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Sample records for kanto plain area

  1. Shallow seismic section in the central Kanto plain, to the north of Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Ohtaki, T.; Yokokura, T.; Ito, S.; Sumita, T.; Makino, M.; Yokota, T.; Kimura, H.

    2008-12-01

    Shallow seismic reflection surveys were carried out in the central part of the Kanto plain, 40 km northwest of Tokyo, Japan. The survey target ranges about from 50 m to 500 m in depth. The final purpose of the surveys is to reveal the relationship between the subsurface structure and the distribution and flow of the underground water in this area. The survey lines were divided into Kawagoe1(length of CMP line: 8km), Okegawa1(5.3km), Shobu1(8.7km) and Kazo1(6.3km). They line up southwest to northeast from the Iruma upland to the Kazo lowland via the Arakawa lowland and Omiya upland. The survey lines cross the Arakawa fault, the Ayasegawa fault and the Kuki fault. They are considered active, but only the Aysegawa fault has fault topography and is confirmed by subsurface structure. The total length of the lines is about 27km and there is a 2 km long opening between the Okegawa1 and the Shobu1, because of dense population and heavy traffic. Survey parameters are as follows. Seismic source: one EnviroVib or MiniVib or Mini Impactor, shot interval: 2.5m or 10m, sweep frequency: 15-120Hz, sweep length: 13s, receiver: UltraMark2, receiver interval: 10m, elements: 6 bunching, recording instrument: DAS-1, number of channel: 144, listening length: 3.3s, spread: shots from the edge to the 48th point of 144 fixed receiver points, maximum offset: between 1440m and 960m. The data were processed to make seismic sections for each survey line by conventional CMP method. Then the sections were cut and pasted into a series of seismic sections. Many continuous reflectors are imaged between several ten meters and 1 km in depth in the whole seismic section. Reflectors are discontinuous below 1 km, probably because of lack of source energy. In the Iruma upland and Arakawa lowland, the Pliocene and Pleistocene units thicken northeastward, indicating that sedimentation has been synchronous with northeastward tilting of the underlying basement rocks. Undulation and bending of reflectors

  2. Array measurements of long-period microtremors in southwestern Kanto plain, Japan; Kanto heiya nanseibu ni okeru yaya choshuki bido no array kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, H.; Sato, H.; Kurita, K.; Seo, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Array measurements of long-period microtremors were carried out in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain, Japan, to obtain S-wave velocity structures in sedimentary beds as fundamental data for estimating long-term strong ground motion in Kanto Plain. The major component in a long-term seismic motion observed in Kanto Plain is the surface wave. According to the result of observations on Love wave by Kinoshita et al, the wavelengths of the surface waves of a long-term cycle are 10 to 20 km. Therefore, if an array observation is to be performed at intervals of about two wavelengths, about 40 points will be required to cover the entire Kanto plain. The final phase velocity is decided by averaging phase velocities of each cycle obtained for each data set. The acquired phase velocities are analyzed inversely by using a genetic algorithm to derive the S-wave velocities at each observation point. The present microtremor array observation has used 13 points in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain to acquire S-wave velocity (Vs) distribution in sedimentary beds. It was made clear that beds with Vs of 1.0 km/s and Vs of 1.5 km/s exist in this area between the surface bed and the seismic foundation with Vs of about 3 km/s. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Post-seismic displacement around the Kanto plain, Japan after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: implications for the subsurface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated three-year post-seismic displacement of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake around the Kanto plain using persistent scatterer interferometry and global positioning network. Several ground subsidence areas possibly due to groundwater extraction were observed before the earthquake. On the other hand, post-seismic displacements show overall ground uplift with both uniform and local scale. The global uplift areas were about the northeast of Japan island scale, whereas the local uplift areas were about 30 × 50 km2, and showed complex spatial distribution with irregular shape. Since the groundwater level has increased, we interpreted that the local ground uplift was associated with permeability enhancement and pore pressure increase of the aquifer system, which were induced by the mainshock vibration. The areas of local uplift are characterized by deeper sediment layer than in other areas, and the velocity response spectrum shows that the earthquake caused seismic shear waves of long period ( 1-30 sec), attributable to the thick sedimentary basin beneath the Kanto Plain. Based on the fact that low-frequency seismic wave especially increase permeability, the local structure beneath the Kanto plain would alter permeability of the aquifer structure and induce pore fluid migration.

  4. Ground uplift related to permeability enhancement following the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in the Kanto Plain, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Nishimura, Takuya; Tsuji, Takeshi; ElGharbawi, Tamer

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the post-seismic surface displacement of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake around the Kanto Plain (including the capital area of Japan), which is located approximately 400 km from the epicenter, using a global positioning system network during 2005-2015 and persistent scatterer interferometry of TerraSAR-X data from March 2011 to November 2012. Uniform uplift owing to viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip on the plain has been reported previously. In addition to the general trend, we identified areas where the surface displacement velocity was faster than the surrounding areas, as much as 7 mm/year for 3 years after the earthquake and with a velocity decay over time. Local uplift areas were 30 × 50 km2 and showed a complex spatial distribution with an irregular shape. Based on an observed groundwater level increase, we deduce that the local ground uplift was induced by a permeability enhancement and a pore pressure increase in the aquifer system, which is attributable to mainshock vibration.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. [Questionnaire investigation of incidence of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in dermatology clinics in the Kanto area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Masataro; Shiraki, Yumi; Nihei, Nozomi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suganami, Morio

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a questionnaire investigation to learn the incidence of T. tonsurans infection. Subjects of this investigation were 1,060 dermatologists in 1,060 dermatology clinics in the Kanto area to whom questionnaires were mailed. We asked each dermatologist whether he/she had experienced T. tonsurans infection cases (including suspected cases) and if so, we further asked; a. time of onset, b. number of cases, c. sexuality of the patient, d. club that the subject had joined (judo club, wrestling club or other), e. age of the subject, and f. number of cases suspected of having familial infection, the response rate was 47.5% (504 of the 1060 doctors), and 25.8% (130 of the 504) had handled T. tonsurans infection cases. The total number of patients was 707 (657 males and 50 females), with 400 (56.6%) of those in the 18 high-ranking clinics. The number of cases had increased rapidly from around 2002; 72.9% of the patients were students in high schools and universities and in 8 cases familial infection was suspected. 96.5% of the patients were in a judo or wrestling club. Our investigation revealed that this infectious disease had spread more than we had expected. It is important to develop more reliable infection control measures and to determine the actual conditions of this infection using mycological examinations.

  6. Exploration of underground basement structures in Kanto plain using the spatial autocorrelation method. 1. S-wave velocity structure along the line from Hatoyama, Saitama to Noda, Chiba; Kukan jiko sokanho ni yoru Kanto heiya no kiban kozo tansa. 1. Saitamaken Hatoyama machi - Chibaken Nodashi kan no S ha sokudo kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, T.; Umezawa, N.; Shiraishi, H. [Saitama Institute of Environmental Pollution, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    The Saitama prefectural government has been conducting basement structure exploration using the spatial autocorrelation method by dividing the entire plain area into meshes, for the purpose of improving the accuracy of estimating large-scale seismic damages. This paper reports the result of explorations on meshes in the east-west direction in the central part of Saitama Prefecture. The present exploration was intended on ten meshes in the east-west direction along the north latitude 36-degree line. The number of exploration points is 13 comprising three points on the hilly area bordering on the eastern edge of the Kanto mountainous area and ten points on the plain area. The arrangement constitutes a traverse line with a total distance of about 33 km from the west edge (Hatoyama-machi in Saitama Prefecture) to the east edge (Noda City in Chiba Prefecture). The phase velocities were estimated from the result of the array microtremor observations using the spatial autocorrelation method applied with the FET. The phase velocities were used to estimate underground structures by using an inverse analysis. As a result, detailed two-dimensional S-wave velocity structures were revealed on the traverse line. The velocity cross section expresses change in the basement structures with sufficient resolution, and at the same time the information is judged highly harmonious with existing deep boring data and the result of artificial earthquake exploration. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  7. A numerical study of summer ozone concentration over the Kanto area of Japan using the MM5/CMAQ model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Khiem; Ryozo Ooka; Hong Huang; Hiroshi Hayami

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the ability of the MM5/CMAQ model to predict ozone (O3) air quality over the Kanto area and to investigate the factors that affect simulation of O3. We find that the coupled MM5/CMAQ model is a useful tool for the analysis of urban environmental problems. The simulation results were compared with observational data and were found to accurately replicate most of the important observed characteristics. The initial and boundary conditions were found to have a significant effect on simulated O3 concentrations.The results show that on hot and dry days with high O3 concentration, the CMAQ model provides a poor simulation of O3 maxima when using initial and boundary conditions derived from the CMAQ default data. The simulation of peak O3 concentrations is improved with the JCAP initial and boundary conditions. On mild days, the default CMAQ initial and boundary conditions provide a more realistic simulation. Meteorological conditions also have a strong impact on the simulated distribution and accumulation of O3 concentrations in this area. Low O3 concentrations are simulated during mild weather conditions, and high concentrations are predicted during hot and dry weather. By investigating the effects of different meteorological conditions on each model process, we find that advection and diffusion differ the most between the two meteorological regimes. Thus, differences in the winds that govern the transport of O3 and its precursors are likely the most important meteorological drivers of ozone concentration over the central Kanto area.

  8. Evaluation of summertime surface ozone in Kanto area of Japan using a semi-regional model and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Tran Thi Ngoc; Goto, Daisuke; Yashiro, Hisashi; Murata, Ryo; Sudo, Kengo; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2017-03-01

    Surface ozone is an air pollutant and harmful to human life. The spatial distribution of the air pollution has been estimated by chemical transport models, but still there are large uncertainties depending on detailed condition of the region. In this study, we extended Goto et al. (2015a) for implementing a chemical transport model to simulate short-lived gases such as ozone over Kanto area (around Tokyo in Japan) for August 2010. Comparison of simulation results with observed data indicated that the model had ability to capture observed ozone diurnal cycles over the target region with high correlation coefficients (0.69-0.81). The simulation result showed a vital role of meteorological conditions in the model performance. The correlation coefficients were much higher (0.78-0.87) and biases were lower (ozone concentrations in the unstable weather conditions. This study helped achieve a better understanding of the chemistry transport model performance under unstable meteorological conditions in the Kanto area. Maximal association between meteorological factors and surface ozone distribution was revealed. In addition, uncertainty of emission inventories of ozone precursors especially the underestimate NOx level certainly contributed to high level surface ozone during nighttime in this study.

  9. Structural Analysis of Serpentinite in the Jikkoku Pass Area, Northwestern Kanto Mountains, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirauchi, K.; Hisada, K.

    2004-12-01

    Serpentinite is a product made by hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks such as peridotite. It has been understood that serpentinite along a fault or a plate boundary plays a role as a lubricant for rheological properties. However, it is unknown how serpentinite actually acts through its deformation processes. The study area is located on the Jikkoku Pass area, northwestern Kanto Mountains, central Japan. Serpentinite bodies are intermittently distributed along fault boundaries. In this study, we divided serpentinite into four deformation stages (D1-D4) based on meso- and microstructures. 1) D1 stage: It is represented by block-in-matrix structure. Block sizes are various, and their longest axis is about 1 m. Shapes of blocks are almost oblate type and rounded to subangular. The long axes of blocks nearly show a same orientation, and planar structures are nearly parallel to them. Inner structures of blocks are entirely deformed, and mesh texture as a pseudomorph of olivine and euhedral chromian spinels are observed. Serpentines consist mainly of lizardite and chrysotile. Fine-gained serpentines of various sizes are randomly scattered in the matrix. 2) D2 stage: It is represented by alternation in portions of different colors and textures. Colors consist mainly of dark green and yellowish green. Intervals of this alternation vary from 1 to 3 mm. In portions of dark green, needle-shaped antigorites have a preferred orientation. Antigorites are remarkably fine-grained in some cases, and are similar to characteristics of ultramylonite. Portions of yellowish green include opaque minerals such as magnetite, forming planar structures. A chromian spinel occurs as a porphyroclast (rounded shape) together with fine-grained recrystallized antigorites. 3) D3 stage: It is represented by fracture foliation. It is formed by foliation as fracture planes that are penetratively developed with a few hundreds of ƒEm intervals. Besides, intervals of this foliation also vary on

  10. Extraction of Flooded Areas due the 2015 Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall in Japan Using PALSAR-2 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, F.; Liu, W.

    2016-06-01

    Triggered by two typhoons, heavy rainfall hit Kanto and Tohoku regions of Japan from September 9 to 11, 2015. Increased river water by the continuous rainfall overflowed and destroyed several river banks and caused damaging floods in wide areas. PALSAR-2 onboard ALOS-2 satellite carried out emergency observation for the impacted areas during and after the heavy rainfall. In this study, two pre-event and four co- and post-event PALSAR-2 images were used to extract the inundation area in Joso city, Ibaraki prefecture. First, using the pre-event SAR intensity image and a detailed topographic map, the backscattering coefficient of river water was investigated. Then the flooded areas were extracted by a common threshold value of backscatter for water bodies in the six temporal images. The colour composite of the sigma naught values was also made to visualize pixels that had been converted from ground to water. Finally, the extracted results were compared with those from the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and field survey reports. This comparison revealed that the accuracy of the flood extraction was fairly good for agricultural lands and non-urban land uses. But for built-up urban areas, it was not easy to extract water body since radar illumination did to reach the ground (water) surface.

  11. Characterizing the effect of summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency ambulance dispatches in the Kanto area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Takami, Akinori

    2014-07-01

    Despite rising concern on the impact of heat on human health, the risk of high summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency dispatches is not well understood in Japan. A time-series study was conducted to examine the association between apparent temperature and daily heatstroke-related ambulance dispatches (HSAD) within the Kanto area of Japan. A total of 12,907 HSAD occurring from 2000 to 2009 in five major cities—Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama—were analyzed. Generalized additive models and zero-inflated Poisson regressions were used to estimate the effects of daily maximum three-hour apparent temperature (AT) on dispatch frequency from May to September, with adjustment for seasonality, long-term trend, weekends, and public holidays. Linear and non-linear exposure effects were considered. Effects on days when AT first exceeded its summer median were also investigated. City-specific estimates were combined using random effects meta-analyses. Exposure-response relationship was found to be fairly linear. Significant risk increase began from 21 °C with a combined relative risk (RR) of 1.22 (95 % confidence interval, 1.03-1.44), increasing to 1.49 (1.42-1.57) at peak AT. When linear exposure was assumed, combined RR was 1.43 (1.37-1.50) per degree Celsius increment. Overall association was significant the first few times when median AT was initially exceeded in a particular warm season. More than two-thirds of these initial hot days were in June, implying the harmful effect of initial warming as the season changed. Risk increase that began early at the fairly mild perceived temperature implies the need for early precaution.

  12. Comparative Study of Population Density in Flat Area between the Pearl River Basin in China and Kanto Basin in Japan%中国珠三角盆地和日本关东盆地平地人口密度对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡耀求; 姚志远; 黄宁生; 李国敏

    2014-01-01

    density leads to many problems like cities besieged by garbage, traffic congestion, water shortage, air pollution and climate change etc. These problems set an alarm for people and lead us to think of the following questions:Whether Pearl River Basin could sustain the current amount of population sustainably? Does Pearl River Basin have the potential to sustain more people? In order to find answers to those questions, this paper makes a comparative study of population density in relatively flat area between Pearl River Basin of China and Kanto Basin of Japan as the two regions are similar in geography and development function. Kanto Basin is located in south-central Honshu, Japan. It is famous for advanced economy, but also famous for the high density in population. Kyoto, once was the city with the highest population density, is one prefecture in Kanto Basin. From 1965 to 2005, the growth rate of population in Kanto Basin decreased year by year and dropped to 0.5%at 1995 and fluctuated little around 0.5%till 2010. What is more, at 2012, the growth rate of population in Kanto Basin dropped to 0.03%which means the number of people who migrate to Kanto Basin is nearly zero. This represents people would no longer like to migrate to cities in Kanto Basin maybe for the unsatisfied living condition or working environment. In other words, Kanto Basin could not sustain more people. The number of population and population density in Kanto Basin are at critical points. So this paper compares the population density in flat area between Pearl River Basin and Kanto Basin. And the conclusion is the population density in flat area of Pearl River Basin exceeds that of Kanto Basin in 2010 and the amount of population in Pearl River Basin is reaching its limit of carrying capacity. Pearl River Basin has little capacity to sustain more people.

  13. [Effects of empathy on fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, focusinig on the residents in the South Kanto area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Youichi; Yoo, Seonyoung; Matsui, Yutaka

    2015-02-01

    Fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake during the year after the earthquake were investigated in residents of the South Kanto area (N = 749), which is adjacent to the disaster area. The percentage of people that raised funds was 67.4%. We investigated the effects of the following on fundraising activities: demographic variables (sex, age, and educational background), trait empathy (empathic concern, perspective taking, and personal distress), former experience with fund-raising activities, effects of similarity to victims (e.g., experienced inconveniences because of the disaster, or had problems returning home), and psychological closeness to victims (e.g, have family members or acquaintances that suffered from the disaster, or that once lived in the disaster area). The results indicated that fund-raising activities were affected by former experience with fund-raising, similarity to victims, psychological closeness to victims, empathic concern, and being female. The relationship between fund-raising activities for victims and empathy are discussed.

  14. 3-D simulation for the tectonic evolution around the Kanto Region of Japan using the kinematic plate subduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, A.; Sato, T.; Ito, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Kameo, K.; Yamamoto, S.

    2011-12-01

    because of its buoyancy. This can be represented by giving slip-rate deficit. When crustal deformation occurs, it also causes change in geometry of the plate boundary itself. Iterating this effect sequentially backward in time, we can reconstruct the past plate boundary geometry and past crustal deformation fields. Using the above model, we estimate the long-term slip-rate distribution due to plate subduction/collision to explain the crustal deformation in Kanto obtained from geological and geomorphological studies. The basic deformation pattern of the basin-forming movement in the Kanto plain and uplifts in the southern Boso peninsula and in the Kanto and Akaishi mountains cannot be explained by the collision restricted to the Izu peninsula only. It is necessary to assume wider collision extended to the neighboring Sagami and Suruga trough, which is consistent to the width of the arc crust of the Izu-Bonin arc. However, the degree of the collision is relatively small in these areas where large interplate earthquake occurs. The effect of temporal change in geometry of the plate interfaces is not so large in the timescale of 1 Myr.

  15. Groundwater management based on monitoring of land subsidence and groundwater levels in the Kanto Groundwater Basin, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, K.; Kagawa, A.; Kazaoka, O.; Kusuda, T.; Nirei, H.

    2015-11-01

    Over 40 million people live on and exploit the groundwater resources of the Kanto Plain. The Plain encompasses metropolitan Tokyo and much of Chiba Prefecture. Useable groundwater extends to the base of the Kanto Plain, some 2500 to 3000 m below sea level. Much of the Kanto Plain surface is at sea level. By the early 1970s, with increasing urbanization and industrial expansion, local overdraft of groundwater resources caused major ground subsidence and damage to commercial and residential structures as well as to local and regional infrastructure. Parts of the lowlands around Tokyo subsided to 4.0 m below sea level; particularly affected were the suburbs of Funabashi and Gyotoku in western Chiba. In the southern Kanto Plain, regulations, mainly by local government and later by regional agencies, led to installation of about 500 monitoring wells and almost 5000 bench marks by the 1990's. Many of them are still working with new monitoring system. Long-term monitoring is important. The monitoring systems are costly, but the resulting data provide continuous measurement of the "health" of the Kanto Groundwater Basin, and thus permit sustainable use of the groundwater resource.

  16. Research on Fish Consumer Profile Evaluation in Romanian Plain Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at shaping a fish consumer profile in the Romanian Plain area. 150 people were interviewed. Preferences evaluation was conducted by means of a questionnaire with 27 questions. Favorite fish species, purchasing place and manner, favorite preparation choices, consumption frequency and place have been identified.

  17. Baseline experiment of interferometric PGS at the EDM network in the south Kanto area, Japan. GPS kansho sokuiho ni yoru kisen sokuryo no kiso jikken (Minamikanto koha sokuryomo ni okeru hikaku kansoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T.; Murata, I.; Matsumoto, S.; Hirata, Y.; Takahashi, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute); Tsuchiya, A. (National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)); Watada, S. (California Institute of Technology, California (USA)); Iga, A. (Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-25

    The first field baseline observation using SONY GTT-4000, a GPS (Global Positioning System) interferometer was conducted at the EDM (Electromagnetic Distance Measurements) network of the Earthquake Research Institute in the southern Kanto Area, Japan. For the experiments, three GTT-4000 receivers of single frequency version were deployed at three sites which compose a triangle with side distances of about 8km, 12km, and 14km. The present paper introduces the receiver briefly, and the distances obtained by this receiver are compared with those obtained by the EDM observations. Consequently, it was shown that the results by GTT-4000 coincided well with those by EDM with less than 2ppm of accuracy. It was also shown that misclosures of the triangle which was obtained by the relative coordinate estimates were smaller than 1ppm. Furthermore, it was revealed that due to introduction of upgraded dual frequency capability, the receiver can reduce the effect of the ionospheric path delays. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Earthquake Source and Ground Motion Characteristics of Great Kanto Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, P. G.; Sato, T.; Wald, D. J.; Graves, R. W.; Dan, K.

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the derivation of a rupture model of the 1923 Kanto earthquake, and the estimation of ground motions that occurred during that earthquake and that might occur during future great Kanto earthquakes. The rupture model was derived from the joint inversion of geodetic and teleseismic data. The leveling and triangulation data place strong constraints on the distribution and orientation of slip on the fault. The most concentrated slip is in the shallow central and western part of the fault. The location of the hypocenter on the western part of the fault gives rise to strong near fault rupture directivity effects, which are largest toward the east in the Boso Peninsula. To estimate the ground motions caused by this earthquake, we first calibrated 1D and 3D wave propagation path effects using the Odawara earthquake of 5 August 1990 (M 5.1), the first earthquake larger than M 5 in the last 60 years near the hypocenter of the 1923 Kanto earthquake. The simulation of the moderate-sized Odawara earthquake demonstrates that the 3D velocity model works quite well at reproducing the recorded long-period (T > 3.33 sec) strong motions, including basin-generated surface waves, for a number of sites located throughout the Kanto basin region. Using this validated 3D model along with the rupture model described above, we simulated the long-period (T > 4 sec) ground motions in this region for the 1923 Kanto earthquake. The largest ground motions occur east of the epicenter along the central and southern part of the Boso Peninsula. These large motions arise from strong rupture directivity effects and are comprised of relatively simple, source-controlled pulses with a dominant period of about 10 sec. Other rupture models and hypocenter locations generally produce smaller long period ground motion levels in this region that those of the 1923 event. North of the epicentral region, in the Tokyo area, 3D basin-generated phases are quite significant, and these phases

  19. Renewable Energy Opportunities at the Kanto Installations, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-09-24

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource development potential at the U.S. Army installations in the Kanto region in Japan, which includes Camp Zama, Yokohama North Dock, Sagamihara Family Housing Area (SFHA), Sagami General Depot, and Akasaka Press Center. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the Huntsville Army Corps of Engineers, and includes the development of a methodology for renewable resource assessment at Army installations located on foreign soil. The methodology is documented in Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations. The site visit to the Kanto installations took place on April 5 and 6, 2010. At the current time, there are some renewable technologies that show economic potential. Because of siting restrictions and the small size of these installations, development of most renewable energy technologies will likely be limited to Camp Zama. Project feasibility is based on installation-specific resource availability and energy costs and projections based on accepted life-cycle cost methods. Development of any renewable energy project will be challenging, as it will require investigation into existing contractual obligations, new contracts that could be developed, the legality of certain partnerships, and available financing avenues, which involves the U.S. Forces Japan (USFJ), the Government of Japan (GOJ), and a number of other parties on both sides. The Army will not be able to implement a project without involvement and approval from the other services and multiple levels of Japanese government. However, implementation of renewable energy projects could be an attractive method for GOJ to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower annual utility payments to USFJ. This report recommends projects to pursue and offers approaches to use. The most

  20. The Great Kanto earthquake and F. Scott Fitzgerald

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Bina, Craig R.

    How many recall the following striking sentence from The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, which appears on the second page of the novel, where Fitzgerald first introduces Gatsby? “If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him, some heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, as if he were related to one of those intricate machines that register earthquakes ten thousand miles away.”This line may have failed to focus our attention when we first read the book in our younger days. Now, however, as a Japanese seismologist and an American geophysicist (and student of Japanese culture), we would be greatly remiss for failing to take greater note of this statement. Indeed, as The Great Gatsby was published in 1925, it occurred to us that the earthquake Fitzgerald might have been thinking of was the Great Kanto earthquake, which occurred on September 1, 1923 and devastated the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  1. A review on the establishment and research in hydrological experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas in China and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai; Wang, Chuanhai; Hua, Wenjuan

    2017-04-01

    This paper reviewed some specific conceptions of hydrological experimental areas (catchments) while found that the traditional definition of 'catchment' may be difficult to meet in plain areas. According to the review of development history and current situation of hydrological experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas in China, 4 stages were shown besides the recent 10 years, i.e., 'golden stage(1952-1966)', 'backward stage(1966-1986)', 'short recovery stage(1986-1989)' and 'stagnant stage(1986-2006)'. It gets new impetus since 2006 with some investigation work promoted by the government. Furthermore, some historic problems during establishing experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas were revealed based on the document literature and a few meaningful lessons were drawn from the past. It was also the first time to collect and classify the details of both 11 representative experimental areas in China and abroad, after that a brief comparison about the measurement level and research directions was made between two regions. Additionally, we took the experimental research work in the plain of Taihu Lake Basin as example and introduced the particular research goals and the corresponding establishing process, including how to design the experimental area, eg, size, location, land use type, arranging the measurement instruments et al. We hope such case can provide a reference for newly-building, recovering and extending hydrological experimental areasin plain areas in the future. Finally, this paper prospected the future development in establishment and research in hydrological experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas. It may be more common to see the cooperation between model scientists and field experts. Because of the comprehensive goals in water problems, researchers from various fields would work together in the future experimental research work. Scale study and modelling in plain areas will be a promising branch after some typical experimental areas

  2. Source Process of the 1923 Kanto Earthquake Using New Fault Geometry and 3-D Green's Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, R.; Koketsu, K.

    2005-12-01

    The September 1, 1923, Kanto earthquake caused severe damage and more than 100,000 fatalities in the Tokyo metropolitan area. This earthquake is an interplate event along the Sagami trough where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath a continental plate. We have investigated the source process of this earthquake using the geodetic, teleseismic, and strong motion data (Kobayashi and Koketsu, 2005). The resultant slip distributions show that two asperities (areas of large slips) are located around the base of the Izu peninsula and the Uraga channel. In 2002 and 2003, four seismic surveys were carried out to determine crustal structures and fault locations in the Kanto region (Sato et al., 2005). The seismic reflections from the surface of the Philippine Sea slab suggested that the slab surface should be shallower than the previous models (e.g., Ishida, 1992; Matsu'ura et al., 1980). The fault model of Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) was also based on Matsu'ura et al. (1980). In this study, we adopt new fault geometry consistent with the result of the reflection surveys and perform another source process inversion. The new slip distribution showed that the western asperity moved from the Uraga channel to the tip of the Miura peninsula, while the western asperity did not move considerably. Green's functions that Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) used were calculated in a halfspace for geodetic data or in a 1-D model for strong motions. However, the real structure in the Kanto region is three-dimensionally complex as suggested by the geographical setting and seismic surveys. In fact, Kobayashi and Koketsu (2005) showed that the long coda of the observed seismogram at Hongo, Tokyo, was not reproduced in the synthetic one. The forward modeling with a 3-D structure (Sato et al., 1999) suggested that surface waves excited along the boundary between the Kanto mountains and Kanto basin can explain the large coda. Thus we calculate 3-D Green's functions for the strong motion

  3. Estimating Groundwater Development area in Jianan Plain using Standardized Groundwater Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Hsiang; Haw, Lee Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan has been facing severe water crises in recent years owing to the effects of extreme weather conditions. Changes in precipitation patterns have also made the drought phenomenon increasingly prominent, which has indirectly affected groundwater recharge. Hence, in the present study, long-term monitoring data were collected from the study area of the Jianan plain. The standardized groundwater index (SGI) and was then used to analyse the region's drought characteristics. To analyse the groundwater level by using SGI, making SGI180 groundwater level be the medium water crises, and SGI360 groundwater level be the extreme water crises. Through the different water crises signal in SGI180 and SGI360, we divide groundwater in Jianan plain into two sections. Thereby the water crises indicators establishing groundwater level standard line in Jianan Plain, then using the groundwater level standard line to find the study area where could be groundwater development area in Jianan plain. Taking into account relatively more water scarcity in dry season, so the study screen out another emergency backup groundwater development area, but the long-term groundwater development area is still as a priority development area. After finding suitable locations, groundwater modeling systems(GMS) software is used to simulate our sites to evaluate development volume. Finally, the result of study will help the government to grasp the water shortage situation immediately and solve the problem of water resources deployment.

  4. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest

  5. Preliminary geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Selting, Amy J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new geologic digital map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map = 2,000 feet on the ground) and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. This preliminary map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Santa Barbara and Goleta 7.5' quadrangles. A planned second version will extend the mapping westward into the adjoining Dos Pueblos Canyon quadrangle and eastward into the Carpinteria quadrangle. The mapping presented here results from the collaborative efforts of geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP) (Minor, Kellogg, Stanley, Stone, and Powell) and the tectonic geomorphology research group at the University of California at Santa Barbara (Gurrola and Selting). C.L. Powell, II, performed all new fossil identifications and interpretations reported herein. T.R. Brandt designed and edited the GIS database,performed GIS database integration and created the digital cartography for the map layout. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along a west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Los Angeles. The coastal plain region, which extends from the Santa Ynez Mountains on the north to the Santa Barbara Channel on the south, is underlain by numerous active and potentially active folds and partly buried thrust faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt. Strong earthquakes that occurred in the region in 1925 (6.8 magnitude) and 1978 (5.1 magnitude) are evidence that such structures pose a significant earthquake hazard to the approximately 200,000 people living within the major coastal population centers of Santa Barbara and Goleta. Also, young landslide deposits along the steep lower flank of the Santa

  6. Adjoint tomography of the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the Kanto region using broadband seismograms

    KAUST Repository

    Miyoshi, Takayuki

    2017-10-04

    A three-dimensional seismic wave speed model in the Kanto region of Japan was developed using adjoint tomography for application in the effective reproduction of observed waveforms. Starting with a model based on previous travel time tomographic results, we inverted the waveforms obtained at seismic broadband stations from 140 local earthquakes in the Kanto region to obtain the P- and S-wave speeds Vp and Vs. Additionally, all centroid times of the source solutions were determined before the structural inversion. The synthetic displacements were calculated using the spectral-element method (SEM) in which the Kanto region was parameterized using 16 million grid points. The model parameters Vp and Vs were updated iteratively by Newton’s method using the misfit and Hessian kernels until the misfit between the observed and synthetic waveforms was minimized. Computations of the forward and adjoint simulations were conducted on the K computer in Japan. The optimized SEM code required a total of 6720 simulations using approximately 62,000 node hours to obtain the final model after 16 iterations. The proposed model reveals several anomalous areas with extremely low-Vs values in comparison with those of the initial model. These anomalies were found to correspond to geological features, earthquake sources, and volcanic regions with good data coverage and resolution. The synthetic waveforms obtained using the newly proposed model for the selected earthquakes showed better fit than the initial model to the observed waveforms in different period ranges within 5–30 s. This result indicates that the model can accurately predict actual waveforms.

  7. THE SNOW DRIFT POTENTIAL IN THE PLAIN AREA OF BUZĂU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus COSTACHE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and identify the most exposed areas to snowdrifts, in case of a blizzard phenomenon, in the plain area of Buzău County. Blizzard is the most frequently occurring climatic hazard in the study area, in the cold season, that causes the blocking of the roads and the massive snow accumulation in th built-up areas found in the open field or in negative relief forms. In order to identify areas with high potential snowdrifts, the Snow Drifts Potential Index (SDPI was defined, calculated and localized. This was achieved in the GIS by integrating three factors, namely: the use of land, river valleys and the surfaces exposure in the study area. Finally, the results showed that the most exposed areas to the the snow-drift phenomenon are the built areas found in the river beds, and also those on slopes sheltered from contact with the Carpathian. The importance of this study lies in the fact that once established and localized the areas with high potential for snow-drifts, measures can be taken in order to combat the disastrous effects generated by blizzards in the plains of Buzău County.

  8. Areas Contributing Recharge to Wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain, Tutuila, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Perreault, Jeff A.; Presley, Todd K.

    2007-01-01

    To address the concerns about the potential for contamination of drinking-water wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain, Tutuila, American Samoa, a numerical ground-water flow model was developed and used to delineate areas contributing recharge to the wells (ACRWs). Surveys and analyses were conducted to obtain or compile certain essential hydrogeologic information needed for the model, such as groundwater production statistics, ground-water levels under current production, and an assessment of the distribution of groundwater recharge. The ground-water surveys indicate that total production from all wells in the Tafuna-Leone Plain between 1985 and 2005 averaged 6.1 Mgal/d and showed a gradual increase. A synoptic survey indicates that current water levels in the Tafuna-Leone Plain are highest near its inland boundary, decrease toward the coast, and are slightly depressed in high-production well fields. Ground-water levels showed little effect from the increased production because hydraulic conductivites are high and withdrawal is small relative to recharge. Analysis of ground-water recharge using a soil water-budget analysis indicates that the Tafuna-Leone Plain and adjacent areas receive about 280 Mgal/d of water from rainfall, of which 24 percent runs off to the ocean, 26 percent is removed by evapotranspiration, and 50 percent goes to ground-water recharge. Ground-water recharge per unit area is generally higher at the mountain crests than at the coast, but the highest recharge per unit area is in the mountain-front recharge zone at the juncture between the Tafuna-Leone Plain and the adjacent mountains. Surface water from the mountains also contributes to ground-water recharge in the eastern Tafuna-Leone Plain, in a process analogous to mountain-front recharge described in arid areas. Analysis of stream-gage data indicates that in the mountains of Tutuila, ground water discharges and contributes substantially to the total flow of the streams. In contrast, multiple

  9. A simulation/optimization model for groundwater resources management in the Afram Plains area, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidana, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeo logical data to A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeological data to describe groundwater flow in the Afram Plains area. A nonlinear optimization model was then developed and solved for the management of groundwater resources to meet irrigation and household needs. The objective was to maximize groundwater extraction for irrigation activities from the shallow aquifers of the southern Voltaian Sedimentary Basin that underly the area This would improve food security, raise the standard of living and ultimately alleviate poverty in the Afram Plains. The calibrated flow model is in tandem with the general hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in the area and fits the observed data with about a 98% degree of confidence. Groundwater resources may not be the limiting factor in the development of irrigated agriculture. Groundwater has tremendous potential to meet current and future irrigation needs. It was determined from this study that profit from maize irrigation in the Afram Plains area could rise from US$301, 000 in 2007 to over US$3.5 million by the end of the last management period (2013) as irrigation practice is improved, and the economic strength to increase the acreage for irrigation improves. Even with these margins of profit, the drawdown constraint was not reached in any of the management periods. It is expected that rechargefrom the irrigation water would reclaim the lost hydraulic head. The single significant constraint was the amount of land area that could be developed for irrigation in the area. The profit obtained per unit cubic meter of water used also improved over the same management period.

  10. Landscape planning and ecology construction of wetland comprehensive protected area system in the Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Wetland is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the earth. The main purpose of establishing wetland protected area is to protect biodiversity, and the protection of ecosystem diversity and landscape diversity is the key to protect biodiversity. In order to protect regional ecosystem and landscape, it is a good way to establish wetland comprehensive protected area which connected wetland nature reserves by habitat corridors. The Sanjiang Plain as a study area, its landscape evaluation index system on wetland protected area was studied, and some problems on landscape planning and ecology construction were further approached in this paper. It showed that establishing wetland comprehensive protected area is very important to protect regional wetlands, to maintain ecological balance,and to improve the sustainable development of agriculture and industry in this region.

  11. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saud, T. [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi-110006 (India); Singh, D.P.; Gadi, Ranu [Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi-110006 (India); Mandal, T.K.; Saxena, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Gautam, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhatnagar, R.P. [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Pathak, H. [Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  12. Research on positioning mode of LADAR aided navigation system over plain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Yan, Lei; Tong, Qingxi

    2007-11-01

    Laser Radar (LADAR) achieves more applications on aerial aided-navigation in mountainous areas for its good performance. But plain areas encounter terrain elevation's slow variation and occasional unavailability of Digital Feature Analysis Database (DFAD), which as necessary reference. Looking for replaceable map source and extracting common characters for matching, are the fundamental circles of imaging LADAR aided navigation research. In this paper aerial high-resolution remote sensing (RS) images are applied as substitute for DFAD, and the edge factor is chosen out by synthetically analyzing RS images' and imaging LADAR point cloud'scharacters. Then edge extraction algorithm based on multi-scale wavelet is explored to reflect their common features, and weighted Hausdorff distance method is applied to match for positioning. At last the high-resolution RS images and imaging LADAR data of the same area are assumed for simulation experiment, which testifies the validity of the methods proposed above.

  13. Partners in flight bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Butcher, G.; Fitzgerald, J.; Shieldcastle, J.

    2001-01-01

    1 November 2001. Conservation of bird habitats is a major focus of effort by Partners in Flight, an international coalition of agencies, citizens, and other groups dedicated to 'keeping common birds common'. USGS worked on a planning team to publish a bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain ecoregion (PIF 16), which includes large portions of southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan and parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The conservation plan outlines specific habitat restoration and bird population objectives for the ecoregion over the next decade. The plan provides a context for on-the-ground conservation implementation by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the US Forest Service, states, and conservation groups. Citation: Knutson, M. G., G. Butcher, J. Fitzgerald, and J. Shieldcastle. 2001. Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for The Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16). USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center in cooperation with Partners in Flight, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Download from website: http://www.blm.gov/wildlife/pifplans.htm. The Upper Great Lakes Plain covers the southern half of Michigan, northwest Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and small portions of southwest Minnesota and northwest Iowa. Glacial moraines and dissected plateaus are characteristic of the topography. Broadleaf forests, oak savannahs, and a variety of prairie communities are the natural vegetation types. A oDriftless Areao was not glaciated during the late Pleistocene and emerged as a unique area of great biological diversity. Priority bird species for the area include the Henslow's Sparrow, Sedge Wren, Bobolink, Golden-winged Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black-billed Cuckoo, and Red-headed Woodpecker. There are many large urban centers in this area whose growth and sprawl will continue to consume land. The vast majority of the presettlement forest and

  14. Aquifer recharge from infiltration basins in a highly urbanized area: the river Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, M.; Nghiem, S. V.; Sorichetta, A.; Stevenazzi, S.; Santi, E. S.; Pettinato, S.; Bonfanti, M.; Pedretti, D.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the extensive urbanization in the Po Plain in northern Italy, rivers need to be managed to alleviate flooding problems while maintaining an appropriate aquifer recharge under an increasing percentage of impermeable surfaces. During the PO PLain Experiment field campaign in July 2015 (POPLEX 2015), both active and under-construction infiltration basins have been surveyed and analyzed to identify appropriate satellite observations that can be integrated to ground based monitoring techniques. A key strategy is to have continuous data time series on water presence and level within the basin, for which ground based monitoring can be costly and difficult to be obtained consistently.One of the major and old infiltration basin in the central Po Plain has been considered as pilot area. The basin is active from 2003 with ground based monitoring available since 2009 and supporting the development of a calibrated unsaturated-saturated two-dimensional numerical model simulating the infiltration dynamics through the basin.A procedure to use satellite data to detect surface water change is under development based on satellite radar backscatter data with an appropriate incidence angle and polarization combination. An advantage of satellite radar is that it can observe surface water regardless of cloud cover, which can be persistent during rainy seasons. Then, the surface water change is correlated to the reservoir water stage to determine water storage in the basin together with integrated ground data and to give quantitative estimates of variations in the local water cycle.We evaluated the evolution of the infiltration rate, to obtain useful insights about the general recharge behavior of basins that can be used for informed design and maintenance. Results clearly show when the basin becomes progressively clogged by biofilms that can reduce the infiltration capacity of the basin by as much as 50 times compared to when it properly works under clean conditions.

  15. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SALINE- ALKALI SOIL AREA OF SONGNEN PLAIN,NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-chun; LI Qu-sheng; LI Xiu-jun; SONG Chang-chun; ZHANG Guang-xin

    2003-01-01

    There is great potential for agriculture in saline-alkali soil area in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Butthe sustainable crop production in this area has been restricted by a few of main factors, such as less precipitation, higherevaporation and frequent drought, high salinity and alkalinity, high exchangeable sodium content and poor infiltration ofthe soil, and insufficiency and low availability in nutrition. It is also considered that there are a few of favorable condi-tions for agricultural development in this region, such as sufficient light and heat resources, rich ground water resources,plenty of manure produced by livestock, and so on. At the same time, scientific management and measurements havebeen employed; rational irrigation and drainage system has been established; reclamation, amendment and fertilization ofsoil, and suitable strategies of cropping practices have been made for the sustainable development of agriculture. Greatprogress has been made during 1996- 2000.

  16. Implementation of magnetic, gravity and resistivity data in identifying groundwater occurrences in El Qaa Plain area, Southern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, El Sayed; Abdel-Raouf, Osama; Mesalam, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    El Qaa plain is one of the areas that have been proved to be promising as to its soil and groundwater resources in the southwestern part of Sinai. This study was carried out to study the lateral and vertical variations in the subsurface lithologic properties in El Qaa plain area and delineating the subsurface structure that affecting El Qaa plain depression. Gravity, magnetic data, fifty-one (51) vertical electrical sounding (Ves's) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) map were used. Two-dimensional density modeling, analytical signal, tilt derivatives, Euler deconvolution techniques and interpretation of the resistivity data were applied on potential data. This study concluded that, El Qaa plain is a NE-SW depression confined by two normal faults and subdivided into five sedimentary units. Rock fragments and boulders derived to the plain from the surrounding highlands are the main components of the first surface unit that characterized by high resistivity values. This layer is overly another unit composed of gravelly sand with thickness ranging between 10 and 140 m. The third unit is composed mainly of sand with intercalations of clay with thickness ranging from 2 to 152 m. A Reefal limestone unit is a fourth unit interpreted from this study. The fifth unit is composed of clay. The water bearing formations in El Qaa Plain area are located principally in the second and the third layers. Finally, the depth to the basement surface ranges from 400 m to more than 1.5 km below sea level. Also, there are many minor structural trends interpreted from this study and affecting the El Qaa plain are striking in N-S, E-W and NE-SW directions.

  17. Effect of maize sowing area changes on agricultural water consumption from 2000 to 2010 in the West Liaohe Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ling; YANG Yan-zhao; FENG Zhi-ming; ZHENG Ya-nan

    2016-01-01

    TheWestLiaohe Plain is located in the eastern Inner Mongolia, known as the golden maize belt in China, where maize acreage has continued to rise in recent years. Water is the main limiting factor for maize production in the region, therefore, this study calculated the effect of maize sowing area changes on agricultural water consumption in the WestLiaohe Plain in 2000, 2005 and 2010, based on remote sensing and meteorological data. Maize remote sensing classiifcation was con-structed based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer, normalized difference vegatation index (MODIS NDVI) data. Then the maize sown area and water requirement and irrigation water resources were investigated. Finaly, the effect of the maize sowing area changes on agricultural water consumption in the West Liaohe Plain was systematicaly analyzed in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The results showed that maize sown areas rose from 2000 to 2010 and were concentrated in the center of the WestLiaohe Plain. Average per unit maize water deifcit amount also increased in an uneven distribution, increasing from the south, east and north to the center and west of the WestLiaohe Plain. The per unit area maize water deifcit increased from 2000 to 2010, and reached 266 mm in 2000, 272 mm in 2005 and 273 mm in 2010, respectively. And the study concluded that water deifcit during the whole growth period of maize in the West Liaohe Plain was deifned by a single peak curve. The maize water requirements increased with maize sowing area changes from 2000 to 2010, and the maize water requirements increased from 0.89 bilion m3 in 2000 to 1.19 bilion m3 in 2005, and 1.21 bilion m3 in 2010.

  18. Application of Groundwater Vulnerability Overlay and Index Methods to the Jijel Plain Area (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufekane, Abdelmadjid; Saighi, Omar

    2017-08-21

    Today, scientists are deeply concerned by the vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs to pollution. Relatively simple overlay and index methods can be used to produce groundwater vulnerability maps in geographic information system. In addition, this study deals with contamination from nonpoint sources. In this study, two such models, DRASTIC and GOD, were applied in the Jijel Plain area of northeast Algeria and compared with measured groundwater nitrate concentrations. This showed that results from DRASTIC were better than GOD, 69% correlation with nitrate compared to 56%. DRASTIC was better able to identify vulnerable zones along the river valleys. The DRASTIC model was then modified using the nitrate concentrations to optimize the rating score given within each parameter range and sensitivity analysis to change the weighting given for each parameter. These combined changes gave a final Pearson's correlation of 83% with nitrate. This showed that recharge, aquifer type, and topography were the key factors in controlling vulnerability to nitrate pollution. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Aging effect of 137Cs obtained from 137Cs in the Kanto loam layer from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and in the Nishiyama loam layer from the Nagasaki A-bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Tomoko; Mahara, Yasunori; Kubota, Takumi; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We measured (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil of the Kanto loam in the eastern Tokyo metropolitan area and the Nishiyama loam in Nagasaki, Japan. The observed (137)Cs deposition in the Kanto loam from the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident ranged from 4.0 to 77 kBq m(-2), which corresponds to 0.3-5 times of that in the Nishiyama loam. The (137)Cs retardation factor in the Kanto loam obtained seven months after the Fukusima NPP accident and in the Nishiyama loam after 36 and 38 years from the detonation of the Pu atomic bomb (A-bomb) ranged from 180 to 260 and 2000 to 10,000, respectively. This difference in the retardation factors is attributed to an aging effect that corresponds to seven months and 36 to 38 years after the deposition of (137)Cs occurred on the soil minerals.

  20. Implication upon Herpetofauna of a Road and its Reconstruction in Carei Plain Natural Protected Area (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred-S. Cicort-Lucaciu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In autumn 2011 we monitored a 5 km long road, paved with cobblestone, situated in Carei Plain Natural Protected Area, a road that is due to be modernized and continued across the border into Hungary. Dead bodies from eight different animal groups were observed on the road, amphibians presenting the greatest amount. The most frequent were the Triturus dobrogicus corps, a species with conservation importance. The amphibians were affected in the areas where the road is neighboring the wetlands, while on the opposite pole sits the area with acacia plantations. The high number of mortalities recorded on the road, despite the low traffic speed, is alarming. It is likely that the modernization of the road that will surely increase its traffic and the speed of the vehicles, will make the situation even worse. However, the rebuilding could contribute to the reduction in the impact on amphibians, if certain measures are considered while planning the action. Thus, in the areas near the wetlands, there should be undercrossings, fences and speed limits. In this way, the modernization would at least represent an experiment regarding the diminution of the road’s impact on amphibians.

  1. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai'an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hong-chang; LU Yong-long; LIU Can; MENG Qing-hua; SHI Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative.

  2. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai' an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-chang; Lu, Yong-long; Liu, Can; Meng, Qing-hua; Shi, Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative.

  3. Wind and Wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying Low-Impact Areas for Wind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph; Slaats, M. Jan; Olimb, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW) than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP) is home both to some of the world’s best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas. PMID:22848505

  4. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood...

  5. Spring land temperature anomalies in northwestern US and the summer drought over Southern Plains and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongkang; Oaida, Catalina M.; Diallo, Ismaila; Neelin, J. David; Li, Suosuo; De Sales, Fernando; Gu, Yu; Robinson, David A.; Vasic, Ratko; Yi, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent drought and associated heatwave episodes are important features of the US climate. Many studies have examined the connection between ocean surface temperature changes and conterminous US droughts. However, remote effects of large-scale land surface temperature variability, over shorter but still considerable distances, on US regional droughts have been largely ignored. The present study combines two types of evidence to address these effects: climate observations and model simulations. Our analysis of observational data shows that springtime land temperature in northwest US is significantly correlated with summer rainfall and surface temperature changes in the US Southern Plains and its adjacent areas. Our model simulations of the 2011 Southern Plains drought using a general circulation model and a regional climate model confirm the observed relationship between land temperature anomaly and drought, and suggest that the long-distance effect of land temperature changes in the northwest US on Southern Plains droughts is probably as large as the more familiar effects of ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric internal variability. We conclude that the cool 2011 springtime climate conditions in the northwest US increased the probability of summer drought and abnormal heat in the Southern Plains. The present study suggests a strong potential for more skillful intra-seasonal predictions of US Southern Plains droughts when such facts as ones presented here are considered.

  6. Hydrology of Area 62, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, New Mexico and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, F.E.; Wells, J.G.; Gold, R.L.; Flager, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes available hydrologic data for Area 62 and will aid leasing decisions, and the preparation and appraisal of environmental impact studies and mine-permit applications. Area 62 is located at the southern end of the Rocky Mountain Coal Province in parts of New Mexico and Arizona and includes approximately 9,500 square miles. Surface mining alters, at least temporarily, the environment; if the areas are unreclaimed, there can be long-term environmental consequences. The land-ownership pattern in Area 62 is complicated. The checkerboard pattern created by several types of ownership makes effective management of these lands difficult. The climate generally is semiarid with average annual precipitation ranging from 10 to 20 inches. Pinons, junipers, and grasslands cover most of the area, and much of it is used for grazing by livestock. Soils vary with landscape, differing from flood plains and hillslopes to mountain slopes. The major structural features of this area were largely developed during middle Tertiary time. The main structural features are the southern San Juan Basin and the Mogollon slope. Coal-bearing rocks are present in four Cretaceous rock units of the Mesaverde Group: the Gallup Sandstone, the Dileo Coal Member, and the Gibson Coal Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation, and the Cleary Coal Member of the Menefee Formation. Area 62 is drained by Black Creek, the Puerco River, the Zuni River, Carrizo Wash-Largo Creek, and the Rio San Jose. Only at the headwaters of the Zuni River is the flow perennial. The streamflow-gaging station network consists of 25 stations operated for a variety of needs. Streamflow changes throughout the year with variation related directly to rainfall and snowmelt. Base flow in Area 62 is zero indicating no significant ground-water discharge. Mountainous areas contribute the highest mean annual runoff of 1.0 inch. Very few water-quality data are available for the surface-water stations. Of the nine surface

  7. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Yokokura, T.; Kiguchi, T.; Yokota, T.; Matsushima, J. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Groundwater resource degradation in coastal plains: The example of the Cecina area (Tuscany - Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Sergio [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: grassi@igg.cnr.i; Cortecci, Gianni; Squarci, Paolo [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    The paper describes the degradation of the groundwater resources in the Cecina area, where seawater intrusion, B contamination and NO{sub 3} pollution are all affecting the heavily exploited Pleistocene aquifer. Over-pumping has brought water levels to about 0 m.a.s.l. as far as about 7 km from the shore line, thereby promoting the seawater intrusion. The intrusion, which is characterized by cation exchange phenomena and Ca-Cl type waters, enters the plain mostly through the shallower horizons. The saline front, which advanced from 0.5 to 1 km in 4 a, has by now reached the foot of the hills to the east of the town, where it is also affecting wells of the local aqueduct. Boron contamination, linked to past discharge of industrial waste transported downstream by the river, reached concentrations as high as 3.5 mg/L in the mid-1980s. Although a decreasing trend is now under way, B content is still close to 1 mg/L. The presence of high NO{sub 3}, which, together with the seawater intrusion, represents a major issue for groundwater management in the area, is linked to the widespread utilization of fertilizers. Nitrate concentration, which reaches a maximum of about 300 mg/L in the shallow aquifer horizons and then decreases rather regularly with depth, is strongly influenced by precipitation. However, irrigation also contributes significantly to transporting the NO{sub 3} contamination to depth, as clearly shown by {delta}{sup 18}O data. The severe decline in the quality of the groundwater resource in the Cecina area is further compounded by an overall decrease in water availability in the region of Tuscany, as evidenced by long-term monitoring of precipitation and fluvial discharge.

  9. Application of Microtremor Array Analysis to Estimate the Bedrock Depth in the Beijing Plain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Ling, S.; Liu, J.; Su, W.

    2013-12-01

    With the rapid expansion of large cities around the world, urban geological survey provides key information regarding resource development and urban construction. Among the major cities of the world, China's capital city Beijing is among the largest cities possessing complex geological structures. The urban geological survey and study in Beijing involves the following aspects: (1) estimating the thickness of the Cenozoic deposit; (2) mapping the three-dimensional structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as its relations to faults and tectonic settings; and (3) assessing the capacity of the city's geological resources in order to support its urban development and operation safety. The geological study of Beijing in general was also intended to provide basic data regarding the urban development and appraisal of engineering and environment geological conditions, as well as underground space resources. In this work, we utilized the microtremor exploration method to estimate the thickness of the bedrock depth, in order to delineate the geological interfaces and improve the accuracy of the bedrock depth map. The microtremor observation sites were located in the Beijing Plain area. Traditional geophysical or geological survey methods were not effective in these areas due to the heavy traffic and dense buildings in the highly-populated urban area. The microtremor exploration method is a Rayleigh-wave inversion technique which extracts its phase velocity dispersion curve from the vertical component of the microtremor array records using the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method, then inverts the shear-wave velocity structure. A triple-circular array was adopted for acquiring microtremor data, with the observation radius in ranging from 40 to 300 m, properly adjusted depending on the geological conditions (depth of the bedrock). The collected microtremor data are used to: (1) estimation of phase velocities of Rayleigh-wave from the vertical components of the microtremor

  10. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with [Formula: see text] and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329-2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal

  11. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with NH4+ and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329–2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal coordinate

  12. Influence of blocking effect of mountain and local front on two Asian-dust events observed at Mt. Haruna and Tsukuba in Kanto, Japan, in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Naoe, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Tanaka, Taichu Y.

    2011-08-01

    Aerosol number concentrations were continuously measured at sites at Tsukuba and Mt. Haruna on the Kanto region of Japan by using optical particle counters (OPCs) from February to June 2007. Three specific dust events captured at the sites were analyzed by using lidar, backward trajectories, and model simulation in detail. The temporal variations in aerosol concentrations in the two Asian-dust events (K1 event: 31 March-3 April; K2 event: 25-28 May) were similar. Dust particles (≥2.0 μm in diameter) were transported in association with a synoptic-scale cold front, and they arrived at the Tsukuba site about 8 h after they were observed at the Mt. Haruna site, in association with the dissipation of a local front formed ahead of the cold front. However, the inflow patterns of dust particles differed between the K1 and K2 events. The K1 event flowed onto the Kanto Plain, detouring around the mountainous region, whereas the K2 event directly flowed across the mountains. The difference in inflow pattern was probably due to the blocking effects of the mountains and the formation of a stable layer near the surface. Preceding the dust plume arrival, an increase in the number concentration of small-aerosol particles (0.3-1.0 μm in diameter), which are considered to be spherical by lidar, was observed, but only at the Tsukuba site. This increase was possibly due to anthropogenic pollution transported over long distances from the continent and from domestic sources in the Kanto region. The third event was a local dust event, because it was observed only at the Tsukuba site (on 13 and 14 March) under dry conditions (10 m s -1).

  13. Seismic hazard assessment and pattern recognition of earthquake prone areas in the Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Alexander; Peresan, Antonella; Soloviev, Alexander; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2014-05-01

    A systematic and quantitative assessment, capable of providing first-order consistent information about the sites where large earthquakes may occur, is crucial for the knowledgeable seismic hazard evaluation. The methodology for the pattern recognition of areas prone to large earthquakes is based on the morphostructural zoning method (MSZ), which employs topographic data and present-day tectonic structures for the mapping of earthquake-controlling structures (i.e. the nodes formed around lineaments intersections) and does not require the knowledge about past seismicity. The nodes are assumed to be characterized by a uniform set of topographic, geologic, and geophysical parameters; on the basis of such parameters the pattern recognition algorithm defines a classification rule to discriminate seismogenic and non-seismogenic nodes. This methodology has been successfully applied since the early 1970s in a number of regions worldwide, including California, where it permitted the identification of areas that have been subsequently struck by strong events and that previously were not considered prone to strong earthquakes. Recent studies on the Iberian Peninsula and the Rhone Valley, have demonstrated the applicability of MSZ to flat basins, with a relatively flat topography. In this study, the analysis is applied to the Po Plain (Northern Italy), an area characterized by a flat topography, to allow for the systematic identification of the nodes prone to earthquakes with magnitude larger or equal to M=5.0. The MSZ method differs from the standard morphostructural analysis where the term "lineament" is used to define the complex of alignments detectable on topographic maps or on satellite images. According to that definition the lineament is locally defined and the existence of the lineament does not depend on the surrounding areas. In MSZ, the primary element is the block - a relatively homogeneous area - while the lineament is a secondary element of the morphostructure

  14. Drought and Waterlogging Characteristics during the Growth Period of Summer Maize in Luxi Plain Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiliang; SUN; Xu; LIU; Caibo; FENG; Yaping; LI

    2014-01-01

    In summer maize growth period,the water supply and demand ratio is regarded as the evaluation index of drought and waterlogging for the summer maize in Liaocheng City. Using GIS,statistics,agrometeorology and other methods,we analyze the precipitation during the summer maize growth period in Luxi Plains from 1961 to 2011. Through the calculation of drought and waterlogging index,it indicates that the disasters of drought and waterlogging frequently occur during the summer maize growth period,mainly affected by the drought; the frequency of occurrence of drought accounts for 80. 4%,that is,it is very prone to serious drought phenomenon,seriously affecting the normal growth and development of summer maize during the seedling period. With global warming,the industrial and domestic water demand is increasing year by year,so it is extremely difficult to increase the water diversion to solve the problem of water shortage for the growth of summer maize. Finally we put forth the following recommendations:( i) Selecting drought-resistant varieties,and improving the water resource use efficiency;( ii)Promoting the water and fertilizer coupling,sprinkler irrigation,drip irrigation,micro-irrigation and other water-saving irrigation technologies,and improving the water use efficiency;( iii) Promoting the ditch,ridge and laminating cultivation technology,reducing the field evapotranspiration,keeping warming and conserving moisture,and saving water resources;( iv) Strengthening the construction of water conservancy facilities,so that it can be irrigated during drought and drained during waterlogging;( v) During dry season,timely organizing artificial rainfall operation,and increasing precipitation in arid areas to ease drought;( vi) Rationally exploiting the groundwater,and improving the underground water use efficiency.

  15. Soil Moisture Estimation Using MODIS Images (Case Study: Mashhad Plain Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fashaee

    2016-09-01

    area is selected in the Mashhad plain in Khorasan Razavi province of I.R. Iran. Study area is about 1,200 square kilometers and is located around the Golmakan center of agricultural research. In this study, water deficit index (WDI was zoning by MODIS images in subset of Mashhad plain during water year of 2011-2012. Then, based on the close relationship between WDI and soil moisture parameter, a linear relationship between these two parameters were fitted. Soil moisture is measured by the TDR and every 7 days at 5 depths of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 cm from the surface. Remote Sensing (RS technology used as a tool for providing some of the data that is required. The moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS instrument is popular for monitoring soil moisture because of its high spectral (36 bands resolution, moderate spatial (250–1000 m resolution and various products for land surface properties. MODIS products used in the present study include: MOD09A1 land surface albedo data, MOD11A1 land surface temperature data, and MOD13A1 vegetation data. Using ArcMap 9.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 2010 softwares, WDI was calculated pixel by pixel for 18 days (non-cloudy days and simultaneous with measurement of soil moisture at the station. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the northeastern region is predominantly rainfed and irrigated farmlands are under water stress. Conversely, the southwestern part of the area is mountainous with less water stress. Based on NDVI, there is also less crop cover in the southwestern part of the region during the year. The results showed that about 44% of the index values are in the range of 0.2-0.3. Then about 22% of the index values are in the range of 0.3-0.4. Thus it can be concluded that over 66% of the index values are in the range of 0.2-0.4. According to the maximum index value (WDI=0.59 on the 201th day of year and the minimum values (WDI=0.0004 on the 129th day of year during the time period of study, it seems that water

  16. USE OF LANDSAT TM FOR MAPPING LAND USE IN THE ENDORHEIC AREA - CASE OF GADAINE PLAIN (EASTERN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah BOUHATA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on land use is essential in environmental projects and ecosystem management, these data allow to approach the reality of lands and understand the challenges of development. The emergence of geospatial technology has provided an easy way to detect the use of land. This article presents the results of mapping land use based on remote sensing data (Landsat TM 2009 for the Gadaine plain region. The analysis of satellite image has identified six main types of land use (sebkha, chotts, bare soil, forest, agriculture, and cereal. The results allow the identification of each type of occupancy (spatial and area across the plain where interventions are needed for better management of this endorheic space and also to limit the processes of land degradation.

  17. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of thermal regime and slab dehydration beneath Kanto and Tohoku, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yingfeng; Yoshioka, Shoichi; Manea, Vlad Constantin; Manea, Marina; Matsumoto, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Although the thermal regime of the interface between two overlapping subducting plates, such as those beneath Kanto, Japan, is thought to play an important role in affecting the distribution of interplate and intraslab earthquakes, the estimation of the thermal regime remains challenging to date. We constructed a three-dimensional (3-D) thermal convection model to simulate the subduction of the Pacific plate along the Japan Trench and Izu-Bonin Trench, including the subduction of the Philippine Sea beneath Kanto and investigated the slab thermal regime and slab water contents in this complex tectonic setting. Based on the subduction parameters tested in generic models with two flat oceanic plates, a faster or thicker plate subducting in a more trench-normal direction produces a colder slab thermal regime. The interplate temperature of the cold anomaly beneath offshore Kanto was approximately 300°C colder than that beneath offshore Tohoku at a same depth of 40 km and approximately 600°C colder at a depth of 70 km. The convergence between the two subducting plates produces an asymmetric thermal structure in the slab contact zone beneath Kanto, which is characterized by clustered seismicity in the colder southwestern half. The thermo-dehydration state of the mid-ocean ridge basalt near the upper surface of the subducted Pacific plate controls the interplate seismicity beneath the Kanto-Tohoku region according to the spatial concurrence of the thermo-dehydration and seismicity along the megathrust fault zone of the subducted Pacific plate.

  18. 3-D simulation of temporal change in tectonic deformation pattern and evolution of the plate boundary around the Kanto Region of Japan due to the collision of the Izu-Bonin Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, A.; Sato, T.; Ito, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Furuya, H.; Tsumura, N.; Kameo, K.; Yamamoto, S.

    2010-12-01

    backward in time, we numerically simulated the evolution of the deformation rates in Kanto. The result shows uplifts in the Akaishi and the Kanto ranges ahead of the Izu-Bonin arc and subsidence in the center of the Kanto plane. This result is consistent with the topography, the free-air gravity anomaly and the height of paleo-shorelines in this area.

  19. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  20. Coseismic slip distribution of the 1923 Kanto earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Nyst, M.; Nishimura, T.; Thatcher, W.

    2005-01-01

    The slip distribution associated with the 1923 M = 7.9 Kanto, Japan, earthquake is reexamined in light of new data and modeling. We utilize a combination of first-order triangulation, second-order triangulation, and leveling data in order to constrain the coseismic deformation. The second-order triangulation data, which have not been utilized in previous studies of 1923 coseismic deformation, are associated with only slightly smaller errors than the first-order triangulation data and expand the available triangulation data set by about a factor of 10. Interpretation of these data in terms of uniform-slip models in a companion study by Nyst et al. shows that a model involving uniform coseismic slip on two distinct rupture planes explains the data very well and matches or exceeds the fit obtained by previous studies, even one which involved distributed slip. Using the geometry of the Nyst et al. two-plane slip model, we perform inversions of the same geodetic data set for distributed slip. Our preferred model of distributed slip on the Philippine Sea plate interface has a moment magnitude of 7.86. We find slip maxima of ???8-9 m beneath Odawara and ???7-8 m beneath the Miura peninsula, with a roughly 2:1 ratio of strike-slip to dip-slip motion, in agreement with a previous study. However, the Miura slip maximum is imaged as a more broadly extended feature in our study, with the high-slip region continuing from the Miura peninsula to the southern Boso peninsula region. The second-order triangulation data provide good evidence for ???3 m right-lateral strike slip on a 35-km-long splay structure occupying the volume between the upper surface of the descending Philippine Sea plate and the southern Boso peninsula. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Inference of postseismic deformation mechanisms of the 1923 Kanto earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Nyst, M.; Nishimura, T.; Thatcher, W.

    2006-01-01

    Coseismic slip associated with the M7.9, 1923 Kanto earthquake is fairly well understood, involving slip of up to 8 m along the Philippine Sea-Honshu interplate boundary under Sagami Bay and its onland extension. Postseismic deformation after the 1923 earthquake, however, is relatively poorly understood. We revisit the available deformation data in order to constrain possible mechanisms of postseismic deformation and to examine the consequences for associated stress changes in the surrounding crust. Data from two leveling lines and one tide gage station over the first 7-8 years postseismic period are of much greater amplitude than the corresponding expected interseismic deformation during the same period, making these data suitable for isolating the signal from postseismic deformation. We consider both viscoelastic models of asthenosphere relaxation and afterslip models. A distributed coseismic slip model presented by Pollitz et al. (2005), combined with prescribed parameters of a viscoelastic Earth model, yields predicted postseismic deformation that agrees with observed deformation on mainland Honshu from Tokyo to the Izu peninsula. Elsewhere (southern Miura peninsula; Boso peninsula), the considered viscoelastic models fail to predict observed deformation, and a model of ???1 in shallow afterslip in the offshore region south of the Boso peninsula, with equivalent moment magnitude Mw = 7.0, adequately accounts for the observed deformation. Using the distributed coseismic slip model, layered viscoelastic structure, and a model of interseismic strain accumulation, we evaluate the post-1923 stress evolution, including both the coseismic and accumulated postseismic stress changes and those stresses contributed by interseismic loading. We find that if account is made for the varying tectonic regime in the region, the occurrence of both immediate (first month) post-1923 crustal aftershocks as well as recent regional crustal seismicity is consistent with the predicted

  2. LITHOLOGIC CONDITIONS OF THE WATER TABLE LOGGING IN THE AREA OF HAĆKI VILLAGE IN THE BIELSKA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Micun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine lithological conditions of the water table in the area of Haćki village located in the Bielska Plain. The study involved the measurements of water level in dug wells, hand drill probing to a depth of 5 m, acquiring the samples of water-bearing deposits and analysing their granulation. The results of analyses allowed to calculate the permeability coefficient. The geological structure of the area is dominated by dusty deposits of various origins. Such deposits’ formation directly affects the conditions of filtration and depth of the water table. Groundwater logging near Haćki village in the Bielska Plain appears at a depth of several tens of centimeters to 2 meters in the depressions field and up a little over 5 meters in the case of higher ground surfaces. The presence of perched water was revealed on the hills, periodic leachates at the foot of the hills and scarps and one periodic spring. Water-bearing deposits are medium sands, fine sands and loamy fine sands or fine sands with silt. Consequently, the permeability coefficient is low or even very low. Its values range from 0,001 m·d-1 to 3,8 m·d-1 (d – 24 hours. The widespread presence of dusty deposits in the area affects the limited efficiency of the water table.

  3. Geology, geochemistry, and tectonostratigraphic relations of the crystalline basement beneath the coastal plain of New Jersey and contiguous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Richard A.; Drake, Avery Ala; Sugarman, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    Coastal plain sediments are underlain by pre-Mesozoic crystalline rocks. The inner coastal plain is underlain by schist that is correlated with the Potomac Terrane, as well as by mafic rocks probably equivalent to the Wilmington or Bel Air-Rising Sun terranes. The northern and central outer coastal plain is underlain by metasedimentary rocks similar to the Brompton-Cameron Terrane. Rocks beneath the southern coastal plain probably correlate with those of the Chopawamsic and Roanoke Rapids terranes.

  4. Arsenic contamination of groundwater and prevalence of arsenical dermatosis in the Hetao plain area, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Fujino, Y; Kaneko, S; Wu, K; Xia, Y; Yoshimura, T

    2001-06-01

    An investigation was carried out on arsenic contamination of groundwater and prevalence of arsenical dermatosis in the Hetao plain of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Based on the screening of water samples from 96 randomly selected wells in this Region, two areas (Wuyuan and Alashan) were chosen as highly contaminated areas because arsenic in the water samples was higher than 50 microg/l. Arsenic was measured using an arsenic silver diethyl dithiocarbamate method for 326 water samples from all the wells in these areas. The results show arsenic contaminated groundwater from tubule-type wells of depths about 15-30 m was serious compared with open-type wells where depth is about 3-5 m. In the Wuyuan area, 96.2% of water samples from tubule-type wells contained arsenic above 50 microg/l and 69.3% in Alashan area; the highest value was 1354 microg/l and 1088 microg/l, respectively. In these two areas, a health survey was carried out for arsenical dermatosis. The results show the prevalence of arsenical dermatosis in the Wuyuan area was 44.8%, higher than 37.1% prevalence of arsenical dermatosis in the Alashan area. The prevalence of arsenical dermatosis was highest in the over 40-year-old age group. There was no sex difference in the prevalence. Further investigation is needed to clarify the actual situation of arsenic pollution of groundwater in Inner Mongolia, China in order to reduce the adverse health effect among residents exposed to arsenic.

  5. A GIS-based assessment of groundwater suitability for irrigation purposes in flat areas of the wet Pampa plain, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Martínez, Daniel Emilio; Massone, Héctor Enrique

    2012-09-01

    The Pampa in Argentina is a large plain with a quite obvious dependence on agriculture, water availability and its quality. It is a sensitive environment due to weather changes and slope variations. Supplementary irrigation is a useful practice for compensating the production in the zone. However, potential negative impacts of this type of irrigation in salinization and sodification of soils are evident. Most conventional methodologies for assessing water irrigation quality have difficulties in their application in the region because they do not adjust to the defined assumptions for them. Consequently, a new GIS-based methodology integrating multiparametric data was proposed for evaluating and delineating groundwater suitability zones for irrigation purposes in flat areas. Hydrogeological surveys including water level measurements, groundwater samples for chemical analysis and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed. The combination of EC, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, slopes and hydraulic gradient parameters generated an irrigation water index (IWI). With the integration of the IWI 1 to 3 classes (categories of suitable waters for irrigation) and the aquifer thickness the restricted irrigation water index (RIWI) was obtained. The IWI's index application showed that 61.3 % of the area has "Very high" to "Moderate" potential for irrigation, while the 31.4 % of it has unsuitable waters. Approximately, 46 % of the tested area has high suitability for irrigation and moderate groundwater availability. This proposed methodology has advantages over traditional methods because it allows for better discrimination in homogeneous areas.

  6. Simulating 131I pathways from Fukushima to Kanto: a case study for March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Zhi Yi, A.; Yoshimura, K.; Oki, T.

    2015-12-01

    An estimated 150PBq of 131I was released from the FDNPP accident, partially deposited into rivers and affected the water treatment plants (WTPs) of Japan. Due to the elevated 131I concentration in tap water, a restriction on drinking water was placed in 15 of 47 prefectures; of those limited, the densely populated Kanto region was significantly affected during this period. In order to better understand the existence of and to investigate the pathways of 131I for future risk and water resource management in the Kanto region, the IsoMATTRIP land surface and river model was developed. Half-life considerations of radiotracers were implemented and a river map of the Kanto region was manually created. Few simulation studies on the pathways of 131I have been conducted due to its short half-life and limited validation data. The development of the IsoMATTRIP model serves as an initial step to address this gap in knowledge. Preliminary runs on the IsoMATTRIP showed that river discharge has a significant effect on 131I concentration found in WTPs. River discharge was underestimated (by average of 55 m3/s) while 131I concentration was overestimated (by 301 Bq/kg). However, the model was able to simulate varying response of 131I concentration for fallout according to basin size. The discrepancy between observed and simulated river discharge is potentially caused by the model's usage of natural land parameters to simulate an urban environment. Effective river velocity, input precipitation, and discharge were calibrated to successfully identify optimized settings for the current model setup. The IsoMATTRIP simulated comparable values of 131I to that from the observed in WTPs of the Kanto region.

  7. Grass assemblages and diversity of conservation areas on the coastal plain south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Siebert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A floristic analysis of the grass species assemblages of the Licuati Forest and Maputo Elephant Reserves south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique, is presented. Sampling of grass data was undertaken in six previously described, major vegetation types. TWINSPAN divisions distinguished grass assemblages that are characteristic for these major vegetation types of the study area. The results were supported by an Indirect Gradient Analysis. Further TWINSPAN divisions of a larger Maputaland data set indicated a floristic relationship between grass assemblages of similar major vegetation types in the study area and South Africa. This relationship was supported by high similarity values (> 65%, obtained with Sorenson's Coefficient. The coefficient also indicated varying degrees of similarity between grass assemblages of different major vegetation types within the study area. A rich diversity of 115 grass species and infraspecific taxa was recorded for the study area. The Chloridoideae and Panicoideae dominate the grass diversity and the genera with the most species include Eragrostis, Panicum and Digitaria. Most grass species in the study area are perennials and have a tufted growth form, but this varies considerably between vegetation types.

  8. [Assessment of groundwater quality of different aquifers in Tongzhou area in Beijing Plain and its chemical characteristics analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gao-Xuan; Ju, Yi-Wen; Zhai, Hang; Xu, Liang; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Ji, Yi-Qun

    2014-06-01

    In order to evaluate the groundwater quality of Tongzhou area in Beijing Plain and to discuss the characteristics of its distribution by the view of hydrochemistry, a total of 151 groundwater samples, collected within study area in the dry period of 2008 according to the geological and hydrogeololgical condition of Tongzhou area, were classified as shallow, middle and deep groundwater, respectively. Based on the data, the groundwater quality was evaluated by the method of F value. The mean and variance of main chemical constituents of groundwater samples were presented. Almost all the quaternary groundwater of Chaobai river pluvial fan belonged to the alkaline water type. The evaluation results based on the analysis results showed that from shallow to deep, the quality of groundwater in Beijing became better. The total areas of groundwater belonging to class IV and V area were 884 km2, 599 km2 and 94 km2 respectively for shallow, middle and deep groundwater. The evaluation results showed that the main exceeding chemical constituents were TDS, hardness, NH4(+), F(-) and total Fe. Most exceeding samples belonged to middle and deep aquifers. The main types of shallow groundwater were HCO2-Ca x Mg- and HCO3 x Cl-Ca x Na x Mg, while the chemical types of mid-deep groundwater were mostly HCO3-Na x Ca- and HCO3 x SO4(2-) -Na x Ca type due to the increased Na(+), SO4(2-) and Cl(-) concentration. Study results showed that the quality of shallow groundwater became worse mainly due to human activities. The deterioration of groundwater quality in mid-deep aquifers was due to both human activities and natural occurrence of poor-quality water.

  9. Mixing effects on geothermometric calculations of the Newdale geothermal area in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Cody J. Cannon; Thomas R. Wood; Trevor A. Atkinson; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The Newdale geothermal area in Madison and Fremont Counties in Idaho is a known geothermal resource area whose thermal anomaly is expressed by high thermal gradients and numerous wells producing warm water (up to 51 °C). Geologically, the Newdale geothermal area is located within the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) that has a time-transgressive history of sustained volcanic activities associated with the passage of Yellowstone Hotspot from the southwestern part of Idaho to its current position underneath Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Locally, the Newdale geothermal area is located within an area that was subjected to several overlapping and nested caldera complexes. The Tertiary caldera forming volcanic activities and associated rocks have been buried underneath Quaternary flood basalts and felsic volcanic rocks. Two southeast dipping young faults (Teton dam fault and an unnamed fault) in the area provide the structural control for this localized thermal anomaly zone. Geochemically, water samples from numerous wells in the area can be divided into two broad groups – Na-HCO3 and Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type waters and are considered to be the product of water-rhyolite and water-basalt interactions, respectively. Each type of water can further be subdivided into two groups depending on their degree of mixing with other water types or interaction with other rocks. For example, some bivariate plots indicate that some Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 water samples have interacted only with basalts whereas some samples of this water type also show limited interaction with rhyolite or mixing with Na-HCO3 type water. Traditional geothermometers [e.g., silica variants, Na-K-Ca (Mg-corrected)] indicate lower temperatures for this area; however, a traditional silica-enthalpy mixing model results in higher reservoir temperatures. We applied a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry tool (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that is based on inverse geochemical modeling which

  10. Improving Performance of Free Space Optics Link Using Array of Receivers in Terrible Weather Conditions of Plain and Hilly Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical (FSO communication is a cost effective and high data rate access technique, which has been proving itself a best alternative to radio frequency technology. FSO link provides high bandwidth solution to the last mile access bottleneck. However, for terrestrial communication systems, the performance of these links is severely degraded from atmospheric loss mainly due to fog, rain and snow. So, a continuous availability of the link is always a concern. This paper investigates the dreadful weather effects such as rain, fog, snow, and other losses on the transmission performance of FSO systems. The technique of using an array of receivers for improving the performance of FSO links is explored in this paper. It involves the deployment of multiple photo detectors at the receiver end to mitigate effects of various weather conditions. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated in terms of bit error rate, received signal power, Q- factor and height of eye diagram. The influence of various weather conditions of plain and hilly areas are taken into consideration and results are compared with conventional FSO links.

  11. Spatial correlation between malaria cases and water-bodies in Anopheles sinensis dominated areas of Huang-Huai plain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Shui-sen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria re-emerged in the Huang-Huai Plain of central China during 2006–2008, dominated with Anopheles sinensis as a vector. However, there is no information on strategies based on multi-factor analysis to effectively control the re-emergence of malaria in these areas. Previous experience indicates some relationship between the distribution of water bodies and malaria cases, but more detailed data are not available and in-depth studies have not been conducted up to now. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between the distribution of water bodies and presentation of malaria cases using spatial analysis tools in order to provide guidance to help formulate effective strategies for use in controlling the sources of malaria infection, based on the identification of risk areas and population. Methods The geographic information of malaria cases and their surrounding water bodies were collected from Suixi, Guoyang, Guzhen, Yingshang, Fengyang and Yongqiao County in Anhui province, Yongcheng and Tongbai County in Henan province. All malaria cases distributed in 113 villages in these 8 counties were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and confirmed by household investigation. Data on GIS and malaria cases were mapped and analyzed with the software of ArcGIS 9.2 to identify the spatial correlation between malaria cases and water bodies. The distance from households with malaria cases to the nearest water bodies was used to calculate the OR value by Chi-square test. The risk area was identified through the comparison of OR values in different distances. Results 357 malaria cases and their GPS data as well as surrounding water bodies were collected and analyzed. 74% of malaria cases were located within the extent of 60 m proximity to the water bodies. The risk rate of people living there and presenting with malaria was significantly higher than others (OR = 1

  12. Ground-Water Resource Assessment in the Rio Grande de Manati Alluvial Plain, Rio Arriba Saliente Area, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Warne, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer within a 160-acre area of the Rio Grande de Manati alluvial plain was investigated to evaluate its potential as a water-supply source for the Barrios Rio Arriba Saliente and Pugnado Afuera, municipio of Manati, Puerto Rico. Analysis of well boring samples and the results of electric resistivity surveys indicate that the average thickness of the unconsolidated alluvial deposits in the study area is about 100 to 110 feet. The alluvium is a mixture of sand and gravel, which generally has a porosity of 0.2 to 0.35. Short-duration pump tests in small-diameter piezometers indicate that the alluvial aquifer has a hydraulic conductivity of about 200 feet per day and a transmissivity of about 7,900 feet squared per day. Analyses of water levels in piezometers, combined with stage measurements at a series of surveyed reference points along the Rio Grande de Manati channel, indicate that the water-table gradient in the alluvial aquifer is about 0.001, and that ground-water flow is generally from south to north, in the general direction of river flow. The water-table data indicate that the Rio Grande de Manati is the principal source of ground-water recharge to the alluvial aquifer in the study area. Because base flow for the Rio Grande de Manati is usually greater than 44 cubic feet per second, a continuous withdrawal rate of 0.5 to 1.0 cubic foot per second (225 to 450 gallons per minute) from a production well is possible. Chemical analysis of a ground-water sample indicates that the alluvial aquifer water meets U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary standards for selected constituents. Bacteriological analysis of ground-water samples indicates that the ground water contains little or no fecal coliform or fecal streptococcus bacteria. Although long-term data from upstream of the study area indicate high levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus prior to 1996, bacteriological analyses of Rio Grande de Manati water samples obtained during

  13. [Study on the variation of arsenic concentration in groundwater and chemical characteristics of arsenic in sediment cores at the areas with endemic arsenic poison disease in Jianghan Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Suhua; Ye, Hengpeng; Li, Mingjian; Xiong, Peisheng; Du, Dongyun; Wang, Jingwen

    2015-06-01

    To understand the variation of arsenic concentration in underground water at the endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain so as to better understand the spatial distribution of high arsenic groundwater, hydro-chemical evolution and source of arsenic in this region. Thirty underground water samples were collected respectively around 3 km radius of the two houses where arsenic poisoning patients lived, in Xiantao and Honghu. Sediment cores of three drillings were collected as well. Both paired t-test or paired Wilcoxon Signed Ranking Test were used to compare the arsenic concentration of water. The arsenic concentration in 2011-2012 appeared lower than that in 2006-2007 at the Nanhong village of Xiantao (t = 4.645 3, P arsenic concentration and Cl, HCO3(-), Fe, Mn. However, negative correlations were found between As and SO4(2-), NO3(-). The range of arsenic content in the sediment was 1.500 mg/kg to 17.289 mg/kg. The maximum arsenic content existed in the soil layer, while the minimum arsenic content existed in the sand layer. The concentration of arsenic varied widely with time and space at endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain. Characteristics of these water chemicals showed significant differences, when compared to the groundwater from Datong Basin, Shanxi Shanyin and Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia, which presented a typical environment with high arsenic contents in the groundwater. The arsenic content in the sediment samples seemed related to the lithologic structure.

  14. Application of the Season Time Series Model to Forecast the Rainfall in the Area of Well Irrigation Rice in the Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiangFu; HongFu; ChuanLiang

    2004-01-01

    The area of well irrigation rice became more and more, so the crisis of groundwater appeared. Making the most of rainfall is an availability method in water saving irrigation, increasing water temperature and raising yield. Just based on this, through applying the theory of season random time series, according to the data of average monthly rainfall (1981 - 1999), the authors build up the forecasting model in the area of well irrigation rice in the Sanjiang Plain. Through contrasting with practical value, the model has good effect.So, it can be used in water irrigation management.

  15. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  16. Digital map of areas of little or no saturated thickness for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set consists of boundaries for areas of little or no saturated thickness within the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High...

  17. Lepini Mountains Carbonatic Ridge: try of springs recharge areas verification and water exchange quantification with Pontina Plain by use of a numerical model (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Teoli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study area of this work is represented by the Lepini Mountains carbonatic ridge and by the Pontina Plain foothills area, on which in the past, within quantitative hydrogeological characterizations, models were developed for calculating the groundwater flow, but only referred to the ridge. The most recent studies (Teoli, 2012 have done their best, instead, to represent the underground water exchanges between the ridge and the Pontina Plain foothill area. The new model (developed using computer code MODFLOW 2005 has been implemented to simulate steady-state underground flow using equivalent porous media approach even for the ridge; attention has been particularly directed to the proper tectonic ridge schematic, which the authors had previously defined, together with others (Alimonti et al., 2010, on detailed structural-geological survey basis, integrated by hydrogeological analysis. So, it’s been possible to determine partitioning effects on groundwater flowpaths and on springs recharge areas extent, whose total average discharge is about 10m3/s. Model calibration main goal has been the recharge areas permeability definition, posing the correspondence of calculated flows with measured springs’ flows; as a consequence, it’s been possible to improve the model reliability (uncertainty reduction quantifying the flow residuals’ standard deviation offset.

  18. Physico-Chemical And Microbiological Quality Of Some Consumer Preferred Plain Set Yoghurts Sold In Matara Municipal Area Of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.G.U Hemamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As yoghurt is a health food assessment of quality of commercialized yoghurt during storage period in refrigerator is needed. Lack of data on quality parameters of yoghurt brands in Sri Lanka is impediment to consumer health. This study is an attempt to fill that gap by providing data on evaluation of the changes of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of some plain set yoghurt sold in Matara municipal area of Sri Lanka. Five different brands of plain set yoghurt samples were collected on the basis of consumer preference for the present study. From each brand fifteen samples were analyzed by means of their physico-chemical syneresis effect pH titratable acidity total protein content and microbiological composition total plate count total yeast and mould count by using three replicates of each sample at 4 7 14 21 and 28 days intervals from production date under refrigerated condition 4 amp61616C and compared against local and international standards. All microbiological parameters and total protein content of all plain set yoghurt brands were not within the permissible range for local and international standards. Titratable acidity was only in the permissible range of local standards. All the physico-chemical parameters and microbiological parameters of collected samples were significantly affected by storage period. Good quality yoghurt of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters with hygiene conditions during processing and storage should be encouraged for consumption.

  19. Rainfall-runoff Model of Coupling Underground Water in Plain Area%耦合地下潜水的平原区降雨产流模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立国; 王船海; 杨凤; 胡星; 王娟

    2012-01-01

    Hydrological cycle processes in plain area, such as rainfall, evapotranspiration, runoff, phreatic water level fluctuations are closely linked with each other. And the research of the transformation law has important significance. Based on the original rainfall-runoff model, the exchange capacity between surface water and groundwater is calculated for four types of underlying surface: water surface, paddy fields, dry land surface and urban construction land and calculate by considering the impact of the infiltration, underground water evaporation and micro-topography. The exchange capacity is taken as the source-sink term of plain region to establish phreatic water model. Taking plain region in Taihu basin for test region, the rationality of plains rainfall-runoff model is verified by simulating water level of phreatic water.%平原区降雨、蒸散发、产流和潜水位起伏等水文循环过程之间的联系十分密切,研究其相互间转化规律具有十分重要的意义.基于已有的平原区降雨产流模型,通过考虑产流下渗、地下潜水蒸发及微地形的影响,分别计算了水面、水田、旱地和城镇建设用地四种下垫面的地表水和潜水的交换量,将交换量作为平原区潜水的源汇项构建了潜水模型,并以太湖流域平原区作为试验区,通过模拟潜水位验证了平原区降雨产流模型的合理性.

  20. Effects of Two Subducting Slabs on the Temperature Distribution Along the Subduction Faults in the Kanto Region, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, I.; He, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the thermal effects of subduction of two oceanic plates in the Kanto region of Japan, using a 3-D numerical thermal model. The Kanto region lies in the forearc of a subduction system, where the Pacific (PAC) plate and the Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subduct beneath the North American (NA) plate. In a typical subduction setting with one subducting slab, the motion of the slab drives solid-state mantle flow in the overlying mantle wedge, and the flow brings in hot mantle from the backarc towards the forearc. In the Kanto region, however, the presence of the PHS plate between the overlying NA plate and the subducting PAC plate prevents a typical mantle flow pattern. We developed a 3-D thermal model for the Kanto region to simulate the pattern of mantle wedge flow and to quantify its effect on the thermal structure. The model incorporates realistic slab geometries that were delineated from seismological studies. Mantle wedge flow between the PHS slab and the overlying NA plate is expected to be subdued due to the small space and the relatively slow subduction of the PHS slab. We simplify the model by incorporating the results of a 2-D thermal modeling for the subduction of the PHS slab as part of boundary conditions in the 3-D model to approximate the effect of the subdued mantle wedge flow and the subduction of the PHS slab. We use geophysical observations as constraints for the 3-D thermal model and estimate the temperature distributions along the subduction plate interfaces. The model predicts a particularly cold condition in the central part of the Kanto region where the PAC and PHS slabs are in contact with one another, consistent with the observed deeper extent of seismicity along the subduction faults compared to the neighboring regions.

  1. Analysis of Air Activity Concentration Data Collected in the Kanto Plain, Japan, following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-09

    1 × 10–7 joule (J) kiloton (kT) (TNT equivalent) 4.184 × 1012 joule (J) British thermal unit (Btu) ( thermochemical ) 1.054 350 × 103 joule (J) foot...pound-force (ft lbf) 1.355 818 joule (J) calorie (cal) ( thermochemical ) 4.184 joule (J) Pressure atmosphere (atm) 1.013 250 × 105 pascal (Pa...bases. The successful application of the econometric methods that were presented in the cases discussed herein suggest they may be valuable in other

  2. Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihiko, Takaya; Morioka, Yushi; Behera, Swadhin K

    2014-07-10

    The death toll by heatstroke in Japan, especially in Kanto region, has sharply increased since 1994 together with large interannual variability. The surface air temperature and humidity observed during boreal summers of 1980-2010 were examined to understand the role of climate in the death toll. The extremely hot days, when the daily maximum temperature exceeds 35 °C, are more strongly associated with the death toll than the conventional Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index. The extremely hot days tend to be associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation or the Indian Ocean Dipole, suggesting a potential link with tropical climate variability to the heatstroke related deaths. Also, the influence of these climate modes on the death toll has strengthened since 1994 probably related to global warming. It is possible to develop early warning systems based on seasonal climate predictions since recent climate models show excellent predictability skills for those climate modes.

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Land Cover in Four-Lake Area of Jianghan Plain Based on MODIS-EVI Time Series Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Wei-bin; XUE Lian; XIONG Qin-xue

    2012-01-01

    According to the time series data of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) in Four-Lake Area of Jianghan Plain during the period 2001-2007, we use Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) to conduct cloud removing processing, and calculate the sum of square N of time series value of each pixel. The pixels with N>0.25 are classified as vegetation coverage area; the pixels with N<0.25 are classified as non-vegetation coverage area. As to vegetation coverage area, we use the second-order difference method to judge the frequency of peak value of EVI time series data. Within one year, the vegetation coverage area with peak value happening 1 time is woodland and grassland; the vegetation coverage area with peak value happening 2 times is arable land; the vegetation coverage area with peak value happening 3 times or more is vegetable land. Supervised classification method is used to identify cities, towns, water area in non-vegetation coverage area and woodland, grassland in vegetation coverage area. We draw the land cover classification diagram of Four-Lake Area in the period 2001-2007. In comparison with the land cover classification based on multitemporal ETM data in 2001, the difference of area of arable land is within 10%. Using MODIS-EVI data, we can rapidly and efficiently conduct land cover classification with low cost. The dynamic analysis results indicate that the area of arable land is in the process of declining, while the area of other cover types shows an increasing trend.

  4. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae of rice field banks and restored habitats in an agricultural area of the Po Plain (Lombardy, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pilon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An entomological investigation was carried out in an agricultural area, mainly rice fields, of the Po river plain, located in the municipalities of Lacchiarella (MI and Giussago (PV (Lombardy, Italy. In 2009 and 2010, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae were sampled along rice field banks and in restored habitats, by means of pitfall traps. The area appeared as species-rich, compared to other anthropogenic habitats in the Po river pain. Most of the collected Carabids were species with a wide distribution in the Paleartic region, eurytopic and common in European agroecosystems. The assemblages were dominated by small-medium, macropterous species, with summer larvae. No endemic species were found. Species with southern distribution, rarely found north of the Po river, were also sampled. Amara littorea is recorded for the first time in Italy.

  5. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  6. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Detecting and monitoring agricultural vegetative water stress over large areas using LANDSAT digital data. [Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Wehmanen, O. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Green Number Index technique which uses LANDSAT digital data from 5X6 nautical mile sampling frames was expanded to evaluate its usefulness in detecting and monitoring vegetative water stress over the Great Plains. At known growth stages for wheat, segments were classified as drought or non drought. Good agreement was found between the 18 day remotely sensed data and a weekly ground-based crop moisture index. Operational monitoring of the 1977 U.S.S.R. and Australian wheat crops indicated drought conditions. Drought isoline maps produced by the Green Number Index technique were in good agreement with conventional sources.

  7. The Ndop plain clayey materials (Bamenda area – NW Cameroon: Mineralogical, geochemical, physical characteristics and properties of their fired products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Yongue-Fouateu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical, mineralogical and technological properties of clayey materials from the Ndop plain (NW Cameroon have been investigated, for their ceramic applications. The clayey materials have mixed facies with colour ranging from brown, grey, mottled and yellowish brown. The thickness of the exploitable clay layer is more than 5 m. Their mineralogical constituents are quartz, kaolinite, illite and feldspars, with kaolinite as major clay mineral. Based on the geochemistry, their source rocks might be felsic, with a mafic rock inference. These materials display high percentage in fine particles and high Atterberg limits. For all the firing temperatures, flexural strength (1.2–11 MPa, water absorption (8.03–24.27%, linear shrinkage (2.10%, weight loss (4.88–16.54% and bulk density (1.57–2.03 g/cm3 indicate good ceramic properties for firing samples between 900 and 1100 °C. Most of the fired test bricks show a brick red colour with good to very good cohesion. The studied clays were thus, suitable as raw materials for roof tiles, light weight blocks and hollow bricks; however, mixing of high clayey and highly silty materials could improve the quality of the products.

  8. Assessment of hyporheic zone, flood-plain, soil-gas, soil, and surface-water contamination at the Old Incinerator Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface-water for contaminants at the Old Incinerator Area at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected above the method detection level in all 13 samplers deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of an unnamed tributary to Spirit Creek. The combined concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene were detected at 3 of the 13 samplers. Other organic compounds detected in one sampler included octane and trichloroethylene. In the passive soil-gas survey, 28 of the 60 samplers detected total petroleum hydrocarbons above the method detection level. Additionally, 11 of the 60 samplers detected the combined masses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene above the method detection level. Other compounds detected above the method detection level in the passive soil-gas survey included octane, trimethylbenzene, perchlorethylene, and chloroform. Subsequent to the passive soil-gas survey, six areas determined to have relatively high contaminant mass were selected, and soil-gas samplers were deployed, collected, and analyzed for explosives and chemical agents. No explosives or chemical agents were detected above

  9. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to climate changes and to anthropogenic interventions, saltwater intrusion is affecting the aquifers and the surface water of the Po plain along the Adriatic coast. During the last decade, we recognized in this area a pattern of climate change: precipitations are less frequent and the yearly amount of rain is concentrated in a few strong storm events. This pattern results in an increase of gales strength during the winter, which causes shoreline retreat and an erosion of the coastal dunes. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The wide sandy beaches are now retreating and the dune system (only a few meters in height) is almoust destroyed, because of tourism development and of disaggregated rivers and shorelines management. A still active dune system is preserved in our study area, a coastal plain included between the Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers near the city of Ravenna. As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters have been contaminated by seawater. Despite its value for the natural ecosystem and the agricultural soil, the phreatic aquifer is not considered of interest by the regional authorities responsible for water management. A detailed hydrogeological survey was performed by our research group during the Summer 2008 within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. In this survey 29 auger holes with an average spacing of 350 m where drilled with the objective of determining the top groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer. At the same time, we measured the chemical and physical parameters of the surface waters. The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present in the aquifer of the backshore

  10. Potentiometric-surface map of water in the Fox Hills-Lower Hell Creek aquifer in the Northern Great Plains area of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Gary W.

    1982-01-01

    The potentiometric surface of water in the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer is shown on a base map at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The map is one of a series produced as part of regional study of aquifers of Cenozoic and Mesozoic age in the northern Great Plains of Montana. The contour interval is 100 feet. The map shows that the direction of regional ground-water movement is toward the northeast. Recharge occurs on the flanks of the Black Hills uplift, the Cedar Creek anticline, the southwest part of the Bull Mountains basin, and on the out-crop areas. Discharge from the aquifer occurs along a short reach of the Yellowstone River. The average discharge from 335 wells is about 16 gallons per minute and the specific capacity of 185 wells averages 0.49 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown. (USGS)

  11. 豫东平原夏玉米高产栽培技术%High Yield Cultivation Techniques of Summer Maize in the Plain Area of Eastern Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永阁

    2015-01-01

    High yield cultivation techniques of summer maize in the plain area of Eastern Henan were summarized from species selection,sowing,thinning and spacing,fertilizer and water management,control of pest and disease and grass,harvest late at the appropriate time etc,so as to promote the cultivation of summer maize at the local.%从品种选择、播种、间苗定苗、肥水管理、病虫草害防治、适期晚收等方面总结了豫东平原夏玉米高产栽培技术,以促进当地夏玉米的高产栽培。

  12. Study on Farmers’ Cognition and Willingness to Plant Trees during Collective Forest Right Reform Based on Data from Plain Areas of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; LIU; Shaozhou; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the survey data from plain areas of Henan Province,farmers’ cognition and willingness to plant trees in collective forest right reform are studied. According to statistical analysis and regression equation of binary logistic regress analysis,it is generally believed that different participants have various attitudes to the reform,with regard to if planting trees or more,reform variables have a distinct effect,as well as income variable and loaning or lending variable. At last,some advices are put forward,that is,the government should strengthen collective forest right reform,accelerate matching reform and increase policy and financial support to forestry farmers.

  13. Particulate matters emitted from maize straw burning for winter heating in rural areas in Guanzhong Plain, China: Current emission and future reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Qian; Yin, Xiuli; Lei, Yali; Huang, Yu; Huang, R.-J.; Liu, Suixin; Han, Yongming; Xu, Hongmei; Zheng, Chunli; Liu, Pingping

    2017-02-01

    Maize straw smoldering in "Heated Kang" is the traditional way for heating in winter in rural areas of Guanzhong Plain. This smolder procedure produced large quantities of pollutants and got more and more concern from both public and researchers. In this study, on-site measurements of straw smoldering in a residence with a Chinese 'Heated Kang' (Scenario 1) were done to determine the emissions factors (EFs) for pollutants. Moreover, EFs of pollutants from an advanced stove fired with maize straw (Scenario 2) and maize-straw pellet (Scenario 3) had been conducted in a laboratory to find the new measure to reduce the pollution emissions. The results showed that the EFs of PM2.5 for three scenarios were 38.26 ± 13.94 g·kg- 1, 17.50 ± 8.29 g·kg- 1 and 2.95 ± 0.71 g·kg- 1, respectively. Comparing EFs of pollutants from 3 scenarios indicates that both briquetting of straw and advanced stove with air distribution system could efficiently reduce pollutants emission especially for Scenario 3. In detail, EFs of PM2.5, OC, EC and water soluble ions all have over 90% reduction between Scenarios 1 and 3. All particle-size distributions were unimodal, and all peaked in particle sizes advanced stoves for residential heating could reduce PM2.5 emission from 48.3 Gg to 3.59 Gg, OC from 19.0 Gg to 0.91 Gg, EC from 1.7 Gg to 0.17 Gg and over 90% reduction on total water soluble ions in the whole region. A box model simulation for the Guanzhong Plain indicated that this conversion would lead to a 7.7% reduction in PM2.5 (from 130 to 120 μg·m- 3) in normal conditions and a 14.2% reduction (from 350 to 300 μg·m- 3) in hazy conditions. The results highlighted that the straw pellets burning in advanced stove can effectively reduce pollutants emitted and improve the energy use efficiency in comparison with maize straw smoldering in "Heated Kang". The study supplies an effective measure to reduce the rural biomass burning emission, and this method can be used in not only Guanzhong

  14. Plains Traveler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater. Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  15. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  16. Nitrate pollution of groundwater in the alsatian plain (France)—A multidisciplinary study of an agricultural area: The Central Ried of the ill river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, C.; Carbiener, R.; Cloots, A. R.; Froehlicher, R.; Schenck, Ch.; Zilliox, L.

    1992-09-01

    The area studied is part of the “Ried Central” of the Ill river (Middle Alsatian plain in northeastern France). This area is located mainly in the present floodplain of the Ill. The closeness of the water table to the surface results in quasi general soil hydromorphism. The economic constraints of the last two decades led to deep changes in agricultural activities in the study area. These have essentially involved a marked extension of intensive cultivation of grain corn at the expense of grasslands. The study of the influence of this change on the parallel increase in the concentration of nitrate in groundwater is only feasible when a multidisciplinary approach is adopted. The analyses carried out in the field and in the laboratory show that nitrate reduction occurs in gleyed or peaty horizons of hydromorphic soils. The aptitude and efficiency of the permanent ambient vegetation (alluvial forests and grasslands) in retaining nitrate must be emphasized. The amount of nitrate eliminated from the aquifer by rivers fed by this aquifer is considerable. This evacuation of nitrate into the Ill is a fine example of waste and illustrates the absurdity of the economic situation responsible for excessive nitrogen fertilization of farmlands. In determining hazard zones, this study also proposes practical solutions to the problem of nitrate pollution: diminution of land area under cultivation, reintroduction of grasslands, and a more judicious use of nitrogen manure.

  17. Mapping of groundwater prospective zones integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and geophysical techniques in El-Qaà Plain area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzied, Sara M.; Alrefaee, Hamed A.

    2017-05-01

    The geospatial mapping of groundwater prospective zones is essential to support the needs of local inhabitants and agricultural activities in arid regions such as El-Qaà area, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The study aims to locate new wells that can serve to cope with water scarcity. The integration of remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and geophysical techniques is a breakthrough for groundwater prospecting. Based on these techniques, several factors contributing to groundwater potential in El-Qaà Plain were determined. Geophysical data were supported by information derived from a digital elevation model, and from geologic, geomorphologic and hydrologic data, to reveal the promising sites. All the spatial data that represent the contributing factors were integrated and analyzed in a GIS framework to develop a groundwater prospective model. An appropriate weightage was specified to each factor based on its relative contribution towards groundwater potential, and the resulting map delineates the study area into five classes, from very poor to very good potential. The very good potential zones are located in the Quaternary deposits, with flat to gentle topography, dense lineaments and structurally controlled drainage channels. The groundwater potential map was tested against the distribution of groundwater wells and cultivated land. The integrated methodology provides a powerful tool to design a suitable groundwater management plan in arid regions.

  18. Mercury in ground water, septage, leach-field effluent, and soils in residential areas, New Jersey coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Szabo, Z.; Schneider, D.; Atkinson, W.D.; Gallagher, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from domestic wells at an unsewered residential area in Gloucester County, New Jersey where mercury (Hg) concentrations in well water were known to exceed the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2000 ng/L. This residential area (the CSL site) is representative of more than 70 such areas in southern New Jersey where about 600 domestic wells, sampled previously by State and county agencies, yielded water containing Hg at concentrations that exceed the MCL. Recent studies indicate that background concentrations of Hg in water from this unconfined sand and gravel aquifer system are sampling was conducted at the CSL site in order to better understand sources of Hg and potential Hg transport mechanisms in the areas with Hg-contaminated ground water. At the CSL site, concentrations of Hg were substantially lower (although still exceeding the MCL in some cases) in filtered water samples than in the unfiltered water samples collected previously from the same wells. Surfactants and elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate in water from domestic and observation wells indicated septic-system effects on water quality; detections of sulfide indicated localized reducing conditions. Hg concentrations in septage and leach-field effluent sampled at several other households in the region were low relative to the contaminant-level Hg concentrations in water from domestic wells. Relations of Hg concentrations in leach-field effluent to iron concentrations indicate that reductive dissolution of iron hydroxides in soils may release Hg to the percolating effluent. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Revisiting Plain Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  20. 平原河网地区的汇流模型研究%Study of Concentration Model in Plain River Network Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓波

    2011-01-01

    针对平原河网地区汇流模拟困难且成果难以校验的特点,提出一种与平原河网非恒定流计算模型相耦合的汇流模型.模型提出概化单元的概念,并通过水量平衡方程和水动力方程加以数学表达.实例验证结果表明,该模型能有效模拟田间径流与骨干河网相互影响的实际情况.%Not only the simulation of concentration in plain river network area is difficult, but also the simulation result is difficult to verify. A new concentration model coupled with unsteady flow calculation model is presented. The concept of simplified unit is proposed in the model and it is expressed by water balance equation and hydrodynamic equation.The practical application show that the model can effectively simulate actual situation of mutual influence between the field runoff and the main river network.

  1. Tertiary thrust systems and fluid flow beneath the Beaufort coastal plain (1002 area), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Grow, John A.; Perry, William J.; Moore, Thomas E.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    Beneath the Arctic coastal plain (commonly referred to as "the 1002 area") in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, northeastern Alaska, United States, seismic reflection data show that the northernmost and youngest part of the Brookian orogen is preserved as a Paleogene to Neogene system of blind and buried thrust-related structures. These structures involve Proterozoic to Miocene (and younger?) rocks that contain several potential petroleum reservoir facies. Thermal maturity data indicate that the deformed rocks are mature to overmature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. Oil seeps and stains in outcrops and shows in nearby wells indicate that oil has migrated through the region; geochemical studies have identified three potential petroleum systems. Hydrocarbons that were generated from Mesozoic source rocks in the deformed belt were apparently expelled and migrated northward in the Paleogene, before much of the deformation in this part of the orogen. It is also possible that Neogene petroleum, which was generated in Tertiary rocks offshore in the Arctic Ocean, migrated southward into Neogene structural traps at the thrust front. However, the hydrocarbon resource potential of this largely unexplored region of Alaska's North Slope remains poorly known.

  2. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqin; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Wang, Qinxue; Zhang, Yinghua; Yuan, Ruiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths.

  3. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of aquifers underlying the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Borchers, James W.; Leighton, David A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Fields, Latoya; Galloway, Devin L.; Michel, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The East Bay Plain, on the densely populated eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, contains an upper aquifer system to depths of 250 feet below land surface and an underlying lower aquifer system to depths of more than 650 feet. Injection and recovery of imported water has been proposed for deep aquifers at two sites within the lower aquifer system. Successful operation requires that the injected water be isolated from surface sources of poor-quality water during storage and recovery. Hydraulic, geochemical, and isotopic data were used to evaluate the isolation of deeper aquifers. Ground-water responses to tidal changes in the Bay suggest that thick clay layers present within these deposits effectively isolate the deeper aquifers in the northern part of the study area from overlying surficial deposits. These data also suggest that the areal extent of the shallow and deep aquifers beneath the Bay may be limited in the northern part of the study area. Despite its apparent hydraulic isolation, the lower aquifer system may be connected to the overlying upper aquifer system through the corroded and failed casings of abandoned wells. Water-level measurements in observation wells and downward flow measured in selected wells during nonpumped conditions suggest that water may flow through wells from the upper aquifer system into the lower aquifer system during nonpumped conditions. The chemistry of water from wells in the East Bay Plain ranges from fresh to saline; salinity is greater than seawater in shallow estuarine deposits near the Bay. Water from wells completed in the lower aquifer system has higher pH, higher sodium, chloride, and manganese concentrations, and lower calcium concentrations and alkalinity than does water from wells completed in the overlying upper aquifer system. Ground-water recharge temperatures derived from noble-gas data indicate that highly focused recharge processes from infiltration of winter streamflow and more diffuse recharge processes from

  4. Calculating Model of Hollowed Villages Consolidation Potential and Its Application in Farming Plain Area:A Case Study of Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ying-nan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hollowed villages consolidation(HVC is regarded as an imperative way to optimize the vacant and idle land arising in rural areas. Establishing an appropriate potential calculating model for HVC, which is suitable for the territorial functions of farming plain area, provides a basis for implementing HVC. Based on the current per capita construction land use standard method, this paper took the urgency, physical suitability and feasibility of HVC into consideration and established a calculating model of HVC potential. Finally, Yucheng City of Shandong Province was taken as a case to make an empirical analysis. The results showed that:(1 The urgency, physical suitability and feasibility of HVC presented a significant regional difference. The correction coefficients of the urgency, physical suitability and feasibility of HVC changed in the variation of 0.18~0.96, 0.69~0.84 and 0.11~0.77, respectively; (2 The theoretical and realistic potential of HVC in Yucheng City were 3 517.86 hm2 and 1 853.18 hm2, respectively. The new-added arable land coefficient was 16.89%. In recent years, the HVC in Yucheng City should focus on Shizhong residential district, Shiliwang Town and Fangsi Town. The other villages and towns might be set on in late stage. (3 In view of the lower physical suitability of HVC around Shizhong residential district, transforming the vacant and idle land into other construction land might be a better choice. Meanwhile, the land vacated in other towns should be transformed into arable land as much as possible via land consolidation.

  5. Mapping Soil Texture of a Plain Area Using Fuzzy-c-Means Clustering Method Based on Land Surface Diurnal Temperature Difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-Cai; ZHANG Gan-Lin; PAN Xian-Zhang; ZHAO Yu-Guo; ZHAO Ming-Song; WANG Gai-Fen

    2012-01-01

    The use of landscape covariates to estimate soil properties is not suitable for the areas of low relief due to the high variability of soil properties in similar topographic and vegetation conditions.A new method was implemented to map regional soil texture (in terms of sand,silt and clay contents) by hypothesizing that the change in the land surface diurnal temperature difference (DTD) is related to soil texture in case of a relatively homogeneous rainfall input.To examine this hypothesis,the DTDs from moderate resolution imagine spectroradiometer (MODIS) during a selected time period,i.e.,after a heavy rainfall between autumn harvest and autumn sowing,were classified using fuzzy-c-means (FCM) clustering.Six classes were generated,and for each class,the sand (> 0.05 mm),silt (0.002-0.05 mm) and clay (< 0.002 mm) contents at the location of maximum membership value were considered as the typical values of that class.A weighted average model was then used to digitally map soil texture.The results showed that the predicted map quite accurately reflected the regional soil variation.A validation dataset produced estimates of error for the predicted maps of sand,silt and clay contents at root mean of squared error values of 8.4%,7.8% and 2.3%,respectively,which is satisfactory in a practical context.This study thus provided a methodology that can help improve the accuracy and efficiency of soil texture mapping in plain areas using easily available data sources.

  6. A Vulnerability Evaluation of the Phreatic Water in the Plain Area of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang Based on the VDEAL Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiliang Jia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A VDEAL (V is the lithology of the vadose zone, D is the groundwater depth, E is the degree of groundwater exploitation, A is the aquifer characteristics and L is the land use pattern. model, which is suitable for a vulnerability evaluation of the groundwater in arid inland areas, and that is based on the GOD (G is the groundwater status, O is overburden feature and D is groundwater depth method and DRASTIC (D is the depth of water-table, R is the net recharge, A is the aquifer media, S is the soil media, T is the topography, I is the impact of the vadose and C is the conductivity of the aquifer. model is proposed in this paper. Five indicators were selected by reference to the DRAV (D is the depth of water-table, R is the net recharge, A is the aquifer media and V is the impact of the vadose. and VLDA (V is the lithology of the vadose zone , L is the land use pattern, D is the groundwater depth and A is the aquifer characteristics and. models, namely, the lithology of the vadose zone (V, the groundwater depth (D, the degree of groundwater exploitation (E, the aquifer characteristics (A and the land use pattern (L. According to monitoring data from 2003 and 2011, the variations of phreatic water quality in the plain area of the Junggar Basin were divided into three types: the water quality may have deteriorated, be unchanged or improved. Four groups of indicator weights were configured to calculate the vulnerability index using the VDEAL model. The changes of phreatic water quality were then compared against the vulnerability index. The normalized weights of V, D, E, A, and L were respectively 0.15, 0.25, 0.10, 0.10, and 0.40; this is according to the principle that the sampling sites of deteriorated water quality are generally distributed in a high-vulnerability region, and the sites of unchanged and improved water quality are distributed in middle vulnerability, low vulnerability and invulnerable regions. The evaluation results of phreatic

  7. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiqin [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Tang, Changyuan, E-mail: cytang@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Wang, Qinxue [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Zhang, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yuan, Ruiqiang [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University (China)

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  8. Research on Supplying Mechanisms of Rural Economic Able-person in Construction of New Countryside——Based on the Phenomenon of Intelligence Returning in Under-developed Agricultural Plain Area of Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From a perspective of the discussions on researches of economic able-person by researchers at home,it can be concluded that economic able-person has become the important mode promoting rural development.The research makes a discussion on the rural intelligence returning theory and points out that as a marketing action,rural intelligence returning functions directly and effectively on the supplying to rural economic able-person.The research also makes an analysis of the supplying mechanisms of rural able-person intelligence returning of the under-developed agricultural plain in Henan province.And results show that transferring of rural surplus labors takes place among provinces;farmers accelerate in returning to hometowns to make money and returning phenomena would tend to be normal.With more and more popular the intelligence returning phenomenon in rural areas,the under-developed agricultural plain in Henan province would make enough profits.

  9. Actions to Abate Critical Threats, Such as Encroachment and Invasive Species, Using GIS and Conservation Area Planning Across the Gulf Coastal Plain Ecosystem Partnership (GCPEP) Landscape, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-22

    Nature Conservancy 2006 NOTICE Cooperative Agreement Number DACA 87-05-H-0016 Effort sponsored by the Legacy Resource Management Program of the...Department of Defense Legacy Resource Management Program Legacy #5-280 ANNUAL REPORT Actions to Abate Critical Threats, such as...Plain Ecosystem Partnership (GCPEP) Landscape 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  10. Kanto Gakuin University communication spotlight : An overview of the incorporated text material for the oral communication program in the College of Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Gayle Bond

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses Kanto Gakuin University Communication Spotlight's incorporation as the text used for the College of Engineering's Oral Communication course in the compulsory English program for first-year students. This paper examines the changes and enhancements made to the original textbook,Communication Spotlight Speaking Strategies and Listening Skills Starter: Split Version A. At the end of each term,students were randomly selected to complete a questionnaire regarding the text an...

  11. 黄淮海平原土地系统结构变化的模拟与分析%Simulation and Analysis of Land System Structure Changes in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓祥征; 战金艳; 苏红波; 姜群鸥; 迟百余

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic changes of land system in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain between 1988 and 2000 were researched in this paper. Spatial dominance econometric model was estabilished on 1 km cell to quantificationally analyze the driving-force for the dynamic change mechanism of land system,such as natural,social and economic factors. The future dyllamic changes of land system in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain on each 1 km cell during2000 to 2020 were stimalated by oombining the dynamic changes of land system On each 1 km cell with difierent situations.The research indieated that the dynamic changes of land system structure changed mainly from the cuhivated areas to building areas and indnstrial arcas,and forest areas inereased during this period.Although the gevolutions of land system structure were different during 2000 to 2020 with the different referrence standard,ecological protection and economic development.the primary dynamic changes of land system structure were that the increase of building land aneas with the decline cultivated land areas and the inerease of woodlands.

  12. 高原与平原地区油池火燃烧特性对比试验研究%Contrast experimental study on the combustion characteristics of the pool fire in the plateau and plain areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伯乐; 李元洲; 任彬彬; 许兆宇; 匡萃芃

    2011-01-01

    This paper intends to introduce our contrast experimental investigations on the combustion characteristics of the pool fire in the plateau and plain areas in hoping to find the difference in their combustion characteristic features. The experimental results prove that,in the plateau area, for the same oil type and size, the burning rate tends to be slower with the burning time longer than in the plain;however, the ratio of the burning rate in stabilization phase in the two cities has been found equal to the ratio of atmospheric pressure for gasoline and diesel. The flame heights of gasoline fire prove to be much more slender in the plateau area than in the plain with the tests done with various volumes of oil pans. So far as the flame temperature is concerned, it is also found that in the plateau it tends to be lower than in the plain area for the same height in the continuous regions.With the increase of the height, the flame centerline temperature descended in the plateau smaller than in the plain. With the same burning rate but not the same size of pan in the two places, the plume height of pool fire in the plateau was higher than in the plain and the centerline temperature was higher. The McCaffrey formula of plume temperature was established in the conventional pressure, did not apply to calculate fire plume of smaller beat-releasing rate in the low pressure environment due to different environmental conditions.%为研究高原环境液体燃烧时火焰特性参数与平原地区的差异,在拉萨和合肥进行了汽油油池火燃烧试验.结果表明,在燃料类型和油盘尺寸相同的条件下,两地汽油和柴油的质量燃烧速率之比等于大气压力之比,且高原地区的汽油火火焰比平原地区细长. 随着高度的增加,高原地区羽流中心温升的下降幅度减小,且幅度小于平原地区. 相同燃烧速率下,高原地区小尺寸油盘的油池火高度和中心温度大于平原地区,McCaffrey羽流温升公式

  13. A review on Non-point Source Nutrient Pollution of Irrigation Plain Areas%平原灌区农田养分非点源污染研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    平原灌区作为农业规模化生产的基地,在农业乃至经济社会发展中起到了重要作用,但是随着农业的发展,平原灌区农田非点源污染问题日益严重,研究平原灌区农田非点源污染具有重要意义。文章以平原灌区污染物随水文循环迁移过程为基础对平原灌区养分非点源污染研究进行综述。(1)平原灌区农田非点源污染的主要来源是过量的化肥施用,农药和农膜,秸秆等农作物的降解,牲畜粪便,污水灌溉,灌溉引起的盐渍化以及大气的干湿沉降等;产生及影响因素主要有土壤的理化性质,水分的输入方式和人为管理措施等。(2)降雨径流及灌溉排水条件下污染物在多级渠系中的迁移规律和灌区地表水与地下水的交互耦合作用决定了平原灌区农田非点源污染的输送途径与特征。(3)在监测资料比较缺乏时,采用输出系数法进行负荷估算;在监测资料充足情况下,采用针对灌区特殊的水文特征而改进的经典水文模型对平原灌区农田非点源污染的负荷进行估算。(4)新型肥料、配方施肥、合理的耕作措施及生态沟渠的设置有利于平原灌区农田非点源污染的控制,TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Loads)为平原灌区农田非点源污染控制提供可靠的依据。针对平原灌区非点源污染研究现状,提出了中国开展平原灌区农田非点源污染研究的重点,包括养分污染物在多级沟渠中的迁移,灌区地表与地下水水量水质耦合模型的建立,分级控制单元与TMDL的制定以及多模型结合模拟等,可望在控制农业非点源污染方面起到指导作用。%Plain irrigation areas as the basis of agricultural large-scale production played an important role in agricultural, economic and social development. However, the seriousness of non-point source pollution in plain irrigation areas is increasing with the

  14. DS-777 Spatial Location of the Active and Inactive areas of the Model Boundary for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set defines the boundary of the northern High Plains aquifer. It is one of many developed in support of The High Plains Groundwater Availability Project...

  15. Estimation of spatial distrubition of groundwater level and risky areas of seawater intrusion on the coastal region in Çarşamba Plain, Turkey, using different interpolation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hakan

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater level plays a significant role in coastal plains. Heavy pumping and excessive use of near-coast groundwater can increase the intrusion of seawater into the aquifers. In the present study, groundwater levels were measured at 59 groundwater wells at different times during pre- and post-irrigation seasons (April and September of the year 2012) in Çarşamba Plain, Turkey. To select the best method, two deterministic interpolation methods (inverse distance weighing (IDW) with the weights of 1, 2, and 3 and radial basis function (RBF) with spline with tension (SPT) and completely regularized spline (CRS)) and two stochastic methods (ordinary kriging (OK) with spherical, exponential, and Gaussian variograms) and cokriging (COK)) were compared and then the best interpolation method was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of groundwater levels in different seasons and seasonal changes. A total of nine different techniques were tested. Also, risky areas of seawater intrusion in coastal area were determined using the best methods for two periods. The performance of these interpolation methods is evaluated by using a validation test method. Statistical indices of correlation (R (2)), mean absolute error (MAE), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) were used to select and validate the best methods. Comparisons between predicted and observed values indicated RBF as the optimal method for groundwater level estimation in April and September. When the best method RBF and the worst method IDW were compared, significant differences were observed in the spatial distribution of groundwater. Results of the study also revealed that excessive groundwater withdrawals during the post-irrigation season dropped the groundwater levels up to 2.0 m in some sections. With regard to seawater intrusion, 9,103 ha of land area was determined to be highly risky and risky.

  16. Simulating the impacts of future land use and climate changes on surface water quality in the Des Plaines River watershed, Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Cyril O; Weng, Qihao

    2011-09-15

    Modeling the effects of past and current land use composition and climatic patterns on surface water quality provides valuable information for environmental and land planning. This study predicts the future impacts of urban land use and climate changes on surface water quality within Des Plaines River watershed, Illinois, between 2010 and 2030. Land Change Modeler (LCM) was used to characterize three future land use/planning scenarios. Each scenario encourages low density residential growth, normal urban growth, and commercial growth, respectively. Future climate patterns examined include the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenario (SRES) B1 and A1B groups. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was employed to estimate total suspended solids and phosphorus concentration generated at a 10 year interval. The predicted results indicate that for a large portion of the watershed, the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) would be higher under B1 and A1B climate scenarios during late winter and early spring compared to the same period in 2010; while the summer period largely demonstrates a reverse trend. Model results further suggest that by 2020, phosphorus concentration would be higher during the summer under B1 climate scenario compared to 2010, and is expected to wane by 2030. The projected phosphorus concentrations during the late winter and early spring periods vary across climate and land use scenarios. The analysis also denotes that middle and high density residential development can reduce excess TSS concentration, while the establishment of dense commercial and industrial development might help ameliorate high phosphorus levels. The combined land use and climate change analysis revealed land use development schemes that can be adopted to mitigate potential future water quality impairment. This research provides important insights into possible adverse consequences on surface water quality and resources

  17. A High shear stress segment along the San Andreas Fault: Inferences based on near-field stress direction and stress magnitude observations in the Carrizo Plain Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, D. A., [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Adelaide (Australia); Younker, L.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-01-30

    Nearly 200 new in-situ determinations of stress directions and stress magnitudes near the Carrizo plain segment of the San Andreas fault indicate a marked change in stress state occurring within 20 km of this principal transform plate boundary. A natural consequence of this stress transition is that if the observed near-field ``fault-oblique`` stress directions are representative of the fault stress state, the Mohr-Coulomb shear stresses resolved on San Andreas sub-parallel planes are substantially greater than previously inferred based on fault-normal compression. Although the directional stress data and near-hydrostatic pore pressures, which exist within 15 km of the fault, support a high shear stress environment near the fault, appealing to elevated pore pressures in the fault zone (Byerlee-Rice Model) merely enhances the likelihood of shear failure. These near-field stress observations raise important questions regarding what previous stress observations have actually been measuring. The ``fault-normal`` stress direction measured out to 70 km from the fault can be interpreted as representing a comparable depth average shear strength of the principal plate boundary. Stress measurements closer to the fault reflect a shallower depth-average representation of the fault zone shear strength. If this is true, only stress observations at fault distances comparable to the seismogenic depth will be representative of the fault zone shear strength. This is consistent with results from dislocation monitoring where there is pronounced shear stress accumulation out to 20 km of the fault as a result of aseismic slip within the lower crust loading the upper locked section. Beyond about 20 km, the shear stress resolved on San Andreas fault-parallel planes becomes negligible. 65 refs., 15 figs.

  18. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  19. Karst Groundwater Tracer Test and Analysis of Peak Forest Plain Area in Eastern Guilin%桂林东区峰林平原岩溶地下水示踪试验与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开然; 姜光辉; 郭芳; 周文亮; 陈国富; 梁毅

    2013-01-01

    In order to find out the groundwater system structure characteristics of Peak Forest plain, based on the karst hydrogeology survey, and through the artificial sampling and using high resolution field fluorescence spectrometer, the reception of the injected tracer sodium fluorescein in Peak Forest plain of eastern Guilin was detected. The results showed as follows. The plain area of groundwater was exposed mainly in ditches, lakes and wells; and the injected tracer of the number 1 point appeared after 22 days; the maximum flow rate was 19. 5 m/d, with an average flow rate of 4. 9 m/d; in this test section the groundwater runoff belonged to typical face-like flow pattern, and the karst aquifer media was developed even. The district had a high karstification degree of karst aquifer structure, presenting network-like; there was a uniform water level, and karst development was relatively uniform, as well as large fissures or even large-scale pipelines and underground river system, easy for the formation of karst groundwater preferential flow.%为查明桂林东区峰林平原地下水系统的结构特征,在岩溶水文地质调查的基础上,通过人工取样并采用高分辨率野外荧光仪,对桂林东区峰林平原区投放的示踪剂荧光素钠的接收情况进行检测.结果表明:峰林平原区地下水的出露比较多,主要以沟渠、湖塘、民井等为主,其中1号点初现时间为第22天,最大视流速为19.5 m/d,平均视流速4.9 m/d,说明本试验段内地下径流为典型的面状流态,岩溶含水介质比较均匀.峰林平原区岩溶含水层结构岩溶化程度很高,呈网络状,存在统一的地下水位,岩溶发育较均一,同时也存在较大的裂隙甚至较大规模的管道和地下河系统,容易形成岩溶地下水优先流.

  20. Extraction of lakes from an IfSAR DSM and a GIS-based analysis of drainage potential, Western Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. Study area footprint

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — A total of 312 IfSAR-derived digital surface model (DSM) tiles were merged to create a seamless mosaic for the 46,000 km2 study area. The airborne interferometric...

  1. Equal-area polygons used in design and installation of a well network for long-term monitoring of agricultural chemicals in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 456 (Arnold and others, 2009). 30 equal-area polygons generated using techniques described in Scott (1990). Polygons include...

  2. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  3. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of...

  4. Relations of nonpoint-source nitrate and atrazine concentrations in the High Plains aquifer to selected explanatory variables in six Nebraska study areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druliner, A.D.; Chen, H.H.; McGrath, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical techniques were used to relate nonpoint-source ground-water contamination by nitrate and atrazine to a variety of explanatory variables for six study areas in Nebraska. Water samples were collected from 268 wells in 12 counties from 1984 through 1987 and were analyzed for nitrate concentrations; water samples from 210 of the wells were analyzed for atrazine. A number of hydrochemical, climatic, hydrologic, soil, and land-use explanatory variables, which were believed to affect the contamination of ground water by agricultural chemicals, were identified and quantified for each of the 268 wells. Multiple regression methods were used to determine which explanatory variables were statistically related to ground-water concentrations of nitrate and atrazine. Regression models predicting nitrate and atrazine concentrations were produced that explained from about 50 to 68 percent of the variation in the dependent variables. Geographic- information-system methods were used to produce maps predicting nitrate and atrazine concentrations in ground water for one study area using selected regression and logistic models. The results of this study indicate that multiple regression techniques coupled with geographic information systems can be an effective means of identifying areas of potential ground-water contamination by nitrate and atrazine.

  5. [Endangered resources and origin changes of Pinellia ternate in Huanghuai plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Er-Ting; Zhou, Jian-Li

    2013-11-01

    The wild Pinellia ternata resource was surveyed by field investigation, visiting surveys combine with literature study and changing factors of the wild P. ternata in the area of Huanghuai Plain were analyzed. The results indicated that Huanghuai Plain wild P. ternata resources were scarce and nearly extinct. The chemical farming methods in Huanghuai Plain have endangered the survival of the wild P. ternata.

  6. Hydrogeochemical analysis for Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ata Allah Nadiri; Asghar Asghari Moghaddam; Frank T-C Tsai; Elham Fijani

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in the Tasuj plain, Iran. The Tasuj plain is one of the 12 marginal plains around Urmia Lake which is currently under a critical ecological condition. In the last decades, the Tasuj plain aquifer suffered from severe groundwater level declination and caused degradation of groundwater quality. To better understand hydrogeochemical processes in the Tasuj plain, this study adopted graphical methods and multivariate statistical techniques to analyze groundwater samples. A total of 504 groundwater samples was obtained from 34 different locations (qanats, wells, and springs) over 12 years (1997–2009) and analyzed for 15 water quality parameters. From the results, the Piper diagram indicated four groundwater types and the Stiff diagram showed eight different sources of groundwater samples. The Durov diagram identified five major hydrogeochemical processes in the aquifer. However, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) identified five water types in the groundwater samples because HCA was able to analyze more chemical and physical data than graphical methods. The HCA result was checked by discriminant analysis and found consistency in all samples that were classified into correct groups. Using factor analysis, we identified three factors that accounted for 81.6% of the total variance of the dataset. Based on the high factor loadings of the variables, factors 1 and 2 reflected the natural hydrogeochemical processes and factor 3 explained the effect of agricultural fertilizers and human activities in the Tasuj plain. Dendrograms from 2000 to 2009 were studied to understand the temporal variation of groundwater quality. Comparing the distributions of groundwater types in 2000 and 2009, we found that the mixing zone was expanded. This may be due to artificial groundwater recharge in the recharge area and the effect of inverse ion exchange in the discharge area.

  7. Hydrogeological characteristics of the Paraíba do Sul river flood plains: a case study of a mining area in the Tremembé municipality, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sand mining activity in the São Paulo part of the Paraíba do Sul River Valley started in the 1950s, in the area of Jacareí municipality, located in the Southwestern part of the basin. From there, it advanced by the neighboring municipalities, fostered by urbanization and industrialization processes, especially of São Paulo Metropolitan Region. The lack of detailed hydrogeological studies in this area motivated this study that had the objective of verifying the hypothesis that sand mining pits interfere on the quality and storage of the water in the quaternary sedimentary aquifer. This study focused specifically in the eastern part of the Tremembé Municipality, São Paulo State, in a mining place called “Mineração Paraíso”. The investigation involved infiltration and flow tests, laboratory analyses of soil physical parameters and estimation, water quality indices and infrastructure construction for equipment installation including piezometers, dynamic penetration tests – (SPT - Standard Penetration Test, wells opening and office analyses. The soil physical parameters analyses revealed high porosity (66% in the friable soils. This in addition to the high levels of transmissivity (15.5 m2/h measured in Well 1 and 33 m2/h in Well 3, obtained from the flow test, increases the speed of the transportation of solutes including bacteria, to the underground water. Results of the granulometric analyses showed that the sand mining technique is not only predatory, but also inefficient, since the sand at the bottom of the pit is left unexploited, as well as the bentonite clay found in the deeper layers. According to the penetration tests (SPT, the aquifer has an average thickness of 5.5 m and an upper layer of impermeable organic clays that confine the sand deposits. Furthermore, an aquiclude composed of green bentonitic clays was identified just below the confined layer. However, it is necessary to point out that the confinement condition

  8. Fractal characteristics of urban-rural settlement spatial distribution in mountain hills and plains areas%山地丘陵与平原地区城乡聚落空间分布分形特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竟竟

    2013-01-01

    本文以河南省区域系统的不同地域单元为例,运用城镇体系研究的空间关联维数模型对山地丘陵区及平原地区城乡聚落体系空间结构进行分析,结果表明农村聚落具有与城市聚落相同的空间分布分形特征;山地丘陵城市的城乡聚落空间可达性不及平原城市;城乡聚落空间分布的乌鸦维数集中在1左右,差别不大,表明河南省作为中原地区所具有的城乡聚落空间布局的总体均衡性.基于此提出了中部农区城乡聚落空间优化、撤乡并镇、新农村社区建设应结合地域城乡聚落分布特点制定适宜的规划方案等有益的建议.%The paper analyzed the spatial structure of urban and rural settlement in hilly area and plain regions using the correlation dimension model of the urban system, taking the different regional units in Henan as cases. The results showed that the rural settlement has the same fractal characteristic with the spatial distribution of urban settlement; the urban-rural settlement spatial accessibility in mountain hills is lower than plain cities; the crow dimension of urban-rural settlement spatial distribution concentrates around 1, which showed the overall balance of spatial distribution in Henan province. Moreover, the paper proposed some suggestions including spatial optimization of central urban and rural settlement, cancelling township and merging town, and appropriate planning scheme formulated by new rural community construction combining regional urban and rural settlement distribution characteristics.

  9. Level III Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  10. Level IV Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  11. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previous physiographic interpretations for areas within and...

  12. Aerial Images of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1974-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 10 aerial images of three different study areas on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain flown by NASA in 1974, 1977, 1979 and obtained from the...

  13. Assessment of Hyporheic Zone, Flood-Plain, Soil-Gas, Soil, and Surface-Water Contamination at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface water for contaminants at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area (MCTA) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Ten passive samplers were deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and octane were detected above the method detection level in every sampler. Other organic compounds detected above the method detection level in the hyporheic zone and flood-plain samplers were trichloroethylene, and cis- and trans- 1, 2-dichloroethylene. One trip blank detected TPH below the method detection level but above the nondetection level. The concentrations of TPH in the samplers were many times greater than the concentrations detected in the blank; therefore, all other TPH concentrations detected are considered to represent environmental conditions. Seventy-one soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern across the MCTA. Three trip blanks and three method blanks were used and not deployed, and TPH was detected above the method detection level in two trip blanks and one method blank. Detection of TPH was observed at all 71 samplers, but because TPH was detected in the trip and method blanks, TPH was

  14. Photosynthesis and Carbon Sequestration Characteristics of Thirty Afforestation Arbor Species in Plain Area%30种平原绿化乔木树种光合固碳特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娇; 李海明; 施拥军; 李梦; 张英海; 王卓琦

    2012-01-01

    Thirty tree species commonly planted for afforestation in the northern plain area of Zhejiang Province were taken as study objects, the diurnal variation in photosynthesis and the photosynthetic response to different light intensity of these tree species were measured with Li - 6400 portable photosynthesis device. The diurnal variation curves of the photosynthesis, carbon sequestration and oxygen release capacity, light response curves and photosynthetic physiological parameters of the thirty tree species were analyzed. The results showed that carbon accumulation mainly took place in the morning, and more carbon could be accumulated via metabolism by the tree species with stronger photosynthesis capacity. The study indicated that Cinnamonum campora had maximum carbon fixation and oxygen release ( 323. 134 0 mmol/( m2 o s) ) , followed by Amygdalus persica var. persica, Salix babylonica, Litho-carpus glabra, and the least amount of carbon fixation and oxygen release happened to Prunus cerasifera f. atropur-purea ( 61. 864 4 mmol/( m o s) ). The light response curves and photosynthetic indexes of Cinnamonum campora , Salix babylonica, Amygdalus persica var. persica, and Albizia julibrissin showed that these tree species had stronger adaptability to local site conditions. The comprehensive analyses showed that Cinnamonum campora, Amygdalus persica var. persica, Salix babylonica, Albizia julibrissin, Sapindus mukorossi, Lithocarpus glabra, Acer buergerianum and Ligustrum lucidum should be selected to be planted with priority in the northern plain area of Zhejiang Province for their stronger capacity of carbon sequestration.%以浙北地区常见的30种平原绿化树种为试材,用Li-6400便携式光合测定仪对其光合日变化及不同光强梯度下光合作用响应进行测定,并对树木净光合速率日变化曲线、固碳释氧能力、光响应曲线及各种光合生理拟合参数进行分析.结果表明:各树种碳素累积主要在上午进行,

  15. 三江平原地区大豆蚜虫及其天敌种群发生规律的研究%Population Occurrence of Soybean Aphid and Its Natural Enemies in Sanjiang Plain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓贺; 张瑜; 丁俊杰; 顾鑫; 申宏波; 孙瑀琪

    2011-01-01

    2008年对位于三江平原腹地大豆试验田的大豆蚜虫及其天敌发生情况进行了定点、定期调查.结果表明:6月22日~8月20日是大豆蚜虫的发生与危害期,盛发期是7月15日~8月7日;大豆蚜虫天敌主要以小花蝽、瓢虫、草蛉、食蚜蝇为主,小花蝽和食蚜蝇数量达到峰值的时间分别为8月6日和8月16日,草蛉和瓢虫数量达到峰值的时间为8月21日;大豆蚜虫天敌数量达到峰值的时间比大豆蚜虫滞后10~15 d左右.%The occurrence of soybean aphid and its natural enemies were investigated in soybean experimental plot at the center of the Sanjiang plain area in 2008. The results showed that the occurrence and harm period of soybean aphid was from June 22od to Aug 20th,the full incidence period was from July 15* to Aug 7*. Main natural enemies of soybean aphid were Orius, Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae and Syrphidael. Peak time of minute pirate bug and syrphid fly were Aug 6th and Aug 16th, respectively. Lacewing and ladybird were Aug 21st. The peak time of soybean aphid was earlier than its natural enemies for 10 to 15 days.

  16. Risk analysis on agricultural drainage ditch filling and flood disasters in lower plain area of North China%华北低平原农田排水沟平填及洪涝灾害风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓宇; 张凤荣; 李超

    2016-01-01

    The construction of irrigation and water conservancy was initiated on the North China Plain in the 1950s, which played a significant role in the saline-alkali soil improvement and flood discharge. However, the phenomenon of filling agricultural drainage ditches has become common in the North China Plain since the 1990s. It is necessary to know the condition of filling agricultural drainage ditches and flood disasters related with this phenomenon. Nowadays, there are few researches to analyze the condition of filling agricultural drainage ditches. In order to enrich existing studies, this research took Cangxian County which was battered by flooding and soil salinization in lower plain area as a case study, and explored the condition of filling agricultural drainage ditch and the flood disaster. The changes of drainage ditch area and spatial variation were analyzed based on land use databases of Cangxian County in 1992 and 2010 using the method of GIS (geographic information system). Then, the condition of filling agricultural drainage ditch was investigated by means of the field research in Nan Gutun Village. This village was one of the most densely populated agriculture villages in Cangxian County. Interviewing with the village committee members and the villagers over 70 years old, we learned about the local agricultural production mode, the way of life, the changes of agricultural drainage ditch and its mechanisms from 1960s to now. Finally, we analyzed the risk of flood disasters from the aspects of precipitation trends, percentage of precipitation anomalies, underground water level, drought/flood frequency, relationship between soil water capacity and rainfall, and upland water condition. The results showed that from 1992 to 2010, the area of drainage ditches in Cangxian County reduced by 37.73%. Meanwhile, the proportion of drainage ditches in Cangxian County decreased by 2.03% and the farm ditches was the most serious in being filled. The results of flood

  17. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  18. 黄淮海平原县域农村居民点布局优化及其整治策略%Layout optimization for county rural residents in Huang-Huai-Hai plain area and its remediation strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宁; 郝晋珉; 孟鹏; 陈丽; 洪舒蔓; 穆哈拜提·帕热提

    2015-01-01

    paper recognized 4 types, including tandem type, parallel type, aggregation type and dual-core type. There were 21 out of 242 rural residential patches which were urbanization-oriented type, and the remaining rural residential patches were deeply divided into 3 types, including key development type, restricted expansion type and combined migration type, on the basis of centrality index of rural residential patches and spatial interaction between the patches. Finally, the paper put forward the policy suggestions aiming at every type of layout optimization. Quzhou county, Hebei province is located in the Heilonggang Basin of Huang-Huai-Hai plain. People living in the study area prefer to reside and gather together. For example, one rural residential patch from Henantuan town, had a population of 3.2 thousand. This rural residential patch was divided into 3 administrative villages, including 1st Malantou village, 2nd Malantou village and 3rd Malantou village. The paper eliminated the influence of administrative village boundary by taking rural residential patches as the research unit. This had implications for the study of rural resident layout in the other areas of Huang-Huai-Hai plain. The paper took both centrality index and spatial interaction into consideration when studying the layout optimization scheme in Quzhou county. However, the relationship between the two as well as different trip modes between urban residents and peasants, deserves further study.%为合理确定农村居民点的布局优化方向,科学指导土地整治和新农村建设中农村居民点的迁移合并实践,该文以河北省曲周县为例,从农村居民点自身发展条件和邻近居民点的空间相互作用关系2个角度,构建了以斑块为单元符合平原区特点的农村居民点结节性指数评价体系,利用多因素综合评价法测算了各农村居民点结节性指数值;利用引力模型确定了整理单元,总结出农村居民点间的4种

  19. Podzolização em solos de áreas de depressão de topo dos tabuleiros costeiros do Nordeste brasileiro Podzolization in soils of depressed summit areas on the coastal plains of the brazilian Northeastern region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Alvarenga Silva

    2013-02-01

    work was to perform different extractions of Fe, Al, Si and organic C to understand the podzolization process in soils of the summit depressions of the Coastal Plains of Northeastern Brazil. For this purpose, soil profiles were described and samples collected in four areas: Coruripe, AL; Neópolis, SE; Acajutiba, BA; and Nova Viçosa, BA. In these samples, the Fe, Al and Si contents were determined by the sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate, ammonium oxalate and sodium pyrophosphate extractors and soil organic matter was chemically fractionated. The increase in organic C, and Fe and Al contents by different extractors from the iluvial (accumulation horizons of each soil, relatively to the eluvial (loss horizons, reflects the field morphology and reinforces the importance of the podzolization process in the studied soils. Complexes of Al-humus entirely dominate the matrix of the iluvial horizons associated to hydromorphism, while there is a variable influence of different Fe forms on those with no hydromorphism. The Ferrihumiluvic Spodosol profile is the only one of the four studied profiles with spodic horizons with "s" subscript, i.e., where the contents of extracted Fe affected the morphology differentially.

  20. Appliance of oxygen and hydrogen isotope in the process of precipitation infiltration in the shallow groundwater areas of North China Plain%基于氢氧同位素的华北平原降水入渗过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仕琴; 宋献方; 肖国强; 王志民; 刘鑫; 王鹏

    2009-01-01

    华北平原地下水浅埋区水循环主要以垂直方向上的入渗、蒸发和蒸腾的方式存在,同位素可以作为一种有效"示踪剂"揭示降水入渗补给地下水的过程.选择华北平原中、东部地下水浅埋区的衡水和沧州为典型实验点,研究不同降水特征、土壤质地和植被条件下入渗过程的差异性.结果表明,土壤非均质条件下(沧州), 降水入渗补给过程中伴随着蒸发、植被蒸腾作用以及与土壤前期水分的强烈混合作用, 活塞流入渗的同时土壤100cm深度可能还存在大孔隙优先流; 土壤均质条件下(衡水), 降水向下均匀入渗,入渗速度较快,土壤水运动以新水基本代替老水的活塞流为主要形式,并经过强烈的蒸发浓缩作用补给地下水.%In the shallow groundwater areas of North China Plain water cycle mostly occurs as infiltration, evaporation and evapotranspiration in the vertical direction, in which the unsaturated zone plays an important role in precipitation and groundwater. Isotope can be used to trace the process when the precipitation infiltrates and recharges groundwater. In this paper Cangzhou and Hengshui sites are selected as the typical shallow groundwater areas to research the difference of the infiltration process under the different precipitation features, soil textures and vegetation conditions. The results show that at the site with the heterogeneous soil texture the precipitation infiltrates and moves in soil as the piston mode and the mixture effect, and the evapotranspiration effect during the infiltration process is significant in the distribution of soil water. Some evidence is provided for the existence of the preferable flow at 100 m depth. The groundwater is mainly recharged by precipitation. However, at the homogeneous site the infiltration process is uniform and the soil water moves as piston mode, too. Both deep soil water and groundwater are totally recharged by precipitation. After

  1. 冬小麦在宁夏山区、灌区种植的比较研究%A Comparative Study of Growing Winter Wheat in Plain Area and Mountainous Area of Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东升; 袁汉民; 张维军; 亢玲; 王小亮; 来长凯; 袁海燕

    2012-01-01

    20 main cultivars and high generation strains of the winter wheat on irrigated land in Yellow River Irrigation Area and on dry land in Southern Mountainous Area of Ningxia were selected to make an study of their agronomy,yield and quality traits.The result showed that it were relatively large that the range of variation of the highest total stem number,spike number,plant height,grain number per spike,grain weight,yield,dough development time,dough stability time and the dilute slack values among the starch pasting properties of various winter wheat varieties and the coefficient of variation was between 32.2%~67.8% and it were higher(0.46~0.88),reaching significant or extremely significant level that the correlation coefficients of the agronomic traits such as greenup,heading date,plant height and panicle number,the quality traits such as grain hardness,water absorption,dough development time and dough stability time and the starch properties such as trough viscosity,final viscosity,peak time and gelatinization temperature.They showed significant differences when the same variety was grown in Yellow River Irrigation Area and in Southern Mountainous Area.%选用宁夏引黄灌区水地和南部山区旱地冬小麦主栽品种和高代品系20份,对其农艺、产量及品质性状进行了研究,结果表明:各冬小麦品种的最高总茎数、穗数、株高、穗粒数、穗粒重、产量、面团形成时间、面团稳定时间、淀粉糊化特性中稀懈值变异幅度较大,变异系数介于32.2%~67.8%;农艺性状中的返青期、抽穗期、株高、穗数,品质性状中的籽粒硬度、吸水率、面团形成时间、面团稳定时间以及淀粉性状中的低谷粘度、最终粘度、峰值时间和糊化温度相关系数(0.46~0.88)较高,分别达到显著或极显著水平。同一品种在灌区、山区种植表现出显著差异。

  2. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  3. Geomorphological development of Eastern Mongolian plain, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2016-04-01

    Several summaries and investigations of the geomorphological description and feature for Eastern Mongolian plain (EMP), the one of the largest geomorphological district, fully covering east side of Mongolia (Murzayev, 1949; Vlodavets, 1950, 1955; Marinov, Khasin, 1954; Marinov, 1966; Nikolayeva, 1971; Selivanov, 1972; Chichagov, 1974, 1976; Grigorov, 1975; Korjuyev, 1982; Syirnev, 1982, 1984) had been publishing continuously. But literature for geomorphology of EMP have been not appeared during over the past 20 years. However, we re-combine the geomorphological development of EMP, according to the results of many publications for surrounding regions of Russia and China and unpublished maps. Main morphology of EMP has the plain, containing with aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine landforms. Plain morphology defined that denudation plains to North Kherlen, South Kherlen, Baruun Urt, Uulbayan, Delgerekh and other which developed on the Paleozoic rocks, layered plain to Choibalsan, Tamsag, Ongon, Gert, Sumiin nuur and Torey- on the Late Cretaceous and Neogene sediments and accumulation plain with alluvial and lacustrine origin such as Menen, Buir nuur, Tamsagbulag, Khalzan and other. These plains of EMP related with tectonics and structure of region and inherited the development of the Mesozoic, particularly Late Mesozoic structure. Large basins of EMP are Tamsag, Choibalsan and Torey and other small basins - from 7-10 km to 25-30 km width and rather a several 10 km extend, cutting a basement. The origin of plain morphology for EMP is interpreted as two main stages of the geomorphological development model, based on geology. In first stage or Late Jurassic (?) - Lower Cretaceous period, there was developed rift basin, then, in second stage or since Late Cretaceous period, plain morphology originated from the intermountain basin that dominated by exogenic process and kept in current EMP area. Data relevant to the development history of EMP are following. 1. Rift volcanism

  4. Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina.

  5. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  6. Evaluation index system of ecological environmental impact of water conservancy projects in plain river network area%平原河网地区水利工程水生态环境效应评估指标构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩龙喜; 贾更华; 杨钟凯; 杨磊; 孙明园

    2011-01-01

    Taking the plain river network area of the Taihu Lake Basin as an example, starting from the basin water ecological safety concept of river development and protection, and based on the hydrology and hydrodynamics; the characteristics of the water ecological environment of the water system in the plain river network area; the development, construction, and operation conditions of water conservancy projects; and the effects on the water ecological environment, the water conservancy projects were classified, and the effects of different water conservancy projects on the hydrology and hydrodynamics, water environment quality, hydrobios, and benthos were identified. The main evaluation indexes of the water ecological environmental impact assessment of the water conservancy projects were put forward. The evaluation index system of the water ecological environment of water conservancy projects in the plain river network area was established.%以太湖流域平原河网地区为例,从河流开发与保护的流域水生态安全概念出发,基于平原河网地区水系的水文水动力、水生态环境特征,根据水利工程的开发建设及运行状况,及其对水生态环境产生的不同影响,对水利工程进行分类,分别辨析不同水利工程对水文水动力、水环境质量、水生生物、底栖生物的影响,提出水利工程水生态环境影响评价的主要评价指标,构建平原河网地区水利工程水生态环境效应评估指标体系.

  7. Applicability of the spatial autocorrection method for estimation of basement structure in Kanto plain. Array measurements of microtremors close to the Iwatsuki and Shimosa deep borehole observatory; Kanto heiya no kiban kozo suitei no tame no kukan jiko sokanho no tekiyosei. Iwatsuki Shimosa jiban katsudo kansokusei ni okeru array bido kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, T.; Umezawa, N.; Shiraishi, H. [Saitama Institute of Environmental Pollution, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To investigate applicability of the spatial autocorrection method which is a microtremors exploration method for the estimation of basement structure, array measurements of microtremors were performed using the Iwatsuki and Shimosa deep borehole observatory where detailed structures were clarified as well as the Fuchu and Koto deep borehole observatory. In this study, estimated velocity structures of S-wave were compared with the geological sequence and results of acoustic velocity logging. The phase velocity was estimated by the spatial autocorrection method using FFT. The phase velocity with a smooth normal dispersion was observed in the periodic range from 0.5 to 5 sec in Iwatsuki, and from 0.5 to 4 sec in Shimosa by the combination of four-point circular arrays with radii of 100, 300, and 600 m. The underground structures estimated from the phase velocities coincided well with the geological sequence, and results of acoustic velocity logging and velocity logging for each borehole. For the Iwatsuki borehole, the basement velocity was also estimated properly in the periodic range of observation. While, for the Shimosa borehole, measurements with the period around 6 sec were required to estimate the basement velocity more accurately. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 40 CFR 81.240 - Northeastern Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.240 Northeastern Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeastern Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the territorial area... Quality Control Region. 81.240 Section 81.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  9. Sustentabilidade de sistemas de rotação e sucessão de culturas em solos de várzea no Sul do Brasil Crop rotations sustainability and successions systems in tilled plain areas in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Jesus Vernetti Junior

    2009-09-01

    [nabo x soja x arroz (PD] apresentam, respectivamente, a maior e a menor sustentabilidade entre aqueles sistemas em que a cultura da soja participa; (c o sistema S5 [campo nativo x soja x arroz (SC] apresenta o menor índice de sustentabilidade; (d o sistema S8 [Consórcio x milho x arroz (PD] apresenta a melhor distribuição e o melhor equilíbrio entre as diversas perspectivas de sustentabilidade consideradas; (e o sistema S10 [campo nativo x milho x arroz (SC] tem pior desempenho, no que se refere à sustentabilidade entre os que incluem o milho; (f o sistema de PD confere maior sustentabilidade às sucessões de cultura.The quantitative analysis with different types of indicators is crucial in determining the sustainability of crop succession. This study aimed to appraise that in tilled plain areas. The research was carried out in Pelotas, RS, Brazil at Embrapa Clima Temperado research area. The treatments consisted of successions of winter and spring-summer crops species for five years, followed by two years of fallow and three years of rice cropping. The spring-summer crops were corn and soybean, besides rice; the winter crops were cereals, leguminous pastures, mixtures species, turnip and native grass species. Seeding was performed either by no-till (NT or conventional (CT. The experiment was planned in a split-plot randomized blocks design with three replications, where the summer crops occupied the plots, while the winter's species were allocated to the subplots. The parameters measured were transformed into index to standardize the variables, each one in relation to the better measurement behavior, and arranged in four categories of analysis: (a Agronomics indices (dry weight and grain yield; (b Environmental indicators (soil fertility; (c Energy Indicators (gain and energy efficiency; d Economic Indicators (profitability and gross value of production. Through harmonic average rates calculated for each indicator, comparisons to the crop succession were then

  10. The Past, Present, and Future of Plain English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsenfeld, Carl

    1987-01-01

    The "plain English" movement began in 1975 when Citibank of New York introduced the first simplified promissory note. This led to much legislative activity and reform in the area of writing for consumers. The new challenge will be to simplify "computerese." (Author/CH)

  11. Aerial Images of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1948, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 36 black and white 9x9 inch aerial images of four different study areas on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain taken between 1948-1949 and...

  12. Aerial Image of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of a single aerial image of a single area on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain taken on 21 June 1955 by the U.S. Air Force and obtained from...

  13. History of the great Kanto earthquakes inferred from the ages of Holocene marine terraces revealed by a comprehensive drilling survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Junki; Shishikura, Masanobu; Ando, Ryosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yosuke

    2017-08-01

    We measured the emergence ages of four marine terraces in the Chikura lowland, which lies to the southeast of the Boso Peninsula, in eastern Japan, to reevaluate the history of the great earthquake occurrences along the Sagami Trough over the past 10,000 years. The dates of the marine terraces are measured via radiocarbon dating of shell fossils obtained from the marine deposits. The sampling method employed in this study collects core samples using a dense and systematic drilling survey, which increased the reliability when correlating shell fossils with marine terraces. In addition, radiocarbon dating was performed with accelerator mass spectrometry, which produces more highly accurate measurements than those measured in previous studies. Moreover, we explored the surface profiles of the terraces with detailed digital elevation model (DEM) data obtained using LiDAR. The maximum emergence ages of the marine terraces were dated at 6300 cal yBP, 3000 cal yBP, and 2200 cal yBP from the top terrace excepting the lowest terrace (which was estimated at AD1703). In addition, another previously unrecognized terrace was detected between the highest and the second terrace in both the dating and the geomorphological analyses and was dated at 5800 cal yBP. The newly obtained ages are nearly a thousand of years younger than previously estimated ages; consequently, the intervals of the great earthquakes that occurred along the Sagami Trough are estimated to be much shorter and more varied than those of previous estimations. This result revises the data used in the current assessment of the probabilities of earthquakes along the Sagami Trough, which could devastate the Tokyo metropolitan area. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the current approach could be a powerful tool to increase the accuracy of assessments of the other areas with depositional marine terraces.

  14. Saturated thickness, High Plains aquifer, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer of the United States, 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  15. Risks associated with rainfall and floods in the Moldavian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan BURUIANĂ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes, less effective land exploitation and insufficient security infrastructure against extreme phenomena induce vulnerabilities for the Moldavian Plain, where floods are relatively frequent. The middle and lower segments of the major streams dispose of improved hydro-technical infrastructure to prevent floods, still, the secondary streams and tributaries, with pronounced torrential characterremain vulnerable. The torrential character of the majority of rivers inthe Moldavian Plain results in management difficulties related with risksat maximum flow, especially on the first rank tributaries. Our studyanalyzes the main causes and consequences of floods in the MoldavianPlain and identifies potentially significant flood risks areas.

  16. Suitable scale of Weigan River plain oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShunJun; SONG YuDong; TIAN ChangYan; LI YueTan; LI XiuCang; CHEN XiaoBing

    2007-01-01

    Desert coexists with oasis in long time, and the existence and development of oasis system demand better oasis vegetation ecological system. Oasis scale of arid zone plain encircling water should be determined in case of desertification caused by land over-reclamation under the circumstance of water resources shortage. Steady oasis with virtuous circle must have appropriate land use structure for agriculture, forestry and graziery. The study on the suitable scale and developmental space of oasis will provide theoretical and applicable foundation for effective construction of oases. By analyzing the hydrothermal, water and soil balance, an optimal mathematical model has been established. Based on hydrometeorology data collected for years in Weigan River plain, and by the principle of water balance,a calculation has been made of the water resources for evapotranspiration and the optimal acreage of oasis and cultivated land, which shows that the water resources for evapotranspiration in the Weigan River plain oasis is 22.32×108 m3 and the optimal oasis acreage under the condition of conventional irrigation mode is 3716.06 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 1564.79 km2. Under the condition of water-saving irrigation, the suitable oasis acreage is 5515.49 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 2322.31 km2. The oasis area had reached 4123 km2, and the cultivated land acreage had reached 1507 km2 after the Agriculture Irrigation Drainage Water Project of World Bank Loan in Weigan River basin was finished in 1997. The oasis and cultivated land acreage will be more suitable, and the oasis scale can be enlarged moderately by means of water saving irrigation.

  17. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle...

  18. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of constant recharge rates for the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of...

  19. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of...

  20. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of Cimarron,...

  1. Well network for long-term monitoring of agricultural chemicals in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 456 (Arnold and others, 2009). Data set contains point locations of 20 wells located in areas overlying the High Plains...

  2. Furrow Dike Water Conservation Practices in the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Wistrand, Glen L.

    1984-01-01

    Furrow diking can prevent irrigation and rainfall runoff, conserve energy use, prevent soil loss, amd allow producers to reclaim land otherwise unusable, depending on soil, climate, and crops grown in a given area. Initial investment to use this technique may be recovered within the first season. This study analyzes the effects of diking on water and soil conservation, crop yields, costs, and energy use in farming, using examples of farms in the Texas High Plains area.

  3. Hydrogeochemical modeling of groundwater chemical environmental evolution in Hebei Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永海; 沈照理; 钟佐燊

    1997-01-01

    Using the hydrogeochemical modeling method, the groundwater chemical environmental problems of the Hebei Plain which involve increasing of hardness and total dissolved solids in piedmont area and mixing of saline water with fresh water in middle-eastern area are studied. The water-rock interactions and mass transfer along a ground-water flow path and in mixing processes are calculated. Thus the evolution mechanisms of the groundwater chemical environment are brought to light.

  4. Furrow Dike Water Conservation Practices in the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Wistrand, Glen L.

    1984-01-01

    Furrow diking can prevent irrigation and rainfall runoff, conserve energy use, prevent soil loss, amd allow producers to reclaim land otherwise unusable, depending on soil, climate, and crops grown in a given area. Initial investment to use this technique may be recovered within the first season. This study analyzes the effects of diking on water and soil conservation, crop yields, costs, and energy use in farming, using examples of farms in the Texas High Plains area.

  5. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  6. Plain Polynomial Arithmetic on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisul Haque, Sardar; Moreno Maza, Marc

    2012-10-01

    As for serial code on CPUs, parallel code on GPUs for dense polynomial arithmetic relies on a combination of asymptotically fast and plain algorithms. Those are employed for data of large and small size, respectively. Parallelizing both types of algorithms is required in order to achieve peak performances. In this paper, we show that the plain dense polynomial multiplication can be efficiently parallelized on GPUs. Remarkably, it outperforms (highly optimized) FFT-based multiplication up to degree 212 while on CPU the same threshold is usually at 26. We also report on a GPU implementation of the Euclidean Algorithm which is both work-efficient and runs in linear time for input polynomials up to degree 218 thus showing the performance of the GCD algorithm based on systolic arrays.

  7. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  8. Digital Extraction of Artificial Micro-geomorphology in Plain Areas Based on DEM%基于DEM的平原区人工微地貌数字提取方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖飞; 杜耘; Parrot J F; 王学雷; 严翼

    2011-01-01

    This paper presented a numerical methodology for recognition and extraction of artificial micro-geomor-phology in the Jianghan Plain. In the different spatial scales of geomorphologic types, micro-geomorphology is the smallest spatial pattern and thus is more easily influenced by human activities. In this sense, artificial micro-geo-morphology would show more potential in understanding the interactions between natural environment and human activities. Due to the continuous land utilization and rearrangement from historical period in the Jianghan Plain, a kind of artificial micro-geomorphology characterized by enclosed embankments on the low-lying land was formed. For decades, it played a very important role in the spatial distributions of some disasters such as flood and waterlogging. Compared with the automated extraction of drainage network and catchments boundaries from nature valleys, automated recognition of artificial micro-geomorphology skeleton lines has distinctive difficulties because of its tiny size, greater susceptibility to data error, and the different spatial structures with nature geo-morphology. Despite of the progress in the automatic extraction of terrain skeleton lines, there is no auto-extrac-ting method of artificial micro-geomorphology availablility yet, and it still dependes on the manual way to extract the skeleton lines of artificial geomorphology from the remotely sensed images and topographic maps. In this pa-per , a digital method for extracting the skeleton line of artificial micro-geomorphology was developed through the combination of the local topography analysis and the overland flow simulation. According to the specific artificial geomorphology features in the Jianghan Plain, a method was brought forward to identify the potential positions of the topographic skeleton lines, which is based on the evaluation of difference between the local elevations and the average elevations within moving windows. Then, an algorithm of watershed

  9. Groundwater recharge at five representative sites in the Hebei Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaohui; Jin, Menggui; van Genuchten, Martinus Th; Wang, Bingguo

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are essential for effective management of groundwater, especially when supplies are limited such as in many arid and semiarid areas. In the Hebei Plain, China, water shortage is increasingly restricting socioeconomic development, especially for agriculture, which heavily relies on groundwater. Human activities have greatly changed groundwater recharge there during the past several decades. To obtain better estimates of recharge in the plain, five representative sites were selected to investigate the effects of irrigation and water table depth on groundwater recharge. At each site, a one-dimensional unsaturated flow model (Hydrus-1D) was calibrated using field data of climate, soil moisture, and groundwater levels. A sensitivity analysis of evapotranspirative fluxes and various soil hydraulic parameters confirmed that fine-textured surface soils generally generate less recharge. Model calculations showed that recharge on average is about 175 mm/year in the piedmont plain to the west, and 133 mm/year in both the central alluvial and lacustrine plains and the coastal plain to the east. Temporal and spatial variations in the recharge processes were significant in response to rainfall and irrigation. Peak time-lags between infiltration (rainfall plus irrigation) and recharge were 18 to 35 days in the piedmont plain and 3 to 5 days in the central alluvial and lacustrine plains, but only 1 or 2 days in the coastal plain. This implies that different time-lags corresponding to different water table depths must be considered when estimating or modeling groundwater recharge.

  10. The Links between Migration, Poverty and Health: Evidence from Khayelitsha and Mitchell's Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndegwa, David; Horner, Dudley; Esau, Faldie

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1950s, the City of Cape Town was part of a wider area demarcated as a Coloured Labour Preference Area. The free movement of African people into the city was strictly controlled and the residential areas were segregated along racial lines. In terms of Apartheid's grand design, an area designated Mitchell's Plain was demarcated for…

  11. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (15)Great Advances in Power System Stabilizing Technology triggered by the Wide-area Outage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Masanao

    On July 23, 1987, a very hot day, the largest wide-area power outage occurred in Kanto-Area, Japan. The cause was a voltage collapse on the bulk power network of Tokyo Electric Power Company, due to the abnormal rate of demand rising following resume after lunch break. Aggressive studies on voltage collapse throughout industry and university have led to great advances in power system stability. This essay describes the detail record of the outage, the applied countermeasures, and the inside story when the multiple voltage solutions of power flow on actual power system were found out for the first time.

  12. 黄河河口平原多闸坝河道水流数学模型%Mathematical model of flow in rivers with multiple sluices and dams in plain area in Yellow River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学群; 李福林; 张瑞青; 刘健

    2012-01-01

    针对黄河下游河口平原区河流的特点,在充分考虑多闸坝及潮汐作用的影响下,采用MIKE 11软件构建多闸坝河道水动力模型,同时利用实测资料进行参数率定及模型检验.结果表明:广利河河网下游水位变化趋势受上游来水流量的变化趋势影响较大,水流状况受人工调控明显;大部分典型断面的模拟结果较好,所确定的参数基本可以反映河道及流域特征.模型可以为下一步进行水量水质耦合模拟及河网库群与闸坝调度方案研究提供较为准确的水动力条件.%Based on the characteristics of the rivers in estuarine plain downstream of the Yellow River, the MIKE11 software was used to build the hydrodynamic model for rivers with multiple sluices and dams with consideration of the influences of multiple sluices and dams, and tides. The observed data were used to calibrate and verify the model. The results show that the trend of the water level downstream of the Guangli River was significantly influenced by the inflow from upstream, and the flow was obviously affected by artificial regulation. The simulation results for most of the typical cross sections were good, and the determined parameters for the most part reflected the characteristics of the rivers and basins. The model can provide an accurate hydrodynamic basis for further research on coupled simulation of water quantity and quality and the scheme for regulating reservoirs and sluices and dams in river networks.

  13. Late Quaternary geology of the Lower Central Plain, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsakul, Sin

    2000-08-01

    The Lower Central Plain or Chao Phraya Plain, located in the upper Gulf of Thailand, has an average elevation of 2 m above the present mean sea level. It is a fault bounded basin developed in the Plio-Pleistocene epoch. Consequently, the basin has been filled with Quaternary sediment reaching a thickness of almost 2000 m, of which only the upper 300 m is known. The Pleistocene deposits of the Lower Central Plain represent a complex interplay of alluvial, fluvial and deltaic environments of the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries. The upper sequence of sand and stiff clay with iron-oxide concretions on the surface was deposited in a fluviatile environment subjected to a regressive period in the late Pleistocene. The term "Chao Phraya delta" is used to define the landform where the Chao Phraya River interacted with marine processes as the sea level changed during the Holocene transgression. These strata indicated that the Holocene sea reached its maximum height of 4 m above the present mean sea level around 6000 years B.P.; from then on sea level fluctuated until it reached its present level around 1500 years B.P. This complex sea level history has caused the progradation of tidal flat, and tide-dominated delta deposits, consisting of soft marine clay, that covered the Lower Central Plain to an average depth of 15 m in the Bangkok area. The soft marine clay or Bangkok clay is the most important unit in the stratigraphic sequence in terms of land subsidence in the Lower Central Plain. Evidence of coastal erosion is also considerable in the low tidal flat area on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River mouth and adjacent coast.

  14. Holocene delta plain development in the Song Hong (Red River) delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabiki, Ayako; Haruyama, Shigeko; Quy, Nguyen Van; Hai, Pham Van; Thai, Dinh Hung

    2007-05-01

    Holocene delta plain development was investigated based on three sediment cores analyzed in detail from the Song Hong (Red River) delta plain in Vietnam. Two cores (DA and PD) from the western delta plain showed both the landward limit of the transgressive estuarine system in the valley incised during the last glacial maximum and floodplain evolution since the middle Holocene. On the other hand, a core (TL) from the eastern delta plain revealed a Pleistocene terrace buried under the deltaic sediments and a slow accumulation rate compared with that in the west. At 8 cal ky BP, the shoreline migrated very close to the present Hanoi city area, and the sedimentary environment changed to tidal flat or salt marsh. Hanoi city marks the northern limit of shoreline transgression. The mangrove swamp expanded from 8 to 5 cal ky BP to the landward limit of the delta plain. Subsequently, the shoreline migrated seaward as a result of delta progradation and sea-level lowering. From 5 cal ky BP, the emerged area evolved into a floodplain and natural levees formed along the abandoned river channels on the western delta plain, but at 2 cal ky, archeological sites indicate that the Holocene terrace in the eastern delta plain was still inundated.

  15. River diversions, avulsions and captures in the Tortuguero coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, Jorge Pedro; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Mora, Mauricio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The Tortuguero area is a coastal plain that forms part of the North Limón sedimentary basin, the back-arc region of the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. This coastal plain is characterised by an abnormal drainage pattern with river captures, diversions and shifts in channel directions. We are analyzing this anomalous drainage network adopting a classical geomorphological approach combined with geomorphometric techniques. The SRTM DEM at 1 arc-second of resolution (~30 m) from NASA, topographic maps 1:50,000, satellital images and the digital cartography of the drainage network have been used for inventorying the channel pattern anomalies. River segments were categorized according to sinuosity, orientation, slope changes and incision using GIS tools. Initially, anomalies in the analyzed river courses suggested that buried thrust fronts could disrupt their natural pattern. However, we have not identified any evidence to link the activity of buried structures with the disruption of natural drainage. Blind thrusts detected through seismic subsurface exploration in the SE sector of the Tortuguero plain do not seem to produce changes in the sinuosity, orientation, slope and incision of rivers as those observed in the deeply studied tectonically active area of the Po Plain (Italy). The identified river pattern anomalies have been explained due to other alternative causes: (1) the migration of the mouths of Reventazón, Pacuare and Matina rivers is produced by sand sedimentation in the coast because of a successive ridge beach formation. This migration to the SE has the same direction than the main ocean currents those deposited the sand. (2) The anomalous course of Parismina river is most probably conditioned by the fracturation of the dissected volcanic apron of Turrialba volcano. (3) Channel migration and capture of Barbilla river by Matina river can be triggered by the tectonic tilting of the coastal plain towards the SE. The subsidence of the SE sector of the plain was

  16. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  17. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Wahid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  18. Institutions of farmer participation and environmental sustainability: a multi-level analysis from irrigation management in Harran Plain, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özerol, Gül

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between farmer participation and environmental sustainability from an institutional perspective in the context of Harran Plain, one of the newest and largest irrigated areas in Turkey. Harran Plain undergoes social, economic and institutional change due to the

  19. A Wear Geometry Model of Plain Woven Fabric Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Dapeng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper g describes a model meant for analysis of the wear geometry of plain woven fabric composites. The referred model consists of a mathematical description of plain woven fabric based on Peirce’s model coupled with a stratified method for the solution of the wear geometry. The evolutions of the wear area ratio of weft yarn, warp yarn and matrix resin on the worn surface are simulated by MatLab software in combination of warp and weft yarn diameters, warp and weft yarn-to-yarn distances, fabric structure phases (SPs. By comparing theoretical and experimental results from the PTFE/Kevlar fabric wear experiment, it can be concluded that the model can present a trend of the component area ratio variations along with the thickness of fabric, but has a inherently large error in quantitative analysis as an idealized model.

  20. The current status, threats and protection way of Sanjiang Plain wetland, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUZhi-qiang; LIUTong

    2005-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is a vast area of alluvial floodplains and low hills in northeast Heilongjiang Province. It is the largest tract of wetlands in China and East Asia outside of Siberia. 28 wetland nature reserves exist on the Sanjiang Plain, and three of them have been listed as wetlands of international importance to water bird conservation by the Ramsar Convention Bureau. The wetlands of Sanjiang Plain are noteworthy for its rich biodiversity, but they continue to decline in area and deteriorate in quality currently. The main threats or constrains, immediate cause, root cause and required response are analyzed in this paper, and the four aspects opinion such as improvement of watershed management, enhancement of protection and restoration of habitats and biodiversity, alternative livelihoods of rural residents living in and near natural wetland reserve, and reinforcement of capacity building of natural reserves are brought forward as the effective measures for the Sanjiang Plain wetland protection.

  1. Survey of groundwater chemical pollution in the Borazjan plain

    OpenAIRE

    Jaber Mozafarizadeh; Zahra Sajadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nitrate due to its high water solubility, poor absorption and having stable composition in the water, has been studied as the best index to indicate groundwater contamination. Borazjan, located in the north of Bushehr province, is one of fertile plains which nitrate contamination of groundwater has occurred in the most parts of it. Detecting the source of pollution and the most vulnerable areas were the aims of this study. Material and Methods: In this study, hydrochemical quality...

  2. Mapping the spatio-temporal evolution of irrigation in the Coastal Plain of Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus D. Williams; Christie M.S. Hawley; Marguerite Madden; J. Marshall Shepherd

    2017-01-01

    This study maps the spatial and temporal evolution of acres irrigated in the Coastal Plain of Georgia over a 38 year period. The goal of this analysis is to create a time-series of irrigated areas in the Coastal Plain of Georgia at a sub-county level. From 1976 through 2013, Landsat images were obtained and sampled at four year intervals to manually...

  3. The High Plains Aquifer, USA: Groundwater development and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, K.F.; Litke, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains Aquifer, located in the United States, is one of the largest freshwater aquifers in the world and is threatened by continued decline in water levels and deteriorating water quality. Understanding the physical and cultural features of this area is essential to assessing the factors that affect this groundwater resource. About 27% of the irrigated land in the United States overlies this aquifer, which yields about 30% of the nation's groundwater used for irrigation of crops including wheat, corn, sorghum, cotton and alfalfa. In addition, the aquifer provides drinking water to 82% of the 2.3 million people who live within the aquifer boundary. The High Plains Aquifer has been significantly impacted by human activities. Groundwater withdrawals from the aquifer exceed recharge in many areas, resulting in substantial declines in groundwater level. Residents once believed that the aquifer was an unlimited resource of high-quality water, but they now face the prospect that much of the water may be gone in the near future. Also, agricultural chemicals are affecting the groundwater quality. Increasing concentrations of nitrate and salinity can first impair the use of the water for public supply and then affect its suitability for irrigation. A variety of technical and institutional measures are currently being planned and implemented across the aquifer area in an attempt to sustain this groundwater resource for future generations. However, because groundwater withdrawals remain high and water quality impairments are becoming more commonplace, the sustainability of the High Plains Aquifer is uncertain.

  4. Exit and Paradise Creek Braid Plain Kilometers, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of points designating braid plain kilometers, or distance along the braid plain centerline, for the 2012 active braid plain of Exit Creek and...

  5. Analysis and Forecast for Solar Greenhouse Area and Water Saving Amount of Alluvial Plain Region of Haihe Rive in Hebei Province%河北省海河冲击平原区日光温室面积和节水量分析与预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张西平; 吴金华; 绳莉丽; 吴现兵; 程伍群

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problems as scarcity of water, expansion of facility areas and increasing of water use amount, some indexesof greenhouse of the alluvial plain region of Haihe Rive in Hebei province, as cropping area, cropping pattern, water use efficiency and water saving amount, are analyzed and calculated in Hebei Province. The Gray model (1, 1) is used to predict the area and water saving amount in 2020 and 2030. It is predicted that the areas are 5.48 × 10^4 and 5. 64 × 10^4 hm^2 and the water saving amount are 1.78×10^8 and 1.87×10^8 m^3, respectively.%针对河北省水资源日益紧缺、设施面积逐步扩大及其灌溉用水量的增加等问题,对河北省海河冲击平原区4个分区的日光温室种植面积、种植模式、水分生产效率及灌溉技术节水量进行调查统计和分析计算,采用灰色GM(1,1)预测模型预测了各分区2020年和2030年日光温室的发展面积及灌溉技术节水量。预测发展总面积分别为5.48万hm2和5.64万hm2,节水量分别为17 758.1万m3和18 692.9万m3。

  6. A Light-weighted Concrete Made of EPS to Prevent Reservoir Evaporation in Inland Arid Plain Area%内陆干旱区平原水库防蒸发的 EPS轻质混凝土试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋兴亮; 侍克斌; 严新军; 信玉良; 董秀斌

    2015-01-01

    A light-weighted concrete is developed to reduce the invalid evaporation and save water in inland arid plain areas.It could float on water surface after drying and so is made into plate-like structure overlying on the wa-ter surface in reservoir.EPS (expanded polystyrene sphere)is a super-light closed particle which is stable,non-water-absorbent,and hydrophobic.It is used to replace the coarse and fine aggregates in concrete,and by adding an appropriate amount of fly ash,efficient air-entraining water-reducing agent and improving the production tech-nique,the cohesiveness between EPS particles and cement mortar is improved.According to requirements set be-fore the test,the light-weighted concrete with apparent density less than 500 kg/m3 and flexural strength larger than 1.5MPa is produced.Plates made of this light-weighted concrete could be applied to preventing the evaporation in reservoirs in inland arid plain areas.%内陆干旱区年蒸发量大,通过研制一种干硬后可漂浮于水面的轻质混凝土,后期将其制成板状结构覆盖于水库水体之上,将大大减少平原水库的无效蒸发,以期达到节水目的。EPS(聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料 Expanded polysty-rene sphere)是一种稳定的、不吸水的、憎水性的、封闭式的超轻颗粒,用以取代混凝土的粗集料和细集料,通过加入适量的粉煤灰、高效引气减水剂和对施工工艺的改良,可改善 EPS 颗粒与水泥浆体的黏结性,按照试验前事先制定好的要求,可制得表观密度<500 kg/m3、抗折强度>1.5 MPa的 EPS 轻质混凝土。该混凝土制成板可应用于内陆干旱区平原水库的防蒸发节水技术上。

  7. Response of Groundwater to Climate Change under Extreme Climate Conditions in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Jincui Wang; Jihong Jing; Jichao Sun

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the water shortage areas of China. Lack of water resources restricted the economic and social development of North China area and resulted in deterio-ration of ecosystem and natural environment. Influenced by the climate change and human activities, the water circulation of NCP was largely changed and the crisis of water resources was aggravated. Therefore, it is important to study the features of the extreme climate and the response mechanism of groundwater to climate change. We analyzed the trend of climate change and extreme climate features in the past 60 years based on the monitoring data of meteorological stations. And then the response characteristics of groundwater to climate change were discussed. The average temperature of NCP was in an obviously upward trend. The overall precipitation variation was in a downward trend. The cli-mate change in this area showed a warming-drying trend. The intensity of extreme precipitation dis-played a trend of declining and then increasing from north to south as well as declining from eastern coastal plain to the piedmont plain. Grey correlation degree analysis indicated that groundwater depth had a close relationship with precipitation and human activities in NCP. The response of groundwater level to precipitation differed from the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain to the coastal plain. The response was more obvious in the coastal plain than the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain and the middle plain. The precipitation influenced the groundwater depth both directly and indirectly. Under the condition of extreme precipitation, the impact would aggravate, in the forms of rapid or lag raise of groundwater levels.

  8. Hydrologic Controls On Methylmercury Availability In Coastal Plain Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P. M.; Brigham, M. E.; Burns, D. A.; Button, D. T.; Lutz, M. A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Riva-Murray, K.; Journey, C.

    2011-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) in streams is often attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas, with episodic flood events maximizing wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity and dominating MeHg supply to the stream habitat. A number of studies have demonstrated that Coastal Plain streams in the southeastern United States are particularly vulnerable to high MeHg bioaccumulation and have attributed this vulnerability to wetland abundance and strong hydrologic connectivity between wetland areas and adjacent stream aquatic habitat. Because characteristically coarse-grained Coastal Plain sediments favor vertical infiltration with little surface runoff, flood events attributable to Coastal Plain precipitation are driven by rising groundwater, promoting efficient transport of MeHg from wetland/floodplain source areas to the stream habitat and increasing in-stream availability. Several observations at McTier Creek, South Carolina, however, suggest that good hydrologic connectivity and efficient MeHg transport in Coastal Plain systems are not limited to flood conditions. Close correspondence between stream and shallow-groundwater water levels at McTier indicate good hydrologic connectivity exists prior to flood conditions. Dissolved MeHg concentrations do not increase under flood conditions. Thus, we assessed the flux of water and dissolved mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) from surface water and groundwater sources in a short reach at McTier Creek during separate events in April and July 2009, to determine the importance of shallow groundwater Hg transport from floodplain areas to the stream under non-flood conditions. Mass balance assessments indicated that, under non-flood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface-water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric deposition. The results indicate efficient transport of

  9. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  10. Planetary plains: subsidence and warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G.

    fabric of oceanic floors. Short, medium wave undulations of Pacific's floor (A. Cazenave et al., 1992; D. McAdoo & K. Marks, 1992) present lineations underlining its whole shape. NE lineations predominate on its northern sub-basin, NW lineations on its southern one. They cross at the equatorial zone and together with some other directions give a pattern resembling that observed on the venusian surface. The venusian regional plains typically deformed by wrinkle ridges show interesting similarities to volcanic plains on the Moon and Mars [3]. A subsidence along with warpings can squeeze out some "superfluous" material to surface through planetary scale fissures. This material builds mid-oceanic ridges and huge Hawaii volcano. The Cassini Regio on Iapetus is crossed in the equatorial plain by the dark ridge in some places high 20 km. References: [1] Kochemasov G. G. (2004) Mars and Earth: two dichotomies - one cause. In Workshop on "Hemispheres 1 apart: the origin and modification of the martian crustal dichotomy", LPI Contribution # 1203, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, p. 37. [2] Kochemasov G.G.(1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr. v.1, #3, p.700 . [3] Basilevsky A.T., Head J.W. (2006) Impact craters on regional plains in Venus: Age relations with wrinkle ridges and implications for the geological evolution of Venus // JGR, v.111, EO3006, doi: 10.1029/2005JE002473, 2006. 2

  11. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  12. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  13. [Risk assessment of quaternary groundwater contamination in Beijing Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gao-Xuan; Li, Yu; Xu, Liang; Li, Zhi-Ping; Yang, Qing; Xu, Miao-Juan

    2014-02-01

    Firstly, advances in investigation and evaluation of groundwater pollution in China in the last decade were presented, and several issues in the field which hinder the development of groundwater environment were pointed out. Then, four key concepts in risk assessment of groundwater pollution were briefly described with more emphasis on the difference between groundwater pollution assessment and groundwater quality assessment in this paper. After that, a method on risk assessment of groundwater pollution which included four indicators, the pollution assessment, the quality assessment, the vulnerability and the pollution load of groundwater, was presented based on the regional characteristics of Beijing Plain. Also, AHP and expert scoring method were applied to determine the weight of the four evaluation factors. Finally, the application of this method in Beijing Plain showed the area with high, relative high, medium, relative low and low risk of groundwater contamination was 1 232.1 km2, 699.3 km2, 1 951.4 km, 2 644 km2, and 133.2 km2, respectively. The study results showed that the higher risk in the western region was likely caused by the higher pollution load and its higher vulnerability, while the relatively high risk in the southeast of Beijing plain area, the Tongzhou District, is mainly caused by historical pollution sources.

  14. 土地整治项目中生态服务价值损益研究--基于平原、丘陵、山区的实证对比%Gains and Losses of Ecosystem Services Value in Land Consolidation Proj ects:Based on Comparisons of Plains,Hills and Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余强; 王占岐; 杨俊

    2014-01-01

    Selecting a typical case respectively from land consolidation proj ects in plains,hills,mountainous areas and estimating the gains and losses of ecosystem services value caused by land consolidation proj ects can provide a quantitative reference for the decision-making of land consolidation and help to achieve the sustainable goal of land consolidation.The research shows that the loss of ecosystem services value in plains is 70.77 × 104 yuan per year,with water conservation and food production value increasing slightly and all the other function value decreasing to different degrees;that the loss of ecosystem services value in hills is 56.59×104 yuan per year,of which waste disposal and water conservation function value loss account for 95.56%;and that ecosystem services value in mountainous areas increases 10.42×104 yuan per year,with only biodiversity and entertainment culture function value slightly decreasing.There is a serious problem of transforming ecological environment to more cultivated land in plains and hills.Land consolidation proj ects should be more eco-friendly and a reasonable mechanism for ecological compensation should be established immediately.%分别从平原区、丘陵区、山区三大地貌类型区中各选取一个土地整治项目作为典型案例,估算由土地整治项目实施而引起的生态系统服务价值的损益。研究表明:平原区项目总生态服务价值损失70.77万元/a,除水源涵养和食物生产两项功能价值略有增加外,其余项功能价值均出现不同程度的减小;丘陵区项目总生态服务价值损失56.59万元/a,其中废物处理和水源涵养功能价值损失占总损失的95.56%;山区项目总生态服务价值增加10.42万元/a,除生物多样性和娱乐文化功能价值略有减小之外,其他各项功能价值都有所增加。平原区和丘陵区存在严重的“以生态环境换新增耕地”问题。土地整治项目应向生态友好型转变,合理的

  15. Identification of thick sedimentary plains north of Hellas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salese, Francesco; Mangold, Nicolas; Ansan, Veronique; Carter, John; Ody, Anouck; Poulet, François; Ori, Gian Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the origin and timing of intercrater plains is crucial to understand the Martian history in relation with endogenic and/or exogenic cycles. Intercrater plains north of Hellas basin on Mars are thought to have hosted different sedimentary environments during the Late Noachian/Early Hesperian, and they offer a well-preserved insight into the regional geological history of Mars. Our new geologic mapping of the intercrater plains north of Hellas Basin is based on the rich data set from MRO and Mars Express and provides new insights into the region's geological history. These findings appear to constrain the interpretation of the nature and age of intercrater plains in this region, although we acknowledge that for example the source of the sedimentary deposits must be subject to further analysis. The northern part of Hellas basin displays topographically flat area, which was characterized during the Late Noachian by sedimentary deposition and later, in the Late Hesperian, by fissural volcanism. The map and crater retention ages enable us to interpret the geologic history of the region. The stratigraphically lower unit is represented by crustal outcrops. Across most of the region, the sedimentary unit covers the basement and is eroded into mesas, erosional windows and perched by fresh craters. Intercrater plains' sedimentary deposits north of Hellas display horizontal light-toned layered rich in Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates and local crossbedding stratification. The Noachian sedimentary deposits of the intercrater plains north of Hellas are locally covered by Hesperian lava flows, showing that intercrater plains are sedimentary and volcanic in origin. We found different erosional (regional and local) surfaces, at HiRISE scale inside sediments due to local erosional windows and at CTX scale we found two important regional erosional surfaces. The oldest between crustal outcrops and sediments, which is likely Middle Noachian in age and the youngest between sediments

  16. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  17. Survey of groundwater chemical pollution in the Borazjan plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Mozafarizadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrate due to its high water solubility, poor absorption and having stable composition in the water, has been studied as the best index to indicate groundwater contamination. Borazjan, located in the north of Bushehr province, is one of fertile plains which nitrate contamination of groundwater has occurred in the most parts of it. Detecting the source of pollution and the most vulnerable areas were the aims of this study. Material and Methods: In this study, hydrochemical quality, especially in terms of nitrate, sulfate, chloride sodium, spatial and temporal variations and the origin of them in the groundwater of Borazjan plain, are studied. Groundwater samples from 12 wells were collected in April and August 2012 and assessed to determine the parameters of hydrochemistry and pollution. Results: Based on these results, severe nitrate contamination of groundwater, especially in the southern part of the plain, by agricultural activities, cesspool wells, domestic sewage and livestock and poultry wastewater the influence of the effluent from the aviculture, were occurred. Also, the quality of groundwater resources showed that concentration of Cl- , Na+, SO42- , and NO3- are more than standard limit and only in some areas of plain, concentration of ions such as NO3- and Na+ is less than the standard limit. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, using chemical fertilizers in terms of time period and amount of consumption should be properly managed. Furthermore, domestic wastewater, livestock and poultry wastewater should be controlled and the monitoring system for measuring the exact quantity and quality of groundwater resources must be completed.

  18. Impact of Irrigated Agroecosystems on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains and North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Longuevergne, L.; Cao, G.; Shen, Y.; Gates, J. B.; Reedy, R. W.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    Overabstraction of groundwater for irrigation in semiarid regions is depleting the worlds’ largest aquifers at much greater rates than these aquifers are being replenished by recharge. This study evaluates groundwater sustainability in the US High Plains (US HP) and North China Plain (NCP) where intensive irrigation has resulted in large water table declines. A variety of approaches were used to evaluate impacts of irrigation on groundwater resources, including GRACE satellite data, unsaturated zone profiling, and groundwater quantity and quality data. Cultivation (40% of area) and irrigation (12%) are less intensive in the US HP than in the NCP (80% cultivated, 50% irrigated). Irrigation is estimated to consume ~97% of groundwater resources in the US HP and ~70% in the NCP. Although only ~10% of groundwater resources has been consumed in the US HP (330 km3 out of 3,900 km3), the problem lies in the uneven spatial distribution. Groundwater depletion is greatest in the Central High Plains (CHP) where water table declines of up to 1.5 m/yr have been recorded in individual wells and regional declines of up to 30 m have been found over a 7,000 km2 area since irrigation began in the 1950s to 1960s. This depletion indicates an irrigation deficit of ~75 mm/yr over 60 yr (specific yield 15%). Recharge rates in the CHP are extremely low (median ~10 mm/yr) with reductions in groundwater storage exceeding recharge by ~10 times. High correlations between GRACE and measured water storage changes (R = 0.7 - 0.8) show that the satellite can accurately track regional changes in water storage. Groundwater in the NCP has declined from a depth of ~1 m in the 1960s to 20 to 40 m in the Piedmont region since expansion of irrigation beginning in the 1970s. Groundwater level declines in individual hydrographs range from 0.5 to 1.0 m/yr, indicating irrigation deficits ranging from 100 to 200 mm/yr (specific yield 20%). Lower groundwater storage changes from GRACE satellites relative to

  19. Geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 8. Heat flow study of the Snake River Plain region, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brott, C.A.; Blackwell, D.D.; Mitchell, J.C.

    1976-09-01

    The Snake River Plain of Idaho has recent lava flows and a large number of thermal springs and wells. A heat flow study was initiated which, together with available geological and geophysical information, allows a better definition of the geothermal resource and evaluation of the geothermal potential. Local geothermal anomalies were not the objects of this study and have not been studied in detail. The quality of the heat flow values obtained varies as interpretation was necessary to determine geothermal gradients for many of the holes which had disturbances. A major problem in determining the heat flow values is the lack of knowledge of the in situ porosity of the rocks. The heat flow values obtained for the Eastern Snake River Plain are from shallow wells (< 200 m), hence the heat flow there is low (< 0.5 HFU) because of the water movement in the Snake Plain aquifer. The anomalous regional heat flow pattern around the Snake River Plain, together with other geophysical and geological data, suggest the presence of a major crustal heat source. With the exception of the area of the Snake Plain aquifer, high geothermal gradients were found in all areas of southern Idaho (40 to 100/sup 0/C/km). Temperatures hot enough for space heating can be found most anywhere in the Plain at relatively shallow depths (1 to 2 km). Temperatures hot enough for electrical power generation (200/sup 0/C) can be found beneath southern Idaho almost anywhere at depths of 3 to 4 kilometers. The Plain is fault bounded and hot water circulating along the fault zones from depths can be a very important geothermal resource at shallow depths. The margins of the Plain have the highest heat flow values, are the most faulted, and have possibly the highest geothermal resource potential.

  20. The geology of the Madeira Abyssal Plain: further studies relevant to its suitability for radioactive waste disposal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Searle, R.C; Williams, S.R.J; Huggett, Q.J; Rothwell, R.G; Schultheiss, P.J; Weaver, P.P.E

    1987-01-01

    .... The history of the selection and investigation of vareious study sites in the North Atlantic is briefly summarised leading to the selection of the Great Meteor East area in the Madeira Abyssal Plain...

  1. Application of InSAR and GIS techniques to ground subsidence assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Minxue; Fukuyama, Kaoru; Sanga-Ngoie, Kazadi

    Spatial variation and temporal changes in ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain, Central Japan, are assessed using GIS techniques and ground level measurements data taken over this area since the 1970s...

  2. A pilot study to conduct a freshwater fish inventory of small tundra ponds on the Bristol Bay Coastal Plain, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — State-owned lands on the Bristol Bay coastal plain in southwest Alaska have been opened for oil and gas exploration. This area encompasses numerous small lakes and...

  3. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the

  4. 京冀平原区不同类型农户耕地利用研究%Research on Different Types of Farm Household Cultivated Land Use in Jinji Plain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠珍; 孔祥斌

    2012-01-01

    Farmer households were divided into three group types in the light of their preference for grain or monetary production capacity, the succession relation between household group types and their land use objectives in different phases was discussed. The land use characteristic of each group type was discussed, taking Daxing County, Haidian County in Beijing, and Quzhou County in Hebei Province as study areas with household survey carried out in 2008. The results indicated that:1 In metropolitan suburb, households preferring for grain productivity and profit accounts for more than 40 percent, and approximately 50 percent of households have transformed into the type of demanding for profit; in Situan, Quzhou, farm households shows great preference of grain productivity and profit at the same time; by comparatively, Haidian is the closest district to the city center, households type here show diversification, especially about one third households pay more attention to farmland security function because of lower land stability. 2 During the households transition from the type of demanding for grain productivity to the type of preferring grain productivity and profit simultaneously, or from the formers to the type of demanding for profit, planting structure u-sually shows decrease in grain crop sown area and increase in cash crop sown area, and farmers' agricultural income is increasing step by step. 3The production function regression results of different household types shows that: farmland size has limited farmer income increase to some extent, and household type of preferring grain productivity and profit simultaneously and type of demanding for profit are all prone to labor-intensity crops and intensive land use pattern. Research on household land use from the prospective of household types would favor the study of land use change driving mechanism.%从农户对粮食生产能力和价值生产能力偏好的角度对农户进行群体分类,分析不同时期农

  5. Whillans Ice Plain Stick Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, B.; Dunham, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Concern about future sea level rise motivates the study of fast flowing ice. The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) region of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is notable for decelerating from previously fast motion during the instrumental record. Since most ice flux in Antarctica occurs through ice streams, understanding the conditions that cause ice stream stagnation is of basic importance in understanding the continent's contribution to future sea level rise. Although recent progress has been made in understanding the relationship between basal conditions and ice stream motion, direct observation of the temporal variation in subglacial conditions during ice stream stagnation has remained elusive. The Whillans Ice Plain flows to the sea mostly by way of stick-slip motion. We present numerical simulations of this stick-slip motion that capture the inertial dynamics, seismic waves, and the evolution of sliding with rate- and state-dependent basal friction. Large scale stick-slip behavior is tidally modulated and encompasses the entire WIP. Sliding initiates within one of several locked regions and then propagates outward with low average rupture velocity (~ 200 m/s). Sliding accelerates over a period of 200 s attain values as large as 65 m/d. From Newton's second law, this acceleration is ~ T / (rho H) for average shear stress drop T, ice thickness H, and ice density rho. This implies a 3 Pa stress drop that must be reconciled with the final stress drop of 300 Pa inferred from the total slip and fault dimensions. A possible explanation of this apparent discrepancy is that deceleration of the ice is associated with a substantial decrease in traction within rate-strengthening regions of the bed. During these large-scale sliding events, m-scale patches at the bed produce rapid (20 Hz) stick-slip motion. Each small event occurs over ~ 1/100 s, produces ~ 40 microns of slip, and gives rise to a spectacular form of seismic tremor. Variation between successive tremor episodes allows us

  6. Quantifying production potential of winter wheat in the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, D.; Yu, Q.; Lu, C.; Hengsdijk, H.

    2006-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the major winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) producing areas in China. Current wheat yields in the NCP stabilize around 5 Mg ha¿1 while the demand for wheat in China is growing due to the increase in population and the change in diet. Since options for area exp

  7. Ecological and zoogeographical significance of terrestrial isopods from the Carei Plain natural reserve (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupsa Diana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Carei Plain natural reserve we identified 15 terrestrial isopod species: Haplophthalmus mengii, Haplophthalmus danicus, Hyloniscus riparius, Hyloniscus transsylvanicus, Plathyarthrus hoffmannseggii, Cylisticus convexus, Porcellionides pruinosus, Protracheoniscus politus, Trachelipus arcuatus, Trachelipus nodulosus, Trachelipus rathkii, Porcellium collicola, Porcellio scaber, Armadillidium vulgare and Armadillidium versicolor. The highest species diversity is found in wetlands, while the lowest is in plantations and forests. On the Carei Plain, there are some terrestrial isopods that are normally connected with higher altitudes. Moreover, some sylvan species are present in the open wetlands. Unlike marshes, sand dunes present anthropophilic and invasive species. The diversity of the terrestrial isopods from the Carei Plain protected area is high due to the habitats’ diversity and the history of this area. Thus, the composition of the terrestrial isopod communities from the area underlines its distinct particularities, emphasizing the necessity of preserving the natural habitats.

  8. 浅谈蓟县低山平原区耕地和基本农田保护的问题及对策%Problems and Countermeasures of the Protection of Low Mountainous and Plain Areas Cultivated Land and Basic Farmland in Jixian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵霞; 朱彤

    2013-01-01

    Food?security?is?the?most?important?problem?relate?to?human?existence?and?development.?Food?security?is?always?a?primary?task?for?us.?Therefore,?the?protection?of?cultivated?land,?the?construction?of?high?standard?farmland?is?particularly?important.?Jixian?of?the?only?Mountain?Area?in?Tianjin?was?taken?as?research?subjects?in?the?paper.?Based?on?the?analysis?of?the?main?problems?existing?in?the?utilization?of?cultivated?land,?according?to?the?shortage?of?untouched?arable?land?resources?in?the?low?mountainous?and?plain?areas,?we?must?break?the?traditional?mode?for?the?protection?of?cultivated?land?and?basic?farmland.?At?the?same?time,?we?should?set?up?the?new?mechanism?in?the?quantity,?quality?and?ecological?management?for?protecting?arable?land?resources.%粮食安全问题是关系到人类生存和经济社会发展的重大问题,始终是治国安邦的头等大事。因此,保护耕地、建设高标准基本农田显得尤为重要。本文选取天津市唯一山区蓟县为研究对象,?在分析该地耕地资源利用存在问题的基础上,针对低山平原区耕地后备资源紧缺情况,?提出耕地与基本农田保护必须要打破传统模式,建立以耕地保护数量管控、质量管理和生态管护的新机制。

  9. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44...

  10. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  11. Analysis on pattern and influence factors of rural settlements in grain main production area of Songnen Plain%松嫩平原粮食主产区农村居民点格局及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂施璇; 雷国平; 宋戈

    2016-01-01

    degree of mechanization of agriculture in main grain producing areas reached more than 85%, so this organization did not adapt to the development of agricultural productivity and the life of internal residents. 2) Kernel density peak value of rural settlements was 1.58/km2, kernel density of rural settlements in grain main production area of Songnen Plain ranged from 0.14 to 2.30 /km2, the overall distribution density of rural settlements was relatively low, and the scale presented globally low clustering spatial distribution, being consistent with the characteristics of main grain producing areas. Rural settlements in Keshan Town, north of Shuanghe and Kubei Town, northeast Xianghua Town, and middle part of Beixing and Henan Town showed a characteristic of small clustering spatial distribution, while the partial regions in Xilian, Xihe, Fazhan, Xijian Town and Keshan Farm as well as the sporadic regions in Gucheng, Xianghua and Beilian Town presented a feature of high agglomeration spatial distribution. 3) Scale distribution characteristics of rural settlements presented a trend, namely“low altitude hilly areaplain areaplain area took on a small clustering spatial distribution characteristic, the rural settlements in hilly area had a spatial distribution characteristic of high density, small concentration and low density mass concentration, and the rural settlements in diluvia mesa area had a characteristic of big scale spatial distribution and clustering. 4) Topography was the formation basis of initial location of the rural residential areas. But with the transformation of social economy, the improvement of agricultural productivity had a more obvious effect on rural settlement pattern adjustment in major grain producing areas. In location factors, the influence of urban radiation on settlement pattern was limited to a certain range. Traffic significantly changed the local spatial

  12. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  13. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  14. Estimated historical distribution of grassland communities of the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Gordon C.; Manier, Daniel J.; Carr, Natasha B.; Callan, Ramana; Leinwand, Ian I.F.; Assal, Timothy J.; Burris, Lucy; Ignizio, Drew A.

    2016-12-07

    The purpose of this project was to map the estimated distribution of grassland communities of the Southern Great Plains prior to Euro-American settlement. The Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA), under the direction of the Bureau of Land Management and the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative, includes four ecoregions: the High Plains, Central Great Plains, Southwestern Tablelands, and the Nebraska Sand Hills. The REA advisors and stakeholders determined that the mapping accuracy of available national land-cover maps was insufficient in many areas to adequately address management questions for the REA. Based on the recommendation of the REA stakeholders, we estimated the potential historical distribution of 10 grassland communities within the Southern Great Plains project area using data on soils, climate, and vegetation from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) including the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) and Ecological Site Information System (ESIS). The dominant grassland communities of the Southern Great Plains addressed as conservation elements for the REA area are shortgrass, mixed-grass, and sand prairies. We also mapped tall-grass, mid-grass, northwest mixed-grass, and cool season bunchgrass prairies, saline and foothill grasslands, and semi-desert grassland and steppe. Grassland communities were primarily defined using the annual productivity of dominant species in the ESIS data. The historical grassland community classification was linked to the SSURGO data using vegetation types associated with the predominant component of mapped soil units as defined in the ESIS data. We augmented NRCS data with Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE) Biophysical Settings classifications 1) where NRCS data were unavailable and 2) where fifth-level watersheds intersected the boundary of the High Plains ecoregion in Wyoming. Spatial data representing the estimated historical distribution of

  15. Assessment of organic pollution and study on pollution cause of groundwater in the plain area of Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang%新疆焉耆盆地平原区地下水有机污染评价及污染成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵江涛; 周金龙; 高业新; 栾风娇; 李巧; 杜明亮

    2016-01-01

    在新疆焉耆盆地平原区采集了42组地下水样品和10组地表水样品,首次将有机污染物纳入检测项目,检测有机污染物共计39项.对所有水样测试结果的统计显示:焉耆盆地平原区地下水中检出的有机污染物共有3种,分别是三氯甲烷、1,2-二氯乙烷和1,2-二氯苯,检出率分别为30.95%、2.38%和2.38%,检出的三项有机污染物含量均低于饮用水标准.通过多介质污染评价系统进行有机污染评价,各有机污染物检出点不会对环境造成明显危害.在焉耆盆地平原区不同的土地利用类型有机污染物检出率不同,检出率为牧草地>耕地>建设用地;检出的14组地下水有机污染物大部分分布在包气带岩性为亚黏土与亚砂土区域,其余分布在包气带岩性为砂砾石区域;地表水采样点中只有B03(开都河)检测出微量的三氯甲烷,地下水中检出的有机污染物不是来自于地表水的补给.%In order to acquire the current status of groundwater quality in the plain area of Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, 42 groundwater and 10 surface water samples were collected according to the relating requirements and standards. The detection of organic pollutants in the study area was the first time and totally come to 39 testing items. The samples were analyzed by qualified laboratories. The investigation results showed that there were three organic contaminants detected in groundwater. Among these compounds, detection rate of trichloromethane, 1, 2-dichloroethane and 1, 2-dichlorobenzene were 30.95%, 2.38% and 2.38%, respectively. Content of the three compounds did not exceed the drinking water standards. The organic pollution assessment results showed that in the plain area of Yanqi Basin the organic pollutants were not to do harm to environment. Detection rate of the groundwater organic pollutants of the different land use types were grassplot > cultivated land > construction land. Most of the 14 detection points of

  16. Analysis of developing non-timber forest products of Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tong; ZHOU Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is a vast area of alluvial floodplains and low hills in northeast Heilongjiang Province. Because of the excessive land reclamation in the past, the whole forest area and the quality have decreased. In the view of sustainable development, this paper analyzed the possibilities for Non-timber Forest Product in terms of developing potentialities, markets, social effects and the status of NTFPs in several counties of Sanjiang Plain. The result showed that, active development and management for NTFPs is an optimistic option to how to balance the wetlands conservation and sustainable economic development.

  17. Deposition of radiocesium on the river flood plains around Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Ohyama, Takuya; Iijima, Kazuki; Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Hagiwara, Hiroki

    2016-11-01

    The environment in the area around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has been contaminated by widely deposited significant amount of radioactive materials, which were released to the atmosphere caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011. The radiocesium released in the accident mainly affects radiation dose in the environment. Decontamination work in the contaminated area except a mountain forests has been conducted to decrease the radiation dose. However, there are concerns that the redistribution of this radiation due to water discharge will occur due to the resulting transport of radiocesium. In particular, the deposition of soil particles containing radiocesium on the flood plains in the downstream areas of Fukushima's rivers can potentially increase the local radiation dose. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of the deposition behavior of radiocesium on the radiation dose. Investigations of rivers have been performed to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms by which radiocesium is deposited on these flood plains. It was found that the spatial distribution of the radiocesium concentration on the flood plain along the river is heterogeneous with a dependence on the depositional condition and that the number of points with high air dose rates is limited. In detail, the radiocesium concentration and air dose rates in flood channels are higher than those at the edges of the river channels. Based on these heterogeneity and hydrological events, the deposition and transport mechanisms of the radiocesium due to water discharge at rivers were also interpreted, and a conceptual model was constructed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  19. Water-level changes and change in water in storage in the High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2013 and 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2014-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (about 175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area (about 1950). This report presents water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (generally before 1950) to 2013 and from 2011 to 2013. The report also presents change in water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2013 and from 2011 to 2013.

  20. 基于风险分析的三江平原灌区多水源联合调度方案优化决策研究%Study on the Water Joint Operation Scheme Optimization in Sanjiang Plain Irrigation Area Based on Risk Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红光; 李晨洋; 李晓丹

    2013-01-01

    In order to mitigate lack of water caused by excessive exploitation of groundwater in Rice irrigation area of Sanjiang Plain,multi-resources scheduling model was developed with regard to a goal of minimizing exploitation of underground water,and the matlab toolbox was used to solve,satisfy different constraints of multi-resources scheduling scheme in irrigation district.At the same time,the risk identification,risk estimate and sophisticated calculation for uncertainty factors in the presence of program running were carried out in order to realize the risk case selection,and the combined water scheduling optimization scheme of the zone was determined.The results can be used as a reference for decision making management.%针对三江平原水稻灌区因缺水而造成的地下水超采问题,以开采地下水量最小为目标建立多水源联合调度模型,并利用matlab工具箱进行求解,确定满足不同约束条件的灌区多水源联合调度方案.同时,对方案运行存在的不确定性因素进行风险考究判别、风险损失估计与计算,以实现风险情况下的方案优选,确定该区多水源联合调度的优化方案,其结果可为决策管理部门提供参考.

  1. Groundwater Modeling of the Texas High Plains using Modflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J. E.; Gowda, P. H.; Misra, D.; Marek, T.; Howell, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and calibrate a groundwater model for a 4-county area in the Texas High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer Region. This study is a major component of a comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes. A comprehensive geographic information system (GIS) database was developed for this purpose that included a recent land cover map. This 2008 land cover map was developed using Landsat satellite imagery with ground-truth points for Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties in Texas. Other GIS layers included aquifer elevation contours, surficial geology, hydraulic conductivity contours, saturated thickness areas, well locations and piezometric heads, aquifer discharge and recharge areas, topography, hydrographic data, ecological regions, and soil type data. The hydrologic simulations were done using MODFLOW. Anticipated outcomes from this modeling effort include the effect of change in land use/land cover on sustainability of the aquifer life in the study region. Our results will be used to develop strategies to conserve groundwater in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath Central High Plains and improve regional water planning.

  2. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: Implications for aquifer susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Spruill, T.B.; Eimers, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O2) and nitrate (NO 3-) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (psampled), however concentrations were typically low (water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone.

  3. Geohazards (floods and landslides) in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotchoko, Pierre; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Itiga, Zénon; Nkouathio, David Guimolaire; Guedjeo, Christian Suh; Ngnoupeck, Gerald; Dongmo, Armand Kagou; Wandji, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually) and landslides (occasionally) occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people) tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide) maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered. The hazard maps revealed that 25% of the area is exposed to flood hazard (13% exposed to high flood hazard, 12% to moderate) and 5% of the area is exposed to landslide hazard (2% exposed to high landslide hazard, 3% to moderate). Some mitigation measures for floods (building of artificial levees, raising foundations of buildings and the meticulous regulation of the flood guards at Bamendjing Dam) and landslides (slope terracing, planting of trees, and building retaining walls) are proposed.

  4. Study on the variation of arsenic concentration in groundwater and chemical characteristics of arsenic in sediment cores at the areas with endemic arsenic poison disease in Jianghan Plain%江汉平原地方性砷中毒病区地下水砷含量变化及沉积物砷化学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周素华; 叶恒朋; 李明健; 熊培生; 杜冬云; 王靖文

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解江汉平原地方性砷中毒(地砷病)病区地下水砷含量变化,探讨该区域高砷水赋存环境、地下水系统砷的来源.方法 在湖北省仙桃市和洪湖市分别以地砷病患者家为中心点,在3km半径内各采集30份地下水样品和3个地质钻孔沉积物样芯;水砷含量比较采用配对t检验或配对符号秩和检验进行分析.结果 仙桃市南洪村2011-2012年水砷浓度低于2006-2007年(t=4.645 3,P<0.000 1),洪湖市姚河村2011-2012年水砷浓度高于2006-2007年(S=-150,P<0.000 1);高砷水呈弱酸、弱氧化性,水砷浓度与水样C1-、HCO3-、Fe、Mn浓度正相关,与水样SO42-、NO3-浓度负相关;研究区沉积物中砷浓度为1.500~ 17.289mg/kg,砷含量最大值均出现在泥土层,最小值均出现在沙层.结论 江汉平原地砷病病区高砷水砷含量的时空间变化程度较大,与中国山西大同盆地、山阴地区、内蒙古河套平原等原生高砷水地区有明显差异,为典型的高砷水赋存环境;研究区沉积物样品中砷含量与岩性结构有密切关系.%Objective To understand the variation of arsenic concentration in underground water at the endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain so as to better understand the spatial distribution of high arsenic groundwater,hydro-chemical evolution and source of arsenic in this region.Methods Thirty underground water samples were collected respectively around 3 km radius of the two houses where arsenic poisoning patients lived,in Xiantao and Honghu.Sediment cores of three drillings were collected as well.Both paired t-test or paired Wilcoxon Signed Ranking Test were used to compare the arsenic concentration of water.Results The arsenic concentration in 2011-2012 appeared lower than that in 2006-2007 at the Nanhong village of Xiantao (t=4.645 3,P<0.000 1),but was higher(S=-150,P<0.000 1) in the Yaohe village of Honghu.The pH value showed weak acidity with Eh as weak oxidated

  5. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  6. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis includes all major aquifer systems in Cenozoic deposits in the Gulf Coastal Plain in the States of Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, and small areas in Alabama and Florida (western panhandle area), an area of about 290,000 square miles. The Gulf Coast geosyncline and the Mississippi embayment were the major depocenters for the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that form the framework for the aquifer systems.

  7. Reconstruction of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Chiara; Cimolino, Aurelie; Cucchi, Franco; Deana, Alberto; Treu, Francesco; Zini, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The constantly increasing of water demand for human consumptions has necessitated a reconstruction of the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties as well isotopic features of the aquifers of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain (FP). The DiSGAM and DICA have been engaged by the Hydraulic Survey of the FVG Region in order to coordinate an integrated study finalized to the FP confined and unconfined aquifer geometries reconstruction and to provide guide-lines for water rational exploitation (Agreement D.G.R. n. 1827 dd. 27.07.2007). The Friuli Venezia Giulia Plain, located in the northeastern sector of Italy, hosts well developed Plio-Quaternary unconfined and confined alluvial aquifers. The main surface drainage of the Plain is the Tagliamento River. The regional hydrogeological situation is characterized in the north by an extensive alluvial unconfined aquifer mostly contained in carbonate gravels. This area extends from the Pre-Alps to the resurgence belt. The resurgence belt is 2 to 8 km wide and 80 kilometres long. In this area the water table intersects the topographic surface forming numerous plain springs and rivers. The resurgence belt sets a geohydrological boundary between the Upper and Lower Friulian Plain. In this strip the unconfined aquifer changes into a multi-layered confined that reach a thickness of up to 500 m with a progressive increase in a westward direction towards the Adriatic Sea. In order to define underground aquifer relations and patterns, more than 1800 stratigraphic columns have been collected from different public departments water well database. Well logs have been georeferred, missing elevations calculated by regional DTM, possible correspondences controlled and datasets updated. In order to better correlate spatial data, an unique implemented lithostratigraphy legend has been created from present different ones; it is composed of: Lithological Entries (relating lithology and granulometric features; permeability linked different

  8. A Study on the Driving Factors of Food Production in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain Based on Path Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqi; LIU; Jiazhen; LIU; Jinping; ZHANG; Yongjin; CHEN; Mengchen; XU; Chengxiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    The effects of 14 factors on food production in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain are analyzed by path analysis in this paper,and then the linear regression models of them are established by SPSS software. The results show that electricity consumption for agriculture,growing area of crops,the affected area,annual average temperature and arable land area at the end of the year have great effects on food production. Finally some recommendations are put forward to improve the food production in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain such as improving the level of agricultural mechanization,stabilizing food production,preventing natural disasters and increasing the effective irrigation area.

  9. 关东大地震对东京市财政的影响%The Influence of the Great Kanto Earthquake on Public Finance of the City of Tokyo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小鹏

    2015-01-01

    1923年发生的关东大地震给日本带来惨重损失。作为主要受灾地,东京市1⃝的经济遭到沉重打击,在财政方面体现得尤为明显。地震造成东京市社会财富严重受损,财政收入缩减。而灾后的应急救援和城市重建却需要依靠大量财政资金,财政支出增多。对此,东京市财政力所不逮,只能依靠政府债务完成东京城市复兴事业,但累积债务也成为此后阻碍东京市经济发展的关键因素。%The Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923 was a holocaust for Japan where economy of Tokyo especially the finance of Tokyo suffered a critical hit. The disaster hit numerous social resource and the revenue greatly reduced. The disaster relief and reconstruction relied much on the financial funds and the fiscal expenditure increased. The financial capacity of Tokyo was therefore limited. Taking debt to recover from the disaster was the only way to cope with the Capital Reconstruction Project, and debt was one of the factors to hinder the economic development of Tokyo for the future.

  10. Drought Assessment in the Moldavian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Liviu Ioan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Moldavian Plain, located in the North-Eastern part of Romania, has a temperate-continental climate with a nuance of excessivity in the precipitation regime. This paper aims to analyse droughts in the Moldavian Plain for the period 1961-2010, by using a classical method - the de Martonne Aridity Index, and two other less known indices developed in Romania and the Republic of Moldova. Among these indices, the Dry Spells Index demonstrates a increasing frequency of dry years in recent decades.

  11. Whooping crane stopover site use intensity within the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David A.; Harrell, Wade C.; Metzger, Kristine L.; Baasch, David M.; Hefley, Trevor J.

    2015-09-23

    Whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas-Wood Buffalo population migrate twice each year through the Great Plains in North America. Recovery activities for this endangered species include providing adequate places to stop and rest during migration, which are generally referred to as stopover sites. To assist in recovery efforts, initial estimates of stopover site use intensity are presented, which provide opportunity to identify areas across the migration range used more intensively by whooping cranes. We used location data acquired from 58 unique individuals fitted with platform transmitting terminals that collected global position system locations. Radio-tagged birds provided 2,158 stopover sites over 10 migrations and 5 years (2010–14). Using a grid-based approach, we identified 1,095 20-square-kilometer grid cells that contained stopover sites. We categorized occupied grid cells based on density of stopover sites and the amount of time cranes spent in the area. This assessment resulted in four categories of stopover site use: unoccupied, low intensity, core intensity, and extended-use core intensity. Although provisional, this evaluation of stopover site use intensity offers the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and partners a tool to identify landscapes that may be of greater conservation significance to migrating whooping cranes. Initially, the tool will be used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other interested parties in evaluating the Great Plains Wind Energy Habitat Conservation Plan.

  12. Geotechinical properties of Ariake clay in Saga plain - Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamehchiyan, M.; Iwao, Y. [Saga Univ., Saga (Japan)

    1994-12-21

    Saga plain, a lowland of less than 5 meters above mean sea level with an area of about 400 square kilometers, lies in north of Ariake Sea (western area of Chikugo river) in Kyushu, Japan. The tidal range of the Ariake Sea is about 6 meters with a mean high water level of 2.89 meters. Therefore, several dikes are constructed to prevent flooding during heavy rainfalls. The thickness of the soft Ariake clay is generally about 10 to 20 meters with a maximum value of 30 meters. It is attempted to discuss the geotechnical properties of Ariake clay up to the depth of 20 meters by using the data of 110 exploratory boreholes drilled in different places of Saga plain. Simple regression analysis is adopted between physical properties such as void ratio, e, natural water content, total unite weight, and consistency limits. Various regression models are developed to estimate unconfined compressive strength, compression index C{sub r}, compression ratio, which is equal to C{sub c}/(1+e) and preconsolidation pressure, from more easily determinable soil index properties. 14 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Participatory rural appraisal to assess groundwater resources in Al-Mujaylis, Tihama Coastal Plain, Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Qubatee, W.S.M.; Ritzema, H.P.; Al-Weshall, Adel; Steenbergen, van F.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    A participatory rural appraisal (PRA) conducted in the Al-Mujaylis area, Tihama Coastal Plain, Yemen provided a contribution, as a bottom-up approach, to the assessment of the needs of communities and their views on how to avoid groundwater degradation. It was found that PRA tools could be applied

  14. Reconstruction of an interrupted primary beach plain succession using a Geographical Information System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, A. van der; Grootjans, A.P.; de Jong, J.; Rozema, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on a primary succession on a beach plain on the Dutch Wadden island of Schiermonnikoog. Vegetation succession started in 1959 when a sand dike was constructed to prevent structural erosion of the area by storm floods. Since then the sandy beach behind the dike has been protected f

  15. Biomass of first and second rotation loblolly pine plantations in the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Gresham

    2006-01-01

    In the South Carolina Coastal Plain, intensive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation management, without fertilization, was sustainable through two rotations as measured by biomass accumulation. Fixed plot tree inventories and destructive tree sampling of first and second rotation sections of the same plantations were used to produce area based...

  16. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  17. Widespread Plains Volcanism on Mercury Ended by 3.6 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Fassett, C.; Chapman, C. R.; Evans, A. J.; Klimczak, C.; Banks, M. E.; Head, J. W., III; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The largest volcanic plains deposits on Mercury are situated in its northern hemisphere and include the extensive northern smooth plains and the Caloris interior plains. Crater size-frequency analyses have shown that both deposits were emplaced around 3.8 Ga, for any of the published model production function (MPF) chronologies for impact crater formation on Mercury. The largest volcanic deposit in the southern hemisphere, the Rembrandt interior plains, has a model age of ~3.7 Ga. To test the hypothesis that all major volcanic smooth plains on Mercury were emplaced at about the same time, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for nine additional deposits (see Table 1). The diameters of craters that superpose the smooth plains at each site were measured with CraterTools, yielding crater areal densities in terms of N(10), the number of craters ≥10 km in diameter per 106 km2 area (Table 1). Our crater density measurements span N(10) values of 29-146, a range that encompasses corresponding values for the larger areas of smooth plains. With CraterStats, we fit our data (for craters ≥4 km in diameter) to the MPF chronologies of Le Feuvre and Wieczorek. For porous scaling, the model ages of all nine sites span a narrow window (Table 1). Non-porous scaling fails to match the crater size-frequency distributions. We show that widespread plains volcanism, likely the primary process by which Mercury's crust developed, had ended by 3.6 Ga. Younger volcanic deposits have been identified on the planet, but only within impact structures and at volumes much less than the smallest deposit considered here. Superposition relations between shortening landforms and craters on Mercury indicate that global contraction in response to interior cooling was underway by ~3.6 Ga. The cessation of widespread plains volcanism on Mercury may therefore reflect the onset of a stress state within the planet's lithosphere that inhibited magma ascent. Conversely, mantle thermochemical

  18. Geodatabase compilation of hydrogeologic, remote sensing, and water-budget-component data for the High Plains aquifer, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Natalie A.; Gonzales-Bradford, Sophia L.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Qi, Sharon L.; Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sohl, Terry L.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies almost 112 million acres in the central United States. It is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation in terms of annual groundwater withdrawals and provides drinking water for 2.3 million people. The High Plains aquifer has gained national and international attention as a highly stressed groundwater supply primarily because it has been appreciably depleted in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has an active program to monitor the changes in groundwater levels for the High Plains aquifer and has documented substantial water-level changes since predevelopment: the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study is part of a series of regional groundwater availability studies conducted to evaluate the availability and sustainability of major aquifers across the Nation. The goals of the regional groundwater studies are to quantify current groundwater resources in an aquifer system, evaluate how these resources have changed over time, and provide tools to better understand a systems response to future demands and environmental stresses. The purpose of this report is to present selected data developed and synthesized for the High Plains aquifer as part of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study includes the development of a water-budget-component analysis for the High Plains completed in 2011 and development of a groundwater-flow model for the northern High Plains aquifer. Both of these tasks require large amounts of data about the High Plains aquifer. Data pertaining to the High Plains aquifer were collected, synthesized, and then organized into digital data containers called geodatabases. There are 8 geodatabases, 1 file geodatabase and 7 personal geodatabases, that have been grouped in three categories: hydrogeologic data, remote sensing data, and water-budget-component data. The hydrogeologic data pertaining to the northern High Plains aquifer is included in three separate

  19. Chinese tallow: Invading the southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain.Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management.When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests.In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist.Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  20. A study of 36Cl age in Quaternary groundwater of Hebei plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炼; 刘存富; 姜山; 高山

    2001-01-01

    Chlorine-36 has various advantages as a dating tool for old groundwater. In this paper, 36CI of Quaternary groundwater in the Hebei plain of North China has been measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Ages calculated from the 36CI/CI ratio show that ion filtration, which is responsible for the CI- concentration increasing with depth and along flow paths in Hebei plain groundwater. It is concluded that 36CI age of the groundwater in the 3rd Group of the Quaternary (Q2) in the Cangzhou area is 250ka, and that of the 4th Group(Q1) is 300ka.

  1. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Anisimov, Anatolii

    2017-01-23

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  2. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1980 to 1995, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  3. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1995 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1995 to 2000, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  4. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2005 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2005 to 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  5. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2000 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2000 to 2005, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  6. Comprehensive assessments of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas; Heat shinku wo riyoshita daikibo reibo system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yoshikado, H.; Kondo, H.; Kaneho, N.; Saegusa, N.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Inoue, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the assessment method of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas. The heat island phenomena were classified into meso-scale with 100 km-scale, block-scale with several km-scale, and building-scale with 100 m-scale. Urban thermal environment simulation model was developed in response to each scale. For the development, regional data using aircraft and artificial satellite observations, surface observation and thermal environment observation at Shinjuku new central city of Tokyo, and artificial waste heat actual survey data in the southern Kanto district were utilized. Results of the urban thermal environment simulation were introduced as an application of this model. Temperature distributions of the heat island in the Kanto district were simulated with considering urban conditions near Tokyo and without considering it. Daily changes of wall surfaces of high buildings and road surface were calculated. Increase in the air temperature in the back stream of building roofs with increased temperature was determined. 4 figs.

  7. Accuracy of radiographer plain radiograph reporting in clinical practice: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brealey, S; Scally, A; Hahn, S; Thomas, N; Godfrey, C; Coomarasamy, A

    2005-02-01

    To determine the accuracy of radiographer plain radiograph reporting in clinical practice. Studies were identified from electronic sources and by hand searching journals, personal communication and checking reference lists. Eligible studies assessed radiographers' plain radiograph reporting in clinical practice compared with a reference standard, and provided accuracy data to construct 2 x 2 contingency tables. Data were extracted on study eligibility and characteristics, quality and accuracy. Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to pool the accuracy data. Radiographers compared with a reference standard, report plain radiographs in clinical practice at 92.6% (95% CI: 92.0-93.2) and 97.7% (95% CI: 97.5-97.9) sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Studies that compared selectively trained radiographers and radiologists of varying seniority against a reference standard showed no evidence of a difference between radiographer and radiologist reporting accuracy of accident and emergency plain radiographs. Selectively trained radiographers were also found to report such radiographs as accurately as those not solely from accident and emergency, although some variation in reporting accuracy was found for different body areas. Training radiographers improved their accuracy when reporting normal radiographs. This study systematically synthesizes the literature to provide an evidence-base showing that radiographers can accurately report plain radiographs in clinical practice.

  8. Accuracy of radiographer plain radiograph reporting in clinical practice: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brealey, S. [Department of Health Sciences, University of York (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sb143@york.ac.uk; Scally, A. [Division of Radiography, University of Bradford (United Kingdom); Hahn, S. [Department of Health Sciences, University of York (United Kingdom); Thomas, N. [Department of X-ray, North Manchester General Hospital (United Kingdom); Godfrey, C. [Department of Health Sciences, University of York (United Kingdom); Coomarasamy, A. [Education Resource Centre, Birmingham Women' s Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    AIM: To determine the accuracy of radiographer plain radiograph reporting in clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies were identified from electronic sources and by hand searching journals, personal communication and checking reference lists. Eligible studies assessed radiographers' plain radiograph reporting in clinical practice compared with a reference standard, and provided accuracy data to construct 2x2 contingency tables. Data were extracted on study eligibility and characteristics, quality and accuracy. Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to pool the accuracy data. RESULTS: Radiographers compared with a reference standard, report plain radiographs in clinical practice at 92.6% and 97.7% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Studies that compared selectively trained radiographers and radiologists of varying seniority against a reference standard showed no evidence of a difference between radiographer and radiologist reporting accuracy of accident and emergency plain radiographs. Selectively trained radiographers were also found to report such radiographs as accurately as those not solely from accident and emergency, although some variation in reporting accuracy was found for different body areas. Training radiographers improved their accuracy when reporting normal radiographs. CONCLUSION: This study systematically synthesizes the literature to provide an evidence-base showing that radiographers can accurately report plain radiographs in clinical practice.

  9. APPLICATION OF ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY OF WETLANDS IN THE JIANGHAN PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-lei; NING Long-mei; HU Wang-bin

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands in the Jianghan Plain are important components of wetland types in lake area in the middle and lower reaches the Changjiang (Yangtze) River and they fulfill many uses and functions related to hydrology,waste assimilation, ecosystem productivity and biodiversity. Owing to natural factors and human activities, especially excessive reclamation from lakes, the shrinking process of the lakes has been accelerated. Wetland ecosystem has shown the characteristics of vulnerability. According to the analysis of wetland ecological function in the Jianghan Plain, this paper presented an index system related to productivity, stability and environmental capacity. By using the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process, we computed the values of the relative weights of the indexes, and evaluated the vulnerability level of the wetland ecosystem by the method of multi-indexes. The case study showed that the fragile extent of wetland ecosystem in the Jianghan Plain is 5.6. This means that the wetland ecosystem in the Jiang-han Plain is laid to the state of middle vulnerability. Therefore, the wetland conservation and eco-rehabilitation in the Jianghan Plain should be paid attention to.

  10. Geomorphology and flood-plain vegetation of the Sprague and lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.; McDowell, Patricia F.; Lind, Pollyanna; Rasmussen, Christine G.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides information on channel and flood-plain processes and historical trends to guide effective restoration and monitoring strategies for the Sprague River Basin, a primary tributary (via the lower Williamson River) of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The study area covered the lower, alluvial segments of the Sprague River system, including the lower parts of the Sycan River, North Fork Sprague River, South Fork Sprague River, and the entire main-stem Sprague River between the confluence of the North Fork Sprague and the South Fork Sprague Rivers and its confluence with the Williamson River at Chiloquin, Oregon. The study included mapping and stratigraphic analysis of flood-plain deposits and flanking features; evaluation of historical records, maps and photographs; mapping and analysis of flood-plain and channel characteristics (including morphologic and vegetation conditions); and a 2006 survey of depositional features left by high flows during the winter and spring of 2005–06.

  11. STUDY ON BOREHOLE LOCATION TECHNIQUES OF PEAK FOREST-PLAIN AREA ——Giving an Example in Laibin County, Guangxi%峰林平原区定井技术研究——以广西来宾峰林平原区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟海; 张之淦

    2001-01-01

    The borehole location techniques were summarized in this article, according to the experiences of groundwater exploration in peak forest-plain area of Laibin County. There are many methods for borehole location, such as geological structure analysis, groundwater-storage structures analysis,hydro-geophysical prospecting, nuclear techniques, et al. The distributed characteristics of fault water-bearing belts and the general position of others groundwater-storage structures can be given for the first time by geological structure analysis. Seven groups of water-bearing structures are given and the characterization of their 3-dimensional geometry and void space texture are summarized, which may serve as geological basis for planning geophysical prospecting work and interpretation of its results. The quantitative & semi-quantitative data of the water-bearing target can be given by hydro-geophysical prospecting. We suggest that multi-methods such as hydrogeology, geophysical prospecting, drilling should be used synthesizely in borehole location.%通过在广西来宾岩溶干旱区的找水实践,将峰林平原区定井技术主要归纳为地质构造方法、蓄水构造方法和综合物探方法。地质构造方法可了解断裂富水带的分布规律,以指导寻找各种蓄水构造;利用蓄水构造方法归纳出该区7类岩溶蓄水构造,并确定其三维几何形状和内部介质特征,为水文物探解释提供地质依据;水文物探方法可提供富水地质体的定量、半定量信息。文章认为地质—物探—钻探工作密切配合和交流,是提高成井率的保证。

  12. 基于Landsat TM5遥感影像的北京市平原区不透水面积弯化分析%Detection of changes in impervious surface distribution in Beijing plain area using Landsat TM5 images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯爱中; 倪广恒; 雷志栋; 敬书珍

    2013-01-01

    不透水面积的变化是城市化进程的一个重要表征.本文选取高反射率、低反射率、植被和土壤四种地类端元,使用完全受限的线性光谱分解算法直接从Landsat TM5影像中提取了1995年和2007年北京市平原区的不透水面积比例及其空间分布信息.利用2006-2007年的大比例电子地图验证了2007年的不透水面积分布信息提取结果,总的均方差达到17.3%.通过对两个时间的不透水面积比例进行对比,分析了1995年到2007年北京城市化进程的主要范围和规模,结果表明顺义、通州、房山、大兴、朝阳和昌平等区是城市化进程比较显著的地区.本文直接利用遥感数据获取较高精度的不透水面积信息,结果可为分析城市化进程、城市水文和能量循环等提供重要基础性数据.%Change in impervious ratio of ground surface is an important index of urbanization.This paper presents a direct estimation of impervious surface distribution in the plain area of Beijing from landsat thematic mapper (ET) data of 1995 and 2007 with a fully constrained linear spectral mixture model of four endmembers,i.e.high albedo,low albedo,vegetation,and soil.The estimation accuracy of this ratio in 2007 was evaluated by using a high-precision geographic vector map of 2006 ~ 2007,and an overall RMS error of 17.3% was obtained.Comparison of the impervious surface distributions in 1995 and 2007 shows the main regions of urbanization in Beijing and their scales.Results show that in this period the urbanization were prominent in Shunyi,Tongzhou,Fangshan,Daxing,Chaoyang and Changping.This direct estimation method from Landsat TM images provides important information to the studies of urbanization,urban hydrological and energy cycle.

  13. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  14. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The Great Plains! The words alone create a sense of space and a feeling of destiny a challenge. But what exactly is this special part of Western America that contains so much of our history? How did it come to be? Why is it different?

  15. Pedogeographic regionalization of the Pomurje plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Lovrenčak

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the pedogeographic regionalization of the Pomurje plain (Northeast Slovenia. With regard to differences in parent material, landforms, and hydrographic characteristics, the soil cover is ranked into two pedogeographic regions. Each of them is furthermore divided into several subregions grouped together according to related soil groups.

  16. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  17. Probable recent water/lava source fissures in the Cerberus Plains: stratigraphic and crater count age constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.

    2012-09-01

    The Cerberus Plains have received increasing attention in recent years due to evidence from highresolution imagery that they are some of the youngest surfaces on Mars. The plains are incised by large outflow channels, possibly as recently as 20Ma in the case of Athabasca Valles [2]. These channels are generally thought to be water-carved [1,3], though it is possible they were incised by turbulent lava [8]. As recently as 10Ma or less [5] both the channels and the plains around them are proposed to have been draped with lava [7]. Thus the recent activity forming the Cerberus Plains probably required large volumes of both water and lava. The problem which arises is a source. Cerberus Fossae have been suggested as the source of the Athabasca Valles outflows [3,6], but topographic and stratigraphic issues have arisen which make this unlikely: for example, a streamlined island spans the fossa where water and/or lava is said to have originated [4]. No other specific sources have been identified. As plains volcanism often obscures its fissures, sources should be searched for in features elevated above the plain. New HiRISE images have shown just such a feature: a wrinkle ridge south of Cerberus Fossae incised by a series of fissures. Every fissure has associated channels and deposits indicating outflow onto the plains surrounding the ridge. Until now, the stratigraphic history of these features was poorly known, with Tanaka et al.'s [9] geological map considering the area only on the broadest scale. This study produces small-scale geomorphological maps to establish the stratigraphic relationships between the fissure-sourced outflows and the plains surrounding the ridge to test the hypothesis that they were the source of the plains material. Crater counting is also conducted to supplement stratigraphic observations and give tentative ages.

  18. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  19. Processes affecting coastal wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Penland, Shea; Roberts, Harry H.

    1993-01-01

    Nowhere are the problems of coastal wetland loss more serious and dramatic than in the Mississippi River deltaic plain region of south-central Louisiana. In that area, rates of shoreline erosion of 20 m.yr and loss of land area of up to 75 km/yr result from a complex combination of natural (delta switching, subsidence, sea-level rise, storms) and human (flood control, navigation, oil and gas development, land reclamation) factors. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Coastal Geology Program, has undertaken joint filed investigations with Federal, State, and university partners. The objective of these long-term studies is to gather and interpret baseline information in order to improve our scientific understanding of the critical processes and responses responsible for creation, maintenance, and deterioration of coastal wetlands.

  20. Mapping of the cumulative β-ray dose on the ground surface surrounding the Fukushima area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Nguyen, Thanh T.; Hayashi, Gohei; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of the fission products released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 11 March 2011 was deposited in a wide area from Tohoku to northern Kanto. A map of the estimated cumulative β-ray dose (70 μm dose equivalent) on the soil surface for one year after the FDNPP accident has been prepared using previously reported calculation methods and the 2-km mesh survey data by MEXT. From this map of estimated dose, areas with a high cumulative β-ray dose on the soil surface for one year after the FDNPP accident were found to be located in the Akogi-Teshichiro to Akogi-Kunugidaira region in Namie Town, and in the southern Futaba Town to the northern Tomioka Town region. The highest estimated cumulative β-ray dose was 710 mSv for one year at Akogi-Teshichiro, Namie Town. PMID:26519736

  1. Evaluation of Groundwater Renewability in the Henan Plains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Shi, X.

    2011-12-01

    The sustainability of groundwater resources in the Henan Plains, located in the eastern portion of central China, has been threatened by both increasing industrial and agricultural pumping and periods of drought occurring since the 1990s. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve water resources management in the Henan Plains. However, the recharge and annual renewal rate are very difficult to calculate when based only on traditional hydrogeological methods because of inadequate hydrometeorologic data. In this study, tritium concentrations in groundwater and reconstructed 3H concentration time series from 1953~2009 in precipitation were used to determine the annual groundwater renewal rate. The 3H concentrations mostly range from 2.91 to 40.30 TU in the shallow groundwater with a mean 3H concentration of 19.13TU, which suggests that the shallow groundwater is recharged from modern precipitation after 1953 in the study area. Three exceptionally low 3H concentration(less than 1TU) wells were sampled in Xinxiang, Puyang and Zhengyang which indicates that those wells contain deep old groundwater recharge before 1953 as a result of over-pumping. High renewal rates (more than 4%/a) of groundwater are located mainly in the recharge area such as along the Yellow River and in the pediments of Taihang Mountain, Songqi Mountain, Funiu Mountain, Dabie Mountain, where the groundwater extraction volume could be increased. Moderate renewal rates (2%/a~3%/a) of groundwater are mainly in the runoff area where the groundwater extraction volume can be kept at current levels. Low renewal rates (1%/a~2%/a) of groundwater are located mainly in the discharge areas in the eastern regions of Nanle, Puyang, Shangqiu, Luyi where the groundwater extraction volume should be reduced. The lowest renewal rates of (less than 1%/a) groundwater are in Puyang, Xinxiang, Zhengyang and Xixian, where the groundwater extraction volume should be restricted.

  2. CONSIDERATIONS ON STREAMFLOW DROUGHT IN CENTRAL ROMANIAN PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA-ELIZA CROITORU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerations on Streamflow Drought In Central RomanianPlain. As one of the most important hydrological phenomenon in the area,streamflow drought was identified using daily discharge flow data series for 30years (1980-2009. The data were recorded in seven observation points located onsix rivers, in the central part of the Romanian Plain (between Olt and Argeşrivers. Some aspects of duration and severity of the hydrological drought eventswere calculated: number, average and maximum duration, daily average dischargeflow and streamflow deficit volume of hydrological drought events. Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimation for trends detection were applied in orderto analyze trends of those features in the studied region. As main conclusions:most part of the considered rivers show similar behavior with general increasingtrends of the most analyzed drought parameters; the only exception is Glavaciocriver, with decreasing slopes for the great majority of the parameters. For themean daily discharge flows, insignificant slopes were calculated.

  3. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  4. Climate Change Impacts of Irrigation on the Central High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterman, K. A.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 1940s, the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) has been pivotal for irrigation over the Central High Plains (CHP), a region spanning parts of five states in the central U.S.. Today after decades of over-pumping, many areas of the CHP are no longer able to irrigate due to localized depletion of the HPA. With a range of global climate models predicting an increase in temperature and decrease in growing-season precipitation for the CHP, demand for irrigation is likely to increase and exacerbate drawdown and depletion of the aquifer. Here we apply the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) coupled with the crop simulation model SALUS to simulate irrigation water use in response to historical climate and land use. This model is validated using historical groundwater levels. We then simulate future climate scenarios to predict how irrigation demand and water availability will alter the hydrology of the CHP. This study provides a predictive relationship of future irrigation demand linked to both climate change and agricultural management, and presents a modeling approach to answer two questions: How will future climate change affect irrigation demand? How will climate change and irrigation demand affect groundwater availability for the future? Different climate scenarios based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are used to simulate the impact of different projected future climate conditions through the year 2100. By examining predicted groundwater levels along with saturated thickness we analyze where irrigation is likely to be viable in the future and compare this to current irrigation extent.

  5. MODFLOW and MODFLOW Conduit Flow Process data sets for simulation experiments of the Woodville Karst Plain, near Tallahassee, Florida with three different approaches and different stress periods

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Release has 18 different groundwater flow simulation applications for the Woodville Karst Plain area near Tallahassee Florida with three variations of...

  6. Change of ancient hydrology net in Northeast China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui QU; Yu CHU; Fenglong ZHANG; Fuli QI; Xiangkui YANG

    2006-01-01

    Comparing with lithofacies palaeogeography of several great plains, the authors analyzed four great plains in Quaternary diastrophism, the sedimentary facies, sedimentary environment and their evolution from the independent embryonic and river system of ancient Heilongjiang finally to the Halar highland, Songnen Plain, Sanjiang Plain, the Xingkai Lake Plain and various river systems, collected the unification outside the system of Heilongjiang River to release into the sea, south ancient Xialiao River finally piracy Dongliao River, Xialiao River had released into the sea the ancient water law vicissitude and the evolved rule.

  7. Investigating organic micropollutants in a peri-urban flood plain aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Manamsa, Katya; Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a pilot study to develop the sampling methodology required to investigate the occurrence and distribution of “emerging organic contaminants” in groundwater in an area of anticipated contamination. The study site was the BGS Oxford Observatory on the Port Meadow, within a peri-urban setting, including an area of ancient grassland on the gravels of the flood plain of the River Thames to the northwest of Oxford. Groundwater levels suggest that the regional groundwater flow ...

  8. A decade of investigations on groundwater arsenic contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Sahu, Sudarsan

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) load in excess of drinking limit (50 µg L(-1)) in the Gangetic Plains was first detected in 2002. Though the menace was known since about two decades from the downstream part of the plains in the Bengal Basin, comprising of Lower Ganga Plain and deltaic plains of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River system, little thought was given to its possible threat in the upstream parts in the Gangetic Plains beyond Garo-Rajmahal Hills. The contamination in Bengal Basin has become one of the extensively studied issues in the world and regarded as the severest case of health hazard in the history of mankind. The researches and investigations in the Gangetic Plains during the last decade (2003-2013) revealed that the eastern half of the plains, also referred as Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), is particularly affected by contamination, jeopardising the shallow aquifer-based drinking water supply. The present paper reviews researches and investigations carried out so far in MGP by various research institutes and government departments on wide array of issues of groundwater As such as its spatio-temporal variation, mobilisation paths, water level behaviour and flow regime, configuration of contaminated and safe aquifers and their recharge mechanism. Elevated conc. of groundwater As has been observed in grey and dark grey sediments of Holocene age (Newer Alluvium) deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment in the floodplain of the Ganga and most of its northern tributaries from Himalayas. Older Alluvium, comprising Pleistocene brownish yellow sediment, extending as deeper aquifers in Newer Alluvium areas, is low in groundwater As. Similarities and differences on issues between the MGP and the Bengal Basin have been discussed. The researches point towards the mobilisation process as reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide coating, rich in adsorbed As, mediated by microbial processes. The area is marked with shallow water level (<8.0 m below ground) with ample

  9. [Effects of marshland reclamation on evapotranspiration in the Sanjiang Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-jun; Zhang, Wen; Huang, Yao; Zhao, Xiao-song; Song, Chang-chun

    2010-04-01

    Extensive reclamation of marshland into cropland has had tremendous effects on the ecological environment in the Sanjiang Plain. Observations over marshland, rice paddy and soybean field were made with eddy covariance measuring systems from May to October in 2005, 2006 and 2007. The objective of this study was to identify the effects of the conversion of marshland to cropland on evapotranspiration in the Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that the diurnal variation curves of latent heat flux were single peaked in marshland, rice paddy and soybean field. The daily maximum latent heat flux increased by 14%-130% in rice paddy in the three measuring years, however, in soybean field, it increased by 3%-77% in 2006 but decreased by 25%-40% in 2005 and 2007 by comparison with that in marshland. This difference was due to the change of leaf area index when marshland was reclaimed into cropland. Seasonal change of latent heat flux was identical for the three land use types. Daily averaged latent heat flux of rice paddy, from May to October, showed 38%-53% increase compared with that of marshland, which resulted from the increase in net radiation and leaf area index. When marshland was reclaimed into soybean field, the variation of daily averaged latent heat flux depended primarily on precipitation. Precipitation was the main factor that controlled evapotranspiration over soybean field which was usually in condition of soil water deficit. Drought caused 11%-17% decrease of daily averaged latent heat flux over soybean field in 2005 and 2007, while sufficient precipitation caused 22% increase in 2006, comparing to marshland. Similarly, during the growing season from June to September, total evapotranspiration of rice paddy increased by 24%-51% compared with that of marshland, and the total evapotranspiration of soybean field decreased by 19%-23% in 2005 and 2007 and increased by 19% in 2006. It is concluded that the evapotranspiration changes significantly when the marshland

  10. Study on the priority of coronary arteriography or therapeutic hypothermia after return of spontaneous circulation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: results from the SOS-KANTO 2012 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Shuichi

    2016-06-01

    Many emergency physicians struggle with the clinical question of whether to perform therapeutic hypothermia (TH) or coronary angiography (CAG) first after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We analyzed the results of the SOS-KANTO 2012 study, which is a prospective, multicenter (67 emergency hospitals), observational study about OHCA conducted between January 2012 and March 2013 (n = 16,452). We compared two groups: the group in which TH was first performed (TH group), and the group in which CAG was performed first (CAG group) within 24 h after arrival. Two hundred and twenty-one patients were treated TH and CAG (TH group, 76 patients; CAG group, 145 patients). In addition, we selected patients who underwent coronary treatment. 164 patients underwent coronary treatment after CAG (TH group, 52 patients; CAG group, 112 patients). In patients in whom TH and CAG and coronary artery treatment were done, 42 patients (55.3 %) in the TH group and 86 patients (59.3 %) in the CAG group survived at 90 days. The cerebral performance category (CPC) 1 and 2 were 26.3 % (20 patients) in TH group, and 31.0 % (45 patients) in CAG group. In patients in whom TH and CAG with coronary artery treatment were performed, 29 patients (55.8 %) in the TH group and 64 patients (57.1 %) in the CAG group survived at 90 days. The rates of CPC 1 and 2 were 26.9 % (14 patients) in TH group, and 23.2 % (26 patients) in CAG group. There was no significant difference in 90-day survival between the two groups although it tended to be better in the CAG group than in the TH group. Whether TH or CAG was performed first did not affect the 90-day survival and 30-day neurological situation among patients with ROSC after OHCA.

  11. Buried ancient river by holocene series in Saga Plain; Saga Heiya no kaseki tani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwao, Y. [Saga Univ., Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Shimoyama, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1995-10-01

    Two big faults are supposed to be existed along East West direction of Saga plain and Northern Ariake sea area. Omachi fault originating from the North west part of Saga plain is lying along the east-northeast direction at the center of Saga plain. Further, from the northern direction of Taradake, Yanagawa fault passes along the North east direction. Both of these faults are parallel and between them is the depression ground land called North Ariake graben. Accordingly, weak sedimentary deposit is formed in this depression ground. Activity of Aso pyroclastic flow is observed after the sedimentation along with the sinking of North Ariake graben. It was a regression period and rivers flew into the valley of Ariake with erosion. After that, large amount of volcanic ashes or efflorescence, thickly deposited in the upstream areas of Chikugo river, are carried into the Ariake sea expanded by Jomon transgression. This changes to clay minerals like smectite and so forth, slight regression takes place after the thick sedimentation of Ariake holocene clay and so forth and Saga plain was appeared. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Role of ground water in geomorphology, geology, and paleoclimate of the Southern High Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren W

    2002-01-01

    Study of ground water in the Southern High Plains is central to an understanding of the geomorphology, deposition of economic minerals, and climate change record in the area. Ground water has controlled the course of the Canadian and Pecos rivers that isolated the Southern High Plains from the Great Plains and has contributed significantly to the continuing retreat of the westward escarpment. Evaporative and dissolution processes are responsible for current plateau topography and the development of the signature 20,000 small playa basins and 40 to 50 large saline lake basins in the area. In conjunction with eolian processes, ground water transport controls the mineralogy of commercially valuable mineral deposits and sets up the distribution of fine efflorescent salts that adversely affect water quality. As the water table rises and retreats, lunette and tufa formation provides valuable paleoclimate data for the Southern High Plains. In all these cases, an understanding of ground water processes contributes valuable information to a broad range of geological topics, well beyond traditional interest in water supply and environmental issues.

  13. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R; Faunt, Claudia C; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C; Alley, William M; McGuire, Virginia L; McMahon, Peter B

    2012-06-12

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ~50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km(3) of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ~7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km(3), occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km(3) shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley.

  14. Probability mapping of saline and sodic soils in the Harran plain using a non-linear kriging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Volkan Bilgili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Harran Plain, southeastern Turkey, soil salinisation causes land degradation threatening the sustainability of agricultural production. According to a recent survey, approximately 18000 ha area has been affected by soil salinity and sodicity at various levels. Determining the distribution of saline and sodic soils in the study area is the first step for effective management of these soils. Over 200 soil samples have been randomly selected across the plain and analyzed for selected soil salinity and sodicity variables in soil salinity laboratory. Indicator kriging (IK, a non-linear interpolation technique, was used to map the probability levels of occurrence of saline and sodic soils across the plain. The results of IK showed the probability distributions of risky areas under different types of soil salinity classes; nonsaline, saline, saline – sodic and sodic.

  15. Investigation on Vulnerability of Tabriz-plain Unconfined Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarmayeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is more expensive to remove pollution from groundwater than to prevent it. Delineation areas that arevulnerable to surface pollutants is one of methods to prevent pollution of groundwater resources. Focusing on this issue, DRASTIC model was used for evaluation of vulnerability of Tabriz-plain aquifer to pollution and the aquifer vulnerability map was prepared. The study shows that main zone of the aquifer’s groundwater is low to modrate vulnerability to pollution (DRASTIC Index of 120-40 that consist of about 55.84% and areas with low, moderate to high, and high risk zones comprise 21.81,22.08.% and 0.26% of the studied area, respectively Two tests of sensitivity analyses were carried out: the map removal and the single-parameter sensitivity analyses. Based on the characteristics of the studied area, the results from both map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analyses showed that the depth to water table has the most significant impact on the vulnerability risk zone. By overlaying of the vulnerability and landuse maps the areas where are subjected to potential release of pollutants from the agricultural activities were determined .Nitrate ion concentration and SINTACS model confirms the results of the vulnerability assessment.

  16. Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer, Republican River Basin in Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska, 2002 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V.L.

    2016-12-29

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (about 175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. More than 95 percent of the water withdrawn from the High Plains aquifer is used for irrigation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area (about 1950). The Republican River Basin is 15.9 million acres (about 25,000 square miles) and is located in northeast Colorado, northern Kansas, and southwest Nebraska. The Republican River Basin overlies the High Plains aquifer for 87 percent of the basin area. Water-level declines had begun in parts of the High Plains aquifer within the Republican River Basin by 1964. In 2002, management practices were enacted in the Middle Republican Natural Resources District in Nebraska to comply with the Republican River Compact Final Settlement. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Middle Republican Natural Resources District, completed a study of water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer within the Republican River Basin from 2002 to 2015 to enable the Middle Republican Natural Resources District to assess the effect of the management practices, which were specified by the Republican River Compact Final Settlement. Water-level changes determined from this study are presented in this report.Water-level changes from 2002 to 2015 in the High Plains aquifer within the Republican River Basin, by well, ranged from a rise of 9.4 feet to a decline of 43.2 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level change from 2002 to 2015 in this part of the aquifer was a decline of 4.5 feet.

  17. Acoustic profiling and surface imaging of the coastal area near the subduction zone: the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The plate motion of the Philippine Sea plate and the Pacific plate influences geology of coastal area in the Pacific side in Japan and sometime causes extensive damage of human activity, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is important to understand the geological structures in a coastal area for disaster prevention. Especially, rapid equipment of geoinformations is highly demanded in the Kanto region where covers capital Tokyo area. Geological Survey of Japan investigated the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan within two years from 2014 to 2015. We obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structures. The survey area is divided into the northern part of Kujukuri area, the southern part of Kujukuri area, the coastal part of Kujukuri area based on topography and geological structures. In these Kujukuri areas, two strata that show distinct stratification bounded by distinct unconformity distribute and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The lower sequence has some folds and normal faults. These folds that deformed the Kujukuri B Unit extend toward north-northeast in the northern part of Kujukuri area. They contributed to development of wide shelf distributed in this area. In the southern part of Kujukuri area, a lot of faults deformed the Kujukuri B Unit and some of them displaced the Kujukuri A Unit over 10 msec (two way travel). Normal faults developed in the Kujukuri B Unit over 10 msec made grabens and half grabens in the coastal part of Kujukuri area and these grabens and half grabens could make the lowland in the Kujukuri coastal area. The combination of these geological structures identified in the Kujukuri areas could reflect the transition of stress field associated with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate

  18. Hydrology of Salt Wells Creek : a plains stream in southwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowham, H.W.; DeLong, L.L.; Collier, K.R.; Zimmerman, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Development of energy minerals in plains areas of Wyoming is expanding rapidly. Such development may affect water resources and hydrologic relations of the plains; however, little information exists concerning hydrologic processes for these areas. This report summarizes results of a hydrologic study made during 1975-78 of Salt Wells creek, a drainage area of about 500 square miles located southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The area is typical of arid and semiarid plains areas in southwestern Wyoming where mineral development is occurring. Salt Wells Creek is predominately an intermittent stream. Numerous springs in the headwaters cause small perennial flows in some upstream tributaries, but evaporation, freezeup, and seepage deplete these flows so that the middle and lower reaches of the main channel have only intermittent flows. The intermittent nature of streamflow affects water quality. It was observed that a flushing of dissolved solids and suspended sediment occurs during the first flows of a runoff event. A striking feature of the stream is its deeply incised channel. The downcutting is attributed to the cummulative effects of: (1) a change in the relative climate, amounts of annual precipitation occurring as rain and snow, (2) change in base level due to downstream channelization, and (3) changes in land use. Because of the incision, erosion is now expanding to include intervening tributaries. (USGS)

  19. Active tectonics of the Oran (Algeria) Quaternary plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    youcef, Bouhadad; rabah, Bensalem; e-hadi, oubaiche

    2016-04-01

    The Oran region, in north-western Algeria, has been hit several times in the past by destructive moderate-sized and strong earthquakes. The Oran October 9th , 1790 (I0= X) was among the strongest seismic events in the western Mediterranean area comparable, if we consider the described effects, to the El- Asnam (1980, Ms=7.3) and Zemmouri (2003, Mw=6.8) earthquakes. Such strong seismic events requires the presence of major active geological structures that are re-activated several times in the past. In this work we present results of a multi- disciplinary study combining geomorphic analysis, field earthquake geological investigations and geophysical methods, undertaken to study the southern border of the Oran Quaternary plain. A 50 km long, SW-dipping and NE-SW trending active fault has been identified that showing clear quaternary deformation. Keywords: earthquake geology, active fault, geomorphic, geophysics, Algeria.

  20. Selection of plain or segmented finned tubes for heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, D.R.; Taborek, Jerry (Fintube Corp. (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Heat recovery heat exchangers with gas as one of the streams depend on the use of finned tubes to compensate for the inherently low gas heat transfer coefficient. Standard frequency welded ''plain'' fins were generally used in the past - until the high-frequency resistance welding technology permitted the cost-effective manufacture of segmented fins. The main advantage of the segmented fin design is that it permits higher heat flux and hence smaller, lighter units for most operating conditions. While the criteria that dictate optimum design, such as compactness, weight and cost per unit area, favour the segmented fin design, a few other considerations, such as fouling, ease of cleaning and availability of dependable design methods, have to be considered. This article analyses the performance parameters that affect the selection of either fin type. (4 figures, 1 table, 10 references) (Author)

  1. Integrated hydrological modelling of the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Yunqiao; Villholth, Karen G.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2012-01-01

    The integrated hydrological model MIKE SHE was applied to a part of the North China Plain to examine the dynamics of the hydrological system and to assess water management options to restore depleted groundwater resources. The model simulates the spatio-temporal distribution of recharge...... to and the associated dynamics of the alluvial aquifers based on climatic conditions, land use, soil characteristics, irrigation and coupled unsaturated-saturated zone processes. The model was auto-calibrated for the period 1996–2002 against daily observations of groundwater head from wells distributed across the 7230...... km2 region and actual evapotranspiration measured at an agricultural station located within the model area. The model simulations compared well with observations and acceptable values were obtained for both root mean square error and correlation coefficient. The calibrated model was subsequently used...

  2. Environmental Implication of Intensive Farming Practices on North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Lin; Zhou Hailin; Xie Gaodi

    2005-01-01

    The current pressure on production resources of North China Plain, such as land and water to feed the growing population, necessitates the assessment of the sustainability of farming practices. This study focuses on the sustainability of farming practices related to groundwater and soil fertility management. The assessment is based on selected site-specific key indicators and their established threshold limits. The current farming practices in the study area are clearly unsustainable.Only about 6% of the surveyed farm households practice sustainable farming. The study stresses that farming practice, which is economically sustainable,should not be promoted at the cost of environment.Holistic strategies need to be developed and implemented that aim at balanced use of inputs,which satisfy both productivity and environmental concerns.

  3. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  4. Crustal thickness and composition beneath the High Lava Plains of Eastern Oregon from teleseismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, K. C.; Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.; Carlson, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    The nature of the crust beneath the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon is fundamental for understanding the origins of widespread Cenozoic volcanism in the region. Eruptions of flood basalts in the southern Cascadian back arc peaked ~17-15 Ma, and were followed by distributed bimodal volcanism along two perpendicular migrating tracks; the Snake River Plain and the High Lava Plains. The orientations of eruptive centers have led to several competing hypotheses about their cause, including a deep mantle plume, slab retreat and asthenospheric inflow, lithospheric delamination, and lithospheric extension. The goal of this project is to constrain the nature, geometry, and depth of the Moho across the High Lava Plains, which will shed light on questions regarding crustal influence on melt generation and differentiation and the degree of magmatic underplating. In this study, we analyze teleseismic receiver functions from 118 stations of the High Lava Plains temporary broadband array, 34 nearby EarthScope/USArray stations, and 5 other regional broadband stations to determine bulk crustal features of thickness (H) and Vp/Vs ratio (κ). Applying the H-κ stacking method, we search for the best-fitting solution of timing predictions for direct and multiple P-to-S conversions from the Moho interface. Converting Vp/Vs to Poisson ratio, which is dependent primarily upon rock composition, allows for comparison with other direct geological observations. Preliminary results show that the crust of the High Lava Plains is relatively thin (~31 km) with a very sharp gradient to thicker crust (~42 km) at the western edge of the Owyhee Plateau in southwestern Idaho. This gradient is co-located with the western margin of Precambrian North America and is in the vicinity of the Jordan Craters volcanic center. The sharp topography of the Moho might have been a factor in melt migration beneath this area. West of the High Lava Plains, the crust thickens to ~40 km into the Cascade volcanic arc

  5. STUDY ON THE SOIL LQUEFACTION AT HINODE AREA IN ITAKO CITY CAUSED BY THE 2011 TOUHOKU-PACIFIC OCEAN EARTHQUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takao; Yasuda, Susumu

    The 2011 Touhoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake caused severe liquefaction in a wide area of Kanto district. Many timber houses, buried pipes, roads, river dikes and port facilities were severely damaged due to liquefaction. Of them, serious damage to houses and lifelines occurred at Hinode area in Itako City, where a hosing lot had been constructed by filling a river. Many houses severely settled and tilted due to liquefaction. Then the authors collected the data on soil condition and settlement and inclination of houses, and studied the mechanism of the damage. Results show that a loose sand layer is deposited and ground water table is shallow. Though many houses suffered damage, the houses with pile foundations did not settle. On more remarkable thing is that the houses constructed on the ground by banking soil with 1 m high did not settle though surrounding houses settled.

  6. Assessment of coastal vulnerability to environmental change in Jiangsu coastal plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of coastal vulnerability to future environmental change has been emphasized in coastal nations or regions. The Jiangsu coastal plain, located to the north of the Yangtze River Delta in China, is most vulnerable to sea level rise and exacerbating coastal hazards. This paper develops the method of delimiting vulnerable scope and assessing coastal vulnerability through field observations and sampling and by applying remote sensing and GIS, which are suitable for great river delta and coastal plains with large area, relative complex micro-geomorphology and the protection of seawall. Applying this method, the coastal vulnerability of the Jiangsu coastal plain to relative sea level rise (approximately 50 cm up to the year 2050) and exacerbating storm surges have been assessed. The results show that, up to the year 2050, the Jiangsu coastal plain will probably lose 12.8 % of tidal flats (about 5.8′104 hm2) and 7.9 % of cultivated land (about 7.2′104 hm2). Meanwhile, 2.0 % of population, 3.8 % of original value of fixed assets, 3.2% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product), 40.3 % of salt industry and 5.8 % of aquiculture respectively will be affected due to coastal environmental change.

  7. Distribution of breeding shorebirds on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.A.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Andres, B.A.; Bart, J.R.; Brown, S.C.; Kendall, S.J.; Payer, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Available information on the distribution of breeding shorebirds across the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is dated, fragmented, and limited in scope. Herein, we describe the distribution of 19 shorebird species from data gathered at 407 study plots between 1998 and 2004. This information was collected using a single-visit rapid area search technique during territory establishment and early incubation periods, a time when social displays and vocalizations make the birds highly detectable. We describe the presence or absence of each species, as well as overall numbers of species, providing a regional perspective on shorebird distribution. We compare and contrast our shorebird distribution maps to those of prior studies and describe prominent patterns of shorebird distribution. Our examination of how shorebird distribution and numbers of species varied both latitudinally and longitudinally across the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska indicated that most shorebird species occur more frequently in the Beaufort Coastal Plain ecoregion (i.e., closer to the coast) than in the Brooks Foothills ecoregion (i.e., farther inland). Furthermore, the occurrence of several species indicated substantial longitudinal directionality. Species richness at surveyed sites was highest in the western portion of the Beaufort Coastal Plain ecoregion. The broad-scale distribution information we present here is valuable for evaluating potential effects of human development and climate change on Arctic-breeding shorebird populations. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  8. Age determinations and Earth-based multispectral observations of lunar light plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    The history of light plains still remains doubtful, but there are good arguments - mainly obtained by age determinations and supported by multispectral observations - for an endogenic (magmatic) instead of an (exclusively) impact related origin. Light plains are characterized by smooth areas with an albedo lower than the surrounding highlands (12 - 13 percent), but significantly higher than maria (5 - 6 percent). Before Apollo 16 a volcanic source has been supposed, but analysis of returned samples (highly brecciated and metamorphosed rocks) favored an impact ejecta related origin. Among the currently discussed models are formation by ejecta sedimentation from multi-ringed basins, formation by secondary and tertiary cratering action of ballistically ejected material during the formation of multi-ringed basins, in situ formation by impact melt of large events, and premare (crypto-) volcanism basalts covered by a thin ejecta cover; younger impacts penetrated the ejecta surface to create the dark haloed craters. To find arguments in favor or against these ideas the chronology of light plains is of major importance. Obviously a genetic relationship between the evolution of light plains and the basin forming impacts can be possible only if the events of emplacement features happened simultaneously.

  9. 50 CFR 37.32 - Special areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special areas. 37.32 Section 37.32... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA Environmental Protection § 37.32 Special areas. (a) Caribou calving and post-calving special areas. The Regional Director shall designate within the coastal plain...

  10. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (Ga - 2.9 Ga). Our results indicate that Late Amazonian volcanism is more widespread in Tharsis than previously recognized. Based on our results it appears possible that Mars is volcanologically not dead yet. Ongoing work investigates the volumes of erupted products and implications for the outgassing history and atmospheric evolution of Mars. [1] Greeley R. (1982) JGR 87, 2705-2712. [2] Plescia J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  11. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESSES AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE DENUNDATION VALLEYS IN THE BIELSK PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Micun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to recognise natural and anthropogenic transformations taking place in small denudation valleys in the old glacial landscape of the Bielsk Plain. The changes are registered in sediments of the valleys. The Bielsk Plain area situated in the north of Bielsk Podlaski is characterized by the presence of latitudinal running denudation valleys, that end with concave broadenings in their headwaters. The geological structure is dominated by silt deposits of various origins. Tills are present in the hilltops while organic and organo-mineral deposits in the depressions. The thickness of the deluvial deposits in the valleys reaches 2 m though usually it does not exceed 1 m. The deposits are mostly silts that developed lithologically as sandy dust and loam dust. Colluvium sedimentation in the valleys clearly correlates with the development of agriculture, deforestation and farming in the area. The abandonment of the cultivation causes significant slowdown in the pace of accumulation of colluvium sediments.

  13. Study on specifications of farmland shelterbelt net in Northeastern Plain of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The farmland shelterbelts in Northeastern Plain of China have formedrelatively completenet system. The functions of shelterbeltnet in omnibearing wind check and prevention of frostbite as well as the field of integrated clima te effect within shelterbelt net were analyzed, through located observation of m eteorological factors. Within the shelterbeltnet, the area with more than 10% e fficiency of omnibearing wind check was determined as benefited area. The analys is of yield and quality of crops indicated that the sheltering range of shelterb elt net was 25 times tree height. The mature heights of the various varieties of poplar composed the shelterbelts were determined according to their height growth. Based on the comprehensive analysis above, the suitable size of farmland she lterbelt net in Northeastern Plain of China was decided to be 400 m×400 m.

  14. Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead

  15. Medicine Wheels of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, David

    Medicine Wheels are unexplained aboriginal boulder configurations found primarily on hilltops and river valley vistas across the northwest Great Plains of North America. Their varied, complex designs have inspired diverse hypotheses concerning their meaning and purpose, including astronomical ones. While initial "observatory" speculations were unfounded, and quests to "decode" these structures remain unfulfilled and possibly misguided, the Medicine Wheels nevertheless represent a uniquely worthwhile case study in archaeoastronomical theory and method. In addition, emerging technologies for data acquisition and analysis pertinent to Medicine Wheels offer prospectively important new sight lines for the future of archaeoastronomy.

  16. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model, tasks 1-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralick, R. M.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Morain, S. A.; Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator); Ulaby, F. T.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Williams, D. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; Mcnaughton, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author identified significant results in this report. Environmental and resources investigations in Kansas utilizing ERTS-1 imagery are summarized for the following areas: (1) use of feature extraction techniqued for texture context information in ERTS imagery; (2) interpretation and automatic image enhancement; (3) water use, production, and disease detection and predictions for wheat; (4) ERTS-1 agricultural statistics; (5) monitoring fresh water resources; and (6) ground pattern analysis in the Great Plains.

  17. Sustainable groundwater development and management in the Quaternary Hang-Jia-Hu Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琰

    2002-01-01

    Based on the results of study on regional water supply system, water quality assessments, Quaternary aquifers investigation, and correlation analysis of groundwater depression resulting from land subsidence in the Hang-Jia-Hu Quaternary Plain, this paper presents the groundwater resources policy and sustainable management methods suitable for this area. Suggestions for controlling land subsidence by implementation of wise groundwater policy and management measures are also given.

  18. CARBON DYNAMICS OF WETLAND IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Chang-chun; WANG Yi-yong; WANG Yue-si; YAN Bai-xing; WANG De-xuan; ZHAO Zhi-chun; LOU Yan-jing

    2003-01-01

    Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission was measured from mires in the Sanjiang Plain,Northeast China, by using a static chamber technique during free snow-covered periods. The seasonal mean emission of CH4 was 12.4mg/(m2.h) and the emission range of CO2 was 8.7-16.6g/(m2.d) (gross CO2 flux) during plant growth period. CO2 emission rate in the day was stronger than that at night, and the daily peak appears at 19:00. The mire plants in the Sanjiang Plain begin to sprout at the end of April. The aboveground biomass of the mire plants in-creased from zero to the peak from July to September and showed single peak form. The aboveground biomass of Carex lasiocarpa (464.8g/m2) was lower than that of Deyeuxia playphylla (530.8g/m2), but the underground biomass was higher than that of Deyeuxia platyphylla. Gross CO2 flux showed the significance positive correlation relation-ship with plant biomass. Gross CO2 flux and CH4 emission were also correlated with soil temperature (0-5cm) and water temperature. However, the highest CH4 emission rate lagged behind the highest soil temperature in the root area during plant growth period. The data also indicated that wet and warm conditions during the early spring led to greater value of CH4 emission flux. Inundation is the necessary condition for the existence of methane bacteria, but there is no significant positive correlation between the inundation depth and CH4 emission rate in this region. Within the same growing season and under the same inundation condition, the variations of CH4 emission rate could be markedly different.

  19. Groundwater quality in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 15 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 17 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high concentrations in the study area.

  20. Plateaus and sinuous ridges as the fingerprints of lava flow inflation in the Eastern Tharsis Plains of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Orr, Tim; de Wet, Andrew P.; Zimbelman, James R.; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Garry, W. Brent; Crumpler, Larry S.; Williams, David A.

    2017-01-01

    The Tharsis Montes rift aprons are composed of outpourings of lava from chaotic terrains to the northeast and southwest flank of each volcano. Sinuous and branching channel networks that are present on the rift aprons suggest the possibility of fluvial processes in their development, or erosion by rapidly emplaced lavas, but the style of lava flow emplacement throughout rift apron development is not clearly understood. To better characterize the style of lava emplacement and role of fluvial processes in rift apron development, we conducted morphological mapping of the Pavonis Mons southwest rift apron and the eastern Tharsis plains using images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), Context Camera (CTX), Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) along with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Precision Experiment Data Records (PEDRs) and gridded data. Our approach was to: (1) search for depositional fans at the slope break between the rift apron and adjacent low slope plains; (2) determine if there is evidence that previously formed deposits might have been buried by plains units; (3) characterize the Tharsis plains morphologies east of Pavonis Mons; and (4) assess their relationship to the rift apron units. We have not identified topographically significant depositional fans, nor did we observe evidence to suggest that plains units have buried older rift apron units. Flow features associated with the rift apron are observed to continue across the slope break onto the plains. In this area, the plains are composed of a variety of small fissures and low shield vents around which broad channel-fed and tube-fed flows have been identified. We also find broad, flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges mixed among the channels, tubes and vents. Flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges are morphologies that are analogous to those observed on the coastal plain of Hawai‘i, where lava

  1. Improving Web Page Readability by Plain Language

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Walayat; Ali, Arif

    2011-01-01

    In today's world anybody who wants to access any information the first choice is to use the web because it is the only source to provide easy and instant access to information. However web readers face many hurdles from web which includes load of web pages, text size, finding related information, spelling and grammar etc. However understanding of web pages written in English language creates great problems for non native readers who have basic knowledge of English. In this paper, we propose a plain language for a local language (Urdu) using English alphabets for web pages in Pakistan. For this purpose we developed two websites, one with a normal English fonts and other in a local language text scheme using English alphabets. We also conducted a questionnaire from 40 different users with a different level of English language fluency in Pakistan to gain the evidence of the practicality of our approach. The result shows that the proposed plain language text scheme using English alphabets improved the reading com...

  2. Plain Language Summary: Adult Sinusitis (Sinus Infection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Leslie A; Walter, Lindsey M; Walsh, Sandra A; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Piccirillo, Jay F

    2015-08-01

    This plain language summary serves as an overview in explaining sinusitis (pronounced sign-you-side-tis). The purpose of this plain language summary is to provide patients with standard language explaining their condition in an easy-to-read format. This summary applies to those 18 years of age or older with sinusitis. The summary is featured as an FAQ (frequently asked question) format. The summary addresses how to manage and treat sinusitis symptoms. Adult sinusitis is often called a sinus infection. A healthcare provider may refer to a sinus infection as rhinosinusitis (pronounced rhi-no-sign-you-side-tis). This includes the nose as well as the sinuses in the name. A sinus infection is the swelling of the sinuses and nasal cavity.The summary is based on the published 2015 "Clinical Practice Guideline: Adult Sinusitis." The evidence-based guideline includes research to support more effective diagnosis and treatment of adult sinus infections. The guideline was developed as a quality improvement opportunity for managing sinus infections by creating clear recommendations to use in medical practice. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  3. Improving Web Page Readability by Plain Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walayat Hussain

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In todays world anybody who wants to access any information the first choice is to use the web because it is the only source to provide easy and instant access to information. However web readers face many hurdles from web which includes load of web pages, text size, finding related information, spelling and grammar etc. However understanding of web pages written in English language creates great problems for non native readers who have basic knowledge of English. In this paper, we propose a plain language for a local language (Urdu using English alphabets for web pages in Pakistan. For this purpose we developed two websites, one with a normal English fonts and other in a local language text scheme using English alphabets. We also conducted a questionnaire from 40 different users with a different level of English language fluency in Pakistan to gain the evidence of the practicality of our approach. The result shows that the proposed plain language text scheme using English alphabets improved the reading comprehension for non native English speakers in Pakistan.

  4. A new GIS approach for reconstructing and mapping dynamic late Holocene coastal plain palaeogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierik, H. J.; Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.

    2016-10-01

    The geomorphological development of Holocene coastal plains around the world has been studied since the beginning of the twentieth century from various disciplines, resulting in large amounts of data. However, the overwhelming quantities and heterogeneous nature of this data have caused the divided knowledge to remain inconsistent and fragmented. To keep improving the understanding of coastal plain geomorphology and geology, cataloguing of data and integration of knowledge are essential. In this paper we present a GIS that incorporates the accumulated data of the Netherlands' coastal plain and functions as a storage and integration tool for coastal plain mapped data. The GIS stores redigitised architectural elements (beach barriers, tidal channels, intertidal flats, supratidal flats, and coastal fresh water peat) from earlier mappings in separate map layers. A coupled catalogue-style database stores the dating information of these elements, besides references to source studies and annotations regarding changed insights. Using scripts, the system automatically establishes palaeogeographical maps for any chosen moment, combining the above mapping and dating information. In our approach, we strip the information to architectural element level, and we separate mapping from dating information, serving the automatic generation of time slice maps. It enables a workflow in which the maker can iteratively regenerate maps, which speeds up fine-tuning and thus the quality of palaeogeographical reconstruction. The GIS currently covers the late Holocene coastal plain development of the Netherlands. This period witnessed widespread renewed flooding along the southern North Sea coast, coinciding with large-scale reclamation and human occupation. Our GIS method is generic and can be expanded and adapted to allow faster integrated processing of growing amounts of data for many coastal areas and other large urbanising lowlands around the world. It allows maintaining actual data

  5. Geology of the Gusev cratered plains from the Spirit rover transverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Crumpler, L. S.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Cabrol, N. A.; Parker, T. J.; Rice, J. W.; Ward, J. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Moersch, J. E.; Fergason, R. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Castaño, A.; Castaño, R.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Li, R.; Bell, J. F.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    The cratered plains of Gusev traversed by Spirit are generally low-relief rocky plains dominated by impact and eolian processes. Ubiquitous shallow, soil-filled, circular depressions, called hollows, are modified impact craters. Rocks are dark, fine-grained basalts, and the upper 10 m of the cratered plains appears to be an impact-generated regolith developed over intact basalt flows. Systematic field observations across the cratered plains identified vesicular clasts and rare scoria similar to original lava flow tops, consistent with an upper inflated surface of lava flows with adjacent collapse depressions. Crater and hollow morphometry are consistent with most being secondaries. The size-frequency distribution of rocks >0.1 m diameter generally follows exponential functions similar to other landing sites for total rock abundances of 5-35%. Systematic clast counts show that areas with higher rock abundance and more large rocks have higher thermal inertia. Plains with lower thermal inertia have fewer rocks and substantially more pebbles that are well sorted and evenly spaced, similar to a desert pavement or lag. Eolian bed forms (ripples and wind tails) have coarse surface lags, and many are dust covered and thus likely inactive. Deflation of the surface ~5-25 cm likely exposed two-toned rocks and elevated ventifacts and transported fines into craters creating the hollows. This observed redistribution yields extremely slow average erosion rates of ~0.03 nm/yr and argues for very little long-term net change of the surface and a dry and desiccating environment similar to today's since the Hesperian (or ~3 Ga).

  6. Geology of the Gusec cratered plains from the Spirit rover transverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Crumpler, L. S.; Grant, J. A.; Greely, R.; Cabrol, N. A.; Parker, T. J.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Ward, J. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Moersch, J. E.; Fergason, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.; Castano, A.; Castano, R.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Li, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    The cratered plains of Gusev traversed by Spirit are generally low-relief rocky plains dominated by impact and eolian processes. Ubiquitous shallow, soil-filled, circular depressions, called hollows, are modified impact craters. Rocks are dark, fine-grained basalts, and the upper 10 m of the cratered plains appears to be an impact-generated regolith developed over intact basalt flows. Systematic field observations across the cratered plains identified vesicular clasts and rare scoria similar to original lava flow tops, consistent with an upper inflated surface of lava flows with adjacent collapse depressions. Crater and hollow morphometry are consistent with most being secondaries. The size frequency distribution of rocks >0.1 m diameter generally follows exponential functions similar to other landing sites for total rock abundances of 5-35%. Systematic clast counts show that areas with higher rock abundance and more large rocks have higher thermal inertia. Plains with lower thermal inertia have fewer rocks and substantially more pebbles that are well sorted and evenly spaced, similar to a desert pavement or lag. Eolian bed forms (ripples and wind tails) have coarse surface lags, and many are dust covered and thus likely inactive. Deflation of the surface _5-25 cm likely exposed two-toned rocks and elevated ventifacts and transported fines into craters creating the hollows. This observed redistribution yields extremely slow average erosion rates of _0.03 nm/yr and argues for very little long-term net change of the surface and a dry and desiccating environment similar to today's since the Hesperian (or _3 Ga).

  7. Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus runoff losses from croplands with different planting patterns in a riverine plain area of Zhejiang Province, East China%水网平原地区不同种植类型农田氮磷流失特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章明奎; 王阳; 黄超

    2011-01-01

    采用田间径流小区定位研究方法,在浙江省绍兴县选择27块农田,研究了自然降雨条件下水网平原地区7种种植类型农田N、P的径流流失特征、负荷及影响因素.结果表明:农田径流总P(TP)、水溶态P(DP)和颗粒态P(PP)的年流失量平均分别为4.75、0.74和4.01 kg ·hm-2;PP占TP的比例高于DP.径流总N(TN)、水溶态总N(DTN)、水溶态有机N( DON)、NH4+-N和NO3--N的年流失量平均分别为21.87、17.19、0.61、3.63和12.95kg·hm-2;流失的DTN各组分以NO3--N为主,其次为NH4+-N,DON的比例较低.不同种植类型农田径流TN、DTN、DON和NO3--N的流失量由低至高依次为:休闲地<苗木地<单季晚稻农田<双季稻农田<油菜(或小麦)-单季水稻农田<小麦-早稻-晚稻农田<蔬菜地,而径流TP和PP的流失量依次为:休闲地<苗木地<单季晚稻、双季稻农田<小麦-早稻-晚稻农田<油菜(或小麦)-单季水稻农田<蔬菜地,不同种植类型间的DP流失量差异较小.N、P流失主要发生在作物生产期间,TN和TP的流失比例随作物复种指数的提高而增加.TN、DTN和NO3--N流失量主要与N肥施用量有关,土壤中NO3--N含量对TN和DTN流失量也有明显影响;农田DON的流失除与N肥施用量有关外,还受土壤全N和有机质积累的影响;NH4+-N的流失量主要与土壤NH4+-N水平有关,受N肥施用量的影响不明显;径流TP和PP的流失量受P肥施用量、土壤P积累的共同影响,而DP的流失与施P量关系不大,但与土壤全P和有效P都存在显著相关关系.%By the method of site-specific observation, and selecting 27 field plots with 7 planting patterns in Shaoxing county of Zhejiang Province as test objects, this paper studied the characteristics of nitrogen ( N) and phosphorous (P) runoff losses, loads, and their affecting factors in the croplands with different planting patterns in riverine plain area of the Province under natural rainfall. The

  8. Relationships Between Bird Communities and Forest Age, Structure, Species Composition and Fragmentation in the West Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson

    1997-01-01

    Bird communities of the West Gulf Coastal Plain are strongly influenced by the stage of forest succession, species composition of understory and overstory vegetation, and forest structure. Alteration of plant communities through forest management and natural disturbances typically does not eliminate birds as a fauna1 group from the area affected, but will replace some...

  9. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, John F; Larsen, Angela L; Homyack, Jessica A; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C

    2016-01-01

    Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS) and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) was active in the

  10. Pyritization of the Coastal Sediments in the Kelantan Plains in the Malay Peninsula during the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S.K. Enio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: For a number of geological reasons a proportion of the present coastal plains in the Malay Peninsula were inundated by seawater in the past when pyrite in some of the soils is believed to have been mineralized. Random survey of these sites showed a unique distribution and depth of pyritic layer in the soils along the coastal plains. A study was conducted in order to explain the mechanism of pyritization in the sediments of the present day coastal plains in Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia. Approach: Soil surveys were conducted and soils were sampled and analyzed. Spatial distribution of the pyritic soils was used to construct an imaginary line to indicate the probable position of the shoreline when the sea level was at its highest. Results: Results of the study showed that soils containing pyrite occur sporadically in the plains. This pyrite occurs in the soils at varying depth; some soils have pyritic layer below 2 m from the surface (northern region, while others have pyrite in the surface horizon (southern region. Pyrite was formed by the reaction of ferrous and sulfide ions which were respectively reduced from ferric ions (sediments and sulfate (seawater ions, respectively. In the middle of the study area, pyritic layer overlain by peaty materials were observed. Conclusion: The presence of pyrite in the soils can be used as an evidence for sea level rise in the area during the Holocene. This pyrite is assumed to have been formed about 6,000 years BP when the sea level rose 3-5 m above the present. Its oxidation has caused untold damage to the productivity of the paddy soils in the area.

  11. Circles of the World: Traditional Art of the Plains Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Richard

    1985-01-01

    The art of the Plains Indians is discussed, and an art exhibition of their work to be held at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco from January 12 to April 29, 1985, is described. The exhibit shows and explains how Plains art served aspects of the Indians' traditional life. (RM)

  12. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... valuable for maintaining agricultural and forest products for food and fiber, fish and wildlife habitat... flood plain. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) flood insurance maps, other available... if the intended action is in the base flood plain by using HUD flood insurance maps, and other...

  13. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  14. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  15. comparison between sonographic and plain radiography in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-10-10

    Oct 10, 2003 ... Senior Lecturer, Department of Radiology, Makerere University, ... Plain radiography made a diagnosis in 85.5% of patients and did ... abdominal pain, abdominal distension, vomiting and ... major draw back with the use of ultrasound is that it is .... Plain abdominal film demonstrates non-specific gaseous.

  16. PLAINS GERBILS (GERBILLISCUS ROBUSTA) AS FOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Its major food in the 1970's was found to be Gerbilliscus robusta ... Senzota – Plains Gerbils as Food of the Barn Owl in the Serengeti Plains … 102 reflected as ..... Magazine. March 04. And http://www.growingproduce.com/article/. 181150 ...

  17. Phytothérapie traditionnelle des bovins dans les élevages de la plaine de la Ruzizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaisse F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional horned cattle phytotherapy in the Rusizi plain breedings [Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo]. After presenting the ecological characteristics of the Rusizi plain and reminding of the socio-economical importance of horned cattle for the local populations, the authors deal with the traditional phytotherapy knowledge in this area. The study lists the plants used, the organs concerned (leaves, bark, root, fruit, etc., as well as the formula and doses recommended regarding the recognized diseases. Finally this ethnobotanical knowledge is placed and discussed regarding the East African one.

  18. Potential hydrothermal resource temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Cody J. Cannon; Trevor A. Atkinson; Travis L. McLing; Thomas R. Wood; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southern Idaho is a region of high heat flow. Sustained volcanic activities in the wake of the passage of the Yellowstone Hotspot have turned this region into an area with great potential for geothermal resources as evidenced by numerous hot springs scattered along the margins of the plain and several hot-water producing wells and hot springs within the plain. Despite these thermal expressions, it is hypothesized that the pervasive presence of an overlying groundwater aquifer in the region effectively masks thermal signatures of deep-seated geothermal resources. The dilution of deeper thermal water and re-equilibration at lower temperature are significant challenges for the evaluation of potential resource areas in the ESRP. Over the past several years, we collected approximately 100 water samples from springs/wells for chemical analysis as well as assembled existing water chemistry data from literature. We applied several geothermometric and geochemical modeling tools to these chemical compositions of ESRP water samples. Geothermometric calculations based on principles of multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry with inverse geochemical modeling capability (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) have been useful for the evaluation of reservoir temperatures. RTEst geothermometric calculations of ESRP thermal water samples indicated numerous potential geothermal areas with elevated reservoir temperatures. Specifically, areas around southern/southwestern side of the Bennett Hills and within the Camas Prairies in the western-northwestern regions of the ESRP and its margins suggest temperatures in the range of 140-200°C. In the northeastern portions of the ESRP, Lidy Hot Springs, Ashton, Newdale, and areas east of Idaho Falls have expected reservoir temperature =140 °C. In the southern ERSP, areas near Buhl and Twin Falls are found to have elevated temperatures as high as 160 °C. These areas are likely to host

  19. 华北平原地下水动态变化%Shallow groundwater dynamics in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仕琴; 宋献方; 王勤学; 肖国强; 刘昌明; 柳鉴容

    2009-01-01

    The groundwater level of 39 observation wells including 35 unconfined wells and 4 confined wells from 2004 to 2006 in North China Plain (NCP) was monitored using automatic groundwater monitoring data loggers KADEC-MIZU Ⅱ of Japan. The automatic groundwater sensors were installed for the corporation project between China and Japan. Combined with the monitoring results from 2004 to 2006 with the major factors affecting the dynamic patterns of groundwater, such as topography and landform, depth of groundwater level, exploitation or discharge extent, rivers and lakes, the dynamic regions of NCP groundwater were gotten. According to the dynamic features of groundwater in NCP, six dynamic patterns of ground-water level were identified, including discharge pattern in the piedmont plain, lateral re-charge-runoff-discharge pattern in the piedmont plain, recharge-discharge pattern in the central channel zone, precipitation infiltration-evaporation pattern in the shallow groundwater region of the central plain, lateral recharge-evaporation pattern in the recharge-affected area along the Yellow River and infiltration-discharge-evaporation pattern in the littoral plain. Based on this, the groundwater fluctuation features of various dynamic patterns were inter-preted and the influencing factors of different dynamic patterns were compared.

  20. Land and Land-use Change in the Climate Sensitive High Plains: An Automated Approach with Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Alexander F.; Williams, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains is an economically important and climatologically sensitive region of the United States and Canada. The High Plains contain 100,000 sq km of Holocene sand dunes and sand sheets that are currently stabilized by natural vegetation. Droughts and the larger threat of global warming are climate phenomena that could cause depletion of natural vegetation and make this region susceptible to sand dune reactivation. The original proposal was directed toward the use of Landsat TM data to establish the state and ongoing changes of the surface in the 1.2 million sq. km, semi-arid High Plains region of the central US, A key objective was to develop a model to predict the reactivation of the 100,000 sq. km of Holocene dunes found on the High Plains during an extended drought. At least one Landsat 5 image per year for 1985, 1988 and 1996 was obtained for 32 scenes on the High Plains to coincide with wet and dry years. Additional Landsat 7 data were acquired for 1999 and 2000 primarily for Colorado and Nebraska. As luck would have it, there was no severe drought during the study period 1985-2000. Attention was focused on developing methods for mapping dry vs. green vegetation on sparsely vegetated rangelands in sandy soils, since these were the areas most susceptible to surface reactivation during a drought.

  1. Spatial analysis of health risk assessment with arsenic intake of drinking water in the LanYang plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is one of the most component water resources in Lanyang plain. The groundwater of the Lanyang Plain contains arsenic levels that exceed the current Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) limit of 10 μg/L. The arsenic of groundwater in some areas of the Lanyang Plain pose great menace for the safe use of groundwater resources. Therefore, poor water quality can adversely impact drinking water uses, leading to human health risks. This study analyzed the potential health risk associated with the ingestion of arsenic-affected groundwater in the arseniasis-endemic Lanyang plain. Geostatistical approach is widely used in spatial variability analysis and distributions of field data with uncertainty. The estimation of spatial distribution of the arsenic contaminant in groundwater is very important in the health risk assessment. This study used indicator kriging (IK) and ordinary kriging (OK) methods to explore the spatial variability of arsenic-polluted parameters. The estimated difference between IK and OK estimates was compared. The extent of arsenic pollution was spatially determined and the Target cancer risk (TR) and dose response were explored when the ingestion of arsenic in groundwater. Thus, a zonal management plan based on safe groundwater use is formulated. The research findings can provide a plan reference of regional water resources supplies for local government administrators and developing groundwater resources in the Lanyang Plain.

  2. Evaluation of Combined Effect of Mercerized and Dyed Yarns on Physical Properties of Plain Single Jersey Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Elrys

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined effect of mercerized and dyed yarns on physical properties of plain single jersey knitted fabrics has been studied. Plied cotton yarn was produced and mercerized at different NaOH concentrations and temperatures. Then, this yarn was bleached and dyed with two types of dyes, vat dyeing and reactive dyeing. Each of mechanical and color properties were measured to these treated yarns. Plain single jersey knitted fabrics were produced from these treated yarns. The total evaluation of the properties for plain single jersey fabrics was measured by using radar chart method. It was found that the highest area of radar chart, which represents the total physical properties, is achieved at 32°Be′, in case of vat dyeing. Besides, analysis of variance (AVOVA and MANOVA were applied to illustrate which of the properties would be affected by NaOH con. and types of dyeing for yarns and fabrics.

  3. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, F G; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1977-10-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence.

  4. Viking 2 Image of Mars Utopian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The boulder-strewn field of red rocks reaches to the horizon nearly two miles from Viking 2 on Mars' Utopian Plain. Scientists believe the colors of the Martian surface and sky in this photo represent their true colors. Fine particles of red dust have settled on spacecraft surfaces. The salmon color of the sky is caused by dust particles suspended in the atmosphere. Color calibration charts for the cameras are mounted at three locations on the spacecraft. Note the blue starfield and red stripes of the flag. The circular structure at top is the high-gain antenna, pointed toward Earth. Viking 2 landed September 3, 1976, some 4600 miles from its twin, Viking 1, which touched down on July 20.

  5. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, F. G.; Edmonds, J. W.; Nolan, I. F.; Shepherd, R. C.; Gocs, A.

    1977-01-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence. PMID:20473

  6. Retention of riverine sediment and nutrient loads by coastal plain floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, G.B.; Hupp, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the frequent citation of wetlands as effective regulators of water quality, few quantitative estimates exist for their cumulative retention of the annual river loads of nutrients or sediments. Here we report measurements of sediment accretion and associated carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation as sedimentation over feldspar marker horizons placed on floodplains of the non-tidal, freshwater Coastal Plain reaches of seven rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, USA. We then scale these accumulation rates to the entire extent of non-tidal floodplain in the Coastal Plain of each river, defined as riparian area extending from the Fall Line to the upper limit of tidal influence, and compare them to annual river loads. Floodplains accumulated a very large amount of material compared to their annual river loads of sediment (median among rivers = 119%), nitrogen (24%), and phosphorus (59%). Systems with larger floodplain areas and longer floodplain inundation retained greater proportions of riverine loads of nitrogen and phosphorus, but systems with larger riverine loads retained a smaller proportion of that load on floodplains. Although the source and long-term fate of deposited sediment and associated nutrients are uncertain, these fluxes represent the interception of large amounts of material that otherwise could have been exported downstream. Coastal Plain floodplain ecosystems are important regulators of sediment, carbon, and nutrient transport in watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay.

  7. EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURE RECLAMATION ON THE HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain is the largest and most concentrated wetland region in China, the total area is about 1. 088×107ha with rich marsh resources and biodiversity. Before 1949, the Sanjiang Plain was a large untravelled wild plant and waterfowl habitat, and there were some rare swans, red-crowned cranes and thousands of hydrophytes. From 1950, the local government began to reclaim the marsh in the Sanjiang Plain, built the commodity grain base of Northeast China, and developed the industry of grain processing, animal husbandry, etc. Up to now, there are 54 farms which control 3. 5087×106ha agriculture field. The marsh areas are reduced by 1/2; many rare animals and plants are near extinction. The human activities and agriculture reclamation made a great change on the environment, especially made water balance change and regional climate change. So to study and protect the wetland ecosystem and marsh resource are extremely urgent. This paper focus on the hydrology change and climate change before and after marsh reclamation, including evapotranspiration, run off, soil character, micro-climate on both marsh and agriculture field, and the reason that cause seasonal drought, waterlogging and degeneration of marsh.

  8. VECTOR ANALYSIS THEORY ON LANDSCAPE PATTERN (VATLP) IN SANJIANG PLAIN MARSH,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-Qing; ZHANG Jun-Yan; LI Fang

    2004-01-01

    Landscape indices are popular for the quantification of landscape pattern. But all landscape indices being used so far are scalar quantity, which measure patterns without considering sufficiently the pattern size and the directionality together. Based on planar characteristics defined in mechanics such as centroid, moment of inertia, product of inertia, principal axes and so on, vector analysis theory on landscape pattern (VATLP) is explored here. Firstly we establish a coordinate system of centroidal principal axes (CSCPA) of a patch or patches. Some related new indices including those describing the direction of pattern distribution (patch orientation (PO), vectorial patch orientation (VPO)), and those indicating the shape of patch' s equivalent ellipse ( major axis (MJA), minor axis (MIA) and eccentric rate (ER)) are deduced. These landscape metrics are then applied to the pattern analysis of Sanjiang plain marsh, the study area. Two temporal vector-based data sets of the study area come from interpretation of remote sensing images MSS (1980) and TM (2000). The application of the theory captures some shape properties of riparian wetland in Sanjiang plain marsh. The dissymmetrieal featires of Sanjiang plain marsh around principal axes due to agricultural development could also be explained.

  9. Geothermal significance of magnetotelluric sounding in the eastern Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, W.D.; Boehl, J.E.; Bostick, F.X.; Smith, H.W.

    1977-06-10

    Magnetotelluric soundings along a profile extending from the Raft River geothermal area in southern Idaho in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming reveal a highly anamalous crustal structure involving a conductive zone at depths that range from 18 km in the central part of the eastern Snake River Plain to 7 km beneath the Raft River thermal area and as little as 5 km in Yellowstone. Resistivities in this conductive zone are less than 10 ohm m and at some sites than 1 ohm m. Structural parameters obtained in processing the magnetotelluric data suggest the possibility of a conductive axis along the center of the eastern Snake River Plain, and these parameters also point to very conductive structures beneath the Yellowstone caldera system. A sounding completed in the Island Park caldera can only be modeled with a crustal structure very different from the Yellowstone caldera system, requiring the absence of this conductive zone to depths greater than 25 km in the Island Park caldera. In addition to the deep conductive zone the thickness of extensive surface basalts in the eastern Snake River Plain was mapped geophysically, and units between the basalts and the deep conductive zone were also well defined and fitted to geologic models.

  10. Monuments culturels historiques dans la Plaine Roumaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA GRECU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail met en évidence le rôle de la position gé ographique dans le développement des objectifs culturels d’importance touristique et sci entifique locale, régionale ou nationale (les géosites culturels. Dans le développement des géos ites culturels de la Plaine Roumaine plusieurs étapes s’individualisent, avec des caractéristiques spécifiques: a l’étape prédaco-romaine avec les géosites néolithiques ; b l’étape daco-romaine , période dans laquelle des villes sont apparues le long des rivières allochtones (Argedava et du D anube (Turnu Magurele et Zimnicea ; c l’étape médiévale , à laquelle sont particulières les villes avec une spécificité architecturelle (Calafat, Braila et Galati et la capitale, Bucarest, fondée en 1459 ; d l’étape moderne des monuments d’une architecture nouvelle ; e l’étape contemporaine / socialiste (1948-1989 ; f l’étape actuelle (après 1989, caractérisée par un mélange d’architectures avec un impact sur l’évolution du phénomène touristique. La Plaine Roum aine, du à ses caractéristiques physico- géographiques et historiques, réunit une palette la rge de géosites culturels qui pourraient se transformer en vrais objectifs touristiques.

  11. Generalized potentiometric-surface map of the High Plains aquifer in Wyoming, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Charles; Pettijohn, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A potentiometric-surface map shows the general configuration of the water surface for the High Plains Aquifer, which is composed of Oligocene age and younger rocks in southeastern Wyoming. The potentiometric contours are shown at 100-foot intervals on a map at a scale of 1:250,000. The High Plains Aquifer in Wyoming underlies an area of 8,190 square miles and geologically consists of the White River Formation of Oligocene age, the Arikaree Formation of early Miocene age, the Ogallala Formation of late Miocene age, and alluvial deposits of Quaternary age. The altitude of the potentiometric surface declines from about 7 ,100 feet in southwestern Laramie County to about 4,100 feet in eastern Goshen County. Typically, the slope is between 20 and 30 feet per mile; the general direction of flow is eastward. (USGS)

  12. Hydrology and digital simulation of the regional aquifer system, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The occurrence and movement of water in the regional aquifer system that underlies the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, de- pend on the transmissivity and storage capacity of rocks that compose the geologic framework and on the distribution and amount of recharge and discharge of water within that frame- work. On a regional scale, most water moves horizontally through interflow zones in Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group. In recharge and discharge areas, water also moves vertically along joints and interfingering edges of basalt flows. Aquifer thickness is largely unknown, but geophysical studies suggest that locally the Quaternary basalt may exceed several thousand feet. Along the margins of the plain, sand and gravel several hundred feet thick transmit large volumes of water.

  13. Simulation Of Nitrate Transport Contamination (Case Study: Shemiranat Plain, Tehran, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeh Kolahchi, A.; Yaharii, M.

    2016-12-01

    In recent year, the quality of domestic groundwater drastically reduced mainly due to the industrial and agricultural activities and municipal wastewater that leaks into aquifers. Nitrate is one of the most important sources of groundwater contamination in urban area such as Shemiranat Plain which located in North of Tehran, Iran. The aims of this study are to simulate the groundwater flow and nitrate transport and map the variability and trend of nitrate contamination in the Shemiranat aquifer as well. Aquifer parameters, groundwater level, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield and recharge values used for flow simulation and nitrate characteristics such as diffusion coefficient, longitudinal dispersivity and distribution coefficient used for transport simulation respectively. Then the model successfully calibrated (2010-2011) and validated monthly form September 2011 to August 2012. The results show that the high value of Nitrate concentration and trend of Nitrate transport is occurred from South to South-East of Shemiranat plain.

  14. Early warning research on salt-alkalization desertification in western Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Desertification is an environmental issue in the world. The salt-alkalization desertification land area formed by both primary and secondary salt-alkalization has extended in a large scale, which has become a significant eco-environmental problem. Based on the characteristics of eco-environment and the situation ofdesertification in western Songnen plain, this paper reports the analyzes of its formation in background and cause. An early warning system on the salt-alkalization desertification is established and the GIS technology is used to abstract the information of desertification evaluation index. Supported by the integrated technology of the GIS and ANN, the orientation and quantitative result of desertification are gained, which is helpful to the eco-environment protection and resource development in western Songnen Plain.

  15. Electrical structure of Plaine des Sables caldera, Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Schnegg

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available An Audio Magnetotelluric (AMT profile has been carried out across the Plaine des Sables, a former caldera of the active Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island. Located in the Western Indian Ocean, between the Mascarene and Madagascar basins, this basaltic shield volcano originates from the activity of a hot spot. Our aim was to determine the internal structure of the volcano, in particular the shallow electrical properties of an area extending between the old and the new caldera rims. Although several teams had already conducted AMT work in this region a few years ago, there was a need for more a detailed, in depth survey. Our final model displays a noticeable slope of the Plaine des Sables basement oriented toward the present Fournaise summit. This slope is interpreted as resulting from successive landslides toward the ocean. We conclude that this dipping, electrically good conducting layer, probably belongs to the flat layering of an older caldera.

  16. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  17. Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Kussainova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of land degradation is essential to check the problem and to implement the remedial measures needed. The study area falls under parts of foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, that is an arid region in climate. Recent data on the status of study area refer to the 80s of the last century, and the intensive use of them led to a significant anthropogenic transformation. This study was carried out in 2015-2016 as part of a project aimed to study features and causes of land degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan. Under the conditions of rainfed soil degradation manifests itself in the development of erosion processes, agro depletion of soils, reducing the productivity of agriculture. The use of land for irrigation often accompanied by secondary salinization. In this regard, at present there is need to assess current state of the soil, with the identification of changes in their properties as a result of the impact of various anthropogenic factors and creation of new electronic soil maps and applied the powerful capabilities of advanced remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS techniques to identify the geomorphological units and degradation risk assessment. Satellite imagery in addition to the field and laboratory studies to identify salinity-induced soil degradation was adopted in this study. Morphological, chemical and physical characteristics of soils in degraded sites in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, were depicted. The main results of a thorough evaluation of soil degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, are presented. The data revealed that extent of salinity-induced degradation was generally related to some physical properties of soil, uncontrolled livestock grazing and previous soil management practices. These results are useful as the basis for designing soil conservation and restoration programs, as a base line for evaluating the performance of conservation

  18. Risk Modelling of Late Spring Frost Damage on Fruit Trees, Case Study; Apple Tree, Mashhad Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahimi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mashhad plain is one of the most important regions of Apple cultivated areas. Occurring spring late frost creates a lot of damages on bud and decreasing the yield of Apple in this region. Assessment and risk modeling of frost damage would be useful to manage and decrease the damage. The study area is a part of Khorasan Razavi province which is located in Mashhad plain. This region is located in Northeast Iran (36º to 37 º N, 58 º 30' to 60 º E. The area of this region is about 13000 square km which is about one tenth of Khorasan province area. In order to modeling frost damage risk 12 affective parameters including climatological(Minimum temperature, temperature decreasing rate, temperature Increasing rate, Julian days of frost, cumulative degree days, Area under zero line, and frost duration and geographical parameters (Elevation, Longitude, Latitude, Aspect, and slope were selected. 3 damage full radiative frosts were selected in the period of Apple flowering time which was dated 20 April 2003, 8 April 2005, and 28 March 2005. Required meteorological data were collected from 9 meteorological standard stations inside and outside of study area. Linear multiple regression were used to modeling the relationship. The map for each parameter was plotted by using suitable interpolation method including IDW; Spline; Kriging. A grid map was defined with 5 by 5 kilometers to extract enough data for entering to the model. The regression equation was significant at the level of 99% significance. By using this equation the predicted amounts of frost risk damage were calculated for each point of grid and also the map was plotted. The regression equation of observed and predicted frost damage risk was provided by correlation of 0.93 and the error map also was prepared. According to this study in frost of 31 Farvardin 1388 South West parts of the plain estimated as the most frost risk areas by %53.19 and the southeast parts were estimated as the least

  19. Magnetotelluric and DC electrical soundings in the Po plain (Veneto region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, L.; Giudici, M. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Sezione di geofisica; Zaja, A. [Padua Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Geologia, Paleontologia e Geofisica

    1998-08-01

    Eleven MT soundings and two dipole-dipole electrical soundings were carried out in the area of the Po plain south of the town of Padua. MT soundings were performed in the frequency band from 100 to 1/64 Hz; DC soundings were achieved, respectively with a 2000 and 4000 m length of the array. The electrical interpretative models show a predominant monoclinical tectonic behaviour with an evident deepening of the resistive basement toward NE. The joint use of the two electrical techniques defined the geological and structural setting up to a depth of 2 km in a highly conductive area.

  20. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A critical review of seismotectonic setting of the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy) in GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiosi, Germana; Alessio, Giuliana; Luiso, Paola; Nappi, Rosa; Ricciolino, Patrizia

    2010-05-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene Campanian Plain is a structural depression of the Southern Italy located between the eastern side of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Southern Apennine chain. It is surrounded to the North, East and South by the Mesozoic carbonate massifs of the Apennine chain and, to the West, by the Tyrrhenian Sea. The graben origin is similar to other peri-Tyrrhenian regions and is related to a stretching and thinning of the continental crust by the counterclockwise rotation of the Italian peninsula and the contemporaneous opening of the Tyrrhenian sea. The consequent subsidence of the Campanian carbonate platform took place along the Tyrrhenian coast during the Plio-Pleistocene with a maximum vertical extent of 5 km. The plain is filled by volcanic and clastic, continental and marine deposits. Voluminous volcanic activity of Roccamonfina, Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Procida and Vesuvio occurred in the Plain during the Quaternary. In the middle of the plain lies the city of Naples, bordered by the two active volcanoes of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvio. It is a very densely inhabited area that is exposed to high potential volcanic risk. The stress field acting in the Campanian area is poorly known. Structural observations on the Pleistocene faults suggest normal to sinistral movements for the NW- SE-trending faults and normal to dextral for the NE-SW-trending structures. These movements are consistent with those of the structures affecting the inner margin of the Southern Apennines. The Campanian Plain is characterized by seismicity of energy lower than the seismic activity of the Southern Apennine chain. The earthquakes mainly occur along the margin of the plain, in the volcanic areas and a minor seismicity spreads out inside the Plain. The aim of this paper is an attempt to identify active, outcropping and buried fault systems of the Campanian plain through the correlation between seismicity and tectonic structures. Seismic, geologic and geomorphologic data have been

  2. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2016-01-29

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p < 0.001) and to contain better tasting cigarettes (β = 3.53, p < 0.001), but were not perceived as less harmful than plain packs. Participants rated people who smoke the branded packs as having relatively more positive smoker-image traits overall (β = 2.10, p < 0.001), with particularly strong differences found among non-smokers for the traits 'glamorous', 'stylish', 'popular' and 'sophisticated' (p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was found for the proportion of youth that accepted when offered branded compared with plain packs. These results suggest that plain packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries.

  3. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    smallest, about 50 milligrams per liter, in streams such as the Boise River that drain areas of granitic rocks; concentrations are greatest, about 400 milligrams per liter, in streams such as the Owyhee and Raft Rivers that drain area of sedimentary rocks. Water chemistry reflects the interaction of surface water and ground water. The chemical composition of ground water in the plain is essentially the same as that in streamflow and groundwater discharge from tributary drainage basins. Tributary drainage basins supplied 85 percent of the ground-water recharge in the eastern plain during 1980 and a nearly equivalent percentage of the solute load in ground water; human activities and dissolution of minerals supplied the other solutes. Dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water were generally less than 400 milligrams per liter. Water from the lower geothermal system is chemically different from water from the upper cold-water system. Geothermal water typically has greater concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, silica, arsenic, boron, and lithium and smaller concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen. Difference are attributed to ion exchange as geothermal moves through the rock framework. Irrigation, mostly on the Snake River Plain, accounted for about 96 percent of consumptive water use in Idaho during 1980. The use of surface water for irrigation for more than 100 years has caused major changes in the hydrologic system on the plain. Construction of dams, reservoirs, and diversifications effected planned changes in the surface-water system but resulted in largely unplanned changes in the ground-water system. During those years of irrigation, annual recharge in the main part of the eastern plain increased to about 6.7 million acre-feet in 1980, or by about 70 percent. Most of the increase was from percolation of surface water diverted for irrigation. From preirrigation to 1952, groundwater storage increased about 24 million acre

  4. Trends in Playa Inundation and Water Storage in the Ogallala Aquifer on the Texas High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gitz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ogallala Aquifer is an important source of irrigation water on the Texas High plains; however, significant decreases in saturated thickness threaten its future use for irrigation. A better understanding of the roles of playas, ephemeral surface ponds, in aquifer recharge is needed to establish levels of withdrawals that will meet either established desired future conditions or sustainability. In this study, data regarding playa inundation, depth to groundwater, precipitation and land cover from 2001 to 2011 were collected and analyzed to ascertain associations between these characteristics for four study areas on the Texas High plains. Each area covered 40,000–70,000 ha. Three of the study areas in Hockley, Floyd and Swisher counties were chosen because their center contained a playa instrumented to measure weather and depth of inundation. There were 20 distinct inundation events at the three instrumented playas between 2006 and 2010. For each of these inundations, water loss exceeded rates of potential evapotranspiration (ET by a factor of 1.6–15.7 times, implying that infiltration was occurring. Playa inundation in all four study areas was also assessed by analyzing images from the National Agricultural Imaginary program. Data on depth to groundwater were analyzed from 2000 to 2010 to determine annual changes of stored water. Annual changes in groundwater were weakly associated with surface area of inundated playas in late summer, but was strongly associated with annual rainfall. Rates of infiltration based on playa water loss versus potential ET, and volume of water in playas was more than sufficient to account for annual changes in groundwater. Land use adjoining the playas had less of influence on playa inundation than annual rainfall. These results strengthen the argument that water storage in playas on the Texas High Plains is an important source of water for aquifer recharge.

  5. Sustainable Authorship in Plain Text using Pandoc and Markdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tenen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this tutorial, you will first learn the basics of Markdown—an easy to read and write markup syntax for plain text—as well as Pandoc, a command line tool that converts plain text into a number of beautifully formatted file types: PDF, .docx, HTML, LaTeX, slide decks, and more.1 With Pandoc as your digital typesetting tool, you can use Markdown syntax to add figures, a bibliography, formatting, and easily change citation styles from Chicago to MLA (for instance, all using plain text.

  6. Temperature Variation of Jiamusi Region in Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at analysing the change characteristics of temperature in Jiamusi region of Sanjiang Plain.[Method] Based on temperature data of Jiamusi region in Sanjiang Plain from 1961 to 2010,including Jiamusi,Huanan,Fujin and Fuyuan station,we studied the change trends,abrupt climate change and abnormal years of temperature in Jiamusi region.[Result] Annual average temperature of Jiamusi region in Sanjiang Plain showed increasing trend,with the increase of 0.249-0.412 ℃/10 a.The order of an...

  7. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  8. Mapping the northern plains of Mars: origins, evolution and response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Costard, François; Gallagher, Colman; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hauber, Ernst; Johnsson, Andreas; Kereszturi, Akos; Platz, Thomas; Ramsdale, Jason; Reiss, Dennis; Séjourné, Antoine; Skinner, James; Swirad, Zuzanna

    2014-05-01

    An ISSI (International Space Science Institute) international team has been convened to study the Northern Plain of Mars. The northern plains are extensive, geologically young, low-lying areas that contrast in age and relief to Mars' older, heavily cratered, southern highlands. Mars' northern plains are characterised by a wealth of landforms and landscapes that have been inferred to be related to the presence of ice or ice-rich material near, beneath, or at the surface. Such landforms include 'scalloped' pits and depressions, polygonally-patterned grounds, and viscous flow features similar in form to terrestrial glacial or ice-sheet landforms. Furthermore, new (within the last few years) impact craters have exposed ice in the northern plains, and spectral data from orbiting instruments have revealed the presence of tens of percent by weight of water within the upper most ~50 cm of the martian surface at high latitudes. The northern plains comprise three linked zones: Acidalia Planitia, Utopia Planitia and Arcadia Planitia. Each region consists of a shallow basin, with the three areas are separated by low topographic divides. Our aim is to study the ice-related geomorphology of each region in order to understand the origins, evolution and response to climate change of ice on Mars. In particular, by comparing and contrasting the three separate basins we hope to determine if the processes that created the ice-related terrains are regional (perhaps basin limited) or global in scope, and whether the differing geology of each basin has an effect on the ice-related features observed there. The ISSI team is using planetary geomorphological mapping to meet this aim. Three long strips, each about 250 km wide and spanning the ~30N to ~80N latitude range have been defined and sub-teams are each mapping a single area. The group contains experts in mapping, GIS and crater counting (details in the size-frequency distribution of impact craters on a planetary surface can reveal

  9. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  10. Land Transitions in the American Plains: Multilevel Modeling of Drivers of Grassland Conversion (1950 to 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Kenneth M; Brown, Daniel G; Deane, Glenn D; Kornak, Rachel N

    2013-03-15

    This paper examines drivers of land-cover change in the U.S. Great Plains in the last half of the twentieth century. Its central aim is to evaluate the dynamics of grassland preservation and conversion, across the region, and to identify areas of grassland that were never plowed during the period. The research compares land-cover data from 400 sample areas, selected from and nested within 50 counties, to aggregate data from the agricultural and population censuses. The spatially explicit land-cover data were interpreted from aerial photographs taken at three time points (1950s, 1970s and 2000s). Sample areas were chosen using a stratified random design based on the Public Land Survey grid with in the target counties, in several clusters across the region. We modeled the sequences and magnitudes of changes in the interpreted air photo data in a multi-level panel model that included soil quality and slope of sample areas and agricultural activities and employment reported in the U.S. Censuses of Agriculture and Population. We conclude that land retirement programs and production subsidies have worked at cross purposes, destabilizing micro-level patterns of land use in recent decades, increasing levels of switching between cropland and grassland and reducing the size of remaining areas of native grassland in the U.S. Great Plains.

  11. Heat flow and ground water flow in the Great Plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnold, William D.

    1985-12-01

    Regional groundwater flow in deep aquifers adds advective components to the surface heat flow over extensive areas within the Great Plains province. The regional groundwater flow is driven by topographically controlled piezometric surfaces for confined aquifers that recharge either at high elevations on the western edge of the province or from subcrop contacts. The aquifers discharge at lower elevations to the east. The assymetrical geometry for the Denver and Kennedy Basins is such that the surface areas of aquifer recharge are small compared to the areas of discharge. Consequently, positive advective heat flow occurs over most of the province. The advective component of heat flow in the Denver Basin is on the order of 15 mW m -2 along a zone about 50 km wide that parallels the structure contours of the Dakota aquifer on the eastern margin of the Basin. The advective component of heat flow in the Kennedy Basin is on the order of 20 mW m -2 and occurs over an extensive area that coincides with the discharge areas of the Madison (Mississippian) and Dakota (Cretaceous) aquifers. Groundwater flow in Paleozoic and Mesozoic aquifers in the Williston Basin causes thermal anomalies that are seen in geothermal gradient data and in oil well temperature data. The pervasive nature of advective heat flow components in the Great Plains tends to mask the heat flow structure of the crust, and only heat flow data from holes drilled into the crystalline basement can be used for tectonic heat flow studies.

  12. Shorebird abundance and distribution on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S.; Bart, J.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Johnson, J.A.; Kendall, S.; Payer, D.; Johnson, J.

    2007-01-01

    The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge hosts seven species of migratory shorebirds listed as highly imperiled or high priority by the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan and five species listed as Birds of Conservation Concern by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. During the first comprehensive shorebird survey of the 674 000 ha "1002 Area" on the coastal plain, we recorded 14 species of breeding shorebirds at 197 rapidly surveyed plots during June 2002 and 2004. We also estimated detection ratios with a double counting technique, using data collected at 37 intensively studied plots located on the North Slope of Alaska and northern Canada. We stratified the study area by major habitat types, including wetlands, moist areas, uplands, and riparian areas, using previously classified Landsat imagery. We developed population estimates with confidence limits by species, and estimated the total number of shorebirds in the study area to be 230 000 (95% CI: 104 000-363 000), which exceeds the biological criterion for classification as both a Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network Site of International Importance (100 000 birds) and a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance (20 000 birds), even when conservatively estimated. Species richness and the density of many species were highest in wetland or riparian habitats, which are clustered along the coast. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  13. Genesis of Sr Isotopes in Groundwater of Hebei Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the genesis of Sr isotopes in groundwater of Hebei plain, time-accumulative effect of 87Sr/86Sr ratio was studied. It is shown that 87Sr/86Sr ratio increases with the increasing age and depth of groundwater and has a positive correlation to 4Heexc and a negative correlation to δ18O and δD.The groundwater is divided into three groups to discuss the relation between 87Sr/86Sr ratio and Sr2+ content: ① moderate Sr2+ content and higher 87Sr/86Sr ratio (water Ⅰ); ② lower Sr2+ content and higher 87Sr/86Sr ratio (water Ⅱ); and ③ higher Sr2+ content and lower 87Sr/86Sr ratio (water Ⅲ), that is hot water. On the basis of integrated analysis, it was considered that ① the radiogenic Sr in the Quaternary groundwater (Q4-Q1) originates from weathering of silicate rich in Na and Rb, mainly from plagioclase; ② the radiogenic Sr of hot water in Huanghua port is attributed to carbonate dissolution, with lower 87Sr/86Sr ratio and higher Sr/Na ratio; ③ the recharge area is laterally recharged by the groundwater flowing through igneous and metamorphic rocks, with moderate 87Sr/86Sr ratio. However, the formation mechanism of Sr isotopes in Tertiary groundwater needs further studies.

  14. Segetal flora of the Łuków Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Rzymowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to characterize and analyze the segetal flora of the Łuków Plain. The study was carried out from 2003 to 2006 in 182 towns and villages. Vascular flora of the arable fields in the area under study consists of 305 species belonging to 39 families and 168 genera. The analysed flora is characterised by the prevalence of native species (64.6% over alien species (35.4%. Archaeophytes dominate among anthropophytes, whereas meadow species are the most frequent in the group of apophytes. Annuals and biennials show a slight prevalence over perennials. The analysis of the life-form categories shows the dominance of therophytes (52.8% as well as a relatively high share of hemicryptophytes (34.4% and geophytes (12.5%. In the analysed flora, rare and very rare species constitute a vast majority (61.7%, whereas the common and very common species reach 13.1%.

  15. Appendix 1—California plant community types represented in Forest Service research natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheauchi Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Community types and codes (Holland 1986) are in boldface; research natural area names (with ecological survey names in parentheses, if different from the research natural area names) are in plain type.

  16. Pharmacokinetic study of a new oral buffered acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation in comparison with plain ASA in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, G; Garagiola, U; Gaspari, F

    1991-01-01

    A single-blind, randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic study was carried out to investigate the bioavailability of a new oral buffered 325 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation (ASPIRINA 03) in comparison with a 325 mg plain tablet. Twelve healthy volunteers of both sexes, aged between 20 and 37 years, received buffered or plain ASA on two separate occasions with a wash-out interval of at least two weeks. ASA and salicylic acid (SA) plasma levels were determined by a chromatographic method. The results showed no difference between the area under concentration time curve (AUC0-infinity) ASA values of both formulations (p = 0.19), and buffered ASA relative bioavailability was 102.49% (= bioequivalence). A significant difference was found between the AUC0-30 min ASA values: 90.5 micrograms. min/ml with buffered and 67.7 micrograms. min/ml with the plain tablet (p less than 0.05). The buffered ASA time of maximum concentration was shorter (28 +/- 8 min) than the plain one (38 +/- 19 min, p less than 0.05). The plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of SA were not significantly different after the administration of the two ASA formulations. The plain ASA tablet had a significantly lower (p less than 0.05) dissolution rate than buffered ASA tablet. Moreover, the buffered ASA tablet significantly (p less than 0.01) increased the pH by 0.5 units. In conclusion, the bioavailability of the new oral buffered ASA was equivalent to that of plain ASA, but the plasma concentration peak was reached in a shorter time.

  17. Assessment of the Effect of Fruit (Apple and Plain Yoghurt Consumption on Plaque pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Moeiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, thanks to improvements in fruit yoghurt tastes, more tendencies are seen in their consumption especially among children. Therefore, their cariogenicity evaluation as healthy snacks is important. The goal of this study was the assessment of the consumption effect of two kinds of Iranian fruit (apple and plain yoghurts on dental plaque PH. Methods: In this experimental study, 10 healthy dentistry students were selected upon inclusion criteria. Plaque pH in the certain areas of the mouth was measured by microelectrode and digital pH meter. PH was measured at the baseline and intervals of 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes after eating test products: fruit yoghurt (apple and plain Yoghurt. For positive control group, just the baseline PH and at intervals of 2 and 5 min after swishing with 10% sucrose solutions were recorded. The results were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Lowest pH was obtained after fruit yoghurt consumption followed by plain yoghurt and %10 sucrose solution and the plaque PH difference was significant (P=0.05. Furthermore, time duration which remained below the critical pH was longer after consuming fruit yoghurt. Conclusion: Both kinds of yoghurts were considered cariogenic since plaque pH drop below critical points. Average of plaque pH after consuming fruit yoghurt was significantly lower in almost all the time intervals

  18. Estimating occurrence and detection probabilities for stream-breeding salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Jennifer Y.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Qualls, Carl P.

    2017-01-01

    Large gaps exist in our knowledge of the ecology of stream-breeding plethodontid salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Data describing where these salamanders are likely to occur along environmental gradients, as well as their likelihood of detection, are important for the prevention and management of amphibian declines. We used presence/absence data from leaf litter bag surveys and a hierarchical Bayesian multispecies single-season occupancy model to estimate the occurrence of five species of plethodontids across reaches in headwater streams in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Average detection probabilities were high (range = 0.432–0.942) and unaffected by sampling covariates specific to the use of litter bags (i.e., bag submergence, sampling season, in-stream cover). Estimates of occurrence probabilities differed substantially between species (range = 0.092–0.703) and were influenced by the size of the upstream drainage area and by the maximum proportion of the reach that dried. The effects of these two factors were not equivalent across species. Our results demonstrate that hierarchical multispecies models successfully estimate occurrence parameters for both rare and common stream-breeding plethodontids. The resulting models clarify how species are distributed within stream networks, and they provide baseline values that will be useful in evaluating the conservation statuses of plethodontid species within lotic systems in the Gulf Coastal Plain.

  19. Using EARTH Model to Estimate Groundwater Recharge at Five Representative Zones in the Hebei Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingguo Wang; Menggui Jin; Xing Liang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is essential for efficient and sustainable groundwater management in many semi-arid regions. In this paper, a lumped parameter model (EARTH) was established to simulate the recharge rate and recharge process in typical areas by the ob-servation datum of weather, soil water and groundwater synthetically, and the spatial and temporal variation law of groundwater recharge in the Hebei Plain was revealed. The mean annual recharge rates at LQ, LC, HS, DZ and CZ representative zones are 220.1, 196.7, 34.1, 141.0 and 188.0 mm/a and the recharge coefficients are 26.5%, 22.3%, 7.2%, 20.4%, and 22.0%, respectively. Recharge rate and re-charge coefficient are gradually reduced from piedmont plain to coastal plain. Groundwater recharge appears as only yearly waves, with higher frequency components of the input series filtered by the deep complicated unsaturated zone (such as LC). While at other zones, groundwater recharge series strongly dependent on the daily rainfall and irrigation because of the shallow water table or coarse lithology.

  20. Wetland degradation: its driving forces and environmental impacts in the Sanjiang Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Wang, Zongming; Du, Jia; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Lihong; Ren, Chunying

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated human-induced long-term wetland degradation that occurred in the Sanjiang Plain. Results from analyzing land-use/land-cover data sets derived from remotely sensed Landsat Multispectral Scanner/Thematic Mapper imagery for four time points showed that wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain have been severely transformed, and the area of wetlands decreased by 38 % from 1976 to 1986, by 16 % from 1986 to 1995, and by 31 % from 1995 to 2005. This study showed that transition to agricultural cultivation accounted for 91 % of wetland losses, whereas transition to grassland and forest accounted for 7 % of the wetlands losses. Institutional strategies and market policies probably exerted great impacts on agricultural practice that directly or indirectly influenced the decrease in wetlands. This study also indicated that an increased population likely led to wetland conversion to cropland by showing a high correlation between population and cropland (R (2) = 0.92, P Wetland loss occurred during later time intervals at a low rate. This study suggests that the existing wetland-protection measures in the Sanjiang Plain should be reinforced further because of possible environmental consequences of wetland loss, such as enhanced soil carbon emission, changed hydrological cycling, and regional temperature increase.

  1. Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J.F.; Cairns, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly in five different forest types in swamp and levee areas. Leaves from 42 species of trees and other plants accounted for 58 percent of total litter fall. The remaining 42 percent was nonleaf material. Average litter fall was 800 grams per square meter per year in the flood plain. Tupelo (Nyssa), baldcypress (Taxodium), and ash (Fraxinus), all swamp-adapted trees, produce over 50 percent of the leaf fall. Common levee species such as sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) are also major contributors to total flood-plain litter fall. Annual flooding of the river provides an important mechanism for mobilization of the litter-fall products. Leaf decomposition rates were greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon loss was nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen and phosphorus loss was exponential and nearly complete within 1 month. (USGS)

  2. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leech, S.C.; Sullivan, P.B. [Dept. of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); McHugh, K. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  3. Space-Time-Isotopic Trends of Snake River Plain Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, M. M.; Hanan, B. B.; Shervais, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    plain high-K lavas ranges to > 99%, higher than low-K thoileiites (97-99%) from the same region. This trend is controlled by ancient cratonic lithosphere like that of the Wyoming province. This province superimposes its inherent isotopic composition on sublithospheric plume and/or asthenospheric melts. Seismic tomography and upper mantle velocity variations coupled with these results demonstrate that the sub-continental lithospheric mantle was thermally eroded and removed after this area passed over the Yellowstone plume (e.g. Humphreys and co-workers). Removal of the SCLM apparently allowed upwelling and decompression melting of residual plume material occupying the eroded plume channel. This resulted in a mantle source where the plume:SCLM ratio was greater for high-K basalts, than the low-K tholeiite source. The change in mantle source regions could have happened in as little as 200,000 years (e.g., Vetter and Shervais, 2009).

  4. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  5. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  6. Snake River Plain Basin-fill aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Snake River Plain aquifer system, which includes both the basaltic and basin-fill aquifers. This dataset does not...

  7. Particulate Loads Caused by Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Lawrence J.; Woodruff, Neil P.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the annual flux of suspended particulates caused by wind erosion in the Great Plains is estimated. This study demonstrated that climate causes wide variations in air pollution from wind erosion. (BT)

  8. Subcropping Geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Subcropping geology for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was compiled and interpreted from available published sources. Formation contacts were interpolated across...

  9. Whooping crane stopover site use intensity within the Great Plains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas- Wood Buffalo population migrate twice each year through the Great Plains in North America. Recovery activities for...

  10. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  11. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car...

  12. Vegetation - Carrizo Plain ER, 2005 - 2008 [ds561

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Vegetation Map of the Carrizo Plain Ecological Reserve, San Luis Obispo County, California was created by the California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  13. Base of aquifer contours for the Northern High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several pre-existing datasets that characterize portions of the Northern High Plains aquifer base were merged together in order to define the entire base of the...

  14. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  15. 2003 Pearl River County, Mississippi Lidar: Flood Plain Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar data was collected primarily for flood plain mapping within Pearl River County, MS. The data were processed into separate Bare Earth and First Surface...

  16. Drought Forecasting with Vegetation Temperature Condition Index Using ARIMA Models in the Guanzhong Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Tian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper works on the agricultural drought forecasting in the Guanzhong Plain of China using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA models based on the time series of drought monitoring results of Vegetation Temperature Condition Index (VTCI. About 90 VTCI images derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data were selected to develop the ARIMA models from the erecting stage to the maturity stage of winter wheat (early March to late May in each year at a ten-day interval of the years from 2000 to 2009. We take the study area overlying on the administration map around the study area, and divide the study area into 17 parts where at least one weather station is located in each part. The pixels where the 17 weather stations are located are firstly chosen and studied for their fitting models, and then the best models for all pixels of the whole area are determined. According to the procedures for the models’ development, the selected best models for the 17 pixels are identified and the forecast is done with three steps. The forecasting results of the ARIMA models were compared with the monitoring ones. The results show that with reference to the categorized VTCI drought monitoring results, the categorized forecasting results of the ARIMA models are in good agreement with the monitoring ones. The categorized drought forecasting results of the ARIMA models are more severity in the northeast of the Plain in April 2009, which are in good agreements with the monitoring ones. The absolute errors of the AR(1 models are lower than the SARIMA models, both in the frequency distributions and in the statistic results. However, the ability of SARIMA models to detect the changes of the drought situation is better than the AR(1 models. These results indicate that the ARIMA models can better forecast the category and extent of droughts and can be applied to forecast droughts in the Plain.

  17. Some tactile comfort properties of plain knitted fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković, Snežana; Bizjak, Matejka

    2011-01-01

    The sensory perception of textile materials is related to mechanical stimuli due to pressure and friction forces, so the softness and surface properties are considered to be the key parameters of fabric hand. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the fibre type, yarn structure and spinning technique on softness and surface properties of plain knitted fabrics. Plain knitted fabrics (jersey) were produced from the two- assembled hemp, viscose and cotton yarns so as to obtain...

  18. Facet tropism: comparison of plain film and computed tomography examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J M; Aspegren, D D; Trier, K K

    1991-01-01

    This study compares the findings of plain film X-ray and computed CT examination in the diagnosis of facet orientation and the presence of tropism. Twenty consecutive patients having lumbar disc disease with sciatica were studied utilizing plain X-ray as well as CT scanning. A chiropractic radiologist read the films to determine if facet facings were sagittally, semi-sagittally or coronally oriented on both CT and plain X-ray study. CT was accepted as the most accurate method to determine the true facet orientation, and plain X-ray interpretation of facet orientation was compared to the CT reading. There was a statistically significant relationship in diagnosing tropism between plain film X-ray and CT readings, with a predictive accuracy that ranged from 58-84% across the three segmental levels. However, the exact concordance of plain film X-ray and CT readings for right and left facet facings was very low. This raises the question of how the profession defines diagnostic accuracy.

  19. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. PMID:25897269

  20. A study of soil organic carbon distribution and storage in the Northeast Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Unit Soil Carbon Amount (USCA approach, soil carbon storage was calculated across the Northeast Plain of China based on the Multi-purpose Regional Geochemical Survey conducted in 2004–2006 (MRGS. The results indicated that the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in topsoil (0–0.2 m, subsoil (0–1 m and deep soil (0–1.8 m was 768.1 Mt, 2978.4 Mt and 3729.2 Mt with densities of 3327.8 t/km2, 12,904.7 t/km2 and 16,157.5 t/km2, respectively. These values were consistent with national averages, whereas the soil carbon densities showed a clear increasing trend from the southern area of the Northeast Plain (Liaoning, to the middle (Jilin and the northern Plain (Heilongjiang — particularly in terms of topsoil carbon density, which increased from 2284.2, to 3436.7 and 3861.5 t/km2, respectively. In comparison to carbon data obtained from the Second National Soil Survey in 1984–1986 (SNSS, the topsoil SOC storage values from the MRGS were found to have decreased by 320.59 Mt (29.4%, with an average annual decline of 16.0 Mt (l.73% over the 20 years. In the southern, middle and northern areas of the plain, soil carbon densities decreased by 1060.6 t/km2, 1646.4 t/km2 and 1300.2 t/km2, respectively, with an average value of 1389.0 t/km2 for the whole plain. These findings indicate that the decrease in soil carbon density varied according to the different ecosystems and land-use types. Therefore, ratios of soil carbon density were calculated in order to study the carbon dynamic balance between ecosystems, and to further explore distribution characteristics, as well as the sequestration potential of SOC.

  1. Flood risk mitigation and anthropogenic modifications of a coastal plain in southern Italy: combined effects over the past 150 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effects of human modification of a coastal plain mainly involving land reclamation and flood protection is proposed. The approach involves historical, geomorphological and hydrological data as a whole, taking into account the equilibrium of rivers, plains and coastal areas.

    The test area, a telling example of profound economic and social transformation of a coastal plain, is the Piana di Sibari (Calabria, southern Italy, subject to major human modifications over the last 150 years. The study area, at most 300 m a.s.l., is 450 km2 wide and comprises 24 hydrographic basins.

    The approach is based on the creation and analysis of four databases: 1 a historical series of geo-coded flood damage (DAMAGES database, concerning damaging floods which occurred over the past few centuries in the study area; 2 a geocoded series of protection works for land reclamation, protection from floods and improvement of soil stability in steep areas (WORKS database, gathered from the archives of the agencies that carried out the works, organized in a GIS-format; 3 a historical series of maximum flood discharges and extreme rainy events (HYMAX database aimed at defining the trends of occurrence and the intensity of flooding; 4 a coastal line position and migration over time (COASTAL database, created using mainly literature data based on discontinuous data such as historical maps and images.

    The work describes the complex succession of floods, protection and reclamation works, human transformation of the plain and major land use changes over the last two centuries in the test area. The new characteristics of the plain and its modifications, including major engineering works, land-use transformation and urbanisation, are illustrated. The damaging floods of the last 200 years, the modifications of runoff and flooding due to works built over the basins, hydrological data and the records concerning coastal

  2. Governmental policies drive the LUCC trajectories in the Jianghan Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Shao, Qihui; Li, Rendong; Song, Mingjie; Zhou, Yong

    2013-12-01

    The prosperity of farmers is closely tied to governmental policies. The Jianghan Plain is an important region for commodity grains, cotton and edible oil for China. The trajectories of land use and land cover change (LUCC) of the study area from 1995 to 2010 were studied based on the LUCC database of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The LUCC was characterised by a continuous decrease of arable land and continuous increase of waters and construction land. The LUCC was obviously concurrent with the implementation of related national policies. The transition to construction land was ever well controlled by 'Notice regarding the further strengthening of land management and arable land protection' promulgated in 1997. However, it flourished again with the 'Rise of Central China Strategy' taking effect since 2006. The transition of construction land to others reflects an uncommon trend, which must be strengthened with the strict implementation of the overall plan, which imposes a limited acreage quota of construction land to each district. The policies were quite contradictory to the transition of waters. LUCC related to waters is most active, which was driven by both natural forces and national policies. Just after the devastating flood of 1998, the state council of China put forward the Green Policy to govern the major rivers. As to the study area, it is mainly to 'push over dykes to let flood through and return farmland to lakes'. In 2004, the Grain Direct Subsidy Policy was implemented, which, along with the surge in the price of rice, resulted in a strengthening trend of conversion of ponds to paddy fields.

  3. Potential Liquefaction of Loose Sand Lenses: Case Study In Surabaya East Coastal Plain, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putera Agung M. Agung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The zone of east coastal Surabaya becomes the object of development for the city, especially to the east coastal plain. Although in the recent years, that area does not have a structure or heavy construction and or a high rise building yet, but in the future the zone will turn into a business area with a variety of activities.. The zone of east coastal Surabaya is an alluvium deposit area. This layer is considered as clay deposited from some rivers and sea. From general information, the typical soil stratigraphy consists of soft clay and silt layers with many sand lenses with or without coarse grained soil with a depth varying from 0.00 to 10.00 meters (m. The saturated sand lenses with a water table depth varies from 0.40 to 1.20 m is susceptible earthquake and it has a relatively large seismic amplification from base-rock due to geological and soil condition nature of the site. Liquefaction hazard of the sand lenses has to be anticipated and evaluated. For development of Surabaya city area toward the east coastal plain, all developer are recommended to give some criteria of sand lenses density and some consideration for anticipating the liquefaction hazard.

  4. Geo-archaeological aspects of the Modena plain (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriano Castaldini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the various stages of geomorphological evolution of the plain area around Modena from the VIth millennium B.C.E. (Neolithic to the Present, through a reconstruction of the ancient landscape and human settlements.By means of a GIS platform, geomorphological investigations led to the implementation of a Microrelief Map, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM, a Map of Surface Deposits and a Geomorphological Map.The most striking altimetric features in the study area are the morphological changes of the Rivers Secchia and Panaro: south of Modena they run deep in the alluvial plain whereas north of the town they flow elevated over the plain. The surface lithology consists mainly of silt, with bands of sand and clay; mainly gravel deposits crop out only near southern tracks of the main Apennine watercourses. The geomorphological landscape is mainly characterised by alluvial fans, fluvial ridges paleo-riverbeds fluvial scarps, natural springs and some depressed areas; worth of note are also forms connected with human activity.There have been several attempts to cross–date geological and geomorphological evidence with archaeological data, on both detailed and wide territorial scales. A further advancement can now be attempted by comparing data obtained from systematic research on fluvial forms with data contained in the archives.In the area studied, some 800 archaeological sites were identified and catalogued. Such a high number of archaeological sites can give a great deal more information than is found in any other place in northern Italy.The research took into account the overlapping of archaeological and geomorphological data, with the implementation into a GIS (ArcGis 8.3 of geoarchaeological maps divided in main periods and here represented from the Neolithic to the to Iron Age and from Roman period to the Early Middle Ages. The dating thus obtained for fluvial forms was mainly based on the relationship between these forms and

  5. Estimates of loss in ecosystem service values of Songnen plain from 1980 to 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZongmin; ZHANGBai; ZHANGShuqin; SONGKaishan; DUANHongtao

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystem services are premises for human beings to exist and develop in the world, and it is of importance to study effects of land use change on ecosystem functions. Songnen plain, located in Northeast China, is one of the national key bases for agricultural production. Because there were remarkable variations in land use in recent years, it can supply specific foundation for protection and restoration of regional eco-environment to explore changes in its values of ecosystem services. This study aims to qualify long-term changes in land use of Songnen plain from 1980 to 2000, and to explore the impact of land use change on ecosystem services. With 2-period land use data using RS and GIS, this paper analyzed changes in land use and in ecosystem service values using the ecosystem service value coefficients (VC) put forward by Costanza et al. Results showed that from 1980 to 2000, area of rangeland, water area and wetlands and area of cropland decreased, but urban area and unused land increased. Due to cropland's comparatively low VC and comparatively high VC of wetlands and water area, increment in cultivated land could not offset the total decrement in regional ecosystem service values because of the decrease in area of wetlands and water area. Meanwhile, city sprawl has also led to loss of ecological values. Total ecosystem service values of the study area reduced dramatically, from 34,926.10×106$ to 31,744.54×106$ in the period 1980-2000. This represents a 9.11% net decline in annual value of ecosystem services in the study area.

  6. The influence of snow depth and surface air temperature on satellite-derived microwave brightness temperature. [central Russian steppes, and high plains of Montana, North Dakota, and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Chang, A. T. C.; Rango, A.; Allison, L. J.; Diesen, B. C., III

    1980-01-01

    Areas of the steppes of central Russia, the high plains of Montana and North Dakota, and the high plains of Canada were studied in an effort to determine the relationship between passive microwave satellite brightness temperature, surface air temperature, and snow depth. Significant regression relationships were developed in each of these homogeneous areas. Results show that sq R values obtained for air temperature versus snow depth and the ratio of microwave brightness temperature and air temperature versus snow depth were not as the sq R values obtained by simply plotting microwave brightness temperature versus snow depth. Multiple regression analysis provided only marginal improvement over the results obtained by using simple linear regression.

  7. Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, Helen M.; Sohm, James E.; Franklin, Marvin A.

    1984-01-01

    The Apalachicola River in northwest Florida is part of a three-State drainage basin encompassing 50,800 km 2 in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam from which it flows 171 km to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its average annual discharge at Chattahoochee, Fla., is 690 m3/s (1958-80) with annual high flows averaging nearly 3,000 m3/s. Its flood plain supports 450 km 2 of bottom-land hardwood and tupelo-cypress forests. The Apalachicola River Quality Assessment focuses on the hydrology and productivity of the flood-plain forest. The purpose of this part of the assessment is to address river and flood-plain hydrology, flood-plain tree species and forest types, and water and tree relations. Seasonal stage fluctuations in the upper river are three times greater than in the lower river. Analysis of long-term streamflow record revealed that 1958-79 average annual and monthly flows and flow durations were significantly greater than those of 1929-57, probably because of climatic changes. However, stage durations for the later period were equal to or less than those of the earlier period. Height of natural riverbank levees and the size and distribution of breaks in the levees have a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Thirty-two kilometers upstream of the bay, a flood-plain stream called the Brothers River was commonly under tidal influence during times of low flow in the 1980 water year. At the same distance upstream of the bay, the Apalachicola River was not under tidal influence during the 1980 water year. Of the 47 species of trees sampled, the five most common were wet-site species constituting 62 percent of the total basal area. In order of abundance, they were water tupelo, Ogeechee tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak

  8. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  9. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collin N Smith,1 John D Kraemer,2 Andrea C Johnson,1 Darren Mays1 1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Health Systems Administration, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. Keywords: cigarette smoking, tobacco, plain packaging, regulation, policy

  10. A hydrogeological investigation of the Yeşilyurt (Isparta-Sütçüler plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Taşdelen

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation area is almost 10 km in the north-west of Sütçüler country of Isparta and covers 60 km2 area. Firstly, detailed geological and hydrological investigation of Yeşilyurt Plain surface drainage area has been performed. Long term monitoring and analyses have been done for direction of hydrological investigation. An isohiyetal map was prepared for the investigation area. Water table maps were drawn by means of deep and shallow boreholes in the plain and flow direction was determined (October 2000. Water which was collected at boreholes was chemically analyzed to determine the characteristic of water for domestic use, irrigation and industrial purposes. In order to achieve this, the anion and cation concentrations, ionization abilities ionic activity, calcite dolomite sulphate saturation indexes and the partial pressures of dissolved CO2 were calculated and the results were interpreted. In addition, water has been classified according to chemical contend and use purpose by means of Wilcox, USA Salinity Laboratory, Piper and Schoeller diagrams and similarities in the origins of waters were investigated. During the study, a groundwater budget of Yeşilyurt Plain was prepared in the light of obtained data and optimum output of groundwater has been calculated.

  11. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ

  12. Impacts of Climate Changes on the Future Groundwater Storage in the High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M. H.; Wu, W. Y.; Wada, Y.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yeh, P. J. F.; Ducharne, A.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contributes approximately 40% of global freshwater use, and it is critical for water supply and associated food production in arid or semi-arid areas during dry seasons. The increasing demand for water and finite water sources have led to long-term groundwater depletion, creating an obstacle to sustainability in several regions of the world under the pressures of population growth and climate change. The High Plains Aquifer System has an area of 450,000 km2, and is the most pumped aquifer and one of the most important agricultural areas in the United States. In this study, we use coupled climate-hydrological model simulations from the NCAR Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project to investigate the groundwater storage changes in the High Plains Aquifer under future climate changes and also to explore how such groundwater storage changes might in turn affect the climate through land-atmosphere coupling. Preliminary results indicate that not only the amount of groundwater recharge declines, but the seasonal variations of groundwater recharge also become smaller, resulting in widespread water table decline in a future warmer climate. We will explore how such variations associate to projected changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration, and feedback to the climate.

  13. Siting MSW landfills using MCE methodology in GIS environment (Case study: Birjand plain, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Zeynab Karimzadeh; Sayadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    The rapid municipal solid waste growth of Birjand plain causes to find an appropriate site selection for the landfill. In order to reduce the negative impacts of waste, the use of novel tools and technologies to gain a suitable site for landfill seems imperative. The present paper aimed to exhibits the Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) for the landfill site selection of the Birjand plain because till date a suitable action has not been implicated. In the present research, the parameters such as environmental and socio-economical factors have been used. The factors like slope, water resources, soil parameters, landuse, fault and protected areas in the model of effective environmental criteria and the factors viz. distance from road, urban areas, village, airport, historical place, and industries in the model of socio-economic criteria were investigated and with the use of Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Analytical Network Process (ANP) models were compounded and according to the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) and Fuzzy Linguistic Quantifier (LQ) were aggregated. The paper focuses on the OWA method as well as an approach for integrating Geographic Information System (GIS) and OWA. OWA has been developed as a generalization of multi-criteria combination. In this study we attained comparable data via the technique of ANP and five scenarios of OWA method were used. The results of field studies, fifth scenario for the study area proposed. Based on the research findings, OWA method had a great potential and flexibility in the modeling of the complex decision-making problems.

  14. Bioavailability and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in Thriasio Plain, near Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Golia, Evangelia E; Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) are usually found in areas of intense industrial activity. Thriasio Plain is a plain near Athens, Greece, where most of the heavy industry of the country has been situated for decades, but it also is a residential and horticultural area. We aimed at measuring the levels of PTEs in soils and indigenous plant species and assessing the health risk associated with direct soil ingestion. Samples of soils at roadsides and growing plants were collected from 31 sites of that area. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were measured in both soils (as pseudo-total) and aerial plant tissues. We found that As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were higher than maximum regulatory limits. Element concentrations in plants were rather lower than expected, probably because indigenous plants have developed excluder behaviour over time. Copper and Zn soil-to-plant coefficients were highest among the other elements; for Cu this was unexpected, and probably associated with recent Cu-releasing industrial activity. Risk assessment analysis indicated that As was the element contributing more than 50 % of the health risk related to direct soil ingestion, followed by Cr, Pb, and, surprisingly, Mn. We concluded that in a multi-element contamination situation, elevated risk of PTEs (such as As, Cr and Pb) may reduce the tolerance limits of exposure to less-toxic elements (here, Mn).

  15. Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000??14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300??14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000??14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300??14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000??14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000??14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal

  16. GEOMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND SUBSURFACE GEOLOGY OF THE LOWER MEKONG PLAIN AROUND PHNOM PENH CITY, CAMBODIA (SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiko Kubo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The geomorphological features of the Lower Mekong Plain and their relationships with floods, as well asthe subsurface geology and the major depositional processes in the area, are discussed. From theinterpretation of aerial photos and field reconnaissance, the Lower Mekong Plain in Cambodia ischaracterized as a floodplain with natural levees and back marshes. These geomorphological featuresinfluence the extent of the extensive inundation that occurs during every rainy (wet season. An extremeflood in 2000 confirmed the close relationship between micro-landforms and the flooding. A preliminarystudy of bore-hole logs in the area of Phnom Penh was also carried out. Base rocks are shallower in thewestern part, whereas thick (>130 m Quaternary deposits occur in the eastern part, suggesting the presenceof a structural basin.

  17. Quaternary evolution of the Southern Apennines coastal plains: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Nicoletta; Romano, Paola; Ascione, Alessandra; Russo Ermolli, Elda

    2017-02-01

    The Quaternary evolution of the main coastal basins located along the southwestern margin of the Southern Apennines has been reconstructed by integrating the huge amount of existing stratigraphical and geomorphological data. The information produced in the last twenty years has shed new light on the recent (late Middle Pleistocene to Present) history of the Campanian and Sele plains or basins. During the early Quaternary, the analysed coastal basins originated as half-grabens in response to opening processes active since the late Tortonian in the southern Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. In some of these basins (e.g. the Campanian Plain), volcanism has also played an important role. In the inner sectors of the coastal basins, the complex interplay between block faulting, sedimentary inputs and glacioeustatic fluctuations gave rise to relative sea-level change and related coastline migrations, leading to the formation of the present-day coastal plains. In the Sele Plain basin, the construction of the present-day landscape mainly resulted from the substantial ceasing of subsidence in the final part of the Middle Pleistocene. Conversely, a strong contribution to the recent evolution of the Campanian Plain has been provided by abundant volcaniclastic aggradation, able to hinder the effect of the vertical motions that occurred in the last 100 ka.

  18. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in coastal plain rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; Chapelle, Francis H; Lowery, Mark A; Conrads, Paul A

    2010-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  19. Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Parsons, D [NCAR; Geerts, B [Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Wyoming

    2015-03-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment is a large field campaign that is being supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with contributions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The overarching goal of the PECAN experiment is to improve the understanding and simulation of the processes that initiate and maintain convection and convective precipitation at night over the central portion of the Great Plains region of the United States (Parsons et al. 2013). These goals are important because (1) a large fraction of the yearly precipitation in the Great Plains comes from nocturnal convection, (2) nocturnal convection in the Great Plains is most often decoupled from the ground and, thus, is forced by other phenomena aloft (e.g., propagating bores, frontal boundaries, low-level jets [LLJ], etc.), (3) there is a relative lack of understanding how these disturbances initiate and maintain nocturnal convection, and (4) this lack of understanding greatly hampers the ability of numerical weather and climate models to simulate nocturnal convection well. This leads to significant uncertainties in predicting the onset, location, frequency, and intensity of convective cloud systems and associated weather hazards over the Great Plains.

  20. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in Coastal Plain rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  1. Quaternary evolution of the Southern Apennines coastal plains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santangelo Nicoletta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary evolution of the main coastal basins located along the southwestern margin of the Southern Apennines has been reconstructed by integrating the huge amount of existing stratigraphical and geomorphological data. The information produced in the last twenty years has shed new light on the recent (late Middle Pleistocene to Present history of the Campanian and Sele plains or basins. During the early Quaternary, the analysed coastal basins originated as half-grabens in response to opening processes active since the late Tortonian in the southern Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. In some of these basins (e.g. the Campanian Plain, volcanism has also played an important role. In the inner sectors of the coastal basins, the complex interplay between block faulting, sedimentary inputs and glacioeustatic fluctuations gave rise to relative sea-level change and related coastline migrations, leading to the formation of the present-day coastal plains. In the Sele Plain basin, the construction of the present-day landscape mainly resulted from the substantial ceasing of subsidence in the final part of the Middle Pleistocene. Conversely, a strong contribution to the recent evolution of the Campanian Plain has been provided by abundant volcaniclastic aggradation, able to hinder the effect of the vertical motions that occurred in the last 100 ka.

  2. Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment: pre-assessment report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Carr, Natasha B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of Conservation Elements, Change Agents, and Management Questions developed during Phase I. The overall goal of the REAs being conducted for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change, and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks. The REA also may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing the cumulative effects of a variety of land uses. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and partners for the ecoregion, identify the information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant terrestrial and aquatic species and communities that are to be conserved and (or) restored. For each Conservation Element, key ecological attributes will be evaluated to determine the status of each species and community. The REA also will evaluate major drivers of ecosystem change, or Change Agents, currently affecting or likely to affect the status of Conservation Elements in the future. The relationships between Change Agents and key ecological attributes will be summarized using conceptual models. The REA process is a two-phase process. Phase I (pre-assessment) includes developing and finalizing the lists of priority Management Questions, Conservation Elements, and Change Agents, culminating in the REA Pre-Assessment Report.

  3. Climate change projections for the Texas High Plains and Rolling Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modala, Naga Raghuveer; Ale, Srinivasulu; Goldberg, Daniel W.; Olivares, Miriam; Munster, Clyde L.; Rajan, Nithya; Feagin, Rusty A.

    2017-07-01

    Potential changes in future climate in the Texas Plains region were investigated in the context of agriculture by analyzing three climate model projections under the A2 climate scenario (medium-high emission scenario). Spatially downscaled historic (1971-2000) and future (2041-2070) climate datasets (rainfall and temperature) were downloaded from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Climate variables predicted by three regional climate models (RCMs) namely the Regional Climate Model Version3-Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (RCM3-GFDL), Regional Climate Model Version3-Third Generation Coupled Global Climate Model (RCM3-CGCM3), and Canadian Regional Climate Model-Community Climate System Model (CRCM-CCSM) were evaluated in this study. Gaussian and Gamma distribution mapping techniques were employed to remove the bias in temperature and rainfall data, respectively. Both the minimum and maximum temperatures across the study region in the future showed an upward trend, with the temperatures increasing in the range of 1.9 to 2.9 °C and 2.0 to 3.2 °C, respectively. All three climate models predicted a decline in rainfall within a range of 30 to 127 mm in majority of counties across the study region. In addition, they predicted an increase in the intensity of extreme rainfall events in the future. The frost-free season as predicted by the three models showed an increase by 2.6-3.4 weeks across the region, and the number of frost days declined by 17.9 to 30 %. Overall, these projections indicate considerable changes to the climate in the Texas Plains region in the future, and these changes could potentially impact agriculture in this region.

  4. Recent Subsidence and Erosion at Diverse Wetland Sites in the Southeastern Mississippi Delta Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Bernier, Julie C.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2009-01-01

    A prior study (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1216) examined historical land- and water-area changes and estimated magnitudes of land subsidence and erosion at five wetland sites in the Terrebonne hydrologic basin of the Mississippi delta plain. The present study extends that work by analyzing interior wetland loss and relative magnitudes of subsidence and erosion at five additional wetland sites in the adjacent Barataria hydrologic basin. The Barataria basin sites were selected for their diverse physical settings and their recent (post-1978) conversion from marsh to open water. Historical aerial photography, datum-corrected marsh elevations and water depths, sediment cores, and radiocarbon dates were integrated to evaluate land-water changes in the Mississippi delta plain on both historical and geological time scales. The thickness of the organic-rich sediments (peat) and the elevation of the stratigraphic contact between peat and underlying mud were compared at marsh and open-water sites across areas of formerly continuous marsh to estimate magnitudes of recent delta-plain elevation loss caused by vertical erosion and subsidence of the wetlands. Results of these analyses indicate that erosion exceeded subsidence at most of the study areas, although both processes have contributed to historical wetland loss. Comparison of these results with prior studies indicates that subsidence largely caused rapid interior wetland loss in the Terrebonne basin before 1978, whereas erosional processes primarily caused more gradual interior wetland loss in the Barataria basin after 1978. Decadal variations in rates of relative sea-level rise at a National Ocean Service tide gage, elevation changes between repeat benchmark-leveling surveys, and GPS height monitoring at three National Geodetic Survey Continuously Operating Reference Stations indicate that subsidence rates since the early 1990s are substantially lower than those previously reported and are similar in

  5. 北京平原顺义ZK12-2钻孔剖面第四纪磁性地层学研究%Quaternary Magnetostratigraphy of the Shunyi Area in Beijing Plain Using ZK12-2 Borehole Profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇; 蔡向民; 王继明; 吴怀春; 白凌燕; 张磊; 何静; 何付兵

    2013-01-01

    对北京平原顺义凹陷内的ZK12-2钻孔岩芯进行了详细的磁性地层学研究,结果表明,719m的岩芯记录了布容正向极性时(Brunhes)、贾拉米洛(Jaramillo)极性亚时、奥尔都维(Olduvai)极性亚时和高斯正极性时(Gauss).在系统古地磁样品采集、处理和测试的基础上,应用古地磁法、光释光法,结合岩芯特征,对ZK12-2钻孔剖面进行了详细地层划分,分别确定了下更新统、中更新统、上更新统和全新统的分布深度及地质年代,将Q/N定位于706m处,Q1/Q2、Q2/Q3、Q3/Q4分别定位于170m、66.5m、10m处.本项研究结果为该区第四纪地层划分对比、古地理环境、活动断裂相关研究提供了可靠的地层年代框架.%Magnetostratigraphy was studied in detail using ZK12-2 borehole core from the Shunyi depressuib in Beijing Plain. Here we present the magnetostratigraphic results of ZK12-2 borehole (719m) located at Shunyi Depression. A total of 648 undisturbed samples were collected from ZK12-2 borehole at an interval of 0. 2~0. 8m except for several missing intervals during drilling. 640 samples were performed on thermal demagnetization in emperature steps until 580℃. The Brunhes/Matuyama boundary was found at the depth of 170m, the Matuyama / Gauss boundary at 706m. The Gauss normal polarity chron is shown from 706 to 719m deep in the borehole. The interval from 170m to 706m is fairly correlative with the Matuyama reversal in the geomagnetic polarity timescale with two normal polarity zones corresponding to Jaramillo (200~210m) and Olduvai(464~520m) subchrons, respectively. The OSL age of 10200 800a and 117800 590a was obtained from the sample at the depth of 9. 7m and 40. 5m. The lithologic section of the borehole ZK12-2 includes the entire Pleistocene and Holocene series and part of Pliocene series. According to the correlation of the polarity column, and the OSL ages from the samples, and the lithologic section, Our definition boundary for the

  6. Agricultural Climate Change and Wetland Agriculture Study under the Climate Change in the Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Minhua; LIU Xingtu; LI Xiujun

    2009-01-01

    With linear curvefitting, Mann-kendall method and Yamamoto method, ≥10 ℃accumulated temperature and precipitation from May to September of 6 meteorological stations (Baoqing, fujin, Jiamusi, Hegang, Jixi and Hulin) from 1978 to 2007 were used to explore 30-year agricultural climate change and trend in the Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that ≥10 ℃ accumulated temperature of the 6 stations have risen by 141.0 ℃ to 287.4 ℃ when estimated by their significant linear trends (n=30, α=0.05) over the last 30 years (1978 to 2007). The rates of warming for the last 30 years range from 4.70 ℃per year to 9.58 ℃ per year. There are not significant linear trends on precipitation from May to September of the 6 stations over the last 30 years. The period of 1978 to 1998 in which ≥10 ℃ accumulated temperature is lower is consistent with that in which there is more precipitation from May to September, and warming and drying period has occurred in the Sanjiang Plain since 1999. Under the background of warming and drying agricultural climate, high yield cultivation of Phragmites australis and establishment of Phragmites australis-fish (crab) symbiosis ecosystem in natural mire are the ways for reasonable use of natural wetland. The area of paddy fields has been increasing from 7.25×104 ha in 1978 to 121.2×104 ha in 2006. It is proposed that paddy field range should not be expanded blindly toward the north in the Sanjiang Plain, and chilling injury forecast and prevention should be pay attention to. In the area that the chilling injury happens frequently, the rotation between rice and other crops should be implemented. Measures, which combine drainage, store and irrigation, should be taken instead of single drainage on comprehensive control of regional low and wet croplands to ensure controlling drought and flood.

  7. Cadmium Contents of Soils, Durum, and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet; Faz Cano, Angel; Carmona Garces, Doria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey is growing significant amount of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum - (Desf.)Husn) which is widely used for making pasta, spaghetti, noodles etc. Objective of this study were to: 1) determine Cd concentrations of the soils, durum and bread wheats grown in the Harran plain, southeast Turkey and 2) evaluate this element in terms of food safety. Soil samples from the selected 16 profiles, grains, roots, and leaves of durum and bread wheats were taken for analyses. Total Cd contents of the soils were below the threshold values. The soils in the northern part of the plain have more than 0.2 ppm of Cd. Carbonate and clay contents are > 15% and 40% respectively and have substantial amounts of Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Three phosphorus fertilizer samples, frequently used in the area, had > 2 ppm of Cd. As expected, the amounts of Cd in bread wheat were lower than durum wheat. However, the Cd contents in durum wheat grains in the area studied were 100 ?g kg-1) and similar to the drum grains from Italy. Some samples in Italy even had 71 ?g kg-1. These were attributed to the presence of high amounts of carbonates, Fe-oxy-hydroxides, and clay in the soils we studied. In the surface soil, Zn contents were between 21.5 and 72.8 mg kg-1.This could be another reason for lower contents of Cd in our durum wheat. Our study confirms that durum wheat grown in the Harran plain southeast Turkey has a better quality, therefore advantageous; in terms of food safety from the standpoint of Cd contents.

  8. Addressing water challenges on the North China Plain with hydroeconomic optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Grith; Davidsen, Claus; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    With its diverse environment and large population, China is facing water resource challenges, both in terms of quantity and quality. The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the world’s most densely populated areas and one of the highly water stressed regions of China. It counts for 15% of the Chinese...... GDP, from both industry and agriculture. The high water demand for especially irrigation has caused decade long groundwater depletion, ecosystem deterioration and high pollution loads in the region. To alleviate the water crisis of Northern China the South-North Water Transfer Project has been...... constructed. However, the project alone cannot solve the NCP’s water crisis. A hydroeconomic optimization model has been developed for the NCP system. The model area represents the administrative area of the Hai River Commission. The challenges addressed are the spatio-temporal distribution of costs...

  9. Groundwater quality in the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system, southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jeannie; Lindsey, Bruce; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 6 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 13 percent. One or more organic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at moderate concentrations in about 3 percent of the study area.

  10. Nomenclature of regional hydrogeologic units of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.A.; Renken, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Clastic sediments of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system can be divided into four regional aquifers separated by three regional confining units. The four regional aquifers have been named for major rivers that cut across their outcrop areas and expose the aquifer materials. From youngest to oldest, the aquifers are called the Chickasawhay River, Pearl River, Chattahoochee River, and Black Warrior River aquifers, and the regional confining units separating them are given the same name as the aquifer they overlie. Most of the regional hydrogeologic units are subdivided within each of the four States that comprise the study area. Correlation of regional units is good with hydrogeologic units delineated by a similar regional study to the west and southwest. Because of complexity created by a major geologic structure to the northeast of the study area and dramatic facies change from clastic to carbonate strata to the southeast, correlation of regional hydrogeologic units is poor in these directions. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Ink-Jet Printing on Plain-Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Steven J.

    1989-07-01

    The introduction of letter-quality, plain-paper, ink-jet printers such as Hewlett-Packard's DeskJet Printer portents a dramatic change in the 1990's office. The ability of ink-jet to offer low-cost, letter-quality print on plain paper positions this technology squarely along with others used for mainstream office printing. The ability of ink-jet to operate on "plain-papers", coupled with the rising use of paper in office printers, suggests that users will begin to demand office papers that are compatible with this technology. Hewlett-Packard is actively working to understand what customers need from office printers and how these needs impact office papers.

  12. Simulating Groundwater Recharge Across the Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, S. J.; Haacker, E. M.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying recharge and water availability across the Southern High Plains is a difficult, but necessary, challenge for future groundwater and agricultural projections. Overland flow is not common due to limited precipitation, dry soils, and high evapotranspiration. The majority of runoff is temporarily stored in playa lakes, leading to the bulk of recharge across the region occurring in localized infiltration zones beneath these lakes. Despite the importance of regional recharge estimates, limited information exists that integrates complex characteristics of the land, climate, and hydrology in order to quantify recharge across the entire Southern High Plains aquifer. This study applies the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) to capture these characteristics and simulate surface water flow and groundwater recharge. This model simulates the complete water cycle across large regions, including irrigation estimates, establishing a framework to estimate recharge and groundwater availability in the Southern High Plains region. Results from this study can be used to predict the likely impacts of climate change and improve water management strategies.

  13. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  14. Connecting Indigenous Knowledge to Thaw Lake Cycle Research on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, W. R.; Cuomo, C. J.; Hinkel, K. M.; Jones, B. M.; Hurd, J.

    2005-12-01

    Thaw lakes cover about 20% of the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Another 26% is scarred by basins that form when lakes drain, and these drained thaw-lake basins are sites for preferential carbon accumulation as plant biomass. Recent studies in the continuous permafrost zone of Western Siberia suggest that lakes have been expanding in the past several decades in response to regional warming. Anticipated regional warming would likely mobilize sequestered soil organic carbon, resulting in the emission of CO2 and CH4. Our understanding of the processes leading to thaw lake formation, expansion, and drainage in northern Alaska has been limited because models are specific to the flat, young Outer (seaward) Coastal Plain comprising 1/3 of the region. Furthermore, spatial and temporal analysis of lake dynamics is largely restricted to the period since 1948, when aerial photographs first became available across large regions of the Coastal Plain. In order to fill these gaps, we have been interviewing Iñupiaq elders, hunters, and berry pickers from the villages of Atqasuk and Barrow. The objective of these interviews is to obtain accounts of lake formation, expansion and drainage that have occurred within living or oral memory, and extend the record back several generations. To date, we have interviewed fifteen Iñupiat; most of these are people who travel the tundra frequently and have done so for decades. They have first-hand experience of lake drainage, sea cliff and river bank erosion, permafrost degradation, and other landscape changes. Many informants expressed concern that landscape changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. They have identified lakes that have drained, areas where the permafrost is thawing, and places where the sea and river coastline is eroding. We have been able to corroborate reports of lake drainage from our informants with a series of aerial photographs, satellite images, and radiocarbon dates. In many instances, the elders have

  15. Causes and Predictability of the 2012 Great Plains Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Kumar, A.; Leung, R.; Mariotti, A.; Mo, K.; Schubert, S.; Seager, R.

    2013-01-01

    Central Great Plains precipitation deficits during May-August 2012 were the most severe since at least 1895, eclipsing the Dust Bowl summers of 1934 and 1936. Drought developed suddenly in May, following near-normal precipitation during winter and early spring. Its proximate causes were a reduction in atmospheric moisture transport into the Great Plains from the Gulf of Mexico. Processes that generally provide air mass lift and condensation were mostly absent, including a lack of frontal cyclones in late spring followed by suppressed deep convection in summer owing to large-scale subsidence and atmospheric stabilization. Seasonal forecasts did not predict the summer 2012 central Great Plains drought development, which therefore arrived without early warning. Climate simulations and empirical analysis suggest that ocean surface temperatures together with changes in greenhouse gases did not induce a substantial reduction in summertime precipitation over the central Great Plains during 2012. Yet, diagnosis of the retrospective climate simulations also reveals a regime shift toward warmer and drier summertime Great Plains conditions during the recent decade, most probably due to natural decadal variability. As a consequence, the probability for severe summer Great Plains drought may have increased in the last decade compared to the 1980s and 1990s, and the so-called tail-risk for severe drought may have been heightened in summer 2012. Such an extreme drought event was nonetheless still found to be a rare occurrence within the spread of 2012 climate model simulations. Implications of this study's findings for U.S. seasonal drought forecasting are discussed.

  16. Water consumption in summer maize and winter wheat cropping system based on SEBAL model in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-ying; MEI Xu-rong; HUO Zhi-guo; YAN Chang-rong; JU Hui; ZHAO Feng-hua; LIU Qin

    2015-01-01

    Crop consumptive water use is recognized as a key element to understand regional water management performance. This study documents an attempt to apply a regional evapotranspiration model (SEBAL) and crop information for assessment of regional crop (summer maize and winter wheat) actual evapotranspiration (ETa) in Huang-Huai-Hai (3H) Plain, China. The average seasonal ETa of summer maize and winter wheat were 354.8 and 521.5 mm respectively in 3H Plain. A high-ETa belt of summer maize occurs in piedmont plain, while a low ETa area was found in the hil-irrigable land and dry land area. For winter wheat, a high-ETa area was located in the middle part of 3H Plain, including low plain-hydropenia irrigable land and dry land, hil-irrigable land and dry land, and basin-irrigable land and dry land. Spatial analysis demonstrated a linear relationship between crop ETa, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the land surface temperature (LST). A stronger relationship between ETa andNDVI was found in the metaphase and last phase than other crop growing phase, as indicated by higher correlation coefifcient values. Additionaly, higher correlation coefifcients were detected between ETa and LST than that between ETa and NDVI, and this signiifcant relationship ran through the entire crop growing season. ETa in the summer maize growing season showed a signiifcant relationship with longitude, while ETa in the winter wheat growing season showed a signiifcant relationship with latitude. The results of this study wil serve as baseline information for water resources management of 3H Plain.

  17. Residual Tensile Strength of Plain Concrete Under Tensile Fatigue Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The functional relation between the residual tensile strength of plain concrete and number of cycles was determined. 99 tappered prism specimens of plain concrete were tested under uniaxial tensile fatigue loading. Based on the probability distribution of the residual tensile strength, the empirical expressions of the residual tensile strength corresponding to the number of cycles were obtained. The residual tensile strength attenuating curves can be used to predict the residual fatigue life of the specimen under variable-amplitude fatigue loading. There is a good correlation between residual tensile strength and residual secant elastic modulus.The relationship between the residual secant elastic modulus and number of cycles was also established.

  18. Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 29 is being distributed for use in development and testing fingerprint matching systems. The data consist of 216 ten-print fingerprint card pairs with both the rolled and plains (from a bottom of the fingerprint card) scanned at 19.7 pixels per mm. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  19. Characterization of geomorphic units in the alluvial valleys and channels of Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in Texas, with examples from the Brazos, Sabine, and Trinity Rivers, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, David K.; Malstaff, Greg; Heitmuller, Franklin T.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, described and characterized examples of geomorphic units within the channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers using a geomorphic unit classification scale that differentiates geomorphic units on the basis of their location either outside or inside the river channel. The geomorphic properties of a river system determine the distribution and type of potential habitat both within and adjacent to the channel. This report characterizes the geomorphic units contained in the river channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in the context of the River Styles framework. This report is intended to help Texas Instream Flow Program practitioners, river managers, ecologists and biologists, and others interested in the geomorphology and the physical processes of the rivers of the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain (1) gain insights into how geomorphic units develop and adjust spatially and temporally, and (2) be able to recognize common geomorphic units from the examples cataloged in this report. Recent aerial imagery (high-resolution digital orthoimagery) collected in 2008 and 2009 were inspected by using geographic information system software to identify representative examples of the types of geomorphic units that occurred in the study area. Geomorphic units outside the channels of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers are called \\"valley geomorphic units\\" in this report. Valley geomorphic units for the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers described in this report are terraces, flood plains, crevasses and crevasse splays, flood-plain depressions, tie channels, tributaries, paleochannels, anabranches, distributaries, natural levees, neck cutoffs, oxbow lakes, and constructed channels. Channel geomorphic units occur in the river channel and are subject to frequent stresses associated with flowing water and sediment transport; they adjust (change) relatively quickly in

  20. On the Holocene sea-level highstand along the Yangtze Delta and Ningshao Plain, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Cheng; ZHENG Chaogui; MA Chunmei; YANG Xiaoxuan; GAO Xizhen; WANG Haiming; SHAO Jiuhua

    2003-01-01

    The temporal-spatial distribution of Neolithic sites shows a long period of absence of human settlements during the early Holocene on the Yangtze Delta, and the area has not been colonized until 7000 aBP, corresponding to the onset of the Majiabang culture. Besides the regions east to the sandbar of Maqiao Site in Shanghai, foraminifera are not found in Neolithic cultural layers since 7000 aBP, indicating a widespread transgression between 10000 and 7000 aBP. Evidence of radiocarbon-dated cultural relics, foraminifera and pollen records from the Hemudu Site suggests that the Hemudu culture emerged and developed during the mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum. Therefore, the hypothesis of a mid-Holocene sea-level highstand along the Yangtze Delta and Ningshao Plain from 7000 to 5000 aBP is an open debate. New evidence from archaeological excavations and bio-stratigraphy suggests that, prior to 7000 aBP, a high sea level occurred along the Ningshao Plain. Subsequently, the sea level was lowered between 7000 and 5000 aBP, and the area suffered from frequent floods from 5000 to 3900 aBP.

  1. Influence of environmental factors on woody biomass productivity in the central Great Plains, U. S. A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, W.A. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Division of Forestry)

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the productivity of short-rotation tree plantations. Sixteen sites representing a wide range of ecological zones in the central Great Plains were planted to six rapid-growing, coppicing, deciduous tree species: black locust, catalpa, cottonwood, honeylocust, silver maple, and Siberian elm. Environmental factors were tested for their relationship to biomass yield. Climate and geographic location greatly influenced biomass, whereas site and soil factors were poorly related. Other factors affecting productivity were days between summer storms of at least 6.4 mm and frost-free days. Survival was high, and third-year yields of 3-5 Mg ha[sup -1] yr[sup -1], based upon nondestructive measurements, were common. Tree growth was adversely affected in the drier zones. Tree species greatly influenced yield. Many hold promise for energy production in the central plains area of the United States. Black locust grew best, except on very sandy alluvial soil and in the 500-mm precipitation zone in the west. Silver maple grew well on silty soils, whereas cottonwood produced outstanding yields on sandy alluvial soil in the eastern, 1000-mm precipitation belt. Siberian elm grew well on many sites across the test area. (Author)

  2. Hydrogeochemical features of groundwater resources in Tabriz plain, northwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Rahim; Asghari Moghaddam, Asghar; Tziritis, Evangelos

    2017-03-01

    The present study seeks to evaluate the hydrogeochemistry of Tabriz plain in NW Iran, through major ion chemistry and their spatial variations. In order to accomplish these, groundwater sampling from 30 shallow and deep wells in the plain were carried out in July 2012. The water samples were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, CO3 2-, HCO3 -, SO4 2- and NO3 -. Chadha's diagram demonstrates that most of the groundwaters belonged to the Na-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl hydrochemical facies. The concentrations of some major ions in groundwater are above the permissible limit for drinking and domestic purposes except for a few locations. The results of saturation index computation show that dissolution of gypsum, anhydrite, halite and silicate minerals occurs frequently across the study area, whereas the groundwater is supersaturated with regard to calcite and dolomite. Cross-plots show that weathering and dissolution of different rocks and minerals, ion exchange, reverse ion exchange and anthropogenic activities, especially agricultural activities, are effective in hydrogeochemistry of the study area.

  3. Quantifying the Impacts of Irrigation Technology Adoption on Water Resources in the High Plains Aquifer, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Anthony; Cotterman, Kayla; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Producers in key agricultural regions worldwide are contending with increasing demand while simultaneously managing declining water resources. The High Plains Aquifer (HPA) is the largest aquifer system in the United States, and supplied most of the water to irrigate 6 million hectares in 2012. Water levels in the central and southern sections of the aquifer have steadily declined, as groundwater recharge in this semi-arid region is insufficient to meet water demands. Individual irrigators have responded to these declines by moving from less efficient irrigation technologies to those that apply water more precisely. Yet, these newer technologies have also allowed for water to be pumped from lower-yielding wells, thus extending the life of any given well and allowing drawdown to continue. Here we use a dataset of the annual irrigation technology choices from every irrigator in the state of Kansas, located in the Central High Plains. This irrigation data, along with remotely-sensed Leaf Area Index, crop choice, and irrigated area, drives a coupled surface/groundwater simulation created using the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) to examine the impacts of changing irrigation technology on the regional water cycle, and water levels in the HPA. The model is applied to simulate cases in which no irrigation technology change had occurred, and complete adoption of newer technologies to better understand impacts of management choices on regional water resources.

  4. Effects of Urbanization-Induced Cultivated Land Loss on Ecosystem Services in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of market oriented economic reform in 1978, China has been on the track of rapid urbanization. The unprecedented urbanization in China has resulted in substantial cultivated land loss and rapid expansion of urban areas. The cultivated land loss due to urbanization not only threatens food security in China, but has also led to ecological system degradation to which close attention should be paid. Therefore, we examined the effects of the conversion from cultivated to urban areas on the ecosystem service in the North China Plain on the basis of a net primary productivity based ecosystem service model (NESM and a buffer comparison method. Cultivated land loss due to urbanization in the North China Plain led to a total loss of ecosystem service value of 34.66% during the period 1988–2008. Urban expansion significantly decreased the ecosystem service function of water conservation (–124.03%, nutrient cycling (–31.91%, gas regulation (−7.18%, and organic production (–7.18%, while it improved the soil conservation function (2.40%. Land use change accounted for 57.40% of the changes in ecosystem service and had a major influence on the changes in nutrient cycling and water conservation. However, climate change mainly determined the changes in gas regulation, organic production, and soil conservation.

  5. Diversity among melon (Cucumis melo L.) landraces from the Indo-Gangetic plains of India and their genetic relationship with U.S.A. melon cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report here the first broad genetic characterization of farmer-developed land races of melon (Cucumis melo L.) from the Indo-Gangetic plains of India, an area overlooked in previous genetic diversity analyses of Indian melon germplasm. Eighty-eight landraces from three melon groups in two subspec...

  6. 33 CFR 165.T09-0166 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River... Areas Ninth Coast Guard District § 165.T09-0166 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake...

  7. Vulnerability of grazing and confined livestock in the Northern Great Plains to projected mid- and late-twenty-first century climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Derner; David Briske; Matt Reeves; Tami Brown-Brandl; Miranda Meehan; Dana Blumenthal; William Travis; David Augustine; Hailey Wilmer; Derek Scasta; John Hendrickson; Jerry Volesky; Laura Edwards; Dannele Peck

    2017-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains (NGP) region of the USA - which comprises Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska - is a largely rural area that provides numerous ecosystem services, including livestock products, cultural services, and conservation of biological diversity. The region contains 25% of the Nation's beef cattle and approximately...

  8. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  9. Floristic composition of two wetland forests in Araguaian Plain, State of Tocantins, Brazil, and comparison with other areas Composição floristica de duas florestas inundáveis na Planície do Araguaia, Estado do Tocantins, Brasil, e comparação com outras áreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Venâncio Martins

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonally inundated native forest fragments ("ipucas" located in natural landform depression swales of the Araguaian Plain are currently under land use pressure. Their composition needs to be better understood to guarantee their protection. This comparative study of fragments under different land use conditions was carried out at Lago Verde Farm, Lagoa da Confusão,Tocantins, Brazil. The location coordinates are UTM 643586 and 644060 East and 8792795 and 8799167 North. This study aimed to first analyze and compare the floristic composition of two seasonally inundated forest fragments of approximately one hectare each. The first is located in an intact (without human intervention Gramineous-Woody Savanna region and the second in a rice cultivation region. The floristic composition of both fragments was then compared to that of other wetland forests located in the Northern, Central Western and Southeastern regions of Brazil.All the floristic compositions are affected by seasonal flooding and soil water saturation. The floristic inventory used a census method that sampled all trees and shrubs with perimeter at 1.30 m from soil (PAP = 15cm; 665 individuals, 33 families and 49 species were recorded for the intact region and 807 individuals, 35 families and 70 species for the altered region fragment. The values of H' = 0.806 (Shannon-Weaver and J = 3.44 nats /individual (equability for the fragment in the region affected by rice cultivation are considered high compared to the intact region fragment values (H' = 0.761 and J = 2.97. Families contributing to floristic richness in the altered region fragment were Fabaceae (9 species, Vochysiaceae (6 and Annonaceae (4. In the intact region fragment, Fabaceae also presented the largest number of species (8 followed by Arecaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Vochysiaceae (3 each. When comparing the forests from various regions in Brazil, floristic similarity was found to be small. Greater similarity was found when

  10. Analysis of a winter regional haze event and its formation mechanism in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A regional haze episode occurred in the Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province (BTH area in the North China Plain (NCP from 16 to 19 January 2010. The chemical and optical properties of aerosols and the meteorological condition were investigated in this study with intensive measurement of aerosol and trace gases from 14 to 23 January 2010 at five sites. The episode was caused by the combination of anthropogenic emissions and surface air stagnation under a high pressure system followed by a low pressure system. The concentrations of PM2.5 and trace gases increased significantly on a regional scale during this episode. The increased aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp, absorption coefficient (σap, and aerosol optical depth (AOD showed the importance of aerosol extinction during this haze episode. The increase of secondary inorganic pollutants (SO42−, NO3, NH4+ was observed simultaneously at four sites, especially in the plain area of BTH, which could be identified as a common characteristic of pollution haze in east China. The organic matter (OM was different from secondary inorganic pollutants, which increased more significantly at Chengde (CD site than the other three sites in plain area. The sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 were mainly formed through the heterogeneous reaction process in the urban area. The secondary organic aerosols in PM2.5 only existed during haze days at CD but in both haze and normal days at the other three sites. The chemical characteristics of aerosols in PM2.5 indicated that the secondary formation of aerosol was one important mechanism in the formation of haze episode. The strong temperature inversion and descending air motions in the planetary boundary layer (PBL allowed pollutants to accumulate in a shallow layer. The weak surface wind speed produced high pollutants concentration within

  11. Sinking Chao Phraya delta plain, Thailand, derived from SAR interferometry time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Mio, A.; Saito, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Bangkok Metropolitan region and its surrounding provinces are located in a low-lying delta plain of the Chao Phraya River. Extensive groundwater use from the late 1950s has caused the decline of groundwater levels in the aquifers and Holocene clay compaction beneath the Bangkok Region, resulting in significant subsidence of the ground. This ground deformation has been monitored using leveling surveys since 1978, and differential InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) analysis. It shows that the Bangkok Metropolitan region is subsiding at a rate of about 20 mm/year during the recent years due to law-limited groundwater pumping, although the highest subsidence rate as high as 120 mm/year was recorded in 1981. The subsidence rate in the Bangkok area has significantly decreased since the late 1980s; however, the affected area has spread out to the surrounding areas. The maximum subsidence rate up to 30 mm/year occurred in the outlying southeast and southwest coastal zones in 2002. In this study, we apply a SAR interferometry time series analysis to monitor ground deformations in the lower Chao Phraya delta plain (Lower Central Plain), Thailand, using ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) data acquired between July 2007 and September 2010. We derive a single reference time series interferogram from the stacking of unwrapped phases under the assumptions that those phases are smoothly and continuously connected, and apply a smoothness-constrained inversion algorithm that optimizes the displacement from the phase unwrapping of multitemporal differential SAR interferograms. The SAR interferometry time series analysis succeeds to monitor the incremental line-of-sight (LOS)-change between SAR scene acquisitions. LOS displacements are converted to vertical displacements, based on the assumption that the ground displacement in this area occurs only in the vertical directions. This reveals an overall pattern of subsidence

  12. CHANGES IN SUMMER TYPES IN RELATION TO DROUGHT OCCURRENCE IN THE ROMANIAN PLAIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICU DANA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at analysing the exposure of an important agricultural region of Romania (the Romanian Plain region to hot summers and droughts over the 1961-2009 period, in response to the combined action of air temperature and precipitation. This study is focused on the changes of summer types, herein defined as four modes (warm/dry, warm/wet, cold/dry, cold/wet, based on the exceedence probabilities of the joint extreme quantiles (the 25th and the 75th of mean daily temperature and precipitation, for a number of six weather stations located in the Romanian Plain region. The trends in the evolution of the four summer modes have been investigated in relation to the changes in the frequency, magnitude and duration of precipitation deficit and drought, as revealed by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and the maximum number of consecutive dry days. The changing behaviour of summer modes is strongly associated to the region wide signal of significant summer warming (both daytime and night-time and less to the slight drying trend. The results show that most areas of the Romanian Plain region are subject to a greater exposure to heat stress in summer and also, to a slight intensification of dryness, more spatially extended since the mid 1980s to early 1990s. These findings are supported mainly by a significant increase of the frequency of the warm/dry summers and a slight lengthening of summer dry spells and less, by the long-term trends of summer SPI (at both 3- and 6-month time-scales, which suggest only a slight increase of the frequency of the moderately dry SPI values, yet not statistically significant.

  13. Backcasting the decline of a vulnerable Great Plains reproductive ecotype: identifying threats and conservation priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation efforts for threatened or endangered species are challenging because the multi-scale factors that relate to their decline or inhibit their recovery are often unknown. To further exacerbate matters, the perceptions associated with the mechanisms of species decline are often viewed myopically rather than across the entire species range. We used over 80 years of fish presence data collected from the Great Plains and associated ecoregions of the United States, to investigate the relative influence of changing environmental factors on the historic and current truncated distributions of the Arkansas River shiner Notropis girardi. Arkansas River shiner represent a threatened reproductive ecotype considered especially well adapted to the harsh environmental extremes of the Great Plains. Historic (n = 163 records) and current (n = 47 records) species distribution models were constructed using a vector-based approach in MaxEnt by splitting the available data at a time when Arkansas River shiner dramatically declined. Discharge and stream order were significant predictors in both models; however, the shape of the relationship between the predictors and species presence varied between time periods. Drift distance (river fragment length available for ichthyoplankton downstream drift before meeting a barrier) was a more important predictor in the current model and indicated river segments 375–780 km had the highest probability of species presence. Performance for the historic and current models was high (area under the curve; AUC > 0.95); however, forecasting and backcasting to alternative time periods suggested less predictive power. Our results identify fragments that could be considered refuges for endemic plains fish species and we highlight significant environmental factors (e.g., discharge) that could be manipulated to aid recovery.

  14. Backcasting the decline of a vulnerable Great Plains reproductive ecotype: identifying threats and conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A; Brewer, Shannon K; Grabowski, Timothy B; Mueller, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation efforts for threatened or endangered species are challenging because the multi-scale factors that relate to their decline or inhibit their recovery are often unknown. To further exacerbate matters, the perceptions associated with the mechanisms of species decline are often viewed myopically rather than across the entire species range. We used over 80 years of fish presence data collected from the Great Plains and associated ecoregions of the United States, to investigate the relative influence of changing environmental factors on the historic and current truncated distributions of the Arkansas River shiner Notropis girardi. Arkansas River shiner represent a threatened reproductive ecotype considered especially well adapted to the harsh environmental extremes of the Great Plains. Historic (n = 163 records) and current (n = 47 records) species distribution models were constructed using a vector-based approach in MaxEnt by splitting the available data at a time when Arkansas River shiner dramatically declined. Discharge and stream order were significant predictors in both models; however, the shape of the relationship between the predictors and species presence varied between time periods. Drift distance (river fragment length available for ichthyoplankton downstream drift before meeting a barrier) was a more important predictor in the current model and indicated river segments 375-780 km had the highest probability of species presence. Performance for the historic and current models was high (area under the curve; AUC > 0.95); however, forecasting and backcasting to alternative time periods suggested less predictive power. Our results identify fragments that could be considered refuges for endemic plains fish species and we highlight significant environmental factors (e.g., discharge) that could be manipulated to aid recovery. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  15. Multi-modeling assessment of recent changes in groundwater resource: application to the semi-arid Haouz plain (Central Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakir, Younes; Brahim, Berjamy; Page Michel, Le; Fathallah, Sghrer; Houda, Nassah; Lionel, Jarlan; Raki Salah, Er; Vincent, Simonneaux; Said, Khabba

    2015-04-01

    The Haouz plain (6000 km2) is a part of the Tensift basin located in the Central Morocco. The plain has a semi-arid climate (250 mm/y of rainfall) and is bordered in the south by the High-Atlas mountains. Because the plain is highly anthropized, the water resources face heavy demands from various competing sectors, including agriculture (over than 273000 ha of irrigated areas), water supply for more than 2 million inhabitants and about 2 millions of tourists annually. Consequently the groundwater is being depleted on a large area of the plain, with problems of water scarcity which pose serious threats to water supplies and to sustainable development. The groundwater in the Haouz plain was modeled previously by MODFLOW (USGS groundwater numerical modeling) with annual time steps. In the present study a multi-modeling approach is applied. The aim is to enhance the evaluation of the groundwater pumping for irrigation, one of the most difficult data to estimate, and to improve the water balance assessment. In this purpose, two other models were added: SAMIR (Satellite Estimation of Agricultural Water Demand) and WEAP (integrated water resources planning). The three models are implemented at a monthly time step and calibrated over the 2001-2011 period, corresponding to 120 time steps. This multi-modeling allows assessing the evolution of water resources both in time and space. The results show deep changes during the last years which affect generally the water resources and groundwater particularly. These changes are induced by a remarkable urbanism development, succession of droughts, intensive agriculture activities and weak management of irrigation and water resources. Some indicators of these changes are as follow: (i) the groundwater table decrease varies between 1 to 3m/year, (ii) the groundwater depletion during the last ten year is equivalent to 50% of the lost reserves during 40 years, (iii) the annual groundwater deficit is about 100 hm3, (iv) the renewable

  16. Deathscapes, Topocide, Domicide: The Plains in Contemporary Print Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Christina E.

    2009-01-01

    The American print media are a powerful mechanism for communicating information about places and environment to the American public. When it comes to a landscape such as the Great Plains, experienced by many Americans as either sleep-through land in a car or flyover land in a plane, the print media may be their only real source of information…

  17. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  18. Rural School District Reorganization on the Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Miles

    2002-01-01

    Rural school district reorganization and school consolidation are put into perspective by reviewing the large population increases that fueled small-school growth in the Great Plains, 1870-1930. Since the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, population losses, improvements in transportation, and arguments advocating economies of scale and increased…

  19. Flour Flame Thrower: The "Flaming Potential" of Plain Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Plain flour has a lot of chemical energy packed into it. When the flour is in a clump or pile it does not ignite although it may blacken. This is because there is not enough flour exposed to the oxygen in the air. Aerosolising the flour exposes it to much more oxygen allowing a self sustaining combustion reaction to occur when an ignition source…

  20. Semantic and pragmatic functions in Plains Cree syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolvengrey, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores the morphosyntax of the Plains dialect of Cree - an Algonquian First Nations language of Canada - and the ways in which Semantic, Pragmatic and Syntactic Functions are (or are not) instantiated. The language-specific forms of two main morphosyntactic components of language

  1. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  2. Educational enhancements to the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (ET) network

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, an irrigation scheduling and management tool was developed for addressing large acreage and multiple field irrigated farms, particularly those in the Texas High Plains where the declining Ogallala Aquifer is the primary source of irrigation water. This tool, while providing in-season ...

  3. The Renewal of Population Loss in the Nonmetropolitan Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Don E.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of population trends in 293 nonmetropolitan counties in the Great Plains, 1950-90, reveals that the rural population turnaround of the 1970s has indeed ended. During the 1980s, 84% of these counties had total population declines, and 96% had net outmigration. The most important variable in producing positive trends was inmigration of…

  4. Regional dynamics of grassland change in the western Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the contemporary land-cover changes in two western Great Plains ecoregions between 1973 and 2000. Agriculture and other land uses can have a substantial effect on grassland cover that varies regionally depending on the primary driving forces of change. In order to better understand change, the rates, types, and causes of land conversion were examined for 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000 using Landsat satellite data and a statistical sampling strategy. The overall estimated rate of land-cover change between 1973 and 2000 was 7.4% in the Northwestern Great Plains and 11.5% in the Western High Plains. Trends in both ecoregions have similarities, although the dynamics of change differ temporally depending on driving forces. Between 1973 and 1986, grassland cover declined when economic opportunity drove an expansion of agriculture. Between 1986 and 2000, grassland expanded as public policy and a combination of socioeconomic factors drove a conversion from agriculture to grassland. ?? 2007 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  5. 19th Century Plains Indian Robe Painting: Wearable Art Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    The Indians of the Great Plains of North America once wore some of the most magnificent works of art in the form of bison robes that were painted in a variety of modes. These forms of expression have become obsolete and their function has been replaced by new materials. (Availability: CHEA National Office, 151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P…

  6. The Groundwater Evolution Trend and Driving Forces Analysis of the Plain Areas in the Manas River Basin%玛纳斯河流域平原区垂向交错带地下水的演变规律及驱动力的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨广; 陈伏龙; 何新林; 李俊峰; 崔伟敏

    2011-01-01

    干旱区内陆河流域的地下水具有重要的生态地质作用.以玛纳斯河流域平原区垂向交错带为研究对象,分析了人类活动影响下研究区地下水演变的规律及变化,并采用主成分分析法对研究区地下水的影响因子进行驱动力分析.研究结果表明:在人类活动的影响下,研究区地下水位有下降趋势,地下水水位年内变化幅度减小,灌溉用水和蒸发强度是影响研究区地下水位的主要因素.%Groundwater in arid inland river basins play an important role in the ecological environment. The groundwater evolution is changing due to the influenced of human activities. In this paper, we take the Manas River Basin in Northwest China as the study case to investigate the water level of arid area inland river basins. We find that water levels in different subareas have different evolution trends with the influence of human activities. The groundwater level dropped fiercely at the edge of desert and the vegetation coverage degenerates seriously. However, the groundwater level of subarea chosen to reservoir downstream rises appreciably and salinification land areas enlarged. At the same time, groundwater level change in each year decreased because of the water saving irrigation. Then we analyzed main factors in groundwater evolution trend through principal component analysis. The results showed that irrigation and evaporation are the main factors for groundwater level in the study area. The result has great significance for groundwater protection and sustainable development.

  7. Trichobezoars Detected and Treated Based on Plain Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Amy; Vachon, Tyler; Campin, Richard C; Ignacio, Romeo C

    2015-10-01

    Bezoars are conglomerations of indigestible material that become trapped in the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of an 8-year-old female child diagnosed with a gastric bezoar solely on plain radiography and treated with abdominal surgical exploration and removal. In addition, traditional characteristic radiographic findings and treatment options for bezoars found in the current literature are reviewed.

  8. [Plain-film radiography in the study of spinal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Santiago, F; Guzmán Alvarez, L; Tello Moreno, M; Navarrete González, P J

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of tomographic imaging techniques, fundamentally computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, has led to a gradual decrease in the indications for plain-film radiography, resulting in fewer patients studied and fewer projections for each patient. Consequently, plain-film studies of the spine have received less attention and radiologists are less familiar with the typical findings in normal and pathologic conditions of the spine. Nevertheless, plain-film radiography continues to be widely used in both primary and specialized care. Thus, radiologists still need to be aware of the normal radiologic anatomy of the spine and of the radiologic manifestations of the diverse pathological processes that can affect the spinal column and that can cause pain. The aim of this article is to review the manifestations on plain-film radiography of a wide variety of diseases that can cause back pain, including congenital, traumatic, degenerative, tumor-related, inflammatory, and infectious diseases and processes. Copyright 2009 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Martensite Formation in Partially and Fully Austenitic Plain Carbon Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.; Sietsma, J.

    2009-01-01

    The progress of martensite formation in plain carbon steels Fe-0.46C, Fe-0.66C, and Fe-0.80C has been investigated by dilatometry. It is demonstrated that carbon enrichment of the remaining austenite due to intercritical annealing of Fe-0.46C and Fe-0.66C does not only depress the start temperature

  10. Introducing Plain Language Principles to Business Communication Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Rachelle R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to current federal mandates requiring selected businesses and government agencies to use plain language (PL) when reporting information to the public, this article advocates the introduction of PL principles into current business communication curricula. Despite recent PL mandates and advances, many current business textbooks and…

  11. Radiopaque intrahepatic duct stones in plain radiograph: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Suh, Chang Hae; Park, Chan Sup; Chung, Won Kyun [College of Medicine, Inha University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    We experienced 3 cases of intrahepatic duct stones detected on plain radiographs. The patients had history of multiple episodes of recurrent cholangitis. Radiographic characteristics of these stones included multiple, round or rectangular radiopaque densities surrounded by calcified rim; these densities showed a branching pattern along the intrahepatic ducts.

  12. Martensite Formation in Partially and Fully Austenitic Plain Carbon Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.; Sietsma, J.

    2009-01-01

    The progress of martensite formation in plain carbon steels Fe-0.46C, Fe-0.66C, and Fe-0.80C has been investigated by dilatometry. It is demonstrated that carbon enrichment of the remaining austenite due to intercritical annealing of Fe-0.46C and Fe-0.66C does not only depress the start temperature

  13. Introducing Plain Language Principles to Business Communication Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Rachelle R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to current federal mandates requiring selected businesses and government agencies to use plain language (PL) when reporting information to the public, this article advocates the introduction of PL principles into current business communication curricula. Despite recent PL mandates and advances, many current business textbooks and…

  14. Vocational Training for Industry in the Northern Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Natural Gas Co., Omaha, NE. Dept. of Area Development.

    This study of the Northern Plains States (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin) post secondary educational facilities for training craftsmen and operatives for manufacturing and related industries was conducted by means of a questionnaire survey. For each occupation in which training was offered, schools were requested…

  15. Plains Prickly Pear Cactus Response to Fire and Fuel Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of prickly pear on rangelands has lead to numerous studies aimed at understanding prickly pear response to various natural and human induced treatments. Information is lacking on Plains prickly pear response to varied fuel loads. Pads of clones from three soil types (claypan, gravel, si...

  16. Lichens in the rural landscape of the Warmia Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Szymczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the rural landscape of the Warmia Plain were studied. Lichen species were observed on old wooden fences, roadside trees, fruit trees, pylons, farm machinery, buildings and bridges. The analysed biota consists of 104 taxa with several noteworthy and rare lichens.

  17. Astrobiology and the Basaltic Plains in Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, D. J.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farmer, J. D.; Grotzinger, John P.; Haskin, Larry A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Schroeder, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This report assesses the availability of nutrient elements, energy and liquid water on the plains surrounding Columbia Memorial Station by evaluating observations by the MER rover Spirit in the context of previous Mars missions, Earth-based studies of martian meteorites and studies of microbial communities on Earth that represent potential analogs of martian biota.

  18. Dendroclimatic potential of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) from the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Jesse; Friedman, Jonathan; Meko, David; Touchan, Ramzi; Scott, Julian; Edmonson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A new 368-year tree-ring chronology (A.D. 1643–2010) has been developed in western North Dakota using plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) growing on the relatively undisturbed floodplain of the Little Missouri River in the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. We document many slow-growing living trees between 150–370 years old that contradict the common understanding that cottonwoods grow fast and die young. In this northern location, cottonwood produces distinct annual rings with dramatic interannual variability that strongly crossdate. The detrended tree-ring chronology is significantly positively correlated with local growing season precipitation and soil moisture conditions (r  =  0.69). This time series shows periods of prolonged low radial tree growth during the known droughts of the instrumental record (e.g. 1931–1939 and 1980–1981) and also during prehistory (e.g. 1816–1823 and 1856–1865) when other paleoclimate studies have documented droughts in this region. Tree rings of cottonwood will be a useful tool to help reconstruct climate, streamflow, and the floodplain history of the Little Missouri River and other northern river systems.

  19. Runoff production from intercrater plains on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R. P., III; Matsubara, Y.; Cawley, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Ancient fluvial paleochannels and paleolakes constrain the hydrology of a wetter epoch in the early history of Mars. The cross-sectional dimensions of fluvial channels scale with discharge, watershed topography is generally well preserved, and adjustments can be made for gravity. These factors have supported conservative estimates of runoff production during event floods more than 3.5 billion years ago. Assuming weak channel banks, such that discharge is low per unit channel width, event floods in smaller watersheds had estimated runoff production of 1 cm/day. Highland surfaces generated runoff inefficiently, such that channel width increases with only the 0.3 power of watershed area. Inefficient runoff production on Mars is also suggested by new landscape evolution modeling. In long-term simulations that accurately reproduce the present landscape, forming and degrading all of the Middle and Late Noachian impact craters in selected study areas, inefficient runoff production is needed to degrade craters without intensely dissecting intercrater surfaces. The model shows that discharge generally cannot increase at more than the 0.3 power of watershed area. Paleolakes provide useful constraints on paleohydrology over intermediate timescales of years to millennia. Most local highland basins were never integrated into regional drainage systems, but some have both a contributing valley network and an outlet valley, indicating that they overflowed. Paleolake overflows require a medium-term water supply that exceeds losses to evaporation. Reasonable evaporation of 0.1 to 1 m/yr and watersheds that are mostly >10 times the area of overflowed paleolakes suggest runoff production of gardening, and lesser aeolian erosion. Low drainage density is an obvious explanation for inefficient runoff production, but it may be the consequence of moderate rainfall or snowmelt, as well as incision of valley networks over a finite timescale.

  20. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3...

  1. Constructing a Home on the Range: Homemaking in Early-Twentieth-Century Plains Photograph Albums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Christina E.

    2008-01-01

    For people living near the coasts or mountains of America, it must be hard to imagine longing for a "home on the plains"--but many Americans have had, and still have, a home on the Plains. The stereotypical American image of the Plains is flatness, austerity, emptiness. Not all would consider this an ideal landscape for home. So how did the people…

  2. Constructing a Home on the Range: Homemaking in Early-Twentieth-Century Plains Photograph Albums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Christina E.

    2008-01-01

    For people living near the coasts or mountains of America, it must be hard to imagine longing for a "home on the plains"--but many Americans have had, and still have, a home on the Plains. The stereotypical American image of the Plains is flatness, austerity, emptiness. Not all would consider this an ideal landscape for home. So how did…

  3. Acute paediatric ankle trauma: MRI versus plain radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohman, M. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Radiological Dept., Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Kivisaari, A.; Kivisaari, L. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Kallio, P.; Puntila, J. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Vehmas, T. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland)

    2001-09-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis of acute physeal ankle fractures on plain radiographs using MRI as the gold standard. Methods: Sixty consecutive children, 29 with a clinical diagnosis of lateral ligament injury and 31 with physeal ankle fractures, were examined using both radiographs and MRI in the acute period. The imaging data were reviewed by three ''masked'' radiologists. The fracture diagnosis and Slater-Harris classification of radiographs were compared with findings on MRI. Results: Plain radiography produced five of 28 (18%) false negative and 12 of 92 (13%) false positive fracture diagnoses compared with MRI. Six of the 12 false positive fractures were due to a misclassification of lateral ligament disruption as SH1 fractures. Altogether a difference was found in 21% of cases in either the diagnosis or the classification of the fractures according to Salter- Harris. All bone bruises in the distal tibia and fibula and 64% of bone bruises in the talus were seen in association with lateral ligament injuries. Talar bone bruises in association with fractures occurred on the same side as the malleolar fracture; talar bone bruises in association with lateral ligament disruption were seen in different locations. The errors identified on radiographs by MRI did not affect the management of the injury. Conclusions: The incidence of false negative ankle fractures in plain radiographs was small and no complex ankle fractures were missed on radiographs. The total extent of complex fractures was, however, not always obvious on radiographs. In an unselected series of relatively mild ankle injuries, we were unable to show a single case where the treatment or prognosis based on plain radiography should have been significantly altered after having done a routine MRI examination. Plain radiography is still the diagnostic cornerstone of paediatric ankle injuries. (orig.)

  4. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. L.; Ito, Y.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  5. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and

  6. Evaluation of Four Water Management Policies for Ogallala Aquifer Sustainability in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J. E.; Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Ha, W.; Almas, L. K.

    2010-12-01

    Diminishing groundwater supply in the Ogallala Aquifer will severely reduce regional crop and animal production in the absence of a sustainable water management policy. It is essential to mitigate adverse impacts on the regional economy due to future withdrawals of the limited groundwater resource. Currently, approximately ten alternative water management policies are being debated by policy makers in the Central and Southern High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer region. Before implementing any new policy or modifying current policies, newer alternative policies should be evaluated for their impact on groundwater levels with eventual extension to regional economic impacts. The main objective of this study was to evaluate four water management policies, from the debated ones, on future groundwater levels in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath four heavily irrigated counties (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore) located in the northwest corner of the Texas High Plains using a calibrated ModFlow model. The four water management policies were (1) voluntary permanent conversion to dry land production up to 10% of the total irrigated area, (2) adoption of advances in biotechnology that allow water use reductions at a rate of 1% per year up to 10% of current use, (3) mandatory water use reduction to decrease the total water pumped by 10% (volume per unit land area per year), and (4) voluntary temporary conversion to dry land production during 15 years for a maximum area of 10% of the total irrigated area. The water management policies were converted into water demand rates for ModFlow model inputs. Simulations were conducted for a 50-year (2010-2060) period. Preliminary results indicate that a combination of more than one policy will be required to produce a significant reduction in the current groundwater depletion rates.

  7. Assessing Potential Habitat and Carrying Capacity for Reintroduction of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison in Banff National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Steenweg

    Full Text Available Interest in bison (Bison bison, B. bonasus conservation and restoration continues to grow globally. In Canada, plains bison (B. b. bison are threatened, occupying less than 0.5% of their former range. The largest threat to their recovery is the lack of habitat in which they are considered compatible with current land uses. Fences and direct management make range expansion by most bison impossible. Reintroduction of bison into previously occupied areas that remain suitable, therefore, is critical for bison recovery in North America. Banff National Park is recognized as historical range of plains bison and has been identified as a potential site for reintroduction of a wild population. To evaluate habitat quality and assess if there is sufficient habitat for a breeding population, we developed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the proposed reintroduction and surrounding areas in Banff National Park (Banff. We then synthesize previous studies on habitat relationships, forage availability, bison energetics and snowfall scenarios to estimate nutritional carrying capacity. Considering constraints on nutritional carrying capacity, the most realistic scenario that we evaluated resulted in an estimated maximum bison density of 0.48 bison/km2. This corresponds to sufficient habitat to support at least 600 to 1000 plains bison, which could be one of the largest 10 plains bison populations in North America. Within Banff, there is spatial variation in predicted bison habitat suitability and population size that suggests one potential reintroduction site as the most likely to be successful from a habitat perspective. The successful reintroduction of bison into Banff would represent a significant global step towards conserving this iconic species, and our approach provides a useful template for evaluating potential habitat for other endangered species reintroductions into their former range.

  8. Assessing Potential Habitat and Carrying Capacity for Reintroduction of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison) in Banff National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg, Robin; Hebblewhite, Mark; Gummer, David; Low, Brian; Hunt, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Interest in bison (Bison bison, B. bonasus) conservation and restoration continues to grow globally. In Canada, plains bison (B. b. bison) are threatened, occupying less than 0.5% of their former range. The largest threat to their recovery is the lack of habitat in which they are considered compatible with current land uses. Fences and direct management make range expansion by most bison impossible. Reintroduction of bison into previously occupied areas that remain suitable, therefore, is critical for bison recovery in North America. Banff National Park is recognized as historical range of plains bison and has been identified as a potential site for reintroduction of a wild population. To evaluate habitat quality and assess if there is sufficient habitat for a breeding population, we developed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the proposed reintroduction and surrounding areas in Banff National Park (Banff). We then synthesize previous studies on habitat relationships, forage availability, bison energetics and snowfall scenarios to estimate nutritional carrying capacity. Considering constraints on nutritional carrying capacity, the most realistic scenario that we evaluated resulted in an estimated maximum bison density of 0.48 bison/km2. This corresponds to sufficient habitat to support at least 600 to 1000 plains bison, which could be one of the largest 10 plains bison populations in North America. Within Banff, there is spatial variation in predicted bison habitat suitability and population size that suggests one potential reintroduction site as the most likely to be successful from a habitat perspective. The successful reintroduction of bison into Banff would represent a significant global step towards conserving this iconic species, and our approach provides a useful template for evaluating potential habitat for other endangered species reintroductions into their former range.

  9. Investigation of wind erosion process for estimation, prevention, and control of DSS in Yazd-Ardakan plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhtesasi, M R; Sepehr, A

    2009-12-01

    Wind erosion is a phenomenon that is reasonably common in regions where dry winds blow. For the most part, these regions correspond to the dry lands; areas where the soil, generally, is dry and shifting and lacks vegetation for most of the year. The winds are sufficiently strong to lift and move sands and soil particles. The repeated removal of superficial layers by the action of winds can modify the texture of the topsoil, by removing the fine particles and leaving the larger particles. Dust and sandstorm (DSS) is the generic term for a serious environmental phenomenon that involves strong winds that blow a large quantity of dust and fine sand particles away from the ground and carry them over a long distance with significant environmental impacts along the way. In the realm of DSS in Iran country, the people who live in Yazd and Sistan-Baluchestan provinces form a single ecological community due to their geographic proximity and climatic contiguity. The major sources of DSS in the region are believed to be the desert and semidesert areas of the Yazd-Ardakan plain in Yazd province. Both Sistan and Baluchestan are the recipients of this dust. To address the long-range transboundary environmental problem of DSS, a regional cooperation mechanism must be established among the provinces in the region. Yazd-Ardakan plain, with area of about 650,000 ha, is located in the center of Iran, between Yazd and Ardakan cities. The mean annual rainfall is less than 65 mm. Rainfall distribution is a simple modal and more than 70% of it occurs in winter. Plant density varies from 0% to 25%, and Artemisia sieberi is the dominant plant species. The major part of Yazd-Ardakan plain is bare land. According to the recent investigation, more than 20,000-m(3) dust with less than 100-microm diameter falls down annually on Yazd city with an area of 7,000 ha. Horizontal visibility is reduced to less than 6 m in stormy days in some parts of Yazd-Ardakan plain. This phenomenon causes car

  10. Seismicity and seismotectonics of the diffusive Iberian/African plate boundary: Horseshoe Abyssal Plain and Gorringe Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Lange, Dietrich; Matias, Luis

    2014-05-01

    In the area to the west of the Gibraltar Arc the plate boundary between Africa and Iberia is poorly defined. The deformation in the area is forced by the slow NW-SE convergence of 4 mm/yr between the oceanic domains of Iberia/Eurasia and Africa and is accommodated over a 200 km broad tectonically-active deformation zone. The region, however, is also characterized by large earthquakes and tsunamis, such as the 1969 Mw=7.9 Horseshoe Abyssal Plain earthquake and the November 1, 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake with an estimated magnitude of Mw~8.5. The exact location of the source of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake is still unknown. Recent work may suggest that the event occurred in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault, an oblique thrust fault. However, estimates of tsunami arrival times suggested a source near the Gorringe Bank, a ~180 km-long and ~70 km-wide ridge that has a relieve of ~5000 m. Deep Sea Drilling (DSDP) and rock samples indicated that the bank is mainly composed of serpentinized peridotites with gabbroic intrusions, perhaps being created by overthrusting of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain onto the Tagus Abyssal Plain in NW direction. Further, the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain is marked by the presence of compressive structures with a roughly NE-SW orientation and E-W trending, segmented, crustal-scale, strike slip faults that extend from the Gorringe Bank to the Gibraltar Arc in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz, which were called "South West Iberian Margin" or SWIM faults. The fault system may mark a developing Eurasia-Africa plate boundary. Two local seismic networks were operated in the area. First, a network of 14 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) was operated between April and October 2012 in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault between 10°W to 11°W, and 35°50'N to 36°10'N. From October 2013 to March 2014 a second network of 15 OBS monitored seismicity at the Gorringe Bank. Both networks benefitted from seismic stations operated in Portugal. The first network provided in

  11. Assessment of an Increase in Boron and Arsenic Concentrations at the Discharge Area of Na-Borate Mine (Kirka-Eskisehir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galip Yuce Didem Ugurluoglu Yasin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Province of Kirka (Eskisehir, Turkey, located in the catchment of the Seydisuyu Plain, has one of the largest Na-borate deposits in the world. However, boron concentrations in surface and ground waters downstream of Kirka Province, the Seyitgazi Plain, have increased over the past twenty years. Seyitgazi plain has been widely irrigated from groundwater and Seydisuyu River. In this respect, quality of the river water directly affects groundwater quality in the Seyitgazi Plain since river water is the main supplier for irrigation water in the Seyitgazi plain in addition to groundwater which is extracted from the wells drilled in the Seyitgazi Plain. Thus, any mining activity built in the catchment area of groundwater poses potential risk for the quality of groundwater in the discharge area.

  12. Influence of climate and land use changes on recent trend of soil erosion within the Russian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosov, Valentin; Yermolaev, Oleg; Rysin, Ivan; Litvin, Leonid; Kiryukhina, Zoya; Safina, Guzel

    2016-04-01

    The Russian Plain is one of the largest plains with an area of 460 × 106 ha. Soil erosion during snow-melting and rainstorms occurs mostly on arable lands at the Russian Plain. The relative contribution of different types of soil erosion changes from the central part of the Russian Plain to the south. Sheet and rill soil erosion during snow-melting and rainfall are practically equal in the forest zone, while rainfall erosion prevails in the forest-steppe zone and the northern part of the steppe zone. Mostly rainfall erosion is observed in the southern part of the steppe zone. Mean annual soil losses from cultivated lands change in the range from 1 to 3 t ha-1 within lowlands to 6 to 8 t ha-1 at uplands with the maximum (10 t ha-1) observed near the Caucasus Mountains in the Stavropolskiy Krai. The intensity of gully erosion is relatively low during the last two decades. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a serious crisis in the agriculture because of financial problems and structural reorganization. As a result, the area of arable lands decreased in the southern half of the Russian Plain in 1991 - 2003. To a greater extent it was observed in the south of the forest zone because of the low productivity of its soils compared with chernozem. More than one third of the arable lands were abandoned in the dry steppe - semi-desert zones because these lands were irrigated during the Soviet period. The reduction of the arable land occurred in the forest-steppe and steppe zones mostly because of funding limitations during the 1990s. Recently the area of arable lands in the steppe zone was practically restored to its pre-1991 size. Simultaneously the last 25 years are characterized by unusual warm winters - in particular, in the southern half of the Russian Plain because of the global warming. As a result, the coefficient of surface snow-melting runoff considerably decreased for both cultivated fields and compacted fields after harvesting. Accordingly, spring

  13. Mangshan loess on China’s Central Plain and its response to tectonic movement and climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锡浩; 蒋复初; 肖华国; 薛滨; 孙东怀

    1999-01-01

    The Mangshan loess on China’s Central Plain, located on the transitional zone between the uplifting Loess Plateau and the subsiding North China Plain, is a proximal sandy loess transported from the fanhead of alluvial fan in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and has recorded the eoupting effect of the tectonics and climate over the last 200 ka. An abrupt environmental change indicated by the abrupt rise of deposit rate in the late penultimate glaciation, about 150 ka BP, took place; that is, the Yellow River downcut and moved eastwards through the Sanmenxia Gorge and transported abundant materials from the Loess Plateau to form paleosol S1 with a thickness of 15.7 m and loess L1 with a thickness of 77.3 m. The loess-paleosol sequence at Mangshan has not only recorded detailed climate responses of this area to the East Asian monsoon, but also refleets the tectonogenetie environmental effect caused by the trunk stream of the Yellow River cutting through Sanmenxia Gorge into sea.

  14. Lithostratigraphic, borehole-geophysical, hydrogeologic, and hydrochemical data from the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Orlando, Patricia v.P.; Borchers, James W.; Everett, Rhett; Solt, Michael; McGann, Mary; Lowers, Heather; Mahan, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the East Bay Municipal Utility District, carried out an investigation of aquifer-system deformation associated with groundwater-level changes at the Bayside Groundwater Project near the modern San Francisco Bay shore in San Lorenzo, California. As a part of the Bayside Groundwater Project, East Bay Municipal Utility District proposed an aquifer storage and recovery program for 1 million gallons of water per day. The potential for aquifer-system compaction and expansion, and related subsidence, uplift, or both, resulting from aquifer storage and recovery activities were investigated and monitored in the Bayside Groundwater Project. In addition, baseline analysis of groundwater and substrata properties were performed to assess the potential effect of such activities. Chemical and physical data, obtained from the subsurface at four sites on the east side of San Francisco Bay in the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California, were collected during the study. The results of the study were provided to the East Bay Municipal Utility District and other agencies to evaluate the chemical and mechanical responses of aquifers underlying the East Bay Plain to the future injection and recovery of imported water from the Sierra Nevada of California.

  15. Woody encroachment in northern Great Plains grasslands: Perceptions, actions, and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy; Leis, Sherry A.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Northern Great Plains (NGP) has a high potential for landscape-scale conservation, but this grassland landscape is threatened by encroachment of woody species. We surveyed NGP land managers to identify patterns in, and illustrate a broad range of, individual managers' perceptions on (1) the threat of woody encroachment to grasslands they manage, and (2) what management practices they use that may influence woody encroachment in this region. In the 34 surveys returned, which came from predominantly public lands in the study area, 79% of responses reported moderate or substantial woody encroachment. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) were the most problematic encroachers. Thirty-one survey respondents said that prescribed fire was used on the lands they manage, and 64% of these responses reported that controlling woody encroachment was a fire management objective. However, only 18% of survey respondents using prescribed fire were achieving their desired fire return interval. Most respondents reported using mechanical and/or chemical methods to control woody species. In contrast to evidence from the central and southern Great Plains, few survey respondents viewed grazing as affecting encroachment. Although the NGP public land managers we surveyed clearly recognize woody encroachment as a problem and are taking steps to address it, many feel that the rate of their management is not keeping pace with the rate of encroachment. Developing strategies for effective woody plant control in a variety of NGP management contexts requires filling ecological science gaps and overcoming societal barriers to using prescribed fire.

  16. Channeling episodes of Kasei Valles, Mars, and the nature of ridged plains material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mary G.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    The geologic mapping compiled at 1:500,000 scale of the northern Kasei Valles area of Mars (MTMs 25062 and 25067) indicates (1) at least three periods of Kasei Valles channeling, (2) the development of Sacra Fossae (linear depressions on Tempe Terra and Lunae Planum) in relation to Kasei channeling episodes, and (3) the nature of ridged plains material dissected by Kasei Valles on northern Lunae Planum. (The three channeling periods consists of two flood events and a later, sapping related event). These findings suggest hydrologic conditions and processes that formed Kasei Valles and associated features and terrains. It is concluded that an early period of flooding, whose source is perhaps buried beneath lava flows of Tharsis Montes, may have eroded streamlined features in northern Lunae Planum. Also, later floods originating from Echus Chasma formed after the initial flooding and the mesas adjacent to the plateau. The Sacra Fossae formed after the initial flooding and during the second flooding by sapping, outbreak, scarp retreat, and collapse along joints and fractures in ridged plains materials.

  17. Les ressources en eau de la plaine de Braila (Roumanie et leur valorisation économique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIAN MITOF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water Resources in the Brăila Plain (Romania and their economic capitalization. The aim of this study is to analyze the water resources in the Brăila Plain, in terms of temporal variability and of economic use of these natural assets. In the stu dy area, the water resources are represented by the natural lakes (Ianca, Plopu, Esna, Lutu Alb, Movila Miresii, Sărat - Brăila, Batogu, by the Călmățui river and also by the phreatic aquifers. This study is based on climatic data (annual rainfall amounts, potential evapotranspiration sums and hydrological data (average discharges of Călmățui River, phreatic levels from three monitoring wells, that were analyzed through statistical methods. Thus, the temporal trends and statistical correlations between stu died parameters were obtained. Also, the water resources were assessed by applying the total economic value method. At multiannual scale, the quantitative reduction of water resources is observed both in the case of surface waters (decreasing trends of Căl mățui discharges and of groundwater levels, with negative implications on the water resources future availability and on their long - term using potential.

  18. Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.R.; Flynn, J.L.; Paschke, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer is an important water source for irrigated agriculture and domestic supplies in northeastern Colorado. To address the needs of Colorado's Groundwater Protection Program, the U.S. Geological Survey designed and installed a groundwater monitoring-well network in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Agriculture in 2008 to characterize water quality in the High Plains aquifer underlying areas of irrigated agriculture in eastern Colorado. A 30-well network was designed to provide for statistical representation of water-quality conditions by using a computerized technique to generate randomly distributed potential groundwater sampling sites based on aquifer extent, extent of irrigated agricultural land, depth to water from land surface, and saturated thickness. Twenty of the 30 sites were selected for well installation, and wells were drilled and installed during the period June-September 2008. Lithologic logs and well-construction reports were prepared for each well, and wells were developed after drilling to remove mud and foreign material to provide for good hydraulic connection between the well and aquifer. Documentation of the well-network design, site selection, lithologic logs, well-construction diagrams, and well-development records is presented in this report.

  19. Characterization of quantity-quality grade conversion coefficient of supplementary cultivated land in Jianghan Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shougeng; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhanqi

    2010-11-01

    Relating supplementary cultivated land (SCL) quantity and quality with the occupied cultivated land (OCL) grade as well as realizing conversion between them are crucial to keep the balance between SCL and OCL, to protect the limited farming resources, to guarantee the security of national food, to harmonize the relationship between human and land resources, and to promote sustainable economic development. The Jianhan plain, one of China's grain production bases, was chosen for a case study to quantify the relationships between the grade index of farmland utilization and standard food output based on the resulting grade of agricultural land. Linear regression is used to model the relationships for 2778 samples from the grade of agricultural land obtained by field mapping. The average of grade index for different utilization grades was estimated by the area weighted average method. The results demonstrate that quantity-quality grade conversion coefficient of supplementary cultivated land, and the method used in this study are powerful tools to quantify the relationship between the quantity and quality of the SCL and the grade and realize conversion of OCL. Theses results can be used for protecting the quantity and quality of cultivated land and optimizing design for land consolidation project as well as determining the reasonable scale and layout of land use planning in the Jianghan plain.

  20. An integrated classification method for thematic mapper imagery of plain and highland terrains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-long LU; Xiao-hua SHEN; Le-jun ZOU; Chang-jiang LI; Yan-jun MAO; Gui-fang ZHANG; Wen-yuan WU; Ying LIU; Zhong ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The classification of thematic mapper imagery in areas with strong topographic variations has proven problematic in the past using a single classifier, due to the changing sun illumination geometry. This often results in the phenomena of identical object with dissimilar spectrum and different objects with similar spectrum. In this paper, an integrated classification method that combines a decision tree with slope data, tasseled cap transformation indices and maximum likelihood classifier is introduced, to find an optimal classification method for thematic mapper imagery of plain and highland terrains. A Landsat 7 ETM+ image acquired over Hangzhou Bay, in eastern China was used to test the method. The results indicate that the performance of the integrated classifier is acceptably good in comparison with that of the existing most widely used maximum likelihood classifier. The integrated classifier depends on hypsography (variation in topography) and the characteristics of ground truth objects (plant and soil). It can greatly reduce the influence of the homogeneous spectrum caused by topographic variation. This integrated classifier might potentially be one of the most accurate classifiers and valuable tool for land cover and land use mapping of plain and highland terrains.

  1. Nitrate reduction during ground-water recharge, Southern High Plains, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryar, Alan E.; Macko, Stephen A.; Mullican, William F., III; Romanak, Katherine D.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2000-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid environments, artificial recharge or reuse of wastewater may be desirable for water conservation, but NO 3- contamination of underlying aquifers can result. On the semi-arid Southern High Plains (USA), industrial wastewater, sewage, and feedlot runoff have been retained in dozens of playas, depressions that focus recharge to the regionally important High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer. Analyses of ground water, playa-basin core extracts, and soil gas in an 860-km 2 area of Texas suggest that reduction during recharge limits NO 3- loading to ground water. Tritium and Cl - concentrations in ground water corroborate prior findings of focused recharge through playas and ditches. Typical δ15N values in ground water (>12.5‰) and correlations between δ15N and ln CNO -3-N suggest denitrification, but O 2 concentrations ≥3.24 mg l -1 indicate that NO 3- reduction in ground water is unlikely. The presence of denitrifying and NO 3--respiring bacteria in cores, typical soil-gas δ15N values water can still exceed drinking-water standards, as observed in the vicinity of one playa that received wastewater. Therefore, continued ground-water monitoring in the vicinity of other such basins is warranted.

  2. DS-777 Annual Model-Forecasted Land-Use/Land-Cover Rasters from 2009 to 2050 for the A2 Climate Scenario for the High Plains Aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estimates of area and aerial extent of land-use categories are an essential component for computing the water budget of the High Plains aquifer. These raster...

  3. DS-777 Annual Model-Forecasted Land-Use/Land-Cover Rasters from 2009 to 2050 for the B2 Climate Scenario for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estimates of area and aerial extent of land use categories are an essential component for computing the water budget of the High Plains aquifer. These raster...

  4. Documentation of a groundwater flow model developed to assess groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability of the area and included an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time from stresses related to human uses and climate trends. The assessment was necessary because of the substantial dependency on groundwater for agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs in this area.

  5. Distribution and relative abundance of caribou in the Hudson Plains Ecozone of Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey J. Magoun

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine past distribution and relative abundance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in the Hudson Plains Ecozone (HPE of Ontario, we reviewed past HPE-wide winter systematic aerial surveys, partial winter systematic surveys, summer photographic surveys, incidental observations of caribou, and other sources of information from the period 1950—2003. We conducted new HPE-wide aerial surveys in February 2003 and 2004 to evaluate current distribution patterns. From this information, we defined 9 core wintering areas in the HPE and differentiated between 3 catego¬ries of relative abundance. Wintering areas for the January—March period have changed relatively little over the past 45 years. Summer distribution of caribou along the Hudson Bay coast apparently shifted or expanded from the area west of the Severn River to the central and eastern portions of the coast since the 1980s, and caribou observations have become much more common in the area east of the Winisk River since 1998. Because major resource development activities in the HPE are proposed and some are imminent, we recommend additional caribou surveys to document current caribou population identity, size, and distribution, and research projects to better define caribou wintering areas, calving areas, and movement patterns in the HPE.

  6. Climate change and Sea level rise: Potential impact on the coast of the Edremit Plain, NW Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curebal, Isa; Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Sonmez, Suleyman

    2015-04-01

    Over the past century, most of the world's mountain glaciers and the ice sheets have lost mass due to global warming. When the temperature exceeds a particular level, glaciers and polar ice caps will continue to lose mass. Recent studies report that low-lying coastal areas will be seriously affected by sea level rise. Changes in the amount of natural and anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols had a warming effect on the global climate during last century. Thus, the pace of melting of ice sheets increased, and, accordingly, sea level began to rise faster. Rise in sea level between 1961 and 2003 was equal to 1.8 mm/year while it was 3.1 mm/year between 1993 and 2003. The total rise in the 20th century is estimated to be between 17 and 19 cm. The models based on the sea level change indicate that the average global temperature at the end of the 21st century will increase by 0.3°C - 6.4°C. Global sea level is projected to rise 8-25 cm by 2030, relative to 2000 levels, 18-48 cm by 2050, and 50-140 cm by 20110. The Edremit Plain lies between Mount Madra and the Kaz Mountains on the coast of Aegean Sea in NW Turkey. It is lowland with an area of 141 km2. The widest part of the plain is 16 km along the E - W direction. The N - S direction amounts to a width of 15 km. The plain is covered with alluvial deposits that settled in the Quaternary Period. The elevation ranges from 0 to 50 m a.s.l. in the plain. This study aims to determine how the low-lying coastal land areas of the Edremit Plain may be affected by possible changes in sea level. Elevation dataset is based on the digital elevation model (DEM) of Landsat ETM + satellite images. To that end, satellite images were used to draw the current coastline. Curves of 2.5, 5, and 10 m were drawn through the use of maps with a scale of 1/25.000. Later on, the areas of the fields between these points were calculated. Current estimates show that 2.5 m rise in sea level will cause sea water to cover an area of 8.6 km2 (%14

  7. Stratigraphic control on earthquake-induced liquefaction: A case study from the Central Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, A.; Bruno, L.; Facciorusso, J.; Piccin, A.; Sammartino, I.

    2016-11-01

    Studies on earthquake-induced liquefaction tied to high-resolution stratigraphic analysis have been rarely undertaken. We report the results of a multidisciplinary study from the Quistello-Moglia area, in the central Po Plain (northern Italy). In this region, combined stratigraphic, sedimentological, geotechnical, and geochemical data allowed assessment of liquefaction potential and identification of the primary source for liquefaction, following the second main shock (Mw 6) of the 2012 Po Plain earthquake. Using Cone Penetration Test (CPT)-based simplified procedures for liquefaction hazard evaluation, we assessed the highest liquefaction potential of Holocene, fluvial-channel and related (crevasse/levee) fine sand-silt facies encased in thick, mud-prone floodplain and swamp successions. The liquefaction potential, and the intensity of the manifestations induced on the ground surface, decreased for the vertically-amalgamated, sheet-like Pleistocene sandy fluvial units encountered at depths greater than 13 m. Floodplain and swamp deposits were virtually non-liquefiable. In the Quistello area, the compositional characterization of sands that were liquefied and extruded during the 2012 earthquake reveals the diagnostic geochemical fingerprint of sediment carried by the Po River, as opposed to the Apennine composition of surficial sediments. These data rule out proximity of liquefied layers to the surface, and attest the buried, meandering Po River system at depths of 7-10 m most likely representing the source for the liquefied sand that vented to the surface. Similarly, at Moglia, liquefied sands were likely sourced from loose and saturated, ribbon-shaped, fluvial sand bodies encased in mud, though at shallower (4-7 m) depths. Pronounced liquefaction phenomena in alluvial plain systems are commonly believed to be associated primarily with elongate topographic ridges following paleo-river courses. Here, we document that under favorable stratigraphic conditions

  8. Precipitation-centered Conceptual Model for Sub-humid Uplands in Lampasas Cut Plains, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. R.; Tu, M.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2011-12-01

    Conceptual understandings of dominant hydrological processes, system interactions and feedbacks, and external forcings operating within catchments often defy simple definition and explanation, especially catchments encompassing transition zones, degraded landscapes, rapid development, and where climate forcings exhibit large variations across time and space. However, it is precisely those areas for which understanding and knowledge are most needed to innovate sustainable management strategies and counter past management blunders and failed restoration efforts. The cut plain of central Texas is one such area. Complex geographic and climatic factors lead to spatially and temporally variable precipitation having frequent dry periods interrupted by intense high-volume precipitation. Fort Hood, an army post located in the southeast cut plain contains landscapes ranging from highly degraded to nearly pristine with a topography mainly comprised of flat-topped mesas separated by broad u-shaped valleys. To understand the hydrology of the area and responses to wet-dry cycles we analyzed 4-years of streamflow and rainfall from 8 catchments, sized between 1819 and 16,000 ha. Since aquifer recharge/discharge and surface stream-groundwater interactions are unimportant, we hypothesized a simple conceptual model driven by precipitation and radiative forcings and having stormflow, baseflow, ET, and two hypothetical storage components. The key storage component was conceptualized as a buffer that was highly integrated with the ET component and exerted controls on baseflow. Radiative energy controlled flux from the buffer to ET. We used the conceptual model in making a bimonthly hydrologic budget, which included buffer volumes and a deficit-surplus indicator. Through the analysis, we were led to speculate that buffer capacity plays key roles in these landscapes and even relatively minor changes in capacity, due to soil compaction for example, might lead to ecological shifts. The

  9. Estimation of groundwater recharge using the chloride mass-balance method, Pingtung Plain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Cheh-Shyh; Kerh, Tienfuan; Liao, Chiu-Jung

    Due to rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. Over-pumping of the groundwater reservoir, which lowers hydraulic heads in the aquifers, is not only affecting the coastal area negatively but has serious consequences for agriculture throughout the plain. In order to determine the safe yield of the aquifer underlying the plain, a reliable estimate of groundwater recharge is desirable. In the present study, for the first time, the chloride mass-balance method is adopted to estimate groundwater recharge in the plain. Four sites in the central part were chosen to facilitate the estimations using the ion-chromatograph and Thiessen polygon-weighting methods. Based on the measured and calculated results, in all sites, including the mountain and river boundaries, recharge to the groundwater is probably 15% of the annual rainfall, excluding recharge from additional irrigation water. This information can improve the accuracy of future groundwater-simulation and management models in the plain. Résumé Du fait de la croissance économique rapide de la plaine de Pingtung à Taiwan, l'utilisation des ressources en eau souterraine s'est considérablement modifié. La surexploitation des aquifères, qui a abaissé le niveau des nappes, n'affecte pas seulement la région côtière, mais a de sérieuses répercutions sur l'agriculture dans toute la plaine. Afin de déterminer les ressources renouvelables de l'aquifère sous la plaine, une estimation précise de la recharge de la nappe est nécessaire. Dans cette étude, le taux de recharge de la nappe a d'abord été estimé au moyen d'un bilan de matière de chlorure. Quatre sites de la partie centrale ont été sélectionnés pour réaliser ces estimations, à l'aide d'un chromatographe ionique et de la méthode des polygones de Thiessen. A partir des résultats mesurés et calculés, à chaque site, et en prenant comme limites les montagnes et les rivi

  10. NONLINEAR MICRO-MECHANICAL MODEL FOR PLAIN WOVEN FABRIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYitong; XieYuxin

    2003-01-01

    The warp yarns and weft yarns of plain woven fabric which, being the principal axes of material of fabric, are orthogonal in the original configuration, but are obliquely crossed in the deformed configuration in general. The orthotropic constitutive model is unsuitable for fabric. In the oblique principal axes system the relations between loaded stress vectors and stress tensor are investigated, the stress fields of micro-weaving structures of fabric due to pure shear are carefully studied and, finally, a nonlinear micro-mechanical model for plain woven fabric is proposed. This model can accurately describe the nonlinear mechanical behavior of fabric observed in experiments. Under the assumption of small deformation and linearity of mechanical properties of fabric the model will degenerate into the existing linear model.

  11. The measurement of plain weft-knitted fabric stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Mohamad, Ayhan; Cassidy, Thomas; Brydon, Alan; Halley, Dave

    2012-05-01

    A new instrument and a test method are presented in this paper that can evaluate the stiffness of plain weft-knitted fabrics. The WIRA Instrumentation Tester can measure torsion data for various flexible fibre assemblies whilst they are being twisted. The torsional properties of two types of fabrics, namely nonwoven and knitted fabrics, were analyzed. Then, comparisons between bending rigidity and torsional rigidity have been conducted using FAST-2, Shirley, Heart Loop and the new WIRA method for the assessment of fabric stiffness. The results show high correlation between bending rigidity and torsional rigidity in assessment of nonwoven fabric stiffness; they also reveal that the WIRA tester and torsional rigidity are more suitable for characterizing the stiffness of plain weft-knitted fabrics than the other test methods.

  12. Regional Similarity of Leveed Lava Flows on the Mars Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloga, Steve M.; Glaze, Lori, S.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of lava flow movement are controlled by the fluid interior. Crust, solids, and nondeformable material can only retard the advance or spreading of a lava flow. Figure 1 shows a typical large, channelized lava flow found on the Mars plains. It has been suggested in [I] that such large leveed flows on the Mars plains were emplaced by a balance between the formation and shedding of crust as the flow advances. For the prototypical flow north of Pavonis Mons (Fig. I), such a balance leads to a flow morphology that approximately self-replicates at all locations along the flow path [2,3]. Moreover, most quantitative characteristics of emplacement (e.g., viscosity, volumetric flow rate) of the prototype flow at Pavonis Mons resembled those of large channelized lava flows on Earth. The exception was the relatively long, sustained supply of lava, on the order of a year as opposed to hours or days for terrestrial analogs.

  13. Representativeness of soil samples collected to assess mining-related contamination of flood plains in southeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2015-01-01

    Historical lead and zinc mining in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of lead and zinc to the environment (Juracek, 2006; Juracek and Becker, 2009). In response to concern about the mining-related contamination, southeast Cherokee County, Kansas, was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) National Priority List as a Superfund hazardous waste site (fig. 1). To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County Superfund site, a study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that was requested and funded by USEPA. As part of the study, surficial-soil sampling was used to investigate the extent and magnitude of mining-related lead and zinc contamination in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the Superfund site. In mining-affected areas, flood-plain soils had lead and zinc concentrations that far exceeded background levels as well as probable-effects guidelines for toxic aquatic biological effects (Juracek, 2013). Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment.

  14. Groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  15. San Agustin Plains, New Mexico: Age and paleoenvironmental potential reassessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markgraf, Vera; Bradbury, J. Platt; Forester, R. M.; Singh, G.; Sternberg, R. S.

    1984-11-01

    Paleomagnetic analysis of samples from the original 600-m-long core from the San Agustin Plains, New Mexico, showed an unquestionable reversal stratigraphy dating the record back to at least 1.6 my. Analysis of pollen, ostracodes, and algae of a duplicate sample section in the vicinity of the original coring site and spanning the last 18,000 yr B.P. shows a much higher resolution than the earlier results.

  16. Carpal pseudoerosions: a plain X-ray interpretation pitfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, Richard [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Budzik, Jean Francois [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires; Demondion, Xavier [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; CHRU Lille (France). Lab. d' Anatomie; Forzy, Gerard [Univ. Catholique de Lille, Lomme (France). Lab. de Biologie; Cotten, Anne [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires

    2014-10-15

    To examine in detail images of pseudoerosion of the wrist and hand on plain radiographs. The study was conducted with 28 cadaver wrists. During a single imaging session three techniques - plain radiography, tomosynthesis, and computed tomography - were used to visualize the wrist and hand specimens. For each technique, 20 radio-ulno-carpo-metacarpal sites known to present bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed by two radiologists using a standard system to score the cortical bone: normal, pseudoerosion, true erosion, or other pathology. Cohen's concordance analysis was performed to determine inter-observer and intra-observer (for the senior radiologist) agreement by site and by technique. Serial sections of two cadaver specimens were examined to determine the anatomical correlation of the pseudoerosions. On the plain radiographs, the radiologists scored many images as pseudoerosion (7.3 %), particularly in the distal ulnar portion of the capitate, the distal radial portion of the hamate, the proximal ulnar portion of the base of the third metacarpal, the proximal radial portion of the base of the fourth metacarpal, the distal ulnar portion of the hamate, and the proximal portion of the base of the fifth metacarpal. The computed tomography scan revealed that none of these doubtful images corresponded to true erosions. The anatomical correlation study showed that these images could probably be attributed to ligament insertions, thinner lamina, and enhanced cortical bone transparency. Knowledge of the anatomical carpal localizations where pseudoerosions commonly occur is a necessary prerequisite for analysis of plain radiographs performed to diagnose or monitor rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  17. Structural Reliability of Plain Bearings for Wave Energy Converter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ambühl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The levelized cost of energy (LCOE from wave energy converters (WECs needs to be decreased in order to be able to become competitive with other renewable electricity sources. Probabilistic reliability methods can be used to optimize the structure of WECs. Optimization is often performed for critical structural components, like welded details, bolts or bearings. This paper considers reliability studies with a focus on plain bearings available from stock for the Wavestar device, which exists at the prototype level. The Wavestar device is a point absorber WEC. The plan is to mount a new power take-off (PTO system consisting of a discrete displacement cylinder (DDC, which will allow different hydraulic cycles to operate at constant pressure levels. This setup increases the conversion efficiency, as well as decouples the electricity production from the pressure variations within the hydraulic cycle when waves are passing. The new PTO system leads to different load characteristics at the floater itself compared to the actual setup where the turbine/generator is directly coupled to the fluctuating hydraulic pressure within the PTO system. This paper calculates the structural reliability of the different available plain bearings planned to be mounted at the new PTO system based on a probabilistic approach, and the paper gives suggestions for fulfilling the minimal target reliability levels. The considered failure mode in this paper is the brittle fatigue failure of plain bearings. The performed sensitivity analysis shows that parameters defining the initial crack size have a big impact on the resulting reliability of the plain bearing.

  18. Costs of Placing Fill in a Flood Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    Computation 5 Engineering. Enviromental and Legal Aspects of Filling 6 STUDY CONCLUSIONS 8 APPENDIX "Guidelines for Filling Floodplains," Bauer Engineering...Various attempts have been made to estimate an eco