels (<2 mg/l). persisted for another 150 km downstream despite reaeration. This presentation will explore in greater detail the factors contributing to this persistent low oxygen stretch in the Kafue River, along with an exploration of N, C, and P cycling in the system

  9. Strategies of the Poorest in Local Water Conflict and Cooperation - Evidence from Vietnam, Bolivia and Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funder, M.; Bustamante Zenteno, R.R.; Cossio Rojas, V.; Huong, P.T.M.; Koppen, van B.; Mweemba, C.; Nyambe, L.; Phuong, L.T.T.; Skielboe, T.

    2012-01-01

    Media stories often speak of a future dominated by large-scale water wars. Rather less attention has been paid to the way water conflicts already play out at local levels and form part of people’s everyday lives. Based on case study studies from Vietnam, Bolivia and Zambia, this paper examines the s

  10. Returns to Schooling in Less Developed Countries: New Evidence from Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2001-01-01

    In our analysis of returns to schooling in Zambia, we look at the rural and urban population separately, and estimate the returns to schooling in each region based on a selection model in two stages. For urban areas we find that the returns to primary schooling are nil whereas the returns to scho...

  11. The Impact of an Unconditional Cash Transfer on Early Child Development: The Zambia Child Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenfeld, David; Prencipe, Leah; Handa, Sudhanshu; Hawkinson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) despite their growing prevalence in Africa, including South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Malawi, Lesotho, and Uganda. In this study, researchers implemented a randomized control trial with over 2,500 households to investigate the impact of Africa's child grant program on…

  12. Factors Related to Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion: A Case for Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwana, Florence Chuzu; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive education has become a global trend in the provision of services for students with disabilities. In Zambia and other developing nations, international initiatives from UNESCO and other nongovernmental organisations have contributed to the consensus that all children have a right to a free and appropriate education and that all students…

  13. Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and…

  14. Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and maize in Zambia: observed and potential concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize and groundnut, important staples in Zambia, are susceptible to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Aflatoxins are potent human carcinogens also associated with stunting and immunosuppression. Although health and economic burdens of aflatoxins are well known, patterns of contamination in maize and grou...

  15. Condition and management of the rangelands in the western province of Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, R.M.T.

    1996-01-01


    A land evaluation for extensive grazing was conducted to determine the potential carrying capacity (CC) of the Western Province of Zambia. A hierarchical land classification resulted in Land Regions (9), Land Systems (32), Land Units (124) and Land Facets (415). The vegetation was

  16. Developing a Nutrition and Health Education Program for Primary Schools in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in…

  17. Extremely Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Infections in Patients in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Lukwesa-Musyani, Chileshe

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of extremely drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg isolated from patients in Zambia were investigated by utilizing MIC determinations and whole-genome sequencing. The isolates were resistant to, and harbored genes toward, nine drug classes, including fluoroquinolones...

  18. The emergence and evolution of HIV counselling in Zambia: a 25-year history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simbaya, J.; Moyer, E.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-related counselling practices have evolved since emerging in Zambia in 1987. Whereas, initially, the goal of HIV counselling was to provide psychological support to the dying and their families, as knowledge about HIV grew, counselling objectives expanded to include behavioural change, encouragi

  19. Natural and human induced factors influencing the abundance of Schistosoma host snails in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a global public health problem affecting about 240 million people. In Zambia, 2 million are infected while 3 million live with the risk of getting infected. Research and interventions relating to schistosomiasis are mainly linked to disease epidemiology. Malacological and

  20. The emergence and evolution of HIV counselling in Zambia: a 25-year history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simbaya, J.; Moyer, E.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-related counselling practices have evolved since emerging in Zambia in 1987. Whereas, initially, the goal of HIV counselling was to provide psychological support to the dying and their families, as knowledge about HIV grew, counselling objectives expanded to include behavioural change, encouragi

  1. Chloroquine- and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant falciparum malaria in vivo - a pilot study in rural Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, HM; Kager, J; Koetsier, DW; van der Werf, TS

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chloroquine (CQ) and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) are the predominantly used antimalarials in Zambia and other parts of East Africa, but increasing resistance of P. falciparum is a major concern. METHODS Seventy consecutive patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled.

  2. Exploring Understandings of Inclusion in Schools in Zambia and Tanzania Using Reflective Writing and Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Susie

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore insights gained from participating in an exploratory, small-scale study led by the Enabling Education Network (EENET) in 17 schools in northern Zambia and five schools in Tanzania. Facilitating South-based research, while based in a Northern university, raises complex ethical issues about voice and control which are…

  3. Developing a Nutrition and Health Education Program for Primary Schools in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in…

  4. Chiefs and the State in independent Zambia : exploring the Zambian national press

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Zambia is among the few African countries where chiefs occupy an honorable position at the national level, and where a House of Chiefs is established, complementary to Parliament. This paper examines the relationship between chiefs and the central government on the basis of an analysis of newspaper

  5. Determinants of child nutritional status in the eastern province of Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manda, Julius; Gardebroek, Koos; Khonje, Makaiko G.; Alene, Arega D.; Mutenje, Munyaradzi; Kassie, Menale

    2016-01-01

    Using household survey data from a sample of 810 households, this paper analyses the determinants of children’s nutritional status and evaluates the impacts of improved maize varieties on child malnutrition in eastern Zambia. The paper uses an endogenous switching regression technique, combined w

  6. Cost of abortions in Zambia: A comparison of safe abortion and post abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Divya; Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan Fairley; Hukin, Eleanor; Vwalika, Bellington

    2017-02-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of maternal mortality. Although induced abortion has been legal in Zambia since 1972, many women still face logistical, financial, social, and legal obstacles to access safe abortion services, and undergo unsafe abortion instead. This study provides the first estimates of costs of post abortion care (PAC) after an unsafe abortion and the cost of safe abortion in Zambia. In the absence of routinely collected data on abortions, we used multiple data sources: key informant interviews, medical records and hospital logbooks. We estimated the costs of providing safe abortion and PAC services at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka and then projected these costs to generate indicative cost estimates for Zambia. Due to unavailability of data on the actual number of safe abortions and PAC cases in Zambia, we used estimates from previous studies and from other similar countries, and checked the robustness of our estimates with sensitivity analyses. We found that PAC following an unsafe abortion can cost 2.5 times more than safe abortion care. The Zambian health system could save as much as US$0.4 million annually if those women currently treated for an unsafe abortion instead had a safe abortion.

  7. Condition and management of the rangelands in the Western Province of Zambia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, R.M.T.

    1996-01-01

    A land evaluation for extensive grazing was conducted to determine the potential carrying capacity (CC) of the Western Province of Zambia. A hierarchical land classification resulted in Land Regions (9), Land Systems (32), Land Units (124) and Land Facets (415). The vegetation was surveyed, resultin

  8. The Kazanga festival : ethnicity as cultural mediation and transformation in central western Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the cultural dynamics of ethnicity in the context of a postcolonial African State, Zambia. The opening sections define ethnicity and pinpoint its central dilemma: while unmistakably constructed and thus selectively empowering the brokers coordinating the construction process, eth

  9. Disease constraints for utilization of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) on game ranches in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Siamudaala, Victor M; Nambota, Andrew; Bwalya, John M; Munyeme, Musso; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism.

  10. Tuberculosis in the mines of Zambia:A case for intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pascalina Chanda-Kapata; Doris Osei-Afriyie; Connrad Mwansa; Nathan Kapata

    2016-01-01

    Zambia is among the sub-Saharan countries highly burdened with tuberculosis (TB) and has an estimated prevalence rate of 638 per 100 000 population in those aged 15 years and above. The mining industry is the main contributor to the country's gross national product, although it is associated with public health challenges, with TB in the mines being among the occupational health diseases having a negative economic impact and threatening to delay the control of TB in the country. We reviewed available evidence on the extent of the burden of TB in the mines so as to inform the development of targeted interventions for the post-2015 End TB Strategy. This was a review of published data from Medline/Pubmed, Cochrane Library and Embase, including unpublished “grey”literature on the burden of TB and the risk factors of TB in the mines of Zambia. There is limited research in Zambia to fully understand the burden of TB and risk factors asso-ciated with TB in the mines. However, the few studies and data available have shown that TB is a significant health problem requiring interventions to improve the quality of life of miners, ex-miners and surrounding communities. TB is a potential problem in the mines of Zambia and the actual burden needs to be determined. Exposure to silica as a risk factor needs further investigation.

  11. The Information Marketing Concept and the Implementation of National Information Policy (NIP) in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundu, Maurice C.

    This paper describes the purpose of a national information policy in general, the process that led to the formation of such a policy in Zambia, and the requirements for its successful implementation. Particular attention is paid to the concept of information marketing. It is argued that such a concept would be an implementation requirement if…

  12. Assessing the Consequences of Stigma for Tuberculosis Patients in Urban Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Anne Lia; de laat, Myrthe Manon; Kapata, Nathan; Gerrets, Rene; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Grobusch, Martin Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Stigma is one of the many factors hindering tuberculosis (TB) control by negatively affecting hospital delay and treatment compliance. In Zambia, the morbidity and mortality due to TB remains high, despite extended public health attempts to control the epidemic and to diminish stigma.

  13. Predictors of Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Men in Zambia and Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawoko, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were compared between Zambian and Kenyan men on sociodemographic, attitudinal, and structural predictors of such attitudes. Data were retrieved from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys in each country. The results showed that many men in Zambia (71%) and Kenya (68%) justified IPV to punish a…

  14. Adoption and Impacts of Sustainable Agricultural Practices on Maize Yields and Incomes: Evidence from Rural Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manda, J.; Alene, A.D.; Gardebroek, C.; Kassie, M.; Tembo, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses a multinomial endogenous treatment effects model and data from a sample of over 800 households and 3,000 plots to assess the determinants and impacts of adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) on maize yields and household incomes in rural Zambia. Results show that adop

  15. Socio-economic development of women in Zambia, an analysis of two women's organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touwen, Anne

    1990-01-01

    This report on the role of local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the improvement of the socioeconomic position of women in Zambia is based on anthropological fieldwork carried out in 1988 and 1989, and a consultancy mission undertaken on behalf of the Organization of Dutch volunteers abroad

  16. Information Provision in Emergency Settings: The Experience of Refugee Communities in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyengo, Brendah Kakulwa; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2011-01-01

    This article identifies information provision services in emergency settings using Zambia as a case study by identifying innovative ways of providing library and information services. The thrust of the article is to analyze information management practices of organizations that work within refugee camps and how they take specific cognizance of the…

  17. Rural communities in the Central African context : the Nkoya of Central Western Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Nkoya is an ethnic and linguistic label applying to about 50,000 people inhabiting the wooded plateau of Central Western Zambia. The author discusses the valley as the effective rural community and the villages as the main constituent social units within the valley and finally indicates the place of

  18. CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--EXPERIENCES, NEEDS, AND INTEREST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDSTROEM, LARS-OLOF

    THIS REPORT ON THE SALIENT FEATURES AND CONCERNS OF CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--(1) DISCUSSES ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE METHOD IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT, (2) SURVEYS CONDITIONS AND FACILITIES (POSTAL SERVICES, ROADS, INSTRUCTIONAL RADIO AND TELEVISION,…

  19. Gender, British Administration and Mission Management of Education in Zambia 1900-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of including gender in the analytical framework in a study of the management and provision of education in Zambia from 1900 to 1939. It shows that a focus on gender allows females to enter the historical narrative and the leadership of women such as Mabel Shaw, Hannah Frances Davidson and Julia Smith can be given…

  20. Religious innovation and political conflict in Zambia : a contribution to the interpretation of the Lumpa rising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1976-01-01

    This article explores the deeper structural implications of the Lumpa rising in 1964, in the context of religious innovation, class formation, and the state in Zambia. After having mentioned the specific problems raised by Lumpa, the A. first discusses the background of religious innovation in Centr

  1. Factors Related to Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion: A Case for Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwana, Florence Chuzu; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive education has become a global trend in the provision of services for students with disabilities. In Zambia and other developing nations, international initiatives from UNESCO and other nongovernmental organisations have contributed to the consensus that all children have a right to a free and appropriate education and that all students…

  2. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mung'omba, James

    2008-01-01

    In the Republic of Zambia, an estimated 256,000 persons have some form of disability, and of these, 5.4% have intellectual disabilities. Even now, traditional beliefs about the etiology of intellectual disabilities persist and considerable stigma is attached to the presence of persons with intellectual disabilities who are often excluded from…

  3. The Nature and Role of Religious Studies at the University of Zambia: 1985-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Brendan

    2008-01-01

    The place of religion in higher education has been and remains a complex issue internationally. This article aims to outline the nature and development of Religious Studies at the University of Zambia in Lusaka (UNZA) as an instance of how religion entered higher education in an African setting. In doing so, it will also provide perspectives on…

  4. Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry…

  5. Iodine levels in Edible Salt Sold in Malawi, Kenya and Zambia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine levels in Edible Salt Sold in Malawi, Kenya and Zambia. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... on the packets, which indicated that the salt was fortified with sufficient amount of potassium ... On the other hand, 50 % of Malawian samples had levels within the recommended range of 80-100 mg/kg.

  6. Aspects of productivity of traditionally managed Barotse cattle in the Western Province of Zambia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, van E.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of Zambia

  7. Assessing the Consequences of Stigma for Tuberculosis Patients in Urban Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Anne Lia; de laat, Myrthe Manon; Kapata, Nathan; Gerrets, Rene; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Grobusch, Martin Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Stigma is one of the many factors hindering tuberculosis (TB) control by negatively affecting hospital delay and treatment compliance. In Zambia, the morbidity and mortality due to TB remains high, despite extended public health attempts to control the epidemic and to diminish stigma. Stu

  8. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mung'omba, James

    2008-01-01

    In the Republic of Zambia, an estimated 256,000 persons have some form of disability, and of these, 5.4% have intellectual disabilities. Even now, traditional beliefs about the etiology of intellectual disabilities persist and considerable stigma is attached to the presence of persons with intellectual disabilities who are often excluded from…

  9. Folklore as an Instrument of Education among the Chewa People of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Dennis; Morgan, W. John

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the folklore of the Chewa people of Zambia as an instrument of education. It suggests that there is only a fine distinction between Chewa culture ["mwambo wa a Chewa"] and Chewa education ["maphunziro ya Uchewa"]. The former comprises tribal "truths" to be imposed on the minds of the younger…

  10. 77 FR 66797 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... participation fee is $4900 for large firms and $4,350 for small or medium-sized enterprises (SME) \\1\\ and trade....gov/doctm/tmcal.html-- and other Internet web sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International...

  11. 77 FR 31574 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ....gov/doctm/tmcal.html-- and other Internet web sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United States...

  12. Diagnosis and genotyping of African swine fever viruses from 2015 outbreaks in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Thoromo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In early 2015, a highly fatal haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs resembling African swine fever (ASF occurred in North Western, Copperbelt, and Lusaka provinces of Zambia. Molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction targeting specific amplification of p72 (B646L gene of ASF virus (ASFV was conducted. Fourteen out of 16 domestic pigs from the affected provinces were found to be positive for ASFV. Phylogenetic analyses based on part of the p72 and the complete p54 (E183L genes revealed that all the ASFVs detected belonged to genotypes I and Id, respectively. Additionally, epidemiological data suggest that the same ASFV spread from Lusaka to other provinces possibly through uncontrolled and/or illegal pig movements. Although the origin of the ASFV that caused outbreaks in domestic pigs in Zambia could not be ascertained, it appears likely that the virus may have emerged from within the country or region, probably from a sylvatic cycle. It is recommended that surveillance of ASF, strict biosecurity, and quarantine measures be imposed in order to prevent further spread and emergence of new ASF outbreaks in Zambia.Keywords: African swine fever; Asfarviridae; Molecular epidemiology; Zambia

  13. Living the end of empire : politics and society in late colonial Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Hinfelaar, M.; Macola, G.

    2011-01-01

    Building on the foundational work of the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, the essays in this collective volume offer a picture of the late colonial period in Zambia. The volume is based on untapped archival material and sources that have emerged in recent years and throws new light on some of the histo

  14. Socio-economic development of women in Zambia, an analysis of two women's organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touwen, Anne

    1990-01-01

    This report on the role of local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the improvement of the socioeconomic position of women in Zambia is based on anthropological fieldwork carried out in 1988 and 1989, and a consultancy mission undertaken on behalf of the Organization of Dutch volunteers abroad

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  17. The impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse abundance on the plateau of eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, E; Mweempwa, C; De Pus, C; Vernieuwe, H; De Deken, R; Hendrickx, G; Van den Bossche, P

    2009-09-01

    Tsetse-transmitted human or livestock trypanosomiasis is one of the major constraints to rural development in sub-Saharan Africa. The epidemiology of the disease is determined largely by tsetse fly density. A major factor, contributing to tsetse population density is the availability of suitable habitat. In large parts of Africa, encroachment of people and their livestock resulted in a destruction and fragmentation of such suitable habitat. To determine the effect of habitat change on tsetse density a study was initiated in a tsetse-infested zone of eastern Zambia. The study area represents a gradient of habitat change, starting from a zone with high levels of habitat destruction and ending in an area where livestock and people are almost absent. To determine the distribution and density of the fly, tsetse surveys were conducted throughout the study area in the dry and in the rainy season. Landsat ETM+ imagery covering the study area were classified into four land cover classes (munga, miombo, agriculture and settlements) and two auxiliary spectral classes (clouds and shadow) using a Gaussian Maximum Likelihood Classifier. The classes were regrouped into natural vegetation and agricultural zone. The binary images were overlaid with hexagons to obtain the spatial spectrum of spatial pattern. Hexagonal coverage was selected because of its compact and regular form. To identify scale-specific spatial patterns and associated entomological phenomena, the size of the hexagonal coverage was varied (250 and 500 m). Per coverage, total class area, mean patch size, number of patches and patch size standard deviation were used as fragmentation indices. Based on the fragmentation index values, the study zone was classified using a Partitioning Around Mediods (PAM) method. The number of classes was determined using the Wilks' lambda coefficient. To determine the impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse abundance, the correlation between the fragmentation indices and the index

  18. Health workforce responses to global health initiatives funding: a comparison of Malawi and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugha Ruairí

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds. Methods Health facility record reviews were conducted in 52 facilities in Malawi and 39 facilities in Zambia in 2006/07 and 2008; quarterly totals from the last quarter of 2005 to the first quarter of 2008 inclusive in Malawi; and annual totals for 2004 to 2007 inclusive in Zambia. Topic-guided interviews were conducted with facility and district managers in both countries, and with health workers in Malawi. Results Facility data confirm significant scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery in both countries. In Malawi, this was supported by a large increase in lower trained cadres and only a modest increase in clinical staff numbers. Routine outpatient workload fell in urban facilities, in rural health centres and in facilities not providing antiretroviral treatment (ART, while it increased at district hospitals and in facilities providing ART. In Zambia, total staff and clinical staff numbers stagnated between 2004 and 2007. In rural areas, outpatient workload, which was higher than at urban facilities, increased further. Key informants described the effects of increased workloads in both countries and attributed staff migration from public health facilities to non-government facilities in Zambia to PEPFAR. Conclusions Malawi, which received large levels of GHI funding from only the Global Fund, managed to increase facility staff across all levels of the health system: urban, district and rural health facilities, supported by task-shifting to lower trained staff. The more complex GHI arena in Zambia, where both Global Fund and PEPFAR provided large levels of support, may have undermined a coordinated national workforce response to addressing health worker shortages, leading to a less effective

  19. The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meekers Dominique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001–2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women. Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48, and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23. Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms.

  20. Disappearance of some human African trypanosomiasis transmission foci in Zambia in the absence of a tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis control program over a period of forty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanakasale, Victor; Songolo, Peter

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a situation analysis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Zambia from January 2000 to April 2007. The aim of this survey was to identify districts in Zambia that were still recording cases of HAT. Three districts namely, Mpika, Chama, and Chipata were found to be still reporting cases of HAT and thus lay in HAT transmission foci in North Eastern Zambia. During the period under review, 24 cases of HAT were reported from these three districts. We thereafter reviewed literature on the occurrence of HAT in Zambia from the early 1960s to mid 1990s. This revealed that HAT transmission foci were widespread in Western, North Western, Lusaka, Eastern, Luapula, and Northern Provinces of Zambia during this period. In this article we have tried to give possible reasons as to why the distribution of HAT transmission foci is so different between before and after 2000 when there has been no active national tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis control program in Zambia.

  1. Sexual and reproductive health services for young people in Kenya and Zambia : Providers attitudes and young peoples needs and experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Warenius, Linnéa

    2008-01-01

    Background: Unintended pregnancy, abortion and STI, including HIV are common sexual and reproductive health problems among young people in Kenya and Zambia. Yet, the reproductive health services are underutilised. Nurses and midwives are key providers in the promotion young people s sexual and reproductive health in Kenya and Zambia. Aim: The overall aim was to describe and explore young people s sexual and reproductive health needs and experiences and to describe health ...

  2. Adolescent HIV disclosure in Zambia: barriers, facilitators and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitau Mburu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As adolescents living with HIV gain autonomy over their self-care and begin to engage in sexual relationships, their experiences of being informed about their HIV status and of telling others about their HIV status may affect their ability to cope with having the disease. Methods: In 2010, we conducted a qualitative study among adolescents aged 10–19 living with HIV in Zambia, and with their parents and health care providers. Through interviews and focus group discussions, we explored the disclosure of HIV status to adolescents living with HIV; adolescents’ disclosure of their status to others; and the impact of both forms of disclosure on adolescents. Results: Our study identified three main barriers to disclosure of HIV status: local norms that deter parents from communicating with their children about sexuality; fear of HIV stigma; and an underlying presumption that adolescents would not understand the consequences of a HIV diagnosis on their lives and relationships. With regard to adolescents’ disclosure of their HIV status to their sexual partners, our study identified fear of rejection as a common barrier. In rare cases, open family conversations about HIV helped adolescents come to terms with a HIV diagnosis. Findings indicated that disclosure had various outcomes at the individual and interpersonal levels. At the individual level, some adolescents described being anxious, depressed and blaming themselves after being told they had HIV. At the interpersonal level, disclosure created opportunities for adolescents to access adherence support and other forms of psychosocial support from family members and peers. At the same time, it occasionally strained adolescents’ sexual relationships, although it did not always lead to rejection. Conclusions: There is a need for public health interventions that guide adolescents living with HIV, their parents and families through the disclosure process. Such interventions should help

  3. Health system productivity change in Zambia: A focus on the child health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achoki, Tom; Kinfu, Yohannes; Masiye, Felix; Frederix, Geert W J; Hovels, Anke; Leufkens, Hubert G

    2017-02-01

    Efficiency and productivity improvement have become central in global health debates. In this study, we explored productivity change, particularly the contribution of technological progress and efficiency gains associated with improvements in child survival in Zambia (population 15 million). Productivity was measured by applying the Malmquist productivity index on district-level panel data. The effect of socioeconomic factors was further analyzed by applying an ordinary least squares regression technique. During 2004-2009, overall productivity in Zambia increased by 5.0 per cent, a change largely attributed to technological progress rather than efficiency gains. Within-country productivity comparisons revealed wide heterogeneity in favor of more urbanized and densely populated districts. Improved cooking methods, improved sanitation, and better educated populations tended to improve productive gains, whereas larger household size had an adverse effect. Addressing such district-level factors and ensuring efficient delivery and optimal application of existing health technologies offer a practical pathway for further improving population health.

  4. Social indicators and physical abuse of women by intimate partners: a study of women in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okenwa, Leah; Lawoko, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner physical abuse (IPPA) of women is a societal problem with sinister implications on health. IPPA has been integrally linked to social status though the direction of association remains elusive, not the least in sub-Saharan Africa. This article investigated the association between IPPA and social status of women in Zambia. Data comprising 3,969 currently partnered women were retrieved from the 2001 Zambian Demographic and Health Survey and analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression. IPPA augmented with low education, income-generating activity, access to information, autonomy over household health issues, and having tolerant attitudes toward IPPA. Tolerant attitude toward IPPA and illiteracy were independent risk factors for IPPA. Educational interventions are recommended to prevent IPPA in Zambia.

  5. Factors associated with attitudes toward intimate partner violence: a study of women in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawoko, Stephen

    2006-10-01

    Demographic, social, and empowerment factors associated with attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated in a random sample of women (n = 5,029) aged 15-49 years in Zambia. Data was retrieved from the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey 2001-2002 (2003). The findings indicated demographic, social, and structural differences in attitudes toward IPV. Married/previously married and less educated women, employees in the agricultural sector, and women with a history of IPV were more likely to tolerate IPV. In addition, structurally disempowered women (i.e., women lacking access to information and autonomy in household decisions) were more likely to justify IPV than more-empowered peers. Most variables remained significant even when possible confounding was adjusted for using a logistic regression. The findings are discussed and implications for prevention as well as methodological issues considered.

  6. Genomic research in Zambia: confronting the ethics, policy and regulatory frontiers in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Moraes, Albertina Ngomah; Chongwe, Gershom; Munthali, James

    2015-10-29

    Genomic research has the potential to increase knowledge in health sciences, but the process has to ensure the safety, integrity and well-being of research participants. A legal framework for the conduct of health research in Zambia is available. However, the ethical, policy and regulatory framework to operationalise genomic research requires a paradigm shift. This paper outlines the current legal and policy framework as well as the ethics environment, and suggests recommendations for Zambia to fully benefit from the opportunity that genomic research presents. This will entail creating national research interest, improving knowledge levels, and building community trust among researchers, policymakers, donors, regulators and, most importantly, patients and research participants. A real balancing act of the risk and benefits will need to be objectively undertaken.

  7. Satellite Estimates of Crop Area and Maize Yield in Zambia's Agricultural Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzari, G.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting crop yield and area from satellite is a valuable tool to monitor different aspects of productivity dynamics and food security. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where the agricultural landscape is complex and dominated by smallholder systems, such dynamics need to be investigated at the field scale. We leveraged the large data pool and computational power of Google Earth Engine to 1) generate 30 m resolution cover maps of selected provinces of Zambia, 2) estimate crop area, and 3) produce yearly maize yield maps using the recently developed SCYM (Scalable satellite-based Crop Yield Mapper) algorithm. We will present our results and their validation against a ground survey dataset collected yearly by the Zambia Ministry of Agriculture from about 12,500 households.

  8. Modeling flooding patterns in the Kafue Flats, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Philipp; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    The Kafue Flats is one of the most important wetlands in Zambia. In the early 70's the Kafue Gorge reservoir was built mainly for hydropower production not far downstream the outlet of the Kafue Flats. Only a few years later a dam was constructed upstream the Flats to extend the limited storage of Kafue Gorge. Besides its ecological value the Kafue Flats are also important economically. Around 700 000 people are dependent mainly on fisheries and flood recession agriculture. An increasing number of large irrigation schemes are drawing water from the Kafue river along the wetland. Floodplains in semi-arid and arid areas are often the only source of water supply available throughout the year. They provide numerous economical and ecological services of tremendous value. The ecological uniqueness of many wetlands results largely from a strong seasonality of flooding. As the pressure on water resources grows these natural seasonal patterns are often altered due to water abstractions or the construction of dams. Many efforts have been taken to restore more natural flooding patterns. To assess both, the effects of altered flow regimes and of restoration efforts, a hydrological model reproducing the dynamics of the flooding is required. However, in many cases hydrological modeling of these floodplains is often hampered by the poor availability of data. Data gathering is also limited by the large extent and the limited accessibility of the wetlands. Therefore the application of remote sensing techniques is an attractive approach. The model presented in this study is based on a relatively simple approach which was initially designed for the Okavango Delta. The model is based on the widely used software MODFLOW. However, due to a different environment and technical advances of the software there are some significant differences between the Okavango Delta model and the model presented hereafter. The model is based on MODFLOW 2005 and basically consists of two layers: a

  9. Structural study and geochronology in the Hook Batholith, Central Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, K.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Kinnaird, J.; Charlesworth, G.; Frei, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Pan-African Hook batholith is emplaced N of the Mwembeshi dislocation, a regional scale structure at the contact between Zambezi Belt and Lufilian Arc in Central Zambia. Exposed over 12000 km2 the batholith is composed mainly of fine-grained and coarse-grained porphyritic granites and leucogranites affected by solid-state deformation along high-strain zones. Two main zones of deformation were investigated - the Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) in the SW part of the batholith and the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) to the NE. The 2.5 km wide, N-S trending, subvertical ITZ is a medium-grade, pure shear dominated structure, reflecting probably regional scale E-W shortening. In the central part of the zone, augen-gneiss textures developed. Mineral lineations plunging ~40° S are recorded occasionally. The deformed feldspar porphyroclasts show symmetrical tails and rarely sinistral stair-stepping. In the SE part of the Hook batholith the continuation of the ITZ trends E-W. This orientation can be explained by rotation of the original ITZ trend by N-S shortening that also has been recorded in the siliciclastic metasediments S of the contact. S dipping, up to 15 cm wide thrust zones observed in the ITZ area were probably formed during this tectonic event. The 3 km wide NZ is a subvertical to steeply SSW dipping structure, parallel to the NE contact of the batholith, with well-developed foliation and mineral stretching lineations. Field and microstructural analyses defined the NZ as a medium-grade, non-coaxial, sinistral strike-slip shear zone. The transition from weak foliated granite to S-C mylonites and ultramylonites was observed. The sinistral shearing is consistent with E-W shortening in agreement with the tectonic framework of the ITZ. The low grade metasediments to the E of the granite are folded in N to NNW trending structures also implying E-W shortening. Temperature conditions during the deformation in ITZ and NZ inferred from microstructural analyses are about 500°-550°C. The

  10. The Effectiveness of Using Virtual Laboratories to Teach Computer Networking Skills  in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Lampi, Evans

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of using virtual labs to train students in computer networking skills, when real equipment is limited or unavailable, is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using virtual labs to train students in the acquisition of computer network configuration and troubleshooting skills. The study was conducted in the developing country of Zambia, where there is an acute shortage of network lab equipment. Effectiveness was determined by the transfer ...

  11. Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrinho Paulo; Sidat Mohsin; Goma Fastone; Dussault Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with...

  12. Zambia Poverty Assessment : Stagnant Poverty and Inequality in a Natural Resource-Based Economy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    As in many countries throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and around the developing world, poverty in Zambia is overwhelmingly a rural phenomenon. In 2010 the moderate poverty rate in rural areas was 74 percent, more than double the urban poverty rate of 35 percent. The economic growth continued throughout the decade, reaching an impressive annual average of 5.7 percent, and by 2011 the World Ban...

  13. WP 80 - An overview of women’s work and employment in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    *Management Summary* This report provides information on Zambia on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work and ...

  14. Household lifestyle, energy related practices and perceptions of energy efficiency: Evidence from Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilias Makashini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households' lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households' lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 ― brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household ― were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and ‘landlord control' were identified as some of the barriers to energy

  15. Contraception and family planning among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L Jones

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Deborah L Jones1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Chipepo Kankasa2, Ndashi Chitalu2, Miriam Mumbi2, Stephen M Weiss11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, ZambiaAbstract: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, remarkable progress has been made in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. As a result, in both the developed and developing world, reproductive decision-making and family planning has re-emerged as an important health issue among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples. This study sought to explore contraceptive attitudes and practices among HIV-seropositive and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia and to compare contraceptive decision-making between seroconcordant and discordant couples. Study results suggest that while most participants expressed a willingness to use protection to prevent pregnancy, the majority were not using protection consistently. Similarly, among seropositive younger men in both the US and Zambia, more men expressed a desire to have children than women of either serostatus group. Study outcomes also suggest that male and female condom use to reduce HIV transmission within couples is limited. Thus, as males are largely the sexual decision makers regarding condom use, women’s attitudes or plans regarding child bearing may be eclipsed by those of their male partners, and recent reductions in provision of female condoms in the developing world may further reduce women’s options to protect themselves and prevent pregnancy. Education and counseling on vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV among both seropositive and serodiscordant couples should be an element of family planning efforts. Conversely, family planning should be a critical element of HIV counseling and testing strategies to

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the available strategies for diagnosing malaria in outpatient clinics in Zambia

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    Chanda Pascalina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in Zambia accounts for about 4 million clinical cases and 8 000 deaths annually. Artemether-lumefantrine (ACT, a relatively expensive drug, is being used as first line treatment of uncomplicated malaria. However, diagnostic capacity in Zambia is low, leading to potentially avoidable wastage of drugs due to unnecessary anti malarial treatment. Methods A cost-effectiveness evaluation of the three current alternatives to malaria diagnosis (clinical, microscopy and Rapid Diagnostic Tests- RDT was conducted in 12 facilities from 4 districts in Zambia. The analysis was conducted along an observational study, thus reflecting practice in health facilities under routine conditions. Average and incremental cost effectiveness ratios were estimated from the providers' perspective. Effectiveness was measured in relation to malaria cases correctly diagnosed by each strategy. Results Average cost-effectiveness ratios show that RDTs were more efficient (US$ 6.5 than either microscopy (US$ 11.9 or clinical diagnosis (US$ 17.1 for malaria case correctly diagnosed. In relation to clinical diagnoses the incremental cost per case correctly diagnosed and treated was US$ 2.6 and US$ 9.6 for RDT and microscopy respectively. RDTs would be much cheaper to scale up than microscopy. The findings were robust to changes in assumptions and various parameters. Conclusion RDTs were the most cost effective method at correctly diagnosing malaria in primary health facilities in Zambia when compared to clinical and microscopy strategies. However, the treatment prescription practices of the health workers can impact on the potential that a diagnostic test has to lead to savings on antimalarials. The results of this study will serve to inform policy makers on which alternatives will be most efficient in reducing malaria misdiagnosis by taking into account both the costs and effects of each strategy.

  17. The influence of quality maternity waiting homes on utilization of facilities for delivery in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Elizabeth G; Semrau, Katherine; Hamer, Davidson H; Vian, Taryn; Nambao, Mary; Mataka, Kaluba; Scott, Nancy A

    2017-05-30

    Residential accommodation for expectant mothers adjacent to health facilities, known as maternity waiting homes (MWH), is an intervention designed to improve access to skilled deliveries in low-income countries like Zambia where the maternal mortality ratio is estimated at 398 deaths per 100,000 live births. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between MWH quality and the likelihood of facility delivery in Kalomo and Choma Districts in Southern Province, Zambia. We systematically assessed and inventoried the functional capacity of all existing MWH using a quantitative facility survey and photographs of the structures. We calculated a composite score and used multivariate regression to quantify MWH quality and its association with the likelihood of facility delivery using household survey data collected on delivery location in Kalomo and Choma Districts from 2011-2013. MWH were generally in poor condition and composite scores varied widely, with a median score of 28.0 and ranging from 12 to 66 out of a possible 75 points. Of the 17,200 total deliveries captured from 2011-2013 in 40 study catchment area facilities, a higher proportion occurred in facilities where there was either a MWH or the health facility provided space for pregnant waiting mothers compared to those with no accommodations (60.7% versus 55.9%, p facilities had an MWH, those women with MWHs in their catchment area that were rated medium or high quality had a 95% increase in the odds of facility delivery than those whose catchment area MWHs were of poor quality (OR: 1.95, 95% CI 1.76, 2.16). Improving both the availability and the quality of MWH represents a potentially useful strategy to increasing facility delivery in rural Zambia. The Zambia Chlorhexidine Application Trial is registered at Clinical Trials.gov (identifier: NCT01241318).

  18. Effects of Policy Reforms on Price Transmission in Coffee Markets: Evidence from Zambia and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mofya-Mukuka, Rhoda; Abdulai, Awudu

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1990s, several governments in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) embarked on various market reforms to improve commodity market performance. The success of such market reforms depends partly on the strength of the transmission of price signals between spatially separated markets and between different levels of commodity value chains. This study takes a look at these issues through an analysis of coffee producer prices for Zambia and Tanzania.

  19. Outbreak of Plague in a High Malaria Endemic Region - Nyimba District, Zambia, March-May 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyange, Nyambe; Kumar, Ramya; Inambao, Akatama; Moonde, Loveness; Chama, Jonathan; Banda, Mapopa; Tembo, Elliot; Nsonga, Beron; Mwaba, John; Fwoloshi, Sombo; Musokotwane, Kebby; Chizema, Elizabeth; Kapin'a, Muzala; Hang'ombe, Benard Mudenda; Baggett, Henry C; Hachaambwa, Lottie

    2016-08-12

    Outbreaks of plague have been recognized in Zambia since 1917 (1). On April 10, 2015, Zambia's Ministry of Health was notified by the Eastern Provincial Medical Office of possible bubonic plague cases in Nyimba District. Eleven patients with acute fever and cervical lymphadenopathy had been evaluated at two rural health centers during March 28-April 9, 2015; three patients died. To confirm the outbreak and develop control measures, the Zambia Ministry of Health's Field Epidemiology Training Program (ZFETP) conducted epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in partnership with the University of Zambia's schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine and the provincial and district medical offices. Twenty-one patients with clinically compatible plague were identified, with symptom onset during March 26-May 5, 2015. The median age was 8 years, and all patients were from the same village. Blood specimens or lymph node aspirates from six (29%) patients tested positive for Yersinia pestis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There is an urgent need to improve early identification and treatment of plague cases. PCR is a potential complementary tool for identifying plague, especially in areas with limited microbiologic capacity. Twelve (57%) patients, including all six with PCR-positive plague and all three who died, also tested positive for malaria by rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Plague patients coinfected with malaria might be misdiagnosed as solely having malaria, and appropriate antibacterial treatment to combat plague might not be given, increasing risk for mortality. Because patients with malaria might be coinfected with other pathogens, broad spectrum antibiotic treatment to cover other pathogens is recommended for all children with severe malaria, until a bacterial infection is excluded.

  20. WP 80 - An overview of women’s work and employment in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2009-01-01

    *Management Summary* This report provides information on Zambia on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work and ...

  1. Delegation of Zambian Chiefs Extols Africa-China and Zambia-China Friendship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Chiefs are traditional leaders in Zambia.Among the country’s 73 tribes,there are altogether four paramount chiefs,48 senior chiefs and 286 chiefs.These people,who inherit their title through the maternal line,play an important and special role in Zambia’s political,economic and social life and have the respect of people from all walks of life.

  2. The climate change agenda in Zambia: National interests and the role of development cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Funder, Mikkel; Mweemba, Carol Emma; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2013-01-01

    In the past ten years a significant number of policies and projects have been implemented in African countries in order to address climate change. At the same time, African countries have become more vocal in the global climate change negotiations. And yet there has been little analysis of domestic climate change agendas in African countries. This working paper is a modest first step in understanding the climate change agenda in one particular country, namely Zambia. The paper focuses on thre...

  3. Malaria prevention in Zambia: a practical application of the diffusion of innovations model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steury, Elinda Enright

    2013-04-01

    Transcultural nursing educators can be change agents for health issues in other cultures. Yet unfamiliar disease processes and the foreign environment provide challenges that must be overcome to achieve a lasting, effective, and positive change. Rogers's Diffusion of Innovations Model can be used to plan and implement community-focused interventions into the cultures of developing nations, specifically malaria prevention in Zambia. Transcultural nurse educators could use concepts from the model to effect change in other cultures or communities.

  4. Reclamation of lead/zinc processing wastes at Kabwe, Zambia: A phytogeochemical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Leteinturier, B.; Laroche, J.; Matera, J; Malaisse, François

    2001-01-01

    The lead/zinc mining industry of Kabwe (Central Province of Zambia), in operation from 1906 to 1994, generated metalliferous slag heaps covering an area of over 75 ha. The slag heaps are responsible for aerosol emissions with a high heavy metal content over the mine townships of Kasanda and Chowa, resulting in health risks for the local population. In this phytogeochemical investigation, soil samples showed very high lead, zinc and copper concentrations in topsoil. Plant surveys identified 39...

  5. Shock and Livestock Transactions in Rural Zambia: a Re-examination of the Buffer Stock Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    MIURA, Ken; KANNO, Hiromitsu; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This study re-examines the buffer stock hypothesis regarding livestock by taking into account differences in wealth level, asset types, and periods after a shock. This paper takes advantage of a unique panel data set of agricultural households in Southern Province, Zambia. The data were collected by weekly interviews of 48 sample households from November 2007 to December 2009, covering two crop years in which an unusually heavy rainfall event took place. If we consider delayed responses to th...

  6. Isolation and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malama, Sydney; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Muma, John Bwalya; Mwanza, Sydney; Djønne, Berit; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Infections due to M. bovis, which serves as a stable reservoir, can pose serious challenge to control and eradicate in both wildlife and livestock at the interface. This study aimed at isolating and characterizing M. bovis from Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) at the animal/human interface in Zambia. The samples with lesions compatible with BTB collected during the hunting seasons of 2009 and 2010 were cultured for isolation of mycobacteria using Stonebrink with pyruvate (BD Diagnostics, MD, USA) and Middlebrook 7H10 (BD Diagnostics) slants. Isolated mycobacteria were identified using IS6110 polymerase chain reaction and deletion analysis. Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed using spoligotyping and mycobacteria interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) with nine loci. Data was analyzed using BioNumerics software 6.1. Out of the 39 samples, acid fast bacilli were detected in 27 (69.2 %) based on smear microscopy. Seven isolates were found to belong to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and all were identified as M. bovis based on deletion analysis. All seven isolates were identical on spoligotyping as belonging to the SB0120 (SIT 482). MIRU-VNTR differentiated the isolates into five different patterns. This study has confirmed that M. bovis circulates in the Kafue lechwe, and non-tuberculous mycobacteria were detected in the black lechwe in Zambia which represents a wildlife reservoir, with a potential to spillover to cattle and humans. Isolates of M. bovis from lechwe antelopes are much conserved as only one spoligotype was detected. The study has shown that three loci differentiated fairly well. This option is cheap and less laborious, and hence a better option in resource-strained country like Zambia. The study further showed that some of the loci recommended by the European

  7. Genetic perspectives on the origin of clicks in Bantu languages from southwestern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Chiara; Butthof, Anne; Bostoen, Koen; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    Some Bantu languages spoken in southwestern Zambia and neighboring regions of Botswana, Namibia, and Angola are characterized by the presence of click consonants, whereas their closest linguistic relatives lack such clicks. As clicks are a typical feature not of the Bantu language family, but of Khoisan languages, it is highly probable that the Bantu languages in question borrowed the clicks from Khoisan languages. In this paper, we combine complete mitochondrial genome sequences from a representative sample of populations from the Western Province of Zambia speaking Bantu languages with and without clicks, with fine-scaled analyses of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats to investigate the prehistoric contact that led to this borrowing of click consonants. Our results reveal complex population-specific histories, with female-biased admixture from Khoisan-speaking groups associated with the incorporation of click sounds in one Bantu-speaking population, while concomitant levels of potential Khoisan admixture did not result in sound change in another. Furthermore, the lack of sequence sharing between the Bantu-speaking groups from southwestern Zambia investigated here and extant Khoisan populations provides an indication that there must have been genetic substructure in the Khoisan-speaking indigenous groups of southern Africa that did not survive until the present or has been substantially reduced.

  8. Cholera epidemic associated with raw vegetables--Lusaka, Zambia, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-03

    Zambia experienced widespread cholera epidemics in 1991 (13,154 cases), 1992 (11,659), and 1999 (11,327). In response to the large outbreak in 1999, the Zambian Ministry of Health (ZMOH) urged use of in-home chlorination with the locally produced solution, Clorin, and the practice increased substantially Clorin had been introduced in Zambia in 1998 as part of the Safe Water System (SWS), a point-of-use water disinfection and safe-water storage strategy launched by the Society for Family Health, in partnership with ZMOH, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and CDC. Although no outbreaks were reported during 2000-2002, cholera remained endemic. Epidemic cholera returned to Zambia in November 2003, when cases of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor were confirmed in the capital city, Lusaka. During November 28, 2003-January 4, 2004, an estimated 2,529 cholera cases and 128 cholera deaths (case-fatality rate [CFR] = 5.1%) occurred in Lusaka. In February 2004, the Lusaka District Health Management Team (LDHMT) invited CDC to assist in an investigation of the epidemic. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which implicated foodborne transmission via raw vegetables and demonstrated a protective role for hand washing with soap. The results underscore the importance of hygiene, clean water, and sanitary food handling for cholera prevention.

  9. Patch-occupancy survey of elephant (Loxodonta africana surrounding Livingstone, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Youldon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild elephants represent the biggest human–wildlife conflict issue in Livingstone, Zambia. However, little is known about their movements. This survey investigated elephants’ habitat use outside a core protected and fenced zone that forms part of Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park, Zambia. Using ‘patch-occupancy’ methodology, indications of elephant presence (feeding behaviour, dung and tracks were surveyed. The survey aimed to assist proposed future monitoring exercises by defining the geographical extent that should be considered to improve accuracy in species abundance estimates. Results were supplemented using collected indications of elephant presence from prior monitoring exercises, and during this survey. Elephant presence was confirmed up to 8 km from the boundary of the protected core habitat, focussed in: (1 an unfenced zone of the national park, (2 along a road leading from the national park to the Dambwa Forest to the north and (3 along two rivers located to the west (Sinde River and east (Maramba River of the core area. Detection probability of elephant presence was high using these methods, and we recommend regular sampling to determine changes in habitat use by elephants, as humans continue to modify land-use patterns.Conservation implications: Identification of elephant ranging behaviour up to 8 km outside of the Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park in southern Zambia will assist in managing human– elephant conflict in the area, as well as in assessing this seasonal population’s abundance.

  10. Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Mukonka, Victor M; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Macdonald, Michael B; Haque, Ubydul

    2013-01-08

    While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS), data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.

  11. Misdiagnosis of tuberculosis and the clinical relevance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in Zambia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia CAM Buijtels; Michael D Iseman; Shelagh Parkinson; Cas S de Graaff; Henri A Verbrugh; Pieter LC Petit; Dick van Soolingen

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the accuracy of TB diagnosis of TB in Zambia in the era of increasing HIV prevalence. Methods: Sputum of the clinically diagnosed TB cases was additionally subjected to liquid culture and molecular identification. This study distinguished between TB cases confirmed by positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) cultures and mycobacterial disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Results: Only 49%of the 173 presumptively diagnosed TB cases was M. tuberculosis cultured, while in 13%(22) cases, a combination of M. tuberculosis and NTM was found. In 18%of the patients only NTM were cultured. In 28%, no mycobacteria was cultivable. HIV positive status was correlated with the isolation of NTM (P<0.05). Conclusions:The diagnosis of tuberculosis based on symptoms, sputum smear and/or chest X-ray leads to significant numbers of false-positive TB cases in Zambia, most likely due to the increased prevalence of HIV. The role of NTM in tuberculosis-like disease also seems relevant to the false diagnosis of TB in Zambia.

  12. Diagnosis and genotyping of African swine fever viruses from 2015 outbreaks in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoromo, Jonas; Simulundu, Edgar; Chambaro, Herman M; Mataa, Liywalii; Lubaba, Caesar H; Pandey, Girja S; Takada, Ayato; Misinzo, Gerald; Mweene, Aaron S

    2016-04-29

    In early 2015, a highly fatal haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs resembling African swine fever (ASF) occurred in North Western, Copperbelt, and Lusaka provinces of Zambia. Molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction targeting specific amplification of p72 (B646L) gene of ASF virus (ASFV) was conducted. Fourteen out of 16 domestic pigs from the affected provinces were found to be positive for ASFV. Phylogenetic analyses based on part of the p72 and the complete p54 (E183L) genes revealed that all the ASFVs detected belonged to genotypes I and Id, respectively. Additionally, epidemiological data suggest that the same ASFV spread from Lusaka to other provinces possibly through uncontrolled and/or illegal pig movements. Although the origin of the ASFV that caused outbreaks in domestic pigs in Zambia could not be ascertained, it appears likely that the virus may have emerged from within the country or region, probably from a sylvatic cycle. It is recommended that surveillance of ASF, strict biosecurity, and quarantine measures be imposed in order to prevent further spread and emergence of new ASF outbreaks in Zambia.

  13. The Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Smallholder-Based Biofuel Investments in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura German

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High oil prices, recent commitments by industrialized countries to enhance the use of renewable energy, and efforts by developing countries to stimulate foreign investment as a pathway to development have fueled high levels of interest in the biofuel sector throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Zambia is no exception. A large, land-locked country with high pump prices and vast tracts of land considered by many to be "degraded" or "underutilized," investor interest in the sector has remained high despite uncertainties associated with unproven feedstocks and market fluctuations. While investment in multiple feedstock and production models may be observed, one of the primary investments has been in jatropha outgrower schemes in which small-scale farmers grow feedstock on contract with domestic and foreign investors. We assess the history and evolution of the largest such scheme in Zambia, as well as the social and environmental impacts in two districts with large numbers of outgrowers. Findings suggest that, although such a production model may hold promise for enhancing rural livelihood benefits from the emerging biofuel sector, to date, small-scale farmers have borne the brunt of the risk and uncertainty that are the trademarks of this emerging industry. We conclude with a discussion of options to minimize forest conversion and protect farmers against high-risk investments, while harnessing the potential of this business model for enhancing rural livelihoods in Zambia and elsewhere.

  14. Prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress among in-school adolescents in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seter eSiziya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is scanty information on correlates for psychosocial distress in Zambia. Secondary analysis was conducted using data collected in 2004 in Zambia during the global school-based health survey to determine the prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate magnitudes of associations between exposure factors and the outcome, while the Yates’ corrected Chi-squared test was used to compare proportions at the 5% significance level. A total of 2257 students participated in the survey of which 54.2% were males. Males were generally older than females (p<0.001. Significantly more females than males were bullied (p=0.036, involved in a fight (p=0.019 and consumed alcohol (p=0.012. Psychosocial distress was detected in 15.7% of the participants (14.4% of males and 16.8% of females. Age less than 14 years, male gender, parental support for males and having close friends were protective factors against psychosocial distress. Risk factors for psychosocial distress were: being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active and parental support. . Age less than 14 years, male gender, parental support for males, having close friends, being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active and parental support were significantly associated with psychosocial distress. The prevalence of psychosocial distress among adolescents in Zambia appears to be common. There is a need to validate the psychosocial distress indicators that were used in the current study.

  15. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  16. Tourism as a Poverty Reduction Tool: The Case of Mukuni Village in the Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Horák

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, tourism is becoming one of the cornerstones of national economic growth and as a means of poverty alleviation, especially in the tourist attractions in rural areas. This article assesses the levels of utilization of tourism potentials in Zambia, in general, and the Mukuni village in the Southern province in Zambia, in particular, with reference to poverty reduction. The world famous Victoria Falls is situated in the Southern province and therefore this area is the most visited places in Zambia and attracts more tourists throughout the whole year. The main income of the local people, which includes the Tonga tribe comes from tourism. Even though tourism has brought positive results, including the realization of some local development projects and prosperity to the people, it has also brought some negative effects such as sociocultural change, pollution and waste in the tourist destination areas in Zambia.For the Mukuni people and Zambia as a whole to fully exploit tourism potentials, stricter laws protecting the destruction of the environment and the preservation culture of the indigenous people should be enforced in the tourist destination areas. The government should use the levy from tourism to provide better infrastructure, create job opportunities and create wealth within the tourist areas for sustainable tourism development and poverty reduction.

  17. Spatial and temporal variation of CO2 efflux along a disturbance gradient in a miombo woodland in Western Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mukelabai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide efflux from the soil surface was measured over a period of several weeks within a heterogeneous Brachystegia spp. dominated miombo woodland in Western Zambia. The objectives were to examine spatial and temporal variation of soil respiration along a disturbance gradient from a protected forest reserve to a cut, burned, and grazed area outside, and to relate the flux to various abiotic and biotic drivers. The highest daily mean fluxes (around 12 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1 were measured in the protected forest in the wet season and lowest daily mean fluxes (around 1 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1 in the most disturbed area during the dry season. Diurnal variation of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil temperature. The combination of soil water content and soil temperature was found to be the main driving factor at seasonal time scale. There was a 75% decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the dry season and a 20% difference in peak soil respiratory flux measured in 2008 and 2009. Spatial variation of CO2 efflux was positively related to total soil carbon content in the undisturbed area but not at the disturbed site. Coefficients of variation of efflux rates between plots decreased towards the core zone of the protected forest reserve. Normalized soil respiration values did not vary significantly along the disturbance gradient. Spatial variation of respiration did not show a clear distinction between the disturbed and undisturbed sites and could not be explained by variables such as leaf area index. In contrast, within plot variability of soil respiration was explained by soil organic carbon content. Three different approaches to calculate total ecosystem respiration (Reco from eddy covariance measurements were compared to two bottom-up estimates of Reco obtained from chambers measurements of soil- and leaf respiration which differed in the consideration of spatial heterogeneity. The consideration of spatial variability resulted only in

  18. Spatial and temporal variation of CO2 efflux along a disturbance gradient in a miombo woodland in Western Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Kutsch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide efflux from the soil surface was measured over a period of several weeks within a heterogeneous Brachystegia spp. dominated miombo woodland in Western Zambia. The objectives were to examine spatial and temporal variation of soil respiration along a disturbance gradient from a protected forest reserve to a cut, burned, and grazed area outside, and to relate the flux to various abiotic and biotic drivers. The highest daily mean fluxes (around 12 μmol m−2 s−1 were measured in the protected forest in the wet season and lowest daily mean fluxes (around 1 μmol m−2 s−1 in the most disturbed area during the dry season. Diurnal variation of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil temperature. The combination of soil water content and soil temperature was found to be the main driving factor at seasonal time scale. There was a 75% decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the dry season and a 20% difference in peak soil respiratory flux measured in 2008 and 2009. Spatial variation of CO2 efflux was positively related to total soil carbon content in the undisturbed area but not at the disturbed site. Coefficients of variation of efflux rates between plots decreased towards the core zone of the protected forest reserve. Normalized soil respiration values did not vary significantly along the disturbance gradient. Spatial variation of respiration did not show a clear distinction between the disturbed and undisturbed sites and was neither explained by soil carbon nor leaf area index. In contrast, within plot variability of soil respiration was explained by soil organic carbon content. Three different approaches to calculate total ecosystem respiration (Reco from eddy covariance measurements were compared to two bottom-up estimates of Reco obtained from chambers measurements of soil- and leaf respiration which differed in the consideration of spatial heterogeneity. The consideration of spatial variability resulted only in small

  19. Energy Efficient Textile Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Brunzell, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, textiles were dried outdoors with the wind and the sun enhancing the drying process. Tumble dryers offer a fast and convenient way of drying textiles independent of weather conditions. Tumble dryers, however, consume large amounts of electrical energy. Over 4 million tumble dryers are sold each year in Europe and a considerable amount of energy is used for drying of clothes. Increasing energy costs and the awareness about environmental problems related to a large energy use has...

  20. Exploring the role and capacity of school teachers in Zambia to support orphans and vulnerable children: considerations for educational resource allocation in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Margaret Jo; Chi, Chunhuei

    This study investigated teachers' perceptions of their role as HIV/AIDS educators and also their role in providing care for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) across the different school systems in Lusaka, Zambia. Researchers used a combined quantitative and qualitative narrative approach. Original cross-sectional data were collected through face-to-face survey and in-depth interviews with school teachers in the Lusaka. A sample of 720 teachers from 123 schools completed surveys in 2008, with a 91% response rate for teachers, and 100% for schools sampled. Teachers for all school types reported that schools and teachers are the appropriate community resource for HIV-prevention education for youth and support for OVC. This study suggests that schools could serve as a source and alternative mechanism of support for vulnerable children.

  1. Fitting the HIV epidemic in Zambia: a two-sex micro-simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M Leclerc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In describing and understanding how the HIV epidemic spreads in African countries, previous studies have not taken into account the detailed periods at risk. This study is based on a micro-simulation model (individual-based of the spread of the HIV epidemic in the population of Zambia, where women tend to marry early and where divorces are not frequent. The main target of the model was to fit the HIV seroprevalence profiles by age and sex observed at the Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2001. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A two-sex micro-simulation model of HIV transmission was developed. Particular attention was paid to precise age-specific estimates of exposure to risk through the modelling of the formation and dissolution of relationships: marriage (stable union, casual partnership, and commercial sex. HIV transmission was exclusively heterosexual for adults or vertical (mother-to-child for children. Three stages of HIV infection were taken into account. All parameters were derived from empirical population-based data. Results show that basic parameters could not explain the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in Zambia. In order to fit the age and sex patterns, several assumptions were made: differential susceptibility of young women to HIV infection, differential susceptibility or larger number of encounters for male clients of commercial sex workers, and higher transmission rate. The model allowed to quantify the role of each type of relationship in HIV transmission, the proportion of infections occurring at each stage of disease progression, and the net reproduction rate of the epidemic (R(0 = 1.95. CONCLUSIONS: The simulation model reproduced the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in Zambia, and fitted the age and sex pattern of HIV seroprevalence in 2001. The same model could be used to measure the effect of changing behaviour in the future.

  2. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and albuminuria in rural Zambia: a hospital-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Thomsen, Jakúp A; Rossing, Peter; Parkinson, Shelagh; Christensen, Dirk L; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2013-09-01

    To assess albuminuria in rural Zambia among patients with diabetes mellitus only (DM group), hypertension only (HTN group) and patients with combined DM and HTN (DM/HTN group). A cross-sectional survey was conducted at St. Francis Hospital in the Eastern province of Zambia. Albumin-creatinine ratio in one urine sample was used to assess albuminuria. Other information obtained included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), random capillary glucose, time since diagnosis, medication and family history of DM or HTN. A total of 193 participants were included (DM group: n = 33; HTN group: n = 92; DM/HTN group: n = 68). The participants in the DM group used insulin more frequently as diabetes medication than the DM/HTN group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the DM group was younger and had lower BMI, WC and BP than the two other groups. In the DM group, HTN group and DM/HTN group, microalbuminuria was found in 12.1%, 19.6% and 29.4% (P = 0.11), and macroalbuminuria was found in 0.0%, 3.3% and 13.2% (P = 0.014), respectively. The urine albumin (P = 0.014) and albumin-creatinine ratio (P = 0.0006) differed between the three groups. This hospital-based survey in rural Zambia found a lower frequency of albuminuria among the participants than in previous studies of patients with DM or HTN in urban sub-Saharan Africa. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS, data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Discussion and evaluation Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. Conclusions The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.

  4. "These things are dangerous": Understanding induced abortion trajectories in urban Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan F

    2016-03-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of global maternal mortality and morbidity. Zambia has among the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, however this alone does not guarantee access to safe abortion, and 30% of maternal mortality is attributable to unsafe procedures. Too little is known about the pathways women take to reach abortion services in such resource-poor settings, or what informs care-seeking behaviours, barriers and delays. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2013 with 112 women who accessed abortion-related care in a Lusaka tertiary government hospital at some point in their pathway. The sample included women seeking safe abortion and also those receiving hospital care following unsafe abortion. We identified a typology of three care-seeking trajectories that ended in the use of hospital services: clinical abortion induced in hospital; clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital; and non-clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital. Framework analyses of 70 transcripts showed that trajectories to a termination of an unwanted pregnancy can be complex and iterative. Individuals may navigate private and public formal healthcare systems and consult unqualified providers, often trying multiple strategies. We found four major influences on which trajectory a woman followed, as well as the complexity and timing of her trajectory: i) the advice of trusted others ii) perceptions of risk iii) delays in care-seeking and receipt of services and iv) economic cost. Even though abortion is legal in Zambia, girls and women still take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Levels of awareness about the legality of abortion and its provision remain low even in urban Zambia, especially among adolescents. Unofficial payments required by some providers can be a major barrier to safe care. Timely access to safe abortion services depends on chance rather

  5. Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: insights from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter A; Nyirenda, Vincent R; Barnes, Jonathan I; Becker, Matthew S; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; Watson, Frederick G; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These

  6. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses detected in vaccinated commercial broiler flocks in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndashe, Kunda; Simulundu, Edgar; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Ogawa, Hirohito; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S

    2016-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive viral disease of young chickens and remains one of the economically most important diseases threatening the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 16 and 11 nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) and part of VP1, respectively, of IBD virus (IBDV) detected in vaccinated broiler chickens in Lusaka in 2012 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Zambian IBDVs separated into three genotypes of very virulent (VV) IBDVs. Although the majority of these viruses belonged to the African VV type (VV1), which consisted of viruses from West Africa, South Africa and Zambia, one virus belonged to the East African VV type (VV2). Interestingly, a Zambian IBDV belonging to the VV3 genotype (composed of viruses from several continents) clustered with attenuated vaccine strains. Although sequence analysis of VP2-HVR showed that all detected Zambian IBDVs had conserved putative virulence marker amino acids (i.e., 222A, 242I, 256I, 294I and 299S), one virus had two unique amino acid substitutions, N280S and E300A. This study demonstrates the diversity of Zambian IBDVs and documents for the first time the possible involvement of attenuated vaccine strains in the epidemiology of IBD in Zambia. Strict biosecurity of poultry farms, monitoring of live vaccine use in the field, surveillance and characterization of IBDV in poultry and development of a vaccine from local or regional IBDV field strains are recommended for improved IBD control in Zambia.

  7. Lifesavers : Attitudes towards the use of condoms among youth in Zambia between 1995 and 2003

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Any knowledge that can help us influence more people to use condoms saves lives and plays a key role in arresting the HIV pandemic. My motivation for writing this thesis was to determine whether a change in attitude towards the use of condoms among youths in Zambia had occurred between 1995 and 2003. Evidence from surveys suggests that there has been a positive change in sexual behavior. During the eight year period, data from the same population show a marked increase in the use ...

  8. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS data among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 were obtained from the World Health Organization. We estimated the prevalence of victimization from bullying. We also conducted weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent factors associated with victimization from bullying, and report adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Of 2136 students who participated in the 2004 Zambia GSHS, 1559 had information on whether they were bullied or not. Of these, 1559 students, 62.8% (60.0% of male and 65.0% of female participants reported having been bullied in the previous 30 days to the survey. We found that respondents of age less than 14 years were 7% (AOR=0.93; 95%CI [0.91, 0.95] less likely to have been bullied compared to those aged 16 years or older. Being a male (AOR=1.07; 95%CI [1.06, 1.09], lonely (AOR=1.24; 95%CI [1.22, 1.26], worried (AOR=1.12; 95%CI [1.11, 1.14], consuming alcohol (AOR=2.59; 95%CI [2.55, 2.64], missing classes (AOR=1.30; 95%CI [1.28, 1.32], and considering attempting suicide (AOR=1.20; 95%CI [1.18, 1.22] were significantly associated with bullying victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Victimization from bullying is prevalent among in-school adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia, and interventions to curtail it should consider the factors that have been identified in this study.

  9. Interactive media audiences in Africa: A comparison of four constituencies in Kenya and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The PiMA Working Papers are a series of peer-reviewed working papers that present findings and insights from Centre of Governance and Human Rights’ (CGHR) Politics and Interactive Media in Africa (PiMA) research project (2012-14). The project, jointly funded by the ESRC and DFID (ES/J018945/1), focuses on expressions of ‘public opinion’ in broadcast media via new information and communication technologies (ICT) such as mobile phones in Kenya and Zambia. PiMA examines the political implication...

  10. Limitations and Challenges of Building Democracy in the Conditions of Multiethnic Society in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenč Jozef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some politicians in Europe ever more frequently claim that multiculturalism has failed. Others assert that it is primarily the current model of democracy which is in crisis. On the other hand Africa is generally perceived as a continent without experience with either democratic tradition or even liberal concept of multiculturalism. But is that really the case? What do we know about the diversity of the African continent in Central Europe? A potential positive example of successful democratisation and multiculturalism forming processes in Africa could be presented by Zambia. Where are then the limitations and challenges in the process of building a democratic system within the framework of African multiculturalism?

  11. Pathological and molecular diagnosis of the 2013 African swine fever outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, John; Hamambulu, Pharaoh; Simulundu, Edgar; Ogawa, Hirohito; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mori-Kajihara, Akina; Changula-Chitanga, Katendi; Mwase, Max; Mweemba-Muwowo, Mutinta; Chambaro, Herman Moses; Mataa, Liywalii; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Namangala, Bonniface; Fandamu, Paul; Sawa, Hirofumi; Takada, Ayato; Higashi, Hideaki; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe

    2015-02-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic viral disease of domestic pigs. The disease is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and has repeatedly been introduced into other continents. The current study describes the diagnostic investigations of a hemorrhagic disease that was reported in pigs in Lusaka (October 2013), Zambia. Necropsy, histopathology, and molecular diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis confirmed the disease to be ASF. The sequences obtained showed high similarity to previously isolated ASF viruses. Consistent surveillance and rapid diagnosis of the disease is recommended to prevent future outbreaks and economic losses as there is currently no vaccine against the disease.

  12. Doubling the number of health graduates in Zambia: estimating feasibility and costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Joanne

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MoH in Zambia is operating with fewer than half of the human resources for health (HRH necessary to meet basic population health needs. Responding urgently to address this HRH crisis, the MoH plans to double the annual number of health training graduates in the next five years to increase the supply of health workers. The feasibility and costs of achieving this initiative, however, are unclear. Methods We determined the feasibility and costs of doubling training institution output through an individual school assessment framework. Assessment teams, comprised of four staff from the MoH and Clinton Health Access Initiative, visited all of Zambia's 39 public and private health training institutions from 17 April to 19 June 2008. Teams consulted with faculty and managers at each training institution to determine if student enrollment could double within five years; an operational planning exercise carried out with school staff determined the investments and additional operating costs necessary to achieve expansion. Cost assumptions were developed using historical cost data. Results The individual school assessments affirmed the MoH's ability to double the graduate output of Zambia's public health training institutions. Lack of infrastructure was determined as a key bottleneck in achieving this increase while meeting national training quality standards. A total investment of US$ 58.8 million is required to meet expansion infrastructure needs, with US$ 35.0 million (59.5% allocated to expanding student accommodation and US$ 23.8 million (40.5% allocated to expanding teaching, studying, office, and dining space. The national number of teaching staff must increase by 363 (111% increase over the next five years. The additional recurring costs, which include salaries for additional teachers and operating expenses for new students, are estimated at US$ 58.0 million over the five-year scale-up period. Total cost

  13. Pentecostalism and schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia (1996–2001: Listening to the people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Soko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited tradition of mainline churches. Subsequently, Pentecostal or charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC in 1999 and the Bible Gospel Church in Africa (BIGOCA in 2001.

  14. Example of decision support for trypanosomiasis control using a geographical information system in eastern Zambia.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robinson, TP

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available was to eradicate tsetse from the common bullet6 y belt (Jordan 1985)—initially by aerial spraying and, later, using odour-baited, insecticide- impregnated target technology (Vale et al. 1988). The methodology behind this approach to tsetse control... is that targets are progressively deployed to ‘roll back the carpet’ of tsetse. With this objective, a number of target control operations was started in Zambia. In spite of the importance of trypanosomiasis , economic instability and donor- fatigue have lead...

  15. Women's knowledge and attitudes surrounding abortion in Zambia: a cross-sectional survey across three provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Schroeder, Rosalyn; Dennis, Mardieh; Owolabi, Onikepe; Vwalika, Bellington; Musheke, Maurice; Campbell, Oona; Filippi, Veronique

    2016-03-21

    In Zambia, despite a relatively liberal legal framework, there remains a substantial burden of unsafe abortion. Many women do not use skilled providers in a well-equipped setting, even where these are available. The aim of this study was to describe women's knowledge of the law relating to abortion and attitudes towards abortion in Zambia. Community-based survey in Central, Copperbelt and Lusaka provinces. 1484 women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Correct knowledge of the legal grounds for abortion, attitudes towards abortion services and the previous abortions of friends, family or other confidants. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse how knowledge and attitudes varied according to sociodemographic characteristics. Overall, just 16% (95% CI 11% to 21%) of women of reproductive age correctly identified the grounds for which abortion is legal. Only 40% (95% CI 32% to 45% of women of reproductive age knew that abortion was legally permitted in the extreme situation where the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother. Even in urban areas of Lusaka province, only 55% (95% CI 41% to 67%) of women knew that an abortion could legally take place to save the mother's life. Attitudes remain conservative. Women with correct knowledge of abortion law in Zambia tended to have more liberal attitudes towards abortion and access to safe abortion services. Neither correct knowledge of the law nor attitudes towards abortion were associated with knowing someone who previously had an induced abortion. Poor knowledge and conservative attitudes are important obstacles to accessing safe abortion services. Changing knowledge and attitudes can be challenging for policymakers and public health practitioners alike. Zambia could draw on its previous experience in dealing with its large HIV epidemic to learn cross-cutting lessons in effective mass communication on what is a difficult and sensitive issue. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  16. Patterns of mixed Plasmodium species infections among children six years and under in selected malaria hyper-endemic communities of Zambia: population-based survey observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitali, Lungowe; Chipeta, James; Miller, John M; Moonga, Hawela B; Kumar, Nirbhay; Moss, William J; Michelo, Charles

    2015-05-02

    Although malaria is preventable and treatable, it still claims 660,000 lives every year globally with children under five years of age having the highest burden. In Zambia, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that only detect Plasmodium falciparum are the main confirmatory means for malaria diagnosis in most health facilities without microscopy services. As a consequence of this P. falciparum species diagnostic approach, non-falciparum malaria is not only under-diagnosed but entirely missed, thereby making the exact disease burden unknown. We thus investigated the prevalence of various Plasmodium spp. and associated burden of infection in selected communities in Zambia. Data from two malaria hyper-endemic provinces (Eastern and Luapula) of the 2012 National Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS), conducted between April and May 2012, were used. The MIS is a nationally representative, two-stage cluster survey conducted to coincide with the end of the malaria transmission season. Social, behavioural and background information were collected from households as part of the survey. Thick blood smears, RDTs and dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from children below six years of age. Slides were stained using Giemsa and examined by microscopy while polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyse the DBS for malaria Plasmodium spp. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to examine the association between background factors and malaria. Overall, 873 children younger than six years of age were surveyed. The overall prevalence of Plasmodium spp. by PCR was 54.3% (95% CI 51-57.6%). Of the total Plasmodium isolates, 88% were P. falciparum, 10.6% were mixed infections and 1.4% were non-falciparum mono infections. Among the mixed infections, the majority were a combination of P. falciparum and P. malariae (6.5% of all mixed infections). Children two years and older (2-5 years) had three-fold higher risk of mixed malaria infections (aOR 2.8 CI 1.31-5.69) than children

  17. Dry vacuum pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, R.

    2008-05-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R&D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed.

  18. Potential Natural Vegetation Map of Eastern Africa (Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia). Version 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Paulo; Kindt, Roeland; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow;

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map is...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of PrEP in HIV/AIDS control in Zambia: a stochastic league approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, B.E.; Baltussen, R.M.; Dijk, J.H. van; Thuma, P.E.; Nouwen, J.L.; Boucher, C.A.B.; Vijver, D.A. van de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier antiretroviral therapy initiation and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prevent HIV, although at a substantial cost. We use mathematical modeling to compare the cost-effectiveness and economic affordability of antiretroviral-based prevention strategies in rural Macha, Zambia.

  20. Sowing the good seed. The interweaving of agricultural change, gender relations and religion in Serenje District, Zambia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seur, H.

    1992-01-01

    In de periode 1963-64 verrichtte Norman Long onderzoek in een rurale gemeenschap in Chibale Chiefdom, een van de Lala Chiefdoms in Serenje District, Zambia. Zijn onderzoek richtte zich voornamelijk op de analyse van de differentiële reacties van verschillende groepen op veranderende agrarische, soci

  1. Assessment of coalbed gas resources of the Kalahari Basin Province of Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-02-24

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 4.5 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in the Kalahari Basin Province of Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, Africa.

  2. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal helminths in wild and domestic guineafowls (Numida meleagris in the Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Shimumbo Nalubamba

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Syngamus trachea, Streptocara pectinifera and Acuaria spiralis are reported for the first time in domestic poultry in Zambia. This study represents the first comparative study of helminths in domestic and wild guineafowls at an interface area and adds to the knowledge base in a discipline where a dearth currently exists.

  3. Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

  4. Globalising Accessibility: Drawing on the Experiences of Developed Countries to Enable the Participation of Disabled People in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda-Chalwe, Martha; Nitz, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Desleigh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the accessibility situation in a developing country such as Zambia. The global view of accessibility for disabled people is provided to examine the accessibility situation in developed and developing countries, highlighting the role of the environment in achieving rights for disabled people. Recognition of disability rights…

  5. A Library Response to the Massification of Higher Education: The Case of the University of Zambia Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the challenges that libraries in Africa face in responding to massification of higher education by discussing the University of Zambia library's response in library and information resources provision. As a result of massification of higher education, libraries have been forced not only to employ new and different strategies to…

  6. Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

  7. 'Then give him to the crocodiles' : violence, State formation, and cultural discontinuity in west central Zambia, 1600-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the extent to which violence can be said to underlie any form of Stae formation in precolonial Africa. This is done by examining the role of violence in State formation in west central Zambia from the 17th century onwards. The chapter shows that State format

  8. A Qualitative Assessment of the Risk of Introducing Peste des Petits Ruminants into Northern Zambia from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chazya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative risk assessment was performed to evaluate the risk of introducing Peste des petits ruminants virus into northern Zambia from Tanzania via live goat trade. Data was collected during a mission to Tanzania and northern Zambia and also from literature and interviews with experts. The risk of PPRV introduction was evaluated as a function of the probability of hazard (PPRV release, exposure of susceptible hosts, and the consequences of spread using the following parameters: prevalence of infection, volume of trade, C-ELISA and quarantine screening missing an infected animal, PPRV viability (remaining infective in transit, and the virus potential for infection. The magnitude of the consequences was derived from the probability of transmission and spread and the impact of PPRV introduction and establishment. Accordingly, the probability of occurrence of PPRV in northern Zambia from Tanzania was rated as “high” and the economic consequences were also rated as “high.” Finally, the overall risk of introducing PPRV into northern Zambia from Tanzania at the time of the assessment was rated “high.” It was concluded that import of goats and sheep be prohibited until efficient and adequate measures to reduce the risk have been put in place.

  9. An Audit of Skills and Qualifications in Preservation and Conservation Techniques: The Case of the University of Zambia Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameenda, Kimbo Lemmy; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2012-01-01

    This article establishes the level of skills and experience in preservation and conservation management using a case study methodological approach conducted in the 3 university libraries at the University of Zambia. The findings revealed that 20 (57%) of the library staff had not received formal training in preservation and conservation of library…

  10. Grassroot Soccer Resiliency Pilot Program: Building Resiliency through Sport-Based Education in Zambia and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock-Villada, Paola; DeCelles, Jeff; Banda, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    Grassroot Soccer (GRS), a U.S.-based nonprofit organization, designed a curriculum and sport-based teaching model to build resiliency, targeting boys and girls in Lusaka, Zambia, and Johannesburg, South Africa, where most children are reminded daily of the devastation caused by AIDS and where many face chronic and acute hardship. Collaborating…

  11. Airborne and ground-based transient electromagnetic mapping of groundwater salinity in the Machile–Zambezi Basin, southwestern Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Vest Christiansen, Anders; Tembo, Alice;

    2015-01-01

    is an efficient tool for mapping groundwater quality variations and has been used extensively to explore the Kalahari sediments, e.g., in Botswana and Namibia. Recently, airborne and groundbased mapping of groundwater salinity was conducted in the Machile–Zambezi Basin, southwestern Zambia, using the versatile...

  12. Perceptions and Attitudes of Student Teachers and Their Cognitive-Metacognitive Awareness in Mathematics in Colleges of Education in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulendema, Peter; Ndhlovu, Zanzini; Mulenga, H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish perceptions and attitudes of student teachers and their cognitive-metacognitive awareness in mathematics in colleges of education in Zambia. Although there has been abundant research into perceptions, attitudes and cognitive-metacognitive awareness in teacher education, relatively little research has…

  13. Factors Associated with School Teachers' Perceived Needs and Level of Adoption of HIV Prevention Education in Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Margaret; Chi, Chunheui; Khanna, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the socio-cultural variables that may influence teachers' adoption of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education within the school setting and among school types in Zambia's Lusaka Province. Method: Mixed methods were used to collect original data. Using semi-structured interviews (n=11) and a survey…

  14. Sowing the good seed : the interweaving of agricultural change, gender relations and religion in Serenje District, Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seur, H.

    1992-01-01

    In de periode 1963-64 verrichtte Norman Long onderzoek in een rurale gemeenschap in Chibale Chiefdom, een van de Lala Chiefdoms in Serenje District, Zambia. Zijn onderzoek richtte zich voornamelijk op de analyse van de differentiële reacties van verschillende groepen op veranderende

  15. A Qualitative Study of Migrant-related Stressors, Psychosocial Outcomes and HIV Risk Behavior among Truck Drivers in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Nomagugu; Simona, Simona J.; Kansankala, Brian; Sinkala, Emmanuel; Raidoo, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Truck drivers are part of mobile populations which have been noted as a key population at risk of HIV in Zambia. This study was aimed at 1) determining Potentially Traumatic Events (PTEs), labor migrant-related stressors, psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviors among truck drivers in Zambia and 2) examining the relationship between PTEs, migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behavior among truck drivers in Zambia. We conducted fifteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled male truck drivers at trucking companies in Lusaka, Zambia. Findings indicate that truck drivers experience multiple stressors and potentially traumatic incidences, including delays and long waiting hours at borders, exposure to crime and violence, poverty, stress related to resisting temptation of sexual interactions with sex workers or migrant women, and job-related safety concerns. Multiple psychosocial problems such as intimate partner violence, loneliness, anxiety and depression-like symptoms were noted. Transactional sex, coupled with inconsistent condom use were identified as HIV sexual risk behaviors. Findings suggest the critical need to develop HIV prevention interventions which account for mobility, potentially traumatic events, psychosocial problems, and the extreme fear of HIV testing among this key population. PMID:27681145

  16. Effects of the Gama Cuulu radio serial drama on HIV-related behavior change in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Joan Marie; Hill, Zelee; Membe, Ian; Zhang, Yujia; Meassick, Elizabeth Onjoro; Monsour, Michael; Maumbi, Mwendalubi; Ndubani, Phillimon; Manengu, Joy Masheke; Mwinga, Alwyn

    2012-01-01

    The Gama Cuulu radio serial drama is written and produced in Zambia's Southern Province. It promotes behavior change and service use to prevent HIV transmission. The authors evaluated the effects of Gama Cuulu on intermediate outcomes (e.g., perceived norms), as well as number of sexual partners, condom use, and HIV testing in the past year among adults between 18 and 49 years of age. The authors used a pretest/posttest assessment with a comparison group design, with Southern Province as the intervention area and Western Province as the comparison area. Approximately 1,500 in-person interviews were conducted in both provinces in 2006 (pretest), 2007, and 2008. Regression models included terms for province, time, and the interaction of the two. Outcomes improved in both provinces (e.g., by 2008, 37.6% of participants in Southern Province and 28.3% participants in Western Province tested for HIV in the past year). Pretest-to-posttest changes in condom use (from 20.2% to 29.4% in Southern Province) and 5 intermediate outcomes were significantly different in the 2 provinces. However, changes in condom use were not associated with listening to Gama Cuulu and changes in other outcomes were similar in both provinces. Weak intervention effects might be attributable to implementation challenges or the saturation of HIV programs in Zambia.

  17. Is green economy achievable through championing green growth? A local government experience from Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiri Rodgers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The need to enhance environmental sustainability, sustainable development and growth that takes into account the well-being of the people and nature because of the increased production and consumption of goods and services is the major driver to the introduction of green economy in Zambia and countries in southern Africa. This article examines the extent to which local government in Zambia has embraced green growth and green economy and critically analyses the concept of green economy and green growth. This study is based on a review of planning and policy documents, a household questionnaire survey and interviews with various institutions, planners and rural development organisations. A number of policies implemented at the local government level were analysed and reflected upon irrespective of whether they contain the components of green growth and green economy and the extent to which they contribute to attaining green economy. The article argues that the need for economic diversification is important as far as green economy is concerned. The article recommends the need to invest in research and development in order to find more carbon-free economic activities. The conclusion is that local government is key to achieving green growth and green economy, because it is involved at all levels, from policy formulation to implementation.

  18. Availability and distribution of, and geographic access to emergency obstetric care in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrysch, Sabine; Simushi, Virginia; Campbell, Oona M R

    2011-08-01

    To assess the availability and coverage of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in Zambia. Reported provision of EmOC signal functions in the Zambian Health Facility Census and additional criteria on staffing, opening hours, and referral capacity were used to classify all Zambian health facilities as providing comprehensive EmOC, basic EmOC, or more limited care. Geographic accessibility of EmOC services was estimated by linking health facility data with data from the Zambian population census. Few Zambian health facilities provided all basic EmOC signal functions and had qualified health professionals available on a 24-hour basis. Of the 1131 Zambian delivery facilities, 135 (12%) were classified as providing EmOC. Zambia nearly met the UN EmOC density benchmarks nationally, but EmOC facilities and health professionals were unevenly distributed between provinces. Geographic access to EmOC services in rural areas was low; in most provinces, less than 25% of the population lived within 15 km of an EmOC facility. A national Health Facility Census with geographic information is a valuable tool for assessing service availability and coverage at national and subnational levels. Simultaneously assessing health worker density and geographic access adds crucial information. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards improving hospital performance in Uganda and Zambia: reflections and opportunities for autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kara; Atuyambe, Lynn; Kamwanga, Jolly; McPake, Barbara; Mungule, Oswald; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2002-07-01

    Hospitals have been relatively neglected although their high resource consumption implies that gains from improving the services they deliver may be substantial. Nevertheless, the challenges posed by hospital reforms are great. Hospital autonomy usually consists of both decentralisation, and a greater measure of exposure to market forces. In Uganda and Zambia, more traditional 'decentralisation' of authority to district level authorities includes district hospitals; and some measure of 'autonomy' (known as 'self-accounting status' in Uganda) has been applied to some or all second and third level referral hospitals. The hospital policies pursued in both countries present opportunities to tackle their hospital sectors. In Zambia, purchasing of services means that new incentives and policy mechanisms can come into play. Little advantage has been taken of these opportunities to date. In Uganda, there is no financial link between districts and higher levels of the system, but decentralisation of control over personnel is more advanced. These two components--the alignment of incentives (to promote access and quality for those intended to be covered by the public budget) and the effective decentralisation of control over key resources--seem to us the key tools to address the stubborn problems of hospitals.

  20. Strengthening and expanding the capacity of health worker education in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelo, Charles; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Simuyemba, Moses; Andrews, Benjamin; Katubulushi, Max; Chi, Benjamin; Njelesani, Evariste; Vwalika, Bellington; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Chipeta, James; Goma, Fastone; Nzala, Selestine; Banda, Sekelani; Mudenda, John; Ahmed, Yusuf; Hachambwa, Lotti; Wilson, Craig; Vermund, Sten; Mulla, Yakub

    2017-01-01

    Zambia is facing a chronic shortage of health care workers. The paper aimed at understanding how the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) program facilitated strengthening and expanding of the national capacity and quality of medical education as well as processes for retaining faculty in Zambia. Data generated through documentary review, key informant interviews and observations were analyzed using a thematic approach. The MEPI program triggered the development of new postgraduate programs thereby increasing student enrollment. This was achieved by leveraging of existing and new partnerships with other universities and differentiating the old Master in Public Health into specialized curriculum. Furthermore, the MEPI program improved the capacity and quality of training by facilitating installation and integration of new technology such as the eGranary digital library, E-learning methods and clinical skills laboratory into the Schools. This technology enabled easy access to relevant data or information, quicker turn around of experiments and enhanced data recording, display and analysis features for experiments. The program also facilitated transforming of the academic environment into a more conducive work place through strengthening the Staff Development program and support towards research activities. These activities stimulated work motivation and interest in research by faculty. Meanwhile, these processes were inhibited by the inability to upload all courses on to Moodle as well as inadequate operating procedures and feedback mechanisms for the Moodle. Expansion and improvement in training processes for health care workers requires targeted investment within medical institutions and strengthening local and international partnerships.

  1. School effects on non-verbal intelligence and nutritional status in rural Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3rd to 7th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and 75.9% of the between-school differences in NI and BMI, respectively. Grade-specific HLM yielded higher between-school variation of NI (41%) and BMI (14.6%) for students in grade 3 compared to grades 4 to 7. School factors showed a differential pattern of associations with NI and BMI across grades. The distance to a health post and teacher’s teaching experience were the strongest predictors of NI (particularly in grades 4, 6 and 7); the presence of a preschool was linked to lower BMI in grades 4 to 6. Implications for improving access and quality of education in rural Zambia are discussed. PMID:27175053

  2. Factors Influencing the Identification of Sustainable Opportunities by SMEs: Empirical Evidence from Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Progress Choongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 to examine the factors influencing the identification of sustainable opportunities among SMEs in a developing country, Zambia. The factors under investigation include knowledge of the natural/social environment, perception of threats to the natural/social environment, altruism towards others and entrepreneurial knowledge. We interviewed 220 owner-managers in the trading and service sector who supply goods and services to the mining industry in Zambia. We found that altruism towards others was partially supported by our empirical results while the positive effects of knowledge of the natural/social environment and perception of threats to the natural/social environment on the identification of sustainable opportunities were not supported. Contrary to our expectations, entrepreneurial knowledge does not positively moderate the relationship between explanatory variables and the identification of sustainable opportunities. In sum, we found only limited empirical support for the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 concerning the identification of sustainable opportunities. Our findings contribute to literature on entrepreneurship and sustainable opportunity identification by showing what factors influence the identification of sustainable opportunities. This can help us to create awareness among entrepreneurs regarding the effects of entrepreneurial activities on the environment and society; consequently, stimulating entrepreneurs to identify sustainable opportunities.

  3. The relationship between relative deprivation and adult nutritional status in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    To explore statistically the relationship between adult short-run nutritional status [body mass index (BMI)] and a measure of relative deprivation [subjective socioeconomic status (SES)] using panel data collected in a developing country where there is a high degree of poverty and a very uneven distribution of income. Study participants included men and women from a random sample of households located in a rural setting in Zambia. The data were collected during two waves of survey interviews in 2009. A multilevel model was used to estimate the relationship between subjective SES and adult BMI and controlled for individual absolute income as well as other correlates of adult health. The sample size included 254 observations. A positive relationship was established between individual absolute income and adult BMI at the 1% level. A negative and statistically significant association was found at the 1% level between lower subjective SES and adult BMI. Lower perception of place within the socioeconomic hierarchy was on average associated with a 0.44 decrease in adult BMI. This study found that, independent of individual absolute income, lower subjective SES was negatively related with adult BMI in rural Zambia. The result provides evidence that lower perception of place within the local socioeconomic hierarchy matters to health. Future studies should continue exploring the relationship between subjective and objective measures of relative deprivation and health in developing countries, where the bulk of the research focuses on material not relative deprivation as a key determinant of individual health. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections in HIV-positive women in urban Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L Alcaide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs remain an important public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. STIs in HIV-positive women are associated not only with gynecological complications but with increased risk of HIV transmission to HIV-negative partners and newborns. Aims: The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of chlamydia (CT and gonorrhea (GC and examine the demographic characteristics and risk behaviors associated with these STIs in a group of HIV-positive women in Lusaka, Zambia. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study of a sample of HIV-infected women enrolled in two large studies conducted in urban Lusaka, Zambia. Materials and Methods: HIV-seropositive women (n = 292 were assessed for demographic and behavioral risk factors and tested for CT and GC. Univariate analysis was used to determine the demographic characteristics and risk behaviors associated with having CT or GC. Results: The identified prevalence of CT was 1% and of GC was 1.4%. There was an association of CT/GC with the use of alcohol before sex (OR = 9.I, CI = 0.59-0.15, P = 0.03. Conclusions: Rates of CT and GC are described in this sample of HIV-positive women. While being in HIV care may serve to increase medical care and condom use, alcohol use should be addressed in this population.

  5. Perceived needs of caregivers of stroke patients’ receiving out-patient physiotherapy treatment in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Khondowe

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers of stroke patients have needs that should be addressed. The aim of this study was to gain information regarding the expressed needs of informal caregivers of stroke patients who are receiving out-patient physiotherapy treatment at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. A qualitative study, using indepth interviews, was carried out to collect data regarding the needs of these caregivers. Ten caregivers formed the study sample. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed into themes that emerged from the data. Five themes relating to the needs of the care-givers emerged following the analysis of the data. These included: the lack of information regarding stroke; the need for skills training to enable the caregiver to assist the patient at home; the need for financial support; a need for home-based therapy and the need for physical assistance when caring for patients at home. The caregivers of patients need more information regarding strokes as well as a community-based rather than an institution-based approach to rehabilitation.  Rehabilitation professionals in Zambia could use the information gained from this study to implement rehabilitation programmes, which wouldaddress the needs of caregivers in that country

  6. Clinical and ultrasonographic features of abdominal tuberculosis in HIV positive adults in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermund Sten H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB is difficult, especially so in health care facilities in developing countries where laparoscopy and colonoscopy are rarely available. There is little information on abdominal TB in HIV infection. We estimated the prevalence and clinical features of abdominal (excluding genitourinary TB in HIV infected adults attending the University Teaching Hospital, Zambia. Methods We screened 5,609 medical inpatients, and those with fever, weight loss, and clinical features suggestive of abdominal pathology were evaluated further. A clinical algorithm was used to specify definitive investigations including laparoscopy or colonoscopy, with culture of biopsies and other samples. Results Of 140 HIV seropositive patients with these features, 31 patients underwent full evaluation and 22 (71% had definite or probable abdominal TB. The commonest presenting abdominal features were ascites and persistent tenderness. The commonest ultrasound findings were ascites, para-aortic lymphadenopathy (over 1 cm in size, and hepatomegaly. Abdominal TB was associated with CD4 cell counts over a wide range though 76% had CD4 counts Conclusion The clinical manifestations of abdominal TB in our HIV-infected patients resembled the well-established pattern in HIV-uninfected adults. Patients with fever, weight loss, abdominal tenderness, abdominal lymphadenopathy, ascites and/or hepatomegaly in Zambia have a high probability of abdominal TB, irrespective of CD4 cell count.

  7. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  8. Underutilisation of routinely collected data in the HIV programme in Zambia: a review of quantitatively analysed peer-reviewed articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Tendai; Musonda, Patrick; Mee, Paul; Gumede, Sehlulekile; Schaap, Ab; Mwinga, Alwyn; Phiri, Caroline; Kapata, Nathan; Michelo, Charles; Todd, Jim

    2017-06-13

    The extent to which routinely collected HIV data from Zambia has been used in peer-reviewed published articles remains unexplored. This paper is an analysis of peer-reviewed articles that utilised routinely collected HIV data from Zambia within six programme areas from 2004 to 2014. Articles on HIV, published in English, listed in the Directory of open access journals, African Journals Online, Google scholar, and PubMed were reviewed. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals, that utilised routinely collected data and included quantitative data analysis methods were included. Multi-country studies involving Zambia and another country, where the specific results for Zambia were not reported, as well as clinical trials and intervention studies that did not take place under routine care conditions were excluded, although community trials which referred patients to the routine clinics were included. Independent extraction was conducted using a predesigned data collection form. Pooled analysis was not possible due to diversity in topics reviewed. A total of 69 articles were extracted for review. Of these, 7 were excluded. From the 62 articles reviewed, 39 focused on HIV treatment and retention in care, 15 addressed prevention of mother-to-child transmission, 4 assessed social behavioural change, and 4 reported on voluntary counselling and testing. In our search, no articles were found on condom programming or voluntary male medical circumcision. The most common outcome measures reported were CD4+ count, clinical failure or mortality. The population analysed was children in 13 articles, women in 16 articles, and both adult men and women in 33 articles. During the 10 year period of review, only 62 articles were published analysing routinely collected HIV data in Zambia. Serious consideration needs to be made to maximise the utility of routinely collected data, and to benefit from the funds and efforts to collect these data. This could be achieved with government support

  9. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  10. Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Dynamics: Vietnam DRI Robert Pinkel Marine Physical Laboratory Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla California 92093-0213 Phone: (858) 534...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...cycle.. The Thorpe-scale estimates are local to Site III. South China Sea Process Cruise 2014 Under Vietnam DRI funding, Researcher Drew Lucas

  11. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  12. Increased uptake of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnant women in Zambia (2006–2012: Potential determinants and highlight of lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Masaninga

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Zambia has increased IPTp uptake through ANC for all women. The malaria control program has contributed to increasing access to health services and reducing demographic and socioeconomic disparities.

  13. Formation of secondary hematite and its role in attenuation of contaminants at mine tailings: review and comparison of sites in Zambia and Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Sracek eOndra

    2015-01-01

    Mine tailings in African countries Zambia and Namibia have been investigated with an objective to determine the role of secondary hematite in immobilization of contaminants. Two sites, Chambishi and Mindolo, are located in the Copperbelt in Zambia with relatively humid climates and two sites, Berg Aukas and Kombat, are in Namibia, where the climate is semiarid. At the Chambishi site which is about 40 years old, a hardpan composed of hematite and gypsum has formed at a depth of about 60 cm and...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  15. Dry imaging cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I K Indrajit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow.

  16. Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15-24 years in Zambia: an in-depth analysis of the 2001-2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembo, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001-2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p=.000) and 5.9% (p=.001) respectively, between 2001-2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p=.029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p=.000) and 1.4% (p=.000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (-4.5%), premarital sex (-2.6%), sex before age 18 (-2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (-1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the

  17. Moving from legality to reality: how medical abortion methods were introduced with implementation science in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh; Djemo, Patrick; Vwallika, Bellington; Mupeta, Stephen

    2017-02-16

    Although abortion is technically legal in Zambia, the reality is far more complicated. This study describes the process and results of galvanizing access to medical abortion where abortion has been legal for many years, but provision severely limited. It highlights the challenges and successes of scaling up abortion care using implementation science to document 2 years of implementation. An intervention between the Ministry of Health, University Teaching Hospital and the international organization Ipas, was established to introduce medical abortion and to address the lack of understanding and implementation of the country's abortion law. An implementation science model was used to evaluate effectiveness and glean lessons for other countries about bringing safe and legal abortion services to scale. The intervention involved the provision of Comprehensive Abortion Care services in 28 public health facilities in Zambia for a 2 year period, August 2009 to September 2011. The study focused on three main areas: building health worker capacity in public facilities and introducing medical abortion, working with pharmacists to provide improved information on medical abortion, and community engagement and mobilization to increase knowledge of abortion services and rights through stronger health system and community partnerships. After 2 years, 25 of 28 sites provided abortion services, caring for more than 13,000 women during the intervention. For the first time, abortion was decentralized, 19% of all abortion care was performed in health centers. At the end of the intervention, all providing facilities had managers supportive of continuing legal abortion services. When asked about the impact of medical abortion provision, a number of providers reported that medical abortion improved their ability to provide affordable safe abortion. In neighboring pharmacies only 19% of mystery clients visiting them were offered misoprostol for purchase at baseline, this increased to 47

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease control in Zambia: A review of the current situation

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    Yona Sinkala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD and contagious bovine pleura pneumonia (CBPP. Foot-and-mouth disease was first recorded in Zambia in 1933 in the Western Province and since then the country has experienced repeated outbreaks. Bearing in mind the pressure that may be existing on the many risk factors for FMD including climate change, there is need to review our knowledge on FMD control. We present the spatial distribution of the FMD outbreaks that have been recorded in Zambia in the last twenty years, and the effect of the vaccinations and movement control that have been applied. We propose further strain characterisation of previous FMD outbreaks, including full sequence of VP1 gene and the 5’UTR site. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor attributes. We also present preliminary findings of the buffalo and cattle probang sampling that was conducted in Lochnivar and Kafue National Park. We further probang sampled 25 buffalo at each interface area in Sioma Ngwezi, Lukusuzi and Lower Zambezi national parks. Villages in close proximity to the buffalo populations as well as those not in close proximity will be multistage cluster sampled for comparison. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV characterisation attributes. Data collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire will be geo-coded and populated with identified risk factors and stored in a database and will be spatially modelled to determine their effect on FMD occurrence and control measures. New outbreaks of FMD that may occur will be investigated to find out if there are new strains involved, species affected and predisposing risk factors.The authors conclude that impacts of FMD on livelihoods if appropriate control measures are not put in place are far more devastating especially at community level

  19. Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Aisling

    2010-09-17

    Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV\\/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses\\/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV\\/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non

  20. Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis

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    Simbaya Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural, to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of

  1. Challenges of implementing the integrated disease surveillance and response strategy in Zambia: a health worker perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandyata, Chomba Brian; Olowski, Linda Kampata; Mutale, Wilbroad

    2017-09-26

    Despite advances in medical technology and public health practice at the global level over the past millennia, infectious diseases are still the leading causes of death in most resource limited countries. Stronger infectious disease surveillance and response systems in developed countries facilitated the near elimination of infectious disease related deaths in those countries. Today, low-income countries are following this path by strengthening disease surveillance and response strategies that would help reverse the trend in infectious disease associated morbidity and mortality cases. In 2000, Zambia adopted the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Africa's (WHO-AFRO) Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response Strategy (IDSR) to monitor, prevent and control priority notifiable infectious diseases in the country. Through this strategy, activities pertaining to disease surveillance are coordinated and streamlined to take advantage of similar surveillance functions, skills, resources and targeted populations. The purpose of the study was to investigate and report on the existing challenges in the implementation of the IDSR strategy in a resource limited country from a health worker perspective. A qualitative study approach was used to achieve the study aim. Data was collected through key informant interviews with selected persons at the Lusaka Province Health Office (LPHO); Lusaka and Chongwe District Health Management Team Offices; and four selected health facilities in the two districts (two from each). Thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. The major successes included operationalised response and epidemic preparedness at all levels (National to district); full-time staff and budget dedicated to disease surveillance at all levels and adoption of the 2010 World Health Organisations' Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response Strategy technical guidelines to the Zambian context. Several challenges hampered effective

  2. Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Aisling; Ndubani, Phillimon; Simbaya, Joseph; Dicker, Patrick; Brugha, Ruairí

    2010-09-17

    Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant

  3. The individual level cost of pregnancy termination in Zambia: a comparison of safe and unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Parmar, Divya; Vwalika, Bellington

    2016-09-01

    Zambia has one of the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa. However, rates of unsafe abortion remain high with negative health and economic consequences. Little is known about the economic burden on women of abortion care-seeking in low income countries. The majority of studies focus on direct costs (e.g. hospital fees). This article estimates the individual-level economic burden of safe and unsafe abortion care-seeking in Zambia, incorporating all indirect and direct costs. It uses data collected in 2013 from a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, (n = 112) with women who had an abortion. Three treatment routes are identified: (1) safe abortion at the hospital, (2) unsafe clandestine medical abortion initiated elsewhere with post-abortion care at the hospital and (3) unsafe abortion initiated elsewhere with post-abortion care at the hospital. Based on these three typologies, we use descriptive analysis and linear regression to estimate the costs for women of seeking safe and unsafe abortion and to establish whether the burden of abortion care-seeking costs is equally distributed across the sample. Around 39% of women had an unsafe abortion, incurring substantial economic costs before seeking post-abortion care. Adolescents and poorer women are more likely to use unsafe abortion. Unsafe abortion requiring post-abortion care costs women 27% more than a safe abortion. When accounting for uncertainty this figure increases dramatically. For safe and unsafe abortions, unofficial provider payments represent a major cost to women.This study demonstrates that despite a liberal legislation, Zambia still needs better dissemination of the law to women and providers and resources to ensure abortion service access. The policy implications of this study include: the role of pharmacists and mid-level providers in the provision of medical abortion services; increased access to contraception, especially for adolescents; and elimination of demands for unofficial provider

  4. From project aid to sustainable HIV services: a case study from Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torpey Kwasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustainable service delivery is a major challenge in the HIV response that is often not adequately addressed in project implementation. Sustainable strategies must be built into project design and implementation to enable HIV efforts to continue long after donor-supported projects are completed. Case description This paper presents the experiences in operational sustainability of Family Health International's Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership in Zambia, which is supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through United States Agency for International Development (October 2004 to September 2009. The partnership worked with Zambia's Ministry of Health to scale up HIV clinical services in five of the country's nine provinces, reaching 35 districts and 219 facilities. It provided technical and financial support from within the ministry's systems and structures. By completion of the project, 10 of the 35 districts had graduated beyond receiving ongoing technical support. Discussion and evaluation By working within the ministry's policies, structures and systems, the partnership was able to increase the ministry's capacity to add a comprehensive HIV service delivery component to its health services. Ministry structures were improved through renovations of health facilities, training of healthcare workers, procurement of essential equipment, and establishment of a quality assurance plan to ensure continued quality of care. The quality assurance tools were implemented by both the ministry and project staff as the foundation for technical graduation. Facilities that met all the quality criteria for more than six months were graduated from project technical support, as were districts where most supported facilities met the criteria. The district health offices then provided ongoing supervision of services. This predetermined "graduation" exit strategy, with buy in of the provincial and district

  5. Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: insights from Zambia.

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    Peter A Lindsey

    Full Text Available Many African protected areas (PAs are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment

  6. A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia

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    Hawela Moonga

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malaria. Despite the acclaimed therapeutic advantages of ACTs over monotherapies with SP and CQ, the cost of ACTs is much greater, raising concerns about affordability in many poor countries such as Zambia. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether-lumefantrine, a version of ACTs adopted in Zambia in mid 2004. Methods Using data gathered from patients presenting at public health facilities with suspected malaria, the costs and effects of using ACTs versus SP as first-line treatment for malaria were estimated. The study was conducted in six district sites. Treatment success and reduction in demand for second line treatment constituted the main effectiveness outcomes. The study gathered data on the efficacy of, and compliance to, AL and SP treatment from a random sample of patients. Costs are based on estimated drug, labour, operational and capital inputs. Drug costs were based on dosages and unit prices provided by the Ministry of Health and the manufacturer (Norvatis. Findings The results suggest that AL produces successful treatment at less cost than SP, implying that AL is more cost-effective. While it is acknowledged that implementing national ACT program will require considerable resources, the study demonstrates that the health gains (treatment success from every dollar spent are significantly greater if AL is used rather than SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated to be US$4.10. When the costs of second line

  7. Satisfaction of clients with disabilities with services offered at primary health care centres in Ndola, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mlenzana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To establish satisfaction level of persons with disabilitiesregarding health services at primary health care centres in Ndola, Zambia.Key stakeholders views on satisfaction of services is an important componentof service rendering thus obtaining information is important in assistingwith the evaluation of health care service delivery. This will assist in improvingeffectiveness and availability of health care services to persons with physicaldisabilities.All persons with disabilities attending both rehabilitation centres andprimary health care centres in Ndola, Zambia, were targeted for this study. Willing participants were convenientlyselected to take part in the study.A cross sectional, descriptive study design using quantitative methods of data collection was used. The GeneralPractice Assessment Questionnaire was adjusted, piloted for Ndola population and used in this study to establishsatisfaction of participants. The study was ethically cleared at the University of the Western Cape and Zambia.Information and consent forms were signed by participants.Quantitative data was analysed descriptively and was reported in percentages.In the current study there were 191 participants of whom 56% were male and 44% were female with age rangefrom 18-65 years. Fifty-two percent of the participants presented with learning disabilities and 38% of persons withphysical disabilities. Majority of clients (54% were dissatisfied with availability of services and health care servicesat the health care centres. Areas that clients were dissatisfied with were accessibility, consultation with health professionals,waiting times and opening hours of the health care centres.Clients with disabilities who accessed health care services from selected health centres in Ndola were dissatisfiedwith aspects of health services. Accessibility, consultation with health professionals, waiting times and opening hoursof the health care centres were the origin of client dissatisfaction

  8. Responding to non-communicable diseases in Zambia: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukanu, Mulenga M; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Mweemba, Chrispin; Mutale, Wilbroad

    2017-04-24

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are an emerging global health concern. Reports have shown that, in Zambia, NCDs are also an emerging problem and the government has begun initiating a policy response. The present study explores the policy response to NCDs by the Ministry of Health in Zambia using the policy triangle framework of Walt and Gilson. A qualitative approach was used for the study. Data collected through key informant interviews with stakeholders who were involved in the NCD health policy development process as well as review of key planning and policy documents were analysed using thematic analysis. The government's policy response was as a result of international strategies from WHO, evidence of increasing disease burden from NCDs and pressure from interest groups. The government developed the NCD strategic plan based on the WHO Global Action Plan for NCDs 2013-2030. Development of the NCD strategic plan was driven by the government through the Ministry of Health, who set the agenda and adopted the final document. Stakeholders participated in the fine tuning of the draft document from the Ministry of Health. The policy development process was lengthy and this affected consistency in composition of the stakeholders and policy development momentum. Lack of representative research evidence for some prioritised NCDs and use of generic targets and indicators resulted in the NCD strategic plan being inadequate for the Zambian context. The interventions in the strategic plan also underutilised the potential of preventing NCDs through health education. Recent government pronouncements were also seen to be conflicting the risk factor reduction strategies outlined in the NCD strategic plan. The content of the NCD strategic plan inadequately covered all the major NCDs in Zambia. Although contextual factors like international strategies and commitments are crucial catalysts to policy development, there is need for domestication of international guidelines and

  9. The spatial distribution of health resources within countries and communities: examples from India and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, R; Izhar, N

    1986-01-01

    "Between one country and another, one province and another and even one locality and another there will always exist a certain inequality in the conditions of life, which it will be possible to reduce to a minimum but never entirely remove", Friedrich Engels, 1875, Quoted from D. M. Smith's Where the Grass is Greener; Geographical Perspectives on Inequality. London, 1979. And it is true that there are wide disparities in the availability of welfare facilities including health at international, national, regional and inter-regional levels. At the same time such disparities are increasing over time. In terms of spatial distribution, not only the developing world but even developed countries such as the U.S.A. and the United Kingdom, face problems resulting from wide imbalances in the provision of welfare facilities. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study inequalities in the distribution of health facilities in India and Zambia.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in frugivorous Eidolon helvum bats in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleya, Walter; Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Nakagawa, Emiko; Ogawa, Hirohito; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Namangala, Boniface; Mweene, Aaron; Takada, Ayato; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we describe the detection of novel paramyxoviruses from the Eidolon helvum species of fruit bats. We extracted RNA from 312 spleen samples from bats captured in Zambia over a period of 4 years (2008-2011). Semi-nested RT-PCR detected a total of 25 (8%) positive samples for paramyxoviruses which were then directly sequenced and analyzed using phylogenetic analysis. Among the positive samples, seven novel paramyxoviruses were detected. Five viruses were closely related to the genus Henipavirus, while two viruses were related to the unclassified Bat paramyxoviruses from Ghana and Congo Brazzaville. Our study identified novel Henipavirus-related and unrelated viruses using RT-PCR in fruit bats from Kansaka National Park and indicated the presence of similar Bat paramyxoviruses originating from wide geographic areas, suggesting the ability of bats to harbor and transmit viruses. The presence of these viruses in fruit bats might pose a public health risk.

  11. Molecular surveillance and phylogenetic analysis of Old World arenaviruses in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Moonga, Ladslav; Nakamura, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Aiko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2012-10-01

    In order to survey arenaviruses in the Republic of Zambia, we captured 335 rodents from three cities between 2010 and 2011. Eighteen Luna virus (LUNV) and one lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-related virus RNAs were detected by one-step RT-PCR from Mastomys natalensis and Mus minutoides, respectively. Four LUNV strains and one LCMV-related virus were isolated, and the whole genome nucleotide sequence was determined by pyrosequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the LUNV clade consists of two branches that are distinguished by geographical location and that the LCMV-related virus belongs to the LCMV clade, but diverges from the typical LCMVs. Comparison of nucleoprotein amino acid sequences indicated that the LCMV-related virus could be designated a novel arenavirus, which was tentatively named as the Lunk virus. Amino acid sequences of the GP, NP, Z and L proteins showed poor similarity among the three Zambian arenavirus strains, i.e. Luna, Lunk and Lujo virus.

  12. Multi-reassortant G3P[3] group A rotavirus in a horseshoe bat in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Satoko; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Ishii, Akihiro; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2016-10-01

    Group A rotavirus is a major cause of diarrhoea in humans, especially in young children. Bats also harbour group A rotaviruses, but the genetic backgrounds of bat rotavirus strains are usually distinct from those of human rotavirus strains. We identified a new strain of group A rotavirus in the intestinal contents of a horseshoe bat in Zambia. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the identified virus, named RVA/Bat-wt/ZMB/LUS12-14/2012/G3P[3], possessed the genotype constellation G3-P[3]-I3-R2-C2-M3-A9-N2-T3-E2-H3. Several genome segments of LUS12-14 were highly similar to those of group A rotaviruses identified from humans, cows and antelopes, indicating interspecies transmission of rotaviruses between bats and other mammals with possible multiple genomic reassortment events.

  13. Should I stay or should I go? Rural youth employment in Uganda and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    resilient livelihood than a single enterprise strategy. The importance of an enabling environment, personal skills and favourable market conditions are also highlighted. The question of whether young people remain in or leave rural areas is shown to vary between the Ugandan and Zambian contexts. In Uganda......This paper discusses the employment strategies of young people in selected rural areas of Zambia and Uganda, with a focus on the opportunities and constraints that they face. It investigates mobility patterns to determine what motivates some youth to stay, while others choose to migrate to urban...... areas. Quantitative and qualitative data are drawn on to analyse the role of exogenous and endogenous support for young entrepreneurs. The findings indicate that agriculture plays a major role as a source of livelihood for rural youth and, in combination with other economic activities, provides a more...

  14. Field and office instructions in stream gauging for the Hydrological Survey of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L.E.

    1971-01-01

    The importance of water to the basic needs of man is self- evident and needs no particular emphasis. The importance of water to a developing economy cannot be overemphasized. A few decades ago, hydrology was a division of hydraulic engineering and was a tool for project survey, plan, and design. Today hydrology still remains an important part of planning and management of water use projects, but it is imperative that surface and ground-water basic data networks be designed and operated from the standpoint of both present and future water needs. Water problems are ever increasing and ever changing and preparation for the future water demands of Zambia requires knowledge of the hydrology of the country instead of the examination of piecemeal samples for each water use project. The hydrologic survey of Zambia needs to be under the guidance of competent and imaginative hydrologists solidly trained in all elements of basic data collection and analysis and not in the hands of water project planners. Hydrology is a science which requires the highest order of teamwork and the hydrologist will need the help and advice of many employees within the organization to operate the network, provide adequate research, and examine the water needs of the country. It must be thoroughly understood that communication is essential between the hydrological survey and water project planners from both the government and private sectors. It is very important to define the aims and duties of the Hydrological Branch of the Water Affairs Department in a clear cut "Statement of Policy". Personal copies of the statement should be made available to all professional employees and technicians. The reasons for the existence of the Branch may be self-apparent to heads of the organization, but to all other employees the reasons may be vague and unknown. Every member of the technical and administrative staff would benefit by an understanding of the purpose of his work. Nebulous ideas of the function of a

  15. Un/doing Gender? a Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-11-01

    This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry out cleaning tasks generally viewed as "women's work". Observations, interviews, student diaries and surveys from this school and from government schools provide the basis for a comparison, indicating how the former strives to interrupt the transmission of gender inequalities as well as how students respond to these practices. The findings suggest that the pedagogical practices deployed by this school have generally succeeded in destabilising norms of gender subordination and gender-based violence, though the replicability of these practices is interrogated given broader questions about the country's public resources and political will.

  16. Transdisciplinary Project Communication and Knowledge Sharing Experiences in Tanzania and Zambia through a One Health Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnol, Brigitte; Clarke, Elizabeth; Li, Mu; Maulaga, Wende; Lumbwe, Hilda; McConchie, Robyn; de Bruyn, Julia; Alders, Robyn Gwen

    2016-01-01

    The project "Strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia" brings together animal, crop, and human health specialists, economists, ecologists, social scientists, and practitioners to work with participating communities. It aims to increase poultry value chain, crop farming systems efficiency, and household food and nutrition security and thus requires understanding of, and ability to work effectively within, complex systems. In this context, communication knowledge sharing and synthesis between stakeholders from diverse backgrounds and a range of experiences, perspectives, agendas, and knowledge is a challenge. To address this situation, communication is conceived as a dialog and a participatory process bringing together all stakeholders. This process results in unanticipated and unexpected results that require a high degree of flexibility and adaptability from team members. The paper analyses the approach and aim of the communication strategy developed for the project and the challenges faced.

  17. Rural youth in northern Zambia: straddling the rural-urban divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    reported for sub-Saharan Africa, young people are increasingly turning their backs on agriculture, seeing it as an occupation that is back-breaking and only fit for old people (FAO, 2014). The aim of this chapter is to explore the livelihood strategies and aspirations of young people living in a rural area......The Northern Province of Zambia – one of the poorest in the country – is physically and psychologically located far from the capital of Lusaka in the south. The province is dominated by vast areas of woodland (miombo) with inherently low soil fertility and a relatively low population density...... how, contrary to the trend in much of sub-Saharan Africa, many young people are choosing to stay in their rural villages and engage in farming. This is partly due to the availability of land and government programmes that have been introduced to stimulate agriculture. Increasingly, however, young...

  18. Risk reduction among HIV-seroconcordant and -discordant couples: the Zambia NOW2 intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah; Kashy, Deborah; Chitalu, Ndashi; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mumbi, Mirriam; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Heterosexual HIV transmission remains the leading cause of HIV incidence in adult men and women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed whether an HIV risk-reduction intervention would be more likely to increase sexual barrier acceptability and decrease risk behavior when delivered to couples in gender concordant groups or in an individual format. This study also examined the mutual impact of couple members as a source of influence on acceptability, and assessed whether product acceptability, intimate partner violence (IPV), and/or partner communication predicted sexual barrier use. HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples (n=216) were recruited in Lusaka, Zambia, and randomized to a four session gender-concordant intervention. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Willingness to use barriers (p=0.012), acceptability (pcouples in sub-Saharan Africa. Future prevention studies should consider both product acceptability and partner influence to achieve optimal sexual risk behavior outcomes.

  19. Density and Distribution of Citemene Fields in a Miombo Woodland Environment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague; Oyama

    1999-09-01

    / The Bemba people of northern Zambia practice citemene shifting cultivation. We utilized Landsat satellite images from 1984 and 1992 to map the distribution of citemene fields in those two years and to assess changes in the spatial sustainability of citemene cultivation in a miombo woodland study area. The citemene fields were concentrated within about 5-6 km of roads. Between 1984 and 1992, there was a decrease in the number of fields, and an increase in the average distance from the road. These changes may have been due to the introduction of semipermanent maize farming in the intervening years. The estimated cycle times for woodland utilization may have been long enough to maintain sustainability under traditional citemene cultivation practices. However, cycle times may be too short to maintain sustainability within the woodlands along roads.KEY WORDS: Shifting agriculture; GIS; Sustainability; Citemene; Miombo; Zambiahttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n2p273.html

  20. Pentecostalism & schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia 1996-2001; evidence from documentary sources

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    H. Jurgens Hendriks

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the
    schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ between 1996 and
    2001. It analyzes the available documents to find an answer to the question why it
    happened. Pentecostal/charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited
    tradition of mainline churches in general and the RCZ in particular. Subsequently,
    Pentecostal/charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church
    between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the
    formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC in 1999 and the Bible Gospel
    Church in Africa (BIGOCA in 2001.

  1. Income Transfers and Maternal Health: Evidence from a National Randomized Social Cash Transfer Program in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Peterman, Amber; Seidenfeld, David; Tembo, Gelson

    2016-02-01

    There is promising recent evidence that poverty-targeted social cash transfers have potential to improve maternal health outcomes; however, questions remain surrounding design features responsible for impacts. In addition, virtually no evidence exists from the African region. This study explores the impact of Zambia's Child Grant Program on a range of maternal health utilization outcomes using a randomized design and difference-in-differences multivariate regression from data collected over 24 months from 2010 to 2012. Results indicate that while there are no measurable program impacts among the main sample, there are heterogeneous impacts on skilled attendance at birth among a sample of women residing in households having better access to maternal health services. The latter result is particularly interesting because of the overall low level of health care availability in program areas suggesting that dedicated program design or matching supply-side interventions may be necessary to leverage unconditional cash transfers in similar settings to impact maternal health.

  2. Preventing Malaria among Children in Zambia: The Role of Mother's Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylypchuk, Yuriy; Norton, Samuel W

    2015-11-01

    Malaria remains a devastating disease in Zambia, responsible for about 13% of deaths among children under age 5. Lack of malaria-specific knowledge has been commonly assumed to be an important barrier to engagement in behaviors that prevent malaria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that accounts for the endogeneity of maternal knowledge in household's ownership of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), child's use of ITN, and household's protection against mosquitos (HSP). We account for the endogeneity of maternal knowledge through discrete factor and standard instrumental variable estimators. We find significant causal effects of maternal knowledge on the child's use of ITN and HSP but no significant effect on ownership of ITN. The causal effects of maternal knowledge on the use of ITN and HSP are strikingly larger in magnitude than the effects in the reduced form models.

  3. Effects Of Land Cover Change On The Hydrologic Regime Of Kabompo River Basin, Zambia

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    Kampata, J. M.; Rientjes, T. H. M.; Timmermans, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decades, the Kabompo River Basin in Zambia is affected by deforestation and land degradation as a consequence of intensified agriculture and mining. Changes presumably have affected the hydrological catchment behaviour and related seasonal flow regimes. Impact assessments are unknown for the basin. In this study multi-decadal time series of rainfall and stream flow were evaluated by trend analysis, change point detection methods and analysis on high and low flow exceedance probabilities. Results are combined with satellite based land cover observations for 1984, 1994, 2001 and 2009. Unsupervised classification of the Landsat images indicate pronounced land cover changes. Preliminary results of this study show that i) precipitation time series are not directly affected by climate change and ii) changes in stream flow can be linked to changes in land cover.

  4. The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M.; Maher, Barbara A.;

    2011-01-01

    Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between 2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development...... artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating...... depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided...

  5. Stripping with dry ice

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    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    Mechanical-type stripping using dry ice (solid CO2) consists in blasting particles of dry ice onto the painted surface. This surface can be used alone or in duplex according to type of substrate to be treated. According to operating conditions, three physical mechanisms may be involved when blasting dry ice particles onto a paint system: thermal shock, differential thermal contraction, and mechanical shock. The blast nozzle, nozzle travel speed, blast angle, stripping distance, and compressed air pressure and media flow rate influence the stripping quality and the uniformity and efficiency obtained.

  6. Integrating mental health into primary health care in Zambia: a care provider's perspective

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    Mwanza Jason

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the 1991 reforms of the health system in Zambia, mental health is still given low priority. This is evident from the fragmented manner in which mental health services are provided in the country and the limited budget allocations, with mental health services receiving 0.4% of the total health budget. Most of the mental health services provided are curative in nature and based in tertiary health institutions. At primary health care level, there is either absence of, or fragmented health services. Aims The aim of this paper was to explore health providers' views about mental health integration into primary health care. Methods A mixed methods, structured survey was conducted of 111 health service providers in primary health care centres, drawn from one urban setting (Lusaka and one rural setting (Mumbwa. Results There is strong support for integrating mental health into primary health care from care providers, as a way of facilitating early detection and intervention for mental health problems. Participants believed that this would contribute to the reduction of stigma and the promotion of human rights for people with mental health problems. However, health providers felt they require basic training in order to enhance their knowledge and skills in providing health care to people with mental health problems. Recommendations It is recommended that health care providers should be provided with basic training in mental health in order to enhance their knowledge and skills to enable them provide mental health care to patients seeking help at primary health care level. Conclusion Integrating mental health services into primary health care is critical to improving and promoting the mental health of the population in Zambia.

  7. Risk assessment for yellow fever in western and North-Western provinces of Zambia

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    Olusegun A Babaniyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF. However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0% samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1% for Dengue, 370 (10.2% for West Nile and 217 (6.0% for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation.

  8. Natural and human induced factors influencing the abundance of Schistosoma host snails in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a global public health problem affecting about 240 million people. In Zambia, 2 million are infected while 3 million live with the risk of getting infected. Research and interventions relating to schistosomiasis are mainly linked to disease epidemiology. Malacological and ecological aspects of the disease are superficially understood. Developing effective control measures requires an understanding of interacting environmental and socioeconomic factors of host snails vis-a-vis schistosomiasis. Therefore, the present work involved collecting social and environmental data in a large field study in two zones in Zambia that are different in terms of temperature and rainfall amounts. Social data collected through questionnaires included demographic, educational and knowledge of schistosomiasis disease dynamics. Environmental data included physicochemical factors, aquatic plants and snails. Gender (P < 0.001) significantly influences livelihood strategies, while age (P = 0.069) and level of education (P = 0.086) have a moderate influence in zone I. In zone III, none of these factors (age, P = 0.378; gender, P = 0.311; education, P = 0.553) play a significant role. Environmental parameters explained 43 and 41 % variation in species composition for zones I and III, respectively. Most respondents' (52 %, 87 %) perception is that there are more cases of bilharzia in hot season than in other seasons (rainy season 23 %, 7 %; cold season 8 %, 0 % and year round 17 %, 6 %) for zone I and zone III, respectively.

  9. The zoonotic potential of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulundu, Edgar; Nao, Naganori; Yabe, John; Muto, Nilton A; Sithebe, Thami; Sawa, Hirofumi; Manzoor, Rashid; Kajihara, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Mieko; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato

    2014-10-01

    Whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic AIVs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. We previously reported that two AIV strains (subtypes H6N2 and H3N8) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called human signatures) and replicated better in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity than a strain lacking such residues. To further substantiate these observations, we infected chickens and mice intranasally with AIV strains of various subtypes (H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia. Although some strains induced seroconversion, all of the tested strains replicated poorly and were nonpathogenic for chickens. In contrast, most of the strains having human signatures replicated well in the lungs of mice, and one of these strains caused severe illness in mice and induced lung injury that was characterized by a severe accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results suggest that some strains tested in this study may have the potential to infect mammalian hosts directly without adaptation, which might possibly be associated with the possession of human signature residues. Close monitoring and evaluation of host-associated signatures may help to elucidate the prevalence and emergence of AIVs with potential for causing zoonotic infections.

  10. Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

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    Kigozi Fred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.

  11. Assessing the consequences of stigma for tuberculosis patients in urban Zambia.

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    Anne Lia Cremers

    Full Text Available Stigma is one of the many factors hindering tuberculosis (TB control by negatively affecting hospital delay and treatment compliance. In Zambia, the morbidity and mortality due to TB remains high, despite extended public health attempts to control the epidemic and to diminish stigma.To enhance understanding of TB-related stigmatizing perceptions and to describe TB patients' experiences of stigma in order to point out recommendations to improve TB policy.We conducted a mixed method study at Kanyama clinic and surrounding areas, in Lusaka, Zambia; structured interviews with 300 TB patients, multiple in-depth interviews with 30 TB patients and 10 biomedical health workers, 3 focus group discussions with TB patients and treatment supporters, complemented by participant observation and policy analysis of the TB control program. Predictors of stigma were identified by use of multivariate regression analyses; qualitative analysis of the in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation was used for triangulation of the study findings.We focused on the 138/300 patients that described TB-related perceptions and attitudes, of whom 113 (82% reported stigma. Stigma provoking TB conceptions were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infection, alleged immoral behaviour, (perceived incurability, and (traditional myths about TB aetiology. Consequences of stigma prevailed both among children and adults and included low self-esteem, insults, ridicule, discrimination, social exclusion, and isolation leading to a decreased quality of life and social status, non-disclosure, and/or difficulties with treatment compliance and adherence. Women had significantly more stigma-related problems than men.The findings illustrate that many TB patients faced stigma-related issues, often hindering effective TB control and suggesting that current efforts to reduce stigma are not yet optimal. The content and implementation of sensitization

  12. The Effect of Cryotherapy on Human Papillomavirus Clearance among HIV-positive Women in Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katundu, Katundu; Bateman, Allen C.; Pfaendler, Krista S.; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H.; Kapambwe, Sharon; Vermund, Sten H.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Msadabwe, Susan C.; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.; Parham, Groesbeck P.; Chibwesha, Carla J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to investigate the progression of human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection in HIV-positive women after cryotherapy. Methods We examined changes in detection of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) cervical infections among HIV-infected women over a 12-week period following cryotherapy using stored specimens from a cohort study conducted between June 2009 and March 2011 in Lusaka, Zambia. Samples from visits at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12 were tested using the Roche Linear Array assay. Results A total of 89 women were included in the analysis. The median age was 32 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 28–36 years). The median CD4+ cell count was 350 cells/μL (IQR: 214–470 cells/μL) and 66% of women were receiving antiretroviral therapy. At baseline, the prevalence of hrHPV was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 83–95%). HPV45 was the most common HPV type, present in (30%) women, followed by HPV16 (27%), HPV18 (27%), HPV51 (20%), and HPV58 (22%). Among women with valid results both at baseline and 12 weeks, 17/67 (25%) cleared their initial hrHPV infection within 12 weeks of treatment, though 65% (11/17) had new hrHPV types detected. Conclusions Cryotherapy led to clearance of 25% of hrHPV infections within 12 weeks of treatment. However, hrHPV infection remained persistent in most women and new hrHPV types were detected often, explaining the high rate of persistence and recurrence of cervical disease in this population. Continued efforts to scale-up HPV vaccination and cervical screening should remain a priority in high HIV burden settings such as Zambia. PMID:26125097

  13. Risk factors, healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with genital ulcers in Zambia

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    Makasa Mpundu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital ulcers (GU are associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission. Understanding risk factors for genital ulcers and sexual behaviour patterns after onset of symptoms and health seeking behaviour among GU-patients can provide useful information to aid design effective prevention strategies for genital ulcers. We investigated risk factors of self-reported GUs and care-seeking in the general population, and assessed GU patients regarding past care-seeking, recent sexual behaviour and partner awareness of the disease. Methods We analysed national data on genital ulcers from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, and data from a cross-sectional survey of genital ulcer patients from primary health care facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. Results The prevalence of GU in 2007 in the general population of Lusaka was 3.6%. Important predictors for genital ulcers were age 25–29 years, being widowed/separated/divorced and having a high number of life-time sexual partners. No differences in care-seeking were observed by residence, wealth and gender, and 60% of the respondents sought care from public health facilities. Among patients with GUs in Lusaka, 14% sought care >2 weeks after symptom onset. Forty-two percent were not aware of their HIV status, 57% reported sex after onset of symptoms and only 15% reported consistent condom use. Conclusions Low awareness of HIV status despite high probability of being infected and low condom use after onset of genital ulcer symptoms leads to a high potential for transmission to sexual partners. This, combined with the fact that many patients with GUs delayed seeking care, shows a need for awareness campaigns about GUs and the importance of abstinence or use of condoms when experiencing such symptoms.

  14. Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia

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    Ferrinho Paulo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The “out of professional scope” activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of alcohol dependence disorder among TB and HIV infected patients in Zambia.

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    Rebecca O'Connell

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol dependence disorders in persons receiving treatment for HIV and Tuberculosis (TB at 16 Primary Health Care centres (PHC across Zambia.649 adult patients receiving treatment for HIV and/or TB at PHCs in Zambia (363 males, 286 females were recruited between 1st December 2009 and 31st January 2010. Data on socio-demographic variables, clinical disease features (TB and HIV, and psychopathological status were collected. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used to diagnose alcohol dependence disorder. Correlates of alcohol dependence were analyzed for men only, due to low prevalence in women. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using general estimating equations to allow for within-PHC clustering.The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 27.2% (95%CI: 17.7-39.5% for men and 3.9% (95%CI: 1.4-0.1% for women. Factors associated with alcohol dependence disorder in men included being single, divorced or widowed compared with married (adjusted OR = 1.47, 95%CI: 1.00-2.14 and being unemployed (adjusted OR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.01-1.67. The highest prevalence of alcohol dependence was among HIV-test unknown TB patients (34.7%, and lowest was among HIV positive patients on treatment but without TB (14.1%, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.38.Male TB/HIV patients in this population have high prevalence of alcohol dependence disorder, and prevalence differs by HIV/TB status. Further work is needed to explore interventions to reduce harmful drinking in this population.

  16. Knowledge, use, and concerns about contraceptive methods among sero-discordant couples in Rwanda and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Kristina; Stephenson, Rob; Vwalika, Bellington; Ahmed, Yusuf; Vwalika, Cheswa; Chomba, Elwyn; Karita, Etienne; Kayitenkore, Kayitesi; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2009-09-01

    The unique needs of sero-discordant couples are largely missing from many current family planning efforts, which focus on the prevention of pregnancies in absence of the reduction of the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Conversely, HIV testing and programs focus exclusively on condom use without discussion of more effective contraceptive methods. In order to provide information to inform the development of family planning services tailored to the unique needs of sero-discordant couples, this study examined the contraceptive knowledge, use, and concerns among sero-discordant couples in urban Rwanda and Zambia. This article presents a comparison of family planning knowledge, use, and concerns about contraception among two cohorts of HIV sero-discordant study participants in Rwanda and Zambia. The results reveal an interesting profile of contraceptive knowledge and use among sero-discordant couples; in both settings, despite high levels of knowledge of contraception, use of contraceptive methods remains relatively low. There is a clear gender difference in both the reporting of knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, and there is evidence of clandestine contraceptive use by women. Including information on family planning in voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services in addition to tailoring the delivery of family planning information to meet to needs and concerns of HIV-positive women or those with HIV positive partners is an essential step in the delivery of services and prevention efforts to reduce the transmission of HIV. Family planning and HIV prevention programs should integrate counseling on "dual method use," combining condoms for HIV/STI prevention with a long-acting contraceptive for added protection against unplanned pregnancy.

  17. Genetic perspectives on forager-farmer interaction in the Luangwa valley of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Filippo, Cesare; Heyn, Patricia; Barham, Lawrence; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2010-03-01

    The transformation from a foraging way of life to a reliance on domesticated plants and animals often led to the expansion of agropastoralist populations at the expense of hunter-gatherers (HGs). In Africa, one of these expansions involved the Niger-Congo Bantu-speaking populations that started to spread southwards from Cameroon/Nigeria approximately 4,000 years ago, bringing agricultural technologies. Genetic studies have shown different degrees of gene flow (sometimes involving sex-biased migrations) between Bantu agriculturalists and HGs. Although these studies have covered many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the central part (e.g. Zambia) was not yet studied, and the interactions between immigrating food-producers and local HGs are still unclear. Archeological evidence from the Luangwa Valley of Zambia suggests a long period of coexistence ( approximately 1,700 years) of early food-producers and HGs. To investigate if this apparent coexistence was accompanied by genetic admixture, we analyzed the mtDNA control region, Y chromosomal unique event polymorphisms, and 12 associated Y- short tandem repeats in two food-producing groups (Bisa and Kunda) that live today in the Luangwa Valley, and compared these data with available published data on African HGs. Our results suggest that both the Bisa and Kunda experienced at most low levels of admixture with HGs, and these levels do not differ between the maternal and paternal lineages. Coalescent simulations indicate that the genetic data best fit a demographic scenario with a long divergence (62,500 years) and little or no gene flow between the ancestors of the Bisa/Kunda and existing HGs. This scenario contrasts with the archaeological evidence for a long period of coexistence between the two different communities in the Luangwa Valley, and suggests a process of sociocultural boundary maintenance may have characterized their interaction.

  18. Task-shifting HIV counselling and testing services in Zambia: the role of lay counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapanda Paul

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility. Results Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers. Conclusion Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers.

  19. Practices of traditional beef farmers in their production and marketing of cattle in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, Chisoni; Häsler, Barbara; Muma, John B; Munyeme, Musso; Sitali, Doreen Chilolo; Skjerve, Eystein; Rich, Karl M

    2017-09-25

    Understanding the practices of traditional cattle farmers in developing countries is an important factor in the development of appropriate, pro-poor disease control policies, and in formulating regional-specific production incentives that can improve productivity. This paper describes the production, husbandry practices, economics, and constraints of traditional cattle farming in Zambia. A cross-sectional study design was used to obtain data from traditional cattle farmers (n = 699) using a structured questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS and STATA statistical packages. The results revealed that the majority [65% (95% CI: 59.3-71.1)] of farmers practised a transhumant cattle herding system under communal grazing. In these transhumant herding systems, animal husbandry and management systems were found to be of poor quality, in terms of supplementary feeding, vaccination coverage, deworming, uptake of veterinary services, usage of artificial insemination, and dip tanks all being low or absent. East Coast Fever was the most common disease, affecting 60% (95% CI: 56.4-63.7) of farmers. Cattle sales were low, as farmers only sold a median of two cattle per household per year. Crop farming was found to be the main source of farm income (47%) in agro-pastoralist communities, followed by cattle farming (28%) and other sources (25%). The median cost of production in the surveyed provinces was reported at US$316, while that of revenue from cattle and cattle products sales was estimated at US$885 per herd per year. This translates to an estimated gross margin of US$569, representing 64.3% of revenue.There is considerable diversity in disease distribution, animal husbandry practices, economics, and challenges in traditional cattle production in different locations of Zambia. Therefore, to improve the productivity of the traditional cattle sub-sector, policy makers and stakeholders in the beef value chain must develop fit-for-purpose policies and

  20. Impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse populations and trypanosomosis risk in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweempwa, Cornelius; Marcotty, Tanguy; De Pus, Claudia; Penzhorn, Barend Louis; Dicko, Ahmadou Hamady; Bouyer, Jérémy; De Deken, Reginald

    2015-08-04

    Fragmentation of tsetse habitat in eastern Zambia is largely due to encroachments by subsistence farmers into new areas in search of new agricultural land. The impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse populations is not clearly understood. This study was aimed at establishing the impact of habitat fragmentation on physiological and demographic parameters of tsetse flies in order to enhance the understanding of the relationship between fragmentation and African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) risk. A longitudinal study was conducted to establish the age structure, abundance, proportion of females and trypanosome infection rate of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) in areas of varying degrees of habitat fragmentation in Eastern Zambia. Black screen fly rounds were used to sample tsetse populations monthly for 1 year. Logistic regression was used to analyse age, proportion of females and infection rate data. Flies got significantly older as fragmentation increased (p fragmented site (Lusandwa) to 74.2% (CI 56.8-86.3) at the highly fragmented site (Chisulo). In the most fragmented area (Kasamanda), tsetse flies had almost disappeared. In the highly fragmented area a significantly higher trypanosome infection rate in tsetse (P fragmentation was observed. Consequently a comparatively high trypanosomosis incidence rate in livestock was observed there despite lower tsetse density (p fragmentation reduced. The proportion increased from 0.135 (CI 0.10-0.18) to 0.285 (CI 0.26-0.31) at the highly and least fragmented sites, respectively. Habitat fragmentation creates conditions to which tsetse populations respond physiologically and demographically thereby affecting tsetse-trypanosome interactions and hence influencing trypanosomosis risk. Temperature rise due to fragmentation coupled with dominance of old flies in populations increases infection rate in tsetse and hence creates high risk of trypanosomosis in fragmented areas. Possibilities of how

  1. [Little Dry Creek Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of the drainage boundary, direction of flow, canals and ditches, and streets for the drainage study plan and profile for Little Dry Creek sub area in the North...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye ... What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Can you explain why I have halos and blurry ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide ... What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear- ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  8. Electro-dry-adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2012-03-27

    This work presents novel conductive bioinspired dry adhesives with mushroom caps that enable the use of a synergistic combination of electrostatic and van der Waals forces (electro-dry-adhesion). An increase in shear adhesion bond strength of up to 2046% on a wide range of materials is measured when a maximum electrical field of 36.4 V μm(-1) is applied. A suction effect, due to the shape of the dry adhesive fibers, on overall adhesion was not noted for electro-dry-adhesives when testing was performed at both atmospheric and reduced pressure. Utilization of electrostatics to apply a preloading force to dry adhesive fiber arrays allows increased adhesion even after electrostatic force generation has been halted by ensuring the close contact necessary for van der Waals forces to be effective. A comparison is made between self-preloading of the electro-dry-adhesives and the direct application of a normal preloading pressure resulting in nearly the same shear bond strength with an applied voltage of 3.33 kV on the same sample.

  9. Accuracy in HIV Rapid Testing among Laboratory and Non-laboratory Personnel in Zambia: Observations from the National HIV Proficiency Testing System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mwangala

    Full Text Available Despite rapid task-shifting and scale-up of HIV testing services in high HIV prevalence countries, studies evaluating accuracy remain limited. This study aimed to assess overall accuracy level and factors associated with accuracy in HIV rapid testing in Zambia.Accuracy was investigated among rural and urban HIV testing sites participating in two annual national HIV proficiency testing (PT exercises conducted in 2009 (n = 282 sites and 2010 (n = 488 sites. Testers included lay counselors, nurses, laboratory personnel and others. PT panels of five dry tube specimens (DTS were issued to testing sites by the national reference laboratory (NRL. Site accuracy level was assessed by comparison of reported results to the expected results. Non-parametric rank tests and multiple linear regression models were used to assess variation in accuracy between PT cycles and between tester groups, and to examine factors associated with accuracy respectively.Overall accuracy level was 93.1% (95% CI: 91.2-94.9 in 2009 and 96.9% (95% CI: 96.1-97.8 in 2010. Differences in accuracy were seen between the tester groups in 2009 with laboratory personnel being more accurate than non-laboratory personnel, while in 2010 no differences were seen. In both PT exercises, lay counselors and nurses had more difficulties interpreting results, with more occurrences of false-negative, false-positive and indeterminate results. Having received the standard HIV rapid testing training and adherence to the national HIV testing algorithm were positively associated with accuracy.The study showed an improvement in tester group and overall accuracy from the first PT exercise to the next. Average number of incorrect test results per 1000 tests performed was reduced from 69 to 31. Further improvement is needed, however, and the national HIV proficiency testing system seems to be an important tool in this regard, which should be continued and needs to be urgently strengthened.

  10. Factors influencing modes of transport and travel time for obstetric care: a mixed methods study in Zambia and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Emma; Vail, Daniel; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Macwan'gi, Mubiana; Kruk, Margaret E; Grépin, Karen A

    2016-04-01

    Transportation is an important barrier to accessing obstetric care for many pregnant and postpartum women in low-resource settings, particularly in rural areas. However, little is known about how pregnant women travel to health facilities in these settings. We conducted 1633 exit surveys with women who had a recent facility delivery and 48 focus group discussions with women who had either a home or a facility birth in the past year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. Quantitative data were analysed using univariate statistics, and qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis techniques. On average, women spent 62-68 min travelling to a clinic for delivery. Very different patterns in modes of transport were observed in the two countries: 91% of Ugandan women employed motorized forms of transportation, while only 57% of women in Zambia did. Motorcycle taxis were the most commonly used in Uganda, while cars, trucks and taxis were the most commonly used mode of transportation in Zambia. Lower-income women were less likely to use motorized modes of transportation: in Zambia, women in the poorest quintile took 94 min to travel to a health facility, compared with 34 for the wealthiest quintile; this difference between quintiles was ∼50 min in Uganda. Focus group discussions confirmed that transport is a major challenge due to a number of factors we categorized as the 'three A's:' affordability, accessibility and adequacy of transport options. Women reported that all of these factors had influenced their decision not to deliver in a health facility. The two countries had markedly different patterns of transportation for obstetric care, and modes of transport and travel times varied dramatically by wealth quintile, which policymakers need to take into account when designing obstetric transport interventions.

  11. Prevalence and Determinants of Mucous Membrane Irritations in a Community Near a Cement Factory in Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administe...

  12. Remobilisation features and structural control on ore grade distribution at the Konkola stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Torremans, K.; Gauquie, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C.D.; Sikazwe, O.; Muchez, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    The Konkola deposit is a high grade stratiform Cu–Co ore deposit in the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia. Economic mineralisation is confined to the Ore Shale formation, part of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Katanga Supergroup. Petrographic study reveals that the copper–cobalt ore minerals are disseminated within the host rock, sometimes concentrated along bedding planes, often associated with dolomitic bands or clustered in cemented lenses and in layer-parallel and irre...

  13. Antimicrobial Resistant Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Houseflies Infesting Fish in Food Markets in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwansa M. Songe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is one of the most common diseases and is a leading cause of death in developing countries. This is often caused by contaminated food. Poor food hygiene standards are exacerbated by the presence of flies which can transmit a variety of infectious microorganisms, particularly through animal source foods. This fact becomes especially important in developing countries like Zambia, where fish is a highly valued source of protein. Our interest in this study was to identify if the flies that beset food markets in Zambia carry important pathogenic bacteria on their bodies, and subsequently if these bacteria carry resistance genes to commonly used antibiotics, which would indicate problems in eradicating these pathogens. The present study took into account fish vendors’ and consumers’ perception of flies and interest in interventions to reduce their numbers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with (1 traders (comprised of randomly selected males and females and (2 consumers (including randomly selected males and females. Thereafter, we collected flies found on fish in markets in Mongu and Lusaka districts of Zambia. For the entire study, a total of 418 fly samples were analyzed in the laboratory and Salmonella spp. and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli were isolated from the flies. Further laboratory screening revealed that overall, 17.2% (72/418 (95% CI; 43.2%–65.5% of total samples analyzed contained Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL-producing E. coli. These significant findings call for a strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy in Zambia and the development of sustainable interventions to reduce fly numbers in food markets and improve food safety and hygiene.

  14. Metal distribution in tissues of free-range chickens near a lead-zinc mine in Kabwe, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, John; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Mainda, Geoffrey; Kabeta, Matthew; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Umemura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of Pb, Cd, and other metals in tissues of 17 free-range and 32 commercial broiler chickens from the Kabwe mining town in Zambia were determined. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd exceeded maximum levels for human consumption in some organs including muscle (Pb only) in free-range chickens, in contrast to low levels in broiler chickens. Human consumers in Kabwe could be exposed to Pb and Cd in free-range chickens.

  15. Modelling the influence of temperature and rainfall on malaria incidence in four endemic provinces of Zambia using semiparametric Poisson regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimaponda-Mataa, Nzooma M; Tembo-Mwase, Enala; Gebreslasie, Michael; Achia, Thomas N O; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2017-02-01

    Although malaria morbidity and mortality are greatly reduced globally owing to great control efforts, the disease remains the main contributor. In Zambia, all provinces are malaria endemic. However, the transmission intensities vary mainly depending on environmental factors as they interact with the vectors. Generally in Africa, possibly due to the varying perspectives and methods used, there is variation on the relative importance of malaria risk determinants. In Zambia, the role climatic factors play on malaria case rates has not been determined in combination of space and time using robust methods in modelling. This is critical considering the reversal in malaria reduction after the year 2010 and the variation by transmission zones. Using a geoadditive or structured additive semiparametric Poisson regression model, we determined the influence of climatic factors on malaria incidence in four endemic provinces of Zambia. We demonstrate a strong positive association between malaria incidence and precipitation as well as minimum temperature. The risk of malaria was 95% lower in Lusaka (ARR=0.05, 95% CI=0.04-0.06) and 68% lower in the Western Province (ARR=0.31, 95% CI=0.25-0.41) compared to Luapula Province. North-western Province did not vary from Luapula Province. The effects of geographical region are clearly demonstrated by the unique behaviour and effects of minimum and maximum temperatures in the four provinces. Environmental factors such as landscape in urbanised places may also be playing a role.

  16. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: Spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Sinkala

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD, but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space–time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala–Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke–Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation.

  17. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J Joseph; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called "triggering." This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia.

  18. Autochthonous "Bjelovars dried cheese"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available «Dried cheese» is in autochthonous group of Bjelovar region cheeses which is still produced in rural domestic scale. The name of cheese originates from production procedure - drying for longer or shorter period in airy place after which the cheese is smoked, or is smoked only without drying. This type of cheese is produced in whole central region of Croatia which includes Međimurje, Podravina, Bilogora; Moslavina, Posavina and region around the capital. The aim of this paper is to describe and determine sensory, chemical and microbiological composition to determine its characteristics and production standards. As standards for sensory properties following characteristics can be used: a Outer shape: dimensions: diameter: 140-145 mm, height: 58-61 mm, mass: 700-750 g, equal, rounded shape, smooth skin, equal colour; b Consistency: easily cut, elastic, soft; c Cut: nicely combined white body, few improper holes of equal size; d Odour: pleasant milky acid odour, fairly smoky; e Taste: Fairly milky acidic taste, medium salty, fairly smoky taste. Depending on fat in dry matter content and water content in non fat dry matter, analyzed samples can be characterized as quarter fat, soft and semidry cheese. Higher acidity and saltiness was determined in some samples, microbiological analyses has shown that the most common contaminants are yeasts and moulds.

  19. Drying of Malaysian Capsicum annuum L. (Red Chili) Dried by Open and Solar Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fudholi; Mohd Yusof Othman; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of solar drying in the Malaysian red chili (Capsicum annuum L.). Red chilies were dried down from approximately 80% (wb) to 10% (wb) moisture content within 33 h. The drying process was conducted during the day, and it was compared with 65 h of open sun drying. Solar drying yielded a 49% saving in drying time compared with open sun drying. At the average solar radiation of 420 W/m2 and air flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, the collector, drying system, and pickup de...

  20. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn;

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  1. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  2. Trigger Point Dry Needling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, physical therapists in the United States and throughout the world are using dry needling to treat musculoskeletal pain, even though this treatment has been a controversial addition to practice. To better generalize to physical therapy practice the findings about dry needling thus far, the authors of a study published in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT identified the need for a systematic review examining the effectiveness of dry needling performed by physical therapists on people with musculoskeletal pain. Their review offers a meta-analysis of data from several included studies and assesses the evidence for risks of bias. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):150. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0502.

  3. Magnetically responsive dry fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Bustamante, Rodney; Millán, Angel; Palacio, Fernando; Trindade, Tito; Silva, Nuno J. O.

    2013-07-01

    Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid.Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01784b

  4. Taenia solium Infections in a rural area of Eastern Zambia-a community based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabemba E Mwape

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA, while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA. Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3% were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708 individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis was significantly positively related to age (p = 0.00 and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis (p = 0.03 but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. CONCLUSIONS: This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and

  5. Developing the national community health assistant strategy in Zambia: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Kinsman, John; Michelo, Charles; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2013-07-20

    In 2010, the Ministry of Health in Zambia developed the National Community Health Assistant strategy, aiming to integrate community health workers (CHWs) into national health plans by creating a new group of workers, called community health assistants (CHAs). The aim of the paper is to analyse the CHA policy development process and the factors that influenced its evolution and content. A policy analysis approach was used to analyse the policy reform process. Data were gathered through review of documents, participant observation and key informant interviews with CHA strategic team members in Lusaka district, and senior officials at the district level in Kapiri Mposhi district where some CHAs have been deployed. The strategy was developed in order to address the human resources for health shortage and the challenges facing the community-based health workforce in Zambia. However, some actors within the strategic team were more influential than others in informing the policy agenda, determining the process, and shaping the content. These actors negotiated with professional/statutory bodies and health unions on the need to develop the new cadre which resulted in compromises that enabled the policy process to move forward. International agencies also indirectly influenced the course as well as the content of the strategy. Some actors classified the process as both insufficiently consultative and rushed. Due to limited consultation, it was suggested that the policy content did not adequately address key policy content issues such as management of staff attrition, general professional development, and progression matters. Analysis of the process also showed that the strategy might create a new group of workers whose mandate is unclear to the existing group of health workers. This paper highlights the complex nature of policy-making processes for integrating CHWs into the health system. It reiterates the need for recognising the fact that actors' power or position in the

  6. “All for some”: water inequity in Zambia and Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter B.

    In southern Africa, gross disparities in access to water are symptomatic of the overall uneven pattern of development. Despite post-independence egalitarian rhetoric, in countries such as Zambia and Zimbabwe inappropriate models (piped house connections in the urban areas, high technology irrigation schemes in the agricultural sector), combined with weak macro-economies and poorly formulated sectoral policies have actually exacerbated the disparities. Zero or very low tariffs have played a major role in this. Although justified as being consistent with water's special status, inadequate tariffs in fact serve to undermine any programme of making water accessible to all. This has led to a narrowing of development options, resulting in exclusivist rather than inclusivist development, and stagnation rather than dynamism. A major part of the explanation for perpetuation of such unsatisfactory outcomes is the existence of political interest groups who benefit from the status quo. The first case study in the paper involves urban water consumers in Zambia, where those with piped water connections seek to continue the culture of low tariffs which is by now deeply embedded. The result is that the water supply authorities (in this case the newly formed, but still politically constrained 'commercialised utilities') are unable even to maintain adequate supplies to the piped customers, let alone extend service to the peri-urban dwellers, 56% of whom do not have access to safe water. The paper outlines some modest, workable principles to achieve universal, affordable access to water in the urban areas, albeit through a mix of service delivery mechanisms. In a second case study of rural productive water in Zimbabwe, the reasons for only 2% of the rural subsistence farming households being involved in formal small-scale irrigation schemes 20 years after independence are explored. Again, a major part of the explanation lies in government pursuing a water delivery model which is not

  7. Properties of Spray Dried Food and Spray Drying Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The following conclusions are obtained, studying properties of spray dried food and drying characteristics. (a) Dried particles are similar to spray droplets in size distribution (y=2.5), and particle count distribution is arranged as (dn/dx = ae-bx). (b) The ratio of the particle diameters before and after drying is calculated with moisture before and after drying, and porosity is given as (εp = ww4). (c) The standard drying method is presented to evaluate accurately drying problems at a certain standard. (d) Equilibrium moisture at 20 up to 100°C are summarized in terms of adsorption potential. (e) It makes clear that calulation based on the theory of residence time and drying time represents well complex spray drying characteristics.

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  9. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  10. Quality of dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) by different drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Jayashree; R, Visvanathan; T, John Zachariah

    2014-11-01

    Ginger rhizomes sliced to various lengths of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 mm and whole rhizomes were dried from an initial moisture content of 81.3 % to final moisture content of less than 10 % by various drying methods like sun drying, solar tunnel drying and cabinet tray drying at temperatures of 50, 55, 60 and 65 °C. Slicing of ginger rhizomes significantly reduced the drying time of ginger in all the drying methods. It was observed that drying of whole ginger rhizomes under sun took the maximum time (9 days) followed by solar tunnel drying (8 days). Significant reduction in essential oil and oleoresin content of dry ginger was found as the slice length decreased. The important constituents of ginger essential oil like zingiberene, limonene, linalool, geraniol and nerolidol as determined using a gas chromatography was also found to decrease during slicing and as the drying temperature increased. The pungency constituents in the oleoresin of ginger like total gingerols and total shogoals as determined using a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography also showed a decreasing trend on slicing and with the increase in drying temperature. It was observed from the drying studies that whole ginger rhizomes dried under sun drying or in a solar tunnel drier retained the maximum essential oil (13.9 mg/g) and oleoresin content (45.2 mg/g) of dry ginger. In mechanical drying, the drying temperature of 60 °C was considered optimum however there was about 12.2 % loss in essential oil at this temperature.

  11. Cost and financial sustainability of a household-based water treatment and storage intervention in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anyana; McFarland, Deborah A; Singh, Ritu; Quick, Robert

    2007-09-01

    Providing safe water to >1 billion people in need is a major challenge. To address this need, the Safe Water System (SWS) - household water treatment with dilute bleach, safe water storage, and behavior change - has been implemented in >20 countries. To assess the potential sustainability of the SWS, we analyzed costs in Zambia of "Clorin" brand product sold in bottles sufficient for a month of water treatment at a price of $0.09. We analyzed production, marketing, distribution, and overhead costs of Clorin before and after sales reached nationwide scale, and analyzed Clorin sales revenue. The average cost per bottle of Clorin production, marketing and distribution at start-up in 1999 was $1.88 but decreased by 82% to $0.33 in 2003, when >1.7 million bottles were sold. The financial loss per bottle decreased from $1.72 in 1999 to $0.24 in 2003. Net program costs in 2003 were $428,984, or only $0.04 per person-month of protection. A sensitivity analysis showed that if the bottle price increased to $0.18, the project would be self-sustaining at maximum capacity. This analysis demonstrated that efficiencies in the SWS supply chain can be achieved through social marketing. Even with a subsidy, overall program costs per beneficiary are low.

  12. The state of HIV sector local governance in Malawi and Zambia: Evidence from five districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Steyn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper encapsulates the outputs of a Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC funded project that aimed to improve the levels of HIV governance at the district level in Malawi and Zambia by encouraging public participation in an effort to more effective use of local resources. The methodology for this project, developed by the Institute for Democracy in Africa (Idasa and SDC, included a barometer which assessed perceptions of district HIV governance among key stakeholders. Perceptions were gathered on governance principles of effectiveness, efficiency, rule of law, accountability, participation and equity. The stakeholders ranged from administrators, political representatives, community-based organisations and the private sector on the supply side and citizens on the demand or beneficiary side. The findings of the research indicate specific sector governance issues that may be generalised to governance. Communication and transparency appear to be major issues underpinning the bottlenecks and shortcomings in the HIV sector governance at the district level. Information gaps have given rise to accountability deficits and coordination deficiencies. Addressing these matters would make more effective use of resources and lessen dependence on external funding sources.

  13. Characterization of influenza A viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulundu, Edgar; Ishii, Akihiro; Igarashi, Manabu; Mweene, Aaron S; Suzuki, Yuka; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Namangala, Boniface; Moonga, Ladslav; Manzoor, Rashid; Ito, Kimihito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Simukonda, Chuma; Chansa, Wilbroad; Chulu, Jack; Takada, Ayato

    2011-06-01

    Although the quest to clarify the role of wild birds in the spread of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) has yielded considerable data on AIVs in wild birds worldwide, information regarding the ecology and epidemiology of AIVs in African wild birds is still very limited. During AIV surveillance in Zambia (2008-2009), 12 viruses of distinct subtypes (H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) were isolated from wild waterfowl. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all the isolates were of the Eurasian lineage. Whilst some genes were closely related to those of AIVs isolated from wild and domestic birds in South Africa, intimating possible AIV exchange between wild birds and poultry in southern Africa, some gene segments were closely related to those of AIVs isolated in Europe and Asia, thus confirming the inter-regional AIV gene flow among these continents. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of internal proteins revealed that several isolates harboured particular residues predominantly observed in human influenza viruses. Interestingly, the isolates with human-associated residues exhibited higher levels of virus replication in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity as measured by weight loss than an isolate lacking such residues. This study stresses the need for continued monitoring of AIVs in wild and domestic birds in southern Africa to gain a better understanding of the emergence of strains with the potential to infect mammals.

  14. Cultural and health beliefs of pregnant women in Zambia regarding pregnancy and child birth

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    Namakau C. M'soka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health beliefs related to pregnancy and childbirth exist in various cultures globally. Healthcare practitioners need to be aware of these beliefs so as to contextualise theirpractice in their communities.Objectives: To explore the health beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth of womenattending the antenatal clinic at Chawama Health Center in Lusaka Zambia.Method: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of women attending antenatal care(n = 294 who were selected by systematic sampling. A researcher-administered questionnairewas used for data collection.Results: Results indicated that women attending antenatal care at Chawama Clinic held certain beliefs relating to diet, behaviour and the use of medicinal herbs during pregnancy and post-delivery. The main beliefs on diet related to a balanced diet, eating of eggs, okra, bones, offal, sugar cane, alcohol consumption and salt intake. The main beliefs on behaviour related to commencement of antenatal care, daily activities, quarrels, bad rituals, infidelity and the use of condoms during pregnancy. The main beliefs on the use of medicinal herbs were on their use to expedite the delivery process, to assist in difficult deliveries and for body cleansing following a miscarriage.Conclusion: Women attending antenatal care at the Chawama Clinic hold a number of beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth. Those beliefs that are of benefit to the patients should be encouraged with scientific explanations, whilst those posing a health risk should be discouraged respectfully.

  15. Liver scanning using indium-113m at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulaisho, C. (Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia); Mumba, K.N. (Radio-isotope Research Unit, National Council for Scientific Research, Lusaka, Zambia)

    1981-11-21

    Liver scanning using the radio-isotope indium-113m, can now be routinely perfomed at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. The dose used is 1 - 4 mCi. Liver scans have been performed on 48 subjects, including 10 healthy individuals 16 patients with histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 with clinical and laboratory evidence of portal hypertension and 11 with miscellaneous illnesses. Seven representative scans are illustrated. The procedure is easy, and gives a fairly accurate functional estimate of Kupffer cell mass. In hepatoma the scan may be either larger than or smaller than normal and reflects more accurately the residual function of the Kupffer cells. In cirrhosis of the liver with portal hypertention, residual Kupffer cell mass is small. Consequently, most of the indium-113m is taken up by the splenic reticulo-endothelial system, resulting in a large spleen scan. This technique, although fraught with major limitations, is a useful additional diagnostic tool in the management of chronic liver disease.

  16. HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.

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    Sara Gari

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64% and 268 women (56% had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19; tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32 and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80. In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.

  17. Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia

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    C. Mubita-Ngoma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.

  18. Hydrological and ecological impacts of dams on the Kafue Flats floodplain system, southern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, M.; Thompson, J. R.

    Developmental changes in river basins in Africa have become a reality. Many wetland ecosystems have been impacted by dams and other hydrological interventions resulting in both foreseen and unexpected consequences. The Kafue Flats in southern Zambia is an extensive floodplain system that lies within the middle Kafue river basin. The floodplain is about 255 km long and 60 km wide, covering an area of approximately 6,500 km 2. It is currently sandwiched between two large dams which are approximately 270 km apart. These dams have completely altered the hydrological regime of the system. Backwater from the downstream dam and releases from upstream have created a permanently flooded area within the floodplain that was not present in the past. Elsewhere, flooding has been reduced. The ecological consequences of these changes for the floodplain, which hosts two national parks (both Ramsar sites), have been extensive. Hydrological and vegetation changes have impacted the habitat for important wildlife communities including the endemic antelope, Kobus leche kafuensis. The most dramatic change in vegetation is associated with the colonisation of parts of the floodplain by the invasive alien plant, Mimosa pigra. This paper discusses these changes and their potential consequences.

  19. A Decade of Implementing Water Services Reform in Zambia: Review of Outcomes, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horman Chitonge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been implementing water sector reforms for the past two decades. These reforms initiated major changes in the organisation and management of water supply services starting from the 1990s culminating in the full-scale commercialisation of water services in major cities and towns. This paper reviews the outcomes of implementing these reforms, focusing on the results of the commercialisation of water services in the last 10 years. Data presented in this paper show that there have been positive developments, but many serious challenges as well. Evidence from the review of the past 10 years suggests that much progress has been made in areas related to management and operation performance, while little success has been recorded in core areas such as expanding the network, service coverage, hours of service, and reducing the affordability burden, especially among lower-income households. The key challenge for the water services sector is to find a workable infrastructural development funding formula that will make it possible to sustain and build on the foundation laid over the past decade.

  20. Desire for fertility among HIV-seroconcordant and -discordant couples in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ryan; Hayden, Robert; Weiss, Stephen M; Jones, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy rates and the desire to conceive are increasing among women living with HIV in Africa. However, attempts to conceive may increase the risk of HIV transmission or reinfection. A better understanding of factors influencing fertility desires would significantly contribute to programmes to meet the reproductive needs of women living with HIV. Using a couples-based approach, this paper explored fertility desires among HIV-seroconcordant and -discordant couples in Lusaka, Zambia. Participants were 208 heterosexual couples recruited from community health clinics and their respective catchment areas. Couples completed assessments on demographics, condom use, relationship quality and communication. Desire for children was often shared among couple members, and the strongest predictor of participants' desire for children was having a partner who wanted children. Additionally, the number of children participants had, their own reports of positive communication, and their partner's HIV serostatus influenced reproductive desires. Results support the involvement of both couple members in pre-conception counselling and pregnancy planning interventions. The inclusion of both partners may be a more effective strategy to respond to the reproductive needs of couples affected by HIV, enabling them to safeguard the health of both partners and infants.

  1. Holocene paleoenvironmental change in southeastern Africa (Makwe Rockshelter, Zambia): Implications for the spread of pastoralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua R.; Rowan, John

    2017-01-01

    The paleoenvironmental conditions surrounding the origins of pastoralism and the movement of herders from eastern to southern Africa sometime between ∼4000 and 2000 ybp have been much debated. We lack, however, detailed paleoenvironmental data from sites sampling the hunter-to-herder transition in southeastern Africa, the likely corridor from eastern to southern Africa for early pastoralists. Here we report on new paleoenvironmental data from a site in the under-sampled area of eastern Zambia, Makwe Rockshelter, which has two aggregates of archaeological horizons representing the mid-Holocene (∼5700-5000 ybp) and the late Holocene (∼1600-800 ybp). The mid-Holocene sediments at Makwe document a foraging society, whereas the late Holocene sediments include both wild game and domestic livestock. Using stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of herbivore enamel (n = 107), we show that the shift from mid-Holocene to late Holocene paleoenvironments was characterized by an increase in C4 vegetation. These data are complemented by paleoenvironmental records from Lake Malawi that show that C4 vegetation peaked after ∼2000 ybp and was coincident with the onset of cooler, more arid climates. This combined paleoenvironmental record has implications for the spread of pastoralism across southeastern Africa between ∼3000 and 2000 ybp and potential 'animal disease barriers' these early herders may have faced.

  2. Stigma and psychiatric morbidity among mothers of children with epilepsy in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elafros, Melissa A.; Sakubita-Simasiku, Claire; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Haworth, Alan; Chomba, Elwyn; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epilepsy-associated stigma contributes substantially to the social, medical, and economic burden of disease for people with epilepsy (PWE), but little is known about its impact on caregivers of PWE. Methods To better understand stigma experienced by caregivers of PWE, factors that influence caregiver stigma, and the effect of stigma on a caregiver's psychologic well being, we interviewed 100 caregivers of children with epilepsy in Zambia. Questions assessed maternal knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to epilepsy, maternal stigma, mother's proxy report of child stigma, and maternal psychiatric morbidity. Results Of 100 mothers, 39 (39%) indicated that their child was stigmatized because of his or her epilepsy. Maternal proxy report of child stigma was highly correlated with maternal stigma (OR: 5.4, p=0.04), seizure frequency (p=0.03) and seizure severity (p=0.01). One in five of 100 mothers (20%) reported feeling stigmatized because of their child's epilepsy. Higher maternal stigma was associated with lower familial and community support (ORs: 65.2 and 34.7, respectively; both pepilepsy knowledge were associated with decreased maternal stigma (ORs: 0.8 and 0.7, respectively; both pepilepsy. As maternal stigma is associated with psychiatric morbidity, educating caregivers about epilepsy and screening for anxiety and depression are warranted. PMID:24214528

  3. Experiences of work among people with disabilities who are HIV-positive in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njelesani, Janet; Nixon, Stephanie; Cameron, Deb; Parsons, Janet; Menon, Anitha

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on accounts of how having a disability and being HIV-positive influences experiences of work among 21 people (12 women, 9 men) in Lusaka, Zambia. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in English, Bemba, Nyanja, or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Three major themes were generated. The first, a triple burden, describes the burden of having a disability, being HIV-positive, and being unemployed. The second theme, disability and HIV is not inability, describes participants' desire for work and their resistance to being regarded as objects of charity. Finally, how work influences HIV management, describes the practicalities of working and living with HIV. Together these themes highlight the limited options available to persons with disabilities with HIV in Lusaka, not only secondary to the effects of HIV influencing their physical capacity to work, but also because of the attendant social stigma of being a person with a disability and HIV-positive.

  4. Assessing the microbiological performance and potential cost of boiling drinking water in urban Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psutka, Rebecca; Peletz, Rachel; Michelo, Sandford; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-07-15

    Boiling is the most common method of disinfecting water in the home and the benchmark against which other point-of-use water treatment is measured. In a six-week study in peri-urban Zambia, we assessed the microbiological effectiveness and potential cost of boiling among 49 households without a water connection who reported "always" or "almost always" boiling their water before drinking it. Source and household drinking water samples were compared weekly for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), an indicator of fecal contamination. Demographics, costs, and other information were collected through surveys and structured observations. Drinking water samples taken at the household (geometric mean 7.2 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 5.4-9.7) were actually worse in microbiological quality than source water (geometric mean 4.0 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 3.1-5.1) (p boiled at the time of collection from the home, suggesting over-reporting and inconsistent compliance. However, these samples were of no higher microbiological quality. Evidence suggests that water quality deteriorated after boiling due to lack of residual protection and unsafe storage and handling. The potential cost of fuel or electricity for boiling was estimated at 5% and 7% of income, respectively. In this setting where microbiological water quality was relatively good at the source, safe-storage practices that minimize recontamination may be more effective in managing the risk of disease from drinking water at a fraction of the cost of boiling.

  5. Chromosomal and molecular characterization of Aethomys kaiseri from Zambia and Aethomys chrysophilus from Tanzania (Rodentia, Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Riccardo; Corti, Marco; Colangelo, Paolo; Annesi, Flavia; Capanna, Ernesto; Verheyen, Walter; Sichilima, Alfred Matafwali; Makundi, Rhodes

    2003-01-01

    Aethomys is a common and widespread rodent genus in the African savannas and grasslands. However, its systematics and taxonomy are still unclear as no study has covered the entire range. In fact it might not be a monophyletic genus and perhaps should be split into two subgenera, Micaelamys and Aethomys. In this paper, we present findings based on the cytogenetics and the entire cytochrome b sequence of two species from Zambia (A. kaiseri) and Tanzania (A. chrysophilus), and we compare them with the sequences of a South African species (A. namaquensis) and other allied muroid genera. Comparison of the banded chromosomes revealed complete G-band homology between the autosomes of the two species. However, the X and Y chromosomes clearly differ in size and in C- and G-banding, being much larger in A. kaiseri. Comparison of the cytochrome b sequences places the separation between A. kaiseri and A. chrysophilus at 4.49 Mya, a period of intense speciation in other African muroids. The resulting phylogeny strongly supports the idea of a paraphyletic group, suggesting the need to elevate the previously described subgenera to the genus rank.

  6. Environmental and toenail metals concentrations in copper mining and non mining communities in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndilila, Wesu; Callan, Anna Carita; McGregor, Laura A; Kalin, Robert M; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    Copper mining contributes to increased concentrations of metals in the environment, thereby increasing the risk of metals exposure to populations living in and around mining areas. This study investigated environmental and toenail metals concentrations of non-occupational human exposure to metals in 39 copper-mining town residents and 47 non-mining town residents in Zambia. Elevated environmental concentrations were found in samples collected from the mining town residents. Toenail concentrations of cobalt (GM 1.39 mg/kg), copper (GM 132 mg/kg), lead (21.41 mg/kg) selenium (GM 0.38 mg/kg) and zinc (GM 113 mg/kg) were significantly higher in the mining area and these metals have previously been associated with copper mining. Residence in the mining area, drinking water, dust and soil metals concentrations were the most important contributors to toenail metals concentrations. Further work is required to establish the specific pathways of exposure and the health risks of elevated metals concentrations in the copper mining area.

  7. Prevalence of Giardia in dairy cattle in Lusaka and Chilanga districts, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakandelwa, Cliff; Siwila, Joyce; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B; Phiri, Isaac G K

    2016-01-15

    Giardia is an intestinal protozoan parasite of mammals including humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate prevalence of Giardia infections in smallholder and commercial dairy herds in Chilanga and Lusaka districts of Zambia. A total of 377 calves aged from 1 to 365 days were sampled on 34 farms. All faecal samples were analyzed for Giardia antigen using a commercially available ELISA kit. Overall prevalence of Giardia was 34.5% (95% CI=29.7-39.3). Among smallholder farms, animal level prevalence ranged from 0 to 100% (mean=44.6±36.9 standard deviations) and 12.5 to 60.9% (mean=33.5±16.7 standard deviations) within commercial herds. Prevalence was highest in calves less than three months old (p=0.010), and there was no significant difference in the prevalence between smallholder and commercial farms (p=0.300). Giardia prevalence was not associated with occurrence of diarrhoea in the calves (p=0.205). The study demonstrates that Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the study areas, especially in calves less than three months of age.

  8. Determination of dichlorvos residue levels in vegetables sold in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyangwe, Davies Mwazi; Mbewe, Boniface; Sijumbila, Gibson

    2016-01-01

    Small scale and large scale farmers around Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia grow vegetables using intensive agriculture methods to satisfy the ever increasing demand. To ensure maximum yield they apply various types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these vegetables. Organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agriculture for the control of various insect pests mainly in developing countries. The purpose of the study was to determine the residual levels of the most commonly used organophosphate, 2, 2-Dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, in three commonestvegetables supplied at various markets around Lusaka. Samples of 9 bunches of rape, 14 bunches lettuce and 15 rolls cabbage were randomly picked from several study sites around Lusaka. The vegetables were chopped into small pieces which were chemically treated to get methanol extracts. The extracts were then dissolved in an appropriate solvent and using Shimadzu High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ultra-violet detector (HPLC-UV) levels of 2, 2-Dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate were determined. The analysis showed that the average levels of dichlorvos were significantly above the maximum accepted limit as set by Zambian Food and Drugs Act on vegetables. Locally grown vegetables from around Lusaka have higher than maximum acceptable limits. This may have implications on human health as the cumulative effect of organophosphates in human body has potential to cause long term health problems.

  9. The Importance of Animal Source Foods for Nutrient Sufficiency in the Developing World: The Zambia Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Goldsmith, Peter D; Winter-Nelson, Alex

    2016-05-05

    There have been successful interventions fortifying staple foods to mobilize micronutrients as well as agricultural efforts to raise yields of staple foods to increase food availability. Zambia serves as an interesting case study because since 1961 there has been a notable decline in the availability of animal source foods (ASFs) and pulses and a significant increase in the supply of cassava and vegetable oils. The shift in food availability was partly attributed to the agricultural success in high-yielding and drought-resistant varieties that made cassava and oil crops more affordable and readily available. In this research, we explore another policy strategy that involves ASF as a mechanism to help remedy micronutrient inadequacies in a population. A scenario modeling analysis compares the changes in the nutrient profile of the Zambian diet through adding either staple plant source foods (PSFs) or ASFs. The scenarios under study involve the addition of (1) 18 fl oz of whole cow's milk; (2) 60 g of beef, 30 g of chicken, and 5 g of beef liver; (3) milk plus meat; or (4) 83 g of maize flour, 123 g of cassava, and other staple PSF, that is, isocaloric to the "milk + meat" group. The findings alert program planners and policy makers to the value of increasing the availability, accessibility, and utilization of ASF to simultaneously address multiple nutrient deficiencies, as well as the nutrition challenges that remain when expanding the availability of plant-based staples.

  10. Self-reported poor oral hygiene among in-school adolescents in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental health is a neglected aspect of adolescent health globally but more so in low-income countries. Secondary analysis using the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS was conducted in which we estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables and explored associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported poor oral hygiene (not cleaning or brushing teeth within the last 30 days of the completion of questionnaire. Findings Most of the 2257 respondents were males (53.9% and went hungry (82.5%. More than 4 in 10 respondents drank alcohol (42.2% while 37.2% smoked cannabis. Overall 10.0% of the respondents reported to have poor oral hygiene. Male respondents were 7% less likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to females. Compared to respondents who never drank alcohol, those who drank alcohol were 27% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene. Respondents who smoked cannabis were 4% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not smoke cannabis. Finally, respondents who went hungry were 35% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not go hungry. Conclusions Results from this study indicate that female gender, alcohol drinking, cannabis smoking, and going hungry were associated with self-reported poor oral hygiene. The identification of these factors should guide the design and implementation of programs aimed to improve oral health among adolescents.

  11. Pediatric HIV-HBV Coinfection in Lusaka, Zambia: Prevalence and Short-Term Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Kathryn; Nchimba, Lweendo; Chilengi, Roma; Bolton Moore, Carolyn; Mubiana-Mbewe, Mwangelwa; Vinikoor, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in Africa, where it may occur as an HIV coinfection. Data remain limited on HIV-HBV epidemiology in Africa, particularly in children. Using programmatic data from pediatric HIV clinics in Lusaka, Zambia during 2011-2014, we analyzed the prevalence of chronic HBV coinfection (defined as a single positive hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] test) and its impact on immune recovery and liver enzyme elevation (LEE) during the first year of antiretroviral therapy. Among 411 children and adolescents, 10.4% (95% confidence interval, 7.6-14.1) had HIV-HBV. Coinfected patients were more likely to have World Health Organization stage 3/4, LEE and CD4 <14% at care entry (all p < 0.05). During treatment, CD4 increases and LEE incidence were similar by HBsAg status. HBsAg positivity decreased (11.8% vs. 6.6%; p = 0.24) following HBV vaccine introduction. These findings support screening pediatric HIV patients in Africa for HBV coinfection. Dedicated cohorts are needed to assess long-term outcomes of coinfection.

  12. 赞比亚的街头贸易%Street Trading in Zambia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟才

    2012-01-01

    赞比亚城市的街头贸易活动活跃,这种街头贸易具有鲜明的非洲特点。赞比亚街头贸易活动的存在和发展有特定的历史、经济、社会和自然性根源,是黑人生产生活水平低下的一种反映和客观必然。赞比亚的街头贸易活动还与政治相联系,从中也可以看出当前中国对非洲的种种影响。%Street trading activities are widespread in cities of Zambia, which have distinct African characteristics, result from some society and nature and reflect Zambian Africans' standard of political affairs. Also from these fluence on Africa. underdevelopment living. The street origins of history, economy, of Zambian productivity and trading activities are activities we can summarize some kinds relating with of China influence on Africa.

  13. Determinants of intravaginal practices among HIV-infected women in Zambia using conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Maria L; Cook, Ryan; Chisembele, Maureen; Malupande, Emeria; Jones, Deborah L

    2016-05-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVPs) are associated with an increased risk of bacterial vaginosis and may play a role in HIV transmission. The objective of this study was to identify the importance of factors underlying the decision to engage in IVP using conjoint analysis; a novel statistical technique used to quantify health-related decisions. This study was a cross-sectional study. HIV-infected women in Zambia completed audio computer-administered self-interview questionnaires assessing demographic, risk factors and IVPs. Reasons for engaging in IVPs were explored using conjoint questionnaires. Conjoint analysis was used to identify the relative importance of factors for engaging in IVPs. Results of the conjoint analysis demonstrated that hygiene was the most important reason for engaging in IVPs (mean importance score = 61, SD = 24.3) followed by partner's preference (mean importance score = 20, SD = 14.4) and health (mean importance score = 17, SD = 13.5). When making the decision to engage in IVPs, women rank the importance of hygiene, partner preference and health differently, according to their personal characteristics. The use of conjoint analysis to define the characteristics of women more likely to engage in specific practices should be used to develop tailored rather than standardised IVP interventions, and such interventions should be incorporated into clinical practice and women's health programmes.

  14. Life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of biochar implementation in conservation agriculture in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Field, John L; Martinsen, Vegard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2013-02-01

    Biochar amendment to soil is a potential technology for carbon storage and climate change mitigation. It may, in addition, be a valuable soil fertility enhancer for agricultural purposes in sandy and/or weathered soils. A life cycle assessment including ecological, health and resource impacts has been conducted for field sites in Zambia to evaluate the overall impacts of biochar for agricultural use. The life cycle impacts from conservation farming using cultivation growth basins and precision fertilization with and without biochar addition were in the present study compared to conventional agricultural methods. Three different biochar production methods were evaluated: traditional earth-mound kilns, improved retort kilns, and micro top-lit updraft (TLUD) gasifier stoves. The results confirm that the use of biochar in conservation farming is beneficial for climate change mitigation purposes. However, when including health impacts from particle emissions originating from biochar production, conservation farming plus biochar from earth-mound kilns generally results in a larger negative effect over the whole life cycle than conservation farming without biochar addition. The use of cleaner technologies such as retort kilns or TLUDs can overcome this problem, mainly because fewer particles and less volatile organic compounds, methane and carbon monoxide are emitted. These results emphasize the need for a holistic view on biochar use in agricultural systems. Of special importance is the biochar production technique which has to be evaluated from both environmental/climate, health and social perspectives.

  15. Contraceptive discontinuation and switching among couples receiving integrated HIV and family planning services in Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviors among HIV positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Design Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services, and were assessed every 3-months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. Methods We modeled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Results Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods, and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. Conclusions We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility-goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services. PMID:24088689

  16. High prevalence of tuberculosis in newly enrolled HIV patients in Zambia: need for enhanced screening approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henostroza, G; Harris, J B; Chitambi, R; Siyambango, M; Turnbull, E R; Maggard, K R; Krüüner, A; Kapata, N; Reid, S E

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. In Zambia, smear microscopy and chest radiography (CXR) are the primary TB diagnostic tools, and most cases are not bacteriologically confirmed. We implemented enhanced screening to determine the TB burden among new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic enrollees. Consecutive adult HIV clinic enrollees were screened, regardless of symptoms. All underwent microscopy (Ziehl-Neelsen/fluorescence microscopy) on three sputum specimens, physical examination, and digital CXR. Sputum, blood and urine specimens were cultured. Xpert(®) MTB/RIF testing was performed retrospectively. From July 2011 to April 2012, 399 patients were enrolled. The median age was 34.4 years; body mass index was 20.8 kg/m(2), CD4 count was 202 cells/μl and 86% were symptomatic. Culture-confirmed TB was diagnosed in 72/399 (18%) patients; an additional 31/399 (8%) were culture-negative but diagnosed clinically. Symptom screening for any cough, fever, weight loss or night sweats had high sensitivity (95%) but low specificity (14%) for detecting culture-confirmed cases. Among culture-confirmed cases, 35/72 (49%) were missed clinically and detected only by culture. Xpert was 64% sensitive and 98% specific. High TB prevalence was found in Zambians newly enrolled into HIV care. Screening with sensitive diagnostics should be considered with culture when feasible in this population.

  17. Temporal Trends and Predictors of Modern Contraceptive Use in Lusaka, Zambia, 2004–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Hancock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although increasing access to family planning has been an important part of the global development agenda, millions of women continue to face unmet need for contraception. Materials and Methods. We analyzed data from a repeated cross-sectional community survey conducted in Lusaka, Zambia, over an eight-year period. We described prevalence of modern contraceptive use, including long-acting reversible contraception (LARC, among female heads of household aged 16–50 years. We also identified predictors of LARC versus short-term contraceptive use among women using modern methods. Results and Discussion. Twelve survey rounds were completed between November 2004 and September 2011. Among 29,476 eligible respondents, 17,605 (60% reported using modern contraception. Oral contraceptive pills remained the most popular method over time, but use of LARC increased significantly, from less than 1% in 2004 to 9% by 2011 (p<0.001. Younger women (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.61 and women with lower levels of education (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.89 were less likely to report LARC use compared to women using short-term modern methods. Conclusions. Population-based assessments of contraceptive use over time can guide programs and policies. To achieve reproductive health equity and reduce unmet contraceptive need, future efforts to increase LARC use should focus on young women and those with less education.

  18. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Muma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT, followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The overall prevalence of BTB based on the 4 mm and 3 mm cutoff criteria was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–7.0% and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8–8.8%, respectively. Change in skin thickness on SCITT was influenced by initial skin-fold thickness at the inoculation site, where animals with thinner skin had a tendency to give a larger tuberculin response. Brucellosis seroprevalence was estimated at 20.7% (95% CI: 17.0–24.4%. Comparison between results from RBT and c-ELISA showed good agreement (84.1% and revealed subjectivity in RBT test results. Differences in brucellosis and tuberculosis prevalence across districts were attributed to type of husbandry practices and ecological factors. High prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis suggests that control control programmes are necessary for improved cattle productivity and reduced public health risk.

  19. Tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) of the Kafue Basin in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyeme, M; Muma, J B; Siamudaala, V M; Skjerve, E; Munang'andu, H M; Tryland, M

    2010-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been reported in the Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) of Zambia. However, previous reports are restricted to the southern parts in Lochinvar, where only old male animals were investigated. This study was conducted to gather epidemiological information on TB in Lechwe antelopes across sexes and age groups in relation to other explanatory variables of disease occurrence in the Kafue Basin. Animals were hunted under a special licence to investigate diseases in the Kafue Basin during the 2004, 2005 and 2008 hunting seasons. Histopathology, acid-fast staining and mycobacterial culturing from tissue samples were conducted. A total of 119 animals were slaughtered with an estimated age range of 2.5-20 years. Of these, 29 (24.3% [95% CI: 16.5, 32.3%]) had necropsy lesions suggestive of tuberculosis, of which 21 (17.6% [95% CI: 10.7, 24.6%]) tested positive on acid-fast staining while 33 (27.7% [95% CI: 19.6, 35.9%]) showed culture and colony morphological characteristics suggestive of Mycobacterium species. On univariate analysis, animals with poor body condition were twice as likely to have tuberculosis associated lesions as those having good body conditions (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 0.6, 9.3%). Based on lesion distribution, a respiratory route of mycobacterial infection is intimated.

  20. Study on drying rate in contact drying with flexible screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟宏; 陆仁书; 张显权

    2000-01-01

    The moisture contents (MC) of popular veneers were tested in Composition Board Laboratory of Northeast Forestry University by contact drying with flexible screen. The influence factors considered included temperature, initial moisture contents (IMC), and veneer thickness. Veneer-drying laws under different hot press conditions were analyzed. The results showed that the drying rate increased with temperature rising. 160℃ was considered to be more efficient than 140℃ and 180℃ because excessive high temperature has no significant contribution to drying rate. IMC had significant effect on drying rate. The veneer with high IMC had a higher drying rate at above fiber saturation point (FSP) and a lower drying rate at below FSP, compared to the veneer with low IMC. Average drying rate also varied with thickness in power law.

  1. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  2. An unusually dry story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rajagopala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a middle-aged woman with a prior history of central nervous system (CNS demyelinating disorder who presented with an acute onset quadriparesis and respiratory failure. The evaluation revealed distal renal tubular acidosis with hypokalemia and medullary nephrocalcinosis. Weakness persisted despite potassium correction, and ongoing evaluation confirmed recurrent CNS and long-segment spinal cord demyelination with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies. There was no history of dry eyes or dry mouth. Anti-Sjogren′s syndrome A antigen antibodies were elevated, and there was reduced salivary flow on scintigraphy. Coexistent antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with inferior vena cava thrombosis was also found on evaluation. The index patient highlights several rare manifestations of primary Sjogren′s syndrome (pSS as the presenting features and highlights the differential diagnosis of the clinical syndromes in which pSS should be considered in the Intensive Care Unit.

  3. Drying characteristics and kinetics of fluidized bed dried potato

    OpenAIRE

    S.B. BAKAL; K.H. GEDAM; Sharma, G. P.

    2008-01-01

    In developed countries, more than 50% potatoes are consumed as processed products. As drying is the vital phenomenon in processing, it is necessary to investigate the drying characteristics and its kinetics. In this experimental study, drying kinetics of Potato in two different shape of cuboidal & cylindrical with three aspect ratio was investigated as a function of drying conditions. Experiments were conducted using air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 ºC, at velocity of 7 ms-1. The experimenta...

  4. Dry Eye Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  5. Drying of complex suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lei; Bergés, Alexis; Lu, Peter J.; Studart, André R.; Schofield, Andrew B.; Oki, Hidekazu; Davies, Simon; Weitz, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the 3D structure and drying dynamics of complex mixtures of emulsion droplets and colloidal particles, using confocal microscopy. Air invades and rapidly collapses large emulsion droplets, forcing their contents into the surrounding porous particle pack at a rate proportional to the square of the droplet radius. By contrast, small droplets do not collapse, but remain intact and are merely deformed. A simple model coupling the Laplace pressure to Darcy's law correctly estimates ...

  6. Developing a scale to measure stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about women who have abortions: results from Ghana and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellenberg, Kristen M; Hessini, Leila; Levandowski, Brooke A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the context of abortion stigma in Ghana and Zambia through qualitative research, and develop a quantitative instrument to measure stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about abortion. Ultimately, we aimed to develop a scale to measure abortion stigma at the individual and community level that can also be used in the evaluation of stigma reduction interventions. Focus group discussions were conducted in both countries to provide information around attitudes and beliefs about abortion. A 57-item instrument was created from these data, pre-tested, and then administered to 531 individuals (n = 250 in Ghana and n = 281 in Zambia). Exploratory factor analyses were conducted on 33 of the original 57 items to identify a statistically and conceptually relevant scale. Items with factor loadings > 0.39 were retained. All analyses were completed using Stata IC/11.2. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor solution that explained 53% of the variance in an 18-item instrument. The three identified subscales are: (i) negative stereotypes (eight items), (ii) discrimination and exclusion (seven items), and (iii) potential contagion (three items). Coefficient alphas of 0.85, 0.80, and 0.80 for the three subscales, and 0.90 for the full 18-item instrument provide evidence of internal consistency reliability. Our Stigmatizing Attitudes, Beliefs, and Actions scale captures three important dimensions of abortion stigma: negative stereotypes about men and women who are associated with abortion, discrimination/exclusion of women who have abortions, and fear of contagion as a result of coming in contact with a woman who has had an abortion. The development of this scale provides a validated tool for measuring stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about abortion in Ghana and Zambia. Additionally, the scale has the potential to be applicable in other country settings. It represents an important contribution to the fields of reproductive

  7. Monitoring of antiretroviral therapy and mortality in HIV programmes in Malawi, South Africa and Zambia: mathematical modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Estill

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Mortality in patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART is higher in Malawi and Zambia than in South Africa. We examined whether different monitoring of ART (viral load [VL] in South Africa and CD4 count in Malawi and Zambia could explain this mortality difference. DESIGN: Mathematical modelling study based on data from ART programmes. METHODS: We used a stochastic simulation model to study the effect of VL monitoring on mortality over 5 years. In baseline scenario A all parameters were identical between strategies except for more timely and complete detection of treatment failure with VL monitoring. Additional scenarios introduced delays in switching to second-line ART (scenario B or higher virologic failure rates (due to worse adherence when monitoring was based on CD4 counts only (scenario C. Results are presented as relative risks (RR with 95% prediction intervals and percent of observed mortality difference explained. RESULTS: RRs comparing VL with CD4 cell count monitoring were 0.94 (0.74-1.03 in scenario A, 0.94 (0.77-1.02 with delayed switching (scenario B and 0.80 (0.44-1.07 when assuming a 3-times higher rate of failure (scenario C. The observed mortality at 3 years was 10.9% in Malawi and Zambia and 8.6% in South Africa (absolute difference 2.3%. The percentage of the mortality difference explained by VL monitoring ranged from 4% (scenario A to 32% (scenarios B and C combined, assuming a 3-times higher failure rate. Eleven percent was explained by non-HIV related mortality. CONCLUSIONS: VL monitoring reduces mortality moderately when assuming improved adherence and decreased failure rates.

  8. The economic value of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia: results from a contingent valuation survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehnberg Clas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed.

  9. Detection of Human Herpes Virus 8 in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, Rabecca; Kaile, Trevor; Kafita, Doris; Chisanga, Chrispin; Kalonda, Annie; Zulu, Ephraim; Samutela, Mulemba; Polepole, Pascal; Kwenda, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Human herpes virus-8, a γ2-herpes virus, is the aetiological agent of Kaposi sarcoma. Recently, Kaposi's sarcoma cases have increased in Zambia. However, the diagnosis of this disease is based on morphological appearance of affected tissues using histological techniques, and the association with its causative agent, Human Herpes virus 8 is not sought. This means poor prognosis for affected patients since the causative agent is not targeted during diagnosis and KS lesions may be mistaken for other reactive and neoplastic vascular proliferations when only histological techniques are used. Therefore, this study was aimed at providing evidence of Human Herpes virus 8 infection in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. One hundred and twenty suspected Kaposi's sarcoma archival formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues stored from January 2013 to December 2014 in the Histopathology Laboratory at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia were analysed using histology and Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting the ORF26 gene of Human Herpes virus 8. The predominant histological type of Kaposi's sarcoma detected was the Nodular type (60.7%) followed by the plaque type (22.6%) and patch type (16.7%). The nodular lesion was identified mostly in males (40.5%, 34/84) than females (20.2%, 17/84) (p=0.041). Human Herpes virus 8 DNA was detected in 53.6% (45/84) and mostly in the nodular KS lesions (60%, 27/84) (p=0.035). The findings in this study show that the Human Herpes virus-8 is detectable in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues, and, as previously reported in other settings, is closely associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. The study has provided important baseline data for use in the diagnosis of this disease and the identification of the virus in the tissues will aid in targeted therapy.

  10. Technical and scale efficiency in the delivery of child health services in Zambia: results from data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achoki, Tom; Hovels, Anke; Masiye, Felix; Lesego, Abaleng; Leufkens, Hubert; Kinfu, Yohannes

    2017-01-01

    Objective Despite tremendous efforts to scale up key maternal and child health interventions in Zambia, progress has not been uniform across the country. This raises fundamental health system performance questions that require further investigation. Our study investigates technical and scale efficiency (SE) in the delivery of maternal and child health services in the country. Setting The study focused on all 72 health districts of Zambia. Methods We compiled a district-level database comprising health outcomes (measured by the probability of survival to 5 years of age), health outputs (measured by coverage of key health interventions) and a set of health system inputs, namely, financial resources and human resources for health, for the year 2010. We used data envelopment analysis to assess the performance of subnational units across Zambia with respect to technical and SE, controlling for environmental factors that are beyond the control of health system decision makers. Results Nationally, average technical efficiency with respect to improving child survival was 61.5% (95% CI 58.2% to 64.8%), which suggests that there is a huge inefficiency in resource use in the country and the potential to expand services without injecting additional resources into the system. Districts that were more urbanised and had a higher proportion of educated women were more technically efficient. Improved cooking methods and donor funding had no significant effect on efficiency. Conclusions With the pressing need to accelerate progress in population health, decision makers must seek efficient ways to deliver services to achieve universal health coverage. Understanding the factors that drive performance and seeking ways to enhance efficiency offer a practical pathway through which low-income countries could improve population health without necessarily seeking additional resources. PMID:28057650

  11. Technical and scale efficiency in the delivery of child health services in Zambia: results from data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achoki, Tom; Hovels, Anke; Masiye, Felix; Lesego, Abaleng; Leufkens, Hubert; Kinfu, Yohannes

    2017-01-05

    Despite tremendous efforts to scale up key maternal and child health interventions in Zambia, progress has not been uniform across the country. This raises fundamental health system performance questions that require further investigation. Our study investigates technical and scale efficiency (SE) in the delivery of maternal and child health services in the country. The study focused on all 72 health districts of Zambia. We compiled a district-level database comprising health outcomes (measured by the probability of survival to 5 years of age), health outputs (measured by coverage of key health interventions) and a set of health system inputs, namely, financial resources and human resources for health, for the year 2010. We used data envelopment analysis to assess the performance of subnational units across Zambia with respect to technical and SE, controlling for environmental factors that are beyond the control of health system decision makers. Nationally, average technical efficiency with respect to improving child survival was 61.5% (95% CI 58.2% to 64.8%), which suggests that there is a huge inefficiency in resource use in the country and the potential to expand services without injecting additional resources into the system. Districts that were more urbanised and had a higher proportion of educated women were more technically efficient. Improved cooking methods and donor funding had no significant effect on efficiency. With the pressing need to accelerate progress in population health, decision makers must seek efficient ways to deliver services to achieve universal health coverage. Understanding the factors that drive performance and seeking ways to enhance efficiency offer a practical pathway through which low-income countries could improve population health without necessarily seeking additional resources. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Measuring the impact of non-monetary incentives on facility delivery in rural Zambia: a clustered randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Connor, A L; Guo, E; Nambao, M; Chanda-Kapata, P; Lambo, N; Phiri, C

    2016-04-01

    In Zambia, only 56% of rural women deliver in a health facility, and improving facility delivery rates is a priority of the Zambian government. 'Mama kit' incentives - small packages of childcare items provided to mothers conditional on delivering their baby in a facility - may encourage facility delivery. This study measured the impact and cost-effectiveness of a US$4 mama kit on rural facility delivery rates in Zambia. A clustered randomised controlled trial was used to measure the impact of mama kits on facility delivery rates in thirty rural health facilities in Serenje and Chadiza districts. Facility-level antenatal care and delivery registers were used to measure the percentage of women attending antenatal care who delivered at a study facility during the intervention period. Results from the trial were then used to model the cost-effectiveness of mama kits at-scale in terms of cost per death averted. The mama kits intervention resulted in a statistically significant increase in facility delivery rates. The multivariate logistic regression found that the mama kits intervention increased the odds of delivering at a facility by 63% (P-value < 0.01, 95% CI: 29%, 106%), or an increase of 9.9 percentage points, yielding a cost-effectiveness of US$5183 per death averted. This evaluation confirms that low-cost mama kits can be a cost-effective intervention to increase facility delivery rates in rural Zambia. Mama kits alone are unlikely to completely solve safe delivery challenges but should be embedded in larger maternal and child health programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The political economy of maize production and poverty reduction in Zambia: analysis of the last 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjra, Munir A; Culas, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Poverty and food security are endemic issues in much of sub-Saharan Africa. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the region remains a key Millennium Development Goal. Many African governments have pursued economic reforms and agricultural policy interventions in order to accelerate economic growth that reduces poverty faster. Agricultural policy regimes in Zambia in the last 50 years (1964–2008) are examined here to better understand their likely impact on food security and poverty, with an emphasis on the political economy of maize subsidy policies. The empirical work draws on secondary sources and an evaluation of farm household data from three villages in the Kasama District of Zambia from 1986/87 and 1992/93 to estimate a two-period econometric model to examine the impact on household welfare in a pre- and post-reform period. The analysis shows that past interventions had mixed effects on enhancing the production of food crops such as maize. While such reforms were politically popular, it did not necessarily translate into household-level productivity or welfare gains in the short term. The political economy of reforms needs to respond to the inherent diversity among the poor rural and urban households. The potential of agriculture to generate a more pro-poor growth process depends on the creation of new market opportunities that most benefit the rural poor. The state should encourage private sector investments for addressing infrastructure constraints to improve market access and accelerate more pro-poor growth through renewed investments in agriculture, rural infrastructure, gender inclusion, smarter subsidies and regional food trade. However, the financing of such investments poses significant challenges. There is a need to address impediments to the effective participation of public private investors to generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programmes. This article also explores the opportunities for new public

  14. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

  15. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  16. Acute hypophosphataemia and hypokalaemia in a patient starting antiretroviral therapy in Zambia-a new context for refeeding syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, Christopher; Zulu, Isaac; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Bagchi, Shashwatee; Potter, Dara; Bosire, Claire; Krishnasami, Zipporah; Heimburger, Douglas C

    2009-01-01

    High mortality rates have been reported in the first 90 days of antiretroviral therapy in Zambia and other low-income countries. We report a case of acute hypophosphataemia and hypokalaemia in the first week of antiretroviral therapy in a patient with extreme AIDS wasting. Given its occurrence in an extremely wasted patient, it may be physiologically similar to refeeding syndrome but other causes could be relevant as well. Acute hypophosphataemia may contribute to early antiretroviral therapy associated mortality in low-income countries.

  17. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: a case study in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Anna L; Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne R

    2010-12-16

    Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4) should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa) diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern

  18. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Suzanne R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical

  19. The Public-Private Sector Wage Gap in Zambia in the 1990s: A Quantile Regression Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    2001-01-01

    of economic transition, because items as privatization and deregulation were on the political agenda. The focus is placed on the public-private sector wage gap, and the results show that this gap was relatively favorable for the low-skilled and less favorable for the high-skilled. This picture was further......We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period...

  20. The Public-Private Sector Wage Gap in Zambia in the 1990s: A Quantile Regression Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period...... of economic transition, because items as privatization and deregulation were on the political agenda. The focus is placed on the public-private sector wage gap, and the results show that this gap was relatively favorable for the low-skilled and less favorable for the high-skilled. This picture was further...

  1. Characterization of H3N6 avian influenza virus isolated from a wild white pelican in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulundu, Edgar; Mweene, Aaron S; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Ishii, Akihiro; Suzuki, Yuka; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Ito, Kimihito; Kida, Hiroshi; Saiwana, Lewis; Takada, Ayato

    2009-01-01

    We characterized an influenza virus isolated from a great white pelican in Zambia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of its gene segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage and that they appear to have evolved in distinct geographical regions in Europe, Asia, and Africa, suggesting reassortment of virus genes maintained in wild aquatic birds whose flyways overlap across these continents. It is notable that this virus might possess some genes of the same origin as those of highly pathogenic H7 and H5 viruses isolated in Eurasia. The present study underscores the need for continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses in Eurasia and Africa.

  2. HIV- and AIDS-associated neurocognitive functioning in Zambia – a perspective based on differences between the genders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabuba N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Norma Kabuba,1,2 J Anitha Menon,1 Donald R Franklin Jr,3 Robert K Heaton,3 Knut A Hestad2,4,5 1Department of Psychology, The University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; 2Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Hamar, Norway; 5Department of Public Health, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS are frequently associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI. However, few studies have examined the interrelationship between gender and NCI in the HIV and AIDS population. This cross-sectional study examined the neurocognitive (NC functioning of HIV-infected male and female adults from urban Zambia. The participants included 266 HIV seropositive (HIV+ adults (males [n=107] and females [n=159]. Participants completed NC assessment by means of a comprehensive test battery using normative data from 324 HIV-seronegative (HIV- controls. The norms corrected for effects of age, education, and gender in the general population, and the test battery measures domains of attention/working memory (learning and delayed recall, executive function, verbal fluency, processing speed, verbal and visual episodic memory, and fine motor skills. An overall comparison of the HIV+ male and female participants yielded no statistically significant differences. Analysis of covariance results controlling for disease characteristics showed that HIV+ female participants had worse delayed recall scores than males, F(1,117 =9.70, P=0.002, partial ƞ2=0.077. The females also evidenced a trend toward greater impairment on learning efficiency (P=0.015. The findings suggest that there are gender-related differences in NCI after controlling for disease characteristics. It was observed that although the HIV

  3. Fluid flow in drying drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, H.

    2013-01-01

    When a suspension drop evaporates, it leaves behind a drying stain. Examples of these drying stains encountered in daily life are coffee or tea stains on a table top, mineral rings on glassware that comes out of the dishwasher, or the salt deposits on the streets in winter. Drying stains are also pr

  4. Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2007-12-01

    Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

  5. Electrohydrodynamic drying of carrot slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Ding

    Full Text Available Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique.

  6. The prevalence of HIV among adults with pulmonary TB at a population level in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Grobusch, Martin P; Cobelens, Frank

    2017-03-29

    Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection is one of the main drivers of poor outcome for both diseases in Zambia. HIV infection has been found to predict TB infection/disease and TB has been reported as a major cause of death among individuals with HIV. Improving case detection of TB/HIV co-infection has the potential to lead to early treatment of both conditions and can impact positively on treatment outcomes. This study was conducted in order to determine the HIV prevalence among adults with tuberculosis in a national prevalence survey setting in Zambia, 2013-2014. A countrywide cross sectional survey was conducted in 2013/2014 using stratified cluster sampling, proportional to population size for rural and urban populations. Each of the 66 countrywide clusters represented one census supervisory area with cluster size averaging 825 individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics were collected during a household visit by trained survey staff. A standard symptom-screening questionnaire was administered to 46,099 eligible individuals across all clusters, followed by chest x-ray reading for all eligible. Those symptomatic or with x-ray abnormalities were confirmed or ruled out as TB case by either liquid culture or Xpert MTBRif performed at the three central reference laboratories. HIV testing was offered to all participants at the survey site following the national testing algorithm with rapid tests. The prevalence was expressed as the proportion of HIV among TB cases with 95% confidence limits. A total of 265/6123 (4.3%) participants were confirmed of having tuberculosis. Thirty-six of 151 TB survey cases who accepted HIV testing were HIV-seropositive (23.8%; 95% CI 17.2-31.4). The mean age of the TB/HIV cases was 37.6 years (range 24-70). The majority of the TB/HIV cases had some chest x-ray abnormality (88.9%); were smear positive (50.0%), and/or had a positive culture result (94.4%). None of the 36 detected TB/HIV cases were already on TB treatment, and 5/36 (13

  7. Development of a curriculum for training in One Health analytical epidemiology at the University of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Muma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the world has witnessed emergence of novel diseases such as avian influenza, HIV and AIDS, West Nile Virus and Ebola. The evolution of these pathogens has been facilitated mainly by a constantly evolving animal-human interface. Whilst infectious disease control was previously conceptualised as either public health or animal health related issues, the distinction between disciplinary foci have been blurred by multiple causal factors that clearly traverse traditional disciplinary divides. These multiple evolutionary pressures have included changes in land use, ecosystems, human-livestock-wildlife interactions and antibiotic use, representing novel routes for pathogen emergence. With the growing realisation that pathogens do not respect traditional epistemological divides, the ‘One Health’ initiative has emerged to advocate for closer collaboration across the health disciplines and has provided a new agenda for health education. Against this background, the One Health Analytical Epidemiology course was developed under the auspices of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance by staff from the University of Zambia with collaborators from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Royal Veterinary College in London. The course is aimed at equipping scientists with multidisciplinary skill sets to match the contemporary challenges of human, animal and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Epidemiology is an important discipline for both public and animal health. Therefore, this two-year programme has been developed to generate a cadre of epidemiologists with a broad understanding of disease control and prevention and will be able to conceptualise and design holistic programs for informing health and disease control policy decisions.

  8. Creating a Knowledge Translation Platform: nine lessons from the Zambia Forum for Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasonde Joseph M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP provides cohesion and leadership for national–level knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHR’s organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directors; performing comprehensive situation analyses to understand not only the prevailing research-and-policy dynamics but a precise operational niche; and selecting a leader that bridges the worlds of research and policy. Programmatic lessons include focusing on building the capacity of both policy-makers and researchers; building a database of local evidence and national-level actors involved in research and policy; and catalyzing work in particular issue areas by identifying leaders from the research community, creating policy-maker demand for research evidence, and fostering the next generation by mentoring both up-and-coming researchers and policy–makers. Ultimately, ZAMFOHR’s experience shows that an African KTP must pay significant attention to its organizational details. A KTP must also invest in the skill base of the wider community and, more importantly, of its own staff. Given the very real deficit of research-support skills in most low-income countries – in synthesis, in communications, in brokering, in training – a KTP must spend significant time and resources in building these types of in-house expertise. And lastly, the role of networking cannot be underestimated. As a fully-networked KTP, ZAMFOHR has benefited from the innovations of other KTPs, from funding opportunities and partnerships, and from invaluable technical support from both African and northern colleagues.

  9. The epidemiology and small-scale spatial heterogeneity of urinary schistosomiasis in Lusaka province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Simoonga

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In line with the aims of the “National Bilharzia Control Programme” and the “School Health and Nutrition Programme” in Zambia, a study on urinary schistosomiasis was conducted in 20 primary schools of Lusaka province to further our understanding of the epidemiology of the infection, and to enhance spatial targeting of control. We investigated risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis, and examined small-scale spatial heterogeneity in prevalence, using data collected from 1,912 schoolchildren, 6 to 15-year-old, recruited from 20 schools in Kafue and Luangwa districts. The risk factors identified included geographical location, altitude, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, maximum temperature, age, sex of the child and intermediate host snail abundance. Three logistic regression models were fitted assuming different random effects to allow for spatial structuring. The mean prevalence rate was 9.6%, with significance difference between young and older children (odds ratio (OR = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.51-0.96. The risk of infection was related to intermediate host snail abundance (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.00-1.05 and vegetation cover (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.00-1.07. Schools located either on the plateau and the valley also differed in prevalence and intensity of infection for moderate infection to none (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.36- 1.96. The overall predictive performance of the spatial random effects model was higher than the ordinary logistic regression. In addition, evidence of heterogeneity of the infection risk was found at the micro-geographical level. A sound understanding of small-scale heterogeneity, caused by spatial aggregation of schoolchildren, is important to inform health planners for implementing control schistosomiasis interventions.

  10. Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut products from local markets in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Samuel M C; Matumba, Limbikani; Kanenga, Kennedy; Siambi, Moses; Waliyar, Farid; Maruwo, Joseph; Machinjiri, Norah; Monyo, Emmanuel S

    2017-05-01

    In Zambia, groundnut products (milled groundnut powder, groundnut kernels) are mostly sold in under-regulated markets. Coupled with the lack of quality enforcement in such markets, consumers may be at risk to aflatoxin exposure. However, the level of aflatoxin contamination in these products is not known. Compared to groundnut kernels, milled groundnut powder obscures visual indicators of aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts such as moldiness, discoloration, insect damage or kernel damage. A survey was therefore conducted from 2012 to 2014, to estimate and compare aflatoxin levels in these products (n = 202), purchased from markets in important groundnut growing districts and in urban areas. Samples of whole groundnut kernels (n = 163) and milled groundnut powder (n = 39) were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Results showed substantial AFB1 contamination levels in both types of groundnut products with maximum AFB1 levels of 11,100 μg/kg (groundnut kernels) and 3000 μg/kg (milled groundnut powder). However, paired t test analysis showed that AFB1 contamination levels in milled groundnut powder were not always significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those in groundnut kernels. Even for products from the same vendor, AFB1 levels were not consistently higher in milled groundnut powder than in whole groundnut kernels. This suggests that vendors do not systematically sort out whole groundnut kernels of visually poor quality for milling. However, the overall contamination levels of groundnut products with AFB1 were found to be alarmingly high in all years and locations. Therefore, solutions are needed to reduce aflatoxin levels in such under-regulated markets.

  11. Prevalence of Neurocysticercosis in People with Epilepsy in the Eastern Province of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Blocher, Joachim; Wiefek, Jasmin; Schmidt, Kathie; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas; Chiluba, Clarance; Schmidt, Holger; Phiri, Isaac K; Winkler, Andrea S; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Zambia is endemic for Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis. In this single-centered, cross-sectional, community-based study, the role of neurocysticercosis (NCC) as a cause of epilepsy was examined. People with epilepsy (PWE, n = 56) were identified in an endemic area using a screening questionnaire followed by in-depth interviews and neurological examination. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 49 people with active epilepsy (PWAE) and their sera (specific antibody and antigen detection, n = 56) and stools (copro-antigen detection, n = 54) were analyzed. The CT scan findings were compared to a group of 40 CT scan controls. Of the PWE, 39.3% and 23.2% were positive for cysticercal antibodies and antigens, respectively, and 14.8% for coproantigens (taeniosis). Lesions highly suggestive of NCC were detected in 24.5% and definite NCC lesions in 4.1% of CT scans of PWAE. This compares to 2.5% and 0%, respectively, in the control CT scans. Using the Del Brutto diagnostic criteria, 51.8% of the PWAE were diagnosed with probable or definitive NCC and this rose to 57.1% when the adapted criteria, as proposed by Gabriël et al. (adding the sero-antigen ELISA test as a major criterion), were used. There was no statistically significant relationship between NCC, current age, age at first seizure and gender. This study suggests that NCC is the single most important cause of epilepsy in the study area. Additional large-scale studies, combining a community based prevalence study for epilepsy with neuroimaging and serological analysis in different areas are needed to estimate the true impact of neurocysticercosis in endemic regions and efforts should be instituted to the control of T. solium.

  12. Repeat HIV testing during pregnancy and delivery: missed opportunities in a rural district hospital in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemelaar, Steffie; Habets, Nicole; Makukula, Ziche; van Roosmalen, Jos; van den Akker, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    To assess coverage of repeat HIV testing among women who delivered in a Zambian hospital. HIV testing of pregnant women and repeat testing every 3 months during pregnancy and breastfeeding is the recommended policy in areas of high HIV prevalence. A prospective implementation study in a second-level hospital in rural Zambia. Included were all pregnant women who delivered in hospital during May and June 2012. Data regarding antenatal visits and HIV testing were collected by two investigators using a standardised form. Of 401 women who delivered in hospital, sufficient antenatal data could be retrieved for 322 (80.3%) women. Of these 322 women, 301 (93.5%) had attended antenatal care (ANC) at least once. At the time of discharge after delivery in hospital, 171 (53.1%) had an unclear HIV status because their negative test result was more than 3 months ago or of an unknown date, or because they had not been tested at all during pregnancy or delivery. An updated HIV status was present for 151 (46.9%) women: 25 (7.8%) were HIV positive and 126 (39.1%) had tested negative within the last 3 months. In this last group, 79 (24.5%) had been tested twice or more during pregnancy. During the study period, none of the women was tested during admission for delivery. Despite high ANC coverage, opportunities for repeat HIV testing were missed in almost half of all women who delivered in this hospital in a high-prevalence HIV setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Bucking social norms: Examining anomalous fertility aspirations in the face of HIV in Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann M.; Keogh, Sarah; Kavanaugh, Megan; Bankole, Akinrinola; Mulambia, Chishimba; Mutombo, Namuunda

    2014-01-01

    In settings of high fertility and high HIV prevalence, individuals are making fertility decisions while simultaneously trying to avoid or manage HIV. We sought to increase our understanding of how individuals dually manage HIV risk while attempting to achieve their fertility goals as part of the project entitled HIV Status and Achieving Fertility Desires conducted in Zambia in 2011. Using multivariate regression to predict fertility patterns based on socio-demographic characteristics for respondents from facility-based and community-based surveys, we employed Anomalous Case Analysis (ACA) whereby in-depth interview respondents were selected from the groups of outliers amongst the survey respondents who reported lower or higher fertility preferences than predicted as well as those who adhered to predicted patterns, and lived in Lusaka (n=45). All of the facility-based respondents were HIV-positive. We utilize the Theory of Conjunctural Action (TCA) to categorize domains of influence on individuals’ preferences and behavior. Both community-based and facility-based right-tail respondents (outliers whose fertility intentions indicated that they wanted a/nother child when we predicted that they did not) expressed comparatively less control over their fertility and gave more weight to pressures from others to continue childbearing. Partner communication about fertility desires was greater among left-tail respondents (outliers whose fertility intentions indicated that they did not want a/nother child when we predicted that they did). HIV-positive right-tail respondents were more likely to see anti-retroviral therapies (ARTs) which prevent mother to child transmission of HIV as highly effective, mitigating inhibitions to further childbearing. Drug interactions between ARTs and contraceptives were identified as a limitation to HIV-positive individuals’ contraceptive options on both sides of the distribution. Factors that should be taken into account in the future to

  14. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation.

  15. Child Health Week in Zambia: costs, efficiency, coverage and a reassessment of need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Mubanga, Freddie; Siamusantu, Ward; Musonda, Mofu; Kabwe, Kabaso F; Zulu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Child Health Weeks (CHWs) are semi-annual, campaign-style, facility- and outreach-based events that provide a package of high-impact nutrition and health services to under-five children. Since 1999, 30% of the 85 countries that regularly implement campaign-style vitamin A supplementation programmes have transformed their programmes into CHW. Using data drawn from districts' budget, expenditures and salary documents, UNICEF's CHW planning and budgeting tool and a special purposive survey, an economic analysis of the June 2010 CHW's provision of measles, vitamin A and deworming was conducted using activity-based costing combined with an ingredients approach. Total CHW costs were estimated to be US$5.7 million per round. Measles accounted for 57%, deworming 22% and vitamin A 21% of total costs. The cost per child was US$0.46. The additional supplies and personnel required to include measles increased total costs by 42%, but reduced the average costs of providing vitamin A and deworming alone, manifesting economies of scope. The average costs of covering larger, more urban populations was less than the cost of covering smaller, more dispersed populations. Provincial-level costs per child served were determined primarily by the number of service sites, not the number of children treated. Reliance on volunteers to provide 60% of CHW manpower enables expanding coverage, shortening the duration of CHWs and reduces costs by one-third. With costs of $1093 per life saved and $45 per disability-adjusted life-year saved, WHO criteria classify Zambia's CHWs as 'very cost-effective'. The continued need for CHWs is discussed.

  16. Assessing Child Nutrient Intakes Using a Tablet-Based 24-Hour Recall Tool in Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Bess L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Dyer, Brian; Siamusantu, Ward; Klemm, Rolf D W; Palmer, Amanda C

    2015-12-01

    Detailed dietary intake data in low-income populations are needed for research and program evaluation. However, collection of such data by paper-based 24-hour recall imposes substantial demands for staff time and expertise, training, materials, and data entry. To describe our development and use of a tablet-based 24-hour recall tool for conducting dietary intake surveys in remote settings. We designed a 24-hour recall tool using Open Data Kit software on an Android tablet platform. The tool contains a list of local foods, questions on portion size, cooking method, ingredients, and food source and prompts to guide interviewers. We used this tool to interview caregivers on dietary intakes of children participating in an efficacy trial of provitamin A-biofortified maize conducted in Mkushi, a rural district in central Zambia. Participants were children aged 4 to 8 years not yet enrolled in school (n = 938). Dietary intake data were converted to nutrient intakes using local food composition and recipe tables. We developed a tablet-based 24-hour recall tool and used it to collect dietary data among 928 children. The majority of foods consumed were maize, leafy vegetable, or small fish dishes. Median daily energy intake was 6416 kJ (1469 kcal). Food and nutrient intakes assessed using the tablet-based tool were consistent with those reported in prior research. The tool was easily used by interviewers without prior nutrition training or computing experience. Challenges remain to improve programming, but the tool is an innovation that enables efficient collection of 24-hour recall data in remote settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Moving malaria in pregnancy programs from neglect to priority: experience from Malawi, Senegal, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Elaine; Wallon, Michelle; Brieger, William; Dickerson, Aimee; Rawlins, Barbara; Agarwal, Koki

    2014-02-01

    Pregnant women and infants are particularly vulnerable to malaria. National malaria in pregnancy (MIP) programs in Malawi, Senegal, and Zambia were reviewed to identify promising strategies that have helped these countries achieve relatively high coverage of MIP interventions as well as ongoing challenges that have inhibited further progress. We used a systematic case study methodology to assess health system strengths and challenges in the 3 countries, including desk reviews of available reports and literature and key informant interviews with national stakeholders. Data were collected between 2009 and 2011 and analyzed across 8 MIP health systems components: (1) integration of programs and services, (2) policy, (3) commodities, (4) quality assurance, (5) capacity building, (6) community involvement, (7) monitoring and evaluation, and (8) financing. Within each program area, we ranked degree of scale up across 4 stages and synthesized the findings in a MIP table of analysis to reveal common themes related to better practices, remaining bottlenecks, and opportunities to accelerate MIP coverage, strengthen MIP programs, and improve results. Each of the 3 countries has malaria policies in place that reflect current MIP guidance from the World Health Organization. The 3 countries successfully integrated MIP interventions into a platform of antenatal care services, but coordination at the national level was disjointed. All 3 countries recognized the importance of having a MIP focal person to ensure collaboration and planning at the national level, but only Malawi had appointed one. Commodity stockouts were frequent due to problems at all levels of the logistics system, from quantification to distribution. Lack of support for quality assurance and weak monitoring and evaluation mechanisms across all 3 countries affected optimal coverage. MIP programs should address all 8 interconnected MIP health systems areas holistically, in the context of a health systems approach to

  18. Managing the vitamin A program portfolio: a case study of Zambia, 2013-2042.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith

    2014-03-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies continue to constitute a major burden of disease, particularly in Africa and South Asia. Programs to address micronutrient deficiencies have been increasing in number, type, and scale in recent years, creating an ever-growing need to understand their combined coverage levels, costs, and impacts so as to more effectively combat deficiencies, avoid putting individuals at risk for excess intakes, and ensure the efficient use of public health resources. To analyze combinations of the two current programs--sugar fortification and Child Health Week (CHW)--together with four prospective programs--vegetable oil fortification, wheat flour fortification, maize meal fortification, and biofortified vitamin A maize--to identify Zambia's optimal vitamin A portfolio. Combining program cost estimates and 30-year Zambian food demand projections, together with the Zambian 2005 Living Conditions Monitoring Survey, the annual costs, coverage, impact, and cost-effectiveness of 62 Zambian portfolios were modeled for the period from 2013 to 2042. Optimal portfolios are identified for each of five alternative criteria: average cost-effectiveness, incremental cost-effectiveness, coverage maximization, health impact maximization, and affordability. The most likely scenario is identified to be one that starts with the current portfolio and takes into account all five criteria. Starting with CHW and sugar fortification, it phases in vitamin A maize, oil, wheat flour, and maize meal (in that order) to eventually include all six individual interventions. Combining cost and Household Consumption and Expenditure Survey (HCES) data provides a powerful evidence-generating tool with which to understand how individual micronutrient programs interact and to quantify the tradeoffs involved in selecting alternative program portfolios.

  19. From favours to entitlements: community voice and action and health service quality in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Stephanie M.; Ngulube, Moses

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Social accountability is increasingly invoked as a way of improving health services. This article presents a theory-driven qualitative study of the context, mechanisms and outcomes of a social accountability program, Citizen Voice and Action (CVA), implemented by World Vision (WV) in Zambia. Primary data were collected between November 2013 and January 2014. It included in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with program stakeholders. Secondary data were used iteratively—to inform the process for primary data collection, to guide primary data analysis and to contextualize findings from the primary data. CVA positively impacted the state, society, state–society relations and development coordination at the local level. Specifically, sustained improvements in some aspects of health system responsiveness, empowered citizens, the improved provision of public goods (health services) and increased consensus on development issues appeared to flow from CVA. The central challenge described by interviewees and FGD participants was the inability of CVA to address problems that required central level input. The mechanisms that generated these outcomes included productive state–society communication, enhanced trust, and state–society co-production of priorities and the provision of services. These mechanisms were activated in the context of existing structures for state–society interaction, willing political leaders, buy-in by traditional leaders, and WV’s strong reputation and access to resources. Prospective observational research in multiple contexts would shed more light on the context, mechanisms and outcomes of CVA programs. In addition to findings that are intuitive and well supported in the literature we identified new areas that are promising areas for future research. These include (1) the context of organizational reputation by the organization(s) spearheading social accountability efforts; (2) the potential relationship between social

  20. The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M; Maher, Barbara A; Karloukovski, Vassil; Duller, Geoff A T; Jain, Mayank; Wintle, Ann G

    2011-05-01

    Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between ~2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating ((10)Be/(26)Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (~78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and

  1. Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation policy integration in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli-Sihvola, K.; Väätäinen-Chimpuku, S.

    2015-12-01

    Integration of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) policies, their implementation measures and the contribution of these to development has been gaining attention recently. Due to the shared objectives of CCA and particularly Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), a component of DRM, their integration provides many benefits. At the implementation level, DRR and CCA are usually integrated. Policy integration, however, is often lacking. This study presents a novel analysis of the policy integration of DRR and CCA by 1) suggesting a definition for their integration at a general and further at horizontal and vertical levels, 2) using an analysis framework for policy integration cycle, which separates the policy formulation and implementation processes, and 3) applying these to a case study in Zambia. Moreover, the study identifies the key gaps in the integration process, obtains an understanding of identified key factors for creating an enabling environment for the integration, and provides recommendations for further progress. The study is based on a document analysis of the relevant DRM, climate change (CC), agriculture, forestry, water management and meteorology policy documents and Acts, and 21 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. Horizontal integration has occurred both ways, as the revised DRM policy draft has incorporated CCA, and the new CC policy draft has incorporated DRR. This is not necessarily an optimal strategy and unless carefully implemented, it may create pressure on institutional structures and duplication of efforts in the implementation. Much less vertical integration takes place, and where it does, no guidance on how potential goal conflicts with sectorial and development objectives ought to be handled. The objectives of the instruments show convergence. At the programme stage, the measures are fully integrated as they can be classified as robust CCA measures, providing benefits in the current and future

  2. Resistance status of ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides in Isoka District, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to obtain data on the farmer's approach to tick control and to determine whether Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neuman, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) were resistant to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides, in Isoka District, Zambia. Prevailing tick control practices were documented by administering a semi-structured questionnaire to 80 randomly selected smallholder livestock farmers from four agricultural camps (Longwe, Kantenshya, Kapililonga, and Ndeke) in Isoka District. Modified larval packet test (LPT) bioassay experiments were used to determine the resistance status of the common tick species against amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides. Fifty percent of respondents practiced chemical tick control with amitraz (27 %) and cypermethrin (23 %) being the acaricides in use, and were applied with knapsack sprayers. Less than 3 l of spray wash per animal was used which was considerably lower than the recommended delivery rate of 10 l of spray wash per animal. No significant susceptibility change to amitraz at 95 % confidence level was observed in R. appendiculatus and A. variegatum against amitraz. However, a significant change in the susceptibility of R. (Bo.) microplus tested with amitraz was detected at 95 % confidence. The test population had a lower susceptibility (LD50 0.014 %; LD90 0.023 %) than the reference population (LD50 0.013 %; LD90 0.020 %). The results indicated that resistance to amitraz was developing in R. (Bo.) microplus. For cypermethrin, no significant susceptibility change at 95 % confidence was observed in any of the three species and thus resistance to this chemical was not observed.

  3. The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, L.; Phillips, W.M.; Maher, B.A.; Karloukovski, V.; Duller, G.A.T.; Jain, M.; Wintle, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between ??? 2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating (10Be/26Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (???78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and

  4. Chest radiograph reading and recording system: evaluation in frontline clinicians in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henostroza, German; Harris, Jennifer B; Kancheya, Nzali; Nhandu, Venerandah; Besa, Stable; Musopole, Robert; Krüüner, Annika; Chileshe, Chisela; Dunn, Ian J; Reid, Stewart E

    2016-03-23

    In Zambia the vast majority of chest radiographs (CXR) are read by clinical officers who have limited training and varied interpretation experience, meaning lower inter-rater reliability and limiting the usefulness of CXR as a diagnostic tool. In 2010-11, the Zambian Prison Service and Ministry of Health established TB and HIV screening programs in six prisons; screening included digital radiography for all participants. Using front-line clinicians we evaluated sensitivity, specificity and inter-rater agreement for digital CXR interpretation using the Chest Radiograph Reading and Recording System (CRRS). Digital radiographs were selected from HIV-infected and uninfected inmates who participated in a TB and HIV screening program at two Zambian prisons. Two medical officers (MOs) and two clinical officers (COs) independently interpreted all CXRs. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of CXR interpretations compared to culture as the gold standard and evaluated inter-rater reliability using percent agreement and kappa coefficients. 571 CXRs were included in analyses. Sensitivity of the interpretation "any abnormality" ranged from 50-70 % depending on the reader and the patients' HIV status. In general, MO's had higher specificities than COs. Kappa coefficients for the ratings of "abnormalities consistent with TB" and "any abnormality" showed good agreement between MOs on HIV-uninfected CXRs and moderate agreement on HIV-infected CXRs whereas the COs demonstrated fair agreement in both categories, regardless of HIV status. Sensitivity, specificity and inter-rater agreement varied substantially between readers with different experience and training, however the medical officers who underwent formal CRRS training had more consistent interpretations.

  5. Tuberculosis patients' pre-hospital delay and non-compliance with a longstanding DOT programme : a mixed methods study in urban Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Anne Lia; Gerrets, René; Kapata, Nathan; Kabika, Austin; Birnie, Emma; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Grobusch, Martin P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem in Zambia, despite considerable efforts to control and prevent it. With this study, we aim to understand how perceptions and cultural, social, economic, and organisational factors influence TB patients' pre-hospital delay and

  6. Tuberculosis patients' pre-hospital delay and non-compliance with a longstanding DOT programme: a mixed methods study in urban Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, A.L.; Gerrets, R.; Kapata, N.; Kabika, A.; Birnie, E.; Klipstein-Grobusch, K.; Grobusch, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem in Zambia, despite considerable efforts to control and prevent it. With this study, we aim to understand how perceptions and cultural, social, economic, and organisational factors influence TB patients’ pre-hospital delay and non-compliance

  7. "If You Were the Researcher What Would You Research?": Understanding Children's Perspectives on Educational Research in Mongolia and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Julia; Sengedorj, Tumendelger

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a project undertaken with children (N?=?72) in Mongolia and Zambia. The research is distinctive in bringing together diverse children, ranging from those living on the street to those in mainstream education and involving them in discussions about educational research. Being conscious of critiques of adult-initiated…

  8. Report to UNESCO on Eleven Weeks as Consultant to the Governments of Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi on Aspects of Biology Teaching, February to April, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rex

    This report describes the activities of a UNESCO consultant who visited Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi for the purpose of assisting local education agencies in the Biology Teaching Pilot Project. The consultant's report briefly summarizes the status of the School Science Project (SSP) in these East African countries. Also listed are the…

  9. An Investigation into Challenges Faced by Secondary School Teachers and Pupils in Algebraic Linear Equations: A Case of Mufulira District, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Koji; Mulenga, H. M.; Angel, Mukuka

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges faced by secondary school teachers and pupils in the teaching and learning of algebraic linear equations. The study involved 80 grade 11 pupils and 15 teachers of mathematics, drawn from 4 selected secondary schools in Mufulira district, Zambia in Central Africa. A descriptive survey method was employed to…

  10. "Distance Learning" or "Learning at a Distance"? Case Study of an Education Initiative to Deliver an In-Service Bachelors Degree in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    In 1998, as part of what was then Zambia's Department of Technical Education and Vocational Training's (DTEVT) human resources capacity building initiative, under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training (MSTVT), donor funding was secured to provide degree-level training for key teachers and managers within the technical…

  11. Nutritional status of breastfed infants in rural Zambia : comparison of the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference versus the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Pandor, A.; Burema, J.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Chishimba, N.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional data for breastfed infants in rural Zambia were used to evaluate the effect of applying two different data sets as a reference, i.e. the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference in terms of prevalence of malnutrition

  12. Native and Second Language Interference in Learning a Second Foreign Language: The Case of Bemba-Speakers Learning French in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishiba, G. M.; Mukuka, J.

    2012-01-01

    Language interference is one of the factors that affect language learning by many learners of second and third languages. In Zambia, the impact of language interference on the learners of French requires closer attention. Our literature review shows that few studies have looked at the impact of interference from Zambian languages on the learners…

  13. Non-financial constraints to scaling-up small and medium-sized energy enterprises: Findings from field research in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    constraint to establishing and expanding local small and medium-sized energy businesses, a range of significant non-financial constraints were also identified. This article provides a critical evaluation of these non-financial constraints as they were encountered in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, based...

  14. Child maltreatment in Kenya, Zambia, and the Netherlands : a cross-cultural comparison of prevalence, psychopathological sequelae, and mediation by PTSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbagaya, Catherine Vuhya

    2010-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a global phenomenon affecting a significant number of the world’s children. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported childhood maltreatment among university students in Kenya, Zambia, and The Netherlands. We also sought to compare the psychopatho

  15. Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lopez-Gordo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications.

  16. Solar drying and agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana del Monserrate Ruiz Cedeño

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Agribusinesses are the livelihoods of rural populations, but when production increase, many products are damaged and lose their commercial value due to lack of conservation treatments at a local level. Agricultural production represents the foundation of economic development of the province of Manabi. A significant level of agricultural products is lost due to lack of conservation technologies. Solar drying is a way of conserving by dehydration of some products such as: vegetables, fruits, aromatic and medicinal plants. This can be achieved by a process of proper conservation that is conducive to reduce losses using technologies easy to build, as are the different types of solar dryers which are already used in different parts of the South American region. This article proposes to introduce solar-drying technology in agricultural areas of the province of Manabi. And thereby achieve the regaining of different products that today are lost, incorporating new and attractive, marketable lines based on agricultural products naturally dehydrated with a high nutritionalvalue, capable of contributing to human health not only in the province but also in the country.

  17. Spatio-temporal robustness of fractional cover upscaling: a case study in semi-arid Savannah's of Namibia and Western Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Julian; Wegmann, Martin; Dech, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    Vegetation cover is a key parameter in analyzing the state and dynamics of ecosystems. Africa's semi-arid savanna's are particularly prone to degradation, due to increasing population pressure as well as ongoing climatic changes. In most global land cover classifications inhomogeneous areas are aggregated into few discrete classes, delivering unsatisfying results in highly variable biomes, especially savanna's with their small scale patches of woody and herbaceous vegetation and bare soil. Fractional cover(FC) classifications, which provide an estimate of sub-pixel continuous cover percentages of underlying land cover classes, and are therefore an improved thematic representation, can deliver additional information for monitoring and decision making. Prior research demonstrated that multi-scale approaches are suitable for transferring en-detail information from a small subset to a larger study area via statistical up-scaling (e.g. Random Forest). In this case study the robustness of this up-scaling approach and the limits of the spatial and temporal transferability at the very high and intermediate resolution were analysed in the Caprivi Strip in Namibia and the adjacent Western Province of Zambia. The key research questions were to quantify i) the robustness of the upscaling, ii) the loss of accuracy depending on the lag in image acquisitions, iii) the loss of accuracy dependent on the time of image acquisition in the phenological cycle. To this end 12 Worldview(WV) and all usable Landsat TM and ETM+ images, covering all phases of the vegetation cycle were obtained. The analysis showed that continuous FC mapping is a highly suitable concept for semi-arid ecosystems with gradual transitions. The optimal time for WV acquisition was at the beginning of the dry season. The RMSE was unusable for LS images recorded in the rainy season between November and March, but otherwise it was usable even for larger lags up to a month, with deviations below 15%. As long as the

  18. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chishimba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL- producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction for detection of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes. Overall 20.1%, 77/384, (95% CI; 43.2–65.5% of total samples analyzed contained ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that 85.7% (66/77; CI: 75.7–92 of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates conferred resistance to beta-lactam and other antimicrobial agents. These results indicate that poultry is a potential reservoir for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in poultry destined for human consumption requires strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy. This is important as antibiotic administration in food animals is gaining momentum for improved animal productivity in developing countries such as Zambia.

  19. A retrospective study of HIV, antiretroviral therapy, and pregnancy-associated hypertension among women in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Marie C D; Vwalika, Bellington; Smid, Marcela C; George, Shalin; Chi, Benjamin H; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the association between HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and pregnancy-associated hypertension (PAH) in an HIV-endemic setting. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken of pregnant women for whom information was recorded between February 2006 and December 2012 in the Zambia Electronic Perinatal Record System, which captures data from 25 facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. PAH was defined as eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, hypertension, or elevated blood pressure (>140/80mm Hg) during delivery admission. Logistic regression estimated the odds of PAH among women by HIV serostatus, and by most recent CD4 T lymphocyte count and ART status among women with HIV infection. Among 249 771 women included in the analysis, 5354 (2.1%) had PAH. Compared with women without HIV infection, women with HIV infection not receiving ART had lower odds of PAH (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95), whereas those with HIV infection who had initiated ART had higher odds of PAH (AOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.32). No association was found between PAH and timing of ART initiation or CD4 lymphocyte count. In a large African urban cohort, women with untreated HIV infection had the lowest odds of PAH. Treatment with ART could increase PAH risk beyond that of women without HIV infection and those with untreated infection. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Trichomonas vaginalis is highly prevalent in adolescent girls, pregnant women, and commercial sex workers in Ndola, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucitti, Tania; Jespers, Vicky; Mulenga, Chanda; Khondowe, Shepherd; Vandepitte, Judith; Buvé, Anne

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of Trichomonas sp. infection among adolescent girls, pregnant women, and commercial sex workers in Ndola, Zambia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 460 girls attending school, 307 pregnant women, and 197 commercial sex workers. Self-collected specimens from the vagina, rectum, and mouth were tested by polymerase chain amplification assays for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Pentatrichomonas hominis, and Trichomonas tenax. Genotyping was performed on specimens that tested positive for T. vaginalis. The prevalence of vaginal infection with T. vaginalis was 24.6% among the adolescents, 32.2% among the pregnant women, and 33.2% among the commercial sex workers. Trichomonads other than T. vaginalis were rarely found in the vagina, rectum, and mouth. The presence of T. vaginalis in the rectum was associated with T. vaginalis in the vagina. T. tenax was also detected in the vagina. A total of 9 actin genotypes of T. vaginalis were identified. The distribution of the actin genotypes of T. vaginalis was similar in the 3 study groups. We detected high prevalence rates of trichomoniasis among women in Ndola, Zambia. Prevalence among adolescent girls was lower than among pregnant women and commercial sex workers but was still high. We were not able to detect differences in T. vaginalis actin genotypes among the 3 study groups.

  1. Impacts of Public-Private Partnership on Local Livelihoods and Natural Resource Dynamics: Perceptions from Eastern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muleba Nshimbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the long-term implications of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP on livelihoods and natural resource (NR dynamics under a market-oriented approach to conservation. Drawing examples from the Luangwa Valley in eastern Zambia, the study sought to answer questions on two closely interrelated aspects. These included the contribution of PPP to sustainable livelihoods in and around Protected Areas (PAs and its impacts on natural resources in Game Management Areas (GMAs. Quantitative data were collected from PPP participating and non-PPP households using standardized structured interviews, while qualitative data were obtained from three chiefdoms using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Taking the case of Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO in eastern Zambia, results of this study showed that PPP contributed to sustainable livelihoods and overall natural resources management through varied ways. These include promotion of conservation farming, agroforestry, poacher transformation (individuals who have given up poaching due to PPP interventions and provision of markets for the produce of participating households. Further, impacts of PPP on soil fertility, crop, and honey yields were statistically significant (p ˂ 0.05. A combination of increased crop productivity and household incomes has seen a 40-fold increase in poacher transformation. The results of this study suggest that PPPs, if well-structured, have the potential to address both livelihoods and enterprise needs with an ultimate benefit of promoting both sustainable livelihoods and natural resources management around PAs in tropical Africa.

  2. Property grabbing and will writing in Lusaka, Zambia: an examination of wills of HIV-infected cohabiting couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, E; Muzizi, L; Stephenson, R; Chomba, E; Ahmed, Y; Haworth, A; Allen, S

    2007-03-01

    High rates of HIV and poverty place women in a precarious economic situation in Lusaka, Zambia. Mortality from HIV infection is high, leaving many households single headed and creating almost a half a million orphans. One of the most prevalent forms of gender violence that creates poverty in women is when the male's family claims the property of the deceased from the widow and the children. The Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project collected 184 wills from individuals in monogamous unions where one or both of the individuals were HIV-positive. Despite the fact that many wills specifically stated that their extended family was not allowed to tamper with their possessions in the event of death, property grabbing proved to be a prevalent and difficult issue in Lusaka. In order to improve the lives of widowed women in Lusaka, the government and other civic and non-governmental organisations must inform women of their rights to own and protect their land and other assets in the event of their husbands' death, an issue of increasing importance in the area of HIV/AIDS.

  3. Intimate Partner Violence Against HIV-Positive Women is Associated with Sub-Optimal Infant Feeding Practices in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampanda, Karen

    2016-12-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine how intimate partner violence against HIV-positive women affects safe infant feeding practices in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted with 320 married postpartum women at a large public health center in Lusaka, Zambia, in 2014. Variables were measured using previously validated instruments from the Demographic and Health Survey. Data were analyzed using simple and multivariate logistic regression in Stata 12. Results Thirty-seven percent of women report early mixed infant feeding prior to six months. Women who experienced intimate partner violence have 2.8 higher adjusted odds of early mixed infant feeding (p feeding (p feeding (p feeding (p feeding, putting infants at greater risk for both mother-to-child transmission of HIV and other infant morbidities. Intimate partner violence should thus be given increased attention within the context of infant feeding and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Health communication in multilingual contexts: a study of reading preferences, practices, and proficiencies among literate adults in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Carol; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth; Macwangi, Mubiana

    2007-06-01

    Comprehension of health materials and messages is a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for the development of health literacy; in the case of print materials, reading comprehension is elemental. Assessments of the population's ability to read and comprehend written materials are complex and highly salient in multilingual countries, such as Zambia, particularly when an excolonial language is but one of multiple official languages. Yet no study has contrasted adult Zambians' reading comprehension of health materials in the major Zambian languages with comparable English-language materials. This article reports the results of a survey of 2,009 literate Zambian adults who were tested for reading comprehension of health materials written at fourth- and eighth-grade levels. The analysis found that respondents who had not gone beyond primary school scored significantly higher on Zambian- than on English-language reading comprehension tests. Respondents with at least an eighth-grade education scored equally well or better on English-language compared with Zambian-language tests. Overall, respondents were more likely to pass the grade-four than the grade-eight reading comprehension tests. In the multilingual context of Zambia it is vital to produce health communication print materials written at or near a grade-four readability level in English and, when warranted, in appropriate Zambian languages.

  5. Movement Behaviour of Traditionally Managed Cattle in the Eastern Province of Zambia Captured Using Two-Dimensional Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubaba, Caesar H; Hidano, Arata; Welburn, Susan C; Revie, Crawford W; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional motion sensors use electronic accelerometers to record the lying, standing and walking activity of cattle. Movement behaviour data collected automatically using these sensors over prolonged periods of time could be of use to stakeholders making management and disease control decisions in rural sub-Saharan Africa leading to potential improvements in animal health and production. Motion sensors were used in this study with the aim of monitoring and quantifying the movement behaviour of traditionally managed Angoni cattle in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. This study was designed to assess whether motion sensors were suitable for use on traditionally managed cattle in two veterinary camps in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. In each veterinary camp, twenty cattle were selected for study. Each animal had a motion sensor placed on its hind leg to continuously measure and record its movement behaviour over a two week period. Analysing the sensor data using principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the majority of variability in behaviour among studied cattle could be attributed to their behaviour at night and in the morning. The behaviour at night was markedly different between veterinary camps; while differences in the morning appeared to reflect varying behaviour across all animals. The study results validate the use of such motion sensors in the chosen setting and highlight the importance of appropriate data summarisation techniques to adequately describe and compare animal movement behaviours if association to other factors, such as location, breed or health status are to be assessed.

  6. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  7. Dry ice blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  8. Dried fruit and dental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Michèle Jeanne

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature has found that the common perceptions that dried fruits are "sticky", adhere to teeth, and are detrimental to dental health on account of their sugar content are based on weak evidence. There is a lack of good quality scientific data to support restrictive advice for dried fruit intake on the basis of dental health parameters and further research is required. A number of potentially positive attributes for dental health, such as the need to chew dried fruits which encourages salivary flow, and the presence of anti-microbial compounds and of sorbitol, also require investigation to establish the extent of their effects and whether they balance against any potentially negative attributes of dried fruit. Advice on dried fruit consumption should also take account of the nutritional benefits of dried fruit, being high in fibre, low in fat and containing useful levels of micronutrients.

  9. Convective drying of sludge cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo; Peng, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yuan; Lee, Duujong; Chu, Chingping

    2002-08-01

    This paper presented an experimental study on convective drying of waste water sludge collected from Beijing GaoBeiDian Sewage Treatment Plant, particularly on the correlation between the observed shrinkage dynamics of sludge cake and the drying curve. During the initial stage of drying the process resembles to that of a particulate bed, in which moisture diffuses and evaporates at the upper surface. Conventional drying theory assuming a diffusion-evaporating front interprets this period of drying. Consequently, owing to the very large shrinkage ratio of the dried cake, cracks emerges and propagates on and within the cake body, whence inducing evaporating channel that facilitates the water removal. This occurrence compensates the reduction of surface area for evaporation, whence extending the constant-rate period during the test. Afterwards, the cracks meet with each other and form isolated cake piles, while the subsequent drying occur mainly within these piles and the conventional theory fails. The transition between the drying on a plain cake layer and that on the isolated piles demonstrates the need to adopt distinct descriptions on these two regimes of drying for the sludge cake.

  10. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

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    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  11. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and progre

  12. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow’s Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia

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    Theodore J.D. Knight-Jones

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow’s milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30–120 min, where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB and Brucellosis. Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration, with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100–223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more

  13. 'Rumours' and clinical trials: a retrospective examination of a paediatric malnutrition study in Zambia, southern Africa

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    Amadi Beatrice

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many public health researchers conducting studies in resource-constrained settings have experienced negative 'rumours' about their work; in some cases they have been reported to create serious challenges and derail studies. However, what may appear superficially as 'gossip' or 'rumours' can also be regarded and understood as metaphors which represent local concerns. For researchers unaccustomed to having concerns expressed from participants in this manner, possible reactions can be to be unduly perturbed or conversely dismissive. This paper represents a retrospective examination of a malnutrition study conducted by an international team of researchers in Zambia, Southern Africa. The fears of mothers whose children were involved in the study and some of the concerns which were expressed as rumours are also presented. This paper argues that there is an underlying logic to these anxieties and to dismiss them simply as 'rumours' or 'gossip' would be to overlook the historic and socio-economic factors which have contributed to their production. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with the mothers whose children were involved in the study and with the research nurses. Twenty five face-to-face interviews and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with mothers. In addition, face-to-face interviews were conducted with research nurses participating in the trial. Results A prominent anxiety expressed as rumours by the mothers whose children were involved in the study was that recruitment into the trial was an indicator that the child was HIV-infected. Other anxieties included that the trial was a disguise for witchcraft or Satanism and that the children's body parts would be removed and sold. In addition, the liquid, milk-based food given to the children to improve their nutrition was suspected of being insufficiently nutritious, thus worsening their condition. The form which these anxieties took, such as rumours

  14. Validation of the UCLA Child Post traumatic stress disorder-reaction index in Zambia

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    Cohen Judith A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool - the UCLA Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Reaction Index (PTSD-RI in Zambia. Methods The PTSD-RI was adapted through the addition of locally relevant items and validated using local responses to three cross-cultural criterion validity questions. Reliability of the symptoms scale was assessed using Cronbach alpha analyses. Discriminant validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores of cases and non-cases. Concurrent validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores to a traumatic experience index. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were run using receiver operating curves. Results Analysis of data from 352 youth attending a clinic specializing in sexual abuse showed that this adapted PTSD-RI demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores greater than .90 on all the evaluated scales. The symptom scales were able to statistically significantly discriminate between locally identified cases and non-cases, and higher symptom scale scores were associated with increased numbers of trauma exposures which is an indication of concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity analyses resulted in an adequate area under the curve, indicating that this tool was appropriate for case definition. Conclusions This study has shown that validating mental health assessment tools in a low-resource country is feasible, and that by taking the time to adapt a measure to the local context, a useful and valid Zambian version of the PTSD-RI was developed to detect

  15. Barriers to care for patients with neurologic disease in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, G L

    2000-03-01

    beyond the scope of Western experience manifests daily in places like Chikankata. Entities such as tabes neurosyphilis, which previous generations of neurologists used as the basis for their training, still abound in Zambia. Much personal satisfaction can be gained in providing care to this vulnerable and underserved population.

  16. Medication side effects among people with epilepsy taking phenobarbital in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elafros, Melissa A; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2014-11-01

    Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool adverse events profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78 mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4-8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the World Health Organization report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional

  17. Women as food producers and suppliers in the twentieth century. The case of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntemba, S

    1982-01-01

    marketable crop, to the disadvantage of sufficient food supplies for the producers themselves. The case of Zambia is presented, and it is concluded that the situation of women producers and of food production worsened at a pace responding to the nature of capitalist appropriation of land and labor and the intensification of cash crop production. Thus the phenomenon became more marked after 1945 when colonial states intensified cash crop production. The situation persisted after formal independence. Another Development must tackle the problem areas of land, labor, the sexual division of labor, the state, and men.

  18. Water system hardware and management rehabilitation: Qualitative evidence from Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Tori; Shields, Katherine F; Cronk, Ryan; Kelly, Emma; Behnke, Nikki; Lee, Kristen; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-05-01

    Sufficient, safe, continuously available drinking water is important for human health and development, yet one in three handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa are non-functional at any given time. Community management, coupled with access to external technical expertise and spare parts, is a widely promoted model for rural water supply management. However, there is limited evidence describing how community management can address common hardware and management failures of rural water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. We identified hardware and management rehabilitation pathways using qualitative data from 267 interviews and 57 focus group discussions in Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia. Study participants were water committee members, community members, and local leaders in 18 communities (six in each study country) with water systems managed by a water committee and supported by World Vision (WV), an international non-governmental organization (NGO). Government, WV or private sector employees engaged in supporting the water systems were also interviewed. Inductive analysis was used to allow for pathways to emerge from the data, based on the perspectives and experiences of study participants. Four hardware rehabilitation pathways were identified, based on the types of support used in rehabilitation. Types of support were differentiated as community or external. External support includes financial and/or technical support from government or WV employees. Community actor understanding of who to contact when a hardware breakdown occurs and easy access to technical experts were consistent reasons for rapid rehabilitation for all hardware rehabilitation pathways. Three management rehabilitation pathways were identified. All require the involvement of community leaders and were best carried out when the action was participatory. The rehabilitation pathways show how available resources can be leveraged to restore hardware breakdowns and management failures for rural water systems in sub

  19. The geology and geochemistry of the Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits, NW Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernau, Robin; Roberts, Stephen; Richards, Mike; Nisbet, Bruce; Boyce, Adrian; Nowecki, James

    2013-02-01

    The Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits of NW Zambia are large, tabular, disseminated ore bodies, hosted within the Mwombezhi Dome of the Lufilian Arc. The host rocks to the Lumwana deposits are two mineralogically similar but texturally distinct gneisses, a granitic to pegmatitic gneiss and a banded to augen gneiss which both comprise quartz-feldspar ± biotite ± muscovite ± haematite ± amphibole and intervening quartz-feldspar ± biotite schist. The sulphide ore horizons are typically developed within a biotite-muscovite-quartz-kyanite schist, although mineralization locally occurs within internal gneiss units. Contacts between the ore and host rocks are transitional and characterized by a loss of feldspar. Kinematic indicators, such as S-C fabrics and pressure shadows on porphyroblasts, suggest a top to the north shear sense. The sulphides are deformed by a strong shear fabric, enclosed within kyanite or concentrated into low strain zones and pressure shadows around kyanite porphyroblasts. This suggests that the copper mineralization was introduced either syn- or pre-peak metamorphism. In addition to Cu and Co, the ores are also characterized by enrichments in U, V, Ni, Ba and S and small, discrete zones of uranium mineralization, occur adjacent to the hanging wall and footwall of the copper ore bodies or in the immediate footwall to the copper mineralization. Unlike typical Copperbelt mineralization, unmineralized units show very low background copper values. Whole rock geochemical analyses of the interlayered schist and ore schist, compared to the gneiss, show depletions in Ca, Na and Sr and enrichments in Mg and K, consistent with replacement of feldspar by biotite. The mineral chemistry of muscovite, biotite and chlorite reflect changes in the bulk rock chemistry and show consistent increases in X Mg as the schists develop. δ34S for copper sulphides range from +2.3 ‰ to +18.5 ‰, with pyrite typically restricted to values between +3.9 ‰ and +6.2

  20. Crustal Structure Beneath the Luangwa Rift, Zambia: Constraints from Potential Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atekwana, E. A.; Matende, K.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Mickus, K. L.; Atekwana, E. A.; Gao, S. S.; Sikazwe, O.; Liu, K. H.; Evans, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    We used gravity and magnetic data to examine the thermal and crustal structure beneath the Luangwa Rift Valley (LRV) in Zambia in order to examine the geodynamic controls of its formation.. The LRV lies at the boundary between the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Irumide and Southern Irumide orogenic belts between the Zimbabwe craton and the Bangwelu Block. We computed the Curie Point Depth (CPD) using two-dimensional (2D) power spectrum analysis of the aeromagnetic data, and these results were used to estimate heat flow beneath the LRV. We also inverted the aeromagnetic data for three-dimensional (3D) magnetic susceptibility distribution. We further determined the depths to the Moho using 2D power spectrum analysis of the satellite gravity data and 2D forward modeling of the terrestrial gravity data. We found that: (1) there is no consistent pattern of elevated CPD beneath the LRV, and as such no consistent pattern of elevated heat flow anomaly, (2) there are numerous 5-15 km wide magnetic bodies at shallow depth (5-20 km) beneath the LRV and the 2D forward gravity modeling suggests these to be dense intrusive bodies, (3) a thick crust (49-52 km) underlies the northwestern margin of the rift centered beneath the ~ 1 km high Muchinga escarpment which represents the main border fault of the LRV. This thick crust contrasts with the thinner crust (35-45 km) outside the rift, and (4) the thickened crust coincides with a NE-SE elongated belt of 1.05-1.0 Ga granitoids previously interpreted as manifestations of the metacratonization of the southeastern edge of the Bangweulu Block. Our 2D forward gravity model suggests that the thickened crust is due to the presence of possibly Karoo-aged magmatic under-plated mafic body (UPMB) whose thermal anomaly has since decayed. We suggest that the initiation of the LRV was associated with this deep magmatic activity that introduced rheological weaknesses that facilitated strain localization although it never breached the surface. It

  1. Characterisation of the wildlife reservoir community for human and animal trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

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    Neil E Anderson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in wild hosts in natural ecosystems. The Luangwa Valley in Zambia supports high densities of tsetse flies (Glossina species and is recognised as an historical sleeping sickness focus. The objective of this study was to characterise the nature of the reservoir community for trypanosomiasis in the absence of influence from domesticated hosts.A cross-sectional survey of trypanosome prevalence in wildlife hosts was conducted in the Luangwa Valley from 2005 to 2007. Samples were collected from 418 animals and were examined for the presence of Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. b. rhodesiense, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax using molecular diagnostic techniques. The overall prevalence of infection in all species was 13.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.71-17.57%. Infection was significantly more likely to be detected in waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus (Odds ratio [OR]=10.5, 95% CI: 2.36-46.71, lion (Panthera leo (OR=5.3, 95% CI: 1.40-19.69, greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros (OR=4.7, 95% CI: 1.41-15.41 and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 1.51-13.56. Bushbucks are important hosts for T. brucei s.l. while the Bovidae appear the most important for T. congolense. The epidemiology of T. vivax was less clear, but parasites were detected most frequently in waterbuck. Human infective T. b. rhodesiense were identified for the first time in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer and T. brucei s.l. in leopard (Panthera pardus. Variation in infection rates was demonstrated at species level rather than at family or sub-family level. A number of significant risk factors interact to influence infection rates in wildlife including taxonomy, habitat and blood meal preference.Trypanosoma parasites circulate within a wide and diverse host community in this bio

  2. Institutionalizing provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for children: an observational case study from Zambia.

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    Jane N Mutanga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambia's Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors for rapid institutionalization of PITC in Livingstone General Hospital. Methods included clinical observations, key informant interviews with programme management, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS uptake data following the introduction of PITC. After PITC roll-out, the hospital experienced considerably higher testing uptake. In a 36-month period following PITC institutionalization, of total inpatient children eligible for PITC (n = 5074, 98.5% of children were counselled, and 98.2% were tested. Of children tested (n = 4983, 15.5% were determined HIV-infected; 77.6% of these results were determined by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing in children under the age of 18 months. Of children identified as HIV-infected in the hospital's inpatient and outpatient departments (n = 1342, 99.3% were enrolled in HIV care, including initiation on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. A number of good operational practices and enabling factors in the Livingstone General Hospital experience can inform rapid PITC institutionalization for inpatient and outpatient children. These include the placement of full-time nurse counsellors at key areas of paediatric intake, who interface with patients immediately and conduct testing and counselling. They are reinforced through task-shifting to peer counsellors in the wards. Nurse counsellor capacity to draw specimen for DNA PCR for children under 18 months has significantly enhanced early

  3. Etiology, Antibiotic Resistance and Risk Factors for Neonatal Sepsis in a Large Referral Center in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwe, Mwila; Tembo, John; Chilukutu, Lophina; Chilufya, Moses; Ngulube, Francis; Lukwesa, Chileshe; Kapasa, Monica; Enne, Virve; Wexner, Hannah; Mwananyanda, Lawrence; Hamer, Davidson H; Sinyangwe, Sylvestor; Ahmed, Yusuf; Klein, Nigel; Maeurer, Markus; Zumla, Alimuddin; Bates, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, there is scanty data on the causes of neonatal sepsis and antimicrobial resistance among common invasive pathogens that might guide policy and practice. A cross-sectional observational prevalence and etiology study of neonates with suspected sepsis admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, between October 2013 and May 2014. Data from blood cultures and phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility testing were compared with multivariate analysis of risk factors for neonatal sepsis. Of 313 neonates with suspected sepsis, 54% (170/313) were male; 20% (62/313) were born to HIV-positive mothers; 33% (103/313) had positive blood cultures, of which 85% (88/103) were early-onset sepsis. Klebsiella species was the most prevalent isolate, accounting for 75% (77/103) of cases, followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci [6% (7/103)], Staphylococcus aureus [6% (6/103)], Escherichia coli [5% (5/103)] and Candida species [5% (5/103)]. For Klebsiella species, antibiotic resistance ranged from 96%-99% for World Health Organization-recommended first-line therapy (gentamicin and ampicillin/penicillin) to 94%-97% for third-generation cephalosporins. The prevalence of culture-confirmed sepsis increased from 0 to 39% during the period December 2013 to March 2014, during which time mortality increased 29%-47%; 93% (14/15) of late-onset sepsis and 82% (37/45) of early-onset sepsis aged 4-7 days were admitted >2 days before the onset of symptoms. Culture results for only 25% (26/103) of cases were available before discharge or death. Maternal HIV infection was associated with a reduced risk of neonatal sepsis [odds ratio, 0.46 (0.23-0.93); P = 0.029]. Outbreaks of nosocomial multiantibiotic-resistant infections are an important cause of neonatal sepsis and associated mortality. Reduced risk of neonatal sepsis associated with maternal HIV infection is counterintuitive and requires further investigation.

  4. Perceptions of HIV-related health services in Zambia for people with disabilities who are HIV-positive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A Nixon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs, there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Results: Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1 disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2 communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3 movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants’ profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. Discussion: This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Conclusions: Despite the growing body of

  5. Impact of a community-based package of interventions on child development in Zambia: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Fink, Günther; Zanolini, Arianna; Banda, Bowen; Biemba, Godfrey; Sullivan, Cierra; Mutembo, Simon; Silavwe, Vichaels; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-11-01

    Community-based programmes are a critical platform for improving child health and development. We tested the impact of a community-based early childhood intervention package in rural Zambia. We conducted a non-blinded cluster randomised controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia. 30 clusters of villages were matched based on population density and distance from the nearest health centre, and randomly assigned to intervention (15 clusters and 268 caregiver-child dyads) or control (15 clusters and 258 caregiver-child dyads). Caregivers were eligible if they had a child aged 6-12 months at baseline. In intervention clusters, health workers screened children for infections and malnutrition, and invited caregivers to attend fortnightly group meetings covering a nutrition and child development curriculum. 220 intervention and 215 control dyads were evaluated after 1 year. The primary outcomes were stunting and INTERGROWTH-21st neurodevelopmental assessment (NDA) scores. Weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores based on WHO growth standards were also analysed. Secondary outcomes were child illness symptoms, dietary intake and caregiver-child interactions based on self-report. Impact was estimated using intention-to-treat analysis. The intervention package was associated with a 0.12 SD increase in weight-for-age (95% CI -0.14 to 0.38), a 0.15 SD increase in height-for-age (95% CI -0.18 to 0.48) and a reduction in stunting (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.36 to 1.28), whereas there was no measurable impact on NDA score. Children receiving the intervention package had fewer symptoms, a more diverse diet and more caregiver interactions. In settings like Zambia, community-based early childhood programmes appear to be feasible and appreciated by caregivers, as evidenced by high rates of uptake. The intervention package improved parenting behaviours and had a small positive, though statistically insignificant, impact on child development. Given the short time frame of the project

  6. Staying dry under water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo; Megaridis, Constantine; Walther, Jens; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Patankar, Neelesh

    2012-11-01

    Lotus leaves are known for their non-wetting properties due to the presence of surface texture. The superhydrophobic behavior arises because of the prevention of liquid water from entering the pores of the roughness. Present superhydrophobic materials rely on air trapped within the surface pores to avoid liquid permeation. This is typically unsustainable for immersed bodies due to dissolution of the air, especially under elevated pressures. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to demonstrate the non-wetting behavior of an immersed ten-nanometer pore. This is accomplished by establishing thermodynamically sustained vapor pockets of the surrounding liquid medium. Over 300,000 atoms were used to construct the nanopore geometry and simulate SPC/E water molecules. Ambient pressure was varied along two isotherms (300 K, and 500 K). This approach for vapor-stabilization could offer valuable guidance for maintaining surfaces dry even in a submerged state without relying on trapped air. The approach may be extended to control general phase behavior of water adjacent to textured surfaces. ISEN support is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  8. Sessile nanofluid droplet drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Crivoi, Alexandru; Duan, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Nanofluid droplet evaporation has gained much audience nowadays due to its wide applications in painting, coating, surface patterning, particle deposition, etc. This paper reviews the drying progress and deposition formation from the evaporative sessile droplets with the suspended insoluble solutes, especially nanoparticles. The main content covers the evaporation fundamental, the particle self-assembly, and deposition patterns in sessile nanofluid droplet. Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented. The effects of the type, concentration and size of nanoparticles on the spreading and evaporative dynamics are elucidated at first, serving the basis for the understanding of particle motion and deposition process which are introduced afterward. Stressing on particle assembly and production of desirable residue patterns, we express abundant experimental interventions, various types of deposits, and the effects on nanoparticle deposition. The review ends with the introduction of theoretical investigations, including the Navier-Stokes equations in terms of solutions, the Diffusion Limited Aggregation approach, the Kinetic Monte Carlo method, and the Dynamical Density Functional Theory. Nanoparticles have shown great influences in spreading, evaporation rate, evaporation regime, fluid flow and pattern formation of sessile droplets. Under different experimental conditions, various deposition patterns can be formed. The existing theoretical approaches are able to predict fluid dynamics, particle motion and deposition patterns in the particular cases. On the basis of further understanding of the effects of fluid dynamics and particle motion, the desirable patterns can be obtained with appropriate experimental regulations.

  9. Viscous property of dried clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-sheng; LI Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    One dimensional and triaxial compression tests of air-dried and oven-dried Fujinomori clay and Pisa clay were carried out. Water content is less than 4.5 % and 1.0% for air-dried and oven-dried clay specimens, respectively. In all tests, axial strain rate was changed stepwise many times and drained creep tests were performed several times during monotonic loading at a constant strain rate. Global unloading (and also reloading in some tests) was applied during which creep loading tests were performed several times. Cyclic loading with small stress amplitude and several cycles was also performed to calculate the modulus of elasticity of the clay in tests. Local displacement transducer was used in triaxial compression test to increase measuring accuracy of axial strain. The results show that air-dried and oven-dried clay have noticeable viscous properties; during global unloading, creep deformation changes from positive to negative, i.e. there exist neutral points (zero creep deformation or no creep deformation point) in global unloading part of strain-stress curve; viscous property of Fujinomori clay decreases when water content decreases, i.e. viscous property of air-dried Fujinomori clay is more significant than that of oven-dried Fujinomori clay.

  10. Microwave Drying of Moist Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomatov, Vl. V.; Karelin, V. A.; Sladkov, S. O.; Salomatov, Vas. V.

    2017-03-01

    Physical principles and examples of practical implementation of drying large bodies of coal by microwave radiation are considered. It is shown that energy consumption in microwave drying of brown coals decreases to 1.5-1.8 (kW·h)/ kg as compared with traditional types of drying, for which the expenditures of energy amount to 3.0 (kW·h)/kg. In using microwave drying, the technological time of drying decreases to 4 h, whereas the time of convective drying, with other things being equal, comes to 8-20 h. Parallel with microwave radiation drying, grinding of a fuel takes place, as well as entrainment of such toxic and ecologically harmful elements as mercury, chlorine, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen. An analysis of the prospects of using a microwave energy for drying coal fuel has shown that microwave radiation makes it possible to considerably economize in energy, increase explosional safety, improve the ecological situation, and reduce the metal content and overall dimensions of the equipment.

  11. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.;

    2004-01-01

    A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer of photo......A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer......, the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  12. Drying Characteristics of Garcinia atroviridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waigoon RITTIRUT

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some physical and chemical properties of fresh garcinia fruits are reported. The most suitable drying conditions for garcinia material in a tray dryer based on the final moisture content were determined by extensive testing. It was found that for the material thickness of 2, 4 and 6 mm, a temperature of 55 °C and air velocity of 1.2 m/s are suitable for drying. The most suitable time where the final moisture content met the commercial standard was found to be 199, 256 and 427 min, respectively. The higher the temperature, the shorter the drying time. It was also observed that the suitable drying time for 2-mm thick material and air velocity of 1.2 m/s was 199, 159 and 99 min for drying temperature of 55, 65 and 75 °C, respectively. Drying characteristics are also reported. Most of the drying rate curves appear in a falling rate period except at low temperature and low velocity of operation parameters i.e. 55 °C and 0.5 m/s for 4-mm thick material, where the constant drying rate is approximately 0.09 kg water/min.m2. The sorption isotherm is sigmoidal shape at 30 °C and monolayer moisture content is 14.78 kg water/100 kg dry solid. Soaking material in 1.5 and 3.0 %w/w sodium chloride did not affect the drying rate. Effective moisture diffusivities were evaluated to be  5.57´10-10, 6.94´10-10 and 1.11´10-9 m2/s at temperatures 55, 65 and 75 °C, respectively.

  13. Democracy and consensus decision-making among the Bemba-speaking people of Zambia: An African theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Muwowo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to a critical assessment of the concept of democracy and consensus decision-making of the Bemba matrilineal governance system as a basis for a democratic model of engagement in African politics from an African theological perspective. It is of the opinion that assessing the concept of democracy by consensus decision-making of the Bemba provides a dialogue between the African traditional governance systems as a viable form of political governance ideal for multi-ethnic countries such as Zambia. This is a pinnacle of the 21st century debate which elaborates the important task of African Christian Theology in the rehabilitation, or renovation process of politics of identity for an authentic governance system with authentic African flavour for African governance systems.

  14. Serum Phosphate Predicts Early Mortality among Underweight Adults Starting ART in Zambia: A Novel Context for Refeeding Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, John R; Blevins, Meridith; Nyirenda, Christopher K; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Chiasera, Janelle M; Shepherd, Bryan E; Zulu, Isaac; Heimburger, Douglas C

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low body mass index (BMI) at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is associated with early mortality, but the etiology is not well understood. We hypothesized that low pretreatment serum phosphate, a critical cellular metabolism intermediate primarily stored in skeletal muscle, may predict mortality within the first 12 weeks of ART. Methods. We prospectively studied 352 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia to estimate the odds of death for each 0.1 mmol/L decrease in baseline phosphate after adjusting for established predictors of mortality. Results. The distribution of phosphate values was similar across BMI categories (median value 1.2 mmol/L). Among the 145 participants with BMI refeeding syndrome. Further studies of cellular metabolism in this population are needed.

  15. Detection of Salmonella invA by isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICAN) in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Emiko; Makungu, Chitwambi; Yabe, John; Sinkala, Patson; Nambota, Andrew; Isogai, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Hideto; Silungwe, Manda; Mubita, Charles; Syakalima, Michelo; Hang'ombe, Bernard Mudenda; Kozaki, Shunji; Yasuda, Jun

    2005-01-01

    The isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICAN) is a new isothermal DNA amplification method composed of exo Bca DNA polymerase, RNaseH and DNA-RNA chimeric primers. We detected invA of Salmonella from chicken carcasses, egg yolk and cattle fecal samples. Fifty-three of 59 isolates were invA-positive in ICAN-chromatostrip detection. The result was consistent with those obtained by standard PCR. Salmonella invA was detected in 12 of 14 carcass rinses by ICAN, while in 7 of 14 rinses by standard PCR. These results indicate that ICAN is an efficient, sensitive and simple system to detect invA of Salmonella species in developing countries such as Zambia.

  16. The distribution of sexually-transmitted Human Papillomaviruses in HIV positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hause Lara

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomaviruses (HPV are double-stranded DNA viruses, considered to be the primary etiological agents in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers. Approximately 15–20 of the 40 mucosal HPVs confer a high-risk of progression of lesions to invasive cancer. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted HPVs in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa. The rate of high-risk HPV genotypes worldwide varies within each country. Thus, we sought to investigate the rates of HPV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and the potential role of HIV in affecting the HPV genotype distribution. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study reports findings on the association and effects of HIV on HPV infections in an existing cohort of patients at University Teaching Hospital (UTH Lusaka, Zambia. The objective of this study was to assess HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and to identify co-factors that influence HPV infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with two standard consensus primer sets (CpI/II and GP5+/6+ was used to test for the presence of HPV DNA. Primers specific for β-actin were used to monitor DNA quality. Vaginal lavage samples, collected between 1998-1999 from a total of 70 women, were part of a larger cohort that was also analyzed for HIV and human herpesvirus infection. Seventy of the samples yielded usable DNA. HIV status was determined by two rapid assays, Capillus and Determine. The incidence of HIV and HPV infections and HPV genotype distributions were calculated and statistical significance was determined by Chi-Squared test. Results We determined that most common HPV genotypes detected among these Zambian patients were types 16 and 18 (21.6% each, which is approximately three-fold greater than the rates for HPV16, and ten-fold greater than the rates for HPV18 in the United States. The worldwide prevalence of HPV16 is approximately 14

  17. Serum Phosphate Predicts Early Mortality among Underweight Adults Starting ART in Zambia: A Novel Context for Refeeding Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, John R.; Blevins, Meridith; Nyirenda, Christopher K.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Chiasera, Janelle M.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Zulu, Isaac; Heimburger, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low body mass index (BMI) at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is associated with early mortality, but the etiology is not well understood. We hypothesized that low pretreatment serum phosphate, a critical cellular metabolism intermediate primarily stored in skeletal muscle, may predict mortality within the first 12 weeks of ART. Methods. We prospectively studied 352 HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia to estimate the odds of death for each 0.1 mmol/L decrease in baseline phosphate after adjusting for established predictors of mortality. Results. The distribution of phosphate values was similar across BMI categories (median value 1.2 mmol/L). Among the 145 participants with BMI refeeding syndrome. Further studies of cellular metabolism in this population are needed. PMID:23691292

  18. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Firm Performance in SMEs in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Progress Choongo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of corporate social responsibility on firm performance using a longitudinal design in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. The reported study was conducted in a Sub-Saharan African developing country, Zambia. Data were collected from 153 entrepreneurs in two surveys and changes in CSR and firm performance measures were analysed over a 12-month period using SmartPLS structural equation modelling. The findings show that the relationship between CSR and financial performance is significant. Further, the association between CSR and the two measures of firm performance (corporate reputation and employee commitment was only partially significant over time. We discuss the relevance of these results for entrepreneurs, researchers and policy makers in understanding the outcomes of sustainability practices in SMEs in developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. The Impact of Key HIV Intervention Components as Predictors of Sexual Barrier Use: The Zambia Partner Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitalu, Ndashi; Mumbi, Mirriam; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen M; Jones, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral interventions have utilized a variety of strategies and components to reduce HIV risk. This article describes the partner intervention, a couple-based group HIV risk reduction intervention implemented in 6 urban community health clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, and examines the components of the intervention and their relationship with condom use. Couple members completed assessments on condom use, acceptability, willingness to use condoms, communication, intimate partner violence (IPV), self-efficacy, and HIV information at baseline and 6 months' follow-up. This study examined the relative impact of elements of the intervention as predictors of condom use. Changes in acceptability had the greatest overall influence on condom use, followed by social support, relationship consensus, and willingness to use condoms. Changes in self-efficacy, IPV, negotiation, and information had no influence. Results support the use of multidimensional approaches in behavioral interventions and highlight the importance of identifying critical elements of interventions to maximize risk reduction outcomes.

  20. Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    ) and absence, or weak presence, of this demonstration effect (Tanzania, Zambia). This is a central question, and one which was not the focus of previous research, presumably because the answer was not fully apparent prior to 2006 when the last substantial work was conducted. Where there is an absence, or weak...... on the behalf of the banking sector. In the countries studied for this research, these factors are compounded by the high opportunity costs for banks where higher rates of return can be secured from investing in high-turnover businesses, for example those trading in high-volume, perishable goods. There is also...... a more general challenge faced by a range of SME entrepreneurs where such individuals and businesses are considered by banks to have an inherently higher risk profile, a factor which, to some extent, appears to be the product of ‘anti-SME’ discrimination, where investors favour larger corporate players...