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Sample records for kangaroo rat implications

  1. Monitoring the Stephen's kangaroo rat: An analysis of monitoring methods and recommendations for future monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document covers a series of analyses to explore and summarize previous monitoring efforts of Stephens Kangaroo Rats (SKR) and make recommendations for future...

  2. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Edelman

    Full Text Available Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (<10 m. Mortality risk of vulnerable, recently founded harvester ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species.

  3. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species.

  4. Botfly (Diptera:Oestridae) parasitism of Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummer, D L; Forbes, M R; Bender, D J; Barclay, R M

    1997-08-01

    During field study of Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada, a high prevalence of parasitism by botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae was observed. Botflies have not previously been documented as parasites of kangaroo rats. Botfly parasitism could have a significant impact on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Ord's kangaroo rat, which is considered a vulnerable species in Canada. Therefore, it is important to investigate how botfly parasitism varies with season and with gender or age of host. In 1995, 525 individual kangaroo rats were caught by nightlighting and live trapping for a total of 952 capture records. Upon capture, each kangaroo rat was ear-tagged and thoroughly examined for parasites and wounds. Third-instar botfly (Cuterebra polita) larvae were observed in kangaroo rats between 16 June and 23 August. Prevalence was 34% based on 454 kangaroo rats sampled during that time, whereas the mean intensity was 2.3 larvae per infested host (n = 156, range = 1-11). In contrast to some other studies of botfly parasitism of rodents, there were no gender or age biases in either prevalence or intensity of infestation. The index of dispersion was 2.8, indicating that the parasites were aggregated in hosts. Botfly parasitism could be an important factor affecting northern populations of kangaroo rats; future investigations into the potential effects of botfly larvae on host fitness are warranted.

  5. Draft De Novo Transcriptome of the Rat Kangaroo Potorous tridactylus as a Tool for Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udy, Dylan B; Voorhies, Mark; Chan, Patricia P; Lowe, Todd M; Dumont, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The rat kangaroo (long-nosed potoroo, Potorous tridactylus) is a marsupial native to Australia. Cultured rat kangaroo kidney epithelial cells (PtK) are commonly used to study cell biological processes. These mammalian cells are large, adherent, and flat, and contain large and few chromosomes-and are thus ideal for imaging intra-cellular dynamics such as those of mitosis. Despite this, neither the rat kangaroo genome nor transcriptome have been sequenced, creating a challenge for probing the molecular basis of these cellular dynamics. Here, we present the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft rat kangaroo de novo transcriptome. We sequenced 679 million reads that mapped to 347,323 Trinity transcripts and 20,079 Unigenes. We present statistics emerging from transcriptome-wide analyses, and analyses suggesting that the transcriptome covers full-length sequences of most genes, many with multiple isoforms. We also validate our findings with a proof-of-concept gene knockdown experiment. We expect that this high quality transcriptome will make rat kangaroo cells a more tractable system for linking molecular-scale function and cellular-scale dynamics.

  6. Derivation of soil screening thresholds to protect chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.

  7. Ord's kangaroo rats living in floodplain habitats: Factors contributing to habitat attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.S.; Wilson, K.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    High densities of an aridland granivore, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii), have been documented in floodplain habitats along the Yampa River in northwestern Colorado. Despite a high probability of inundation and attendant high mortality during the spring flood period, the habitat is consistently recolonized. To understand factors that potentially make riparian habitats attractive to D. ordii, we compared density and spatial pattern of seeds, density of a competitor (western harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis), and digging energetics within floodplain habitats and between floodplain and adjacent upland habitats. Seed density within the floodplain was greatest in the topographically high (rarely flooded) floodplain and lowest immediately after a spring flood in the topographically low (frequently flooded) floodplain. Seed densities in adjacent upland habitat that never floods were higher than the lowest floodplain habitat. In the low floodplain prior to flooding, seeds had a clumped spatial pattern, which D. ordii is adept at exploiting; after spring flooding, a more random pattern resulted. Populations of the western harvester ant were low in the floodplain relative to the upland. Digging by D. ordii was energetically less expensive in floodplain areas than in upland areas. Despite the potential for mortality due to annual spring flooding, the combination of less competition from harvester ants and lower energetic costs of digging might promote the use of floodplain habitat by D. ordii.

  8. Thermal implications of interactions between insulation, solar reflectance, and fur structure in the summer coats of diverse species of kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Maloney, Shane K

    2017-04-01

    Not all of the solar radiation that impinges on a mammalian coat is absorbed and converted into thermal energy at the coat surface. Some is reflected back to the environment, while another portion is reflected further into the coat where it is absorbed and manifested as heat at differing levels. Substantial insulation in a coat limits the thermal impact at the skin of solar radiation, irrespective where in the coat it is absorbed. In coats with low insulation, the zone where solar radiation is absorbed may govern the consequent heat load on the skin (HL-SR). Thin summer furs of four species of kangaroo from differing climatic zones were used to determine how variation in insulation and in coat spectral and structural characteristics influence the HL-SR. Coat depth, structure, and solar reflectance varied between body regions, as well as between species. The modulation of solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were measured at low (1 m s(-1)) and high (6 m s(-1)) wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectrum similar to solar radiation was used as a proxy for the sun. We established that coat insulation was largely determined by coat depth at natural fur lie, despite large variations in fibre density, fibre diameter, and fur mass. Higher wind speed decreased coat insulation, but depth still determined the overall level. A multiple regression analysis that included coat depth (insulation), fibre diameter, fibre density, and solar reflectance was used to determine the best predictors of HL-SR. Only depth and reflectance had significant impacts and both factors had negative weights, so, as either insulation or reflectance increased, HL-SR declined, the larger impact coming from coat reflectance. This reverses the pattern observed in deep coats where insulation dominates over effects of reflectance. Across all coats, as insulation declined, reflectance increased

  9. (Kangaroo grass) at various growth stages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Key words: Kangaroo grass, biomass, dry matter, rangeland, growth stages. INTRODUCTION ... Soil organic matter, soil porosity and nutrient ... as soil moisture approaches field capacity (Nolan, 1994). Because Kangaroo ...

  10. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  11. Locomotion in extinct giant kangaroos: were sthenurines hop-less monsters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Christine M; Buttrill, Karalyn; Figueirido, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Sthenurine kangaroos (Marsupialia, Diprotodontia, Macropodoidea) were an extinct subfamily within the family Macropodidae (kangaroos and rat-kangaroos). These "short-faced browsers" first appeared in the middle Miocene, and radiated in the Plio-Pleistocene into a diversity of mostly large-bodied forms, more robust than extant forms in their build. The largest (Procoptodon goliah) had an estimated body mass of 240 kg, almost three times the size of the largest living kangaroos, and there is speculation whether a kangaroo of this size would be biomechanically capable of hopping locomotion. Previously described aspects of sthenurine anatomy (specialized forelimbs, rigid lumbar spine) would limit their ability to perform the characteristic kangaroo pentapedal walking (using the tail as a fifth limb), an essential gait at slower speeds as slow hopping is energetically unfeasible. Analysis of limb bone measurements of sthenurines in comparison with extant macropodoids shows a number of anatomical differences, especially in the large species. The scaling of long bone robusticity indicates that sthenurines are following the "normal" allometric trend for macropodoids, while the large extant kangaroos are relatively gracile. Other morphological differences are indicative of adaptations for a novel type of locomotor behavior in sthenurines: they lacked many specialized features for rapid hopping, and they also had anatomy indicative of supporting their body with an upright trunk (e.g., dorsally tipped ischiae), and of supporting their weight on one leg at a time (e.g., larger hips and knees, stabilized ankle joint). We propose that sthenurines adopted a bipedal striding gait (a gait occasionally observed in extant tree-kangaroos): in the smaller and earlier forms, this gait may have been employed as an alternative to pentapedal locomotion at slower speeds, while in the larger Pleistocene forms this gait may have enabled them to evolve to body sizes where hopping was no longer

  12. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  13. Parents\\' lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parents\\' lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their preterm infants. ... While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low ... experience of birth; anxiety and barriers; an intimate connection; adjustments, ...

  14. HYPOALDOSTERONISM IN A MATSCHIE'S TREE KANGAROO (DENDROLAGUS MATSCHIEI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whoriskey, Sophie T; Bartlett, Susan L; Baitchman, Eric

    2016-06-01

    A 20-yr-old female Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) was diagnosed with hypoaldosteronism, a rare condition in which the body fails to produce normal amounts of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. Aldosterone plays a key role in body salt homeostasis, increasing sodium reabsorption and promoting excretion of potassium. Hypoaldosteronism resulted in decreased appetite, lethargy, and weight loss in conjunction with hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia in this tree kangaroo. The animal was successfully managed with mineralocorticoid replacement using desoxycorticosterone pivalate. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of hypoaldosteronism in a tree kangaroo and one of the few reports in the veterinary literature in any species.

  15. Setting up Kangaroo Mother Care at Queen Elizabeth Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central Hospital, Blantyre - A practical approach .... It is not sustainable .... This is a very distressing event for the mother, other mothers and .... management of well preterm infants: a pilot study. ... Kangaroo Mother Care — A practical guide.

  16. Mothers’ Experiences with Premature Neonates about Kangaroo Care: Qualitative Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahere Salimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Premature neonates admitted in NICU besides being separated from their mothers are prone to inevitably painful and stressful situations. Kangaroo care is the most effective method to get rid of this separation and its negative consequences. This study was performed to determine the experiences of mothers having premature neonates concerning Kangaroo care.   Material and Methods: The present study is a qualitative research in which focus group discussion method is used for data collection. Research society consisted of mothers having premature neonates Research group reread and categorized the qualitative findings. Contents of interviews were analyzed using the conventional interpretation approach introduced by Dicklman Method.   Results: Through content analysis of information emerged two major categories including mothers’ experiences about advantages of kangaroo care in interaction with neonate, and, feeling of physical-mental healthiness of neonate. Executive obstacles of kangaroo care from mothers’ standpoint were also discussed, which will be subsequently presented.   Discussion: According to the obtained results, it seems vital to highlight kangaroo care as a safe and effective clinical care-taking treatment in nursery of premature neonates in all hospitals. Nurses shall provide all mothers with the needed instructions for holding the premature and lower-weight neonate properly on their chests and shall promote their knowledge level concerning positive effects of kangaroo care including induction of tranquil sleep, optimization of physiological conditions of neonate, and removal of suckling obstacles.

  17. The role of inspections in the commercial kangaroo industry

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    Keely Boom

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an assessment of the enforcement of the law governing commercial kangaroo killing, focusing particularly upon inspectorial practices. Australia’s kangaroo industry is the largest commercial kill of land-based wildlife in the world. Professional shooters hunt kangaroos in rural and remote locations at night. Due to the remote and decentralised nature of the killing, the industry presents unique challenges to law enforcement agencies that are responsible for the enforcement of animal welfare standards. This article focuses upon the role that inspections have in detecting offences within the commercial kangaroo industry. It provides a comparative analysis across the states, highlighting key differences in terms of inspectorial practices and the resulting outcomes. A common theme across all of the jurisdictions is that none of the agencies responsible for enforcement regularly conduct inspections of shooters, making it impossible to ensure that these parties are complying with the National Code of Practice for the Humane Shooting of Kangaroos and Wallabies. Recommendations for reform are offered, including stronger compliance policy, higher rates of inspection, increased resourcing and the introduction of alternative methods of inspection.

  18. Phylogeny of kangaroo apples (Solanum subg. Archaesolanum, Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poczai, Péter; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Symon, David E

    2011-11-01

    Kangaroo apples, subgenus Archaesolanum, are a unique and still poorly known group within the genus Solanum. Here we aimed to reveal phylogeny, historical biogeography and age of diversification of Archaesolanum. We sampled all recognized species of the group and sequenced three chloroplast regions, the trnT-trnL spacer, trnL intron and trnL-trnF spacer to calibrate a molecular clock to estimate the age of the group. Distributional data were combined with the results of phylogenetic analysis to track the historical processes responsible for the current range of the group. Our analysis supported the monophyly of the kangaroo apples and the biogeographical disjunction between the two subclades within the group. Based on the divergence time estimates the most recent common ancestor of kangaroo apples is from the late Miocene age (~9 MYA). Based on the age estimate the common ancestors of the kangaroo apples are presumed to have arrived in Australia by long-distance dispersal. The two distinct lineages within the group have separated during the aridification of the continent and further speciated in the brief resurgence of rainforests during the Pliocene.

  19. What is kangaroo mother care? Systematic review of the literature

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    Grace J Chan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kangaroo mother care (KMC, often defined as skin–to–skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent or exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from the hospital has been effective in reducing the risk of mortality among preterm and low birth weight infants. Research studies and program implementation of KMC have used various definitions.

  20. Kangaroo Care: Experiences and Needs of Parents in Neonatal Intensive Care: A Systematic Review ‘Parents’ Experience of Kangaroo Care’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriels, karlijn; Brouwer, AJ; maat, Jessica; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review is focusing on the experiences and needs of parents with infants within NICU regarding Kangaroo Care. Ten studies with qualitative designs were included. Kangaroo Care was overall experienced as positive; giving parents the opportunity to get to know their babies and (re-) const

  1. Reproductive strategies of the kangaroo leech, Marsupiobdella africana (Glossiphoniidae

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    Natasha Kruger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kangaroo Leech, Marsupiobdella africana, is a hermaphroditic organism, with insemination taking place by the planting of a spermatophore on another leech. Spermatophores are mostly planted on the anterior of the recipient leech, but not always. Several spermatophores may be planted by different leeches on a single recipient. The spermatophore consists of two side by side lobes. Within minutes from planting of the spermatophore, the contents are squeezed out and into the body of the recipient. Sperm are believed to find the way to the ova by following chemical cues. Kangaroo Leeches display advanced parental care by transferring fertilized eggs from the reproductive opening to a brood pouch on the ventral side. Fully developed leeches may copulate after detaching from the amphibian host Xenopus laevis, or from the Cape River Crab Potamonautes perlatus with which it maintains a phoretic association.

  2. Peters anomaly in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Pearce, Jacqueline; Persky, Meredith; Houck, Marlys L

    2014-09-01

    A 10-mo-old female red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with a unilateral congenital corneal opacity OD. Complete ophthalmic examination revealed a shallow anterior chamber and a focal area of corneal edema with multiple persistent pupillary membranes extending from the iris colarette to the corneal endothelium adjacent to the edematous area of cornea. High-resolution B-scan ultrasound of the anterior segment showed an area consistent with thinning of Descemet's membrane in the area of corneal edema. Ophthalmic examination and ultrasound findings are consistent with a diagnosis of Peters anomaly, a form of anterior segment dysgenesis. An electroretinogram performed on the affected animal did not reveal any specific abnormalities. Karyotype analyses revealed a normal diploid number (2n = 20, -XX), with an abnormal pericentric inversion in the second largest chromosomal pair. The kangaroo exhibits mild compensated vision deficits in the affected eye. The maternal and paternal adult pairing has been discontinued in an effort to prevent future offspring anomalies.

  3. Kangaroo Mother Method: Mothers' Experiences and Contributions to Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    João Carlos Arivabene; Maria Antonieta Rubio Tyrrell

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to describe mothers' experiences, analyzing them in the light of the principles of the Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM), and discuss the mothers' contributions based on the meanings of these experiences for nursing actions. In data collection, a questionnaire was used that characterized the mothers' socioeconomic profile and, through focus groups, stories were obtained about the benefits of these experiences, which supported the construction of the following categories: surviv...

  4. Kangaroo – A pattern-matching program for biological sequences

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    Betel Doron

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists are often interested in performing a simple database search to identify proteins or genes that contain a well-defined sequence pattern. Many databases do not provide straightforward or readily available query tools to perform simple searches, such as identifying transcription binding sites, protein motifs, or repetitive DNA sequences. However, in many cases simple pattern-matching searches can reveal a wealth of information. We present in this paper a regular expression pattern-matching tool that was used to identify short repetitive DNA sequences in human coding regions for the purpose of identifying potential mutation sites in mismatch repair deficient cells. Results Kangaroo is a web-based regular expression pattern-matching program that can search for patterns in DNA, protein, or coding region sequences in ten different organisms. The program is implemented to facilitate a wide range of queries with no restriction on the length or complexity of the query expression. The program is accessible on the web at http://bioinfo.mshri.on.ca/kangaroo/ and the source code is freely distributed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/. Conclusion A low-level simple pattern-matching application can prove to be a useful tool in many research settings. For example, Kangaroo was used to identify potential genetic targets in a human colorectal cancer variant that is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in coding regions containing mononucleotide repeats.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with otitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Coke, Rob L; Kochunov, Peter; Davis, M Duff

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on an adult, male Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with a history of nonspecific neurologic signs and acute discharge from the left ear. MRI revealed findings consistent with otitis and possible osteomyelitis of the temporal and mastoid bones. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of otitis and MRI findings in a kangaroo.

  6. Changing patterns of meat consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Will kangaroo meat make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasiri, Shyama; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2017-01-01

    The Australian per capita consumption of ruminant meat such as beef and lamb has declined over the last two decades. Over the same period, however, per capita consumption of non-ruminant meat such as chicken and pork has continued to increase. Furthermore, it is now observed that the human consumption of kangaroo meat is on the rise. This study investigates the implications of these changes in meat consumption patterns on Green House Gases (GHGs) emission mitigation in Australia using a Vector Auto Regression (VAR) forecasting approach. Our results suggest that the increase will continue in non-ruminant meat consumption and this will not only offset the decline in ruminant meat consumption, but will also raise the overall per capita meat consumption by approximately 1% annually. The per capita GHGs emissions will likely decrease by approximately 2.3% per annum, due to the inclusion of non-ruminant meat in Australian diets. The GHGs emissions can further be reduced if the average Australian consumer partially replaces ruminant meat with kangaroo meat.

  7. Changing patterns of meat consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Will kangaroo meat make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasiri, Shyama; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2017-01-01

    The Australian per capita consumption of ruminant meat such as beef and lamb has declined over the last two decades. Over the same period, however, per capita consumption of non-ruminant meat such as chicken and pork has continued to increase. Furthermore, it is now observed that the human consumption of kangaroo meat is on the rise. This study investigates the implications of these changes in meat consumption patterns on Green House Gases (GHGs) emission mitigation in Australia using a Vector Auto Regression (VAR) forecasting approach. Our results suggest that the increase will continue in non-ruminant meat consumption and this will not only offset the decline in ruminant meat consumption, but will also raise the overall per capita meat consumption by approximately 1% annually. The per capita GHGs emissions will likely decrease by approximately 2.3% per annum, due to the inclusion of non-ruminant meat in Australian diets. The GHGs emissions can further be reduced if the average Australian consumer partially replaces ruminant meat with kangaroo meat. PMID:28196141

  8. The physics of articulated toys - a jumping and rotating kangaroo

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, J

    2014-01-01

    We describe the physics of an articulated toy with an internal source of energy provided by a spiral spring. The toy is a funny low cost kangaroo which jumps and rotates. The study consists of a mechanical and a thermodynamical analysis which makes use of the Newton and center of mass equations, the rotational equations and the first law of thermodynamics. This amazing toy provides a nice demonstrative example how new physics insights can be brought about when links with thermodynamics are established in the study of mechanical systems.

  9. impact of partial kangaroo mother care on growth rates and duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-02

    Feb 2, 2012 ... rates and duration of hospital stay of Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants. Design: ... Intervention: Kangaroo mother care was practised over an eight hour period per day ... settings, as well as its benefits and limitations. These.

  10. Nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method: support for nursing care management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Johanson da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: construct an explanatory theoretical model about nurses' adherence to the Kangaroo Care Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, based on the meanings and interactions for care management.METHOD: qualitative research, based on the reference framework of the Grounded Theory. Eight nurses were interviewed at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The comparative analysis of the data comprised the phases of open, axial and selective coding. A theoretical conditional-causal model was constructed.RESULTS: four main categories emerged that composed the analytic paradigm: Giving one's best to the Kangaroo Method; Working with the complexity of the Kangaroo Method; Finding (demotivation to apply the Kangaroo Method; and Facing the challenges for the adherence to and application of the Kangaroo Method.CONCLUSIONS: the central phenomenon revealed that each nurse and team professional has a role of multiplying values and practices that may or may not be constructive, potentially influencing the (discontinuity of the Kangaroo Method at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The findings can be used to outline management strategies that go beyond the courses and training and guarantee the strengthening of the care model.

  11. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

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    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  12. Familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Parsons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo, along with a control (water. If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous, western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones. Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5. Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2 = 83.8; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been

  13. Understanding kangaroo care and its benefits to preterm infants

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    Campbell-Yeo ML

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marsha L Campbell-Yeo,1–4 Timothy C Disher,1 Britney L Benoit,1 C Celeste Johnston,2,4,5 1School of Nursing, Dalhousie University, 2Department of Pediatrics, IWK Health Centre, 3Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, 4Centre for Pediatric Pain Research, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, 5Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada Abstract: The holding of an infant with ventral skin-to-skin contact typically in an upright position with the swaddled infant on the chest of the parent, is commonly referred to as kangaroo care (KC, due to its simulation of marsupial care. It is recommended that KC, as a feasible, natural, and cost-effective intervention, should be standard of care in the delivery of quality health care for all infants, regardless of geographic location or economic status. Numerous benefits of its use have been reported related to mortality, physiological (thermoregulation, cardiorespiratory stability, behavioral (sleep, breastfeeding duration, and degree of exclusivity domains, as an effective therapy to relieve procedural pain, and improved neurodevelopment. Yet despite these recommendations and a lack of negative research findings, adoption of KC as a routine clinical practice remains variable and underutilized. Furthermore, uncertainty remains as to whether continuous KC should be recommended in all settings or if there is a critical period of initiation, dose, or duration that is optimal. This review synthesizes current knowledge about the benefits of KC for infants born preterm, highlighting differences and similarities across low and higher resource countries and in a non-pain and pain context. Additionally, implementation considerations and unanswered questions for future research are addressed. Keywords: kangaroo care, skin-to-skin contact, infant, preterm, review

  14. Spatial requirements of free-ranging Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei (Macropodidae, in upper montane forest.

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    Gabriel Porolak

    Full Text Available Tree kangaroos (Macropodidae, Dendrolagus are some of Australasia's least known mammals. However, there is sufficient evidence of population decline and local extinctions that all New Guinea tree kangaroos are considered threatened. Understanding spatial requirements is important in conservation and management. Expectations from studies of Australian tree kangaroos and other rainforest macropodids suggest that tree kangaroos should have small discrete home ranges with the potential for high population densities, but there are no published estimates of spatial requirements of any New Guinea tree kangaroo species. Home ranges of 15 Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei, were measured in upper montane forest on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The home range area was an average of 139.6±26.5 ha (100% MCP; n = 15 or 81.8±28.3 ha (90% harmonic mean; n = 15, and did not differ between males and females. Home ranges of D. matschiei were 40-100 times larger than those of Australian tree kangaroos or other rainforest macropods, possibly due to the impact of hunting reducing density, or low productivity of their high altitude habitat. Huon tree kangaroos had cores of activity within their range at 45% (20.9±4.1 ha and 70% (36.6±7.5 ha harmonic mean isopleths, with little overlap (4.8±2.9%; n = 15 pairs between neighbouring females at the 45% isopleth, but, unlike the Australian species, extensive overlap between females (20.8±5.5%; n = 15 pairs at the complete range (90% harmonic mean. Males overlapped each other and females to a greater extent than did pairs of females. From core areas and overlap, the density of female D. matschiei was one per 19.4 ha. Understanding the cause of this low density is crucial in gaining greater understanding of variations in density of tree kangaroos across the landscape. We consider the potential role of habitat fragmentation, productivity and hunting pressure in limiting tree kangaroo

  15. Interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature from Kangaroo-Unit

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    Francisca Eliene de Oliveira Callou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature newborns of the Kangaroo Unit. Methods: This was an exploratory study of qualitative approach. The interviews were conducted with 10 mothers and 7 professionals who joined in Kangaroo Program and then analyzed by the content analysis technique. The guiding questions used were related to feelings perceived in relation to the Kangaroo method, related to mother-child dyad and interpersonal relationships. Results: Mothers reported on their speeches: “safe to be with the baby in Kangaroo Method” and “sense of maternal feeling during breastfeeding”, while in the professionals’ discourses have emerged: “guidelines on caring for the babies”, “the embracement by the team” and “the importance of family support.” Conclusions: The interaction between professionals and mothers of Kangaroo Unit facilitates the permanence of the binomial in the method, therefore develops feelings of security, tranquility and confidence to take care of the baby. It is important that the team be aware of the difficulties, supporting them in the weakest moments and sharing their fears, doubts and concerns over the baby’s hospitalization.

  16. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  17. Variation in rat sciatic nerve anatomy: implications for a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asato, F; Butler, M; Blomberg, H; Gordh, T

    2000-03-01

    We discovered a variation of rat sciatic nerve anatomy as an incidental finding during the anatomical exploration of the nerve lesion site in a rat neuropathic pain model. To confirm the composition and distribution of rat sciatic nerve, macroscopic anatomical investigation was performed in both left and right sides in 24 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. In all rats, the L4 and L5 spinal nerves were fused tightly to form the sciatic nerve. However, the L6 spinal nerve did not fuse with this nerve completely as a part of the sciatic nerve, but rather sent a thin branch to it in 13 rats (54%), whereas in the remaining 11 rats (46%), L6 ran separately along with the sciatic nerve. Also, the L3 spinal nerve sent a thin branch to the L4 spinal nerve or sciatic nerve in 6 rats (25%). We conclude that the components of sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats vary from L3 to L6; however, the major components are L4 and L5 macroscopically. This finding is in contrast to the standard textbooks of rat anatomy which describe the sciatic nerve as having major contributions from L4, L5, and L6.

  18. Developmental aspects of the rat endolymphatic sac and functional implications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.A.; Tonnaer, E.L.G.M.; Kuijpers, W.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Curfs, J.H.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine specific characteristics of endolymphatic sac (ES) cells of the developing rat that are considered to be involved in endolymph homeostasis. Because intermediate filament proteins (IFPs) are regarded as markers of cell differentiation and basal lamina protei

  19. Advantages of kangaroo Mother care in Less Than 2000 Grams Low Birth Weight Neonates

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    Mohsen Jafarzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:The aim of study was to compare the effect of Kangaroo mother care (KMC and conventional methods of care (CMC in low birth weight babies less than 2000 grams.Method: One hundred babies with birth weight less than 2000 grams and without clinical problem were randomized in two groups; the tervention group (N=50 who received Kangaroo mother care and the control group (N=50 with conventional care. Two groups were compared in daily weight gaining, self confidence of mother, duration of hospitalization, clinical cyanosis and nosocomial infection. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software . Irct ID: IRCT201101091162N16.Results: The KMC babies had better daily weight gaining average [18.31±7.57gm vs. 4.8±16.57gm (P0.05.Conclusions: In this study Kangaroo mother care had better effect on daily weight gaining, mother confidence and shorter duration of hospitalization.

  20. Physical mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of kangaroo shoulder cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibbotuwawa, Namal; Oloyede, Adekunle; Li, Tong; Singh, Sanjleena; Senadeera, Wijitha; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-09-01

    Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to human shoulder, kangaroo was chosen as a model to study shoulder cartilage. Comprehensive enzymatic degradation and indentation tests were applied on kangaroo shoulder cartilage to study mechanisms underlying its strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior. We report that superficial collagen plays a more significant role than proteoglycans in facilitating strain-rate-dependent behavior of the kangaroo shoulder cartilage. By comparing the mechanical properties of degraded and normal cartilages, it was noted that proteoglycan and collagen degradation significantly compromised strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of the cartilage. Superficial collagen contributed equally to the tissue behavior at all strain-rates. This is different to the studies reported on knee cartilage and confirms the importance of superficial collagen on shoulder cartilage mechanical behavior. A porohyperelastic numerical model also indicated that collagen disruption would lead to faster damage of the shoulder cartilage than when proteoglycans are depleted.

  1. Slow And Fast Kindling During Hyperthermic Stimulation In Rats : Implications For Hot Water Epilepsy

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    Krishnamurthy U

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot water epilepsy, a reflex epilepsy precipitated by hot water stimulation, has been commonly reported from southern India. Clinical studies have indicated that a phenomenon of hyperthermic kindling may underlie the appearance of spontaneous seizures in some hot water epilepsy patients at a later stage. Our present experiments with a rat model for hot water epilepsy demonstrate the occurrence of slow and fast kindling during hyperthermic seizures, induced by repeated stimulations with hot water, in different populations of rats. These findings have important implications for the pathophysiology and management of this epileptic syndrome in human beings.

  2. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

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    Takashi Kuramoto

    Full Text Available Albino and hooded (or piebald rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  3. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice

    2012-01-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out....

  4. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

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    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  5. Functional morphology of the forelimb of living and extinct tree-kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Natalie M; Harvey, Kathryn J; Prideaux, Gavin J; O'Shea, James E

    2011-10-01

    Tree-kangaroos are a unique group of arboreal marsupials that evolved from terrestrial ancestors. The recent discovery of well-preserved specimens of extinct tree-kangaroo species (genus Bohra) within Pleistocene cave deposits of south-central Australia provides a unique opportunity to examine adaptive evolution of tree-kangaroos. Here, we provide the first detailed description of the functional anatomy of the forelimb, a central component of the locomotor complex, in the extant Dendrolagus lumholtzi, and compare its structure and function with representatives of other extant marsupial families. Several features were interpreted as adaptations for coping with a discontinuous, uneven and three-dimensional arboreal substrate through enhanced muscular strength and dexterity for propulsion, grasping, and gripping with the forelimbs. The forelimb musculoskeletal anatomy of Dendrolagus differed from terrestrial kangaroos in the following principal ways: a stronger emphasis on the development of muscles groups responsible for adduction, grasping, and gripping; the enlargement of muscles that retract the humerus; and modified shape of the scapula and bony articulations of the forelimb bones to allow improved mobility. Many of these attributes are convergent with other arboreal marsupials. Tree-kangaroos, however, still retain the characteristic bauplan of their terrestrial ancestors, particularly with regard to skeletal morphology, and the muscular anatomy of the forelimb highlights a basic conservatism within the group. In many instances, the skeletal remains of Bohra have similar features to Dendrolagus that suggest adaptations to an arboreal habit. Despite the irony of their retrieval from deposits of the Nullarbor "Treeless" Plain, forelimb morphology clearly shows that the species of Bohra were well adapted to an arboreal habitat.

  6. Preterm newborns at Kangaroo Mother Care: a cohort follow-up from birth to six months

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    Maria Alexsandra da S. Menezes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To evaluate clinical outcomes, growth and exclusive breastfeeding rates in premature infants assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care at birth, at discharge and at six months of life.METHODS: Prospective study of a premature infants cohort assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care in a tertiary public maternity in Northeast Brazil with birth weight ≤1750g and with clinical conditions for Kangaroo care.RESULTS: The sample was composed by 137 premature infants, being 62.8% female, with average birth weight of 1365±283g, average gestational age of 32±3 weeks and 26.2% were adequate for gestational age. They have been admitted in the Kangaroo Ward with a median of 13 days of life, weighing 1430±167g and, at this time, 57.7% were classified as small for corrected gestational age. They were discharged with 36.8±21.8 days of chronological age, weighing 1780±165g and 67.9% were small for corrected gestational age. At six months of life (n=76, they had an average weight of 5954±971g, and 68.4% presented corrected weight for gestational age between percentiles 15 and 85 of the World Health Organization (WHO weight curve. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was 56.2% and, at six months of life, 14.4%.CONCLUSIONS: In the studied sample, almost two thirds of the children assisted by Kangaroo Mother Care were, at six months of life, between percentiles 15 and 85 of the WHO weight curves. The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding at six months was low.

  7. Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix

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    Graeme Coulson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most urban mammals are small. However, one of the largest marsupials, the Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus, occurs in some urban areas. In 2007, we embarked on a longitudinal study of this species in the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have captured and tagged 360 individuals to date, fitting each adult with a collar displaying its name. We have monitored survival, reproduction and movements by resighting, recapture and radio-tracking, augmented by citizen science reports of collared individuals. Kangaroos occurred throughout the town, but the golf course formed the nucleus of this urban population. The course supported a high density of kangaroos (2–5/ha, and approximately half of them were tagged. Total counts of kangaroos on the golf course were highest in summer, at the peak of the mating season, and lowest in winter, when many males but not females left the course. Almost all tagged adult females were sedentary, using only part of the golf course and adjacent native vegetation and residential blocks. In contrast, during the non-mating season (autumn and winter, many tagged adult males ranged widely across the town in a mix of native vegetation remnants, recreation reserves, vacant blocks, commercial properties and residential gardens. Annual fecundity of tagged females was generally high (≥70%, but survival of tagged juveniles was low (54%. We could not determine the cause of death of most juveniles. Vehicles were the major (47% cause of mortality of tagged adults. Road-kills were concentrated (74% in autumn and winter, and were heavily male biased: half of all tagged males died on roads compared with only 20% of tagged females. We predict that this novel and potent mortality factor will have profound, long-term impacts on the demography and behavior of the urban kangaroo population at Anglesea.

  8. Circulating levels of prolactin and progesterone in a wild population of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) Marsupialia: Macropodidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Hinds, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Circulating progesterone and prolactin levels were measured in shot and live-caught wild red kangaroos using radioimmunoassays validated for the red kangaroo. The objective of the study was to correlate hormone profiles with reproductive status and determine if red kangaroos follow the general pattern elucidated for other macropodids. During Phase 2a lactation (600 pg/ml (n= 32) during the transition to Phase 3 lactation (181 to 235 days) when the quiescent corpus luteum and embryo were reactivated. Progesterone concentrations then decreased to prolactin during Phase 2a were prolactin concentrations increased to 15 ng/ml (n= 32), then decreased and remained low through the subsequent stage of dual lactation. These results indicate that progesterone and prolactin profiles in wild red kangaroos follow patterns found previously in other macropodid species, the tammar and Bennett's wallabies.

  9. Transparency and communication can improve wildlife welfare outcomes: A case of kangaroos

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    Simmons Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available All countries manage human and wildlife coexistence. Where traditionally humans may have killed animals perceived to be a problem, this is often no longer legal or socially acceptable. Decision-makers tend to feel less strongly about coexistence issues than the people who attempt to influence them on behalf of human or wildlife interests. It has been argued that links between human interests and decisions affecting wildlife should be transparent, and that open decision making processes involving a range of local stakeholders will improve outcomes for humans and wildlife. This paper examines one case incident in an ongoing conflict between an international car racing track and kangaroos that have occasionally been found on the track during a race, causing danger to themselves and race participants. A secret local government report and plan to cull kangaroos was obtained using Freedom of Information legislation. When released to the media the subsequent public discussion showed a much greater concern for kangaroo stress, harm and right to live than the official report, and called for consideration of a range of alternatives to culling. This led to postponement of culling plans, and commitment to a more open community discussion of options. The case clearly supports claims that greater transparency and local stakeholder participation in management decision processes can improve welfare outcomes for non-human animals.

  10. Intrahepatic Vascular Anatomy in Rats and Mice--Variations and Surgical Implications.

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    Constanze Sänger

    Full Text Available The intra-hepatic vascular anatomy in rodents, its variations and corresponding supplying and draining territories in respect to the lobar structure of the liver have not been described. We performed a detailed anatomical imaging study in rats and mice to allow for further refinement of experimental surgical approaches.LEWIS-Rats and C57Bl/6N-Mice were subjected to ex-vivo imaging using μCT. The image data were used for semi-automated segmentation to extract the hepatic vascular tree as prerequisite for 3D visualization. The underlying vascular anatomy was reconstructed, analysed and used for determining hepatic vascular territories.The four major liver lobes have their own lobar portal supply and hepatic drainage territories. In contrast, the paracaval liver is supplied by various small branches from right and caudate portal veins and drains directly into the vena cava. Variations in hepatic vascular anatomy were observed in terms of branching pattern and distance of branches to each other. The portal vein anatomy is more variable than the hepatic vein anatomy. Surgically relevant variations were primarily observed in portal venous supply.For the first time the key variations of intrahepatic vascular anatomy in mice and rats and their surgical implications were described. We showed that lobar borders of the liver do not always match vascular territorial borders. These findings are of importance for the design of new surgical procedures and for understanding eventual complications following hepatic surgery.

  11. How enrichment affects exploration trade-offs in rats: implications for welfare and well-being.

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    Becca Franks

    Full Text Available We propose that a comparative approach to well-being could be the key to understanding 'the good life.' Inspired by current theories of human well-being and animal welfare, we designed a novel test of exploration behavior. Environmentally and socially enriched Long-Evans female rats (N = 60 were trained in four simultaneously presented arms of an eight-arm radial-maze. They learned to expect successes in two arms and failures in the other two. After training, 20 animals remained in enriched housing (enrichment-maintenance while 40 animals were re-housed in standard, isolated conditions (enrichment-removal. Two weeks later, all animals were re-tested in the maze, initially with access to the four familiar arms only. In the final minute, they also had access to the unfamiliar ambiguous-arms. Though both groups showed significant interest in the ambiguous-arms (P.3. Thus, we show not only that rats will abandon known rewards and incur risk in order to explore, indicating that exploration is valuable in its own right, but also that individuals with (vs. without enriched housing conditions are more likely to engage in such exploratory behavior. This novel test contributes to the body of knowledge examining the importance of exploration in humans and other animals; implications for animal welfare and human well-being are discussed.

  12. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Fuss and Crying Time in Colicky Infants

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    Zahra Akbarian Rad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic. Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant. Results: The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001 Conclusions: Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic

  13. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Fuss and Crying Time in Colicky Infants

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    Zahra Akbarian Rad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic.Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant.Results:The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001Conclusions:Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic

  14. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus

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    Andrew Tribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours’ were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control.

  15. Use of “Kangaroo Care” to Alleviate the Intensity of Vaccination Pain in Newborns

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    Mahboobe Gholami Robatsangi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:It has been demonstrated that newborns feel pain completely. Thus, they should be treated with this in mind. Recent research showed that non-pharmacological interventions such as "Kangaroo Care" may be useful for decreasing pain in newborns. We tried to determine the effect of kangaroo care on the pain intensity of vaccination in healthy newborns. Methods:This study was a randomized case-control clinical trial. Subjects were 60 healthy full-term newborns delivered in a general Hospital, in Iran, from March to July 2006. They were randomly assigned to case and control groups. The case group received 30 minutes skin to skin contact, whereas infants in the control group were put, wrapped in a blanket, aside the mothers. Behavioral changes of newborns were evaluated and observed 2 minutes before, during, and 3 minutes after the intervention. All procedures were filmed. An assistant who was blinded to the study, scored behavior changes using Neonatal/Infant Pain Scale. Heart rate and oxygen saturation levels as displayed on the pulse monitor and duration of crying were recorded using a stopwatch. Findings:Mean pain intensity during the intervention v was significantly lower in the case group (P<0.006. Mean pain intensity 3 minutes after intervention was also significantly lower in the case group (P<0.021. Mean duration of crying was significantly lower in case group as well (P<0.001. Conclusion:Kangaroo care may be used to decrease pain intensity in newborns undergoing painful procedures.

  16. [Pathology of the digestive tract in kangaroos. A review based on our own study results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoon, H A; Murmann, W

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes spontaneous pathological findings including etiological aspects in digestive tracts of kangaroos, which have been detected in 166 necropsies during the last 20 years. Protozoan - infections, herpes virus infections, gastroenteritis of unknown etiology and especially the occurrence of the so called "lumpy-jaw" turned out to be of special importance. These findings are discussed with reference to the literature, completed as well by short literature reviews, sub-divided into the different organs and the variable etiology of the diseases, as by a brief description of digestive tract physiology and anatomy in marsupials.

  17. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  18. Ectoparasites and endoparasites of peridomestic house-rats in ile-ife, Nigeria and implication on human health.

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    Titus Ogunniyi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has never been a single case report of any parasitic zoonosis in Ile-Ife while just a case of human Acanthocephalan infection in Nigeria is available.Fifty (house-rats Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 were caught in houses and raw food sellers' stalls in a market in Ile-Ife. A caught rat was removed from the cage and sacrificed by cervical jerking. A rat was weighed, measured, quickly following which thick and thin blood films on microscope slides were made from blood collected from the tail vein. The rat was examined for ectoparasites then dissected to check for endoparasites.Two ectoparasites (Xenopsylla cheopis and Laelaptid mite were recovered from 19 (38.0% of the rats. Five genera of helminthes (Moniliformis, Hymenolepis, Taenia, Trichuris and Trichinella were recovered from 29 (58.0% of the rats while seven genera of protozoa organisms (Amoeba, Dientamoeba, Entamoeba, Retortamonas, Trichomonas, Chilomastix and Trypanosoma were recovered from 48 (96.0% of them. There was no correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.111 between the weight of the individual rat and the total number of alimentary canal acquired parasites.In relation to human health, implications of the rats serving as reservoir hosts for the different pathogens are highlighted. In view of the possibility of unexpected zoonosis arising from the parasites found in the peridomestic rats in this investigation and others not found, and in view of the difficulties that may be associated with diagnosing such ailment, especially by a clinician who trained locally, this report should be like raising awareness to these salient facts.

  19. Plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with oral necrobacillosis (lumpy jaw disease) using an automated handheld testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotohira, Yukari; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Haruka; Sano, Tadashi; Tsuchiya, Masakazu; Suzuki, Yohko; Shimamori, Toshio; Tsukano, Kenji; Sato, Ayano; Yokota, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of directly determining endotoxin activity in plasma samples from kangaroos with lumpy jaw disease (LJD, n=15) and healthy controls (n=12). Prior to the present study, the ability of the commercially available automated handheld portable test system (PTS(TM)) to detect endotoxin activity in kangaroo plasma was compared with that of the traditional LAL-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma samples, which were obtained from endotoxin-challenged cattle, were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. The performance of the PTS(TM) was not significantly different from that of the traditional LAL-based assay. The data obtained using PTS(TM) correlated with those using KT (r(2)=0.963, PPTS(TM) is applicable as a simplified system to assess endotoxin activity in macropods. In the present study, we demonstrated the diagnostic value of plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with systemic inflammation caused by oral necrobacillosis and identified plasma endotoxin activity as a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation in kangaroos with LJD. Based on ROC curves, we proposed a diagnostic cut-off point for endotoxin activity of >0.22 EU/ml for the identification of LJD. Our results indicate that the assessment of plasma endotoxin activity is a promising diagnostic tool for determining the outcome of LJD in captive macropods.

  20. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  1. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus

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    Mahmoud Badran Shoeib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the morphology and histomorphometry of stomach and gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus. The stomach was composed of three indistinctive separate parts namely sacciform forestomach, tubiform forestomach, and hindstomach. The tubiform forestomach was the main tubular section of the organ. The stomach had a compound lining. The non-glandular mucosa occupied the medial blind sac (MBS of the sacciform forestomach; the layer covered about one-third of the tubiform forestomach (non-glandular region and the entire length of the gastric sulcus. The glandular part lined the parietal blind sac (PBS of sacciform forestomach and the cardiac gland region of tubiform forestomach as well as fundic and pyloric gland regions of the hindstomach. The cardiac mucosa had smooth and folded areas; these were filled with mixed glands. In the fundic glands, the parietal cells outnumbered the chief cells. The pyloric glands were of serous-like in characteristics. In conclusion, gross and histological structures of the stomach of western grey kangaroo are adaptive with its food habitat, which allows thorough mixing of highly fibrous grasses.

  3. Parents’ lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their preterm infants

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    Angela Leonard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature and low birthweight infants pose particular challenges to health services in South Africa. While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low birthweight infants, limited research has been conducted locally on the experiences of parents who provide kangaroo care to their preterm infants. This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of parents who provided their preterm infants with kangaroo care at a tertiary-level maternity centre in the Western Cape. In-depth interviews were conducted with six parents: four mothers and two fathers. Data was analysed using an adaptation of the approaches described by Colaizzi (1978:48-71 and Hycner (1985:280-294. To ensure trustworthiness, the trustworthiness criteria described by Guba and Lincoln (1989:242-243 were applied. Kangaroo care is a phased process, each phase bringing a unique set of experiences. The eight themes that emerged are described: unforeseen, unprepared and uncertain - the experience of birth; anxiety and barriers; an intimate connection; adjustments, roles and responsibilities; measuring success; a network of encouragement and support; living-in challenges; and living with the infant outside of hospital. Challenges facing health care providers are described and recommendations for information about kangaroo care and support for parents are made. Opsomming Vroeggebore babas en babas met ’n lae geboortegewig stel besondere uitdagings vir Suid-Afrikaanse gesondhiedsdienste. Daar bestaan goeie bewyse dat die kangaroesorgmetode voordelig is vir babas met ’n laegeboortegewig, dog is minimale plaaslike navorsing gedoen oor die ondervindinge van ouers wat hierdie metode gebruik om vir hul vroeggebore babas te sorg. Hierdie fenomenologiese studie verken die geleefde ervaringe van ouers wat vir hulle vroeggebore babas deur middel van die kangaroesorgmetode in ’n tersiêre kraamsentrum in die Weskaap gesorg het. Data is ingesamel deur in

  4. The effect of kangaroo ward care in comparison with "intermediate intensive care" on the growth velocity in preterm infant with birth weight control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Oleti Tejo

    2016-10-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces neonatal mortality, neonatal sepsis and improves growth outcome in preterm infants. In this study, we compared the efficacy of "baby care in kangaroo ward (KWC)" with "baby care in intermediate intensive care (IIC)" in stable preterm infants (birth weight birth weight <1100 g) infants at term gestational age. Clinical trial registry of India CTRI/2014/05/004625 WHAT IS KNOWN: • Kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces neonatal mortality, neonatal sepsis and improves growth outcome in VLBW infants. What is new: • Baby care by mother can be given safely in kangaroo ward from a weight of 1150 g in stable preterm infants without any adverse effects.

  5. [Social representations on breastfeeding according to preterm infants' mothers in Kangaroo Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorski, Marly; Caetano, Laise Conceição; Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena de; Leite, Adriana Moraes; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the social representations on premature infants' breastfeeding at a Kangaroo Care Unit, from the perspective of mothers who are breastfeeding and describe the conflicts and contradictions they experience in this context. A qualitative approach was adopted, using the first stage of enunciation analysis in the light of social representations theory to identify the meanings assigned to breastfeeding. We found the following representations: healthy babies are breastfed, mother's milk provides protection and preserves the premature child's life, breastfeeding is the complement of motherhood and breastfeeding a premature infant is a hard and exhausting experience. The conflicts resulted from the assimilation of technical contents and discourse, late sucking and representations on breastfeeding.

  6. Camels, Cormorants, and Kangaroo Rats: Integration and Synthesis in Organismal Biology After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the development of an area of research variously referred to as physiological ecology, environmental physiology, or ecophysiology. This area of research was distinctive in its self-conscious blend of field and laboratory practices and its explicit integration with other areas of biology such as ecology, animal behavior, and evolution in order to study adaptation. Comparing the intersecting careers of Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew highlights two strikingly different approaches to physiological ecology. These alternative approaches to studying the interactions of organisms and environments also differed in important ways from the organismal biology championed by leading figures in the modern synthesis.

  7. Molecules implicated in glucose homeostasis are differentially expressed in the trachea of lean and obese Zucker rats

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    F. Merigo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the processes mediated by the (T1R2/T1R3 glucose/sugar receptor of gustatory cells in the tongue, and hormones like leptin and ghrelin contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Altered plasma levels of leptin and ghrelin are associated with obesity both in humans and rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the ultrastructure of the mucosa, and the expression of molecules implicated in the regulation of glucose homeostasis (GLUT2, SGLT1, T1R3, ghrelin and its receptor in the trachea of an animal model of obesity (Zucker rats. We found that the tracheal epithelium of obese animals was characterized by the presence of poorly differentiated cells. Ciliated and secretory cells were the cell lineages with greatest loss of differentiation. Severe epithelial alterations were associated with marked deposit of extracellular matrix in the lamina propria. The expression pattern of GLUT2 and SGLT1 glucose transporters was similar in the trachea of both the Zucker rat genotypes, whereas that of T1R3 was reduced in ciliated cells of obese rats. A different immunolocalization for ghrelin was also found in the trachea of obese rats. In conclusion, the tracheal morphological alterations in obese animals seem to compromise the expression of molecules involved in the homeostasis of glucose.

  8. Food dependence in rats selectively bred for low versus high saccharin intake. Implications for "food addiction".

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    Yakovenko, Veronica; Speidel, Elizabeth R; Chapman, Clinton D; Dess, Nancy K

    2011-10-01

    The "food addiction" concept implies that proneness to drug dependence and to food dependence should covary. The latter was studied in low- (LoS) and high- (HiS) saccharin-consuming rats, who differ in drug self-administration (HiS>LoS) and withdrawal (LoS>HiS). Sugary food intake in the first 1-2 h was higher in HiS than LoS rats. Sugar intake predicted startle during abstinence only among LoS rats. These results may suggest bingeing-proneness in HiS rats and withdrawal-proneness among LoS rats. However, intake escalation and somatic withdrawal did not differ between lines. Further study with selectively bred rats, with attention to definitions and measures, is warranted.

  9. Oxidative stress status and placental implications in diabetic rats undergoing swimming exercise after embryonic implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Ribeiro, Viviane Maria; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos

    2015-05-01

    The potential benefits and risks of physical exercise on fetal development during pregnancy remain unclear. The aim was to analyze maternal oxidative stress status and the placental morphometry to relate to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) from diabetic female rats submitted to swimming program after embryonic implantation. Pregnant Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups (11 animals/group): control-nondiabetic sedentary rats, control exercised-nondiabetic exercised rats, diabetic-diabetic sedentary rats, and diabetic exercised-diabetic exercised rats. A swimming program was used as an exercise model. At the end of pregnancy, the maternal oxidative stress status, placental morphology, and fetal weight were analyzed. The swimming program was not efficient to reduce the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. This fact impaired placental development, resulting in altered blood flow and energy reserves, which contributed to a deficient exchange of nutrients and oxygen for the fetal development, leading to IUGR. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Brain thermal inertia, but no evidence for selective brain cooling, in free-ranging western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2009-04-01

    Marsupials reportedly can implement selective brain cooling despite lacking a carotid rete. We measured brain (hypothalamic) and carotid arterial blood temperatures every 5 min for 5, 17, and 63 days in spring in three free-living western grey kangaroos. Body temperature was highest during the night, and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00. The highest body temperatures recorded occurred sporadically in the afternoon, presumably associated with exercise. Hypothalamic temperature consistently exceeded arterial blood temperature, by an average 0.3 degrees C, except during these afternoon events when hypothalamic temperature lagged behind, and was occasionally lower than, the simultaneous arterial blood temperature. The reversal in temperatures resulted from the thermal inertia of the brain; changes in the brain to arterial blood temperature difference were related to the rate of change of arterial blood temperature on both heating and cooling (P cooling in kangaroos. The effect of thermal inertia on brain temperature is larger than might be expected in the grey kangaroo, a discrepancy that we speculate derives from the unique vascular anatomy of the marsupial brain.

  11. Mother-offspring distances reflect sex differences in fine-scale genetic structure of eastern grey kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Wendy J; Garant, Dany; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Natal dispersal affects life history and population biology and causes gene flow. In mammals, dispersal is usually male-biased so that females tend to be philopatric and surrounded by matrilineal kin, which may lead to preferential associations among female kin. Here we combine genetic analyses and behavioral observations to investigate spatial genetic structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns in a high-density population of mammals showing fission-fusion group dynamics. We studied eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) over 2 years at Wilsons Promontory National Park, Australia, and found weak fine-scale genetic structure among adult females in both years but no structure among adult males. Immature male kangaroos moved away from their mothers at 18-25 months of age, while immature females remained near their mothers until older. A higher proportion of male (34%) than female (6%) subadults and young adults were observed to disperse, although median distances of detected dispersals were similar for both sexes. Adult females had overlapping ranges that were far wider than the maximum extent of spatial genetic structure found. Female kangaroos, although weakly philopatric, mostly encounter nonrelatives in fission-fusion groups at high density, and therefore kinship is unlikely to strongly affect sociality.

  12. Mother–offspring distances reflect sex differences in fine-scale genetic structure of eastern grey kangaroos

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Wendy J; Garant, Dany; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Natal dispersal affects life history and population biology and causes gene flow. In mammals, dispersal is usually male-biased so that females tend to be philopatric and surrounded by matrilineal kin, which may lead to preferential associations among female kin. Here we combine genetic analyses and behavioral observations to investigate spatial genetic structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns in a high-density population of mammals showing fission–fusion group dynamics. We studied eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) over 2 years at Wilsons Promontory National Park, Australia, and found weak fine-scale genetic structure among adult females in both years but no structure among adult males. Immature male kangaroos moved away from their mothers at 18–25 months of age, while immature females remained near their mothers until older. A higher proportion of male (34%) than female (6%) subadults and young adults were observed to disperse, although median distances of detected dispersals were similar for both sexes. Adult females had overlapping ranges that were far wider than the maximum extent of spatial genetic structure found. Female kangaroos, although weakly philopatric, mostly encounter nonrelatives in fission–fusion groups at high density, and therefore kinship is unlikely to strongly affect sociality. PMID:26045958

  13. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care Immediately after Delivery on Mother-infant Attachment 3 Months after Delivery

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    Fatemeh Zahra Karimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background  The aim of this study was determine the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC immediately after delivery on mother-infant attachment 3-month after delivery. Materials and Methods: In this RCT study, 72 mother-infant pairs were randomly divided in to kangaroo mother care and routine care groups.The intervention group received kangaroo mother care (KMC in the first two hours post birth. The control group just received routine hospital care. Mothers in the intervention group were encouraged to keep the baby in KMC as much as possible during the day and night throughout the neonatal period. Participants were followed up for three months after birth. The Main outcome measure was mother-infant attachment at 3 months postpartum and maternal anxiety about the baby at the same time. The data was collected by questionnaire (demographic information of parents and neonates and maternal attachment scale. Analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 14. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding their baseline data. Mean maternal attachment score in the KMC group and in the routine care group at three months after delivery was 52.40±3.30 and 49.86±4.18 respectively, which was significantly higher in the KMC group (P

  14. Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramp, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits.

  15. Improved sexual behavior in male rats treated with a Chinese herbal extract: hormonal and neuronal implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Zanoli; Augusta Benelli; Manuela Zavatti; Marianna Rivasi; Claudia Baraldi; Mario Baraldi

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the influence of an extract obtained from five Chinese medicinal plants on sexual behavior of adult male rats. Methods: The extract was administered at doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg by oral gavage, acutely (one time, 45 rain before mating test) or subchronically (daily for 10 days) in sexually potent and sexually sluggish/impo-tent rats. Sexual behavior, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) were evaluated in treated rats and compared with controls receiving vehicle. The effect of the extract on central dopaminergic neurotransmis-sion was assessed in the nucleus accumbens using a microdialysis technique. Results: In sexually potent rats, both acute and subchronic treatment with the extract dosed at 30 and 60 mg/kg reduced mount latency and intromission latency. In sluggish/impotent rats, the acutely administered extract at the dose of 60 mg/kg shortened ejaculation latency, whereas subchronically administered at the doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg, reduced mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies, increasing also the percentage of mounting and ejaculating rats. The extract dosed at 60 mg/kg significantly increased LH and T following acute and subchronic administration and increased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the nucleus accumbens, 30 rain after the acute administration. Conclusion: The improvement in both appetitive and consummatory components of sexual behavior observed in male rats treated with the extract could be scribed to increased serum T level in parallel with the activation of the central dopaminergic system.

  16. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of genetic variation in Labiostrongylus longispicularis from kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huby-Chilton, F; Beveridge, I; Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B

    2001-06-01

    Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was employed to screen for sequence heterogeneity in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal (r) DNA of Labiostrongylus longispicularis, a parasitic strongylid nematode occuring in some species of kangaroo in different geographical regions of Australia. The results showed that most of the nematodes screened had different SSCP profiles, which were subsequently shown to correspond to polymorphisms and/or an indel in the ITS-2 sequence. These variable sites related mainly to unpaired regions of the predicted secondary structure of the precursor rRNA molecule. SSCP profiles could be used to distinguish L. longispicularis in Macropus robustus robustus (New South Wales) from L. longispicularis in Macropus robustus erubescens and Macropus rufus (South Australia). This difference corresponded to a transversional change in the ITS-2 sequence at alignment position 82. The study demonstrated clearly the effectiveness of SSCP analysis for future large-scale population genetic studies of L. longispicularis in order to test the hypothesis that L. longispicularis from different geographical regions represents multiple sibling species.

  17. Speed cameras, section control, and kangaroo jumps-a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Alena

    2014-12-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted of the effects of speed cameras and section control (point-to-point speed cameras) on crashes. 63 effect estimates from 15 speed camera studies and five effect estimates from four section control studies were included in the analysis. Speed cameras were found to reduce total crash numbers by about 20%. The effect declines with increasing distance from the camera location. Fatal crashes were found to be reduced by 51%, this result may however be affected by regression to the mean (RTM). Section control was found to have a greater crash reducing effect than speed cameras (-30% for total crash numbers and -56% for KSI crashes). There is no indication that these results (except the one for the effect of speed cameras on fatal crashes) are affected by regression to the mean, publication bias or outlier bias. The results indicate that kangaroo driving (braking and accelerating) occurs, but no adverse effects on speed or crashes were found. Crash migration, i.e., an increase of crash numbers on other roads due to rerouting of traffic, may occur in some cases at speed cameras, but the results do not indicate that such effects are common. Both speed cameras and section control were found to achieve considerable speed reductions and the crash effects that were found in meta-analysis are of a similar size or greater than one might expect based on the effects on speed.

  18. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The effect of formal, neonatal communication-intervention training on mothers in kangaroo care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta Kritzinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to low-birth-weight, preterm birth, HIV and/or AIDS and poverty-related factors, South Africa presents with an increased prevalence of infants at risk of language delay. A Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC unit offers unique opportunities for training.Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine if formal, neonatal communication-intervention training had an effect on mothers’ knowledge and communication interaction with their high-risk infants.Methods: Three groups of mothers participated: Group 1 was trained whilst practicing KMC; Group 2 was not trained but practiced KMC; and Group 3 was also not trained but practiced sporadic KMC. Ten mothers per group were matched for age, education level and birth order of their infants. The individual training was based on graded sensory stimulation and responsive mother-infant communication interaction, which emphasised talking and singing by the mother.Results: Significant differences were found in mother-infant communication interaction between all three groups, which indicated a positive effect on Group 1 with training. Group 2, KMC without training, also had a positive effect on interaction. However, Group 1 mothers with training demonstrated better knowledge of their infants and were more responsive during interaction than the other two groups.Conclusion: The present study suggests that neonatal communication-intervention training adds value to a KMC programme. Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE X-NONE

  20. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

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    Zohreh Badiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group. Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001. Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers.

  1. Enhanced kangaroo mother care for heel lance in preterm neonates: a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C C; Filion, F; Campbell-Yeo, M; Goulet, C; Bell, L; McNaughton, K; Byron, J

    2009-01-01

    To test if enhancing maternal skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC) by adding rocking, singing and sucking is more efficacious than simple KMC for procedural pain in preterm neonates. Preterm neonates (n=90) between 32 0/7 and 36 0/7 weeks' gestational age participated in a single-blind randomized crossover design. The infant was held in KMC with the addition of rocking, singing and sucking or the infant was held in KMC without additional stimulation. The Premature Infant Pain Profile was the primary outcome with time to recover as the secondary outcome. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance was employed for analyses. There were no significant differences in any of the 30 s time periods over the 2 min of blood sampling nor in time to return to baseline. Compared to historical controls of the same age in incubator, the pain scores were lower and comparable to other studies of KMC. There were site differences related to lower scores with the use of sucrose in one site and higher scores in younger, sicker infants in another site. The sensorial stimulations from skin-to-skin contact that include tactile, olfactory sensations from the mother are sufficient to decrease pain response in premature neonates. Other studies showing that rocking, sucking and music were efficacious were independent of skin-to-skin contact, which, when used alone has been shown to be effective as reported across studies.

  2. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Neonatal Outcomes in Iranian Hospitals: A Review

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    Leila Sarparast

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is a supportive technique that beings at the neonatal period and is one of the skin-to-skin contact methods of holding neonate by mother. This method has an important role in exclusive breastfeeding and thermal care of neonates. This study aimed to investigate the application of KMC and evaluate the effect of this technique in different neonatal outcomes, particularly in Iranian neonates. Moreover, this review can be a tool for formative evaluation for this newly introduced treatment intervention in Iran. Evidence Acquisition: This review was conducted in national and international databases concerning experience with KMC on term and preterm neonates admitted in Iranian hospitals from 2006 to 2014. The measured outcomes included physiologic, psychologic, and clinical effects of this practice on newborn infants. Results: In this study, 42 Persian and English language papers were reviewed and finally 26 articles were selected. Various effects of KMC on different factors such as analgesia; physiological effects, breastfeeding, icterus, length of hospitalization, infection, psychologic effects, and weight gain were found. Conclusions: The results showed that as a simple and suitable strategy for increasing the health status of the mothers and newborns, KMC had an important role in improvement of neonatal outcomes in neonatal wards of Iranian hospitals in recent ten years. Therefore, promoting this technique in all neonatal wards of the country can promote health status of this population.

  3. Imaging of spontaneous ventriculomegaly and vascular malformations in Wistar rats: implications for preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Tsang-Wei; Turtzo, L Christine; Williams, Rashida A; Lescher, Jacob D; Dean, Dana D; Frank, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    Wistar rats are widely used in biomedical research and commonly serve as a model organism in neuroscience studies. In most cases when noninvasive imaging is not used, studies assume a consistent baseline condition in rats that lack visible differences. While performing a series of traumatic brain injury studies, we discovered mild spontaneous ventriculomegaly in 70 (43.2%) of 162 Wistar rats that had been obtained from 2 different vendors. Advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, including MR angiography and diffusion tensor imaging, were used to evaluate the rats. Multiple neuropathologic abnormalities, including presumed arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, cysts, white matter lesions, and astrogliosis were found in association with ventriculomegaly. Postmortem microcomputed tomography and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Diffusion tensor imaging showed significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in multiple white matter tracts (p ventriculomegaly. We suggest the use of baseline imaging to prevent the inadvertent introduction of a high degree of variability in preclinical studies of neurologic disease or injury in Wistar rats.

  4. Knockdown of Nurr1 in the Rat Hippocampus: Implications to Spatial Discrimination Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Cesario, Wanda I.; Martinez-Montemayor, Michelle M.; Morales, Sohaira; Felix, Jahaira; Cruz, Juan; Adorno, Monique; Pereira, Lixmar; Colon, Nydia; Maldonado-Vlaar, Carmen S.; Pena de Ortiz, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Nurr1 expression is up-regulated in the brain following associative learning experiences, but its relevance to cognitive processes remains unclear. In these studies, rats initially received bilateral hippocampal infusions of control or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) 1 hour prior to training in a holeboard spatial discrimination task. Such…

  5. Knockdown of Nurr1 in the Rat Hippocampus: Implications to Spatial Discrimination Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Cesario, Wanda I.; Martinez-Montemayor, Michelle M.; Morales, Sohaira; Felix, Jahaira; Cruz, Juan; Adorno, Monique; Pereira, Lixmar; Colon, Nydia; Maldonado-Vlaar, Carmen S.; Pena de Ortiz, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Nurr1 expression is up-regulated in the brain following associative learning experiences, but its relevance to cognitive processes remains unclear. In these studies, rats initially received bilateral hippocampal infusions of control or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) 1 hour prior to training in a holeboard spatial discrimination task. Such…

  6. Statin Drugs Markedly Inhibit Testosterone Production by Rat Leydig Cells In Vitro: Implications for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statin drugs lower blood cholesterol by inhibiting hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme-A reductase. During drug development it was shown that statins inhibit production of cholesterol in the testis. We evaluated testosterone production in vitro, using highly purified rat ...

  7. GABAA receptors are located in cholinergic terminals in the nucleus pontis oralis of the rat: implications for REM sleep control.

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    Liang, Chang-Lin; Marks, Gerald A

    2014-01-16

    The oral pontine reticular formation (PnO) of rat is one region identified in the brainstem as a rapid eye movement (REM) sleep induction zone. Microinjection of GABA(A) receptor antagonists into PnO induces a long lasting increase in REM sleep, which is similar to that produced by cholinergic agonists. We previously showed that this REM sleep-induction can be completely blocked by a muscarinic antagonist, indicating that the REM sleep-inducing effect of GABA(A) receptor antagonism is dependent upon the local cholinergic system. Consistent with these findings, it has been reported that GABA(A) receptor antagonists microdialyzed into PnO resulted in increased levels of acetylcholine. We hypothesize that GABA(A) receptors located on cholinergic boutons in the PnO are responsible for the REM sleep induction by GABA(A) receptor antagonists through blocking GABA inhibition of acetylcholine release. Cholinergic, varicose axon fibers were studied in the PnO by immunofluorescence and confocal, laser scanning microscopy. Immunoreactive cholinergic boutons were found to be colocalized with GABA(A) receptor subunit protein γ2. This finding implicates a specific subtype and location of GABA(A) receptors in PnO of rat in the control of REM sleep.

  8. Rolling out of kangaroo mother care in secondary level facilities in Bihar-Some experiences

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    Sutapa B Neogi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of under-five child deaths worldwide and in India. Kangaroo mother care (KMC is a powerful and easy-to-use method to promote health and well-being and reduce morbidity and mortality in preterm/low birth weight (LBW babies. Objective: As the part of the roll-out of India Newborn Action Plan interventions, we implemented KMC in select facilities with an objective to assess the responsiveness of public health system to roll out KMC. Methods: KMC intervention was implemented in two select high priority districts, Gaya and Purnea in Bihar over the duration of 8 months from August 2015 to March 2016. The implementation of intervention was phased out into; situation analysis, implementation of intervention, and interim assessment. KMC model, as envisaged keeping in mind the building blocks of health system, was established in 6 identified health-care facilities. A pretested simple checklist was used to assess the awareness, knowledge, skills, and practice of KMC during baseline situational analysis and interim assessment phases for comparison. Results: The intervention clearly seemed to improve the awareness among auxiliary nurse midwives/nurses about KMC. Improvements were also observed in the availability of infrastructure required for KMC and support logistics like facility for manual expression of breast milk, cups/suitable devices such as paladi cups for feeding small babies and digital weighing scale. Although the recording of information regarding LBW babies and KMC practice improved, still there is scope for much improvement. Conclusion: There is a commitment at the national level to promote KMC in every facility. The present experience shows the possibility of rolling out KMC in secondary level facilities with support from government functionaries.

  9. Randomized controlled trial of music during kangaroo care on maternal state anxiety and preterm infants' responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hui-Ling; Chen, Chia-Jung; Peng, Tai-Chu; Chang, Fwu-Mei; Hsieh, Mei-Lin; Huang, Hsiao-Yen; Chang, Shu-Chuan

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the influences of music during kangaroo care (KC) on maternal anxiety and preterm infants' responses. There are no experimental studies that explore the influences of combination of music and KC on psychophysiological responses in mother-infant dyads. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 30 hospitalized preterm infants body weight 1500 gm and over, gestational age 37 weeks and lower from two NICUs. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the treatment and the control group using permuted block randomization stratified on gender. There were 15 mother-infant dyads in each group. Subjects in the treatment dyads listened to their choice of a lullaby music during KC for 60 min/section/day for three consecutive days. Control dyads received routine incubator care. Using a repeated measures design with a pretest and three posttests, the responses of treatment dyads including maternal anxiety and infants' physiologic responses (heart rate, respiratory rate, and O2 saturation) as well as behavioural state were measured. The results revealed that there were no significant differences between the two groups on infants' physiologic responses and the values were all in the normal range. However, infants in the treatment group had more occurrence of quiet sleep states and less crying (pMusic during KC also resulted in significantly lower maternal anxiety in the treatment group (peffect. The findings provide evidence for the use of music during KC as an empirically-based intervention for bahavioural state stability and maternal anxiety in mother-infant dyads.

  10. Supporting factors and barriers in implementing kangaroo mother care in Indonesia

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    Hadi Pratomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC was introduced to Indonesia in the 1990s. Since then, KMC has not been widely implemented and has not received national policy support. Objective The objectives of this case study were to implement KMC by an intervention that would ultimately benefit ten hospitals in Java, Indonesia, as well as identify supporting factors and barriers to KMC implementation. Methods An intervention with four phases was conducted in ten hospitals. Two teaching hospitals were supported to serve as training centers, six hospitals were supported to implement KMC and two other hospitals were supported to strengthen existing KMC practices. The four phases were comprised of a baseline assessment, a five-day training workshop, two supervisory visits to each hospital, and an end-line assessment. Results A total of 344 low birth weight infants received KMC during the intervention period. Good progress with regards to implementation was observed in most hospitals between the first and second supervisory visits. Supporting factors for KMC were the following: support received from hospital management, positive attitudes of healthcare providers, patients, families and communities, as well as the availability of resources. The most common challenges were record keeping and data collection, human resources and staff issues, infrastructure and budgets, discharge and follow-up, as well as family issues. Challenges related to the family were the inability of the mother or family to visit the infant frequently to provide KMC, and the affordability of hospital user fees for the infant to stay in the hospital for a sufficient period of time. Conclusion KMC appeared to be well accepted in most hospitals. For an intervention to have maximum impact, it is important to integrate services and maintain a complex network of communication systems. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:43-50].

  11. Implication of caffeine consumption and recovery on the reproductive functions of adult male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, Shakiru A; Ogunwole, Eunice; Raji, Yinusa

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed the impact of caffeine consumption and recovery on reproductive functions and fertility of Wistar rats. Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of five rats each. Group A (control) received distilled water (vehicle), while groups B, C, and D were treated orally with 10 mg/kg body weight (BW), 20 mg/kg BW, and 40 mg/kg BW caffeine, respectively, for 30 days. Groups E, F, and G were treated orally with 10 mg/kg BW, 20 mg/kg BW, and 40 mg/kg BW caffeine, respectively, for 30 days and then allowed to recover for another 30 days. Caffeine caused a decrease in body weight, while recovery groups showed appreciable increase in body weight during recovery. Relative weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and epididymis decreased dose dependently during treatment but increased during recovery. The liver and kidney weight increased during treatment but reduced during recovery. Sperm count was significantly decreased in both treated and recovery groups. Initial decrease in sperm viability and volume was appreciably reversed during recovery period. Serum level of testosterone increased at high doses, while serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) showed significant decrease. Histological sections of testis in treated groups showed mild congestion of the interstitial blood vessel and subcapsular congestion. However, there was no subcapsular congestion in the recovery groups. All rats in both treated and recovery groups had 100% fertilization success from fertility study. Suggestively, caffeine treatment for 4 weeks could impair body, reproductive organs weight, sperm characteristics, LH/FSH level, and also testicular cyto-architecture. Effects appeared, however, reversible after caffeine withdrawal.

  12. The implication of protein malnutrition on cardiovascular control systems in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fernanda C.; de Menezes, Rodrigo C.; Chianca, Deoclécio A.

    2015-01-01

    The malnutrition in early life is associated with metabolic changes and cardiovascular impairment in adulthood. Deficient protein intake-mediated hypertension has been observed in clinical and experimental studies. In rats, protein malnutrition also increases the blood pressure and enhances heart rate and sympathetic activity. In this review, we discuss the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on the resting mean arterial pressure and heart rate and their variabilities, cardiovascular...

  13. Knockdown of Nurr1 in the rat hippocampus: Implications to spatial discrimination learning and memory

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Nurr1 expression is up-regulated in the brain following associative learning experiences, but its relevance to cognitive processes remains unclear. In these studies, rats initially received bilateral hippocampal infusions of control or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) 1 h prior to training in a holeboard spatial discrimination task. Such pre-training infusions of nurr1 antisense ODNs caused a moderate effect in learning the task and also impaired LTM tested 7 d later. In a second experi...

  14. Knockdown of Nurr1 in the rat hippocampus: Implications to spatial discrimination learning and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Colón-Cesario, Wanda I.; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M.; Morales, Sohaira; Félix, Jahaira; Cruz, Juan; Adorno, Monique; Pereira, Lixmar; Colón, Nydia; Maldonado-Vlaar, Carmen S.; Peña de Ortiz, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Nurr1 expression is up-regulated in the brain following associative learning experiences, but its relevance to cognitive processes remains unclear. In these studies, rats initially received bilateral hippocampal infusions of control or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) 1 h prior to training in a holeboard spatial discrimination task. Such pre-training infusions of nurr1 antisense ODNs caused a moderate effect in learning the task and also impaired LTM tested 7 d later. In a second experi...

  15. A rat knockout model implicates TRPC4 in visceral pain sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlund, K N; Zhang, L P; Ma, F; Nesemeier, R; Ruiz, J C; Ostertag, E M; Crawford, J S; Babinski, K; Marcinkiewicz, M M

    2014-03-14

    Acute and chronic pain resulting from injury, surgery, or disease afflicts >100 million Americans each year, having a severe impact on mood, mental health, and quality of life. The lack of structural and functional information for most ion channels, many of which play key roles in the detection and transmission of noxious stimuli, means that there remain unidentified therapeutic targets for pain management. This study focuses on the transient receptor potential canonical subfamily 4 (TRPC4) ion channel, which is involved in the tissue-specific and stimulus-dependent regulation of intracellular Ca²⁺ signaling. Rats with a transposon-mediated TRPC4-knockout mutation displayed tolerance to visceral pain induced by colonic mustard oil (MO) exposure, but not somatic or neuropathic pain stimuli. Moreover, wild-type rats treated with a selective TRPC4 antagonist (ML-204) prior to MO exposure mimicked the behavioral responses observed in TRPC4-knockout rats. Significantly, ML-204 inhibited visceral pain-related behavior in a dose-dependent manner without noticeable adverse effects. These data provide evidence that TRPC4 is required for detection and/or transmission of colonic MO visceral pain sensation. In the future, inhibitors of TRPC4 signaling may provide a highly promising path for the development of first-in-class therapeutics for this visceral pain, which may have fewer side effects and less addictive potential than opioid derivatives. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Contexts Paired with Junk Food Impair Goal-Directed Behavior in Rats: Implications for Decision Making in Obesogenic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Michael D; Cheung, Ambrose M K; Raymond, Joel S; Corbit, Laura H

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behavior. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three "junk" foods (JFs context) and another containing chow (Chow context). Next, rats were food-deprived and trained to perform instrumental responses (lever-press) for two novel food rewards in a third, distinct context. Contextual influences on flexible control of food-seeking behavior were then assessed by outcome devaluation tests held in the JF, chow and training contexts. Devaluation was achieved using specific satiety and test order was counterbalanced. Rats exhibited goal-directed control over behavior when tested in the training and chow-paired contexts. Notably, performance was habitual (insensitive to devaluation) when tested in the JF context. In Experiment 2 we tested whether the impairment found in the JF context could be ameliorated by the presentation of a discrete auditory cue paired with the chow context, relative to a second cue paired with the JF context. Consistent with the results of Experiment 1, the devaluation effect was not significant when rats were tested in the JF context with the JF cue. However, presenting the chow cue increased the impact of the devaluation treatment leading to a robust devaluation effect. Further tests confirmed that performance in the chow context was goal-directed and that sensory-specific satiety in the JF context was intact. These results show that environments paired with palatable foods can impair goal-directed control over food-seeking behavior, but that this deficit was improved by

  17. Contexts paired with junk food impair goal-directed behaviour in rats: implications for decision making in obesogenic environments

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    Michael D. Kendig

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behaviour. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three ‘junk’ foods (JF context and another containing chow (Chow context. Next, rats were food-deprived and trained to perform instrumental responses (lever-press for two novel food rewards in a third, distinct context. Contextual influences on flexible control of food-seeking behaviour were then assessed by outcome devaluation tests held in the JF, chow, and training contexts. Devaluation was achieved using specific satiety and test order was counterbalanced. Rats exhibited goal-directed control over behaviour when tested in the training and chow-paired contexts. Notably, performance was habitual (insensitive to devaluation when tested in the JF context. In Experiment 2 we tested whether the impairment found in the JF context could be ameliorated by the presentation of a discrete auditory cue paired with the chow context, relative to a second cue paired with the JF context. Consistent with the results of Experiment 1, the devaluation effect was not significant when rats were tested in the JF context with the JF cue. However, presenting the chow cue increased the impact of the devaluation treatment leading to a robust devaluation effect. Further tests confirmed that performance in the chow context was goal-directed and that sensory-specific satiety in the JF context was intact. These results show that environments paired with palatable foods can impair goal-directed control over food-seeking behaviour, but that this

  18. Contexts Paired with Junk Food Impair Goal-Directed Behavior in Rats: Implications for Decision Making in Obesogenic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Michael D.; Cheung, Ambrose M. K.; Raymond, Joel S.; Corbit, Laura H.

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behavior. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three “junk” foods (JFs context) and another containing chow (Chow context). Next, rats were food-deprived and trained to perform instrumental responses (lever-press) for two novel food rewards in a third, distinct context. Contextual influences on flexible control of food-seeking behavior were then assessed by outcome devaluation tests held in the JF, chow and training contexts. Devaluation was achieved using specific satiety and test order was counterbalanced. Rats exhibited goal-directed control over behavior when tested in the training and chow-paired contexts. Notably, performance was habitual (insensitive to devaluation) when tested in the JF context. In Experiment 2 we tested whether the impairment found in the JF context could be ameliorated by the presentation of a discrete auditory cue paired with the chow context, relative to a second cue paired with the JF context. Consistent with the results of Experiment 1, the devaluation effect was not significant when rats were tested in the JF context with the JF cue. However, presenting the chow cue increased the impact of the devaluation treatment leading to a robust devaluation effect. Further tests confirmed that performance in the chow context was goal-directed and that sensory-specific satiety in the JF context was intact. These results show that environments paired with palatable foods can impair goal-directed control over food-seeking behavior, but that this deficit was improved

  19. Forelimb Kinematics of Rats Using XROMM, with Implications for Small Eutherians and Their Fossil Relatives.

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    Matthew F Bonnan

    Full Text Available The earliest eutherian mammals were small-bodied locomotor generalists with a forelimb morphology that strongly resembles that of extant rats. Understanding the kinematics of the humerus, radius, and ulna of extant rats can inform and constrain hypotheses concerning typical posture and mobility in early eutherian forelimbs. The locomotion of Rattus norvegicus has been extensively studied, but the three-dimensional kinematics of the bones themselves remains under-explored. Here, for the first time, we use markerless XROMM (Scientific Rotoscoping to explore the three-dimensional long bone movements in Rattus norvegicus during a normal, symmetrical gait (walking. Our data show a basic kinematic profile that agrees with previous studies on rats and other small therians: rats maintain a crouched forelimb posture throughout the step cycle, and the ulna is confined to flexion/extension in a parasagittal plane. However, our three-dimensional data illuminate long-axis rotation (LAR movements for both the humerus and the radius for the first time. Medial LAR of the humerus throughout stance maintains an adducted elbow with a caudally-facing olecranon process, which in turn maintains a cranially-directed manus orientation (pronation. The radius also shows significant LAR correlated with manus pronation and supination. Moreover, we report that elbow flexion and manus orientation are correlated in R. norvegicus: as the elbow angle becomes more acute, manus supination increases. Our data also suggest that manus pronation and orientation in R. norvegicus rely on a divided system of labor between the ulna and radius. Given that the radius follows the flexion and extension trajectory of the ulna, it must rotate at the elbow (on the capitulum so that during the stance phase its distal end lies medial to ulna, ensuring that the manus remains pronated while the forelimb is supporting the body. We suggest that forelimb posture and kinematics in Juramaia, Eomaia, and

  20. Aerobic characteristics of red kangaroo skeletal muscles: is a high aerobic capacity matched by muscle mitochondrial and capillary morphology as in placental mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N

    2004-07-01

    Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme

  1. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

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    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  2. A toxicokinetic model for thiamethoxam in rats: implications for higher-tier risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Edwards, Peter; Sibly, Richard; Thorbek, Pernille

    2013-04-01

    Risk assessment for mammals is currently based on external exposure measurements, but effects of toxicants are better correlated with the systemically available dose than with the external administered dose. So for risk assessment of pesticides, toxicokinetics should be interpreted in the context of potential exposure in the field taking account of the timescale of exposure and individual patterns of feeding. Internal concentration is the net result of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). We present a case study for thiamethoxam to show how data from ADME study on rats can be used to parameterize a body burden model which predicts body residue levels after exposures to LD50 dose either as a bolus or eaten at different feeding rates. Kinetic parameters were determined in male and female rats after an intravenous and oral administration of (14)C labelled by fitting one-compartment models to measured pesticide concentrations in blood for each individual separately. The concentration of thiamethoxam in blood over time correlated closely with concentrations in other tissues and so was considered representative of pesticide concentration in the whole body. Body burden model simulations showed that maximum body weight-normalized doses of thiamethoxam were lower if the same external dose was ingested normally than if it was force fed in a single bolus dose. This indicates lower risk to rats through dietary exposure than would be estimated from the bolus LD50. The importance of key questions that should be answered before using the body burden approach in risk assessment, data requirements and assumptions made in this study are discussed in detail.

  3. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging.

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    Buechel, Heather M; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9-12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  4. [Expressions of CSE and CBS in the penile corpus cavernosum of hyperglycemia rats and their implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ming; Xia, Ji-Yi; Jiang, Rui

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the impact of hyperglycemia on the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling pathway in rat penile tissue and its relationship with erectile function. Twenty healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into groups A (4-week healthy control), B (4-week diabetes mellitus model), C (6-week healthy control) and D (6-week diabetes mellitus model). The rats in groups B and D were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg to induce diabetes mellitus, while those in groups A and C with the same volume of normal saline. The animals were killed at 4 (groups A and B) and 6 weeks (groups C and D) after treatment for measurement of the maximal intracavernous pressure/mean arterial blood pressure (ICP(max)/MAP) by electrostimulation, determination of the H2S concentration in the plasma and penile tissue, and detection of the expressions of cystathionine-beta-synthetase (CBS) and cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) in the penile corpus cavernosum by immunohisto- chemistry and Western blot. With electrostimulation of the pelvic ganglia at 5V and 7 V, ICP(max)/MAP was significantly reduced in groups B (0.19 +/- 0.03 and 0.29 +/- 0.04) and D (0.14 +/- 0.04 and 0.25 +/- 0.04) as compared with A (0.46 +/- 0.07 and 0.68 +/- 0.09) and C (0.43 +/- 0.07 and 0.65 +/- 0.16) (P 0.05) or between C and D ([470.44 +/- 209.28] ng/dl vs [297.01 +/- 96.58] ng/dl, P > 0.05). Groups B and D showed remarkable reduction in the H2S concentration (P CBS and CSE (P CBS and CSE expressions were even more significantly decreased in D than in B (P CBS and CSE in the penile corpus cavernosum of the diabetic rats suggested that the H2S signaling pathway might be involved in hyperglycemia-induced erectile dysfunction.

  5. Omega-hydroxylation of phytanic acid in rat liver microsomes: implications for Refsum disease.

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    Komen, J C; Duran, M; Wanders, R J A

    2004-07-01

    The 3-methyl-branched fatty acid phytanic acid is degraded by the peroxisomal alpha-oxidation route because the 3-methyl group blocks beta-oxidation. In adult Refsum disease (ARD), peroxisomal alpha-oxidation is defective, which is caused by mutations in the gene coding for phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase in the majority of ARD patients. As a consequence, phytanic acid accumulates in tissues and body fluids. This study focuses on an alternative route of phytanic acid degradation, omega-oxidation. The first step in omega-oxidation is hydroxylation at the omega-end of the fatty acid, catalyzed by a member of the cytochrome P450 multienzyme family. To study this first step, the formation of hydroxylated intermediates was studied in rat liver microsomes incubated with phytanic acid and NADPH. Two hydroxylated metabolites of phytanic acid were formed, omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxyphytanic acid (ratio of formation, 5:1). The formation of omega-hydroxyphytanic acid was NADPH dependent and inhibited by imidazole derivatives. These results indicate that phytanic acid undergoes omega-hydroxylation in rat liver microsomes and that an isoform of cytochrome P450 catalyzes the first step of phytanic acid omega-oxidation.

  6. Neutrotoxic effects of fructose administration in rat brain: implications for fructosemia.

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    Macongonde, Ernesto A; Costa, Naithan L F; Ferreira, Bruna K; Biella, Mairis S; Frederico, Marisa J S; Oliveira, Marcos R de; Ávila Júnior, Silvio; Silva, Fátima R M B; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F

    2015-08-01

    Fructose accumulates in tissue and body fluids of patients affected by hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), a disorder caused by the deficiency of aldolase B. We investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the biochemical profile and on the activities of the Krebs cycle enzymes in the cerebral cortex of young rats. Rats received a subcutaneous injection of NaCl (0.9 %; control group) or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group). Twelve or 24 h after the administration, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortices were isolated. Peripheral blood (to obtain the serum) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) from the animals were also collected. It was observed that albumin levels were decreased and cholesterol levels were increased in CSF of animals 12 h after the administration of fructose. In addition, serum lactate levels were increased 12 h after the administration, as compared to control group. Furthermore, malate dehydrogenase activity was increased in cerebral cortex from treated group 24 h after the administration of this carbohydrate. Herein we demonstrate that fructose administration alters biochemical parameters in CSF and serum and bioenergetics parameters in the cerebral cortex. These findings indicate a possible role of fructose on brain alterations found in HFI patients.

  7. Neutrotoxic effects of fructose administration in rat brain: implications for fructosemia

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    Ernesto A. Macongonde

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fructose accumulates in tissue and body fluids of patients affected by hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI, a disorder caused by the deficiency of aldolase B. We investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the biochemical profile and on the activities of the Krebs cycle enzymes in the cerebral cortex of young rats. Rats received a subcutaneous injection of NaCl (0.9 %; control group or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group. Twelve or 24 h after the administration, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortices were isolated. Peripheral blood (to obtain the serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF from the animals were also collected. It was observed that albumin levels were decreased and cholesterol levels were increased in CSF of animals 12 h after the administration of fructose. In addition, serum lactate levels were increased 12 h after the administration, as compared to control group. Furthermore, malate dehydrogenase activity was increased in cerebral cortex from treated group 24 h after the administration of this carbohydrate. Herein we demonstrate that fructose administration alters biochemical parameters in CSF and serum and bioenergetics parameters in the cerebral cortex. These findings indicate a possible role of fructose on brain alterations found in HFI patients.

  8. SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION IMPAIRS ATTENTION AND COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY BUT NOT ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING IN AGED RATS: Possible Implications for Delirium

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    Deborah J Culley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is a common and morbid condition in elderly hospitalized patients. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood but inflammation has been implicated based on a clinical association with systemic infection and surgery and preclinical data showing that systemic inflammation adversely affects hippocampus-dependent memory. However, clinical manifestations and imaging studies point to abnormalities not in the hippocampus but in cortical circuits. We therefore tested the hypothesis that systemic inflammation impairs prefrontal cortex function by assessing attention and executive function in aged animals. Aged (24-month-old Fischer-344 rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 ug/kg or saline and were tested on the attentional shifting task (AST, an index of integrity of the prefrontal cortex, on days 1-3 post-injection. Plasma and frontal cortex concentrations of the cytokine TNFα and the chemokine CCL2 were measured by ELISA in separate groups of identically treated, age-matched rats. LPS selectively impaired reversal learning and attentional shifts without affecting discrimination learning in the AST, indicating a deficit in attention and cognitive flexibility but not learning globally. LPS increased plasma TNFα and CCL2 acutely but this resolved within 24-48 h. TNFα in the frontal cortex did not change whereas CCL2 increased nearly 3-fold 2 h after LPS but normalized by the time behavioral testing started 24 h later. Together, our data indicate that systemic inflammation selectively impairs attention and executive function in aged rodents and that the cognitive deficit is independent of concurrent changes in frontal cortical TNFα and CCL2. Because inattention is a prominent feature of clinical delirium, our data support a role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of this clinical syndrome and suggest this animal model could be useful for studying that relationship further.

  9. Response to Deep Brain Stimulation in Three Brain Targets with Implications in Mental Disorders: A PET Study in Rats

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    Casquero-Veiga, Marta; Hadar, Ravit; Pascau, Javier; Winter, Christine; Desco, Manuel; Soto-Montenegro, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate metabolic changes in brain networks by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and dorsomedial thalamus (DM) using positron emission tomography (PET) in naïve rats. Methods 43 male Wistar rats underwent stereotactic surgery and concentric bipolar platinum-iridium electrodes were bilaterally implanted into one of the three brain sites. [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-PET (18FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) scans were performed at the 7th (without DBS) and 9th day (with DBS) after surgery. Stimulation period matched tracer uptake period. Images were acquired with a small-animal PET-CT scanner. Differences in glucose uptake between groups were assessed with Statistical Parametric Mapping. Results DBS induced site-specific metabolic changes, although a common increased metabolic activity in the piriform cortex was found for the three brain targets. mPFC-DBS increased metabolic activity in the striatum, temporal and amygdala, and reduced it in the cerebellum, brainstem (BS) and periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). NAcc-DBS increased metabolic activity in the subiculum and olfactory bulb, and decreased it in the BS, PAG, septum and hypothalamus. DM-DBS increased metabolic activity in the striatum, NAcc and thalamus and decreased it in the temporal and cingulate cortex. Conclusions DBS induced significant changes in 18FDG uptake in brain regions associated with the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry. Stimulation of mPFC, NAcc and DM induced different patterns of 18FDG uptake despite interacting with the same circuitries. This may have important implications to DBS research suggesting individualized target selection according to specific neural modulatory requirements. PMID:28033356

  10. Kangaroo mother care diminishes pain from heel lance in very preterm neonates: A crossover trial

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    McNaughton Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC has been shown to be efficacious in diminishing pain response to heel lance in full term and moderately preterm neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine if KMC would also be efficacious in very preterm neonates. Methods Preterm neonates (n = 61 between 28 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks gestational age in three Level III NICU's in Canada comprised the sample. A single-blind randomized crossover design was employed. In the experimental condition, the infant was held in KMC for 15 minutes prior to and throughout heel lance procedure. In the control condition, the infant was in prone position swaddled in a blanket in the incubator. The primary outcome was the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP, which is comprised of three facial actions, maximum heart rate, minimum oxygen saturation levels from baseline in 30-second blocks from heel lance. The secondary outcome was time to recover, defined as heart rate return to baseline. Continuous video, heart rate and oxygen saturation monitoring were recorded with event markers during the procedure and were subsequently analyzed. Repeated measures analysis-of-variance was employed to generate results. Results PIPP scores at 90 seconds post lance were significantly lower in the KMC condition (8.871 (95%CI 7.852–9.889 versus 10.677 (95%CI 9.563–11.792 p CI 103–142 versus 193 seconds (95%CI 158–227. Facial actions were highly significantly lower across all points in time reaching a two-fold difference by 120 seconds post-lance and heart rate was significantly lower across the first 90 seconds in the KMC condition. Conclusion Very preterm neonates appear to have endogenous mechanisms elicited through skin-to-skin maternal contact that decrease pain response, but not as powerfully as in older preterm neonates. The shorter recovery time in KMC is clinically important in helping maintain homeostasis. Trial Registration (Current

  11. Kangaroo mother care: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is now the leading cause of under-five child deaths worldwide with one million direct deaths plus approximately another million where preterm is a risk factor for neonatal deaths due to other causes. There is strong evidence that kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces mortality among babies with birth weight hospital discharge with follow-up. The World Health Organization has endorsed KMC for stabilised newborns in health facilities in both high-income and low-resource settings. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) use a 12-country analysis to explore health system bottlenecks affecting the scale-up of KMC; (2) propose solutions to the most significant bottlenecks; and (3) outline priority actions for scale-up. Methods The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale-up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for KMC. Results Marked differences were found in the perceived severity of health system bottlenecks between Asian and African countries, with the former reporting more significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC with respect to all the health system building blocks. Community ownership and health financing bottlenecks were significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC in both low and high mortality contexts, particularly in South Asia. Significant bottlenecks were also reported for leadership and governance and health workforce building blocks. Conclusions There are at least a dozen countries worldwide with national KMC programmes, and we identify three pathways to scale: (1

  12. Modeling Diet-Induced Obesity with Obesity-Prone Rats: Implications for Studies in Females.

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    Erin D Giles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and the comorbidities associated with obesity are numerous. Over the last two decades, we and others have employed an outbred rat model to study the development and persistence of obesity, as well as the metabolic complications that accompany excess weight. In this review, we summarize the strengths and limitations of this model and how it has been applied to further our understanding of human physiology in the context of weight loss and weight regain. We also discuss how the approach has been adapted over time for studies in females and female-specific physiological conditions, such as menopause and breast cancer. As excess weight and the accompanying metabolic complications have become common place in our society, we expect that this model will continue to provide a valuable translational tool to establish physiological relevant connections to the basic science studies of obesity and body weight regulation.

  13. Modeling Diet-Induced Obesity with Obesity-Prone Rats: Implications for Studies in Females

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    Giles, Erin D.; Jackman, Matthew R.; MacLean, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and the comorbidities associated with obesity are numerous. Over the last two decades, we and others have employed an outbred rat model to study the development and persistence of obesity, as well as the metabolic complications that accompany excess weight. In this review, we summarize the strengths and limitations of this model and how it has been applied to further our understanding of human physiology in the context of weight loss and weight regain. We also discuss how the approach has been adapted over time for studies in females and female-specific physiological conditions, such as menopause and breast cancer. As excess weight and the accompanying metabolic complications have become common place in our society, we expect that this model will continue to provide a valuable translational tool to establish physiologically relevant connections to the basic science studies of obesity and body weight regulation. PMID:27933296

  14. Uninephrectomy in rats on a fixed food intake results in adipose tissue lipolysis implicating spleen cytokines.

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    Denis eArsenijevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of mild kidney dysfunction in altering lipid metabolism and promoting inflammation was investigated in uninephrectomized rats (UniNX compared to Sham-operated controls rats. The impact of UniNX was studied 1, 2 and 4 weeks after UniNX under mild food restriction at 90% of ad libitum intake to ensure the same caloric intake in both groups.UniNX resulted in the reduction of fat pad weight. UniNX was associated with increased circulating levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol, as well as increased fat pad mRNA of hormone sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, suggesting enhanced lipolysis. No decrease in fat pad lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase activity was observed.Circulating hormones known to regulate lipolysis such as leptin, T3, ghrelin, insulin, corticosterone, angiotensin 1 and angiotensin 2 were not different between the two groups. In contrast, a select group of circulating lipolytic cytokines, including interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor, were increased after UniNX. These cytokines levels were elevated in the spleen, but decreased in the kidney, liver and fat pads. This could be explained by anti-inflammatory factors SIRT1, a member of the sirtuins, and the farnesoid x receptor, which were decreased in the spleen but elevated in the kidney, liver and fat pads (inguinal and epididymal. Our study suggests that UniNX induces adipose tissue lipolysis in response to increased levels of a subset of lipolytic cytokines of splenic origin.

  15. Transcriptional profiling of rats subjected to gestational undernourishment: implications for the developmental variations in metabolic traits.

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    Tiffany J Morris

    Full Text Available A link has been established between prenatal nutrition and the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life, a process referred to as developmental programming. It has been suggested that the trajectory of development is shifted by alterations in the maternal nutritional state leading to changes in developmental plasticity, in part underpinned by epigenetic changes in gene regulation. However, to date, only candidate gene approaches have been used to assess expression and molecular changes in the offspring of maternally undernourished animals. Furthermore, most work has focused on animals at an age where the programmed phenotype is already manifest and little is known about changes in gene expression in the offspring prior to development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Gene expression profiles of liver, retroperitoneal white adipose fat, and biceps femoris skeletal muscle tissue from young adult male rats (55 days old in which nutritional status had been manipulated in utero by maternal undernutrition (UN were compared to the profiles of offspring of ad libitum fed mothers serving as the control group (AD (8 offspring/group. The expression profiles were determined using the Illumina RatRef-12 BeadChip. No significant changes in expression were identified for skeletal muscle or white adipose tissue. However, studies of liver tissue showed 249 differentially expressed genes (143 up regulated, 106 down regulated. Although the animals at day 55 have yet to develop obesity they already show biochemical abnormalities and by day 110 express a phenotype characterized by increased adiposity and altered insulin sensitivity. An analysis of pathways affected suggests that intrauterine programming of UN animals to favor fat as an energy source results in mitochondrial dysfunction which initially affects the postnatal hepatic function and subsequently, via the resultant metabolic changes in other organs leads to the evolution

  16. Transcriptional profiling of rats subjected to gestational undernourishment: implications for the developmental variations in metabolic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Tiffany J; Vickers, Mark; Gluckman, Peter; Gilmour, Stewart; Affara, Nabeel

    2009-09-29

    A link has been established between prenatal nutrition and the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life, a process referred to as developmental programming. It has been suggested that the trajectory of development is shifted by alterations in the maternal nutritional state leading to changes in developmental plasticity, in part underpinned by epigenetic changes in gene regulation. However, to date, only candidate gene approaches have been used to assess expression and molecular changes in the offspring of maternally undernourished animals. Furthermore, most work has focused on animals at an age where the programmed phenotype is already manifest and little is known about changes in gene expression in the offspring prior to development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Gene expression profiles of liver, retroperitoneal white adipose fat, and biceps femoris skeletal muscle tissue from young adult male rats (55 days old) in which nutritional status had been manipulated in utero by maternal undernutrition (UN) were compared to the profiles of offspring of ad libitum fed mothers serving as the control group (AD) (8 offspring/group). The expression profiles were determined using the Illumina RatRef-12 BeadChip. No significant changes in expression were identified for skeletal muscle or white adipose tissue. However, studies of liver tissue showed 249 differentially expressed genes (143 up regulated, 106 down regulated). Although the animals at day 55 have yet to develop obesity they already show biochemical abnormalities and by day 110 express a phenotype characterized by increased adiposity and altered insulin sensitivity. An analysis of pathways affected suggests that intrauterine programming of UN animals to favor fat as an energy source results in mitochondrial dysfunction which initially affects the postnatal hepatic function and subsequently, via the resultant metabolic changes in other organs leads to the evolution of a phenotype

  17. Effects of amphetamine on pro-social ultrasonic communication in juvenile rats: Implications for mania models.

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    Engelhardt, K-Alexander; Fuchs, Eberhard; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Wöhr, Markus

    2017-03-01

    Communication is the act of information transfer between sender and receiver. In rats, vocal communication can be studied through ultrasonic vocalizations (USV). 50-kHz USV occur in appetitive situations, most notably juvenile play, likely expressing the sender׳s positive affective state. Such appetitive 50-kHz USV serve important pro-social communicative functions and elicit social exploratory and approach behavior in the receiver. Emission of 50-kHz USV can be induced pharmacologically by the administration of psychostimulant drugs, such as amphetamine. However, it is unknown whether amphetamine affects the pro-social communicative function of 50-kHz USV in the receiver. We therefore assessed dose-response effects of amphetamine (0.0mg/kg, 0.5mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg, 2.5mg/kg, 5.0mg/kg) on pro-social ultrasonic communication on both, sender and receiver, in juvenile rats. We found an inverted U-shaped effect of amphetamine on 50-kHz USV emission, with 50-kHz USV levels being strongly enhanced by moderate doses, yet less prominent effects were seen following the highest dose. Likewise, amphetamine exerted inverted U-shaped effects on social exploratory and approach behavior induced by playback of appetitive 50-kHz USV. Social approach was enhanced by moderate amphetamine doses, but completely abolished following the highest dose. Amphetamine further dose-dependently promoted the emission of 50-kHz USV following playback of appetitive 50-kHz USV, indicating more vigorous attempts to establish social proximity. Our results support an important role of dopamine in closing a perception-and-action-loop through linking mechanisms relevant for detection and production of social vocalizations. Moreover, our approach possibly provides a new means to study mania-like aberrant social interaction and communication in animal models for bipolar disorder.

  18. Microarray analysis of rat sensory ganglia after local inflammation implicates novel cytokines in pain.

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    Judith A Strong

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays a role in neuropathic pain conditions as well as in pain induced solely by an inflammatory stimulus. Robust mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia can be induced by locally inflaming the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG in rat. This model allows investigation of the contribution of inflammation per se to chronic pain conditions. Most previous microarray studies of DRG gene expression have investigated neuropathic pain models. To examine the role of inflammation, we used microarray methods to examine gene expression 3 days after local inflammation of the L5 DRG in rat. We observed significant regulation in a large number of genes (23% of observed transcripts, and examined 221 (3% with a fold-change of 1.5-fold or more in more detail. Immune-related genes were the largest category in this group and included members of the complement system as well as several pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, these upregulated cytokines had no prior links to peripheral pain in the literature other than through microarray studies, though most had previously described roles in CNS (especially neuroinflammatory conditions as well as in immune responses. To confirm an association to pain, qPCR studies examined these cytokines at a later time (day 14, as well as in two different versions of the spinal nerve ligation pain model including a version without any foreign immunogenic material (suture. Cxcl11, Cxcl13, and Cxcl14 were found to be significantly upregulated in all these conditions, while Cxcl9, Cxcl10, and Cxcl16 were upregulated in at least two of these conditions.

  19. Aging-dependent changes in rat heart mitochondrial glutaredoxins—Implications for redox regulation

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    Xing-Huang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and animal studies have documented that hearts of the elderly are more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion damage compared to young adults. Recently we found that aging-dependent increase in susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to apoptosis was attributable to decrease in cytosolic glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1 and concomitant decrease in NF-κB-mediated expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Besides primary localization in the cytosol, Grx1 also exists in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS. In contrast, Grx2 is confined to the mitochondrial matrix. Here we report that Grx1 is decreased by 50–60% in the IMS, but Grx2 is increased by 1.4–2.6 fold in the matrix of heart mitochondria from elderly rats. Determination of in situ activities of the Grx isozymes from both subsarcolemmal (SSM and interfibrillar (IFM mitochondria revealed that Grx1 was fully active in the IMS. However, Grx2 was mostly in an inactive form in the matrix, consistent with reversible sequestration of the active-site cysteines of two Grx2 molecules in complex with an iron–sulfur cluster. Our quantitative evaluations of the active/inactive ratio for Grx2 suggest that levels of dimeric Grx2 complex with iron–sulfur clusters are increased in SSM and IFM in the hearts of elderly rats. We found that the inactive Grx2 can be fully reactivated by sodium dithionite or exogenous superoxide production mediated by xanthine oxidase. However, treatment with rotenone, which generates intramitochondrial superoxide through inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I, did not lead to Grx2 activation. These findings suggest that insufficient ROS accumulates in the vicinity of dimeric Grx2 to activate it in situ.

  20. Astroglial Plasticity Is Implicated in Hippocampal Remodelling in Adult Rats Exposed to Antenatal Dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Vishvesh H; McArthur, Simon; Gillies, Glenda E; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on brain remodelling in 3-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats whose mothers had been treated with dexamethasone were investigated in the present study. Dorsal hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens volume, cell numbers, and GFAP-immunoreactive astroglial cell morphology were analysed using stereology. Total brain volume as assessed by micro-CT was not affected by the treatment. The relative volume of the dorsal hippocampus (% of total brain volume) showed a moderate, by 8%, but significant reduction in dexamethasone-treated versus control animals. Dexamethasone had no effect on the total and GFAP-positive cell numbers in the hippocampal subregions, basolateral amygdala, and nucleus accumbens. Morphological analysis indicated that numbers of astroglial primary processes were not affected in any of the hippocampal subregions analysed but significant reductions in the total primary process length were observed in CA1 by 32%, CA3 by 50%, and DG by 25%. Mean primary process length values were also significantly decreased in CA1 by 25%, CA3 by 45%, and DG by 25%. No significant astroglial morphological changes were found in basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens. We propose that the dexamethasone-dependent impoverishment of hippocampal astroglial morphology is the case of maladaptive glial plasticity induced prenatally.

  1. Astroglial Plasticity Is Implicated in Hippocampal Remodelling in Adult Rats Exposed to Antenatal Dexamethasone

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    Vishvesh H. Shende

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on brain remodelling in 3-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats whose mothers had been treated with dexamethasone were investigated in the present study. Dorsal hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens volume, cell numbers, and GFAP-immunoreactive astroglial cell morphology were analysed using stereology. Total brain volume as assessed by micro-CT was not affected by the treatment. The relative volume of the dorsal hippocampus (% of total brain volume showed a moderate, by 8%, but significant reduction in dexamethasone-treated versus control animals. Dexamethasone had no effect on the total and GFAP-positive cell numbers in the hippocampal subregions, basolateral amygdala, and nucleus accumbens. Morphological analysis indicated that numbers of astroglial primary processes were not affected in any of the hippocampal subregions analysed but significant reductions in the total primary process length were observed in CA1 by 32%, CA3 by 50%, and DG by 25%. Mean primary process length values were also significantly decreased in CA1 by 25%, CA3 by 45%, and DG by 25%. No significant astroglial morphological changes were found in basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens. We propose that the dexamethasone-dependent impoverishment of hippocampal astroglial morphology is the case of maladaptive glial plasticity induced prenatally.

  2. Alterations in the neural circuits from peripheral afferents to the spinal cord: possible implications for diabetic polyneuropathy in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats

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    Zhen-Zhen eKou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN presents as a wide variety of sensorimotor symptoms and affects approximately 50% of diabetic patients. Changes in the neural circuits may occur in the early stages in diabetes and are implicated in the development of DPN. Therefore, we aimed to detect changes in the expression of isolectin B4 (IB4, the marker for nonpeptidergic unmyelinated fibers and their cell bodies and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, the marker for peptidergic fibers and their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG and spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats showing alterations in sensory and motor function. We also used cholera toxin B subunit (CTB to show the morphological changes of the myelinated fibers and motor neurons. STZ-induced diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia, decreased body weight gain, mechanical allodynia and impaired locomotor activity. In the DRG and spinal dorsal horn, IB4-labeled structures decreased, but both CGRP immunostaining and CTB labeling increased from day 14 to day 28 in diabetic rats. In spinal ventral horn, CTB labeling decreased in motor neurons in diabetic rats. Treatment with intrathecal injection of insulin at the early stages of DPN could alleviate mechanical allodynia and impaired locomotor activity in diabetic rats. The results suggest that the alterations of the neural circuits between spinal nerve and spinal cord via the DRG and ventral root might be involved in DPN.

  3. Marsupial and monotreme serum immunoglobulin binding by proteins A, G and L and anti-kangaroo antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Paola K; Hartley, Carol A; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-12-01

    Serological studies are often conducted to examine exposure to infectious agents in wildlife populations. However, specific immunological reagents for wildlife species are seldom available and can limit the study of infectious diseases in these animals. This study examined the ability of four commercially available immunoglobulin-binding reagents to bind serum immunoglobulins from 17 species within the Marsupialia and Monotremata. Serum samples were assessed for binding, using immunoblots and ELISAs (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), to three microbially-derived proteins - staphylococcal protein A, streptococcal protein G and peptostreptococcal protein L. Additionally, an anti-kangaroo antibody was included for comparison. The inter- and intra-familial binding patterns of the reagents to serum immunoglobulins varied and evolutionary distance between animal species was not an accurate predictor of the ability of reagents to bind immunoglobulins. Results from this study can be used to inform the selection of appropriate immunological reagents in future serological studies in these clades.

  4. A new species of Near-shore Marine Goby (Pisces: Gobiidae: Nesogobius) from Kangaroo Island, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Michael P; Hoese, Douglass F; Bertozzi, Terry

    2015-12-11

    Nesogobius is one of two goby genera with all species wholly restricted to temperate Australian waters. Described here is a new member of the genus discovered during near-shore marine and estuarine fish sampling along the central southern Australian coastline. The tiger sandgoby Nesogobius tigrinus sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeners by a combination of colouration including four prominent vertical black bars on males; morphological characters involving body scales (large), head scales (naked), body depth (slender) and gill opening (wide); meristic counts including a lack of second dorsal and anal fin spines; and mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence. The species appears to be a narrow range endemic, restricted to specific sub-tidal habitat in the unique sheltered embayments of northeast Kangaroo Island. This study forms part of ongoing investigations to more fully describe the biodiversity and conservation requirements of the regional ichthyofauna.

  5. Genetic evaluation of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) captive breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Husband, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) is an endangered species that has been bred in captivity since the 1970s. In 1992, the Tree Kangaroo Species Survival Plan(®) (TKSSP) was established to coordinate the captive management of Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) D. matschiei. The TKSSP makes annual breeding recommendations primarily based on the mean kinship (MK) strategy. Captive breeding programs often use the MK strategy to preserve genetic diversity in small populations-to avoid the negative consequences of inbreeding and retain their adaptive potential. The ability of a captive breeding program to retain the population's genetic diversity over time can be evaluated by comparing the genetic diversity of the captive population to wild populations. We analyzed DNA extracted from blood and fecal samples from AZA (n = 71), captive (n = 28), and wild (n = 22) D. matschiei using eight microsatellite markers and sequenced the partial mitochondrial DNA control region gene. AZA D. matschiei had a similar expected heterozygosity (H(e) = 0.595 ± 0.184) compared with wild D. matschiei (H(e) = 0.628 ± 0.143), but they had different allelic frequencies (F(ST) = 0.126; P < 0.001). AZA D. matschiei haplotype diversity was almost two times lower than wild D. matschiei Ĥ = 0.740 ± 0.063. These data will assist management of AZA D. matschiei and serve as a baseline for AZA and wild D. matschiei genetic diversity values that could be used to monitor future changes in their genetic diversity. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Correlation between Cortical State and Locus Coeruleus Activity: Implications for Sensory Coding in Rat Barrel Cortex

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    Zeinab eFazlali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cortical state modulates the background activity of cortical neurons, and their evoked response to sensory stimulation. Multiple mechanisms are involved in switching between cortical states including various neuromodulatory systems. Locus Coeruleus (LC is one of the major neuromodulatory nuclei in the brainstem with widespread projections throughout the brain and modulates the activity of cells and networks. Here, we quantified the link between the LC spontaneous activity, cortical state and sensory processing in the rat vibrissal somatosensory barrel cortex (BC. We simultaneously recorded unit activity from LC and BC along with prefrontal EEG while presenting brief whisker deflections under urethane anesthesia. The ratio of low to high frequency components of EEG (referred to as the L/H ratio was employed to identify cortical state. We found that the spontaneous activity of LC units exhibited a negative correlation with the L/H ratio. Cross-correlation analysis revealed that changes in LC firing preceded changes in the cortical state: the correlation of the LC firing profile with the L/H ratio was maximal at an average lag of -1.2 s. We further quantified BC neuronal responses to whisker stimulation during the synchronized and desynchronized states. In the desynchronized state, BC neurons showed lower stimulus detection threshold, higher response fidelity, and shorter response latency. The most prominent change was observed in the late phase of BC evoked activity (100-400 ms post stimulus onset: almost every BC unit exhibited a greater late response during the desynchronized state. Categorization of the BC evoked responses based on LC activity (into high and low LC discharge rates resulted in highly similar response profiles compared to categorization based on the cortical state (low and high L/H ratios. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of the LC neuromodulatory system in desynchronization of cortical state and the consequent

  7. Permeability enhancers dramatically increase zanamivir absolute bioavailability in rats: implications for an orally bioavailable influenza treatment.

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    Eric H Holmes

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (t(max of 5 min and a C(max of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted C(max for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results

  8. Increased white matter neuron density in a rat model of maternal immune activation - Implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchatel, Ryan J; Jobling, Phillip; Graham, Brett A; Harms, Lauren R; Michie, Patricia T; Hodgson, Deborah M; Tooney, Paul A

    2016-02-01

    Interstitial neurons are located among white matter tracts of the human and rodent brain. Post-mortem studies have identified increased interstitial white matter neuron (IWMN) density in the fibre tracts below the cortex in people with schizophrenia. The current study assesses IWMN pathology in a model of maternal immune activation (MIA); a risk factor for schizophrenia. Experimental MIA was produced by an injection of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) into pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 10 or GD19. A separate control group received saline injections. The density of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN(+)) and somatostatin (SST(+)) IWMNs was determined in the white matter of the corpus callosum in two rostrocaudally adjacent areas in the 12week old offspring of GD10 (n=10) or GD19 polyI:C dams (n=18) compared to controls (n=20). NeuN(+) IWMN density trended to be higher in offspring from dams exposed to polyI:C at GD19, but not GD10. A subpopulation of these NeuN(+) IWMNs was shown to express SST. PolyI:C treatment of dams induced a significant increase in the density of SST(+) IWMNs in the offspring when delivered at both gestational stages with more regionally widespread effects observed at GD19. A positive correlation was observed between NeuN(+) and SST(+) IWMN density in animals exposed to polyI:C at GD19, but not controls. This is the first study to show that MIA increases IWMN density in adult offspring in a similar manner to that seen in the brain in schizophrenia. This suggests the MIA model will be useful in future studies aimed at probing the relationship between IWMNs and schizophrenia.

  9. Excitatory orexinergic innervation of rat nucleus incertus--Implications for ascending arousal, motivation and feeding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, Anna; Siwiec, Marcin; Grabowiecka, Agnieszka; Blasiak, Tomasz; Czerw, Anna; Blasiak, Ewa; Kania, Alan; Rajfur, Zenon; Lewandowski, Marian H; Gundlach, Andrew L

    2015-12-01

    Orexin/hypocretin peptides play a central role in the integrated control of feeding/reward and behavioural activation, principally via interactions with other neural systems. A brainstem area involved in behavioural activation is the nucleus incertus (NI), located in the posterior ventromedial central grey. Several studies have implicated NI in control of arousal/stress and reward/feeding responses. Orexin receptor mRNA expression identifies NI as a putative target of orexin modulation. Therefore, in this study we performed neural tract-tracing and immunofluorescence staining to characterise the orexinergic innervation of NI. Our results indicate a convergent innervation of the NI area by different orexin neuron populations, with an abundance of orexin-A-containing axons making putative synaptic contacts with relaxin-3-positive NI neurons. The influence of orexin-A on NI neuron activity was investigated using patch-clamp recordings. Orexin-A depolarised the majority (64%) of recorded neurons and this effect was maintained in the presence of tetrodotoxin and glutamate and GABA receptor antagonists, indicating a likely postsynaptic action. Voltage-clamp experiments revealed that in 'type I' NI neurons comprising relaxin-3-positive cells, orexin-A acted via L-type calcium channels, whereas in 'type II' relaxin-3-negative neurons, activation of a sodium/calcium exchanger was involved. A majority of the orexin-A sensitive neurons tested for the presence of orexin receptor mRNA, were OX2 mRNA-positive. Immunohistochemical staining for putative orexin receptors on NI neurons, confirmed stronger expression of OX2 than OX1 receptors. Our data demonstrate a strong influence of orexin-A on NI neurons, consistent with an important role for this hypothalamic/tegmental circuit in the regulation of arousal/vigilance and motivated behaviours.

  10. Probiotics reinforce mucosal degradation of antigens in rats: implications for therapeutic use of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessi, T; Sütas, Y; Marttinen, A; Isolauri, E

    1998-12-01

    The effects of probiotics, administered with different diets, i.e., unhydrolyzed or hydrolyzed dietary antigens, on macromolecular degradation in the gut mucosa were studied. Rat pups were divided into five feeding groups at the age of 14 d. In addition to maternal milk, the milk group was gavaged daily with cows' milk and the hydrolysate group with extensively hydrolyzed whey formula, while controls received sterile saline. In addition to these diets, the milk-GG group and the hydrolysate-GG group were given probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus GG ATCC 53103 (10(10) colony-forming units per day). At 21 d, the absorption of macromolecules, horseradish peroxidase and beta-lactoglobulin across patch-free jejunal segments was studied in Ussing chambers. The degree of macromolecular degradation was studied by means of HPLC gel filtration. The absorption rate of intact horseradish peroxidase differed among the feeding groups (P = 0.038). This was due to the high median (interquartile range) absorption of intact horseradish peroxidase (ng x h-1 x cm-2) in the milk group [255 (14-1332)] and supplementation with L. GG in the milk-GG group [35 (8-233)] restoring the status to the control level [22 (0-116)]. A parallel effect was seen in the hydrolysate group [100 (9-236)] vs. the hydrolysate-GG group [1 (0- 13)]. A gel filtration study confirmed that larger molecules were absorbed across the mucosa in the milk group compared to the other groups. The absorption of degraded horseradish peroxidase differed between the feeding groups (P = 0. 005). L. GG had a distinct effect when administered with unhydrolyzed, native protein vs. hydrolyzed protein: it increased absorption of degraded horseradish peroxidase in the milk-GG group [7310 (4763-8228)] vs. the milk group [3726 (2423-5915)], while reducing it in the hydrolysate-GG group [2051 (1463-2815)] vs. the hydrolysate group [4573 (3759-9620)]. Our results showed that probiotics not only restore aberrant macromolecular transport

  11. Microstructural and compositional features of the fibrous and hyaline cartilage on the medial tibial plateau imply a unique role for the hopping locomotion of kangaroo.

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    Bo He

    Full Text Available Hopping provides efficient and energy saving locomotion for kangaroos, but it results in great forces in the knee joints. A previous study has suggested that a unique fibrous cartilage in the central region of the tibial cartilage could serve to decrease the peak stresses generated within kangaroo tibiofemoral joints. However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined. The present study showed that the fibrous cartilage was thicker and had a lower chondrocyte density than the hyaline cartilage. Despite having a higher PG content in the middle and deep zones, the fibrous cartilage had an inferior compressive strength compared to the peripheral hyaline cartilage. The fibrous cartilage had a complex three dimensional collagen meshwork with collagen bundles parallel to the surface in the superficial zone, and with collagen bundles both parallel and perpendicular to the surface in the middle and deep zones. The collagen in the hyaline cartilage displayed a typical Benninghoff structure, with collagen fibres parallel to the surface in the superficial zone and collagen fibres perpendicular to the surface in the deep zone. Elastin fibres were found throughout the entire tissue depth of the fibrous cartilage and displayed a similar alignment to the adjacent collagen bundles. In comparison, the elastin fibres in the hyaline cartilage were confined within the superficial zone. This study examined for the first time the fibrillary structure, PG content and compressive properties of the central fibrous cartilage pad and peripheral hyaline cartilage within the kangaroo medial tibial plateau. It provided insights into the microstructure and composition of the fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage in relation to the unique mechanical properties of the tissues to provide for the normal activities of kangaroos.

  12. Microstructural and compositional features of the fibrous and hyaline cartilage on the medial tibial plateau imply a unique role for the hopping locomotion of kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Wu, Jian Ping; Xu, Jiake; Day, Robert E; Kirk, Thomas Brett

    2013-01-01

    Hopping provides efficient and energy saving locomotion for kangaroos, but it results in great forces in the knee joints. A previous study has suggested that a unique fibrous cartilage in the central region of the tibial cartilage could serve to decrease the peak stresses generated within kangaroo tibiofemoral joints. However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined. The present study showed that the fibrous cartilage was thicker and had a lower chondrocyte density than the hyaline cartilage. Despite having a higher PG content in the middle and deep zones, the fibrous cartilage had an inferior compressive strength compared to the peripheral hyaline cartilage. The fibrous cartilage had a complex three dimensional collagen meshwork with collagen bundles parallel to the surface in the superficial zone, and with collagen bundles both parallel and perpendicular to the surface in the middle and deep zones. The collagen in the hyaline cartilage displayed a typical Benninghoff structure, with collagen fibres parallel to the surface in the superficial zone and collagen fibres perpendicular to the surface in the deep zone. Elastin fibres were found throughout the entire tissue depth of the fibrous cartilage and displayed a similar alignment to the adjacent collagen bundles. In comparison, the elastin fibres in the hyaline cartilage were confined within the superficial zone. This study examined for the first time the fibrillary structure, PG content and compressive properties of the central fibrous cartilage pad and peripheral hyaline cartilage within the kangaroo medial tibial plateau. It provided insights into the microstructure and composition of the fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage in relation to the unique mechanical properties of the tissues to provide for the normal activities of kangaroos.

  13. Carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages induces ghrelin release and increased food consumption in male rats: Implications on the onset of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweis, Dureen Samandar; Abed, Fida; Stiban, Johnny

    2017-02-19

    The dangerous health risks associated with obesity makes it a very serious public health issue. Numerous studies verified a correlation between the increase in obesity and the parallel increase in soft drink consumption among world populations. The effects of one main component in soft drinks namely the carbon dioxide gas has not been studied thoroughly in any previous research. Male rats were subjected to different categories of drinks and evaluated for over a year. Stomach ex vivo experiments were undertaken to evaluate the amount of ghrelin upon different beverage treatments. Moreover, 20 male students were tested for their ghrelin levels after ingestion of different beverages. Here, we show that rats consuming gaseous beverages over a period of around 1 year gain weight at a faster rate than controls on regular degassed carbonated beverage or tap water. This is due to elevated levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin and thus greater food intake in rats drinking carbonated drinks compared to control rats. Moreover, an increase in liver lipid accumulation of rats treated with gaseous drinks is shown opposed to control rats treated with degassed beverage or tap water. In a parallel study, the levels of ghrelin hormone were increased in 20 healthy human males upon drinking carbonated beverages compared to controls. These results implicate a major role for carbon dioxide gas in soft drinks in inducing weight gain and the onset of obesity via ghrelin release and stimulation of the hunger response in male mammals. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The binding of Aβ1-42 to lipid rafts of RBC is enhanced by dietary docosahexaenoic acid in rats: Implicates to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Hossain, Shahdat; Katakura, Masanori; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Shido, Osamu

    2015-06-01

    Once amyloid β peptides (Aβs) of the Alzheimer's disease build up in blood circulation, they are capable of binding to red blood cell (RBC) and inducing hemolysis of RBC. The mechanisms of the interactions between RBC and Aβ are largely unknown; however, it is very important for the therapeutic target of Aβ-induced hemolysis. In the present study, we investigated whether Aβ1-42 interacts with caveolin-1-containing detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of RBC and whether the interaction could be modulated by dietary pre-administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA pre-administration to rats inhibited hemolysis by Aβ1-42. This activity was accompanied by increased DHA levels and membrane fluidity and decreased cholesterol level, lipid peroxidation, and reactive oxygen species in the RBCs of the DHA-pretreated rats, suggesting that the antioxidative property of DHA may rescue RBCs from oxidative damage by Aβ1-42. The level of caveolin-1 was augmented in the DRMs of DHA-pretreated rats. Binding between Aβ1-42 and DRMs of RBC significantly increased in DHA-rats. When fluorescently labeled Aβ1-42 (TAMRA-Aβ1-42) was directly infused into the bloodstream, it again occupied the caveolin-1-containing DRMs of the RBCs from the DHA-rats to a greater extent, indicating that circulating Aβs interact with the caveolin-1-rich lipid rafts of DRMs and the interaction is stronger in the DHA-enriched RBCs. The levels of TAMRA-Aβ1-42 also increased in liver DRMs, whereas it decreased in plasma of DHA-pretreated rats. DHA might help clearance of circulating Aβs by increased lipid raft-dependent degradation pathways and implicate to therapies in Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Enhanced motivation for food reward induced by stress and attenuation by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor antagonism in rats: implications for overeating and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu

    2015-06-01

    Overeating beyond individuals' homeostatic needs critically contributes to obesity. The neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying the motivation to consume excessive foods with high calories are not fully understood. The present study examined whether a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine, enhances the motivation to procure food reward with an emphasis on comparisons between standard lab chow and high-fat foods. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor blockade by a CRF1-selective antagonist NBI on the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward were also assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chow available ad libitum in their home cages were trained to press a lever under a progressive ratio schedule for deliveries of either standard or high-fat food pellets. For testing yohimbine stress effects, rats received an intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine 10 min before start of the test sessions. For testing effects of CRF1 receptor blockade on stress responses, NBI was administered 20 min prior to yohimbine challenge. The rats emitted higher levels of lever responses to procure the high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. Yohimbine challenge facilitated lever responses for the reward in all of the rats, whereas the effect was more robust in the rats on high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. An inhibitory effect of pretreatment with NBI was observed on the enhancing effect of yohimbine challenge but not on the responses under baseline condition without yohimbine administration. Stress challenge significantly enhanced the motivation of satiated rats to procure extra food reward, especially the high-fat food pellets. Activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward. These results may have implications for our better understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms of overeating and obesity.

  16. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  17. Comparative toxicokinetics of low-viscosity mineral oil in Fischer 344 rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and humans--implications for an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J; Goyak, Katy O; Biles, Robert W; van Stee, Leo L P; Miller, Matthew S; Miller, Mary Jo

    2012-06-01

    Oral repeated-dose studies with low-viscosity mineral oils showed distinct species and strain differences, which are hypothesized to be due to differences in bioavailability, with Fischer 344 rats being more susceptible than Sprague-Dawley rats or dogs. Sensitive analytical methodology was developed for accurate measurement of low levels of mineral hydrocarbons and applied in single-dose toxicokinetics studies in rats and humans. Fischer 344 rats showed a 4-fold higher AUC(0-∞) and consistently higher blood and liver concentrations were found than Sprague-Dawley rats. Hepatic mineral hydrocarbon concentration tracked the blood concentration in both strains, indicating that blood concentrations can serve as functional surrogate measure for hepatic concentrations. In human volunteers receiving 1mg/kg body weight of low-viscosity white oil, all blood concentrations of mineral hydrocarbons were below the detection limit. Comparison with threshold blood concentrations associated with NOAELs in both rat strains, indicate that the margin-of-exposure is at least 37-fold. Using an internal dose metric rather than applied dose reduces the uncertainty around the temporary ADI considerably since it intrinsically accounts for intra- and inter-species differences. The current data support replacement of the temporary ADI of 0.01 mg/kg/day by a (permanent) ADI of at least 1.0mg/kg/day for low- and medium-viscosity mineral oils.

  18. Método Mãe-Canguru Método Madre Canguro Kangaroo Mother Method

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    Roberta Costa

    2005-12-01

    conocimientos lo hace difícil, también, una adecuada evaluación de esta práctica con relación al recién-nacido y su familia pero, principalmente, en lo que concierne a la aplicación del MMC junto al equipo neonatal.Study of a qualitative nature, whose objective is to identify the knowledge that comes out produced and propagated in Brazilians and foreigners periodic, about Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM. An incursion for literature was carried through, from the databases Medline and Lilacs, as well as direct search to main the nursing periodic, during the period from 1995 through 2004. Eight five articles were selected, later catalogued and submitted to categorizes. After analysis of the articles, four categories were extracted on the thematic. The results had led to the conclusion that despite the KMM being configuring itself as a paradigmatic change in the care to the newborn, it does not have total correspondence with the theoretical production, taking the one that the practical one is developed, many times, without had theoretical sustentation. This gap of knowledge makes it difficult, also, one adequate evaluation of this practical with relation to newborn and its family but, mainly, in whom it says respect to the application of KMM together to the neonatal team.

  19. Activation of caspase 8 in the pituitaries of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: implication in increased apoptosis of lactotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroba, Ana I; Frago, Laura M; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2005-10-01

    Lactotroph cell death is increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. To determine the mechanism involved, cell death proteins were accessed in pituitaries of diabetic (streptozotocin at 65 mg/kg, 2 months evolution) and control male rats by Western blot analysis and double immunohistochemistry. The intact and cleaved forms of caspase 9 were increased in diabetic rat pituitaries compared with controls. Although the proforms of caspases 3, 6, and 7 were increased in diabetic rat pituitaries, their activated forms were either unchanged or decreased. Activation of these effector caspases may be blocked by the increased expression of X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in diabetic rat pituitaries. However, in diabetic rats, XIAP expression in lactotrophs was decreased, suggesting that this cell type is not protected. Caspase 8, p53, and nuclear factor kappaB were more highly activated in diabetic rat pituitaries, with caspase 8 colocalization in lactotrophs being increased. These results suggest that, in the pituitaries of diabetic rats, the cascades of normal cell turnover are partially inhibited, possibly via XIAP, and this may be cell specific. Furthermore, activation of the extrinsic cell-death pathway, including activation of caspase 8, may underlie the diabetes-associated increase in lactotroph death.

  20. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

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    van Rooyen Elise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach

  1. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

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    Sarah I Martire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. METHODS: Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  2. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Sarah I; Holmes, Nathan; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-01-01

    Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow) for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  3. Differences in xenobiotic detoxifying activities between bone marrow stromal cells from mice and rats: Implications for benzene-induced hematotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hong; Li, Yunbo; Trush, M.A. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01

    benzene is a human carcinogen; exposure can result in aplastic anemia and leukemia. Data from animal models are frequently used in benzene risk assessment. In rodent studies, mice are more sensitive to benzene-induced hematotoxicity than rats. Bone marrow stromal cells from mice were significantly more susceptible to the cytotoxicity induced by the benzene metabolites hydroquinone (HQ) and benzoquinone (BQ) than cells from rats. Since cellular gluthathione (GSH) and quinone reductase (QR) are known to play critical roles in modulating HQ-induced cytotoxicity, the GSH content and the QR and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in stromal cells from both species was measured. In rat cells, the GSH content and the QR specific activity were 2 and 28 times as much as those from mice, respectively. GSH and QR in both mouse and rat stromal cells were inducible by 1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T). D3T pretreatment of both mouse and rat stromal cells resulted in a marked protection against HQ-induced toxicity. Pretreatment of both mouse and rat stromal cells with GSH ethyl ester also provided a dramatic protection against HQ-induced toxicity. Conversely, dicoumarol, an inhibitor of QR, enhanced the HQ-induced toxicity in stromal cells from both mice and rats, indicating an important role for QR in modulating HQ-induced stromal toxicity. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), which depleted GSH significantly in both species, potentiated the HQ-induced toxicity in mouse but not in rat stromal cells. Surprisingly, incubation of stromal cells with BSO resulted in a significant induction of QR, especially in rats. Overall, this study demonstrates that the differences in stromal cellular GSH content and QR activity between mice and rats contribute to their respective susceptibility to HQ-induced cytotoxicity in vitro, and may be involved in the greater in vivo sensitivity of mice to benzene-induced hematotoxicity. 51 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Extended exposure to sugar and/or caffeine produces distinct behavioral and neurochemical profiles in the orbitofrontal cortex of rats: Implications for neural function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jane L; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Wearne, Travis A; Homewood, Judi; Goodchild, Ann K; Haynes, Paul A; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2016-11-01

    Caffeine is a psychostimulant commonly consumed with high levels of sugar. The increased availability of highly caffeinated, high sugar energy drinks could put some consumers at risk of being exposed to high doses of caffeine and sugar. Notably, research that has examined the consequences of this combination is limited. Here, we explored the effect of chronic exposure to caffeine and/or sugar on behavior and protein levels in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of rats. The OFC brain region has been implicated in neuropsychiatric conditions, including obesity and addiction behaviors. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 26 days with control, caffeine (0.6 g/L), 10% sugar, or combination of both. Locomotor behavior was measured on the first and last day of treatment, then 1 week after treatment. Two hours following final behavioral testing, brains were rapidly removed and prepared for proteomic analysis of the OFC. Label-free quantitative shotgun analysis revealed that 21, 12, and 23% of proteins identified in the OFC were differentially expressed by sugar and/or caffeine. The results demonstrate that the intake of high levels of sugar and/or low to moderate levels of caffeine has different behavioral consequences. Moreover, each treatment results in a unique proteomic profile with different implications for neural health. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Enduring Effects of Early Life Stress on Firing Patterns of Hippocampal and Thalamocortical Neurons in Rats: Implications for Limbic Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrish Ali

    Full Text Available Early life stress results in an enduring vulnerability to kindling-induced epileptogenesis in rats, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent studies indicate the involvement of thalamocortical neuronal circuits in the progression of kindling epileptogenesis. Therefore, we sought to determine in vivo the effects of early life stress and amygdala kindling on the firing pattern of hippocampus as well as thalamic and cortical neurons. Eight week old male Wistar rats, previously exposed to maternal separation (MS early life stress or early handling (EH, underwent amygdala kindling (or sham kindling. Once fully kindled, in vivo juxtacellular recordings in hippocampal, thalamic and cortical regions were performed under neuroleptic analgesia. In the thalamic reticular nucleus cells both kindling and MS independently lowered firing frequency and enhanced burst firing. Further, burst firing in the thalamic reticular nucleus was significantly increased in kindled MS rats compared to kindled EH rats (p<0.05. In addition, MS enhanced burst firing of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Following a stimulation-induced seizure, somatosensory cortical neurons exhibited a more pronounced increase in burst firing in MS rats than in EH rats. These data demonstrate changes in firing patterns in thalamocortical and hippocampal regions resulting from both MS and amygdala kindling, which may reflect cellular changes underlying the enhanced vulnerability to kindling in rats that have been exposed to early life stress.

  6. Oral Administration of Ganoderma lucidum to Lead-Exposed Rats Protects Erythrocytes against Hemolysis: Implicates to Anti-Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Shahdat; Bhowmick, Sujan; Islam, Saiful; Rozario, Liza; Jahan, Sabrin; Hassan, Mehedi; Sarkar, Marzan; Choudhury, Bazlul Karim; Ahmed, Sohel; Shahjalal, Hussain

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic oral exposure to lead acetate (PbA) on the sensitivity of RBC to hemolysis and whether the sensitivity could be decreased by feeding the rats with extract of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Three groups of rats, control, PbA-exposed, and G. lucidum (Gl)+PbA, were used. PbA (3 mM) was administered via drinking water and G. lucidum extract by gavage at 300 mg/Kg BW/day for 12 weeks. Afterwards, the rats were killed and washed RBCs were subjected to hemolysis in the presence of Fenton's reagents. Hemolysis was determined by estimating the amount of released hemoglobin. The levels of lipid peroxide (LPO) and GSH were determined from RBC membranes and whole RBCs, respectively. The levels of TNFα and LPO also were determined from hepatic tissues. The RBCs of PbA-exposed rats displayed significantly higher sensitivity to hemolysis than those of the Gl+PbA rats. The levels of LPO increased and GSH decreased in the RBCs, with concomitant increases in the levels of hepatic TNFα and LPO in the PbA-exposed rats. The degree of hemolysis was significantly low in the RBCs of Gl+PbA rats, concurrently with amelioration of hepatic parameters. Finally, the study suggests that PbA-induced-hemolysis and related oxidative-toxicity might be minimized by consumption of G. lucidum. PMID:26300947

  7. Oral Administration of Ganoderma lucidum to Lead-Exposed Rats Protects Erythrocytes against Hemolysis: Implicates to Anti-Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahdat Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of chronic oral exposure to lead acetate (PbA on the sensitivity of RBC to hemolysis and whether the sensitivity could be decreased by feeding the rats with extract of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Three groups of rats, control, PbA-exposed, and G. lucidum (Gl+PbA, were used. PbA (3 mM was administered via drinking water and G. lucidum extract by gavage at 300 mg/Kg BW/day for 12 weeks. Afterwards, the rats were killed and washed RBCs were subjected to hemolysis in the presence of Fenton’s reagents. Hemolysis was determined by estimating the amount of released hemoglobin. The levels of lipid peroxide (LPO and GSH were determined from RBC membranes and whole RBCs, respectively. The levels of TNFα and LPO also were determined from hepatic tissues. The RBCs of PbA-exposed rats displayed significantly higher sensitivity to hemolysis than those of the Gl+PbA rats. The levels of LPO increased and GSH decreased in the RBCs, with concomitant increases in the levels of hepatic TNFα and LPO in the PbA-exposed rats. The degree of hemolysis was significantly low in the RBCs of Gl+PbA rats, concurrently with amelioration of hepatic parameters. Finally, the study suggests that PbA-induced-hemolysis and related oxidative-toxicity might be minimized by consumption of G. lucidum.

  8. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Urakawa

    Full Text Available Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats. This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.

  9. The role of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve systems on the smooth muscle of rat seminal vesicles - experimental results and speculation for physiological implication on ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, J-T; Kuo, Y-C; Chang, H-C; Liu, S-P; Chen, J-H; Tsai, V F S

    2014-01-01

    Ejaculation is a process involving sympathetic and parasympathetic effects during different stages - emission and ejection. Some conditions of ejaculation dysfunction are associated with autonomic nerves. However, the exact effects of autonomic nerves on ejaculation are not well defined. Autonomic agonists induce different recorded trace patterns of seminal vesicular contraction. The different traces contain different components of phasic and tonic contraction, which may have physiological implications. In this study, we examined isolated rat seminal vesicle (SV) contraction by phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine, and their respective antagonists and then speculated upon physiological roles of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves on SV during ejaculation. We found that PE and Ach both achieved good contraction of rat SV. Compared to α1b for sympathetic and M1, M2 for parasympathetic receptors, α1a and M3 are the relatively dominant subtypes on rat SV. Adrenergic and cholinergic agonists cause different trace patterns of SV contraction. We speculated that the sympathetic effect is dominant during emission to squeeze seminal fluid out and that the parasympathetic effect is dominant during ejection to provide an anti-reflux effect on the ejaculatory duct.

  10. Evalvacija šolskega matematičnega tekmovanja Kenguru = Evaluation of the Kangaroo School Mathematical Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Komel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Each year Slovene students of secondary vocational schools, among them also the Construction and Service School in Kranj (Economics and Service Educational Centre Kranj, compete in knowledge in the Kangaroo International Mathematical Competition . We decided to evaluate two points of view of the competition, namely processional in the sense of extra-curricular activities, i.e. preparation for the competition, and interpersonal in the sense of deepening the relations between teachers and students. One of the main aims of our evaluation, besides deepening the relations, was to motivate and prepare as many students as possible for the competition. While carrying out the project, there was a growing conviction that the process of evaluation is more important than its results, because it has united and brought closer all the participants, students as well as teacher-mentors. An extremely positive consequence of evaluation is the fact that the understanding of the competition itself has improved and it has also boosted its own efficiency. School climate has become friendlier, while the project group of mathematicians gained new guidelines for further work.

  11. Secretion of whey acidic protein and cystatin is down regulated at mid-lactation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of ??-lactalbumin, ??-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  12. Kangaroo care and behavioral and physiologic pain responses in very-low-birth-weight twins: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Cusson, Regina M; Hussain, Naveed; Zhang, Di; Kelly, Sharon P

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this case study was to describe pain responses in three study conditions: longer (30 minutes) kangaroo care (KC) before and throughout heel stick (KC30), shorter (15 minutes) KC before and throughout heel stick (KC15), and incubator care throughout heel stick (IC) in 28-week gestational age twins. Pain responses were measured by crying time, Preterm Infant Pain Profile (PIPP), and heart rate variability indexes, including low-frequency power (LF, representing sympathetic activity), high-frequency power (HF, parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF ratio (sympathetic-parasympathetic balance). Both twins cried more and had higher PIPP pain scores and tachycardia during heel stick in the IC condition. Infant B had an incident of apnea and tachycardia by the end of the heel stick and a bradycardia episode during recovery in the IC condition. The twins had lower LF/HF ratios (better autonomic nervous system balance) during recovery in both longer and shorter KC conditions compared with the IC condition. Infant B had difficulty returning to LF/HF ratio baseline level after the painful procedure in the IC condition. These data suggest that both longer and shorter KC before and throughout painful procedures can be helpful in reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses in preterm infants.

  13. A new species of the basal "kangaroo" Balbaroo and a re-evaluation of stem macropodiform interrelationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Black

    Full Text Available Exceptionally well-preserved skulls and postcranial elements of a new species of the plesiomorphic stem macropodiform Balbaroo have been recovered from middle Miocene freshwater limestone deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area of northwestern Queensland, Australia. This constitutes the richest intraspecific sample for any currently known basal "kangaroo", and, along with additional material referred to Balbaroo fangaroo, provides new insights into structural variability within the most prolific archaic macropodiform clade--Balbaridae. Qualitative and metric evaluations of taxonomic boundaries demonstrate that the previously distinct species Nambaroo bullockensis is a junior synonym of B. camfieldensis. Furthermore, coupled Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal that our new Balbaroo remains represent the most derived member of the Balbaroo lineage, and are closely related to the middle Miocene B. camfieldensis, which like most named balbarid species is identifiable only from isolated jaws. The postcranial elements of Balbaroo concur with earlier finds of the stratigraphically oldest balbarid skeleton, Nambaroo gillespieae, and suggest that quadrupedal progression was a primary gait mode as opposed to bipedal saltation. All Balbaroo spp. have low-crowned bilophodont molars, which are typical for browsing herbivores inhabiting the densely forested environments envisaged for middle Miocene northeastern Australia.

  14. Development of glucocorticoid receptor regulation in the rat forebrain: Implications for adverse effects of glucocorticoids in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucocorticoids are the consensus treatment to avoid respiratory distress in preterm infants but there is accumulating evidence that these agents evoke long-term neurobehavioral deficits. Earlier, we showed that the developing rat forebrain is far more sensitive to glucocorticoi...

  15. Low-dose ouabain constricts small arteries from ouabain-hypertensive rats: implications for sustained elevation of vascular resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jin; Hamlyn, John M.; Karashima, Eiji; Raina, Hema; Mauban, Joseph R. H.; Izuka, Michelle; Berra-Romani, Roberto; Zulian, Alessandra; Wier, W. Gil; Blaustein, Mordecai P.

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged ouabain administration to normal rats causes sustained blood pressure (BP) elevation. This ouabain-induced hypertension (OH) has been attributed, in part, to the narrowing of third-order resistance arteries (∼320 μm internal diameter) as a result of collagen deposition in the artery media (see Ref. 6). Here we describe the structural and functional properties of fourth-order mesenteric small arteries from control and OH rats, including the effect of low-dose ouabain on myogenic tone...

  16. Behavioral Phenotyping of Juvenile Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley Rats: Implications for Preclinical Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Ku

    Full Text Available The laboratory rat is emerging as an attractive preclinical animal model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD, allowing investigators to explore genetic, environmental and pharmacological manipulations in a species exhibiting complex, reciprocal social behavior. The present study was carried out to compare two commonly used strains of laboratory rats, Sprague-Dawley (SD and Long-Evans (LE, between the ages of postnatal day (PND 26-56 using high-throughput behavioral phenotyping tools commonly used in mouse models of ASD that we have adapted for use in rats. We detected few differences between young SD and LE strains on standard assays of exploration, sensorimotor gating, anxiety, repetitive behaviors, and learning. Both SD and LE strains also demonstrated sociability in the 3-chamber social approach test as indexed by spending more time in the social chamber with a constrained age/strain/sex matched novel partner than in an identical chamber without a partner. Pronounced differences between the two strains were, however, detected when the rats were allowed to freely interact with a novel partner in the social dyad paradigm. The SD rats in this particular testing paradigm engaged in play more frequently and for longer durations than the LE rats at both juvenile and young adult developmental time points. Results from this study that are particularly relevant for developing preclinical ASD models in rats are threefold: (i commonly utilized strains exhibit unique patterns of social interactions, including strain-specific play behaviors, (ii the testing environment may profoundly influence the expression of strain-specific social behavior and (iii simple, automated measures of sociability may not capture the complexities of rat social interactions.

  17. Behavioral Phenotyping of Juvenile Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley Rats: Implications for Preclinical Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Katherine M.; Weir, Ruth K.; Silverman, Jill L.; Berman, Robert F.; Bauman, Melissa D.

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory rat is emerging as an attractive preclinical animal model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), allowing investigators to explore genetic, environmental and pharmacological manipulations in a species exhibiting complex, reciprocal social behavior. The present study was carried out to compare two commonly used strains of laboratory rats, Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Long-Evans (LE), between the ages of postnatal day (PND) 26–56 using high-throughput behavioral phenotyping tools commonly used in mouse models of ASD that we have adapted for use in rats. We detected few differences between young SD and LE strains on standard assays of exploration, sensorimotor gating, anxiety, repetitive behaviors, and learning. Both SD and LE strains also demonstrated sociability in the 3-chamber social approach test as indexed by spending more time in the social chamber with a constrained age/strain/sex matched novel partner than in an identical chamber without a partner. Pronounced differences between the two strains were, however, detected when the rats were allowed to freely interact with a novel partner in the social dyad paradigm. The SD rats in this particular testing paradigm engaged in play more frequently and for longer durations than the LE rats at both juvenile and young adult developmental time points. Results from this study that are particularly relevant for developing preclinical ASD models in rats are threefold: (i) commonly utilized strains exhibit unique patterns of social interactions, including strain-specific play behaviors, (ii) the testing environment may profoundly influence the expression of strain-specific social behavior and (iii) simple, automated measures of sociability may not capture the complexities of rat social interactions. PMID:27351457

  18. Action of pelargonidin on hyperglycemia and oxidative damage in diabetic rats: implication for glycation-induced hemoglobin modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Moumita; Sen, Subhrojit; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2008-05-23

    Glycation-modified hemoglobin in diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be a source of enhanced catalytic iron and free radicals causing pathological complications. The present study aims to verify this idea in experimental diabetes. Pelargonidin, an anthocyanidin, has been tested for its antidiabetic potential with emphasis on its role against pathological oxidative stress including hemoglobin-mediated free radical reactions. Male wistar rats were grouped as normal control, streptozotocin-induced diabetic control, normal treated with pelargonidin and diabetic treated with pelargonidin. Pelargonidin-treated rats received one time i.p injection of the flavonoid (3 mg/kg bodyweight). Biochemical parameters were assayed in blood samples of different groups of rats. Liver was used for histological examinations. Pelargonidin treatment normalized elevated blood glucose levels and improved serum insulin levels in diabetic rats. Glucose tolerance test appeared normal after treatment. Decreased serum levels of SOD and catalase, and increased levels of malondialdehyde and fructosamine in diabetic rats were reverted to their respective normal values after pelargonidin administration. Extents of hemoglobin glycation, hemoglobin-mediated iron release, iron-mediated free radical reactions and carbonyl formation in hemoglobin were pronounced in diabetic rats, indicating association between hemoglobin glycation and oxidative stress in diabetes. Pelargonidin counteracts hemoglobin glycation, iron release from the heme protein and iron-mediated oxidative damages, confirming glycated hemoglobin-associated oxidative stress in diabetes.

  19. The Oral Iron Chelator, Deferasirox, Reverses the Age-Dependent Alterations in Iron and Amyloid-β Homeostasis in Rat Brain: Implications in the Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyanjalee; Sahoo, Arghyadip; Anand, Shruti; Bir, Aritri; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2016-01-01

    The altered metabolism of iron impacts the brain function in multiple deleterious ways during normal aging as well as in Alzheimer's disease. We have shown in this study that chelatable iron accumulates in the aged rat brain along with overexpression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and ferritin, accompanied by significant alterations in amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide homeostasis in the aging brain, such as an increased production of the amyloid-β protein precursor, a decreased level of neprilysin, and increased accumulation of Aβ42. When aged rats are given daily the iron chelator, deferasirox, over a period of more than 4 months starting from the 18th month, the age-related accumulation of iron and overexpression of TfR1 and ferritin in the brain are significantly prevented. More interestingly, the chelator treatment also considerably reverses the altered Aβ peptide metabolism in the aging brain implying a significant role of iron in the latter phenomenon. Further, other results indicate that iron accumulation results in oxidative stress and the activation of NF-κB in the aged rat brain, which are also reversed by the deferasirox treatment. The analysis of the results together suggests that iron accumulation and oxidative stress interact at multiple levels that include transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms to bring about changes in the expression levels of TfR1 and ferritin and also alterations in Aβ peptide metabolism in the aging rat brain. The efficacy of deferasirox in preventing age-related changes in iron and Aβ peptide metabolism in the aging brain, as shown here, has obvious therapeutic implications for Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Gonadal hormone dependent developmental plasticity of catecholamine:β2-adrenoceptor signaling complex in male rat thymus: putative implications for thymopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipović, Ivan; Radojević, Katarina; Kosec, Duško; Nanut, Milica Perišić; Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Leposavić, Gordana

    2013-12-15

    The study was undertaken considering that: i) androgens affect β2-adrenoceptor (AR)-mediated catecholamine (CA) action in many tissues; and ii) peripubertal changes in both circulating androgen and thymic CA levels are implicated in rat thymic involution. Its aims were to: i) explore putative effects of the late prepubertal orchidectomy on thymic CA:β2-AR complex in young adult rats, and ii) delineate the direct effects of testicular hormone withdrawal on the CA:β2-AR complex from those elicited secondarily through altered influence of this complex components on each other's availability. Upon showing that prepubertal orchidectomy augmented the efficacy of thymopoiesis through increasing the thymocyte surface density of Thy-1, whose expression is negatively regulated by β2-AR-mediated signaling, we examined the effects of orchidectomy and 14-day-long propranolol (PROP) treatment in orchidectomized (ORX) and sham-ORX rats on thymic norepinephrine (NE) concentration and metabolism and β2-AR expression. Orchidectomy, despite an increase in the average NE amount per thymocyte and total thymocyte NE content, diminished thymic NE concentration. This decrease reflected the diminished density of CA-synthesizing nerve fibers, CD68+ macrophages, cortical (aminopeptidase A+), and medullary (UEA-1+) thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and their CA content (probably due to lessened TH expression accompanied by increased MAO-A expression). Moreover, orchidectomy decreased the surface β2-AR expression on thymocytes, CD68+ macrophages and OX-62+ dendritic cells, but increased its expression on the TECs. In sham-ORX rats, PROP reduced thymic NE concentration by diminishing TH expression in the thymic cells. Additionally, PROP in thymocytes and thymic stromal cells diminished and enhanced the β2-AR mRNA expression, respectively. However, in ORX rats PROP did not significantly affect CA(NE):β2-AR complex components. This indicated that prepubertal orchidectomy affects ability of

  1. Avaliação dos resultados neonatais do método canguru no Brasil Evaluation of the neonatal outcomes of the kangaroo mother method in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lamy Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do método canguru no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo comparando 16 unidades que possuíam ou não a segunda fase do método canguru: oito eram centros nacionais de referência para o método canguru (grupo estudo, e oito faziam parte da Rede Brasileira de Pesquisas Neonatais (grupo controle. Foram incluídos 985 recém-nascidos pesando entre 500 e 1.749 g. Na análise multivariada, utilizou-se a regressão linear múltipla e a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto. RESULTADOS: Na análise ajustada (para peso de nascimento, idade gestacional, Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension II, Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System, idade e escolaridade maternas, o tempo médio de internação (p = 0,14 e intercorrências clínicas na unidade intermediária ou canguru foram iguais entre os grupos. Peso (p = 0,012, comprimento (p = 0,039 e perímetro cefálico (p = 0,006 com 36 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida foram menores nas unidades canguru. As unidades canguru tiveram desempenho superior em relação ao aleitamento materno exclusivo na alta (69,2 versus 23,8%, p = 0,022. CONCLUSÃO: As evidências sugerem que a estratégia de humanização adotada pelo Ministério da Saúde é uma alternativa segura ao tratamento convencional e uma boa estratégia para a promoção do aleitamento materno.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of the kangaroo mother method in Brazil. METHODS: A prospective cohort study comparing 16 units that have or do not have the second phase of the kangaroo mother method: eight were national centers of excellence for the kangaroo mother method (study group and eight were part of the Brazilian Neonatal Research Network (control group. A total of 985 newborn infants with birth weights of 500 to 1,749 g were enrolled. Multivariate analyses employed multiple linear regression and Poisson regression with robust adjustment. RESULTS: The adjusted analysis

  2. Modulation of liver canalicular transport processes by the tyrosine-kinase inhibitor genistein: implications of genistein metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, W; Winter, O; Halper, B; Salamon, A; Sartori, M; Gajdzik, L; Hamilton, G; Theyer, G; Graf, J; Thalhammer, T

    1997-12-01

    Rat liver cells express the multispecific organic anion transporter (cmoat, cmrp, mrp2) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in their canalicular membranes, proteins that are homologous to the multidrug-resistance related protein (MRP) and multidrug resistance (MDR) gene products in multidrug resistant tumor cells. We tested whether genistein, a modulator of drug resistance in tumor cells, affects biliary secretion of substrates of canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cmoat) (glucuronides of bilirubin and rhodamine, glutathione conjugate of bromsulphthalein) and of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) (rhodamine), respectively. Using the isolated perfused rat liver of control Wistar rats (TR+) and of a mutant strain (TR-) that expresses Pgp but not cmoat, we show that genistein effectively inhibits the secretion of anionic substrates of cmoat in Wistar rats but stimulates secretion of cationic rhodamine in TR- rats. Genistein is subject to glucuronidation and sulfatation and secretion of genistein and its metabolites stimulates bile flow in Wistar rats, but secretion is nearly absent in TR- rats. Because genistein and its metabolites are substrates for cmoat, inhibition of anion secretion by genistein is partially explained by competition for this transporter. Genistein is also a substrate of uridindiphosphate (UDP)-glucuronyltransferase isoenzyme(s). Inhibition of glucuronidation reduces the availability of bilirubin and rhodamine glucuronates for transport via cmoat, but unconjugated cationic rhodamine becomes available for transport via Pgp at an increased cellular concentration. Daidzein, a genistein analogue with no effect on protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) shows Similar effects on secretion of organic anions and cations supporting the conclusion that genistein affects transport in liver mainly through competition with other substrates at the sites of glucuronidation and transport via cmoat.

  3. Assessment of reward responsiveness in the response bias probabilistic reward task in rats: implications for cross-species translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der-Avakian, A; D'Souza, M S; Pizzagalli, D A; Markou, A

    2013-08-27

    Mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder, are characterized by abnormal reward responsiveness. The Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task (hereafter referred to as probabilistic reward task (PRT)) quantifies reward responsiveness in human subjects, and an equivalent animal assessment is needed to facilitate preclinical translational research. Thus, the goals of the present studies were to develop, validate and characterize a rat analog of the PRT. Adult male Wistar and Long-Evans rats were trained in operant testing chambers to discriminate between two tone stimuli that varied in duration (0.5 and 2 s). During a subsequent test session consisting of 100 trials, the two tones were made ambiguous (0.9 and 1.6 s) and correct identification of one tone was reinforced with a food pellet three times more frequently than the other tone. In subsequent experiments, Wistar rats were administered either a low dose of the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist pramipexole (0.1 mg kg(-1), subcutaneous) or the psychostimulant amphetamine (0.5 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneal) before the test session. Similar to human subjects, both rat strains developed a response bias toward the more frequently reinforced stimulus, reflecting robust reward responsiveness. Mirroring prior findings in humans, a low dose of pramipexole blunted response bias. Moreover, in rats, amphetamine potentiated response bias. These results indicate that in rats, reward responsiveness can be quantified and bidirectionally modulated by pharmacological manipulations that alter striatal dopamine transmission. Thus, this new procedure in rats, which is conceptually and procedurally analogous to the one used in humans, provides a reverse translational platform to investigate abnormal reward responsiveness across species.

  4. Expression of Resistin mRNA in Adipose Tissue of Rat Model with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Its Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉霞; 孙永玉; 邱红玉

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the insulin resistance (IR) of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) rat model induced by dehydroeplandrosterone (DHEA) and hormonal changes in the ovarium and the resistin mRNA levels in adipose tissue, 21-day-old female SD rats were divided into two groups in pairs. The rats in group 1 were injected daily (s. c) with DHEA for up to 20days and the rats in group 2 injected with oil at the same time. Ovarian weight, serum insulin levels and sex hormone levels in rat blood of both groups were determined. Oral glucose tolerance tests,light microscopic and electronic microscopic examination were performed. The levels of resistin mRNA in adipose tissue were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Our results showed that the ovarian weight in group 1 was greater than that in group 2 (P<0.05).The ovaria in group 1 showed multiple follicular cysts, The serum testeosterone and etrasdiol concentration were significantly higher in group 1 than those in group 2 (P<0. 001 and P<0.05 respectively), so as the fasting serum glucose (P<0. 001) and fasting serum insulin (P<0.05). The value of 1/FINS× FGC was significantly higher in group 1 than that in group 2 (P<0. 001). Moreover, the resistin mRNA level of white adipose tissue in the DHEA-induced group was significantly higher than that in the control rats (P<0.05). It is concluded that the DHEA-induced PCOS rat models were similar to those of the patients with PCOS, and the IR was observed. Resistin secreted by adipose tissue may mediate IR in PCOS, and it is likely involved in the pathogenesis and development of PCOS.

  5. Identification of plasma APE1/Ref-1 in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemic rats: implication of serological biomarker for an endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Soo; Lee, Yu Ran; Choi, Sunga; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Cho, Eun Jung; Kim, Cuk Seong; Park, Jin Bong; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2013-06-14

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/Redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in base excision DNA repair and in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. We investigated whether APE1/Ref-1 increased in plasma of endotoxemic rats. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce endotoxemia in rats. Administration of LPS (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly induced plasma nitrite production and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). A 37 kDa immunoreactive band was detected in cell-free plasma of LPS-treated rats using anti-APE1/Ref-1, which reached a maximum at 12 h after the LPS injection. The 37 kDa immunoreactive band was identified as rat APE1/Ref-1 by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Interestingly, treatment with recombinant human APE1/Ref-1 protein (2-5 μg/ml for 18 h) inhibited TNF-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, the level of plasma APE1/Ref-1 increased in LPS-induced endotoxemic rats, suggesting that plasma APE1/Ref-1 might serve as a serological biomarker for endotoxemia.

  6. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangey, Priya Singh; Sheth, Megha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Massage therapy (MT) and kangaroo mother care (KMC) are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT) infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  7. Trial gain of weight and hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm infant in assistance for kangaroo mother care

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Aparecida Giacomini Rodrigues; Maria Aparecida Tedeschi Cano

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) interferes in the gain of weight and in the hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm newborn (LWBPTN). For this, it was realized an analytic retrospective study, through the evaluation of the medical records of 60 LWBPTN with born weight less than 2000 g that received assistance by KMC, for a period of 2 hours per day and, 60 LWBPTN that received assistance by the Traditional Method of Care (TMC), admitted in ...

  8. Head and cervical spine posture in behaving rats: implications for modeling human conditions involving the head and cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, C; Choong, W Y; Teh, W; Buxton, A J; Bolton, P S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the temporal and spatial (postural) characteristics of the head and cervical vertebral column (spine) of behaving rats in order to better understand their suitability as a model to study human conditions involving the head and neck. Time spent in each of four behavioral postures was determined from video tape recordings of rats (n = 10) in the absence and presence of an intruder rat. Plain film radiographic examination of a subset of these rats (n = 5) in each of these postures allowed measurement of head and cervical vertebral column positions adopted by the rats. When single they were quadruped or crouched most (∼80%) of the time and bipedal either supported or free standing for only ∼10% of the time. The introduction of an intruder significantly (P cervical spine was orientated (median, 25-75 percentile) near vertical (18.8°, 4.2°-30.9°) when quadruped, crouched (15.4°, 7.6°-69.3°) and bipedal supported (10.5°, 4.8°-22.6°) but tended to be less vertical oriented when bipedal free standing (25.9°, 7.7°-39.3°). The range of head positions relative to the cervical spine was largest when crouched (73.4°) and smallest when erect free standing (17.7°). This study indicates that, like humans, rats have near vertical orientated cervical vertebral columns but, in contrast to humans, they displace their head in space by movements at both the cervico-thoracic junction and the cranio-cervical regions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prenatal nicotine alters vigilance states and AchR gene expression in the neonatal rat: implications for SIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M G; Srere, H; Ledezma, C; O'Hara, B; Heller, H C

    2001-04-01

    Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke predisposes infants to SIDS are not known. We examined the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on sleep/wake ontogenesis and central cholinergic receptor gene expression in the neonatal rat. Prenatal nicotine exposure transiently increased sleep continuity and accelerated sleep/wake ontogeny in the neonatal rat. Prenatal nicotine also upregulated nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor mRNAs in brain regions involved in regulating vigilance states. These findings suggest that the nicotine contained in cigarette smoke may predispose human infants to SIDS by interfering with the normal maturation of sleep and wake.

  10. A sedge plant as the source of Kangaroo Island propolis rich in prenylated p-coumarate ester and stilbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Colin C; Tran, Van H; Duke, Rujee K; Abu-Mellal, Abdallah; Plunkett, George T; King, Douglas I; Hamid, Kaiser; Wilson, Karen L; Barrett, Russell L; Bruhl, Jeremy J

    2017-02-01

    Propolis samples from Kangaroo Island, South Australia, were investigated for chemical constituents using high-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectral profiling. A type of propolis was found containing a high proportion of prenylated hydroxystilbenes. Subsequently, the botanical origin of this type of propolis was identified using a beehive propolis depletion method and analysis of flora. Ligurian honey bees, Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, were found to produce propolis from resin exuded by the Australian native sedge plant Lepidosperma sp. Montebello (Cyperaceae). The plants, commonly known as sword sedge, were found to have resin that matched with the propolis samples identified as the most abundant propolis type on the island containing C- and O-prenylated tetrahydroxystilbenes (pTHOS) in addition to a small amount of prenylated p-coumarate. The isolation of five pTHOS not previously characterized are reported: (E)-4-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene, (E)-2,4-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,3',4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene, (E)-2-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)-3',4',5-trihydroxystilbene, (E)-2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxystilbene and (E)-2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene. A National Cancer Institute 60 human cell line anticancer screen of three of these compounds showed growth inhibitory activity. The large Australasian genus Lepidosperma is identified as a valuable resource for the isolation of substances with medicinal potential. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Early kangaroo mother care vs. conventional method in stabilizing low birth weight infant: physiologic parameters (preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulina Suradi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC has been accepted as an effective method in nursing low birth weight infant (LBWI. However, the application of this method in the early life of infants has not been studied in Indonesia. Objective To evaluate some physiologic parameters of LBWI treated with early KMC compared to conventional method. Methods This was a randomized clinical-trial, which compared early KMC to conventional method in stabilizing LBWI in the first 4 hours of life. All LBWI (birth weight 1500-2499 g bom at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and Budi Kemuliaan Matemity Hospital Jakarta were recruited consecutively in the period of November 2001 until March 2002. The inclusion criteria were spontaneous delivery, APGAR scores 13t and 5th minute 37, and parental consent. Results Sixty-four subjects distributed evenly into early KMC group and control group. One subject in the KMC group and three subjects in the control group were excluded due to respiratory distress. The mean birth weight was 2091 (SO 299.4 g in the KMC group and 2184 (SO 214.9 g inthe control group. The mean gestational-age in both groups was 35.6 (SO 3.0 weeks. There were no statistical differences in mean temperature (P=0.281, heart rate (P=0.956, and respiratory rate (P=0.898 between the two groups during the first 4 hours of life. We found a larger proportion of infants reaching the temperature of 36.5QC in the KMC group, especially at one hour (49% vs. 7%; the difference of proportion was 0.42 (95%CI 0.22 to 0.61. Conclusion Early KMC method is proved to be as safe as conventional method in stabilizing healthy LBWI.

  12. Olanzapine reduces physical activity in rats exposed to activity-based anorexia : possible implications for treatment of anorexia nervosa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Kas, Martien J H; van Engeland, Herman; Adan, Roger A H

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients often show extreme hypophagia and excessive physical activity. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model of AN and mimics food restriction and hyperactivity in rats. This study investigated whether treatment with olanzapine (Zyprexa) reduc

  13. Physiologically based kinetic models for the alkenylbenzene elemicin in rat and human and possible implications for risk assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.J.; Punt, A.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Ngeleja, S.; Spenkelink, B.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models for the alkenylbenzene elemicin (3,4,5-trimethoxyallylbenzene) in rat and human, based on the PBK models previously developed for the structurally related alkenylbenzenes estragole, methyleugenol, and safrole. Using the newly dev

  14. Improvement of the closed cranial window model in rats by intracarotid infusion of signalling molecules implicated in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, S; Bhatt, D K; Boni, L J

    2010-01-01

    what effect is caused by direct receptor agonist interaction or contributed by autoregulation. In the present study we infused substances with an ingenious indwelling catheter in the common carotid artery in rats. Intracarotidly seven-, 12- and 17-fold lower doses of CGRP, PACAP-38 and capsaicin were...

  15. Physiologically based kinetic models for the alkenylbenzene elemicin in rat and human and possible implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Punt, Ans; Soffers, Ans E M F; Vervoort, Jacques; Ngeleja, Stephen; Spenkelink, Bert; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2012-11-19

    The present study describes physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models for the alkenylbenzene elemicin (3,4,5-trimethoxyallylbenzene) in rat and human, based on the PBK models previously developed for the structurally related alkenylbenzenes estragole, methyleugenol, and safrole. Using the newly developed models, the level of metabolic activation of elemicin in rat and human was predicted to obtain insight in species differences in the bioactivation of elemicin and read across to the other methoxy allylbenzenes, estragole and methyleugenol. Results reveal that the differences between rat and human in the formation of the proximate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-hydroxyelemicin and the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-sulfoxyelemicin are limited (rat and human liver. The insights thus obtained were used to perform a risk assessment for elemicin using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach and read across to the other methoxy allylbenzene derivatives for which in vivo animal tumor data are available. This reveals that elemicin poses a lower priority for risk management as compared to its structurally related analogues estragole and methyleugenol. Altogether, the results obtained indicate that PBK modeling provides an important insight in the occurrence of species differences in the metabolic activation of elemicin. Moreover, they provide an example of how PBK modeling can facilitate a read across in risk assessment from compounds for which in vivo toxicity studies are available to a compound for which only limited toxicity data have been described, thus contributing to the development of alternatives for animal testing.

  16. Olanzapine reduces physical activity in rats exposed to activity-based anorexia : possible implications for treatment of anorexia nervosa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Kas, Martien J H; van Engeland, Herman; Adan, Roger A H

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients often show extreme hypophagia and excessive physical activity. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model of AN and mimics food restriction and hyperactivity in rats. This study investigated whether treatment with olanzapine (Zyprexa) reduc

  17. Co-sensitivity to the incentive properties of palatable food and cocaine in rats; implications for co-morbid addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, AnneMarie; Salamon, Avi; Tucci, Mark; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Parker, Linda A; Leri, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that there may be a shared vulnerability to acquire behaviors motivated by strong incentive stimuli. Non-food restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 78) underwent place conditioning with Oreos, and were subsequently tested on cocaine self-administration (SA) on fixed and progressive ratios, as well as extinction and reinstatement by cocaine primes and by consumption of Oreos. Although there was a group preference for the Oreo-paired compartment, at the individual level some rats (69%) displayed a preference and others did not. In cocaine SA, 'preference' rats achieved higher break points on a progressive ratio, and displayed greater responding during extinction and cocaine-induced reinstatement. Within the context of this study, Oreo-cocaine cross-reinstatement was not observed. In a control study, rats (n = 29) conditioned with a less palatable food (rice cakes) also displayed individual differences in place preference, but not on subsequent cocaine tests. These findings indicate that there is a relationship between incentive learning promoted by palatable foods and by cocaine. This supports the hypothesis that co-morbid food-drug addictions may result from a shared vulnerability to acquire behaviors motivated by strong incentives.

  18. Blood-brain barrier transport and protein binding of flumazenil and iomazenil in the rat: implications for neuroreceptor studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbaek, C; Ott, P; Paulson, O B;

    1999-01-01

    The calculated fraction of receptor ligands available for blood-brain barrier passage in vivo (f(avail)) may differ from in vitro (f(eq)) measurements. This study evaluates the protein-ligand interaction for iomazenil and flumazenil in rats by comparing f(eq) and f(avail). Repeated measurements...

  19. Implications of combined ovariectomy and glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) treatment on mineral, microarchitectural, biomechanical and matrix properties of rat bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Parameswari; Khassawna, Thaqif; Kampschulte, Marian; Böcker, Wolfgang; Huerter, Britta; Dürselen, Lutz; Faulenbach, Miriam; Heiss, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the deleterious side effects of long-term glucocorticoid therapy. Since the condition is particularly aggressive in postmenopausal women who are on steroid therapy, in this study we have attempted to analyse the combined effect of glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) treatment and cessation of oestrogen on rat bone. The dual aim was to generate osteoporotic bone status in a short time scale and to characterise the combination of glucocorticoid-postmenopausal osteoporotic conditions. Sprague Dawley rats (N = 42) were grouped randomly into three groups: untreated control, sham-operated and ovariectomized-steroid (OVX-Steroid) rats. Control animals were euthanized with no treatment [Month 0 (M0)], while sham and OVX-Steroid rats were monitored up to 1 month (M1) and 3 months (M3) post laparotomy/post OVX-Steroid treatment. Histology, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and biomechanical and mRNA expression analysis of collagenous, non-collagenous matrix proteins and osteoclast markers were examined. The study indicated enhanced osteoclastogenesis and significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the OVX-Steroid rats with Z-scores below -2.5, reduced torsional strength, reduced bone volume (BV/TV%), significantly enhanced trabecular separation (Tb.S), and less trabecular number (Tb.N) compared with sham rats. Osteoclast markers, cathepsin K and MMP 9 were upregulated along with Col1α1 and biglycan with no significant expression variation in fibronectin, MMP 14, LRP-5, Car II and TNC. These results show higher bone turnover with enhanced bone resorption accompanied with reduced torsional strength in OVX-Steroid rats; and these changes were attained within a short timeframe. This could be a useful model which mimics human postmenopausal osteoporosis that is associated with steroid therapy and could prove of value both in disease diagnosis and for testing generating and testing biological agents which could

  20. Chelation of hippocampal zinc enhances long-term potentiation and synaptic tagging/capture in CA1 pyramidal neurons of aged rats: implications to aging and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Mahesh Shivarama; Sharma, Mahima; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2017-02-01

    Aging is associated with decline in cognitive functions, prominently in the memory consolidation and association capabilities. Hippocampus plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of long-term associative memories, and a significant body of evidence shows that impairments in hippocampal function correlate with aging-related memory loss. A number of studies have implicated alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP), in age-related cognitive decline although exact mechanisms underlying are not completely clear. Zinc deficiency and the resultant adverse effects on cognition have been well studied. However, the role of excess of zinc in synaptic plasticity, especially in aging, is not addressed well. Here, we have investigated the hippocampal zinc levels and the impairments in synaptic plasticity, such as LTP and synaptic tagging and capture (STC), in the CA1 region of acute hippocampal slices from 82- to 84-week-old male Wistar rats. We report increased zinc levels in the hippocampus of aged rats and also deficits in the tetani-induced and dopaminergic agonist-induced late-LTP and STC. The observed deficits in synaptic plasticity were restored upon chelation of zinc using a cell-permeable chelator. These data suggest that functional plasticity and associativity can be successfully established in aged neural networks by chelating zinc with cell-permeable chelating agents. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Research Progress of Kangaroo Nursing Care Applied in Neonatal Pain Management%袋鼠式护理应用于新生儿疼痛管理的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖苑红; 沈永珍; 黄晓睿

    2016-01-01

    袋鼠式护理已被广泛应用于新生儿护理中,在新生儿疼痛管理中的应用更受关注。本文通过综述袋鼠式护理应用于新生儿疼痛管理的应用机制、现状及效果,对今后开展袋鼠式护理应用于新生儿疼痛管理的研究提出建议。%Kangaroo care has been widely used in neonatal care,and more attention has been paid in the application of neonatal pain management. This article reviewed the mechanism of kangaroo care used in neonatal pain management,the current situation,and the effectiveness of kangaroo care used in neonatal pain management. Suggestions about how to apply kangaroo care in neonatal pain management were presented.

  2. Kangaroo mother program: physical growth and morbidity in a cohort of children, followed from 40 weeks of postconceptional age until first year.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Palencia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Up to 40 weeks of postconceptional age, the kangaroo mother program at the Hospital Universitario del Valle has proved to be a safe alternative for premature babies’ management with a low birth weight. Objectives: To evaluate the physical growth and morbidity in children followed since 40 weeks up to 1 year in the program. Material and methods: A cohort study was performed in newborn infants admitted to the kangaroo mother program in the newborn unit at the Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia, with birth weight lower than 2000 g, from 40 weeks postconceptional age up to one year age, between August 2002 and July 2006. Information was collected about maternal age and morbidity, prenatal control, type of birth, gender, birth weight, gestational age, breastfeeding, thick motor development, physical growth, morbidity, readmissions, mortality and tests results. Results: A total of 390 infants were admitted to the program, with a 61% of captation. 65% of theirs mothers did not have prenatal control. Before completing the 40 weeks, 5.3% were readmitted due to anaemia and apnoea. After 40 weeks, 13% were readmitted by bronchopneumonia and acute diarrhoea. Most of them were allocated in the reference percentiles for weight and size. Size had a better growth than weight. The cumulated low weight incidence for age at 13 months was 22%. Conclusions: To increase the coverage of prenatal control program and to watch that the children receive prescribed iron and formulated folic acid.

  3. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. Donahoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi in Western Australia.

  4. Gene expression profile of rat left ventricles reveals persisting changes following chronic mild exercise protocol: implications for cardioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito Fabio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies showed that physical exercise, specifically moderate lifelong training, is protective against cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Most experimental work has focused into the effects and molecular mechanisms underlying intense, rather than mild exercise, by exploring the acute effect of training. Our study aims at investigating the cardioprotective effect of mild chronic exercise training and the gene expression profile changes at 48 hrs after the exercise cessation. Rats were trained at mild intensity on a treadmill: 25 m/min, 10%incline, 1 h/day, 3 days/week, 10 weeks; about 60% of the maximum aerobic power. By Affymetrix technology, we investigated the gene expression profile induced by exercise training in the left ventricle (LV of trained (n = 10 and control (n = 10 rats. Cardioprotection was investigated by ischemia/reperfusion experiments (n = 10 trained vs. n = 10 control rats. Results Mild exercise did not induce cardiac hypertrophy and was cardioprotective as demonstrated by the decreased infarct size (p = 0.02 after ischemia/reperfusion experiments in trained with respect to control rats. Ten genes and 2 gene sets (two pathways resulted altered in LV of exercised animals with respect to controls. We validated by real-time PCR the increased expression of four genes: similar to C11orf17 protein (RGD1306959, caveolin 3, enolase 3, and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha. Moreover, caveolin 3 protein levels were higher in exercised than control rats by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis. Interestingly, the predicted gene similar to C11orf17 protein (RGD1306959 was significantly increased by exercise. This gene has a high homology with the human C11orf17 (alias: protein kinase-A interacting protein 1 or breast cancer associated gene 3. This is the first evidence that this gene is involved in the response to the exercise training. Conclusion Our data indicated that few, but significant

  5. Maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids: implications for neurodevelopmental risk in the rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Suchitra; Kale, Anvita; Dangat, Kamini; Sable, Pratiksha; Kulkarni, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-01-01

    Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) are suggested to be at the heart of intra-uterine programming of adult diseases. We have recently described interactions of folic acid, vitamin B(12) and docosahexaenoic acid in one carbon metabolism that is considered to play a key role in regulation oxidative stress and chromatin methylation. However its impact on fetal oxidative stress and brain fatty acid levels has been relatively unexplored. The present study examined the effect of imbalance in maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on oxidative stress parameters and brain fatty acids and in the offspring at birth. Pregnant female rats were divided into six groups at two levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). Both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. Oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde) and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles in plasma and brain were analyzed in dam and offspring at d20. Our results for the first time indicate that imbalance in maternal micronutrients (excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a B(12) deficient diet) increases (pacid supplementation was able to restore (p<0.05) the levels of brain DHA in both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups. Our data has implications for implications for neurodevelopmental disorders since micronutrients and DHA are important modulators for neural functioning.

  6. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  7. Brief anesthesia by isoflurane alters plasma corticosterone levels distinctly in male and female rats: implications for tissue collection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhbat, Mandakh; Merrill, Liana; Kelly, Sean D.; Lee, Vanessa K.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2016-01-01

    Euthanasia by anesthetic agents is commonly performed prior to tissue collection in order to minimize pain and distress to the animal. However, depending on their mechanism of action as well as administration regimen, different methods of anesthesia may trigger an acute stress response through engaging the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which can impact numerous other physiological processes that the researcher may wish to examine as endpoints. We investigated the effects of the commonly used anesthetic agent isoflurane on two different endpoints related to the stress response: plasma corticosterone levels and gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as well as several of its regulators including FK506-binding protein 51 (Fkbp5) in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Our results indicate that brief exposure to anesthesia by isoflurane prior to decapitation can alter plasma corticosterone levels differentially in male and female rats within minutes without impacting gene expression in the hippocampus. We conclude that collection methods can influence stress-related physiological endpoints in female rats and the potential influence of even brief anesthesia as well as sex differences in response to anesthesia should be evaluated during the experimental design process and data interpretation. This finding is particularly important in light of new NIH standards regarding sex and reproducibility, and care should be taken to be certain that sex differences in endpoints of interest are not an artifact of sex differences in response to collection paradigms. PMID:26946276

  8. Synthesis of nitric oxide in postganglionic myenteric neurons during endotoxemia: implications for gastric motor function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Elsa; Hernández, Carlos; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Esplugues, Juan V; Barrachina, María D

    2004-03-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms underlying acute changes in gastric motor function triggered by endotoxemia. In fundal strips from rats pre-treated with endotoxin (40 microg/kg, i.p. 30 min), mechanical activity was analyzed and the source of nitric oxide (NO) was visualized by confocal microscopy of tissue loaded with the fluorescent dye DAF-FM. NOS expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot, and enzyme activity by the citrulline assay. Strips from endotoxin-treated rats were hypo-contractile. This was prevented by pre-incubation with the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin, the gangliar blocker hexamethonium, or non-selective and neuronal-specific NOS inhibitors (L-NOARG and TRIM, respectively). The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor ODQ and the inhibitor of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels apamin prevented relaxation induced by endotoxin, nicotine, exogenous NO (DETA-NONOate), and the NO-independent sGC activator BAY 41-2272. NO synthesis was observed in neuronal soma, axons, and nerve endings of the myenteric plexus in the fundus of endotoxin-treated rats and was prevented by L-NAME, tetrodotoxin, and hexamethonium. nNOS and iNOS mRNA and protein contents were unchanged. Our findings demonstrate synthesis of NO in post-ganglionic myenteric neurons during early endotoxemia that mediates gastric hypo-contractility. The effect of NO is mediated via sGC and small conductance Ca2+-activated K+channels.

  9. Resveratrol promotes expression of SIRT1 and StAR in rat ovarian granulosa cells: an implicative role of SIRT1 in the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita Yoshihiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound known for its beneficial effects on energy homeostasis, and it also has multiple properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Recently, silent information regulator genes (Sirtuins have been identified as targets of resveratrol. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1, originally found as an NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, is a principal modulator of pathways downstream of calorie restriction, and the activation of SIRT1 ameliorates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. To date, the presence and physiological role of SIRT1 in the ovary are not known. Here we found that SIRT1 was localized in granulosa cells of the human ovary. Methods The physiological roles of resveratrol and SIRT1 in the ovary were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize the SIRT1 expression. SIRT1 protein expression of cultured cells and luteinized human granulosa cells was investigated by Western blot. Rat granulosa cells were obtained from diethylstilbestrol treated rats. The cells were treated with increasing doses of resveratrol, and subsequently harvested to determine mRNA levels and protein levels. Cell viability was tested by MTS assay. Cellular apoptosis was analyzed by caspase 3/7 activity test and Hoechst 33342 staining. Results SIRT1 protein was expressed in the human ovarian tissues and human luteinized granulosa cells. We demonstrated that resveratrol exhibited a potent concentration-dependent inhibition of rat granulosa cells viability. However, resveratrol-induced inhibition of rat granulosa cells viability is independent of apoptosis signal. Resveratrol increased mRNA levels of SIRT1, LH receptor, StAR, and P450 aromatase, while mRNA levels of FSH receptor remained unchanged. Western blot analysis was consistent with the results of quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. In addition, progesterone secretion was induced by the treatment of resveratrol

  10. Low-dose ouabain constricts small arteries from ouabain-hypertensive rats: implications for sustained elevation of vascular resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Hamlyn, John M.; Karashima, Eiji; Raina, Hema; Mauban, Joseph R. H.; Izuka, Michelle; Berra-Romani, Roberto; Zulian, Alessandra; Wier, W. Gil; Blaustein, Mordecai P.

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged ouabain administration to normal rats causes sustained blood pressure (BP) elevation. This ouabain-induced hypertension (OH) has been attributed, in part, to the narrowing of third-order resistance arteries (∼320 μm internal diameter) as a result of collagen deposition in the artery media (see Ref. 6). Here we describe the structural and functional properties of fourth-order mesenteric small arteries from control and OH rats, including the effect of low-dose ouabain on myogenic tone in these arteries. Systolic BP in OH rats was 138 ± 3 versus 124 ± 4 mmHg in controls (P < 0.01). Pressurized (70 mmHg) control and OH arteries, with only a single layer of myocytes, both had ∼165-μm internal diameters and ∼20-μm wall thicknesses. Even after fixation, despite vasoconstriction, the diameters and wall thicknesses did not differ between control and OH fourth-order arteries, whereas in third-order arteries, both parameters were significantly smaller in OH than in controls. Myogenic reactivity was significantly augmented in OH fourth-order arteries. Nevertheless, phenylephrine- (1 μM) and high K+-induced vasoconstrictions and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation were comparable in control and OH arteries. Vasoconstrictions induced by 5 μM phenylephrine and by 10 mM caffeine in Ca2+-free media indicated that releasable sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores were normal in OH arteries. Importantly, 100 nM ouabain constricted both control and OH arteries by ∼26 μm, indicating that this response was not downregulated in OH rats. This maximal ouabain-induced constriction corresponds to a ∼90% increase in resistance to flow in these small arteries; thus ouabain at EC50 of ∼0.66 nM should raise resistance by ∼35%. We conclude that dynamic constriction in response to circulating nanomolar ouabain in small arteries likely makes a major contribution to the increased vascular tone and BP in OH rats. PMID:19617413

  11. Silica nanoparticles mediated neuronal cell death in corpus striatum of rat brain: implication of mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Arshiya; Rizvi, Syed Husain Mustafa; Mahdi, Farzana; Tripathi, Sandeep; Ahmad, Iqbal; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Khanna, Vinay K.; Singh, Ranjana; Patel, Devendra K.; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-11-01

    Extensive uses of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in biomedical and industrial fields have increased the risk of exposure, resulting concerns about their safety. We focussed on some of the safety aspects by studying neurobehavioural impairment, oxidative stress (OS), neurochemical and ultrastructural changes in corpus striatum (CS) of male Wistar rats exposed to 80-nm SiNPs. Moreover, its role in inducing mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis was also investigated. The results demonstrated impairment in neurobehavioural indices, and a significant increase in lipid peroxide levels (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2 -) and protein carbonyl content, whereas there was a significant decrease in the activities of the enzymes, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, suggesting impaired antioxidant defence system. Protein (cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, caspase-3, caspase 12 and CHOP/Gadd153) and mRNA (Bcl-2, Bax, p53 and CHOP/Gadd153, cytochrome c) expression studies of mitochondrial and ER stress-related apoptotic factors suggested that both the cell organelles were involved in OS-mediated apoptosis in treated rat brain CS. Moreover, electron microscopic studies clearly showed mitochondrial and ER dysfunction. In conclusion, the result of the study suggested that subchronic SiNPs' exposure has the potential to alter the behavioural activity and also to bring about changes in biochemical, neurochemical and ultrastructural profiles in CS region of rat brain. Furthermore, we also report SiNPs-induced apoptosis in CS, through mitochondrial and ER stress-mediated signalling.

  12. Blood-brain barrier transport and protein binding of flumazenil and iomazenil in the rat: implications for neuroreceptor studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbaek, C; Ott, P; Paulson, O B

    1999-01-01

    of blood-brain barrier permeability for two benzodiazepine antagonists were performed in 44 rats by the double-indicator technique. Cerebral blood flow was measured by intracarotid Xe-injection. The apparent permeability-surface product (PSapp) was measured while CBF or bolus composition was changed....... Comparison of PSapp obtained in the absence and presence of 5% albumin in the injectate yielded f(avail), whereas f(eq) was measured by equilibrium dialysis. Iomazenil and flumazenil f(avail) was 62% and 82%, respectively, whereas f(eq) was significantly lower, 42% and 61%. The PSapp for iomazenil...

  13. Erythropoietin Modification Enhances the Protection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Diabetic Rat-Derived Schwann Cells: Implications for Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes-triggered apoptosis of Schwann cells (SC contributes to the degradation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DNP. In recent years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC were applied to DPN repair and it was demonstrated that paracrine secretion played a key role in neuroprotection exerted by MSC. Erythropoietin (EPO is a potent cytokine capable of reducing apoptosis of SC. However, the expression of EPO in MSC is limited. In this study, we hypothesized that overexpression of EPO in MSC (EPO-MSC may significantly improve their neuroprotective potentials. The EPO overexpression in MSC was achieved by lentivirus transduction. SC derived from the periphery nerve of diabetic rats were cocultured with MSC or EPO-MSC in normal or high glucose culture condition, respectively. In normal glucose culture condition, the overexpression of EPO in MSC promoted the MSC-induced restoration of SC from diabetic rats, including increases in GSH level and cell viability, decrease in TUNEL apoptosis, upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, p-Akt, and Bcl-2, and downregulation of proapoptotic proteins, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax. The subsequent results in high glucose culture condition showed similar promotions achieved by EPO-MSC. Thus, it could be concluded that EPO-MSC possessed a potent potential in hampering apoptosis of SC, and the suppression was probably attributed to attenuating oxidative stress and regulating apoptosis related protein factors.

  14. Methylphenidate to adolescent rats drives enduring changes of accumbal Htr7 expression: implications for impulsive behavior and neuronal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, D; Adriani, W; Cavaliere, C; Cirillo, G; Marco, E M; Romano, E; di Porzio, U; Papa, M; Perrone-Capano, C; Laviola, G

    2009-04-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) administration to adolescent rodents produces persistent region-specific changes in brain reward circuits and alterations of reward-based behavior. We show that these modifications include a marked increment of serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine) receptor type 7 (Htr7) expression and synaptic contacts, mainly in the nucleus accumbens, and a reduction of basal behavioral impulsivity. We show that neural and behavioral consequences are functionally related: administration of a selective Htr7 antagonist fully counteracts the MPH-reduced impulsive behavior and enhances impulsivity when administered alone in naive rats. Agonist-induced activation of endogenous Htr7 significantly increases neurite length in striatal neuron primary cultures, thus suggesting plastic remodeling of neuronal morphology. The mixed Htr (1a/7) agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, reduces impulsive behavior in adolescent rats and in naive adults, whose impulsivity is enhanced by the Htr7 antagonist. In summary, behavioral pharmacology experiments show that Htr7 mediates self-control behavior, and brain primary cultures experiments indicate that this receptor may be involved in the underlying neural plasticity, through changes in neuronal cytoarchitecture.

  15. Coplanar PCB congeners increase uterine weight and frontal cortical dopamine in the developing rat: implications for developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegal, Richard F; Brosch, Karl O; Okoniewski, Richard J

    2005-07-01

    We show that developmental exposure of the laboratory rat to the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) and the structurally similar congener 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PtCB) elevates dopamine (DA) concentrations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). To determine whether these coplanar congeners are estrogenic, and may thus contribute to the elevations in PFC DA, we measured uterine wet weight (UWW) in prepubertal rats exposed to TCB or PtCB. For comparison, additional animals were exposed to either the ortho-substituted congener 2,4,2',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (o-TCB) or 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB), a coplanar congener highly resistant to metabolism. Both TCB and PtCB increased UWW, but this effect was blocked after exposure to the anti-estrogen ICI 182,780. Neither o-TCB nor HCB altered UWW. These results demonstrate that certain coplanar PCB congeners and/or their metabolites, are estrogenic, and suggest that exposure during critical periods of neuronal development may increase central DA concentrations, and by inference, alter behavior.

  16. Erythropoietin Modification Enhances the Protection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Diabetic Rat-Derived Schwann Cells: Implications for Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuyun

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes-triggered apoptosis of Schwann cells (SC) contributes to the degradation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DNP). In recent years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were applied to DPN repair and it was demonstrated that paracrine secretion played a key role in neuroprotection exerted by MSC. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a potent cytokine capable of reducing apoptosis of SC. However, the expression of EPO in MSC is limited. In this study, we hypothesized that overexpression of EPO in MSC (EPO-MSC) may significantly improve their neuroprotective potentials. The EPO overexpression in MSC was achieved by lentivirus transduction. SC derived from the periphery nerve of diabetic rats were cocultured with MSC or EPO-MSC in normal or high glucose culture condition, respectively. In normal glucose culture condition, the overexpression of EPO in MSC promoted the MSC-induced restoration of SC from diabetic rats, including increases in GSH level and cell viability, decrease in TUNEL apoptosis, upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, p-Akt, and Bcl-2, and downregulation of proapoptotic proteins, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax. The subsequent results in high glucose culture condition showed similar promotions achieved by EPO-MSC. Thus, it could be concluded that EPO-MSC possessed a potent potential in hampering apoptosis of SC, and the suppression was probably attributed to attenuating oxidative stress and regulating apoptosis related protein factors.

  17. 袋鼠式护理对足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果%Kangaroo Care for Neonatal Pain Nursing Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗小敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss kangaroo care for neonatal pain nursing effect, evaluation of its clinical application value. Methods From 2010 September to 2011 June in our hospital was born in 98 full-term neonates were divided randomly into two groups, the control group (n=49 ) using the routine nursing care, observation group (n=49 ) using a kangaroo care, two groups of neonatal pain, heart rate, oxygen saturation and crying time comparison. Results The observation group of neonatal pain score lower than those in the control group, the difference between the two groups was significant (P < 0.05 ); study group of neonatal heart rate lower than that of the control group, while the oxygen saturation is higher than that of control group, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05 ); observation group of neonatal crying time shorter than the control group, the difference between the two groups was significant (P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Kangaroo care helps to reduce neonatal pain, promote stable vital signs, it is worth of application.%目的 讨论袋鼠式护理对于足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果,评价其临床应用价值.方法 将2010年9月-2011年6月在本院出生的98例足月新生儿随机分为两组,其中对照组(49例)采用常规护理方法,观察组(49例)采用袋鼠式护理,对两组新生儿的疼痛程度、心率、血氧饱和度及啼哭时间进行比较.结果 观察组新生儿疼痛评分低于对照组,两组差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组新生儿心率低于对照组,而血氧饱和度高于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组新生儿啼哭时间短于对照组,两组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论袋鼠式护理有助于降低新生儿的疼痛感,促进生命体征稳定,临床应用效果好.

  18. Prenatal Stress Produces Sex Specific Changes in Depression-like Behavior in Rats: Implications for Increased Vulnerability in Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Dyrby, Tim

    2015-01-01

    and measured anxiety- (elevated plus maze, EPM) and depression-like (forced swim test, FST) behaviors in the offspring at a young adult age. As a stressful event later in life (in addition to PS) may be needed to actually trigger an episode of clinical depression, half of the animals were exposed to an acute...... stressor (elevated platform) before EPM testing. Dams exposed to the stressor battery had increased plasma corticosterone levels compared with controls. Male PS offspring displayed changes in locomotor and rearing/climbing activity relative to controls. Additionally, anxiety measures in the EPM were...... of PS. These findings indicate that the PS rat model reflects multiple clinical depression characteristics, including elevated female vulnerability....

  19. Exercise-induced regulation of phospholemman (FXYD1) in rat skeletal muscle: implications for Na+/K+-ATPase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M K; Kristensen, M; Juel, C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity is upregulated during muscle exercise to maintain ionic homeostasis. One mechanism may involve movement of alpha-subunits to the outer membrane (translocation). AIM: We investigated the existence of exercise-induced translocation and phosphorylation...... of phospholemman (PLM, FXYD1) protein in rat skeletal muscle and exercise-induced changes in V(max) and K(m) for Na(+) of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. METHODS: Two membrane fractionation methods and immunoprecipitation were used. Results: Both fractionation methods revealed a 200-350% increase in PLM in the sarcolemma...... after 30 min of treadmill running, while the phosphorylation of Ser-68 of PLM appeared to be unchanged. Exercise did not change V(max) or K(m) for Na(+) of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in muscle homogenate, but induced a 67% increase in V(max) in the sarcolemmal giant vesicle preparation; K(m) for Na...

  20. Differences in motor evoked potentials induced in rats by transcranial magnetic stimulation under two separate anesthetics: implications for plasticity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sykes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however results are variable between participants and across studies. In addition, the mechanisms underlying any change and its locus are poorly understood. In order to better understand these effects, MEPs have been investigated in vivo in animal models, primarily in rats. One major difference in protocols between rats and humans is the use of general anesthesia in animal experiments. Anesthetics are known to affect plasticity-like mechanisms and so may contaminate the effects of an rTMS protocol. In the present study, we explored the effect of anesthetic on MEP amplitude, recorded before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned rTMS protocol with reported facilitatory effects. MEPs were assessed in the brachioradialis muscle of the upper forelimb under two anesthetics: a xylazine/zoletil combination and urethane. We found MEPs could be induced under both anesthetics, with no differences in the resting motor threshold or the average baseline amplitudes. However, MEPs were highly variable between animals under both anesthetics, with the xylazine/zoletil combination showing higher variability and most prominently a rise in amplitude across the baseline recording period. Interestingly, application of iTBS did not facilitate MEP amplitude under either anesthetic condition. Although it is important to underpin human application of TMS with mechanistic examination of effects in animals, caution must be taken when

  1. Proteomic analysis of protein changes developing in rat hippocampus after chronic antidepressant treatment: Implications for depressive disorders and future therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Xavier; Xu, Jun; Liang, Jin-Jun; Barrett, James E

    2004-02-15

    It is recognized that monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MARIs) exert beneficial effects in the treatment of major depression and general anxiety disorder. The aim of this study was to identify proteins regulated by this class of antidepressant using a proteome differential profiling approach. Either venlafaxine or fluoxetine was administered systemically to adult rats for 2 weeks, and protein patterns from rat hippocampal cytosolic extracts were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Silver-stained protein spots displaying differential expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Thirty-three protein spots were modulated by both drug treatments compared to controls. The classification of several proteins that were sorted by function suggested convergent pathway activities for both MARIs at the post-receptor level. These included proteins associated with neurogenesis (insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), glia maturation factor [GMF]-beta), outgrowth/maintenance of neuronal processes (hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide [HCNP], PCTAIRE-3), and with neural regeneration/axonal guidance collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP-2) systems. Other modulated proteins indicated an increase in neuronal vesicular cell trafficking and synaptic plasticity (Ras-related protein 4a (Rab4a), Ras-related protein 1b (Rab1b), heat shock protein 10 [HSP10]), as well as neurosteroidogenic (hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase A) and possible anti-apoptotic (dimethylargininase-1 L-N,N-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 [DDAH-1], pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1 [PDH-E1], antioxidant protein-2 [AOP-2]) pathway-mediated regulatory events. Parallel studies to investigate further the effects of venlafaxine and fluoxetine on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo by quantitative bromodeoxyuridine immunolabeling revealed a significant drug-induced increase in the proliferation rate and long-term survivability of progenitor stem cells located in the subgranular zone. These

  2. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  3. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species. PMID:26895178

  4. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  5. Passage marker excretion in red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) and colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-11-01

    Ruminants are characterized by an efficient particle-sorting mechanism in the forestomach (FRST) followed by selective rechewing of large food particles. For the nonruminating foregut fermenter pygmy hippo it was demonstrated that large particles are excreted as fast as, or faster than, the small particles. The same has been suggested for other nonruminating foregut fermenters. We determined the mean retention time of fluids and different-sized particles in six red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), seven collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) and three colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii). We fed Co-EDTA as fluid and mordanted fiber as particle markers (Cr, Ce). Mean (+ or - SD) total tract retention time for fluids, small and large particles was 14 + or - 2, 29 + or - 10 and 30 + or - 9 hr in red kangaroos, 26 + or - 2, 34 + or - 5 and 32 + or - 3 hr in collared peccaries and 57 + or - 17, 55 + or - 19 and 54 + or - 19 hr in colobine monkeys, respectively. Large and small particles were excreted simultaneously in all species. There was no difference in the excretion of fluids and particles in the colobine monkeys, in contrast to the other foregut fermenters. In the nonprimate, nonruminant foregut fermenters, the difference in the excretion of fluids and small particles decreases with increasing food intake. On the contrary, ruminants keep this differential excretion constant at different intake levels. This may be a prerequisite for the sorting of particles in their FRST and enable them to achieve higher food intake rates. The functional significance of differential excretion of fluids and particles from the FRST requires further investigations.

  6. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATION OF KANGAROO MOTHER CARE METHOD AND LULLABY MUSIC THERAPY ON VITAL SIGN CHANGE IN INFANTS WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuuva Yusuf

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC and lullaby music methods have been considered as the alternative treatment for vital sign changes in low birth weight infants. However, little is known about the combination of the two methods. Objective: To identify effectiveness of combinations of Kangaroo mother care and Lullaby music methods on changes in vital signs in low birth weight infants. Methods: A quasi experiment with non-equivalent control group design. This study was conducted on October– December 2016 at the General Hospital of Ambarawa and General Hospital of Ungaran, Semarang. There were 36 samples selected using consecutive sampling divided into three groups, namely: 1 a group of LBW infants with the combination of KMC and lullaby music, 2 a LBW infant group with the lullaby music intervention, and 3 a control group given standard care in LBW infants by KMC method. Paired t-test and MANOVA test were used to analyzed the data. Results: Findings revealed that there were significant differences between the combination group, lullaby music group, and control group in temperature (p=0.003, pulse (p=0.001, respiration (p=0.001, and oxygen saturation (p=0.014 with significant value of <0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in vital sign changes among the three groups. Conclusion: The combination of KMC method and Lullaby music intervention was effective on vital sign changes (temperature, pulse, respiration, and oxygen saturation compared with the lullaby music group alone and control group with KMC method in low birth weight infants. It is suggested that the combination of KMC and Lullaby music methods can be used as an alternative to improve LBW care for mothers in the NICU and at home and to reach the stability of the baby's vital signs.

  7. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress.

  8. In vivo bioimpedance measurement of healthy and ischaemic rat brain: implications for stroke imaging using electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowrick, T; Blochet, C; Holder, D

    2015-06-01

    In order to facilitate the imaging of haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke using frequency difference electrical impedance tomography (EIT), impedance measurements of normal and ischaemic brain, and clotted blood during haemorrhage, were gathered using a four-terminal technique in an in vivo animal model, a first for ischaemic measurements. Differences of 5-10% in impedance were seen between the frequency spectrums of healthy and ischaemic brain, over the frequency range 0-3 kHz, while the spectrum of blood was predominately uniform. The implications of imaging blood/ischaemia in the brain using electrical impedance tomography are discussed, supporting the notion that it will be possible to differentiate stroke from haemorrhage.

  9. Effects of carnitine and its congeners on eicosanoid discharge from rat cells: implications for release of TNFα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M. Garrelds

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available THE acyl carrier coenzyme A (CoA is involved in fatty acid metabolism. The carnitine/CoA ratio is of particular importance in regulating the transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation. Also CoA has a role in the formation and breakdown of products from both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of the precursor arachidonic acid. In the present study the effect of 4 days feeding of 300 mg/kg/day of L-carnitine, acetyl Lcarnitine and propionyl L-carnitine on the basal and calcium ionophore (A23187 stimulated release of arachidonic acid metabolites from rat carrageenin elicited peritoneal cells was investigated. There were two series of experiments carried out. In the first, the harvested peritoneal cell population consisted of less than 90% macrophages and additional polymorphonuclear (PMN leucocytes. The basal release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 6-ketoprostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 was stimulated by all treatments. The A23187 stimulated release of 6-keto-PGF1α and LTB4 was increased by all three compounds. The 6-keto-PGF1α:TxB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α:LTB4 ratios were increased by carnitine treatment. These results suggested that carnitine could modify the macrophage component of an inflammatory site in vivo. In the second series of experiments the harvested cell population was highly purified (>95% macrophages and none of the compounds fed to the rats caused a change of either eicosanoid or TNFα formation. Moreover the 6-keto-PGF1α:TxB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α:LTB4 ratios were not enhanced by any of the compounds tested. It is conceivable that in the first series the increased ratios 6-keto-PGF1α:TxB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α:LTB4 reflected the effect of carnitine or its congeners on PMN leucocytes rather than on macrophages.

  10. Reversible Sodium Pump Defect and Swelling in the Diabetic Rat Erythrocyte: Effects on Filterability and Implications for Microangiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowluru, R.; Bitensky, M. W.; Kowluru, A.; Dembo, M.; Keaton, P. A.; Buican, T.

    1989-05-01

    We have found a defect in the ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase (Na+ pump, EC 3.6.1.37) of erythrocytes from streptozotocin diabetic rats. This defect was accompanied by an increase in cell volume and osmotic fragility and a decrease in the cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio. There was also a doubling in the time needed for diabetic erythrocytes to pass through 4.7-μ m channels in a polycarbonate filter. Our data are consistent with a primary defect in the erythrocyte Na+ pump and secondary changes in cell volume, osmotic fragility, K+/Na+ ratio, and cell filterability. All were reversed or prevented in vivo by insulin or the aldose reductase inhibitor Sorbinil. Protein kinase C agonists (phorbol ester and diacylglycerol) and agonist precursor (myo-inositol) reversed the Na+ pump lesion, suggesting that protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the 100-kDa subunit regulates Na+ pump activity and that insulin can influence erythrocyte protein kinase C activity. Ouabain inhibition of the erythrocyte Na+ pump also produced increases in cell size and reductions in rates of filtration. Theoretical treatment of the volume changes also predicts reduction in filterability as a consequence of cell swelling. We suggest that enlarged erythrocytes could play a role in the evolution of the microvascular changes of diabetes mellitus.

  11. Extravascular injection of sclerotic agents does not affect vessels in the rat: experimental implications for percutaneous sclerotherapy of arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, D; Kurita, M; Ozaki, M; Kaji, N; Takushima, A; Harii, K

    2012-07-01

    Sclerotherapy is useful for the treatment of arteriovenous vascular malformations. However, intravascular administration of sclerotic agents into small arteriovenous niduses is often difficult. Extravascular administration of sclerotic agents causes reduction of vascular flow on Doppler echo during clinical sclerotherapy. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether the extravascular injection of sclerotic agents affects tiny vessels. Animal study. The effect of extravascular injection of sclerotic agents on vessels was investigated using rat femoral and superficial inferior epigastric vessels. After surgical exposure of vessels, absolute ethanol, 5% ethanolamine oleate and 3% polidocanol were injected into perivascular surrounding tissues, and their effect on vessels was evaluated after 14 days using histology and coloured silicone rubber injection. The integrity of the vascular lumen, endothelial cells and vascular patency were not affected by injection of sclerotic agents. Attenuation of vascular flow of an arteriovenous shunt after extravascular injection of sclerotic agents is transient and/or trivial and does not cause disruption of vessels. Therefore, sclerotic agents should be delivered to obtain sufficient destruction of arteriovenous malformation lesions and blood flow. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of Mitochondrial Branched-Chain Aminotransferase and α-Keto-Acid Dehydrogenase in Rat Brain: Implications for Neurotransmitter Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Thomas Cole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, metabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs leucine, isoleucine and valine, is regulated in part by protein synthesis requirements. Excess BCAAs are catabolized or excreted. The first step in BCAA catabolism is catalyzed by the branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT isozymes, mitochondrial BCATm and cytosolic BCATc. A product of this reaction, glutamate, is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and precursor of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter -aminobutyric acid (GABA. The BCATs are thought to participate in an α-keto-acid nitrogen shuttle that provides nitrogen for synthesis of glutamate from -ketoglutarate. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC catalyzes the second and first irreversible step in BCAA metabolism, which is oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA products of the BCAT reaction. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD results from genetic defects in BCKDC, which leads to accumulation of toxic levels of BCAAs and BCKAs that result in brain swelling. Immunolocalization of BCATm and BCKDC in rats revealed that BCATm is present in astrocytes in white matter and in neuropil, while BCKDC is expressed only in neurons. BCATm appears uniformly distributed in astrocyte cell bodies throughout the brain. The segregation of BCATm to astrocytes and BCKDC to neurons provides further support for the existence of a BCAA-dependent glial-neuronal nitrogen shuttle since the data show that BCKAs produced by glial BCATm must be exported to neurons. Additionally, the neuronal localization of BCKDC suggests that MSUD is a neuronal defect involving insufficient oxidation of BCKAs, with secondary effects extending beyond the neuron.

  13. Akt pathway activation and increased neuropeptide Y mRNA expression in the rat hippocampus: implications for seizure blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Eduardo M; Silva, Marcelo de Paula; Perosa, Sandra R; Argañaraz, Gustavo A; Pesquero, João B; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria G; Teixeira, Vicente P C; Silva, José A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of survival-related molecules such Akt and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) to evaluate Akt pathway activation in epileptogenesis process. Furthermore, was also investigated the mRNA expression of neuropeptide Y, a considered antiepileptic neuropeptide, in the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Male Wistar rats were submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Hippocampi were removed 6h (acute phase), 12h (late acute), 5d (silent) and 60d (chronic) after status epilepticus (SE) onset, and from animals that received pilocarpine but did not develop SE (partial group). Hippocampi collected were used to specify mRNA expression using Real-Time PCR. Immunohistochemistry assay was employed to place ILK distribution in the hippocampus and Western blot technique was used to determine Akt activation level. A decrease in ILK mRNA content was found during acute (0.39+/-0.03) and chronic (0.48+/-0.06) periods when compared to control group (0.87+/-0.10). Protein levels of ILK were also diminished during both periods. Partial group showed increased ILK mRNA expression (0.80+/-0.06) when compared with animals in the acute stage. Silent group had ILK mRNA and immunoreactivity similar to control group. Western blot assay showed an augmentation in Akt activation in silent period (0.52+/-0.03) in comparison with control group (0.44+/-0.01). Neuropeptide Y mRNA expression increased in the partial group (1.67+/-0.22) and in the silent phase (1.45+/-0.29) when compared to control group (0.36+/-0.12). Results suggest that neuropeptide Y (as anticonvulsant) might act in protective mechanisms occurred during epileptic phenomena. Together with ILK expression and Akt activation, these molecules could be involved in hippocampal neuroprotection in epilepsy. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thrifty metabolic programming in rats is induced by both maternal undernutrition and postnatal leptin treatment, but masked in the presence of both: implications for models of developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Peter J I; Morris, Tiffany J; Skinner, Benjamin M; Sargent, Carole A; Vickers, Mark H; Gluckman, Peter D; Gilmour, Stewart; Affara, Nabeel A

    2014-01-21

    Maternal undernutrition leads to an increased risk of metabolic disorders in offspring including obesity and insulin resistance, thought to be due to a programmed thrifty phenotype which is inappropriate for a subsequent richer nutritional environment. In a rat model, both male and female offspring of undernourished mothers are programmed to become obese, however postnatal leptin treatment gives discordant results between males and females. Leptin treatment is able to rescue the adverse programming effects in the female offspring of undernourished mothers, but not in their male offspring. Additionally, in these rats, postnatal leptin treatment of offspring from normally-nourished mothers programmes their male offspring to develop obesity in later life, while there is no comparable effect in their female offspring. We show by microarray analysis of the female liver transcriptome that both maternal undernutrition and postnatal leptin treatment independently induce a similar thrifty transcriptional programme affecting carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress genes. Paradoxically, however, the combination of both stimuli restores a more normal transcriptional environment. This demonstrates that "leptin reversal" is a global phenomenon affecting all genes involved in fetal programming by maternal undernourishment and leptin treatment. The thrifty transcriptional programme was associated with pro-inflammatory markers and downregulation of adaptive immune mediators, particularly MHC class I genes, suggesting a deficit in antigen presentation in these offspring. We propose a revised model of developmental programming reconciling the male and female observations, in which there are two competing programmes which collectively drive liver transcription. The first element is a thrifty metabolic phenotype induced by early life growth restriction independently of leptin levels. The second is a homeostatic set point calibrated in response to postnatal

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls as oxidative stress inducers in liver of subacutely exposed rats: implication for dose-dependence toxicity and benchmark dose concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buha, Aleksandra; Antonijević, Biljana; Milovanović, Vesna; Janković, Saša; Bulat, Zorica; Matović, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity is one of the well-documented adverse health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-persistent organic pollutants widely present in the environment. Although previous studies suggest possible role of oxidative stress, the precise mechanisms of PCB-induced ROS production in liver still remain to be fully assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of PCBs on the parameters of oxidative stress and to investigate whether these effects are dose dependent. Furthermore, a comparison between calculated benchmark doses (BMD) and estimated NOAEL values for investigated parameters, was made. Six groups of male albino Wistar rats (7 animals per group) were receiving Aroclor 1254 dissolved in corn oil in the doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg PCBs/kg b.w./day by oral gavage during 28 days while control animals were receiving corn oil only. The following parameters of oxidative stress were analyzed in liver homogenates: superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total protein thiol levels. Hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and protein albumin were also determined in serum as clinical parameters of liver function. Collected data on the investigated parameters were analyzed by the BMD method. The results of this study demonstrate that subacute exposure to PCBs causes induction of oxidative stress in liver with dose-dependent changes of the investigated parameters, although more pronounced adverse effects were observed on enzymatic than on non-enzymatic components of antioxidant protection. The obtained values for BMD and NOAEL support the use of BMD concept in the prediction of health risks associated with PCBs exposure. Furthermore, our results implicate possible use of MDA in PCBs risk assessment, since MDA was the most sensitive investigated parameter with calculated low critical effect dose of 0.07 mg/kg b.w.

  16. The essential oil of bergamot enhances the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of rat: implication of monoterpene hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Luigi A; Rombolà, Laura; Pelle, Cinzia; Corasaniti, Maria T; Zappettini, Simona; Paudice, Paolo; Bonanno, Giambattista; Bagetta, Giacinto

    2007-04-01

    The effects of bergamot essential oil (BEO) on the release of amino acid neurotransmitters in rat hippocampus have been studied by in vivo microdialysis and by in vitro superfusion of isolated nerve terminals. Intraperitoneal administration of BEO (100microl/kg) significantly elevated the extracellular concentration of aspartate, glycine and taurine in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. A dose-relation study generated a bell-shaped curve. When perfused into the hippocampus via the dialysis probe (20microl/20min), BEO produced a significant increase of extracellular aspartate, glycine, taurine as well as of GABA and glutamate. The augmentation of all amino acids was Ca(2+)-independent. Focally injected 1:1 diluted BEO preferentially caused extracellular increase of glutamate. Interestingly, this release appeared to be strictly Ca(2+)-dependent. BEO concentration-dependently enhanced the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate from superfused hippocampal synaptosomes. Similar results were obtained by monitoring the BEO-evoked release of endogenous glutamate. At relatively high concentrations, the BEO-induced [(3)H]d-aspartate release was almost entirely prevented by the glutamate transporter blocker dl-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (DL-TBOA) and was Ca(2+)-independent. At relatively low concentrations the release of [(3)H]D-aspartate was only in part ( approximately 50%) DL-TBOA-sensitive and Ca(2+)-independent; the remaining portion of release was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+). Interestingly, the monoterpene hydrocarbon-free fraction of the essential oil appeared to be inactive while the bergapten-free fraction superimposed the releasing effect of BEO supporting the deduction that psoralens may not be implicated. To conclude, BEO contains into its volatile fraction still unidentified monoterpene hydrocarbons able to stimulate glutamate release by transporter reversal and/or by exocytosis, depending on the dose administered.

  17. 袋鼠式护理对足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果%Kangaroo Care for Nursing Effect of Neonatal Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游李平

    2013-01-01

      目的:探究袋鼠式护理对足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果及其临床意义。方法:将本院2012年10月-2013年2月内足月出生的58例新生儿随机平均分为两组,各29例。研究组采用袋鼠式护理,对照组采用常规护理,比较两组新生儿疼痛程度、心率和血氧饱和度方面的差异。结果:在疼痛程度和心率方面,研究组明显低于对照组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);在血氧饱和度方面,研究组明显高于对照组,比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:袋鼠式护理对比较于足月新生儿疼痛的护理效果显著,能够有效降低足月新生儿的疼痛感,对于新生儿的心理和生理均有良好的促进作用。%Objective:To explore the kangaroo care for nursing effect of neonatal pain and its clinical significance. Method:In our hospital from 2012 October to 2013 February 58 cases of newborn infants born at term were randomly divided into two groups,each of 29 cases. Study group received kangaroo care,and the control group received routine nursing care.To compare the differences in neonatal pain,heart rate and blood oxygen saturation between the two groups. Result:The degree of pain and heart rate of the study group was significantly lower than that of the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05);in the blood oxygen saturation of the study group was significantly higher than that of the control group,with statistically significant differences(P<0.05). Conclusion:Kangaroo care for nursing effect of neonatal pain significantly,can effectively reduce the full-term newborn pain,to promote the role of newborn’s psychological and physical have good. As a kind of high quality nursing methods,get recognition and promotion in clinic.

  18. Differences in cytochrome P450-mediated biotransformation of 1,2- dichlorobenzene by rat and man: Implications for human risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hissink, A.M.; Oudshoorn, M.J.; Ommen, B. van; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van

    1996-01-01

    The oxidative biotransformation of 1, 2-dichlorobenzene (1, 2-DCB) was investigated using hepatic microsomes from male Wistar, Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, phenobarbital (PB)- and isoniazid (ISO) pretreated male Wistar rats and from man. In addition, microsomes from cell lines selective

  19. α₄β₂ Nicotinic receptor stimulation of the GABAergic system within the orbitofrontal cortex ameliorates the severe crossmodal object recognition impairment in ketamine-treated rats: implications for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jacob M; Winters, Boyer D

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with atypical multisensory integration. Rats treated sub-chronically with NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia are severely impaired on a tactile-to-visual crossmodal object recognition (CMOR) task, and this deficit is reversed by systemic nicotine. The current study assessed the receptor specificity of the ameliorative effect of nicotine in the CMOR task, as well as the potential for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) interactions with GABA and glutamate. Male Long-Evans rats were treated sub-chronically for 10 days with ketamine or saline and then tested on the CMOR task after a 10-day washout. Systemic nicotine given before the sample phase of the CMOR task reversed the ketamine-induced impairment, but this effect was blocked by co-administration of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline at a dosage that itself did not cause impairment. Pre-sample systemic co-administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 did not block the remediating effect of nicotine in ketamine-treated rats. The selective α7 nAChR agonist GTS-21 and α4β2 nAChR agonist ABT-418 were also tested, with only the latter reversing the ketamine impairment dose-dependently; bicuculline also blocked this effect. Similarly, infusions of nicotine or ABT-418 into the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) reversed the CMOR impairment in ketamine-treated rats, and systemic bicuculline blocked the effect of intra-OFC ABT-418. These results suggest that nicotine-induced agonism of α4β2 nAChRs within the OFC ameliorates CMOR deficits in ketamine-treated rats via stimulation of the GABAergic system. The findings of this research may have important implications for understanding the nature and potential treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  20. Effect of kangaroo mother care on growth and development of low birthweight babies up to 12 months of age: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Alpanamayi; Ghosh, Jagabandhu; Singh, Arun K; Hazra, Avijit; Mukherjee, Suchandra; Mukherjee, Ranajit

    2014-06-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a nonconventional low-cost method of newborn care. Our aim was to assess the effect of sustained KMC on the growth and development of low birthweight Indian babies up to the age of 12 months. We enrolled 500 mother and baby pairs, in groups of five, in a parallel group controlled clinical trial. The three infants with the lowest birthweight in each group received KMC, while the other two received conventional care. All babies were exclusively breastfed for 6 months. Babies in the intervention group were provided KMC until the infant was 40 weeks of corrected gestation or weighed 2500 g. Weight, length and head, chest and arm circumferences were evaluated at birth and at the corrected ages of 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Development was assessed using the Developmental Assessment Scales for Indian Infants (DASII) at 12 months. The KMC babies rapidly achieved physical growth parameters similar to the control babies at 40 weeks of corrected age. But after that, they surpassed them, despite being smaller at birth. DASII motor and mental development quotients were also significantly better for KMC babies. The infants in the KMC group showed better physical growth and development than the conventional control group. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The impact of the method Kangaroo Mother Care in the learning process of low-birth-weight preterm infants: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Paiva Franco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology advances and scientific studies in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU have contributed significantly to reduce mortality and morbidity of at-risk newborns (NB. However, they are more likely to present neurological and/or developmental psychomotor delay with neurological and sensory alterations. Therefore, proposals for neonatal intervention were developed with the aim of protecting the baby and offering appropriate incentives to minimize the effects of hospital intervention. To this end, programs of protective measures such as the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC were developed. Given the relevance of the issue described, this systematic review critically appraises articles from the national and international literature, published in recent years (from 2000 to 2011, that describe whether the KMC can be a protective factor for the development of writing in premature infants. The textual search was conducted using the Virtual Health Library (VHL, a website that covers publications worldwide, allowing access to articles from health science, including LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and SciELO, as database. The findings revealed that infants who participated in the KMC program showed improvements in their development and that factors such as low-birth-weight prematurity and learning disorders have close relationship with the onset of motor impairments and changes in psychomotor development. The findings showed no articles describing the KMC as a protective factor for the incidence of dysgraphia. Thus, we emphasize the importance of conducting further studies on these topics.

  2. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  3. Implications of combined ovariectomy/multi-deficiency diet on rat bone with age-related variation in bone parameters and bone loss at multiple skeletal sites by DEXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Parameswari; Schlewitz, Gudrun; Schliefke, Nathalie; Weisweiler, David; Alt, Volker; Thormann, Ulrich; Lips, Katrin Susanne; Wenisch, Sabine; Langheinrich, Alexander C; Zahner, Daniel; Hemdan, Nasr Y; Böcker, Wolfgang; Schnettler, Reinhard; Heiss, Christian

    2013-02-28

    Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial, chronic, skeletal disease highly prevalent in post-menopausal women and is influenced by hormonal and dietary factors. Because animal models are imperative for disease diagnostics, the present study establishes and evaluates enhanced osteoporosis obtained through combined ovariectomy and deficient diet by DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) for a prolonged time period. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham (laparotomized) and OVX-diet (ovariectomized and fed with deficient diet) groups. Different skeletal sites were scanned by DEXA at the following time points: M0 (baseline), M12 (12 months post-surgery), and M14 (14 months post-surgery). Parameters analyzed included BMD (bone mineral density), BMC (bone mineral content), bone area, and fat (%). Regression analysis was performed to determine the interrelationships between BMC, BMD, and bone area from M0 to M14. BMD and BMC were significantly lower in OVX-diet rats at M12 and M14 compared to sham rats. The Z-scores were below -5 in OVX-diet rats at M12, but still decreased at M14 in OVX-diet rats. Bone area and percent fat were significantly lower in OVX-diet rats at M14 compared to sham rats. The regression coefficients for BMD vs. bone area, BMC vs. bone area, and BMC vs. BMD of OVX-diet rats increased with time. This is explained by differential percent change in BMD, BMC, and bone area with respect to time and disease progression. Combined ovariectomy and deficient diet in rats caused significant reduction of BMD, BMC, and bone area, with nearly 40% bone loss after 14 months, indicating the development of severe osteoporosis. An increasing regression coefficient of BMD vs. bone area with disease progression emphasizes bone area as an important parameter, along with BMD and BMC, for prediction of fracture risk.

  4. Conditioned ethanol aversion in rats induced by voluntary wheel running, forced swimming, and electric shock: an implication for aversion therapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2004-01-01

    This study was planned to demonstrate rats' acquisition of aversion to ethanol solution consumed before voluntary running, forced swimming, or electric shock delivery. Wistar rats under water deprivation were allotted to four groups of eight rats each, and all rats were allowed to drink 5% ethanol solution for 15 min. Immediately after the ethanol drinking, rats of Group Run were put into the individual running wheels for 15 min, those of Group Swim were put into the individual swimming pools for 15 min, those of Group Shock received electric shocks for 15 min (15 0.45-mA shocks of 0.7s with the intershock interval of 1 min) in the individual small chambers, and those of Group Control were directly returned back to the home cages. This procedure was repeated for six days, followed by a two-day choice test of ethanol aversion where a bottle containing 5% ethanol solution and a bottle of tap water were simultaneously presented for 15 min. In the test, Groups Run, Swim, and Shock drank ethanol solution significantly less than tapwater, while Group Control drank both fluids equally. The effects of running, swimming, and shock were equivalent. The successful demonstration of acquired ethanol aversion induced by exercise (running and swimming) or shock in rats suggests an avenue for clinical application of exercise and shock treatments for human alcoholics, though there are many issues to be resolved before the practical use.

  5. Simulation of Vegetation Recovery from Military Disturbances on Fort Bliss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    distinguished: Pinyon juniper, Mesa grassland, Black grama grasslands, Whitethorn acacia , Creosotebush, Sandsage, and Mes- quite (Pidgeon 2000). However, a GIS...Granivory Insects Rodents kangaroo rats Ants IV.5. Digging Rodents kangaroo rats Lagomorphs IV.6. Extreme events Drought

  6. Impaired fear extinction retention and increased anxiety-like behaviours induced by limited daily access to a high-fat/high-sugar diet in male rats: Implications for diet-induced prefrontal cortex dysregulation.

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    Baker, Kathryn D; Reichelt, Amy C

    2016-12-01

    Anxiety disorders and obesity are both common in youth and young adults. Despite increasing evidence that over-consumption of palatable high-fat/high-sugar "junk" foods leads to adverse neurocognitive outcomes, little is known about the effects of palatable diets on emotional memories and fear regulation. In the present experiments we examined the effects of daily 2h consumption of a high-fat/high-sugar (HFHS) food across adolescence on fear inhibition and anxiety-like behaviour in young adult rats. Rats exposed to the HFHS diet exhibited impaired retention of fear extinction and increased anxiety-like behaviour in an emergence test compared to rats fed a standard diet. The HFHS-fed rats displayed diet-induced changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) function which were detected by altered expression of GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons and the stable transcription factor ΔFosB which accumulates in the PFC in response to chronic stimuli. Immunohistochemical analyses of the medial PFC revealed that animals fed the HFHS diet had fewer parvalbumin-expressing cells and increased levels of FosB/ΔFosB expression in the infralimbic cortex, a region implicated in the consolidation of fear extinction. There was a trend towards increased IBA-1 immunoreactivity, a marker of microglial activation, in the infralimbic cortex after HFHS diet exposure but expression of the extracellular glycoprotein reelin was unaffected. These findings demonstrate that a HFHS diet during adolescence is associated with reductions of prefrontal parvalbumin neurons and impaired fear inhibition in adulthood. Adverse effects of HFHS diets on the mechanisms of fear regulation may precipitate a vulnerability in obese individuals to the development of anxiety disorders.

  7. Ganglioside GM3 content in skeletal muscles is increased in type 2 but decreased in type 1 diabetes rat models: Implications of glycosphingolipid metabolism in pathophysiology of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Josko; Markotic, Anita; Cikes-Culic, Vedrana; Novak, Anela; Borovac, Josip A; Vucemilovic, Hrvoje; Trgo, Gorana; Ticinovic Kurir, Tina

    2017-05-22

    Ganglioside GM3 is found in the plasma membrane, where its accumulation attenuates insulin receptor signaling. Considering the role of skeletal muscles in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, the aim of the present study was to determine the expression of GM3 and its precursors in skeletal muscles of rat models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM, respectively). Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin injection (55 mg/kg, i.p., for T1DM induction; 35 mg/kg, i.p., for T2DM induction), followed by feeding of rats with either a normal pellet diet (T1DM) or a high-fat diet (T2DM). Rats were killed 2 weeks after diabetes induction and samples of skeletal muscle were collected. Frozen quadriceps muscle sections were stained with a primary antibody against GM3 (Neu5Ac) and visualized using a secondary antibody coupled with Texas Red. The muscle content of ganglioside GM3 and its precursors was analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) followed by GM3 immunostaining. Muscle GM3 content was significantly higher in T2DM compared with control rats (P < 0.001). Furthermore, levels of the GM3 precursors ceramide, glucosylceramide, and lactosylceramide were significantly higher in T2DM compared with control rats (P < 0.05), whereas ceramide content was significantly lower in T1DM rats (P < 0.05). The intensity of the GM3 band on HPTLC was significantly higher in T2DM rats (P < 0.001) and significantly lower in T1DM rats (P < 0.05) compared with control. The expression patterns of GM3 ganglioside and its precursors in diabetic rats suggest that the role of glycosphingolipid metabolism may differ between T2DM and T1DM. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Trial gain of weight and hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm infant in assistance for kangaroo mother care

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    Márcia Aparecida Giacomini Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC interferes in the gain of weight and in the hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm newborn (LWBPTN. For this, it was realized an analytic retrospective study, through the evaluation of the medical records of 60 LWBPTN with born weight less than 2000 g that received assistance by KMC, for a period of 2 hours per day and, 60 LWBPTN that received assistance by the Traditional Method of Care (TMC, admitted in the unity of neonatal intensive care and unity of premature of a private maternity in the city of Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, comparing the gain of weight and the hospital length stay. We did not find differences statistically significant in relation to the gain of weight of the LWBPTN assisted by KMC, in relation to LWBPTN assisted by the TMC, 15,8 and 14,9 g/per day, respectively. In relation to the time of admission, we also did not find differences statistically significant, 27,3 and 26,2 days, for the LWBPTN in the KMC and TMC, respectively, although in the stratification of the sample, the LBWPTN with pregnancy age < 30 weeks or birth weight < 1500 g left the hospital 3 days earlier in the KMC. It was concluded that the KMC, in the conditions of this study, it seems not to interfere significatively in the gain of weight and in the time of admission of LWBPTN. We emphasize that the utilization of KMC in the assistance to the LWBPTN of low weight is a viable model, even for the private health institution.

  9. Kangaroo mother method: randomised controlled trial of an alternative method of care for stabilised low-birthweight infants. Maternidad Isidro Ayora Study Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, N L; Camacho, L W; Rojas, E P; Stern, C

    1994-09-17

    Because resources for care of low-birthweight (LBW) infants in developing countries are scarce, the Kangaroo mother method (KMM) was developed. The infant is kept upright in skin-to-skin contact with the mother's breast. Previous studies reported several benefits with the KMM but interpretation of their findings is limited by small size and design weaknesses. We have done a longitudinal, randomised, controlled trial at the Isidro Ayora Maternity Hospital in Quito, Ecuador. Infants with LBW (< 2000 g) who satisfied out-of-risk criteria of tolerance of food and weight stabilisation were randomly assigned to KMM and control (standard incubator care) groups (n = 128 and 147, respectively). During 6 months of follow-up the KMM group had a significantly lower rate than the control group of serious illness (lower-respiratory-tract disorders, apnoea, aspiration, pneumonia, septicaemia, general infections; 7 [5%] vs 27 [18%], p < 0.002), although differences between the groups in less severe morbidity were not significant. There was no significant difference in growth or in the proportion of women breastfeeding, perhaps because the proportion breastfeeding was high in both groups owing to strong promotion. Mortality was the same in both groups; most deaths occurred during the stabilisation period before randomisation. KMM mothers made more unscheduled clinic visits than control mothers but their infants had fewer re-admissions and so the cost of care was lower with the KMM. Since the eligibility criteria excluded nearly 50% of LBW infants from the study, the KMM is not universally applicable to these infants. The benefits might be greater in populations where breastfeeding is not so common.

  10. Pretreatment with Rhodiola Rosea Extract Reduces Cognitive Impairment Induced by Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin in Rats: Implication of Anti-oxidative and Neuroprotective Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZE-QIANG QU; YAN ZHOU; YUAN-SHAN ZENGt; YAN LI; PETER CHUNG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the pretreatment effects of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) extract on cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress in hippocampus and hippocampal neuron injury in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with R. rosea extract at doses of 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 g/kg for 3 weeks, followed by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection with streptozotocin (1.5 mg/kg) on days 1 and 3. Behavioral alterations were monitored after 2 weeks from the lesion using Morris water maze task. Three weeks after the lesion, the rats were sacrificed for measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reductase (GR) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in hippocampus and histopathology of hippocampal neurons. Results The MDA level was significantly increased while the GR and GSH levels were significantly decreased with striking impairments in spatial learning and memory and severe damage to hippocampal neurons in the model rat induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. These abnormalities were significantly improved by pretreatment with R. rosea extract (3.0 g/kg). Conclusion R. rosea extract can protect rats against cognitive deficits, neuronal injury and oxidative stress induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin, and may be used as a potential agent in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  11. Efeitos do Método Mãe Canguru nos sinais vitais de recém-nascidos pré-termo de baixo peso Effects of Kangaroo Mother Care on the vital signs of low-weight preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Almeida

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, a pressão arterial média, a temperatura e a saturação periférica de oxigênio dos recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT de baixo peso, antes e após a aplicação do MMC. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 22 RNPT de baixo peso, saudáveis, de ambos os sexos, não portadores de deficiências neurológicas, cardíacas e/ou respiratórias. A avaliação foi realizada após trinta minutos de permanência do RNPT em berço comum e após trinta minutos de aplicação do MMC, por 3 dias consecutivos. Para a avaliação, foram utilizados monitor cardíaco com dispositivo para medida da pressão arterial média de forma não invasiva e sensor para a oximetria de pulso, termômetro e cronômetro. RESULTADOS: Os resultados não mostraram alterações significativas quanto à pressão arterial média (p> 0,05 e freqüência cardíaca (p> 0,05 após a aplicação do MMC, mas, por outro lado, houve aumento significativo da temperatura axilar (pOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the heart and respiration rates, mean arterial pressure, temperature and peripheral oxygen saturation of low-weight preterm newborns, before and after the application of kangaroo mother care. METHOD: Twenty-two healthy low-weight preterm newborns of both sexes were studied. None of them had neurological, cardiac and/or respiratory deficiencies. Assessments were made after the newborn had been left in an ordinary cot for 30 minutes and after 30 minutes of kangaroo mother care, on three consecutive days. For these evaluations, a heart monitor with a device for non-invasively measuring mean arterial pressure, a sensor for pulse oximetry, a thermometer and a chronometer were utilized. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (p> 0.05 or heart rate (p> 0.05 after applying kangaroo mother care. However, there were significant increases in axillary temperature (p< 0.05 and peripheral oxygen

  12. Characterization of a novel caudal vertebral interbody fusion in a rat tail model: An implication for future material and mechanical testing

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    Yu-Cheng Yeh

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: The rat caudal disc interbody fusion model proved to be an efficient, repeatable and easily accessible model. Future research into adjuvant treatments like growth factor injection and alternative fusion materials under conditions of osteoporosis using this model would be worthwhile.

  13. Individual and combined manipulation of muscarinic, NMDA, and benzodiazepine receptor activity in the water maze task: implications for a rat model of Alzheimer dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, D P; Ighanian, K; Boon, F

    2000-06-15

    Recent evidence indicates that Alzheimer disease typically involves different degrees of impairment in a variety of neurotransmitter systems, behaviors, and cognitive abilities in different patients. To investigate the relations between neurotransmitter system, behavioral, and cognitive impairments in an animal model of Alzheimer disease we studied spatial learning in a Morris water maze in male Long-Evans rats given neurochemical agents that targeted muscarinic cholinergic, NMDA, or benzodiazepine systems. Naive rats given a single agent or a combination of agents were severely impaired in place responding and had behavioral strategy impairments. Rats made familiar with the required water maze behavioral strategies by non-spatial pretraining performed as well as controls if given a single agent. Non-spatially pretrained rats with manipulation of both muscarinic cholinergic and NMDA or muscarinic cholinergic and benzodiazepine systems had a specific place response impairment but no behavioral strategy impairments. The results suggest that impairment of both muscarinic cholinergic and NMDA, or muscarinic cholinergic and benzodiazepine systems may model some aspects of human Alzheimer disease (impairments in navigation in familiar environments), but not other aspects of this disorder (global dementia leading to general loss of adaptive behavior). Previous research suggests that impairment of both muscarinic cholinergic and serotonergic systems may provide a better model of global dementia. The water maze testing and detailed behavioral analysis techniques used here appear to provide a means of investigating the contributions of various combinations of neurotransmitter system impairments to an animal model of Alzheimer disease.

  14. Size variation in Tachyoryctes splendens (East African mole-rat) and its implications for late Quaternary temperature change in equatorial East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Patterson, David B.; Blegen, Nick; O'Neill, Chris J.; Marean, Curtis W.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    This study develops a new proxy for Quaternary temperature change in tropical Africa through analysis of size variation in East African mole-rat (Tachyoryctes splendens). In modern mole-rats, mandibular alveolar length is unrelated to annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, temperature seasonality, or primary productivity. However, it is inversely correlated with mean annual temperature, in agreement with Bergmann's rule. This relationship is observed at temperatures below ˜17.3 °C, but not at higher temperatures. We apply these observations to late Quaternary mole-rats from Wakondo (˜100 ka) and Kisaaka (˜50 ka) in the Lake Victoria region and Enkapune ya Muto (EYM; ˜7.2-3.2 ka) in Kenya's central rift. The Lake Victoria mole-rats are larger than expected for populations from warm climates typical of the area today, implying cooler temperatures in the past. The magnitude of temperature decline needed to drive the size shift is substantial (˜4-6 °C), similar in magnitude to the degree of change between the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene, but is consistent with regional temperature records and with scenarios linking equatorial African temperature to northern hemisphere summer insolation. Size changes through time at EYM indicate that rising temperatures during the middle Holocene accompanied and potentially contributed to a decline in Lake Naivasha and expansion of grassland vegetation.

  15. Assessing complexity of skin blood flow oscillations in response to locally applied heating and pressure in rats: Implications for pressure ulcer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fuyuan; O'Brien, William D.; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local heating on the complexity of skin blood flow oscillations (BFO) under prolonged surface pressure in rats. Eleven Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: 7 rats underwent surface pressure with local heating (△t=10 °C) and 4 rats underwent pressure without heating. A pressure of 700 mmHg was applied to the right trochanter area of rats for 3 h. Skin blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The loading period was divided into nonoverlapping 30 min epochs. For each epoch, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) was utilized to compute DFA coefficients and complexity of endothelial related metabolic, neurogenic, and myogenic frequencies of BFO. The results showed that under surface pressure, local heating led to a significant decrease in DFA coefficients of myogenic frequency during the initial epoch of loading period, a sustained decrease in complexity of myogenic frequency, and a significantly higher degree of complexity of metabolic frequency during the later phase of loading period. Surrogate tests showed that the reduction in complexity of myogenic frequency was associated with a loss of nonlinearity whereas increased complexity of metabolic frequency was associated with enhanced nonlinearity. Our results indicate that increased metabolic activity and decreased myogenic response due to local heating manifest themselves not only in magnitudes of metabolic and myogenic frequencies but also in their structural complexity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using complexity analysis of BFO to monitor the ischemic status of weight-bearing skin and risk of pressure ulcers.

  16. Quantification of the binding properties of Cu2+ to the amyloid beta peptide: coordination spheres for human and rat peptides and implication on Cu2+-induced aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lian; Carducci, Tessa M; Bush, William D; Dudzik, Christopher G; Millhauser, Glenn L; Simon, John D

    2010-09-02

    There is no consensus on the coordinating ligands for Cu(2+) by Abeta. However, the differences in peptide sequence between human and rat have been hypothesized to alter metal ion binding in a manner that alters Cu(2+)-induced aggregation of Abeta. Herein, we employ isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the Cu(2+) coordination spheres to human and rat Abeta and an extensive set of Abeta(16) mutants. EPR of the mutant peptides is consistent with a 3N1O binding geometry, like the native human peptide at pH 7.4. The thermodynamic data reveal an equilibrium between three coordination spheres, {NH(2), O, N(Im)(His6), N(-)}, {NH(2), O, N(Im)(His6), N(Im)(His13)}, and {NH(2), O, N(Im)(His6), N(Im)(His14)}, for human Abeta(16) but one dominant coordination for rat Abeta(16), {NH(2), O, N(Im)(His6), N(-)}, at pH 7.4-6.5. ITC and CD data establish that the mutation R5G is sufficient for reproducing this difference in Cu(2+) binding properties at pH 7.4. The substitution of bulky and positively charged Arg by Gly is proposed to stabilize the coordination {NH(2), O-, N(Im)(His6), N(-)} that then results in one dominating coordination sphere for the case of the rat peptide. The differences in the coordination geometries for Cu(2+) by the human and rat Abeta are proposed to contribute to the variation in the ability of Cu(2+) to induce aggregation of Abeta peptides.

  17. Activation of glycine site and GluN2B subunit of NMDA receptors is necessary for ERK/CREB signaling cascade in rostral anterior cingulate cortex in rats: Implications for affective pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Cao; Wen-Hua Ren; Mu-Ye Zhu; Zhi-Qi Zhao; Yu-Qiu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is implicated in processing the emotional component of pain.N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are highly expressed in the rACC and mediate painrelated affect by activating a signaling pathway that involves cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) and/or extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)/cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB).The present study investigated the contributions of the NMDAR glycine site and GluN2B subunit to the activation of ERK and CREB both in vitro and in vivo in rat rACC.Methods Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to separately assess the expression of phospho-ERK (pERK) and phospho-CREB (pCREB) in vitro and in vivo.Double immunostaining was also used to determine the colocalization of pERK and pCREB.Results Both bath application of NMDA in brain slices in vitro and intraplantar injection of formalin into the rat hindpaw in vivo induced significant up-regulation of pERK and pCREB in the rACC,which was inhibited by the NMDAR antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phospho-novaleric acid.Selective blockade of the NMDAR GluN2B subunit and the glycinebinding site,or degradation of endogenous D-serine,a co-agonist for the glycine site,significantly decreased the upregulation of pERK and pCREB expression in the rACC.Further,the activated ERK predominantly colocalized with CREB.Conclusion Either the glycine site or the GluN2B subunit of NMDARs participates in the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB induced by bath application of NMDA in brain slices or hindpaw injection of 5% formalin in rats,and these might be fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying pain affect.

  18. Exposure to leachate from municipal battery recycling site: implication as key inhibitor of steroidogenic enzymes and risk factor of prostate damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintunde, Jacob K; Oboh, G

    2013-01-01

    Few or no studies have measured the effect of short- and long-term exposure to industrial leachate. Mature male Wistar strain albino rats (175-220 g) underwent sub-chronic exposure to leachate from the Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling site (EOMABRL) via oral administration for a period of 60 days at different doses (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%) per kilogram of body weight to evaluate the toxic effects of the leachate on male reproductive function using steroidogenic enzymes and biomarkers of prostate damage. Control groups were treated equally but were given distilled water instead of the leachate. After the treatment periods, results showed that the treatment induced systemic toxicity at the doses tested by causing a significant (precycling site induces sub-chronic testicular toxicity by inhibiting key steroidogenic enzymes and activating key markers linked with prostate damage/cancer in rats.

  19. Greater sensitivity to novelty in rats is associated with increased motor impulsivity following repeated exposure to a stimulating environment: implications for the etiology of impulse control deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Jacqueline-Marie N; Zeeb, Fiona D; Yu, Katrina; Kaur, Sukhbir; Taves, Matthew D; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2014-12-01

    Heightened motor impulsivity and increased novelty-seeking commonly co-occur in psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. However, the relationship between these two phenomena remains unclear. One-time tests of novelty sensitivity commonly used in preclinical experiments, such as the open-field or novel-object test, fail to capture the fact that novelty-seekers repeatedly experience novel, stimulating situations. The present study therefore investigated whether repeated exposure to a novel, stimulating environment (SE) altered impulsive action. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) which measures motor impulsivity in the form of premature responding as well as attention and motivation. Animals were then exposed to a novel SE (1 h/day for 16 days) immediately prior to the 5CSRTT. Significant increases in premature responding were observed in a subgroup of reactive animals termed high responders (HR-SE). These rats were not more impulsive at baseline, and levels of impulsivity normalised once exposure to the SE was discontinued. No other aspect of 5CSRTT performance was affected by the SE challenge. We also determined that HR-SE rats were hyperactive in a novel environment. Biochemical analyses revealed changes in gene and protein expression within the dorsal hippocampus of HR-SE rats, including decreases in mRNA encoding the dopamine D1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These results indicate a novel mechanism by which impulsivity and novelty-reactivity interact that may enhance addiction vulnerability synergistically. Furthermore, studying such context-induced impulsivity may provide insight into the process by which environmental load precipitates psychiatric symptoms in impulse control disorders.

  20. The effect of NaCl on the level of reduced sulfur compounds in rat liver. Implications for blood pressure increase

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    Małgorzata Iciek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is commonly known that excessive salt intake is a risk factor of hypertension. Currently, there is an increasing interest in reduced reactive sulfur species (RSS, mainly H2S and sulfane sulfur (SS as new gasotransmitters showing vasorelaxant properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of repeated administration of low sodium chloride dose included in physiological saline on blood pressure, on the level of RSS and activity of enzymes involved in their biosynthesis in the rat.Methods: Two separate experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats: one with intravenous injections of saline and the second one with intraperitoneal saline injections. Blood pressure was measured during the experiment. The level of RSS and other biochemical assays were conducted in the rat liver, because of an intense cysteine metabolism to RSS in this organ.Results: Intravenous administration of saline induced a significant increase in systolic blood pressure while intraperitoneal injections showed only a tendency towards increasing blood pressure. The RSS (H2S and SS level as well as the activity of the main enzyme responsible for their production in the liver of animals after iv saline injections were decreased. Animals injected with physiological saline by ip route did not reveal any statistically significant differences in SS, H2S, and activities of sulfurtransferases, although a tendency to decrease in the RSS was observed.Conclusions: The repeated iv saline injection induced a slight hypertension accompanied by disturbances in anaerobic cysteine metabolism in the rat liver.

  1. Remodeling of aorta extracellular matrix as a result of transient high oxygen exposure in newborn rats: implication for arterial rigidity and hypertension risk.

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    Fanny Huyard

    Full Text Available Neonatal high-oxygen exposure leads to elevated blood pressure, microvascular rarefaction, vascular dysfunction and arterial (aorta rigidity in adult rats. Whether structural changes are present in the matrix of aorta wall is unknown. Considering that elastin synthesis peaks in late fetal life in humans, and early postnatal life in rodents, we postulated that transient neonatal high-oxygen exposure can trigger premature vascular remodelling. Sprague Dawley rat pups were exposed from days 3 to 10 after birth to 80% oxygen (vs. room air control and were studied at 4 weeks. Blood pressure and vasomotor response of the aorta to angiotensin II and to the acetylcholine analogue carbachol were not different between groups. Vascular superoxide anion production was similar between groups. There was no difference between groups in aortic cross sectional area, smooth muscle cell number or media/lumen ratio. In oxygen-exposed rats, aorta elastin/collagen content ratio was significantly decreased, the expression of elastinolytic cathepsin S was increased whereas collagenolytic cathepsin K was decreased. By immunofluorescence we observed an increase in MMP-2 and TIMP-1 staining in aortas of oxygen-exposed rats whereas TIMP-2 staining was reduced, indicating a shift in the balance towards degradation of the extra-cellular matrix and increased deposition of collagen. There was no significant difference in MMP-2 activity between groups as determined by gelatin zymography. Overall, these findings indicate that transient neonatal high oxygen exposure leads to vascular wall alterations (decreased elastin/collagen ratio and a shift in the balance towards increased deposition of collagen which are associated with increased rigidity. Importantly, these changes are present prior to the elevation of blood pressure and vascular dysfunction in this model, and may therefore be contributory.

  2. Bioavailability of gallic acid and catechins from grape seed polyphenol extract is improved by repeated dosing in rats: implications for treatment in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Mario G; Lobo, Jessica K; Janle, Elsa M; Cooper, Bruce; Simon, James E; Wu, Qing-Li; Welch, Cara; Ho, Lap; Weaver, Connie; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the bioavailability and brain deposition of a grape seed polyphenolic extract (GSPE) previously found to attenuate cognitive deterioration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Plasma pharmacokinetic response of major GSPE phenolic components was measured following intragastric gavage of 50, 100, and 150 mg GSPE per kg body weight. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis identified gallic acid (GA), catechin (C), and epicatechin (EC) in plasma of rats gavaged acutely with GSPE. Additionally, 4-methylgallic acid (4-OMeGA), 3'-methylcatechin (3'-OMeC), and 3'-methylepicatechin (3'-OMeEC) were identified as circulating metabolites of GSPE phenolic constituents. Cmax for individual GSPE constituents and their metabolites increased in a dose-dependent fashion (with increasing GSPE oral dose). Repeated daily exposure to GSPE was found to significantly increase bioavailability (defined as plasma AUC0-8h) of GA, C, and EC by 198, 253, and 282% relative to animals receiving only a single acute GSPE dose. EC and C were not detectable in brain tissues of rats receiving a single GSPE dose but reached levels of 290.7 +/-45.9 and 576.7 +/- 227.7 pg/g in brain tissues from rats administered GSPE for 10 days. This study suggests that brain deposition of GA, C, and EC is affected by repeated dosing of GSPE.

  3. Immunolocalization of CSF-1, RANKL and OPG in the enamel-related periodontium of the rat incisor and their implications for alveolar bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, J S; Salmon, C R; Omar, N F; Narvaes, E A O; Gomes, J R; Novaes, P D

    2009-07-01

    The enamel-related periodontium (ERP) in rat incisors is related to bone resorption. In these teeth the face of the socket related to the enamel is continuously removed at the inner side and newly formed at the outer side. CSF-1, RANKL and OPG are regulatory molecules essential for osteoclastogenesis. To verify the effects of impeded eruption on bone remodeling, the tooth eruption was prevented by immobilization of lower rat incisor and CSF-1, RANKL and OPG distribution in the ERP was analyzed after 18 days of immobilization and in normal eruption. The region of the alveolar crest of the rat incisor was used. Immunohistochemistry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were performed. The immunostaining of the dental follicle was quantified using Leica QWin software. Positive-TRAP osteoclasts were counted, and both groups were compared. In the normal incisor, the number of osteoclasts was significantly greater than in the immobilized tooth. In the dental follicle, there was no significant difference in the immunostaining intensity for CSF-1 and OPG between the groups (p > 0.05), but for RANKL the immobilized incisor group showed immunostaining intensity smaller than the normal incisor group (p incisor, modify the RANKL/OPG ratio, in the presence of CSF-1, altering the metabolism of cells that participate in the bone remodeling.

  4. Tetramethylpyrazine Protects against Hydrogen Peroxide-Provoked Endothelial Dysfunction in Isolated Rat Aortic Rings: Implications for Antioxidant Therapy of Vascular Diseases

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    Xiaojia Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Oxidative stress can initiate endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. This study evaluated whether tetramethylpyrazine (TMP, the predominant active ingredient in Rhizoma Ligustici Wallichii (chuanxiong, prevents endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of oxidative stress. Methods. Isolated rat aortic rings were pretreated with various drugs before the induction of endothelial dysfunction by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Changes in isometric tension were then measured in acetylcholine- (ACh- relaxed rings. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression was evaluated in the rings by Western blotting, and superoxide anion (O2∙- content was assessed in primary rat aortic endothelial cells by dihydroethidium- (DHE- mediated fluorescence microscopy. Results. ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR was disrupted by H2O2 in endothelium-intact aortic rings. H2O2-impaired relaxation was ameliorated by acute pretreatment with low concentrations of TMP, as well as by pretreatment with catalase and the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI. TMP, apocynin, and DPI also reduced O2∙- accumulation in endothelial cells,but TMP failed to alter eNOS expression in aortic rings incubated with H2O2. Conclusions. TMP safeguards against oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction, suggesting that the agent might find therapeutic utility in the management of vascular diseases. However, TMP’s role in inhibiting NADPH oxidase and its vascular-protective mechanism of action requires further investigation.

  5. Research on dynamics coupling for underactuated bionic kangaroo-hopping robot%欠驱动仿袋鼠跳跃机器人动力学耦合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朋威; 葛文杰; 李岩

    2012-01-01

    根据袋鼠的生物结构及运动特点,建立了具有欠驱动关节的仿袋鼠跳跃机器人模型.以此模型为基础,分析系统的主动关节与被动关节之间的加速度耦合效应.采用拉格朗日方方法建立了机构的动力学方程.结合实例,运用Matlab软件对机器人进行仿真分析,给出了机器人全局单关节耦合变化规律.结果表明:仿袋鼠跳跃机器人的踝关节与欠驱动关节间存在足够大的耦合并且通过动力学耦合来控制欠驱动关节的位置是可能的.动力学耦合指标对欠驱动机器人的结构设计和驱动装置位置有重要作用.%According to the biological structure and kinematic characteristics of kangaroo, we establish a model for uniped hopping mechanism of bionic kangaroo with underactuated joint.Based on this model,the dynamic coupling effects of the acceleration coupling between active joints and passive ones are an-alyzed,and dynamics equations are established with adopting lagrange method.Wuh practical example and using Matlab simulation analysis for the robot is made so that the changing rule of the global individual joint coupling are obtained.The result indicates that a large coupling between the ankle joint and underactuated joint of the hopping kangaroo robot is available, thus it is possible to control the position of the under-actuated joint via the dynamics coupling, which index plays an important role in structure design and actuator placement of underactuated robots system.

  6. An Induced Hematoma in Caudoputamen Nuclei in Rats Causes Central Pain when the Thalamus is also Implicated and the Central Sensitization is Reversed with Gabapentin

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    P. P. Lema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this study was to evaluate pain sensitisation in rats following the induction of an intracerebral hemorrhage by injecting a collagenase solution in the caudoputamen nucleus of the right basal ganglia and to evaluate gabapentin as an analgesic for central pain. Approach: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 175-300 g were used. In a first experiment, 3 groups of 6 animals were used to evaluate pain threshold using the Hargreaves test (thermal sensitivity only. Following 3 days of behavioral testing (baseline values, animals in each group were injected intracerebrally either with 0.5, 1 or 2 μL of a collagenase solution (0.5 U 2 μL-1 Type VII collagenase inducing a hematoma in the right caudoputamen nucleus and/or thalamus. They were then tested for the next 9 consecutive days. In a second experiment, gabapentin was evaluated for the reversal of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia (using von Frey filaments following the intracerebral injection of 3 μL of the collagenase solution. Results: No pain-related behavioral changes were observed following injections with 0.5 and 1 μL of the collagenase solution. However with 2 μL, reaction times were significantly faster on days 3-7 in the right and left hind paws compared to baseline values. The lesion was localized only in the caudoputamen nucleus for animals receiving 0.5 and 1 μL of collagenase whereas lesions extended in the ipsilateral thalamic nuclei (lateral-dorsal and lateral-posterior nuclei for animals receiving 2 μL of collagenase. Gabapentin reversed mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in animals with caudoputamen and thalamic lesions. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that central pain was induced in rats with a collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage localized in the thalamus and that mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were reduced with gabapentin treatment.

  7. A novel rat model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury simulating different damage degree: implications for morphological, neurological, and biomarker changes

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    Mengdong eLiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In current military conflicts and civilian terrorism, blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI is the primary cause of neurotrauma. However, the effects and mechanisms of bTBI are poorly understood. Although previous researchers have made significant contributions to establishing animal models for the simulation of bTBI, the precision and controllability of blast-induced injury in animal models must be improved. Therefore, we established a novel rat model to simulate blast-wave injury to the brain. To simulate different extents of bTBI injury, the animals were divided into moderate and severe injury groups. The miniature spherical explosives (PETN used in each group were of different sizes (2.5 mm diameter in the moderate injury group and 3.0 mm diameter in the severe injury group. A specially designed apparatus was able to precisely adjust the positions of the miniature explosives and create eight rats with bTBI simultaneously, using a single electric detonator. Neurological functions, gross pathologies, histopathological changes and the expression levels of various biomarkers were examined after the explosion. Compared with the moderate injury group, there were significantly more neurological dysfunctions, cortical contusions, intraparenchymal hemorrhages, cortical expression of S-100β, MBP, NSE, IL-8, IL-10, iNOS and HIF-1α in the severe injury group. These results demonstrate that we have created a reliable and reproducible bTBI model in rats. This model will be helpful for studying the mechanisms of bTBI and developing strategies for clinical bTBI treatment.

  8. Impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to bisphenol A on female rats in a two generational study: Genotoxic and immunohistochemical implications

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    Gihan G. Moustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental xenoestrogen contaminant bisphenol A (BPA, widely used as a monomer in the manufacture of epoxy, polycarbonate plastics and polystyrene resins. However, exposure to BPA has raised concerns, and the negative impacts of its exposure on reproduction have been controversial. The purpose of this work was directed to assess the potential adverse effects of BPA on dam rats and their first generation females in a comparative toxicological study. Fifteen pregnant female rats were classified into three equal groups; first group was orally administered corn oil and served as control (group1, second and third groups were orally administered BPA at dose levels of 50 and 200 mg/kg b.wt respectively (groups 2 & 3. The administration was carried out daily from zero day through the gestation period (21 days until the last day of the lactation period (21days and was extended after weaning for three months, in which female off springs of first generation (F1 of the three groups of dams were classified into; F1control group (group 4, F1 group treated with low dose of BPA (group 5 and F1 group treated with high dose of BPA (group 6 which continued in daily oral administration of BPA at the same previously mentioned doses for three months. The results elucidated a clear marked DNA fragmentation in the ovary of both dam and F1 female groups especially at higher examined concentration. Also, the data demonstrated a significant increase in the serum levels of GGT, ALP, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDH and also in the serum level of estrogen hormone. Meanwhile, our study recorded a significant decrease in total protein, catalase, GST, HDL and FSH hormone in both treated dam and F1 female groups which was more significantly decreased in F1 female rats. Moreover, our experiment illustrated up-regulation in the immunoexpression of ERβ in ovary, uterus and liver of dam and F1 female groups. The histopathological investigation showed

  9. Neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide induces deficits in social behavior and prepulse inhibition and microglial activation in rats: Implication for a new schizophrenia animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Furong; Zhang, Lulu; Ding, Yu-qiang; Zhao, Jingping; Zheng, Yingjun

    2014-05-01

    Several lines of evidence have suggested that the dysregulation of immune system is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Microglia are the resident macrophage of the brain and the major player in innate immunity in the brain. We hypothesized that microglia activation may be closely associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an activator of microglia, was performed in rats at postnatal day 7 (PD7), and they were separately treated with saline or minocycline for consecutive 3days. Behavioral changes (locomotor activity, social interaction and prepulse inhibition) were examined in adulthood, and the number of microglia was assessed using immunohistochemistry at PD9, PD21 and PD67. The adult rats in LPS-injected group showed obvious behavioral alterations (deficits in social behavior and prepulse inhibition) and a persistently dramatic increase of number of activated microglial cells in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and thalamus compared to those in saline-injected group. Interestingly, pretreatment with minocycline could significantly rescue the behavioral deficits and prevent microglia activation. Our results suggest that neonatal intrahippocampal LPS injection may serve as a potential schizophrenia animal model, and inhibition of microglia activation may be a potential treatment strategy for schizophrenia.

  10. Effects of simulated increased gravity on the rate of aging of rats - Implications for the rate of living theory of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, A. C.; Ballard, R. C.; Blunden, M.; Miquel, J.; Lindseth, K. A.; Fleming, J.; Philpott, D. E.; Oyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    It was found that the rate of aging of 17 month old rats which had been exposed to 3.14 times normal gravity in an animal centrifuge for 8 months was larger than that of the controls as determined by the apparently elevated lipofuscin content in heart and kidney, reduced numbers and increased size of mitochondria of heart tissue, and inferior liver mitochondria respiration. Steady-state food intake per day per kg body weight, which is presumably proportional to rate of living or specific basal metabolic expenditure, was found to be about 18 percent higher than in the controls after an initial 2 month adaptation period. Although half of the centrifuged animals lived only a little shorter than the controls (average about 343 vs. 364 days on the average, statistically nonsignificant), the remaining half (longest survivors) lived on the centrifuge an average of 520 days (range 483-572) compared to an average of 574 days (range 502-615) for the controls, computed from the onset of centrifugation, or 11 percent shorter. These findings indicate that a moderate increase of the level of basal metabolism of young adult rats adapted to hypergravity compared to controls in normal gravity is accompanied by a roughly similar increase in the rate of organ aging and reduction of survival, in agreement with Pearl's (1928) rate of living theory of aging, previously experimentally demonstrated only in poikilotherms.

  11. Oxidative stress and altered steroidogenesis in the ovary by cholinergic stimulation of coeliac ganglion in the first proestrous in rats. Implication of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsouc, María B; Della Vedova, María C; Ramírez, Darío; Anzulovich, Ana C; Delgado, Silvia M; Casais, Marilina

    2016-02-29

    An ex-vivo Coeliac Ganglion-Superior Ovarian Nerve-Ovary (CG-SON-O) system from virgin rats in the first proestrous was used to test whether cholinergic stimulation of CG affects oxidative status and steroidogenesis in the ovary. The CG and the O were placed in separate buffered-compartments, connected by the SON, and the CG was stimulated by acetylcholine (Ach). To test a possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in the ovarian response to cholinergic stimulation of CG, aminoguanidine (AG) - an inhibitor of inducible-NO synthase was added to the O compartment. After 180 min incubation, the oxidative status was assessed in O whereas nitrite and steroidogenesis were assessed at 30, 120 and 180 min. Ach in CG decreased the total antioxidant capacity, but increased NO production and protein carbonization in O. Ach stimulation of CG increased estradiol, but decreased progesterone release in O by reducing the mRNAs related to their synthesis and degradation. The addition of AG to the O compartment caused an opposite effect, which was more pronounced in the presence of Ach in the CG compartment than in its absence. These results show that the stimulation of the extrinsic-cholinergic innervation of the O increases the concentration of NO, causes oxidative stress and modulates steroidogenesis in the first rat proestrous.

  12. Development of a sexually dimorphic neuromuscular system in male rats after spinal transection: morphologic changes and implications for estrogen sites of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Sara L; Sengelaub, Dale R

    2003-12-01

    The lumbar spinal cord of rats contains the sexually dimorphic, steroid-sensitive spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB). In male rats, SNB motoneurons exhibit a biphasic pattern of dendritic growth, having an initial period of exuberant growth followed by a period of retraction to mature lengths by 7 weeks of age. This growth is steroid dependent: dendrites fail to grow after castration, but growth is supported in castrates treated with estradiol. In this experiment, we examined whether supraspinal afferent input by means of descending spinal tracts to the SNB was involved in the normal postnatal development of SNB motoneurons, and whether the effect of estradiol on SNB dendritic growth could be explained by an indirect action of estradiol on supraspinal afferents. Motoneuron morphology was assessed in normal males, early- or late-postnatally transected males, castrated males left untreated or treated with estradiol, and transected castrates treated with estradiol. SNB motoneurons were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin-horseradish peroxidase during both the growth and retraction phases of dendritic development and reconstructed in three dimensions. The removal of supraspinal afferents resulted in extremely local effects within the developing SNB arbor, as well as transient alterations in somal growth. Furthermore, spinal transection did not block the trophic effect of estradiol on supporting SNB dendritic growth, indicating that estrogens do not act by means of supraspinal input to support SNB motoneuron development. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Molecular imaging of in vivo calcium ion expression in area postrema of total sleep deprived rats: Implications for cardiovascular regulation by TOF-SIMS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Li-You; Ling, Yong-Chien; Chen, Bo-Jung; Wu, Un-In; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Excessive calcium influx in chemosensitive neurons of area postrema (AP) is detrimental for sympathetic activation and participates in the disruption of cardiovascular activities. Since total sleep deprivation (TSD) is a stressful condition known to harm the cardiovascular function, the present study is aimed to determine whether the in vivo calcium expression in AP would significantly alter following TSD by the use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and calretinin (a specific calcium sensor protein in AP neurons) immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that in normal rats, the calcium intensity was estimated to be 0.5 × 10 5 at m/ z 40.08. However, following TSD, the intensity for calcium ions was greatly increased to 1.2 × 10 5. Molecular imaging revealed that after TSD, various strongly expressed calcium signals were distributed throughout AP with clear identified profiles instead of randomly scattered within this region in normal rats. Immunohistochemical staining corresponded well with ionic image in which a majority of calcium-enriched gathering co-localized with calretinin positive neurons. The functional significance of TSD-induced calcium augmentation was demonstrated by increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure, clinical markers for cardiovascular dysfunction. Considering AP-mediated sympathetic activation is important for cardiovascular regulation, exaggerated calcium influx in AP would render this neurocircuitry more vulnerable to over-excitation, which might serve as the underlying mechanism for the development of TSD-relevant cardiovascular deficiency.

  14. Research progress on kangaroo mother care in nursing of preterm infants%袋鼠式护理在早产儿护理中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田莉; 丁晓华; 武玉蓉

    2011-01-01

    With the development of perinatology and neonatology,the survival rate of preterm infants was improved a lot,the preterm infants become one of the important study in nowdays.there have been many studies about nursing of preterm infants,This article summarizes research progress on kangaroo mother care in nursing of preterm infants.%随着围产医学和新生儿医学的迅速发展,早产儿的存活率得到极大提高,早产儿成为当今研究的重要内容之一.有关早产儿护理干预的研究也很多,现就袋鼠式护理在早产儿护理中的研究进展综述如下.

  15. Exposure to a predator scent induces chronic behavioral changes in rats previously exposed to low-level blast: Implications for the relationship of blast-related TBI to PTSD

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    Georgina Perez-Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been unfortunately common in veterans who served in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The postconcussion syndrome associated with these mTBIs has frequently appeared in combination with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The presence of PTSD has complicated diagnosis since clinically PTSD and the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI have many overlapping symptoms. In particular establishing how much of the symptom complex can be attributed to the psychological trauma associated with PTSD in contrast to the physical injury of TBI has proven difficult. Indeed some have suggested that much of what is now being called blast-related postconcussion syndrome is better explained by PTSD. The relationship between the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI and PTSD is complex. Association of the two disorders might be viewed as additive effects of independent psychological and physical traumas suffered in a war zone. However we previously found that rats exposed to repetitive low-level blast exposure in the absence of a psychological stressor developed a variety of anxiety and PTSD-related behavioral traits that were present months following the last blast exposure. Here we show that a single predator scent challenge delivered 8 months after the last blast exposure induces chronic anxiety related changes in blast-exposed rats that are still present 45 days later. These observations suggest that in addition to independently inducing PTSD-related traits, blast exposure sensitizes the brain to react abnormally to a subsequent psychological stressor. These studies have implications for conceptualizing the relationship between blast-related mTBI and PTSD and suggest that blast-related mTBI in humans may predispose to the later development of PTSD in reaction to subsequent psychological stressors.

  16. Hippocampal Y2 receptor-mediated mossy fiber plasticity is implicated in nicotine abstinence-related social anxiety-like behavior in an outbred rat model of the novelty-seeking phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cigdem; Oztan, Ozge; Isgor, Ceylan

    2014-10-01

    Experimentally naïve outbred rats display varying rates of locomotor reactivity in response to the mild stress of a novel environment. Namely, some display high rates (HR) whereas some display low rates (LR) of locomotor reactivity. Previous reports from our laboratory show that HRs, but not LRs, develop locomotor sensitization to a low dose nicotine challenge and exhibit increased social anxiety-like behavior following chronic intermittent nicotine training. Moreover, the hippocampus, specifically hippocampal Y2 receptor (Y2R)-mediated neuropeptide Y signaling is implicated in these nicotine-induced behavioral effects observed in HRs. The present study examines the structural substrates of the expression of locomotor sensitization to a low dose nicotine challenge and associated social anxiety-like behavior following chronic intermittent nicotine exposure during adolescence in the LRHR hippocampi. Our data showed that the expression of locomotor sensitization to the low dose nicotine challenge and the increase in social anxiety-like behavior were accompanied by an increase in mossy fiber terminal field size, as well as an increase in spinophilin mRNA levels in the hippocampus in nicotine pre-trained HRs compared to saline pre-trained controls. Furthermore, a novel, selective Y2R antagonist administered systemically during 1 wk of abstinence reversed the behavioral, molecular and neuromorphological effects observed in nicotine-exposed HRs. These results suggest that nicotine-induced neuroplasticity within the hippocampus may regulate abstinence-related negative affect in HRs, and implicate hippocampal Y2R in vulnerability to the behavioral and neuroplastic effects of nicotine in the novelty-seeking phenotype.

  17. Dual-specificity phosphatases are implicated in severe hyperplasia and lack of response to FGF23 of uremic parathyroid glands from rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-García, Pablo; Carrillo-López, Natalia; Naves-Díaz, Manuel; Rodríguez, Isabel; Ortiz, Alberto; Cannata-Andía, Jorge B

    2012-04-01

    Phosphate load accelerates the progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT). In advanced stages of sHPT, there is a marked hyperplasia and resistance to classical regulatory endocrine factors such as calcium, calcitriol, or fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which suppresses PTH secretion by an ERK-dependent mechanism. Nephrectomized rats were fed with a high- or normal-phosphorus diet for different periods of time to induce sHPT. Biochemical parameters, parathyroid gland microarrays, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry (ERK/phospho-ERK) were performed. To test the role of dual-specificity phosphatases (Dusp) on parathyroid gland regulation, normal parathyroid glands were cultured with FGF23 and Dusp. Uremic rats fed with a high-phosphorus diet showed more severe sHPT, higher serum FGF23 levels and mortality, and decreased parathyroid Klotho gene expression. In all stages of sHPT, parathyroid microarrays displayed a widespread gene expression down-regulation; only a few genes were overexpressed, among them, Dusp5 and -6. In very severe sHPT, a significant reduction in phospho-ERK (the target of Dusp) and a significant increase of Dusp5 and -6 gene expression were observed. In ex vivo experiments with parathyroid glands, Dusp partially blocked the effect of FGF23 on PTH secretion, suggesting that Dusp might play a role in parathyroid regulation. The overexpression of Dusp and the inactivation of ERK found in the in vivo studies together with the ex vivo results might be indicative of the defense mechanism triggered to counteract hyperplasia, a mechanism that can also contribute to the resistance to the effect of FGF23 on parathyroid gland observed in advanced forms of chronic kidney disease.

  18. Gene expression profiling in skeletal muscle of Zucker diabetic fatty rats: implications for a role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M D; Beha, A; Tennagels, N; Tschank, G; Herling, A W; Quint, M; Gerl, M; Metz-Weidmann, C; Haun, G; Korn, M

    2005-12-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we sought to identify and validate genes involved in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Differentially regulated genes in skeletal muscle of male obese insulin-resistant, and lean insulin-sensitive Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were determined using Affymetrix microarrays. Based on these data, various aspects of glucose disposal, insulin signalling and fatty acid composition were analysed in a muscle cell line overexpressing stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1). Gene expression profiling in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle revealed the most pronounced changes in gene expression for genes involved in lipid metabolism. Among these, Scd1 showed increased expression in insulin-resistant animals, correlating with increased amounts of palmitoleoyl-CoA. This was further investigated in a muscle cell line that overexpressed SCD1 and accumulated lipids, revealing impairments of glucose uptake and of different steps of the insulin signalling cascade. We also observed differential effects of high-glucose and fatty acid treatment on glucose uptake and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA profiles, and in particular an accumulation of palmitoleoyl-CoA in cells overexpressing SCD1. Insulin-resistant skeletal muscle of ZDF rats is characterised by a specific gene expression profile with increased levels of Scd1. An insulin-resistant phenotype similar to that obtained by treatment with palmitate and high glucose can be induced in vitro by overexpression of SCD1 in muscle cells. This supports the hypothesis that elevated SCD1 expression is a possible cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  19. Implication of DOP2 but not DOP1 in development of morphine analgesic tolerance in a rat model of chronic inflammatory pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, H.; Gendron, L.; Morón, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Opioids are well known for their robust analgesic effects. Chronic activation of mu opioid receptors (MOPs) is however accompanied by various unwanted effects such as analgesic tolerance. Among other mechanisms, interactions between MOP and delta opioid receptor (DOP) are thought to play an important role in morphine-induced behavioral adaptations. Interestingly, certain conditions such as inflammation enhance the function of the DOP through a MOP-dependent mechanism. Here, we investigated the role of DOP during the development of morphine-tolerance in an animal model of chronic inflammatory pain. Using behavioral approaches we first established that repeated systemic morphine treatment induces morphine analgesic tolerance in rats coping with chronic inflammatory pain. We then observed that blockade of DOP with subcutaneous naltrindole (NTI), a selective DOP antagonist, significantly attenuates the development of morphine tolerance in a dose-dependent manner. We confirmed that this effect was DOP-mediated by showing that an acute injection of NTI had no effect on morphine-induced analgesia in naïve animals. Previous pharmacological characterizations revealed the existence of DOP1 and DOP2 subtypes. As opposed to NTI, 7-benzylidenenaltrexone (BNTX) and naltriben (NTB) were reported to be selective DOP1 and DOP2 antagonists, respectively. Interestingly, NTB but not BNTX was able to attenuate the development of morphine analgesic tolerance in inflamed rats. Altogether, our results suggest that targeting of DOP2 with antagonists provides a valuable strategy to attenuate the analgesic tolerance that develops after repeated morphine administration in the setting of chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:25639561

  20. Sex-dependent behavioral effects and morphological changes in the hippocampus after prenatal invasive interventions in rats: implications for animal models of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina von Wilmsdorff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although schizophrenia affects both human genders, there are gender-dependent differences with respect to age of onset, clinical characteristics, course and prognosis of the disease. METHODS: To investigate sex-dependent differences in motor coordination and activity as well as in cognitive and social behavior, we repeatedly tested female (n = 14 and male (n = 12 Fisher rats (postnatal days, PD 56-174 that had received intracerebroventricular injections of kainic acid as well as female (n = 15 and male (n = 16 control animals. The hippocampus was examined histologically. RESULTS: Compared to male controls, in the alcove test both female controls and female animals with prenatal intervention spent less time in a dark box before entering an unknown illuminated area. Again, animals that received prenatal injection (particularly females made more perseveration errors in the T-maze alternation task compared to controls. Female rats exhibited a higher degree of activity than males, suggesting these effects to be sex-dependent. Finally, animals that received prenatal intervention maintained longer lasting social contacts. Histological analyses showed pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area CA3 (in both hemispheres of control animals to be longer than those found in treated animals. Sex-dependent differences were found in the left hippocampi of control animals and animals after prenatal intervention. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate important differences between males and females in terms of weight gain, response to fear, working memory and social behavior. We also found sex-dependent differences in the lengths of hippocampal neurons. Further studies on larger sample sets with more detailed analyses of morphological changes are required to confirm our data.

  1. Acetylation of histones in neocortex and hippocampus of rats exposed to different modes of hypobaric hypoxia: Implications for brain hypoxic injury and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilov, Mikhail; Churilova, Anna; Gluschenko, Tatjana; Vetrovoy, Oleg; Dyuzhikova, Natalia; Rybnikova, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Acetylation of nucleosome histones results in relaxation of DNA and its availability for the transcriptional regulators, and is generally associated with the enhancement of gene expression. Although it is well known that activation of a variety of pro-adaptive genes represents a key event in the development of brain hypoxic/ischemic tolerance, the role of epigenetic mechanisms, in particular histone acetylation, in this process is still unexplored. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in acetylation of histones in vulnerable brain neurons using original well-standardized model of hypobaric hypoxia and preconditioning-induced tolerance of the brain. Using quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blot, effects of severe injurious hypobaric hypoxia (SH, 180mm Hg, 3h) and neuroprotective preconditioning mode (three episodes of 360mm Hg for 2h spaced at 24h) on the levels of the acetylated proteins and acetylated H3 Lys24 (H3K24ac) in the neocortex and hippocampus of rats were studied. SH caused global repression of the acetylation processes in the neocortex (layers II-III, V) and hippocampus (CA1, CA3) by 3-24h, and this effect was prevented by the preconditioning. Moreover, hypoxic preconditioning remarkably increased the acetylation of H3K24 in response to SH in the brain areas examined. The preconditioning hypoxia without subsequent SH also stimulated acetylation processes in the neocortex and hippocampus. The moderately enhanced expression of the acetylated proteins in the preconditioned rats was maintained for 24h, whereas acetylation of H3K24 was intense but transient, peaked at 3h. The novel data obtained in the present study indicate that large activation of the acetylation processes, in particular acetylation of histones might be essential for the development of brain hypoxic tolerance.

  2. Effects of ethanol on insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ system in primary cultured rat hepatocytes: Implications of JNK1/2 and alcoholdehydrogenase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of ethanol on the insulin- like growth factor-Ⅰ (IGF-Ⅰ) system involved in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) and alcoholdehydrogenase (ADH) activity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. METHODS: Hepatocytes isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated with various concentrations of ethanol for different durations of time. The cells were pretreated with SP600125 (10 μmol/L) and 4-MP (200 μmol/L), and then treated with ethanol (200 mmol/L). We then measured IGF- Ⅰ secretion, IGF- Ⅰ mRNA expression, cell viability and JNK1/2 activity by radioimmunoassay, RT-PCR, MTT assay and Western blot, respectively (n = 6). RESULTS: Ethanol induced the activity of phospho (p)-JNK1/2, reaching a maximum at 60 min and then decreasing at 180 min. The effects of ethanol on the IGF- Ⅰ system were increased at 60 min (secretion: 7.11 ± 0.59 ng/mg protein vs 4.91 ± 0.51 ng/mg, mRNA expression: 150.2% ± 10.2% vs 101.5% ± 11.3%, P = 0.045) and then decreased at 180 min (secretion: 3.89 ± 0.25 ng/mg vs 5.4 ± 0.54 ng/mg protein; mRNA expression: 41.5% ± 10.4% vs 84.7% ± 12.1%, P = 0.04), however cell viability was decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. SP600125 blocked the ethanol-induced changes (at 60 min). Additionally, 4-methylpyrazole prevented the ethanol-induced decreases in the IGF-Ⅰ system, cell viability and p-JNK1/2 activity (at 180 min). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that ethanol- induced p-JNK1/2 activation is associated with the IGF- Ⅰ system and cell viability in hepatocytes. Furthermore, alcohol dehydrogenase is involved in the relationship between ethanol-induced inactivation of p-JNK1/2 and the changes of the IGF- Ⅰ system and cell viability.

  3. Intraperitoneal injection of neuropeptide Y (NPY) alters neurotrophin rat hypothalamic levels: Implications for NPY potential role in stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfo, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Tirassa, Paola; Croce, Nicoletta; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Angelucci, Francesco

    2011-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide which exerts several regulatory actions within peripheral and central nervous systems. Among NPY actions preclinical and clinical data have suggested that the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions of NPY may be related to its antagonist action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are proteins involved in the growth, survival and function of neurons. In addition to this, a possible role of neurotrophins, particularly BDNF, in HPA axis hyperactivation has been proposed. To characterize the effect of NPY on the production of neurotrophins in the hypothalamus we exposed young adult rats to NPY intraperitoneal administration for three consecutive days and then evaluated BDNF and NGF synthesis in this brain region. We found that NPY treatment decreased BDNF and increased NGF production in the hypothalamus. Given the role of neurotrophins in the hypothalamus, these findings, although preliminary, provide evidence for a role of NPY as inhibitor of HPA axis and support the idea that NPY might be involved in pathologies characterized by HPA axis dysfunctions.

  4. [(3) H]-L685,458 binding sites are abundant in multiple peripheral organs in rats: implications for safety assessment of putative γ-secretase targeting drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Ying; Li, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Ling; Mou, Lin; Cai, Yan; Huang, He; Luo, Xue-Gang; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2014-12-01

    γ-Secretase is a multimeric enzyme complex that carries out proteolytic processing to a variety of cellular proteins. It is currently explored as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Mechanism-based toxicity needs to be thoroughly evaluated for γ-secretase inhibitory and/or modulatory drugs. This study comparatively assessed putative γ-secretase catalytic sites in rat peripheral tissues relative to brain and explored an effort of its pharmacological inhibition on hair regeneration. Using [(3) H]-labelled L685,458, a potent γ-secretase inhibitor, as probe, we found more abundant presence of γ-secretase binding sites in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, hair follicle, pituitary gland, ovary and testis, as compared to the brain. Local application of L658,458 delayed vibrissal regrowth following whisker removal. These results suggest that γ-secretase may execute important biological functions in many peripheral systems, as in the brain. The development of γ-secretase inhibitors/modulators for AD and cancer therapy should include close monitoring of toxicological panels for hepatic, gastrointestinal, endocrinal and reproductive functions.

  5. Phosphate-induced rat vascular smooth muscle cell calcification and the implication of zinc deficiency in a7r5 cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mee-Young; Kwun, In-Sook

    2013-06-01

    The calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is considered one of the major contributors for vascular disease. Phosphate is known as the inducer for VSMC calcification. In this study, we assessed whether phosphate affected cell viability and fetuin-A, a calcification inhibitor protein, both which are related to VSMC calcification. Also, VSMC viability by zinc level was assessed. The results showed that phosphate increased Ca and P deposition in VSMCs (A7r5 cell line, rat aorta origin). This phosphate-induced Ca and P deposition was consistent with the decreased A7r5 cell viability (Pviability. As phosphate increased, the protein expression of fetuin-A protein was up-regulated. A7r5 cell viability decreased as the addition of cellular zinc level was decreased (Pviability and it would be the future study to clarify how zinc does act for VSMC cell viability. The results suggest that the decreased VSMC viability by high P or low Zn in VSMCs may be the risk factor for vascular disease.

  6. Vanillin suppresses Kupffer cell-related colloidal carbon-induced respiratory burst activity in isolated perfused rat liver: anti-inflammatory implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, José E; Núñez, Bárbara; Videla, Luis A

    2012-12-01

    The inhibition of NADPH oxidase has become a potential therapeutic target for oxidative stress-related diseases. We investigated whether vanillin modifies hepatic O(2) consumption associated with Kupffer cell functioning. The influence of vanillin on Kupffer cell functioning was studied in isolated perfused rat liver by colloidal carbon (CC) infusion (0.5 mg ml(-1)), concomitantly with sinusoidal efflux of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as an organ viability parameter. CC infusion increased the rate of O(2) consumption of the liver above basal values, an effect that represents the respiratory burst activity of Kupffer cells. However, CC-dependent respiratory burst activity was suppressed by previous infusion of 2 mM vanillin. Vanillin did not affect the liver CC uptake rate and liver sinusoidal efflux of LDH efflux. These findings, elicited by vanillin, were reproduced by the well-established NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. In conclusion, vanillin suppresses the respiratory burst activity of Kupffer cells as assessed in intact liver, which may be associated with the inhibition of macrophage NADPH oxidase activity. Such a finding may have relevance in conditions underlying Kupffer cell-dependent up-regulation of the expression and release of pro-inflammatory mediators by redox-dependent mechanisms.

  7. In vivo binding of spiperone and N-methylspiperone to dopaminergic and serotonergic sites in the rat brain: Multiple modeling and implications for PET scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, J.A.; van der Werf, J.F.; Wiegman, T.; Paans, A.M.; Vaalburg, W.; Korf, J. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands))

    1990-05-01

    Equilibrium models are derived and applied to in vivo binding of spiperone in the rat brain. The models express the concentration of the ligand in the striatum and frontal cortex as a function of the accumulation in the cerebellum. The models differ with respect to the description of specific binding. Nonlinear regression analysis shows that the in vivo specific binding of 3H-labeled spiperone in the frontal cortex (mainly serotonergic) can be described by a noninteracting sites model, whereas the specific binding in the striatum (mainly dopaminergic) can best be described by models that lead to sigmoid saturation curves. These results were tested and partly confirmed by determining the region-of-interest/cerebellar radioactivity ratio of {sup 11}C-labeled N-methylspiperone, with and without pretreatment with haloperidol. The estimated Bmax was 32 fmol/mg wet tissue in the frontal cortex and approximately 90 fmol/mg wet tissue in the striatum. The free plus nonspecific binding of spiperone was similar in the frontal cortex but lower in the striatum than in the cerebellum. The occurrence of sigmoidicity can be best explained by the existence of high-affinity/low-capacity sites in the cerebellum rather than mutual interactions of striatal sites. The consequence of the present analysis for positron emission tomography is that the striatal/cerebellar activity ratio is not an accurate parameter of specific binding features at tracer doses of spiperone or N-methylspiperone.

  8. Oral administration of copper to rats leads to increased lymphocyte cellular DNA degradation by dietary polyphenols: implications for a cancer preventive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Husain Y; Zubair, Haseeb; Ullah, Mohd F; Ahmad, Aamir; Hadi, Sheikh M

    2011-12-01

    To account for the observed anticancer properties of plant polyphenols, we have earlier proposed a mechanism which involves the mobilization of endogenous copper ions by polyphenols leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that serve as proximal DNA cleaving agents and lead to cell death. Over the last decade we have proceeded to validate our hypothesis with considerable success. As a further confirmation of our hypothesis, in this paper we first show that oral administration of copper to rats leads to elevated copper levels in lymphocytes. When such lymphocytes with a copper overload were isolated and treated with polyphenols EGCG, genistein and resveratrol, an increased level of DNA breakage was observed. Further, preincubation of lymphocytes having elevated copper levels with the membrane permeable copper chelator neocuproine, resulted in inhibition of polyphenol induced DNA degradation. However, membrane impermeable chelator of copper bathocuproine, as well as iron and zinc chelators were ineffective in causing such inhibition in DNA breakage, confirming the involvement of endogenous copper in polyphenol induced cellular DNA degradation. It is well established that serum and tissue concentrations of copper are greatly increased in various malignancies. In view of this fact, the present results further confirm our earlier findings and strengthen our hypothesis that an important anticancer mechanism of plant polyphenols could be the mobilization of intracellular copper leading to ROS-mediated cellular DNA breakage. In this context, it may be noted that cancer cells are under considerable oxidative stress and increasing such stress to cytotoxic levels could be a successful anticancer approach.

  9. Neuroleptics up-regulate adenosine A2a receptors in rat striatum: implications for the mechanism and the treatment of tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, B; Togasaki, D M; Kassir, S; Przedborski, S

    1995-11-01

    Neuroleptics, which are potent dopamine receptor antagonists, are used to treat psychosis. In the striatum, dopamine subtype-2 (D2) receptors interact with high-affinity adenosine subtype-2 (A2a) receptors. To examine the effect of various neuroleptics on the major subtypes of striatal dopamine and adenosine receptors, rats received 28 daily intraperitoneal injections of these drugs. Haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg/day) increased the density of striatal D2 receptors by 24% without changing their affinity for [3H]sulpiride. Haloperidol increased the density of striatal A2a receptors by 33% (control, 522.4 +/- 20.7 fmol/mg of protein; haloperidol, 694.6 +/- 23.6 fmol/mg of protein; p sulpiride (100 mg/kg/day) and clozapine (20 mg/kg/day) did not (control, 290.3 +/- 8.7 fmol/mg of protein; haloperidol, 358.1 +/- 6.9 fmol/mg of protein; fluphenazine, 381.3 +/- 13.6 fmol/mg of protein; sulpiride, 319.8 +/- 18.9 fmol/mg of protein; clozapine, 309.2 +/- 13.7 fmol/mg of protein).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Dietary omega-3 deficiency reduces BDNF content and activation NMDA receptor and Fyn in dorsal hippocampus: implications on persistence of long-term memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Simone Azevedo; de Siqueira, Letícia V; Müller, Alexandre P; Oses, Jean P; Quatrim, Andreia; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Vinadé, Lúcia; Souza, Diogo O; Moreira, Júlia D

    2014-07-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are important for adequate brain function and cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how n-3 fatty acids influence the persistence of long-term memory (LTM) in an aversive memory task and to explore the putative mechanism involved. Female rats received isocaloric diets that included n-3 (n-3 group) or not (D group). The adult litters were subjected to an inhibitory avoidance task (0.7 mA, 1.0 seconds foot shock) to elicit persistent LTM. Twelve hours after the training session, the fatty acid profile and the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content of the dorsal hippocampus were assessed. In addition, we measured the activation of the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the SRC family protein Fyn. Despite pronounced learning in both groups, the persistence of LTM was abolished in the D group 7 days after the training session. We also observed that the D group presented reductions in hippocampal DHA (22:6 n-3) and BDNF content. Twelve hours after the training session, the D group showed decreased NR2B and Fyn phosphorylation in the dorsal hippocampus, with no change in the total content of these proteins. Further, there was a decrease in the interaction of Fyn with NR2B in the D group, as observed by co-immunoprecipitation. Taken together, these data suggest that n-3 fatty acids influence the persistence of LTM by maintaining adequate levels of DHA and BDNF as well as by influencing the activation of NR2B and Fyn during the period of memory formation.

  11. Kinetic analysis of transport and opioid receptor binding of ( sup 3 H)(-)-cyclofoxy in rat brain in vivo: Implications for human studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Y.; Kawai, R.; McManaway, M.; Otsuki, H.; Rice, K.C.; Patlak, C.S.; Blasberg, R.G. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-03-01

    (3H)Cyclofoxy (CF: 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14-dihydroxy-4,5-alpha-epoxy-6-beta-fluoromorp hinan) is an opioid antagonist with affinity to both mu and kappa subtypes that was synthesized for quantitative evaluation of opioid receptor binding in vivo. Two sets of experiments in rats were analyzed. The first involved determining the metabolite-corrected blood concentration and tissue distribution of CF in brain 1 to 60 min after i.v. bolus injection. The second involved measuring brain washout for 15 to 120 s following intracarotid artery injection of CF. A physiologically based model and a classical compartmental pharmacokinetic model were compared. The models included different assumptions for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB); estimates of nonspecific tissue binding and specific binding to a single opiate receptor site were found to be essentially the same with both models. The nonspecific binding equilibrium constant varied modestly in different brain structures (Keq = 3-9), whereas the binding potential (BP) varied over a much broader range (BP = 0.6-32). In vivo estimates of the opioid receptor dissociation constant were similar for different brain structures (KD = 2.1-5.2 nM), whereas the apparent receptor density (Bmax) varied between 1 (cerebellum) and 78 (thalamus) pmol/g of brain. The receptor dissociation rate constants in cerebrum (k4 = 0.08-0.16 min-1; koff = 0.16-0.23 min-1) and brain vascular permeability (PS = 1.3-3.4 ml/min/g) are sufficiently high to achieve equilibrium conditions within a reasonable period of time. Graphical analysis of the data is inappropriate due to the high tissue-loss rate constant for CF in brain. From these findings, CF should be a very useful opioid receptor ligand for the estimation of the receptor binding parameters in human subjects using (18F)CF and positron emission tomography.

  12. Transcriptome of the NTS in exercise-trained spontaneously hypertensive rats: implications for NTS function and plasticity in regulating blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Hidefumi; Gouraud, Sabine S; Bhuiyan, Mohammad E R; Takagishi, Miwa; Yamazaki, Toshiya; Kohsaka, Akira; Maeda, Masanobu

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) controls the cardiovascular system during exercise, and alteration of its function may underlie exercise-induced cardiovascular adaptation. To understand the molecular basis of the NTS's plasticity in regulating blood pressure (BP) and its potential contribution to the antihypertensive effects, we characterized the gene expression profiles at the level of the NTS after long-term daily wheel running in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed to screen for differentially expressed genes in the NTS between exercise-trained (12 wk) and control SHRs. Pathway analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database revealed that daily exercise altered the expression levels of NTS genes that are functionally associated with metabolic pathways (5 genes), neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions (4 genes), cell adhesion molecules (3 genes), and cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions (3 genes). One of the genes that belonged to the neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions category was histamine receptor H(1). Since we confirmed that the pressor response induced by activation of this receptor is increased after long-term daily exercise, it is suggested that functional plasticity in the histaminergic system may mediate the facilitation of blood pressure control in response to exercise but may not be involved in the lowered basal BP level found in exercise-trained SHRs. Since abnormal inflammatory states in the NTS are known to be prohypertensive in SHRs, altered gene expression of the inflammatory molecules identified in this study may be related to the antihypertensive effects in exercise-trained SHRs, although such speculation awaits functional validation.

  13. The Meta Analysis of Alleviatory Effect of Kangaroo Care on Neonatal Painful Caused by Invasive Operation%袋鼠式护理缓解侵入性操作所致新生儿疼痛的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴海善; 王松; 李胜玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过对袋鼠式护理缓解侵入性操作所致新生儿疼痛的随机对照试验和(或)临床对照试验文献进行Meta分析,客观评价袋鼠式护理的效果,为临床新生儿疼痛的管理提供理论依据.方法 联机检索在线PUBMED、EBSCO、OVID、EMBASE、Cochrane library、中国知网、中国生物医学文献数据库,并以手工检索和引文检索为辅助,全面获取有关袋鼠式护理缓解侵入性操作所致新生儿疼痛的中英文文献.对符合纳入标准的文献,由两名研究者独立进行方法学质量评价和资料提取.采用RevMan5.0.25统计软件进行meta分析.结果 经筛选共纳入7篇临床对照试验文献.Meta分析结果显示:袋鼠式护理和襁褓包裹比较,更能稳定新生儿侵入性操作期间和操作后恢复期的心率及血氧饱和度(P<0.01),可缩短新生儿侵入性操作时和操作后恢复期啼哭和疼痛面容的持续时间(P<0.01),可减少新生儿侵入性操作时的NFCS评分(P<0.01).结论 袋鼠式护理可以有效缓解新生儿对疼痛的生理反应和行为反应,减轻新生儿疼痛.由于相关研究较少,今后尚需纳入更多设计严格的大样本随机对照试验以进一步评价袋鼠式护理缓解新生儿疼痛的效果.%Objective To evaluate the alleviatory effect of kangaroo care on neonatal pain caused by invasive operation using Meta analysis. Methods With the computer retrieval of PUBMED/MEDLINE , EBSCO, OVID, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CNKI, CMBI and auxiliary manual retrieval, citation retrieval as well, the author tried to gain the documents comprehensively in both Chinese and English on the kangaroo care easing neonatal pain caused by invasive operation. To the included documents fit for standard, two researchers were planned to screen them and then to make a methodological quality evaluation and material extraction independently. The RevMan5.0.25 statistical software for Meta analysis was used. Results After

  14. Fluoxetine prevents development of an early stress-related molecular signature in the rat infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex. Implications for depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Rafael A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress, particularly in chronic form, can lead to mood and cognitive dysfunction and is a major risk factor in the development of depressive states. How stress affects the brain to cause psychopathologies is incompletely understood. We sought to characterise potential depression related mechanisms by analysing gene expression and molecular pathways in the infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (ILmPFC, following a repeated psychological stress paradigm. The ILmPFC is thought to be involved in the processing of emotionally contextual information and in orchestrating the related autonomic responses, and it is one of the brain regions implicated in both stress responses and depression. Results Genome-wide microarray analysis of gene expression showed sub-chronic restraint stress resulted predominantly in a reduction in transcripts 24 hours after the last stress episode, with 239 genes significantly decreased, while just 24 genes had increased transcript abundance. Molecular pathway analysis using DAVID identified 8 pathways that were significantly enriched in the differentially expressed gene list, with genes belonging to the brain-derived neurotrophic factor – neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (BDNF-Ntrk2 pathway most enriched. Of the three intracellular signalling pathways that are downstream of Ntrk2, real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that only the PI3K-AKT-GSK3B and MAPK/ERK pathways were affected by sub-chronic stress, with the PLCγ pathway unaffected. Interestingly, chronic antidepressant treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, prevented the stress-induced Ntrk2 and PI3K pathway changes, but it had no effect on the MAPK/ERK pathway. Conclusions These findings indicate that abnormal BDNF-Ntrk2 signalling may manifest at a relatively early time point, and is consistent with a molecular signature of depression developing well before depression-like behaviours occur

  15. Retinoic acid isomers up-regulate ATP binding cassette A1 and G1 and cholesterol efflux in rat astrocytes: implications for their therapeutic and teratogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Costa, Lucio G; Guizzetti, Marina

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that retinoids may be effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, although exposure to an excess of retinoids during gestation causes teratogenesis. Cholesterol is essential for brain development, but high levels of cholesterol have been associated with Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that retinoic acid may affect cholesterol homeostasis in rat astrocytes, which regulate cholesterol distribution in the brain, through the up-regulation of cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette (Abc)a1 and Abcg1. Tretinoin, 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis-RA), 9-cis-RA, and the selective retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist methoprene significantly increased cholesterol efflux induced by cholesterol acceptors and protein levels of Abca1 by 2.3- (± 0.25), 3.6- (± 0.42), 4.1- (± 0.5), and 1.75- (± 0.43) fold, respectively, and Abcg1 by 2.1- (± 0.26), 2.2- (± 0.33), 2.5- (± 0.23), and 2.2- (± 0.21) fold, respectively. 13-cis-RA and 9-cis-RA also significantly increased mRNA levels of Abca1 (maximal induction 7.3 ± 0.42 and 2.7 ± 0.17, respectively) and Abcg1 (maximal induction 2.0 ± 0.18 and 1.8 ± 0.09, respectively), and the levels of membrane-bound Abca1 (2.5 ± 0.3 and 2.5 ± 0.40-fold increase, respectively), whereas they significantly decreased intracellular cholesterol content without affecting cholesterol synthesis. The effect of 9-cis-RA on cholesterol homeostasis in astrocytes can be ascribed to the activation of RXR, whereas the effects of 13-cis-RA and tretinoin were independent of either RXRs or retinoic acid receptors. These findings suggest that retinoids affect cholesterol homeostasis in astrocytes and that this effect may be involved in both their therapeutic and teratogenic actions.

  16. Developmental Responses of the Lateral Hypothalamus to Leptin in Neonatal Rats, and its Implications for the Development of Functional Connections with the Ventral Tegmental Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, E; Long, H; Richard, D; Walker, C-D

    2016-03-01

    Food intake is regulated by a close communication between the hypothalamus and the mesocorticolimbic pathways, which are still developing during the perinatal period in the rat, and are known targets for peripheral metabolic hormones such as leptin. A key region for this communication is the lateral hypothalamus (LH), although the onset of leptin responsiveness in the LH is unknown. We examined the activation of cellular signalling molecules in identified LH neurones on postnatal day (PND)10 and 16 and determined whether leptin directly targets orexin A (ORX-A) or neurotensin (NT) LH neurones through the detection of leptin receptors (ObRb) mRNA on these neurones. Next, using retrograde labelling in PND6 pups, we tested whether phenotypically identified neurones of the LH that respond to leptin project to ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurones. Leptin significantly induced phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)1/2 and phosphorylated signal transducer activator of transcription (pSTAT)3 in the LH on PND16, whereas, on PND10, modest pERK1/2- and sparse pSTAT3-positive cells were identified. On PND16, most pERK1/2-activated neurones contain ORX-A and leptin-induced pSTAT3 was observed in other unidentified neurones. Afferents to the VTA were observed on PND6, including a large input from the LH, which contained both ORX-A-positive and non-ORX-A neurones, with some of these ORX-A neurones being activated by leptin treatment. Leptin receptor (ObRb) mRNA in the LH did not colocalise with ORX-A neurones on PND10, and only a few NT-positive neurones displayed ObRb mRNA expression. Thus, functional responsiveness to leptin in LH neurones is only partially achieved prior to the onset of independent feeding on PND16, and ORX-A neurones are indirectly activated by leptin. The presence of anatomical connections between the LH and the VTA in the first week of life, prior to the development of leptin responsiveness in both structures, suggests that tissue

  17. Fine-mapping resolves Eae23 into two QTLs and implicates ZEB1 as a candidate gene regulating experimental neuroinflammation in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Stridh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To elucidate mechanisms involved in multiple sclerosis (MS, we studied genetic regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in rats, assuming a conservation of pathogenic pathways. In this study, we focused on Eae23, originally identified to regulate EAE in a (LEW.1AV1xPVG.1AV1F2 cross. Our aim was to determine whether one or more genes within the 67 Mb region regulate EAE and to define candidate risk genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used high resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis in the 10th generation (G10 of an advanced intercross line (AIL to resolve Eae23 into two QTLs that independently regulate EAE, namely Eae23a and Eae23b. We established a congenic strain to validate the effect of this region on disease. PVG alleles in Eae23 resulted in significant protection from EAE and attenuated CNS inflammation/demyelination. Disease amelioration was accompanied with increased levels of Foxp3(+ cells in the CNS of the congenic strain compared to DA. We then focused on candidate gene investigation in Eae23b, a 9 Mb region linked to all clinical phenotypes. Affymetrix exon arrays were used to study expression of the genes in Eae23b in the parental strains, where none showed differential expression. However, we found lower expression of exon 4 of ZEB1, which is specific for splice-variant Zfhep1. ZEB1 is an interleukin 2 (IL2 repressor involved in T cell development. The splice-specific variance prompted us to next analyze the expression of ZEB1 and its two splice variants, Zfhep1 and Zfhep2, in both lymph node and spleen. We demonstrated that ZEB1 splice-variants are differentially expressed; severity of EAE and higher IL2 levels were associated with down-regulation of Zfhep1 and up-regulation of Zfhep2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We speculate that the balance between splice-variants of ZEB1 could influence the regulation of EAE. Further functional studies of ZEB1 and the splice-variants may unravel

  18. Tyrosine hydroxylase is short-term regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in PC12 cells and hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rats: possible implications in hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A Congo Carbajosa

    Full Text Available Aberrations in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS are implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamines biosynthesis, is involved in hypertension development. In this study we investigated whether UPS regulated TH turnover in PC12 cells and hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and whether this system was impaired in hypertension. PC12 cells were exposed to proteasome or lysosome inhibitors and TH protein level evaluated by Western blot. Lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, induced an increase of 86 ± 15% in TH levels after 30 min of incubation, then it started to decrease up to 6 h to reach control levels and finally it rose up to 35.2 ± 8.5% after 24 h. Bafilomycin, a lysosome inhibitor, did not alter TH protein levels during short times, but it increased TH by 92 ± 22% above basal after 6 h treatment. Before degradation proteasome substrates are labeled by conjugation with ubiquitin. Efficacy of proteasome inhibition on TH turnover was evidenced by accumulation of ubiquitinylated TH after 30 min. Further, the inhibition of proteasome increased the quantity of TH phosphorylated at Ser40, which is essential for TH activity, by 2.7 ± 0.3 fold above basal. TH protein level was upregulated in neurons from hypothalami and brainstem of SHR when the proteasome was inhibited during 30 min, supporting that neuronal TH is also short-term regulated by the proteasome. Since the increased TH levels reported in hypertension may result from proteasome dysfunction, we evaluate proteasome activity. Proteasome activity was significantly reduced by 67 ± 4% in hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from SHR while its protein levels did not change. Present findings show that TH is regulated by the UPS. The impairment in proteasome activity observed in SHR neurons may be one of the causes of the increased TH protein levels reported in hypertension.

  19. Mercuric ion attenuates nuclear factor-kappaB activation and DNA binding in normal rat kidney epithelial cells: implications for mercury-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez-Acuña, F J; Ellis, M E; Kushleika, J; Woods, J S

    2001-06-15

    Mercuric ion (Hg(2+)), one of the strongest thiol-binding agents known, mediates the toxicity associated with elemental, inorganic, and organic mercurial compounds. Studies of cellular events associated with Hg(2+) toxicity have focused largely on disruption of cell membranes and impairment of mitochondrial functions. In contrast, few studies have sought to define the specific molecular mechanisms through which Hg(2+) might affect toxicity via alteration of thiol-dependent signal transduction pathways that regulate cell proliferation and survival. Of particular interest in this regard is the effect of Hg(2+) on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a pleiotropic transcriptional factor that is known to require reduced cysteine moieties at critical steps of activation and DNA binding. Here, we evaluated the effects of Hg(2+) on the expression of NF-kappaB in normal rat kidney epithelial (NRK52E) cells, a principal target of Hg(2+) toxicity. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible form of NF-kappaB was readily detected in kidney cells and has been characterized as the p50p65 heterodimer. NF-kappaB-DNA binding was prevented in a dose-related manner by Hg(2+) (0-55 microM) in vitro when added to DNA binding reactions containing the nonthiol reducing agent Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP). Similarly, Hg(2+) at the same concentrations prevented DNA binding of a human recombinant wild-type p50p50 homodimer in binding reactions, and this effect was attenuated using a mutant form of the p50 protein containing a cys(62)-->ser(62) mutation. The inhibition of p50-DNA binding by Hg(2+) was reversible in a dose-related manner in vitro by competitive thiols DTT, GSH, and l-cysteine in binding reactions. In contrast, competitive thiols added to nuclear binding reactions were unable to reverse attenuation of LPS-mediated NF-kappaB-DNA binding affinity when cells were pretreated in vivo with Hg(2+) at concentrations as low as 2 microM prior to LPS administration

  20. Método Mãe Canguru: aplicação no Brasil, evidências científicas e impacto sobre o aleitamento materno Kangaroo Mother Care: scientific evidences and impact on breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Isoyama Venancio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o histórico do Método Mãe Canguru e apresentar evidências científicas sobre os benefícios dessa prática para os bebês de baixo peso no tocante a morbimortalidade, desenvolvimento psicoafetivo, neurossensorial e amamentação. FONTES DE DADOS: Foram consultadas publicações sobre o Método Mãe Canguru abrangendo o período de 1983 até 2004, identificadas nas bases de dados MEDLINE e Lilacs, bem como livros, teses e publicações técnicas do Ministério da Saúde. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Desde sua primeira descrição, o Método Mãe Canguru tem sido amplamente estudado. A análise de experimentos randomizados mostrou que o mesmo consiste em fator de proteção para a amamentação exclusiva no momento da alta hospitalar (RR 0,41; IC95% 0,25-0,68. O método também está associado a redução do risco de infecção hospitalar com 41 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida (RR 0,49; IC95% 0,25-0,93; redução de enfermidades graves (RR 0,30; IC95% 0,14-0,67; redução de infecções do trato respiratório inferior aos 6 meses (RR 0,37; IC95% 0,15-0,89; e maior ganho ponderal diário (diferença de médias de 3,6 g/dia; IC95% 0,8-6,4. O desenvolvimento psicomotor foi semelhante entre bebês submetidos ao Método Mãe Canguru e controles aos 12 meses, e não houve evidências de impacto sobre a mortalidade infantil. CONCLUSÃO: Há evidências de impacto positivo do Método Mãe Canguru sobre a prática da amamentação. Embora o método pareça reduzir a morbidade infantil, as evidências são ainda insuficientes para que o mesmo seja recomendado rotineiramente. Por outro lado, não existem relatos sobre efeitos deletérios da aplicação do método. Há a necessidade de se realizar estudos sobre a efetividade, aplicabilidade e aceitabilidade do Método Mãe Canguru em nosso meio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the history of the Kangaroo Mother Care and present scientific evidence about benefits of this practice on morbidity and

  1. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOTH, Eduardo Alexandre; CECATTO, Vanessa; BIAZIM, Samia Khalil; FERREIRA, José Henrique Fermino; DANIELLI, Caroline; GENSKE, Rodrigo Daniel; GANDRA, Rinaldo Ferreira; de FRANCO, Marcello Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring. PMID:27049707

  2. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Cecatto, Vanessa; Biazim, Samia Khalil; Ferreira, José Henrique Fermino; Danielli, Caroline; Genske, Rodrigo Daniel; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Franco, Marcello Fabiano de

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alexandre LOTH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  4. 考虑尾巴的六刚体仿袋鼠跳跃机器人的落地稳定性研究%Stance Stability of a Hopping Robot Based on the Six-rigid-body Kangaroo Model Considering Its Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜兴长; 杨方; 葛文杰; 杨静

    2011-01-01

    根据袋鼠的生物结构及跳跃的特点,建立了具有尾巴和脚趾的仿袋鼠跳跃机器人六刚体模型。应用拉格朗日方法,建立了机构在着地阶段的运动学和动力学方程。运用Matlab7.0对机器人进行仿真计算分析,给出了机器人在着地阶段的各关节转角、关节驱动力矩、质心轨迹、着地压力和ZMP随时间的变化规律。仿真结果表明:考虑尾巴的六刚体仿袋鼠跳跃机器人能显著提高机构的落地稳定性。%Bsaed on the bionic structure and the motion feature of a kangaroo, we estamlsn a mouel ior unlpeu hopping mechanism of a six-rigid-body bionic kangaroo with tail and toe. We adopt Lagrange method to establish the dynamics and kinematics equations for its stance phase. Taking the hopping robot with parameters as an example and using Matlab 7.0 for simulation ,we obtain the changing rule of each joint angle ,joint driving torque, the centroid trajectory, the ground pressure and ZMP with time of the stance phase. The result shows that the tail can greatly improve the stance stability of the bionic kangaroo robot.

  5. Mmatshilo Motsei 2007: The kanga and the kangaroo court – reflections on the rape trial of Jacob Zuma. Jacana, Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Simphiwe Sesanti

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary interpretations of African culture are responsible for objectifying women. This is Mmatshilo Motsei’s conclusion after profound reflections on the implications of Jacob Zuma’s rape trial in which he was accused of raping the daughter of his comrade who died in exile.
    In the trial Zuma claimed that the sexual encounter was consensual. When explaining his submission to passion and failing to use a condom, he said that had he left the woman sexually unfulfilled, in Zulu c...

  6. Endomorphins and ohmefentanyl in the inhibition of immunosuppressant function in rat peritoneal macrophages: An experimental in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei-Yan; Yang, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Si-Hai; Liu, Hong-Jun; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2008-01-01

    Background: The potential immunosuppressant effects of opioids might have clinical implications. The effects of endomorphins (EMs) and ohmefentanyl (OMF) on cultured rat peritoneal macrophages remain unclear.

  7. Atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo-peso. Método Canguru e cuidado centrado na família: correspondências e especificidades Humanized care for low birth weight newborns. The Kangaroo care Method and family-centered care: correspondence and specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Abreu e Silva Hennig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru - como uma diretriz clínica na assistência neonatal, e busca traçar um paralelo com outro importante componente do cuidado infantil descrito na literatura internacional: o cuidado centrado na família. O artigo propõe que a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru seja vista como uma boa prática e seja considerada também no campo das tecnologias em saúde.The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care as clinical guidelines in neonatal intensive care. It will also try to link this clinical guideline and another component of neonatal infant care: the Family-Centered Care. Based on this relationship, this paper proposes that Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care should be catalogued as a Potentially Better Practices and also, considered as a Health Care Technology.

  8. O Método Mãe Canguru em hospitais públicos do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise do processo de implantação Kangaroo Mother Care in public hospitals in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: an analysis of the implementation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Júlia Colameo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi elaborado para analisar a implantação do Método Mãe Canguru em 28 diferentes hospitais públicos do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os hospitais escola, os amigos da criança, os com banco de leite humano e os com mais de 12 profissionais treinados obtiveram melhores escores de implantação. A resistência dos profissionais de saúde à participação da família tem dado um caráter intra-hospitalar ao método. Mudanças no treinamento, incluir os gestores no programa e prever recursos orçamentários para a adoção, avaliação e controle do Método Mãe Canguru são necessários.This study analyzed the implementation of the Kangaroo Mother method in 28 different São Paulo State public hospitals. Teaching hospitals, Baby-Friendly Hospitals, hospitals with human milk banks, and those with more than 12 trained health professionals showed higher implementation scores. Because of staff resistance to family participation in neonatal care, the Kangaroo Mother method is basically applied in-hospital. Changes in the initial training, including manager awareness-raising and proper financial resource allocation, are necessary for implementation, follow-up, assessment, and feedback.

  9. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Berner, Laura A; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2011-10-24

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet or a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was also not seen in rats fed a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize "food addiction" may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed.

  10. Comparison of the effects of hexavalent chromium in the alimentary canal of F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice following exposure in drinking water: implications for carcinogenic modes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chad M; Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C; Hébert, Charles D; Mann, Jill F; Shertzer, Howard G; Hixon, J Gregory; Harris, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) in drinking water is reported to induce oral mucosa tumors in F344 rats and intestinal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To investigate the modes of action underlying these tumors, 90-day drinking water studies (with interim necropsy at day 8) were conducted with concentrations of 0.1-182 mg/l Cr(VI), administered as 0.3-520 mg/l sodium dichromate dihydrate. Blood and tissue samples were analyzed for chromium content, oxidative stress, iron levels, and gross and microscopic lesions. Results for the F344 rats are described herein and compared with results from B6C3F1 mice published previously. After 90 days of exposure, total chromium concentrations in the rat and mouse oral mucosae were comparable, yet significant dose-dependent decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed only in rats. In the duodenum, changes in GSH/GSSG were only observed in mice. Levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were not increased in the oral or duodenal mucosae of either species. Glutathione levels were increased in the duodenum but decreased in the jejunum of both species, indicating potential differential responses in the intestinal segments. Histiocytic infiltration was observed in the duodenum of both species, yet duodenal cytokines were repressed in mice but increased in rats. Serum and bone marrow iron levels were more decreased in rats than mice. Collectively, these data suggest that Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis in the rodent alimentary canal involves oxidative stress; however, differences in histopathology, cytokines, and iron status suggest potential contributions from other factors as well.

  11. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... Our results show, for the first time, that oral administration of C. edulis ... the exact mechanisms of these hematological changes produced by .... Hematological analysis .... rats are subjected to the additional stress of hypoxia to.

  12. Altered phosphodiesterase 3-mediated cAMP hydrolysis contributes to a hypermotile phenotype in obese JCR:LA-cp rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for diabetes-associated cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherton, Stuart J; Jimmo, Sandra L; Palmer, Daniel; Tilley, Douglas G; Dunkerley, Heather A; Raymond, Daniel R; Russell, James C; Absher, P Marlene; Sage, E Helene; Vernon, Robert B; Maurice, Donald H

    2002-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Of the many animal models used in the study of non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes, the JCR:LA-cp rat is unique in that it develops insulin resistance in the presence of obesity and manifests both peripheral and coronary vasculopathies. In this animal model, arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from homozygous obese (cp/cp) rats, but not from age-matched healthy (+/+ or + /cp, collectively defined +/?) littermates, display an " activated" phenotype in vitro and in vivo and have an elevated level of cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. In this report, we confirm that cp/cp rat aortic VSMCs have an elevated level of PDE3 activity and show that only particulate PDE3 (PDE3B) activity is elevated. In marked contrast to results obtained in + /? VSMCs, simultaneous activation of adenylyl cyclase and inhibition of PDE3 activity in cp/cp VSMCs synergistically increased cAMP. Although PDE3 inhibition did not potentiate the antimigratory effects of forskolin on +/? VSMCs, PDE3 inhibition did markedly potentiate the forskolin-induced inhibition of migration of cp/cp-derived VSMCs. Although PDE3 activity was elevated in cp/cp rat aortic VSMCs, levels of expression of cytosolic PDE3 (PDE3A) and PDE3B in +/? and cp/cp VSMCs, as well as activation of these enzymes following activation of the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling cascade, were not different. Our data are consistent with an increased role for PDE3 in regulating cAMP-dependent signaling in cp/cp VSMCs and identify PDE3 as a cellular activity potentially responsible for the phenotype of cp/cp VSMCs.

  13. The spontaneously hypertensive rat/Izm (SHR/Izm) shows attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors but without impulsive behavior: therapeutic implications of low-dose methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Yuki; Kawahara, Yukie; Yamada, Makiko; Kaneko, Fumi; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Nishi, Akinori

    2014-11-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been used as a genetic animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). SHR/Izm is derived from stroke-resistant SHR as SHR/NIH and SHR/NCrl but from 22nd to 23rd generation descendants of the SHR/NIH ancestor and therefore may show different behavioral phenotypes compared to other SHR sub-strains. In this study, ADHD-like behaviors in SHR/Izm were evaluated compared to Wistar rats. SHR/Izm showed high locomotor activity in the habituation phase in a novel environment, although locomotor activity in the initial exploratory phase was low. In a behavioral test for attention, spontaneous alternation behavior in the Y-maze test was impaired in SHR/Izm. However, impulsive behavior in the elevated-plus maze test, which is designed to detect anxiety-related behavior but also reflects impulsivity for novelty seeking, was comparable to Wistar rats. Hyperactivity and inattention, detected as ADHD-like behaviors in SHR/Izm, were ameliorated with methylphenidate at a low dose (0.05mg/kg, i.p.). Therefore, SHR/Izm represents a unique animal model of ADHD without anxiety-related impulsive behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Is the modern koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) a derived dwarf of a Pleistocene giant? Implications for testing megafauna extinction hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gilbert J.

    2008-12-01

    The modern Australian koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) is commonly regarded as a dwarf descendent of a Late Pleistocene giant koala ( Ph. stirtoni). The implication of that hypothesis is that the giant koala survived the Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinction "event", albeit as a smaller body-sized form. It is important to be able to constrain rates of Late Pleistocene faunal turnover, an aspect reliant on having accurate taxonomic information of extinct species. The koala dwarfing hypothesis is tested here by using a temporally-constrained biogeographical record of fossil koalas, and a morphological character analysis. The contemporary occurrence of both taxa in pre-Late Pleistocene deposits and significant differences in dental morphologies between those forms suggests that the modern koala is not a derived dwarf of the Pleistocene giant koala. Thus, the giant-form was among a number of other giant mammals, lizards and birds that suffered extinction sometime during the Late Pleistocene. The potential phenomenon of dwarfing of other Late Pleistocene and Recent faunas, such as grey kangaroos, is commonly used as a test for or against various megafaunal extinction hypotheses. However, the results of this study also demonstrate that the dwarfing hypothesis has not been adequately tested for a suite of other taxa. Thus, until the dwarfing hypothesis can be more fully tested, a clear understanding of the fate of Late Pleistocene faunas that apparently survived the extinction "event", and the origins of many extant forms will remain elusive.

  15. Expression profile of saccharide epitope CaMBr1 in normal and neoplastic tissue from dogs, cats, and rats: implication for the development of human-derived cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adobati, E; Zacchetti, A; Perico, M E; Cremonesi, F; Rasi, G; Vallebona, P S; Hagenaars, M; Kuppen, P J; Pastan, I; Panza, L; Russo, G; Colnaghi, M I; Canevari, S

    1999-11-01

    CaMBr1 is a blood group-related tumour-associated antigen, whose pattern of expression provides a therapeutic window for passive or active immunotherapy and points to the promise of a vaccine against carcinomas overexpressing this antigen. In this context, an animal model that closely mimics the human situation would be extremely useful. We, therefore, utilised the murine monoclonal antibody MBr1, which defines CaMBr1, as a useful probe to detect the molecule targeted for vaccine development on canine and feline spontaneous breast and uterus tumours and on their normal counterparts, and on rat normal tissues and carcinoma cell lines. Immunoperoxidase staining of cryostat sections revealed homogeneous CaMBr1 expression only in normal feline uterus and a uterus papilloma, whereas MBr1 reactivity was very weak and heterogeneous in normal (1/3 and 1/3) and tumour (1/10 and 1/6) breast tissues from dogs and cats, respectively. In contrast, the data obtained in rat tissues were reproducible in the strains tested and showed that CaMBr1 was expressed in all epithelial tissues of the digestive tract, although with variable intensities. Monoclonal antibody staining appeared to correspond to membrane-bound structures as well as mucinous secretions. Similarly, secretion products of lactating mammary glands expressed CaMBr1. The spectrum of expression on rat digestive tract was broader than that in humans but the specificity of MBr1 reactivity was confirmed by competition assay with a synthetic tetrasaccharide that mimics the CaMBr1 antigen. On FACS analysis, only one of two clonal derivatives of the rat breast carcinoma line RAMA 25 expressed CaMBr1, and a negative cell subset was evident in repeated experiments. By contrast, both colon carcinoma lines, DHD/K12 and CC531, showed staining with MBr1, albeit at different levels of intensity, and no evidence of a negative subset. The cell line CC531 maintained or even increased CaMBr1 expression levels following transplantation in

  16. PHARMACOKINETICS AND METABOLISM OF A SELECTIVE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATOR IN RATS: IMPLICATION OF MOLECULAR PROPERTIES AND INTENSIVE METABOLIC PROFILE TO INVESTIGATE IDEAL PHARMACOKINETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROPANAMIDE IN PRECLINICAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Wu, Zengru; Yang, Jun; Nair, Vipin A.; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    S-1 [3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-[4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-propanamide] is one member of a series of potent selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that are being explored and developed for androgen-dependent diseases. Recent studies showed that S-1 holds great promise as a novel therapeutic agent for benign hyperplasia [W. Gao, J. D. Kearbey, V. A. Nair, K. Chung, A. F. Parlow, D. D. Miller, and J. T. Dalton (2004) Endocrinology 145:5420–5428]. We examined the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of S-1 in rats as a component of our preclinical development of this compound and continued interest in structure-activation relationships for SARM action. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to treatment groups and received either an i.v. or a p.o. dose of S-1 at a dose level of 0.1, 1, 10, or 30 mg/kg. S-1 demonstrated a low clearance (range, 3.6–5.2 ml/min/kg), a moderate volume of distribution (range, 1460–1560 ml/kg), and a terminal half-life ranging from 3.6 to 5.2 h after i.v. doses. The oral bioavailability of S-1 ranged from 55% to 60%. Forty phase I and phase II metabolites of S-1 were identified in the urine and feces of male Sprague-Dawley rats dosed at 50 mg/kg via the i.v. route. The two major urinary metabolites of S-1 were a carboxylic acid and a sulfate-conjugate of 4-nitro-3-trifluoromethylphenylamine. Phase I metabolites arising from A-ring nitro reduction to an aromatic amine and B-ring hydroxylation were also identified in the urinary and fecal samples of rats. Furthermore, a variety of phase II metabolites through sulfation, glucuronidation, and methylation were also found. These studies demonstrate that S-1 is rapidly absorbed, slowly cleared, moderately distributed, and extensively metabolized in rats. PMID:16381665

  17. Percepção dos pais sobre a vivência no método mãe-canguru La percepción de los padres en la vivencia del método madre-canguro Perception of parents in experiencing the kangaroo mother method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Elisângela Fernandes Bis Furlan

    2003-08-01

    institucional del equipo de salud como de la relación con la clientela, posibilitando la comprensión de las dificultades y significados atribuidos a la vivencia y a la optimización del cuidado de enfermería.This study aimed at analyzing the perception of pre-term babies' parents in experiencing the Kangaroo Mother Method. It is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with 10 parents, held in the first 60 days after the discharge of the pre-term baby from the Kangaroo method, in a philanthropic hospital in the interior of São Paulo State. The parents' perception concerning the experience was grouped in four thematic units: making maternal stay in the Kangaroo Method flexible; favoring the mother-child and family relationship; completing the pre-term newborn's growth and development and developing skills in caring for the child. The obtained data provided information for the organization of care in the Kangaroo Mother Method, from the institutional perspective of the health care team as well as the relationship with clients, which enabled understanding about the difficulties and meanings attributed to the experience and optimization of nursing care.

  18. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and alpha-tocopherol attenuate haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats: Possible implication of antiapoptotic mechanisms by preventing Bcl-2 decrease and Bax elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hui Mei; Tan, Yun Long; Shi, Jing; Wang, Zhiren; Lv, Meng Han; Soares, Jair C; Zhou, Dongfeng; Yang, Fude; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2016-12-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious side effect of long-term administration of typical neuroleptics, such as haloperidol. The pathophysiology of TD remains unclear, but the experimental evidence suggests that free radical-induced neuronal apoptosis in the basal ganglia may play an important role. This study was to investigate changes in Bax and Bcl-2 expression levels in TD-associated brain regions and the effects of the antioxidant EGb761 on Bax and Bcl-2 levels in an animal model of TD. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four study groups: saline control (saline), haloperidol-alone (haloperidol), EGb761-haloperidol (EGb), and alpha-tocopherol-haloperidol (vitamin E). Rats were treated with daily intraperitoneal haloperidol injections (2 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. EGb761 (50 mg/kg/day) and alpha-tocopherol (20 mg/kg/day) were then administered for another 5 weeks during the withdrawal period. Behavioral assessments were performed, and Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression levels were immunohistochemically analyzed in four brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, striatum, substantia nigra, and globus pallidum. We found that increased vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) were associated with increased proapoptotic Bax protein expression, decreased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression, and an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. EGb761 and alpha-tocopherol treatment reversed the increase in VCMs, decreased Bax expression, increased Bcl-2 expression, and decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These results demonstrate that long-term haloperidol administration may affect Bcl-2 protein family expression and promote neuronal apoptosis in the basal ganglia. In combination with their antioxidant capacity, EGb761 and alpha-tocopherol's antiapoptotic effects through Bcl-2 might account for the symptom improvement observed in haloperidol-induced TD rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Discovery of a novel coronavirus, China Rattus coronavirus HKU24, from Norway rats supports murine origin of Betacoronavirus 1 and has implications for the ancestor of Betacoronavirus lineage A

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna K. P. Lau; Woo, Patrick C.Y.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Wang, Ming; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a novel Betacoronavirus lineage A coronavirus, China Rattus coronavirus (ChRCoV) HKU24, from Norway rats in China. ChRCoV HKU24 occupied a deep branch at the root of members of Betacoronavirus 1, being distinct from murine coronavirus and human coronavirus HKU1. Its unique putative cleavage sites between nonstructural proteins 1 and 2 and in the spike (S) protein and low sequence identities to other lineage A betacoronaviruses (βCoVs) in conserved replicase domains support ChRCo...

  20. Effect of the umami peptides on the ligand binding and function of rat mGlu4a receptor might implicate this receptor in the monosodium glutamate taste transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Monastyrskaia, Katherine; Lundstrom, Kenneth; Plahl, Doris; Acuna, Gonzalo; Schweitzer, Christophe; Malherbe, Pari; Mutel, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    The effect of several metabotropic ligands and di- or tripeptides were tested on the binding of [3H]-L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid ([3H]-L-AP4) on rat mGlu4 receptor. For selected compounds, the functional activity was determined on this receptor using the guanosine-5′[γ-35S]-thiotriphosphate [γ-35S]-GTP binding assay.Using the scintillation proximity assay, [3H]-L-AP4 saturation analysis gave binding parameters KD and Bmax values of 150 nM and 9.3 pmoles mg−1 protein, respectively. Th...

  1. Evaluación auditiva neurosensorial en un grupo de prematuros del programa madre conguro Sensorineural auditory evaluation in a group of preterm neonates from the "Kangaroo mother" program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hernández

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1989 y diciembre de 1991 se buscó asociación entre algunos factores de riesgo comunes a los prematuros con peso menor de 1.500 g al nacer y el hecho de presentar disminución de la agudeza auditiva, medida con los potenciales evocados del tallo cerebral a los 4 meses y luego entre los 8 y los 14 meses. Los factores de riesgo tenidos en cuenta en 133 prematuros del ";Programa madre canguro"; del Instituto de los Seguros Sociales, en Medellín, fueron: Peso inferior a 1.500 g, hiperbilirrubinemia superior a 10 mg/ml, sufrimiento fetal, membranas hialinas, uso de aminoglicósidos, hipoglucemia, hemorragia del tercer trimestre e hipertensión arterial materna. Se halló pérdida de la agudeza auditiva en la evaluación inicial en 54 nifíos (40.6% mientras en la final sólo la presentaban 10 (7.5%; no pudo detectarse asociación entre los factores de riesgo y la disminución de la agudeza auditiva en la evaluación inicial ni en la final. La mejoría de resultados de agudeza auditiva entre las pruebas iniciales y las finales puede explicarse, entre otras razones, por la maduración cerebral del prematuro. Se debe investigar más la razón de los déficits finales y, ojalá, establecer programas de seguimiento con pruebas auditivas en este grupo de niños en riesgo. A study was carried out to investigate the association between risk factors commonly found in preterm neonates with very low birth-weight (Iess than 1.500 g and decreased auditory acuteness; the latter was measured according to brain stem evoked potentiaJs (BERA test In 133 preterm neonates belonging to the "Kangaroo mother program", in 'Medellín,Colombla. The following risk factors we~ evaluated: Hyperbilirrubinemia, hyaline membrane, birth weight lower than 1.500g, fetal distress, hypoglycemia, use of aminoglycosldes, thlrd trimester hemorrhage, and maternal high blood presssure. Abnormal results in BERA test were found in 54 cases (40.6% at 4 months and in only 10 (7

  2. Planes, kangaroos, and the CAPD manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, D M; Whishaw, J M; Thomas, M; Thatcher, G

    1996-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) Remote Area Dialysis Programme was developed in 1988 due to the cultural need to dialyze an increasing number of aboriginal patients in their own communities, rather than relocating them up to 3000 km away in Perth. The success of the program relies on remote area health services (RAHS), which have no prior experience in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), providing consistent routine and emergency medical care to the patients. Our aim was to standardize the care of all CAPD patients in remote WA by providing the RAHS with an easy-to-follow manual. Although the RAHS received treatment protocols, and in-service education, consistent care was not always provided. We confirmed this by: (1) examining the existing quality assurance tools, peritonitis and hospital admission rates, (2) discussion with remote area staff regarding patients, and (3) informal assessment of remote area staff receptiveness to in-service education by a CAPD nurse. We identified the causes of the inconsistent care to be: (1) high remote area staff turnover (six months average for a registered nurse), (2) the protocols were difficult to follow, and (3) confusion for the RAHS as to the appropriate contact person at our hospital. In 1994, the situation was exacerbated by the dramatic increase in the number of patients and RAHS involved (14 new patients, bringing the total to 20 patients in 12 centers) plus the introduction of a second treating hospital (with differing protocols). A team of two CAPD nurses and two nephrologists was established, to collaborate with two remote area hospitals and the second treating hospital to produce the "Remote Area CAPD Manual." The manual is an easy-to-follow, step-by-step guide for the management of CAPD by non-dialysis personnel. It has led to improved management of CAPD, improvement in communication with RAHS, and the increased confidence of remote area staff in the management of CAPD patients. In conclusion, RAHS can give consistent care if provided with clear, concise guidelines.

  3. Dopamine denervation does not alter in vivo /sup 3/H-spiperone binding in rat striatum: implications for external imaging of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.P. Jr.; Wooten, G.F.

    1986-04-01

    Striatal particulate preparations, both from rats with lesion-induced striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some striatal dopamine (DA) loss and from some patients with Parkinson's disease, exhibit increased /sup 3/H-neuroleptic binding, which is interpreted to be the mechanism of denervation-induced behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds. After intravenous /sup 3/H-spiperone (/sup 3/H-SP) administration to rats with unilateral nigral lesions, we found no differences in accumulation of total or particulate-bound /sup 3/H-SP in dopamine-denervated compared with intact striata. /sup 3/H-SP in vivo binds to less than 10% of striatal sites labeled by /sup 3/H-SP incubated with striatal particulate preparations in vitro. Quantitative autoradiography of /sup 3/H-SP binding to striatal sections in vitro also failed to reveal any effects of dopamine denervation. /sup 3/H-SP bound to striatal sites in vivo dissociates more slowly than that bound to striatal particulate preparations labeled in vitro. Striatal binding properties of /sup 3/H-SP administered in vivo are quite different from the same kinetic binding parameters estimated in vitro using crude membrane preparations of striatum. In addition, striatal binding of in vivo-administered 3H-SP is not affected by prior lesion of the substantia nigra, which results in profound ipsilateral striatal dopamine depletion. Thus, behavioral supersensitivity to dopaminergic compounds may not be associated with altered striatal binding properties for dopamine receptor ligands in vivo.

  4. Accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity and conditioned place preference in alcohol-preferring AA rats and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats treated repeatedly with cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Kristiina; Petteri Piepponen, T; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2007-07-30

    Transcription factor DeltaFosB has been implicated in the psychomotor responses and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In the present study, we compared the effects of cocaine on the expression of DeltaFosB-like proteins by immunohistochemistry in striatal brain areas of alcohol-preferring (AA) and alcohol-avoiding (ANA) rats. Cocaine was administered using a previously verified treatment paradigm that sensitized the locomotor response to cocaine in AA but not in ANA rats. We also studied the rewarding effects of cocaine with a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in both lines of rats. Cocaine treatment increased the FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (IR) in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats but not in ANA rats. In addition, after repeated saline injections the accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB IR was significantly greater in saline-injected AA rats than in ANA rats. In the caudate-putamen cocaine significantly increased FosB/DeltaFosB IR, but no differences were found between the rats of two lines. In the CPP experiment, AA rats treated with cocaine 2.5 mg/kg preferred the cocaine-associated compartment, in contrast to ANA rats, which did not show such a preference. In conclusion, our findings show that AA rats are more sensitive to cocaine than ANA rats, and suggest that one possible mediator for this increased sensitivity could be the increased expression of fosB-derived proteins in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats.

  5. Reproductive experience influences grooming behavior during pregnancy in rats

    OpenAIRE

    A.P. Serafim; Felicio,L.F.

    2002-01-01

    The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. Reproductive experience has epidemiologial implications such as a decrease in the incidence of mammary gland cancer in women and it also influences various behavioral, neurochemical and endocrine parameters. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive experience on grooming behavior patterns during pregnancy in rats. Self-grooming behavior...

  6. Fructose and NAFLD: metabolic implications and models of induction in rats Frutose e NAFLD: implicações metabólicas e modelos de indução em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. F. Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The increase in fructose consumption is paralleled by a higher incidence of obesity worldwide. This monosaccharide is linked to metabolic syndrome, being associated with hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. It is metabolized principally in the liver, where it can be converted into fatty acids, which are stored in the form of triglycerides leading to NAFLD. Several models of NAFLD use diets high in simple carbohydrates. Thus, this study aimed to describe the major metabolic changes caused by excessive consumption of fructose in humans and animals and to present liver abnormalities resulting from high intakes of fructose in different periods of consumption and experimental designs in Wistar rats. METHODS: Two groups of rats were fasted for 48 hours and reefed for 24 or 48 hours with a diet containing 63% fructose. Another group of rats was fed an diet with 63% fructose for 90 days. RESULTS: Refeeding for 24 hours caused accumulation of large amounts of fat, compromising 100% of the hepatocytes. The amount of liver fat in animals refed for 48 hours decreased, remaining mostly in zone 2 (medium-zonal. In liver plates of Wistar rats fed 63% fructose for 45, 60 and 90 days it's possible to see that there is an increase in hepatocytes with fat accumulation according to the increased time; hepatic steatosis, however, is mild, compromising about 20% of the hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Fructose is highly lipogenic, however the induction of chronic models in NAFLD requires long periods of treatment. The acute supply for 24 or 48 hours, fasted rats can cause big changes, liver steatosis with macrovesicular in all lobular zones.OBJETIVO: O aumento do consumo de frutose é concomitante a maior incidência mundial de obesidade. Este monossacarídeo está relacionado à Síndrome Metabólica, sendo vinculado à hipertrigliceridemia, hipertensão arterial, resistência à insulina e diabetes mellitus.

  7. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21...

  8. A non-invasive method of measuring concentrations of rubidium in rat skeletal muscle in vivo by 87Rb nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: implications for the measurement of cation transport activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, P D; Dixon, R M; Allis, J L; Aronson, J K; Grahame-Smith, D G; Radda, G K

    1990-03-01

    1. We have used n.m.r. spectroscopy to measure rubidium concentrations in the skeletal muscle of live intact rats. Using a 1.9 T superconducting magnet and an ear-phone coil tuned to both protons (1H) and rubidium (87Rb), it was possible to make measurements of both tissue rubidium content and water content, and from these measurements to obtain the rubidium concentration. 2. The n.m.r. estimate of rubidium concentration in muscle in vivo was found to be a constant 31% (SEM 4%) of that estimated by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy in an extract of excised muscle. This is close to the predicted theoretical n.m.r. visibility of 33%. The visibility was constant for muscle rubidium concentrations ranging between 10 and 34 mmol/l. 3. Rubidium concentration measurement by this method is unaffected by variations in sample geometry, sample volume, tissue conductivity, coil tuning and amplifier gain. 4. By using this method to measure changes in tissue rubidium concentration with time in the same animal, it should now be possible to assess the activity of ion transport systems, such as sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase in vivo, by measuring the rates of change of tissue rubidium concentrations during the administration of rubidium salts. 5. This method could also be used to measure the absolute concentration of any n.m.r.-visible nucleus and could be applied to man.

  9. The neurological effects of brevetoxin on neonatal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapley, S.R.; Ramsdell, J.S.; Xi, D. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    We have investigated the neuroexcitatory and neurodegenerative effects of brevetoxin on neonatal rats. Brevetoxin, a marine-biotoxin that has been implicated in several seafood poisoning incidents, is produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium brevis. Four studies were done: dose response, northern analysis, immunohistochemistry and neurodegeneration. We found that neonatal rats are much more sensitive to brevetoxin than adult rats. The effectiveness of c-fos as a biomarker is being investigated, because of the high basal expression in young animals. The neurodegeneration, although not available yet, should provide valuable information.

  10. Conhecimentos e práticas dos profissionais de saúde sobre a "atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo peso - método canguru" Health professional's knowledge and practices about "human attention of low birth weight- kangaroo care"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Abreu e Silva Hennig

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar os conhecimentos e as práticas sobre a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso - Método Canguru (AHRNBP-MC de profissionais médicos e de enfermagem em maternidades públicas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo transversal realizado através de questionário. Participaram das entrevistas 148 médicos e enfermeiros atuantes nestas unidades. Destes, os 116 profissionais que atuam exclusivamente na unidade intensiva responderam sobre quesitos específicos das práticas assistenciais sobre a perspectiva da AHRNBP-MC. RESULTADOS: em relação às estratégias apontadas para minimizar ruído e luminosidade, 39% dos profissionais referiram atender rapidamente aos alarmes/cuidados no uso dos equipamentos e 88% apontaram a diminuição da luminosidade em pelo menos 1 período em 24h. Como estratégias para dor/desconforto, 34% referiram usar a sucção não-nutritiva e 9% citaram utilizar glicose. Oitenta e três porcento relataram serem as informações do quadro clínico as principais informações aos pais na 1ª visita. O exame físico é o procedimento em que é permitida a presença da mãe para 73% dos entrevistados. Cinquenta e nove porcento usavam a estabilidade clínica como critério para a ida do bebê ao colo materno pela primeira vez. CONCLUSÃO: apesar do conhecimento teórico sobre a Atenção Humanizada, os profissionais ainda não o utilizam plenamente em sua prática clínica, sugerindo que ainda não está completamente assimilada a abrangência dessa forma de cuidado neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to identify knowledge and practices related to Low Weight Newborn Humane Care - the Kangaroo Method by the medical and nursing staff in public maternity hospitals located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHOD: a cross cutting descriptive method performed by questionnaire application aiming at the management of eleven public maternity hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, selected for the

  11. 袋鼠式护理减轻新生儿足跟采血疼痛的效果观察*%Effect of Kangaroo care on diminishing neonatal pain during heel lancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪芬; 刘敏; 鲍柳春; 蒋洁; 赵丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Kangaroo care(KC)on diminishing neonatal pain during heel lancing. Methods Sixty neonates were divided randomly into two equal groups:intervention group and control group,which 30 cases in each group.In the intervention group,neonates were treated with KC(neonates were put in direct and continuous skin-to-skin contact with his/her mom)from 20 mins before heel lancing to 1 mins after the end of the lancing.In the control group,neonates were treated with regular care.The differences in heart rate,blood oxygen saturation,facial pain expression,crying duration and DAN(Douleur Aigue Nouveaune)scores between two groups were compared at 7 time points from 10s before the heel lancing to 10s after the lancing. Results The results of repeated measu te at 7 time points after heel lancing.There were significant interaction effect between time and main effect(P Heel lancing could lead to moderate to severe pain of neonates.KC could effectively diminish the neonatal pain degree caused by heel lancing.%  目的探讨袋鼠式护理在减轻新生儿足跟采血疼痛的效果。方法将行足跟采血的60例新生儿随机分为干预组与对照组,每组各30例,干预组从足跟采血前20 min至足跟采血结束后1 min实施袋鼠式护理,对照组按常规护理。比较从足跟采血前10 s至足跟采血结束后10 s 8个时间点两组新生儿心率、血氧饱和度、面部疼痛表情、啼哭持续时间和新生儿急性疼痛行为评分量表(douleur aigue nouveaune,DAN)评分情况。结果足跟采血后7个时间点新生儿心率重复测量资料分析结果:时间与主效应的交互效应比较,P<0.01,说明两组新生儿不同时间点心率是不相等的;时间效应比较,P<0.01,说明随着时间的延长,两组新生儿心率具有加快的趋势;两组新生儿穿刺后7个时间点心率比较,差异具有统计学意义(均P<0.05),干预组新生儿心率

  12. cis-4-Decenoic and decanoic acids impair mitochondrial energy, redox and Ca(2+) homeostasis and induce mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in rat brain and liver: Possible implications for the pathogenesis of MCAD deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Cecatto, Cristiane; da Silva, Janaína Camacho; Wajner, Alessandro; Godoy, Kálita Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Rafael Teixeira; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-09-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of octanoic (OA), decanoic (DA) and cis-4-decenoic (cDA) acids, as well as by their carnitine by-products. Untreated patients present episodic encephalopathic crises and biochemical liver alterations, whose pathophysiology is poorly known. We investigated the effects of OA, DA, cDA, octanoylcarnitine (OC) and decanoylcarnitine (DC) on critical mitochondrial functions in rat brain and liver. DA and cDA increased resting respiration and diminished ADP- and CCCP-stimulated respiration and complexes II-III and IV activities in both tissues. The data indicate that these compounds behave as uncouplers and metabolic inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Noteworthy, metabolic inhibition was more evident in brain as compared to liver. DA and cDA also markedly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, NAD(P)H content and Ca(2+) retention capacity in Ca(2+)-loaded brain and liver mitochondria. The reduction of Ca(2+) retention capacity was more pronounced in liver and totally prevented by cyclosporine A and ADP, as well as by ruthenium red, demonstrating the involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and Ca(2+). Furthermore, cDA induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver mitochondria and increased hydrogen peroxide formation in brain, suggesting the participation of oxidative damage in cDA-induced alterations. Interestingly, OA, OC and DC did not alter the evaluated parameters, implying lower toxicity for these compounds. Our results suggest that DA and cDA, in contrast to OA and medium-chain acylcarnitines, disturb important mitochondrial functions in brain and liver by multiple mechanisms that are possibly involved in the neuropathology and liver alterations observed in MCAD deficiency.

  13. High resolution crystal structure of rat long chain hydroxy acid oxidase in complex with the inhibitor 4-carboxy-5-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfanyl]-1, 2, 3-thiadiazole. Implications for inhibitor specificity and drug design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi-wei; Vignaud, Caroline; Jaafar, Adil; Lévy, Bernard; Guéritte, Françoise; Guénard, Daniel; Lederer, Florence; Mathews, F. Scott (CNRS-UMR); (WU-MED)

    2012-05-24

    Long chain hydroxy acid oxidase (LCHAO) is responsible for the formation of methylguanidine, a toxic compound with elevated serum levels in patients with chronic renal failure. Its isozyme glycolate oxidase (GOX), has a role in the formation of oxalate, which can lead to pathological deposits of calcium oxalate, in particular in the disease primary hyperoxaluria. Inhibitors of these two enzymes may have therapeutic value. These enzymes are the only human members of the family of FMN-dependent L-2-hydroxy acid-oxidizing enzymes, with yeast flavocytochrome b{sub 2} (Fcb2) among its well studied members. We screened a chemical library for inhibitors, using in parallel rat LCHAO, human GOX and the Fcb2 flavodehydrogenase domain (FDH). Among the hits was an inhibitor, CCPST, with an IC{sub 50} in the micromolar range for all three enzymes. We report here the crystal structure of a complex between this compound and LCHAO at 1.3 {angstrom} resolution. In comparison with a lower resolution structure of this enzyme, binding of the inhibitor induces a conformational change in part of the TIM barrel loop 4, as well as protonation of the active site histidine. The CCPST interactions are compared with those it forms with human GOX and those formed by two other inhibitors with human GOX and spinach GOX. These compounds differ from CCPST in having the sulfur replaced with a nitrogen in the five-membered ring as well as different hydrophobic substituents. The possible reason for the {approx}100-fold difference in affinity between these two series of inhibitors is discussed. The present results indicate that specificity is an issue in the quest for therapeutic inhibitors of either LCHAO or GOX, but they may give leads for this quest.

  14. Implications of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) with codissolved brain-derived neurotrophic factor injectable scaffold on motor function recovery rate following cervical dorsolateral funiculotomy in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grous, Lauren Conova; Vernengo, Jennifer; Jin, Ying; Himes, B. Timothy; Shumsky, Jed S.; Fischer, Itzhak; Lowman, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Object In a follow-up study to their prior work, the authors evaluated a novel delivery system for a previously established treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI), based on a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), lightly cross-linked with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) injectable scaffold. The primary aim of this work was to assess the recovery of both spontaneous and skilled forelimb function following a cervical dorsolateral funiculotomy in the rat. This injury ablates the rubrospinal tract (RST) but spares the dorsal and ventral corticospinal tract and can severely impair reaching and grasping abilities. Methods Animals received an implant of either PNIPAAm-g-PEG or PNIPAAm-g-PEG + brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The single-pellet reach-to-grasp task and the staircase-reaching task were used to assess skilled motor function associated with reaching and grasping abilities, and the cylinder task was used to assess spontaneous motor function, both before and after injury. Results Because BDNF can stimulate regenerating RST axons, the authors showed that animals receiving an implant of PNIPAAm-g-PEG with codissolved BDNF had an increased recovery rate of fine motor function when compared with a control group (PNIPAAm-g-PEG only) on both a staircase-reaching task at 4 and 8 weeks post-SCI and on a single-pellet reach-to-grasp task at 5 weeks post-SCI. In addition, spontaneous motor function, as measured in the cylinder test, recovered to preinjury values in animals receiving PNIPAAm-g-PEG + BDNF. Fluorescence immunochemistry indicated the presence of both regenerating axons and BDA-labeled fibers growing up to or within the host-graft interface in animals receiving PNIPAAm-g-PEG + BDNF. Conclusions Based on their results, the authors suggest that BDNF delivered by the scaffold promoted the growth of RST axons into the lesion, which may have contributed in part to the increased recovery rate. PMID:23581453

  15. Ornithine In Vivo Administration Disrupts Redox Homeostasis and Decreases Synaptic Na(+), K (+)-ATPase Activity in Cerebellum of Adolescent Rats: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Hyperornithinemia-Hyperammonemia-Homocitrullinuria (HHH) Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Ângela; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Hickmann, Fernanda Hermes; de Oliveira Monteiro, Wagner; Sitta, Angela; de Moura Coelho, Daniela; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Wajner, Moacir

    2015-08-01

    Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a defect in the transport of ornithine (Orn) into mitochondrial matrix leading to accumulation of Orn, homocitrulline (Hcit), and ammonia. Affected patients present a variable clinical symptomatology, frequently associated with cerebellar symptoms whose pathogenesis is poorly known. Although in vitro studies reported induction of oxidative stress by the metabolites accumulating in HHH syndrome, so far no report evaluated the in vivo effects of these compounds on redox homeostasis in cerebellum. Therefore, the present work was carried out to investigate the in vivo effects of intracerebellar administration of Orn and Hcit on antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione concentrations and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), lipid oxidation (malondialdehyde concentrations), as well as on the activity of synaptic Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, an enzyme highly vulnerable to free radical attack, in the cerebellum of adolescent rats. Orn significantly increased malondialdehyde levels and the activities of all antioxidant enzymes, and reduced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. In contrast, glutathione concentrations were not changed by Orn treatment. Furthermore, intracerebellar administration of Hcit was not able to alter any of these parameters. The present data show for the first time that Orn provokes in vivo lipid oxidative damage, activation of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, and reduction of the activity of a crucial enzyme involved in neurotransmission. It is presumed that these pathomechanisms may contribute at least partly to explain the neuropathology of cerebellum abnormalities and the ataxia observed in patients with HHH syndrome.

  16. Feeding flaxseed oil but not secoisolariciresinol diglucoside results in higher bone mass in healthy rats and rats with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, H A; Kovacs, H; Nitschmann, E; Bankovic-Calic, N; Aukema, H; Ogborn, M

    2007-05-01

    Flaxseed's oil and lignan, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), are implicated in attainment of health and treatment of renal injury and osteoporosis. To test for these benefits, weanling Han:SPRD-cy rats (n=171) with or without kidney disease were randomized to diets made with either corn oil or flaxseed oil and with or without SDG for 12 weeks. In females, weight was lower with the SDG diet. In males fed flaxseed oil, lean mass was higher and fat % was lower. In both sexes, fat % was lower in diseased rats. Bone mineral content (BMC) and density were higher in rats fed flaxseed oil and lower in diseased rats, additionally; BMC was lower in SDG-supplemented females. The benefit of flaxseed oil on body composition is sex specific but the effect on bone mass is not. Lastly, reduced weight due to early rat kidney disease is not due to loss of lean body mass.

  17. L-NAME加强麻醉大鼠低血压诱发的催产素释放作用%L-NAME augments oxytocin secretion in response to hypotension in anesthetized rats:an implication of nitric oxide action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹鲁乡; 汪萌芽; 沈锷

    2000-01-01

    取戊巴比妥麻醉大鼠向侧脑室内分别注射一氧化氮(NO)合酶的底物L-精氨酸和NO合酶抑制剂NG-硝基-L-精氨酸甲酯(L-NAME),用放射免疫法测定血浆中催产素(OT)水平.结果:侧脑室内注射L-精氨酸(100 g/L,10 霯,n=8)和L-NAME(54.0 g/L,5 霯,n=12),对OT的基础分泌无明显影响;侧脑室内注射5 霯 L-NAME(剂量1:27.0 g/L,n=9;剂量2:54.0 g/L,n=8),可进一步增强静脉输注硝普钠引起低血压所诱导的OT分泌升高反应.结果表明L-NAME能加强低血压诱发的OT反射性释放作用,提示NO可能是OT反射性释放的抑制因子.%To detect the effect of nitric oxide (NO)on basal and reflex release of oxytocin (OT),L-arginine(the substrate of NO synthase )and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME,NO synthase inhibitor)were intracerebroventricularly(icv)administrated into the pentobarbital anesthetized rats and the plasma OT level was detected with radioimmunoassay.Injection (icv) of L-arginine(100 g/L,10 μL,n=8)and L-NAME (54.0 g/L,5 μL,n=12) had no significant effect on OT basal secretion.However,the elevated OT secretion in response to hypotension induced by intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside was dose-dependently augmented by icv injection of 5 μL L-NAME (dose 1:27.0 g/L,n=9;dose 2:54.0 g/L,n=8).The results indicate that L-NAME does not change basal OT secretion,but enhances OT reflex secretion evoked by hypotension,which suggests that NO may act as an inhibitory factor on reflex release of OT.

  18. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P < 0.001). Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P < 0.001) and did not exhibit the expected calciuric response to salt. Proteinuria of the S rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  19. Implicações da lipoclasia dermossônica no metabolismo energético e na composição corporal de ratos Wistar saudáveis Implications of dermosonic lipoclasis for energy metabolism and body composition of healthy Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WLS Gonçalves

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Investigar as implicações da lipoclasia dermossônica (LCD, lipólise do tecido adiposo branco subcutâneo induzido por ultrassom (US, no metabolismo energético e na composição corporal de ratos saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 20 ratos Wistar saudáveis, com 4 meses de idade, pesando ±380g, divididos aleatoriamente em 2 grupos: 1 controle-sham (CS, 2 terapia ultrassônica de baixa intensidade (TUSBI. Durante 10 dias, após sedação (halotano-3% vaporizado, os animais eram submetidos à TUSBI (I SATA=3MHz, 1W.cm-2, modo pulsado 2:8ms, ciclo de 30% por 3 minutos em região infra-abdominal e inguinal. Medidas de peso, comprimento naso-anal e parâmetros metabólicos (ingestão e excreção foram controlados durante o estudo. Ao final do tratamento, amostras de sangue foram coletadas para dosagens bioquímicas, e então avaliadas adiposidades retroperitoneal (RET, perirenal (PR, epididimal (EP e inguinal (ING. O HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment foi calculado para estimar resistência insulínica (RI. Para análise estatística, utilizou-se ANOVA, teste de Tukey e teste t de Student, com diferenças estabelecidas em pOBJECTIVES: To investigate the implications of Dermosonic lipoclasis (DLC, i.e. lipolysis on subcutaneous white adipose tissue induced by ultrasound, for the energy metabolism and body composition of healthy rats. METHODS: Twenty four-month-old male Wistar rats weighting ±380g were randomly divided into two groups: 1 sham control (SC and 2 low-intensity ultrasound therapy (LIUST. For 10 days, after sedation with 3% vaporized halothane, the animals underwent LIUST (I SATA =3MHz, 1 Wcm-2, pulsed mode 2:8ms, 30% cycles for 3 minutes in the infra-abdominal and inguinal regions. Weight measurements, naso-anal length and metabolic parameters (food and water intake and excretion were monitored during the study. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Retroperitoneal (RET

  20. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  1. Atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo-peso (método Mãe Canguru: percepções de puérperas La atención humanizada al recién nascido de bajo peso (método madre canguru: percepción de mujeres en posparto Humane care newborn low-weight (kangaroo mother method: mother's perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Nicoletti Neves

    2010-03-01

    todo Canguru. Concluyó que la enfermería desempeña un papel central en la inserción del método con la familia, con los cuidados.Breastfeeding is one of the key practices which promote health, being associated with a reduction of diseases and mortality in childhood. Thus, from the course conclusive work, the present article was structured, which aimed to recognize the perceptions of mothers in the face of the use of the mother kangaroo method. With a qualitative, descriptive and field approach, it was held at the Philanthropic Hospital of Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil, by the months of August to October 2006, in which six mothers were included in the kangaroo mother method during the admission of the baby. For the gathering, semi-structured interviews were made and data were analyzed by the content analysis. This article analyzed two categories, maternal experience with the mother kangaroo method, with the subcategories: mother kangaroo method and maternal breastfeeding and experiences at the kangaroo practice; and knowing the kangaroo method. As a conclusion, nursing plays an essential role in the insertion of the family to the method, from the provided cares.

  2. Reproductive experience influences grooming behavior during pregnancy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafim A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. Reproductive experience has epidemiologial implications such as a decrease in the incidence of mammary gland cancer in women and it also influences various behavioral, neurochemical and endocrine parameters. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive experience on grooming behavior patterns during pregnancy in rats. Self-grooming behavior was measured in age-matched virgin, primi- and multigravid (days 7, 8, 9, 19, and 20 of pregnancy rats. General grooming (head, forelimbs and shoulders was not significantly different among virgin, primi- and multigravid rats during pregnancy. Confirming previous work, pregnant rats spent significantly more time in specific grooming (mammary glands, nipple lines, genital and pelvic regions than did virgin animals. In addition, self- licking of mammary glands was significantly increased in multi- as compared to primigravid rats on days 8, 9, 19 and 20 of pregnancy. The increase in mammary gland grooming observed in multigravid rats appears to be a consequence of previous reproductive experience. These data show that reproductive experience modulates mammary gland grooming during pregnancy, possibly contributing to successful reproduction.

  3. Vldlr overexpression causes hyperactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Keiko; Izumo, Nobuo; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Manabe, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Yukiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Yamada, Kazuo; Thanseem, Ismail; Anitha, Ayyappan; Vasu, Mahesh Mundalil; Shimmura, Chie; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Kameno, Yosuke; Takahashi, Taro; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mori, Norio

    2012-10-30

    Reelin regulates neuronal positioning in cortical brain structures and neuronal migration via binding to the lipoprotein receptors Vldlr and Lrp8. Reeler mutant mice display severe brain morphological defects and behavioral abnormalities. Several reports have implicated reelin signaling in the etiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Moreover, it has been reported that VLDLR mRNA levels are increased in the post-mortem brain of autistic patients. We generated transgenic (Tg) rats overexpressing Vldlr, and examined their histological and behavioral features. Spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly increased in Tg rats, without detectable changes in brain histology. Additionally, Tg rats tended to show performance deficits in the radial maze task, suggesting that their spatial working memory was slightly impaired. Thus, Vldlr levels may be involved in determining locomotor activity and memory function. Unlike reeler mice, patients with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders do not show striking neuroanatomical aberrations. Therefore, it is notable, from a clinical point of view, that we observed behavioral phenotypes in Vldlr-Tg rats in the absence of neuroanatomical abnormalities.

  4. Vldlr overexpression causes hyperactivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Keiko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reelin regulates neuronal positioning in cortical brain structures and neuronal migration via binding to the lipoprotein receptors Vldlr and Lrp8. Reeler mutant mice display severe brain morphological defects and behavioral abnormalities. Several reports have implicated reelin signaling in the etiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Moreover, it has been reported that VLDLR mRNA levels are increased in the post-mortem brain of autistic patients. Methods We generated transgenic (Tg rats overexpressing Vldlr, and examined their histological and behavioral features. Results Spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly increased in Tg rats, without detectable changes in brain histology. Additionally, Tg rats tended to show performance deficits in the radial maze task, suggesting that their spatial working memory was slightly impaired. Thus, Vldlr levels may be involved in determining locomotor activity and memory function. Conclusions Unlike reeler mice, patients with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders do not show striking neuroanatomical aberrations. Therefore, it is notable, from a clinical point of view, that we observed behavioral phenotypes in Vldlr-Tg rats in the absence of neuroanatomical abnormalities.

  5. Pulmonary cryptococcosis induces chitinase in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casadevall Arturo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated that chronic pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans results in enhanced allergic inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in a rat model. Because the cell wall of C. neoformans consists of chitin, and since acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase has recently been implicated as a novel mediator of asthma, we sought to determine whether such infection induces chitinase activity and expression of AMCase in the rat. Methods We utilized a previously-established model of chronic C. neoformans pulmonary infection in the rat to analyze the activity, expression and localization of AMCase. Results Our studies indicate that intratracheal inoculation of C. neoformans induces chitinase activity within the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected rats. Chitinase activity is also elicited by pulmonary infection with other fungi (e.g. C. albicans, but not by the inoculation of dead organisms. Enhanced chitinase activity reflects increased AMCase expression by airway epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Systemic cryptococcosis is not associated with increased pulmonary chitinase activity or AMCase expression. Conclusion Our findings indicate a possible link between respiratory fungal infections, including C. neoformans, and asthma through the induction of AMCase.

  6. Vivendo no método canguru a tríade mãe-filho-família Viviendo en el método canguru la tríade madre-hijo-familia Living the mother-child-family triad in the kangaroo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laise Conceição Caetano

    2005-08-01

    con el hijo en el método canguro o con la familia.This study focuses on the experience of families in the Kangaroo Mother Method (KM and aims to understand the functioning of the family dynamics and to apprehend the family transformations as a result of their experience in the method. The study used Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical and Grounded Theory as a methodological reference framework. Data revealed the following phenomena: having an unexpected evolution and outcome of pregnancy, which is a phase in which the parents go through a pregnancy and suffer due to its premature interruption; coping with the prematurity of the child, in which the parents get into the world of prematurity and face the need to act for the child's survival; and living with the decision and the experience together with the child, which reveals the possibility of staying in hospital in the KM or not. These phenomena led to the central category: weighing the risks and benefits between staying with the child in the kangaroo method or with the family.

  7. 袋鼠式护理配合母乳吸吮对新生儿足跟采血所致疼痛程度的影响%Influence of Kangaroo care with breast sucking on pain degree caused by neonatal heel prick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁林娟; 秦玲; 高倩; 梁文波; 黄海燕

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探究分析袋鼠式护理配合母乳吸吮对新生儿足跟采血所致疼痛程度的影响。[方法]随机选取我院在2014年8月-2015年7月接收的95例行足跟采血的新生儿为研究对象,随机分为观察组(48例)和对照组(47例)。对照组采用常规护理干预,观察组在新生儿足跟采血前后实施袋鼠式护理,对比分析两组新生儿的疼痛程度、血氧饱和度及心率变化情况。[结果]观察组新生儿的急性疼痛行为评分(6.32±1.05)分,明显低于对照组(7.83±1.27)分;观察组新生儿的疼痛程度也明显轻于对照组(P<0.05);观察组护理满意度(97.92%)显著高于对照组(87.23%),两组对比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。[结论]袋鼠式护理配合母乳吸吮能够显著缓解新生儿足跟采血前后的疼痛程度,有效改善了足跟采血所致疼痛对新生儿的刺激,同时也明显提高了护理满意度。%Objective:To probe into and analyze the influence of kangaroo care with breast sucking on pain degree caused by neonatal heel prick.Methods:A total of 9 5 cases of neonates receiving heel prick in hospital were ran-domly selected from August 2014 to July 2015 and randomly divided into observation group(48 cases)and con-trol group(47 cases).The neonates in control group received routine nursing intervention,the neonates in obser-vation group received the kangaroo care before and after the implementation of the neonatal heel prick,then to compare and analyze the degree of pain,blood oxygen saturation and heart rate changes between the two groups of newborns.Results:The acute pain behavior score in observation group of newborns was(6.32±1.05),signif-icantly lower than that in control group(7.83±1.27);the degree of pain in observation group of neonates was also significantly lighter than that in control group(P<0.05);the care satisfaction in observation group(97.92%) was significantly higher(87.23%),and the difference was statistically

  8. Inaccessible food cues affect stress and weight gain in calorically-restricted and ad lib fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jennifer S; Polivy, Janet; Fleming, Alison; Hargreaves, Duane; Herman, C Peter; Lao, Grace

    2010-02-01

    Research suggests that caloric restriction (CR) is beneficial; however, the effects of CR in the context of food cues are unclear. A 2 (food cue vs. no cue)x2 (CR vs. ad lib) between-subjects design was employed to test these effects in 40 rats. It was predicted that cue exposure and CR would induce stress, and that these factors might interact synergistically. The results demonstrated that cue-exposed CR rats weighed less than did non-exposed CR rats. A blunted stress response was evident in CR rats relative to ad lib rats. Finally, cue-exposed rats had higher corticosterone levels and body weight during ad lib feeding than did non-cued rats. These results suggest that both CR and chronic food-cue exposure can be stressful, and the implications of this research are discussed in the context of humans' 'obesigenic' environment. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of melatonin or its antagonism on alcohol consumption in ethanol drinking rats: a behavioral and in vivo voltammetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Francesco

    2012-05-03

    Melatonin, an indoleamine hormone synthesized in the pinealocytes, has been implicated as influencing the intake of alcohol in rats. It has been shown that this hormone is voltammetrically electroactive at the surface of pretreated carbon fiber microelectrodes in vitro and in vivo, in rat cerebral melatonergic regions such the pineal gland. The aim of this work consisted in the study of the influence of melatonin on spontaneously ethanol drinking or ethanol avoiding rats selected throughout a free choice two bottle test. It appeared that only the water preferring rats were affected by treatment with the hormone and that in vivo voltammetric related levels of melatonin were higher in the pineal gland of ethanol drinking rats versus water preferring rats. In addition, when treated with the melatonin antagonist GR128107 ethanol drinking rats significantly reduced the spontaneous consumption of alcohol.

  10. Intuitionistic implication without disjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.; Hendriks, Alex; Jongh, Dick H.J. de

    2012-01-01

    We investigate fragments of intuitionistic propositional logic containing implication but not disjunction. These fragments are finite, but their size grows superexponentially with the number of generators. Exact models are used to characterize the fragments.

  11. Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Al-Naemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher

  12. Apoptosis in rat transient focal cerebral ischemic stroke: clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoushu Jiao; Jue Wang Gal Hever; Rongzheng Kuang; Jean-Claude Louis; Ella Magal

    2000-01-01

    @@In the early phase of cerebral ischemia, factors threatening neuronal survival in the penumbra include mainly glutamate excitotoxicity, free radical damage and energy failure resulting from recurrent depolarization waves. However, at later times, other mechanisms come into play. The initial ischemic event activates a variety of genetic programs that unfold over the course of hours and days. Both positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance based techniques demonstrate that the development of irretrievable tissue damage is relatively slow, progressing over the course of several days in some cases, and a viable tissue, defined by hemodynamic and metabolic criteria,is still present many hours after stroke in human or in monkey. These findings suggest that the brain can potentially be “rescued” from infarction many hours after onset of ischemia and challenge the widespread notion of an early and short “therapeutic window” (~3-6h). This realization is of critical importance for stroke therapy because most patients reach medical attention at a time when current therapeutic strategies may no longer be effective. Therefore, it would be highly desirable to develop therapeutic interventions that can be instituted many hours after the onset of ischemia. We believe that addressing the mechanisms of delayed cell death is key to a successful therapy. The studies presented here were designed to document the potential contribution of apoptosis to ischemia induced neuronal death. We will discuss the morphological, biochemical and pharmacological evidence for apoptosis in the ischemic stroke.

  13. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  14. Inducible gene manipulations in brain serotonergic neurons of transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT system has been implicated in various physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, but in many aspects its role in normal and pathologic brain function is still unclear. One reason for this might be the lack of appropriate animal models which can address the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological 5-HT functioning. In this respect, rats offer many advantages over mice as they have been the animal of choice for sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral studies. However, only recently technologies for the targeted and tissue specific modification of rat genes - a prerequisite for a detailed study of the 5-HT system - have been successfully developed. Here, we describe a rat transgenic system for inducible gene manipulations in 5-HT neurons. We generated a Cre driver line consisting of a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of mouse Tph2 regulatory sequences. Tissue-specific serotonergic Cre recombinase expression was detected in four transgenic TPH2-CreERT2 rat founder lines. For functional analysis of Cre-mediated recombination, we used a rat Cre reporter line (CAG-loxP.EGFP, in which EGFP is expressed after Cre-mediated removal of a loxP-flanked lacZ STOP cassette. We show an in-depth characterisation of this rat Cre reporter line and demonstrate its applicability for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination in all major neuronal subpopulations of the rat brain. Upon tamoxifen induction, double transgenic TPH2-CreERT2/CAG-loxP.EGFP rats show selective and efficient EGFP expression in 5-HT neurons. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. This 5-HT neuron specific CreERT2 line allows Cre-mediated, inducible gene deletion or gene overexpression in transgenic rats which provides new opportunities to decipher the complex functions of the mammalian serotonergic system.

  15. Toxicogenomics of resveratrol in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Vidya; Shen, Guoxiang; Hu, Rong; Kim, Bok-Ryang; Chen, Chi; Korytko, Peter J; Crowell, James A; Levine, Barry S; Kong, A-N Tony

    2005-04-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound found in grape skin and peanuts has been shown to prevent many diseases including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. To better understand resveratrol's potential in vivo toxicity, we studied the dose response using cDNA stress arrays coupled with drug metabolizing enzymatic (DME) assays to investigate the expression of stress-responsive genes and Phase I and II detoxifying enzymes in rat livers. Male and female CD rats were treated with high doses of resveratrol (0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 gm/kg/day) for a period of 28 days. Total RNA from rat liver was reverse-transcribed using gene-specific primers and hybridized to stress-related cDNA arrays. Among female rats, Phase I DME genes were repressed at 0.3 and 1.0 gm/kg/day doses, while genes such as manganese superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450 reductase, quinone oxidoreductase and thiosulfate sulfurtransferase demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in gene expression. The modulation of these liver genes may implicate the potential toxicity as observed among the rats at the highest dose level of resveratrol. Real-Time PCR was conducted on some of the Phase II DME genes and anti-oxidant genes to validate the cDNA array data. The gene expression from real-time PCR demonstrated good correlation with the cDNA array data. UGT1A genes were amongst the most robustly induced especially at the high doses of resveratrol. We next performed Phase I and Phase II enzymatic assays on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT). Induction of Phase II detoxifying enzymes was most pronounced at the highest dose of resveratrol. CYP1A1 activity demonstrated a decreasing trend among the 3 dose groups and CYP2E1 activity increased marginally among female rats over controls. In summary, at lower doses of resveratrol there are few significant changes in gene expression whereas the

  16. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea.......This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  17. Melatonin improves glucose homeostasis in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; Rosado, Isaac; Ruiz, Rosario; Figueroa, Adriana; Zen, Nourahouda; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on glucose homeostasis in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n=30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n=30) were used. At 6wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of ten rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10mg/kg/day) for 6wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. ZDF rats developed DM (fasting hyperglycemia, 460±39.8mg/dL; HbA(1) c 8.3±0.5%) with both insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 9.28±0.9 versus 1.2±0.1 in ZL) and decreased β-cell function (HOMA1-%B) by 75%, compared with ZL rats. Melatonin reduced fasting hyperglycemia by 18.6% (Pmelatonin lowered insulinemia by 15.9% (Pmelatonin decreased hyperleptinemia by 34% (Pmelatonin reduced serum free fatty acid levels by 13.5% (Pmelatonin administration ameliorates glucose homeostasis in young ZDF rats by improving both insulin action and β-cell function. These observations have implications on melatonin's possible use as a new pharmacologic therapy for improving glucose homeostasis and of obesity-related T2DM, in young subjects.

  18. Interação mãe-bebê pré-termo e mudança no estado de humor: comparação do Método Mãe-Canguru com visita na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Interaction between mothers and pre-term infants and mood changes: a comparison between the Kangaroo Mother Method and those observed on a visit to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guimarães Cruvinel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar mudanças nos estados de humor de mães de bebês pré-termo em função do tipo de contato com o seu filho: Método Mãe-Canguru (MMC e visita ao filho na incubadora da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. MÉTODOS: foi aplicada a Escala Analógica de Humor em 60 mães divididas em 2 grupos: mães que participam do Método Mãe-Canguru (GC e mães que acompanharam o bebê na incubadora (GI. Os grupos foram pareados em função da idade das mães, número de gestações e tipo de parto. As mães foram avaliadas antes e depois de uma das visitas ao filho na incubadora ou sessão de MMC. RESULTADOS: as mães do GC melhoraram o humor, relatando: sentirem-se mais calmas, fortes, com idéias claras, ágeis, dinâmicas, satisfeitas, tranqüilas, perspicazes, relaxadas, atentas, competentes, alegres e amistosas. As mães do GI não apresentaram melhora no estado de humor em nenhum item, mas pioraram no item "sentindo-se desajeitada". CONCLUSÕES: o Método Mãe-Canguru mostrou-se eficaz na melhora nos estados de humor de mães de bebês pré-termo, contribuindo assim para a minimização dos efeitos negativos da internação neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to assess changes in the subjective state of mood of mothers of pre-term babies, comparing different kinds of mother-infant interaction: the Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM and those observed on a visit to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: the Visual Analogue Mood Scale was used with 60 mothers divided into two groups: mothers included in the Kangaroo Program (KG and mothers with a baby on an incubator (IG. The groups were matched for the mothers' age, number of pregnancies and kind of delivery. The mothers were evaluated before and after a visit to the baby on an incubator or a KMM session. RESULTS: it was found that KG mothers were in a better mood, reporting that they felt calmer, stronger, more clear-headed, more agile, dynamic, satisfied, at ease, perceptive, relaxed, considerate

  19. Programa mãe-canguru e a relação mãe-bebê: pesquisa qualitativa na rede pública de Betim El programa madre-canguro y la relación madre-bebé: pesquisa cualitativade en la red pública de Betim Kangaroo mother program and the relationship mother-baby: qualitative research in a public maternity of Betim city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Oliveira Moreira

    2009-09-01

    ás, que la madre, familiares, el equipo pueden crear un ambiente facilitador a partir del momento en que asumen una postura activa en la mediación de la relación del prematuro con el mundo.This text approaches the results of the qualitative research financed by FAPEMIG and PUC-MINAS and aims to investigate the effects of the kangaroo mother method in the relationship between the mother and the newborn baby. The field research had the data collected by semi structural interviews conducted with the mothers of newborn babies egressed from the Kangaroo program of Betim's Public Maternity named Maternidade Municipal Aidée Conroy Espejo. We utilized the content analyses with thematic categories on data assessment. The results showed the complexity of motherhood inside the prematurity, crossed by the trauma experience, by the fear of losing the baby and by the vision of the child's fragility. In this context, the Kangaroo-Mother Program facilitates the relationship between the mother and the premature baby, contributing to the dyadic's bound. We concluded that mother, family members, and staff can provide a facilitating environment as they take on an active attitude in the mediation between the premature relationship and the world.

  20. Core reserve expansion requirement/Long-term SKR HCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter is regarding the Stephens Kangaroo Rat Habitat Conservation Plan (SKR HCP) which requires that the Riverside County Habitat Conservation Agency establish...

  1. 大鼠心脏移植后动态监测血清RANTES和单核细胞趋化蛋白-1的意义%The changes of serum RANTES and MCP-1 following cardiac transplantation in rats and implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓; 唐孝达; 杨尚琪; 刘永; 周佩军; 徐达; 王祥慧; 谭建明

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the implication of serum regulated on activation normal T cell ex pressed and secrected (RANTES) and MCP-1 in cardiac acute allograft rejection a nd the effect of Cyclosporin A (CsA). Methods Four groups of rats underwent the heterotopic cardiac transplantation: untreat ed group, low dose of CsA group, high dose of CsA group and isograft group. Th e se rum RANTES and MCP-1 of recipients were detected by using ELISA method. Results The changes in serum RANTES were correlated wi th the process of acute rejection. RANTES concentrations peaked in the early s tage of acute graft rejection and CsA could delay the peak. The serum peak lev el o f RA NTES was significantly lower than that in untreated group (P<0.05). The serum MCP-1 concentrations peaked 6 h after operation and in severe stages of acute rejection respectively. The first peak of MCP-1 reached later by using Cs A, but CsA did not affect its peak level (P>0.05). The second peak of M CP-1 was decreased or did not occurred in the CsA-treated groups. Conclusions  RANTES concentrations were increased in the early episodes of acute rejection a nd could be used as a marker for diagnosis of acute rejection. MCP-1 not only involved in the ischemia/reperfusion injury but also severe acu te rejection. It may be the important mechanisms of CsA to intervene the acute r ejection by decreasing the release of RANTES and inhibiting its immunological effects.%目的探讨测定血清RANTES(regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secret ed)和单核细胞趋化蛋白-1(MCP-1)浓度在判断大鼠心脏移植急性排斥反应中的意义及环孢素A (CsA)对它们的影响。方法施行大鼠异位心脏移植术,按术后免疫抑制方案的不同将动物分为未干预组(不给免疫抑制剂)、低剂量CsA组、高剂量CsA组,并设同系移植对照组;采用酶联免疫吸附法检测受者术前及术后不同时段血清RANTES和MCP-1的浓度。

  2. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  3. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  4. Repercussões cardíacas após infarto do miocárdio em ratas submetidas previamente a exercício físico Cardiac implications after myocardial infarction in rats previously undergoing physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carvalho de Arruda Veiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Poucos estudos analisaram os efeitos cardíacos do exercício físico prévio à oclusão coronariana. OBJETIVO: Avaliar, em ratas submetidas a exercício físico, as repercussões do infarto do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Ratas foram submetidas à natação ou permaneceram sedentárias por oito semanas e foram randomizadas para oclusão coronariana ou cirurgia simulada, compondo quatro grupos: Sedentário (S, Exercício (E, Sedentário infarto (SIM e Exercício infarto (EIM. Após seis semanas, foram analisados biometria, ecodopplercardiograma, hemodinâmica e mecânica miocárdica. RESULTADOS: Não foram observados cardioproteção nos animais EIM e diferença no tamanho do infarto (%VE entre EIM (38,50 ± 4,60% e SIM (36,58 ± 4,11%. Os teores de água pulmonar (% de SIM (80 ± 0,59 e EIM (80 ± 0,57 foram maiores do que em S (78 ± 0,15 e E (78 ± 0,57. A pressão sistólica (mmHg do ventrículo esquerdo (S: 130 ± 5; E: 118 ± 8; SIM: 91 ± 3; EIM: 98 ± 3 e a primeira derivada temporal (mmHg/s positiva da pressão (S: 8.216 ± 385; E: 8.437 ± 572; SIM: 4.674 ± 455; EIM: 5.080 ± 412 de S e E foram maiores do que em SIM e EIM. As frações de encurtamento da área transversa (% de SIM (27 ± 2 e EIM (25 ± 2 foram similares e menores do que E (65 ± 2 e S (69 ± 2. A relação E/A foi maior em SIM (5,14 ± 0,61 e EIM (4,73 ± 0,57 em relação a S (2,96 ± 0,24 e E (2,83 ± 0,21. Em estudos de músculos papilares isolados foi verificada depressão da capacidade contrátil semelhante em SIM e EIM, e não houve alteração da rigidez miocárdica. CONCLUSÃO: O treinamento prévio por natação não atenuou as repercussões cardíacas em virtude do infarto do miocárdio.BACKGROUND: Few studies have analyzed the cardiac effects of exercise prior to coronary occlusion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of myocardial infarction in rats undergoing physical exercise. METHODS: Female rats underwent swimming exercise or were kept sedentary

  5. Repercussões cardíacas após infarto do miocárdio em ratas submetidas previamente a exercício físico Cardiac implications after myocardial infarction in rats previously undergoing physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carvalho de Arruda Veiga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Poucos estudos analisaram os efeitos cardíacos do exercício físico prévio à oclusão coronariana. OBJETIVO: Avaliar, em ratas submetidas a exercício físico, as repercussões do infarto do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Ratas foram submetidas à natação ou permaneceram sedentárias por oito semanas e foram randomizadas para oclusão coronariana ou cirurgia simulada, compondo quatro grupos: Sedentário (S, Exercício (E, Sedentário infarto (SIM e Exercício infarto (EIM. Após seis semanas, foram analisados biometria, ecodopplercardiograma, hemodinâmica e mecânica miocárdica. RESULTADOS: Não foram observados cardioproteção nos animais EIM e diferença no tamanho do infarto (%VE entre EIM (38,50 ± 4,60% e SIM (36,58 ± 4,11%. Os teores de água pulmonar (% de SIM (80 ± 0,59 e EIM (80 ± 0,57 foram maiores do que em S (78 ± 0,15 e E (78 ± 0,57. A pressão sistólica (mmHg do ventrículo esquerdo (S: 130 ± 5; E: 118 ± 8; SIM: 91 ± 3; EIM: 98 ± 3 e a primeira derivada temporal (mmHg/s positiva da pressão (S: 8.216 ± 385; E: 8.437 ± 572; SIM: 4.674 ± 455; EIM: 5.080 ± 412 de S e E foram maiores do que em SIM e EIM. As frações de encurtamento da área transversa (% de SIM (27 ± 2 e EIM (25 ± 2 foram similares e menores do que E (65 ± 2 e S (69 ± 2. A relação E/A foi maior em SIM (5,14 ± 0,61 e EIM (4,73 ± 0,57 em relação a S (2,96 ± 0,24 e E (2,83 ± 0,21. Em estudos de músculos papilares isolados foi verificada depressão da capacidade contrátil semelhante em SIM e EIM, e não houve alteração da rigidez miocárdica. CONCLUSÃO: O treinamento prévio por natação não atenuou as repercussões cardíacas em virtude do infarto do miocárdio.BACKGROUND: Few studies have analyzed the cardiac effects of exercise prior to coronary occlusion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of myocardial infarction in rats undergoing physical exercise. METHODS: Female rats underwent swimming exercise or were kept sedentary

  6. Virgin Coconut Oil Supplementation Prevents Bone Loss in Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zil Hayatullina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx, and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO. Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  7. Virgin coconut oil supplementation prevents bone loss in osteoporosis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatullina, Zil; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamed, Norazlina; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx), and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO). Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  8. Production of fat-1 transgenic rats using a post-natal female germline stem cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Lei; Kang, Jing X; Xie, Wenhai; Li, Xiaoyong; Wu, Changqing; Xu, Bo; Wu, Ji

    2014-03-01

    Germline stem cell lines possess the abilities of self-renewal and differentiation, and have been established from both mouse and human ovaries. Here, we established a new female germline stem cell (FGSC) line from post-natal rats by immunomagnetic sorting for Fragilis, which showed a normal karyotype, high telomerase activity, and a consistent gene expression pattern of primordial germ cells after 1 year of culture. Using an in vitro differentiation system, the FGSC line could differentiate into oocytes. After liposome-based transfection with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or fat-1 vectors, the FGSCs were transplanted into the ovaries of infertile rats. The transplanted FGSCs underwent oogenesis, and the rats produced offspring carrying the GFP or fat-1 transgene after mating with wild-type male rats. The efficiency of gene transfer was 27.86-28.00%, and 2 months was needed to produce transgenic rats. These findings have implications in biomedical research and potential applications in biotechnology.

  9. Altered magnesium transport in slices of kidney cortex from chemically-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, B.

    1981-10-01

    The uptake of magnesium-28 was measured in slices of kidney cortex from rats with alloxan-diabetes and from rats with streptozotocin-diabetes of increasing durations. In both forms of chemically-induced diabetes, magnesium-28 uptake by kidney cortex slices was significantly increased over uptake measured in kidney cortex slices from control rats. Immediate institution of daily insulin therapy to the diabetic rats prevented the diabetes-induced elevated uptake of magnesium without controlling blood glucose levels. Late institution of daily insulin therapy was ineffective in restoring the magnesium uptake to control values. These alterations in magnesium uptake occurred prior to any evidence of nephropathy (via the classic indices of proteinuria and increased BUN levels). The implications of these findings, together with our earlier demonstrations of altered calcium transport by kidney cortex slices from chemically-induced diabetic rats, are discussed in terms of disordered divalent cation transport being at least part of the basic pathogenesis underlying diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Effects of L-malate on mitochondrial oxidoreductases in liver of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J-L; Wu, Q-P; Peng, Y-P; Zhang, J-M

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidative damage has been implicated to be a major causative factor in the decline in physiological functions that occur during the aging process. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), considered as the pathogenic agent of many diseases and aging. L-malate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, plays an important role in transporting NADH from cytosol to mitochondria for energy production. Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. In the present study we focused on the effect of L-malate on the activities of electron transport chain in young and aged rats. We found that mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the activities of succinate dehydrogenase, NADH-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c oxidase in liver of aged rats were significantly decreased when compared to young control rats. Supplementation of L-malate to aged rats for 30 days slightly increased MMP and improved the activities of NADH-dehydrogenase, NADH-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and cytochrome c oxidase in liver of aged rats when compared with aged control rats. In young rats, L-malate administration increased only the activity of NADH-dehydrogenase. Our result suggested that L-malate could improve the activities of electron transport chain enzymes in aged rats.

  11. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L.L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety

  12. Infusions of muscimol into the lateral septum do not reduce rats' defensive behaviors toward a cat odor stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, San-San A; Patel, Ronak; Menard, Janet L

    2015-01-01

    The lateral septum (LS) is implicated in behavioral defense. We tested whether bilateral infusions of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into the LS suppress rats' defensive responses to cat odor. Rats received intra-LS infusions of either saline or muscimol (40 ng/rat) and were exposed to either a piece of a cat collar that had been previously worn by a cat or to a control (cat odor free) collar. Rats exposed to the cat odor collar displayed more head-out postures, while intra-LS application of muscimol reduced the number of head-out postures. However, this reduction was also present in rats exposed to a control (cat odor free) collar. This latter finding suggests that despite its involvement in other defensive behaviors (e.g., open arm avoidance in the elevated plus maze), the LS does not selectively regulate rats' receptor defensive responding to the olfactory cues present in our cat odor stimulus.

  13. The characteristics of wild rat (Rattus spp.) populations from an inner-city neighborhood with a focus on factors critical to the understanding of rat-associated zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Jardine, Claire M; Parsons, Kirbee L; Feng, Alice Y T; Patrick, David M

    2014-01-01

    Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are among the most ubiquitous urban wildlife species and are the source of a number of zoonotic diseases responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. Rodent ecology is a primary determinant of the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in rodent populations and the risk of pathogen transmission to people, yet many studies of rat-associated zoonoses do not account for the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations. This hinders the development of an in-depth understanding of the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses, limits comparability among studies, and can lead to erroneous conclusions. We conducted a year-long trapping-removal study to describe the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. The study focused on factors that might influence the ecology of zoonotic pathogens in these populations and/or our understanding of that ecology. We found that rat population density varied remarkably over short geographical distances, which could explain observed spatial distributions of rat-associated zoonoses and have implications for sampling and data analysis during research and surveillance. Season appeared to influence rat population composition even within the urban environment, which could cause temporal variation in pathogen prevalence. Body mass and bite wounds, which are often used in epidemiologic analyses as simple proxies for age and aggression, were shown to be more complex than previously thought. Finally, we found that factors associated with trapping can determine the size and composition of sampled rat population, and thus influence inferences made about the source population. These findings may help guide future studies of rats and rat-associated zoonoses.

  14. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals.

  15. Epigenetics: ambiguities and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Karola; Griffiths, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Everyone has heard of 'epigenetics', but the term means different things to different researchers. Four important contemporary meanings are outlined in this paper. Epigenetics in its various senses has implications for development, heredity, and evolution, and also for medicine. Concerning development, it cements the vision of a reactive genome strongly coupled to its environment. Concerning heredity, both narrowly epigenetic and broader 'exogenetic' systems of inheritance play important roles in the construction of phenotypes. A thoroughly epigenetic model of development and evolution was Waddington's aim when he introduced the term 'epigenetics' in the 1940s, but it has taken the modern development of molecular epigenetics to realize this aim. In the final sections of the paper we briefly outline some further implications of epigenetics for medicine and for the nature/nurture debate.

  16. Increased Ubqln2 expression causes neuron death in transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Wu, Qinxue; Zhou, Hongxia; Huang, Cao; Xia, Xu-Gang

    2016-10-01

    Pathogenic mutation of ubiquilin 2 (UBQLN2) causes neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. How UBQLN2 mutations cause the diseases is not clear. While over-expression of UBQLN2 with pathogenic mutation causes neuron death in rodent models, deletion of the Ubqln2 in rats has no effect on neuronal function. Previous findings in animal models suggest that UBQLN2 mutations cause the diseases mainly through a gain rather than a loss of functions. To examine whether the toxic gain in UBQLN2 mutation is related to the enhancement of UBQLN2 functions, we created new transgenic rats over-expressing wild-type human UBQLN2. Considering that human UBQLN2 may not function properly in the rat genome, we also created transgenic rats over-expressing rat's own Ubqln2. When over-expressed in rats, both human and rat wild-type Ubqln2 caused neuronal death and spatial learning deficits, the pathologies that were indistinguishable from those observed in mutant UBQLN2 transgenic rats. Over-expressed wild-type UBQLN2 formed protein inclusions attracting the autophagy substrate sequestosome-1 and the proteasome component 26S proteasome regulatory subunit 7. These findings suggest that excess UBQLN2 is toxic rather than protective to neurons and that the enhancement of UBQLN2 functions is involved in UBQLN2 pathogenesis. Pathogenic mutation in ubiquilin 2 (UBQLN2) causes neurodegeneration in ALS and FTLD. Studies in rodent models suggest a gain of toxic function in mutant UBQLN2. We created new transgenic rats as a relevant model and examined whether enhancing wild-type UBQLN2 expression is implicated in the pathogenesis of mutant UBQLN2. We observed that over-expression of human or rat wild-type Ubqln2 caused protein aggregation and neuronal death in transgenic rats. Our findings suggest that excess UBQLN2 is toxic rather than protective to neurons and that uncontrolled enhancement of UBQLN2 function is involved in UBQLN2 pathogenesis

  17. Primal implication as encryption

    OpenAIRE

    Krupski, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We propose a "cryptographic" interpretation for the propositional connectives of primal infon logic introduced by Y. Gurevich and I. Neeman and prove the corresponding soundness and completeness results. Primal implication $\\imp{\\varphi}{\\psi}$ corresponds to the encryption of $\\psi$ with a secret key $\\varphi$, primal disjunction $\\vp{\\varphi}{\\psi}$ is a group key and $\\bot$ reflects some backdoor constructions such as full superuser permissions or a universal decryption key. For the logic ...

  18. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are found in ...

  19. Analysis of time and space invariance of BOLD responses in the rat visual system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Christopher; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Herman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    superior colliculus (SC) and primary visual cortex (V1) in rat brain--regions with different basal blood flow and energy demand. Our goal was to assess neurovascular coupling in V1 and SC as reflected by temporal/spatial variances of impulse response functions (IRFs) and assess, if any, implications...

  20. Pixe analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Kinyua, A. M.; O'Neill, M. P.; Wilder, B. J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  1. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O' Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  2. Repeatedly stressed rats have enhanced vulnerability to amygdala kindling epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nigel C; Lee, Han Ee; Yang, Meng; Rees, Sandra M; Morris, Margaret J; O'Brien, Terence J; Salzberg, Michael R

    2013-02-01

    Psychiatric disorders associated with elevated stress levels, such as depression, are present in many epilepsy patients, including those with mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (mTLE). Evidence suggests that these psychiatric disorders can predate the onset of epilepsy, suggesting a causal/contributory role. Prolonged exposure to elevated corticosterone, used as a model of chronic stress/depression, accelerates limbic epileptogenesis in the amygdala kindling model. The current study examined whether exposure to repeated stress could similarly accelerate experimental epileptogenesis. Female adult non-epileptic Wistar rats were implanted with a bipolar electrode into the left amygdala, and were randomly assigned into stressed (n=18) or non-stressed (n=19) groups. Rats underwent conventional amygdala kindling (two electrical stimulations per day) until 5 Class V seizures had been experienced ('the fully kindled state'). Stressed rats were exposed to 30min restraint immediately prior to each kindling stimulation, whereas non-stressed rats received control handling. Restraint stress increased circulating corticosterone levels (pre-stress: 122±17ng/ml; post-stress: 632±33ng/ml), with no habituation observed over the experiment. Stressed rats reached the 'fully kindled state' in significantly fewer stimulations than non-stressed rats (21±1 vs 33±3 stimulations; p=0.022; ANOVA), indicative of a vulnerability to epileptogenesis. Further, seizure durations were significantly longer in stressed rats (p<0.001; ANOVA). These data demonstrate that exposure to repeated experimental stress accelerates the development of limbic epileptogenesis, an effect which may be related to elevated corticosterone levels. This may have implications for understanding the effects of chronic stress and depression in disease onset and progression of mTLE in humans.

  3. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in dogs and rats in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suepaul, S M; Carrington, C V; Campbell, M; Borde, G; Adesiyun, A A

    2014-12-01

    Stray dogs (n=207), suspected canine cases of leptospirosis (n=50) and rats (n=200) from the Caribbean island of Trinidad were subjected to the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) for leptospirosis. The seroprevalence in stray dogs was 15.5% (n=32), the predominant serogroup was Icterohaemorrhagiae (14.5%; n=30) with agglutinations to serovars Copenhageni at 5.8%, Icterohaemorrhagiae at 4.8%, Mankarso at 3.9%. The seroprevalence among suspected canine cases was 72% (n=36) with Icterohaemorrhagiae again being the predominant serogroup at 60% inclusive of serovars: Copenhageni, 44%; Mankarso, 14%; and Icterohaemorrhagiae 2%. A seroprevalence of 16.5% was determined in rats, all agglutinations were to the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup (inclusive of serovars Copenhageni, 9.5%; Icterohaemorrhagiae, 5.5%; and Mankarso, 1.5%). Overall serovar Copenhageni was the most common serovar as 11.6% of all the animal species tested by the MAT were positive and may be an important zoonotic serovar in Trinidad. The titres of infecting serovars of Leptospira in suspected canine cases of leptospirosis were considerably higher than that found in stray dogs and in rats where the lowest titres were found. Age and sex were not significant risk factors except in the case of rats where age was significant, indicating that juvenile rats were at a significantly higher risk. There was no definite pattern of the distribution of positive animals or the serovars when using the MAT. Data obtained in the current study indicate that dogs and rats in Trinidad have the potential to be sources of leptospiral infections for humans. This potential has public health implications making it imperative to control rat and stray dog populations in the island to reduce the risk of human leptospirosis.

  4. The dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride accelerates extinction and delays reacquisition of food self-administration in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koerber, Jonathon; Goodman, David; Barnes, Jesse L.; Grimm, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine receptors are implicated in the reinforcing effects of food and drug reinforcement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether blocking D2 dopamine receptors during extinction (secondary reinforcement) would affect reacquisition of responding for food pellets (primary reinforcement). Food-restricted rats self-administered (FR1) food pellets in 1-h daily sessions for seven days. For the next seven days rats responded in extinction conditions. Prior to each extinction session ra...

  5. Interleukin-1 beta inhibits rat thyroid cell function in vivo and in vitro by an NO-independent mechanism and induces hypothyroidism and accelerated thyroiditis in diabetes-prone BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Rasmussen, A K; Karlsen, A E;

    1996-01-01

    Interleukin-1 beta has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis. When given for 5 days to normal non-diabetes-prone Wistar Kyoto rats, it decreased plasma concentrations of total tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine and increased plasma TSH. These effects were...... to interleukin-1 beta. However, reverse transcription PCR analysis of mRNA isolated from interleukin-1 beta-exposed FRTL-5 cells revealed a transitory expression of the inducible NO synthase, which was markedly lower than inducible NO synthase induction in interleukin-1 beta-exposed isolated rat islets...... hypothyroidism in non-diabetic diabetes-prone BB rats. The data suggest that NO does not mediate interleukin-1 beta-induced inhibition of rat thyroid function in vivo or in vitro in FRTL-5 cells, and the induction of hypothyroidism by interleukin-1 beta in diabetes-prone BB rats is speculated to be due...

  6. Growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 inhibits cerebellar cell death in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pañeda, Covadonga; Arroba, Ana I; Frago, Laura M; Holm, Anne Mette; Rømer, John; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2003-08-26

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is essential for cerebellar granule neuron survival and a decline in IGF-I is implicated in various age-dependent processes. Here we show that IGF-I mRNA levels are decreased in the cerebellum of old rats compared with young rats and this was associated with increased cell death and activation of caspases 3 and 9. Growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6, a synthetic ligand for the ghrelin receptor, increased IGF-I mRNA levels, decreased cell death and inhibited caspase 3 and 9 activation in the cerebellum of aged rats. These results suggest that increasing IGF-I expression in the cerebellum can decrease cell death in aged rats via inhibition of caspase 3 and 9 activation.

  7. Induction of neuroserpin expression in rat frontal cortex after chronic antidepressant treatment and electroconvulsive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Yamada, Misa; Kitahara, Sari; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Honda, Kazuo; Kamijima, Kunitoshi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2006-02-01

    Using expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis, we previously identified certain molecular machinery that mediates antidepressant effects. To date, several partial cDNA fragments, termed antidepressant-related genes (ADRGs), have been isolated as ESTs from rat brain. In the present study, we identified two of the ADRGs to be rat neuroserpin. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we demonstrated increased neuroserpin mRNA expression in rat frontal cortex after chronic treatment with several classes of antidepressants, including imipramine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine. Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT), another therapeutic treatment for depression, also increased neuroserpin expression in rat frontal cortex. Neuroserpin is a serine protease inhibitor that is implicated in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, neuronal migration, and axogenesis in the central nervous system. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that neuroserpin-mediated plastic changes in frontal cortex may underlie the therapeutic action of antidepressants and ECT.

  8. As representações sociais do aleitamento materno para mães de prematuros em unidade de cuidado canguru Representaciones sociales de la lactancia materna para madres de prematuros en el cuidado canguro Social representations on breastfeeding according to preterm infants' mothers in kangaroo care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Javorski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do estudo foram identificar as representações sociais sobre aleitamento materno de pré-termo, em unidade de Cuidado Canguru, sob a óptica das mães que estão amamentando, e descrever os conflitos e contradições que eles vivenciam nesse contexto institucional. A pesquisa utiliza-se de uma abordagem qualitativa em que foi empregado o primeiro estágio da análise de enunciação à luz da Teoria das Representações Sociais. As representações encontradas são: os bebês saudáveis são alimentados no peito, o leite materno confere a proteção e a preservação da vida de uma criança prematura, o aleitamento materno é o complemento da maternidade e amamentar um bebê prematuro é uma experiência difícil e desgastante. Os conflitos são decorrentes da assimilação de conteúdos e discurso técnico, sucção tardia e representações sobre leite materno.Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar las representaciones sociales de la lactancia materna al bebe prematuro en la unidad de cuidado canguro bajo la óptica de las madres que están amamantando y describir los conflictos y contradicciones que vivencian en el contexto institucional. Fue adoptada una aproximación cualitativa, empleándose la primera fase del análisis de enunciación a la luz de la teoría de representaciones sociales. Las representaciones encontradas son: Los bebes saludables son alimentados a pecho, la leche materna da protección y preservación de la vida a un niño prematuro, la lactancia materna es el complemento de la maternidad y dar lactancia a un bebe prematuro es una experiencia difícil y desgastante. Los conflictos y contradicciones resultan de la asimilación de contenidos y discurso técnico, succión tardía y representaciones sobre la leche materna.This study aimed to identify the social representations on premature infants' breastfeeding at a Kangaroo Care Unit, from the perspective of mothers who are breastfeeding and describe the

  9. Sucção do recém-nascido prematuro: comparação do método Mãe-Canguru com os cuidados tradicionais Suckling of the premature newborn child: comparison between the Kangaroo Mother method with traditional care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Santos Nogueira de Andrade

    2005-03-01

    newborns were evaluated and submitted to phoniatric intervention in the process of hospital discharge. RESULTS: in Group 1 there was a significant improvement related to behavior, stress signs, coordination and suction rhythm. Hospital stay was considerably shorter. In group 2 there was a significant improvement related to the coordination between suction, deglutition and breathing. CONCLUSIONS: newborns of both groups were benefited by phoniatrics, nevertheless, the best results related to the Kangaroo-Mother Method. It has been noted that this method is a good alternative for developing countries for it contributes to the effectiveness of nursing, shortening hospital stay and reducing public health costs.

  10. Respostas fisiológicas de recém-nascidos pré-termo submetidos ao Metódo Mãe-Canguru e a posição prona Physical responses of pre-term newborn babies submitted to the Kangaroo-Mother Care Method in Prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Dantas Olmedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O Ministério da Saúde recomenda e incentiva a Atenção Humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo peso utilizando-se o Método Mãe-Canguru (MMC nas unidades integrantes do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar as respostas fisiológicas entre o MMC e a posição prona (PP, em recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT. Foi feito um estudo de intervenção, realizado entre setembro e outubro de 2009, composto por 20 RNPT, de ambos os sexos, com idade gestacional entre 24 a 36 semanas, estáveis hemodinamicamente, sendo classificados como grupo I (MMC e grupo II (PP. Foram consideradas as variáveis: frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória (FR, saturação periférica de oxigênio (SatO2 e temperatura corporal (T. As mensurações foram realizadas por três dias consecutivos, antes e 60 min após a aplicação das técnicas. No grupo PP, a FR aferida antes foi significativamente maior do que a aferida após a intervenção, nos 1º e 3º dias (pThe Ministry of Health recommends and looks forward to the Humanized Attention of low weight newborn babies using the Kangaroo-Mother Care Method (MCM in Unified Health System units. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the physiological responses between the MMC and the Prone Position (PP in pre-term newborn babies (PNB. Intervention study, realized between September and October of 2009, was performed. It was formed by 20 PNB, both sexes, with gestational ages between 24 to 36 weeks, hemodynamic stable, classified as group I (MCM and group II (PP. The following variables were considered: heart frequency (HF, breathing frequency (BF, periphery saturation of oxygen (SatO2, and body temperature (T. All measurements were realized for three consecutive days, before and 60 min after applying the procedures. On the PP group, the HF checked before was meaningfully higher than the one checked after the procedure, on the first and third days (p<0.0001; p<0

  11. Método mãe canguru nos hospitais / maternidades públicos de Salvador e atuação dos profissionais da saúde na segunda etapa do método Kangaroo mother method in hospitals / public maternity in Salvador and performance of health professionals in the second stage of the method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rodrigues da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar quantos hospitais/ maternidades públicos em Salvador utilizam o método mãe-canguru, quais os profissionais estão inseridos na equipe e caracterizar a atuação dos profissionais de saúde que estão inseridos na segunda etapa do método. MÉTODO: trata-se de um estudo quantitativo descritivo do qual participaram os responsáveis pelo setor de neonatologia e os profissionais de saúde inseridos na segunda etapa do método respondendo a questionários. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva calculando-se frequências simples. RESULTADOS:das sete instituições públicas de Salvador quatro utilizam o método. Nas três instituições pesquisadas realizam-se as três etapas preconizadas, em duas delas o quadro profissional tem pelo menos um atuante de cada especialidade recomendada pelo Ministério da Saúde, no entanto evidencia-se reduzido número de fonoaudiólogos nos serviços. Dentre as principais ações dos profissionais da saúde inseridos na segunda etapa estão o incentivo ao posicionamento canguru, ao aleitamento materno exclusivo e orientação às mães quanto aos cuidados com o bebê. CONCLUSÕES:evidencia-se que a recomendação do Ministério da Saúde de que o método seja implantado nas unidades médico-assistenciais integrante do Sistema Único de Saúde ainda não é uma realidade em todos os hospitais/ maternidades públicos de Salvador, no entanto evidenciou-se quadro profissional em conformidade com a recomendação em duas das instituições pesquisadas e a atuação dos profissionais entrevistados se incorpora no campo da transdisciplinaridade.PURPOSE:to investigate how many public hospitals and maternity hospitals in Salvador use the Kangaroo Mother Method, who are the professionals inserted in the team, and to characterize the acting of the health professionals who are inserted in the second stage of the method. METHOD: a descriptive quantitative study, in which the

  12. Implications of recent MINER$\

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Among the most important tasks of neutrino oscillation experiments is correctly estimating the parent neutrino energy from the by-products of their interactions. Large uncertainties in our current understanding of such processes can significantly hamper this effort. We explore several recent measurements made using the \\mnv{} detector in the few-GeV NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab: the differential cross-section vs. $Q^2$ for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and pion kinetic energy for resonant single charged pion production, and the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and kinetic energy for coherent pion production. We furthermore discuss their implications for energy reconstruction in oscillation measurements.

  13. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression......, we investigate empirically the role of the social environment of individuals for their communication patterns. Our study species is a song bird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The results suggest that individual communication in this species is influenced by features of the local...... social environment of the individual. In the last two studies, we investigate the role of social structure for cooperation in a classic natural system for behavioural research, the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), by means of computer simulations. Cooperation contradicts evolutionary theory...

  14. Hepatitis E virus in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus captured around a pig farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanai Yuta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV transmitted via the oral route through the consumption of contaminated water or uncooked or undercooked contaminated meat has been implicated in major outbreaks. Rats may play a critical role in HEV outbreaks, considering their negative effects on environmental hygiene and food sanitation. Although the serological evidence of HEV infection in wild rodents has been reported worldwide, the infectivity and propagation of HEV in wild rats remain unknown. To investigate if rats are a possible carrier of HEV, we studied wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus that were caught near a pig farm, where HEV was prevalent among the pigs. Methods We examined 56 Norway rats for HEV. RNA from internal organs was examined for RT-PCR and positive samples were sequenced. Positive tissue samples were incubated with A549 cell line to isolate HEV. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected by ELISA. Results Sixteen rats were seropositive, and the HEV RNA was detected in 10 of the 56 rats. Sequencing of the partial ORF1 gene from 7 samples resulted in partially sequenced HEV, belonging to genotype 3, which was genetically identical to the HEV prevalent in the swine from the source farm. The infectious HEVs were isolated from the Norway rats by using the human A549 cell line. Conclusions There was a relatively high prevalence (17.9% of the HEV genome in wild Norway rats. The virus was mainly detected in the liver and spleen. The results indicate that these animals might be possible carrier of swine HEV in endemic regions. The HEV contamination risk due to rats needs to be examined in human habitats.

  15. Cholinergic stimulation with pyridostigmine improves autonomic function in infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, Raquel N; Rodrigues, Bruno; Moraes-Silva, Ivana C; Souza, Leandro E; Sirvente, Raquel; Mostarda, Cristiano; De Angelis, Kátia; Soares, Pedro P; Lacchini, Silvia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2013-09-01

    In the present study we evaluated the effects of short-term pyridostigmine bromide (0.14 mg/mL) treatment started early after myocardial infarction (MI) on left ventricular (LV) and autonomic functions in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, pyridostigmine, infarcted and infarcted + pyridostigmine-treated groups. Pyridostigmine was administered in the drinking water, starting immediately after MI or sham operation, for 11 days. Left ventricular function was evaluated indirectly by echocardiography and directly by LV catheterization. Cardiovascular autonomic control was evaluated by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), heart rate variability (HRV) and pharmacological blockade. All evaluations started after 7 days pyridostigmine treatment and were finalized after 11 days treatment. Pyridostigmine prevented the impairment of +dP/dT and reduced the MI area in infarcted + pyridostigmine compared with infarcted rats (7 ± 3% vs 17 ± 4%, respectively). Mean blood pressure was restored in infarcted + pyridostigmine compared with infarcted rats (103 ± 3 vs 94 ± 3 mmHg, respectively). In addition, compared with the infarcted group, pyridostigmine improved BRS, as evaluated by tachycardic (1.6 ± 0.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.2 b.p.m./mmHg, respectively) and bradycardic (-0.42 ± 0.01 vs -1.9 ± 0.1 b.p.m./mmHg) responses, and reduced the low frequency/high frequency ratio of HRV (0.81 ± 0.11 vs 0.24 ± 0.14, respectively). These improvements are probably associated with increased vagal tone and reduced sympathetic tone in infarcted + pyridostigmine compared with infarcted rats. In conclusion, the data suggest that short-term pyridostigmine treatment started early after MI can improve BRS, HRV and parasympathetic and sympathetic tone in experimental rats. These data may have potential clinical implications because autonomic markers have prognostic significance after MI.

  16. Cytokine expression in the rat central nervous system following perinatal Borna disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, C; de la Torre, J C

    1999-04-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) causes central nervous system (CNS) disease in several vertebrate species, which is frequently accompanied by behavioral abnormalities. In the adult rat, intracerebral (i.c.) BDV infection leads to immunomediated meningoencephalitis. In contrast, i.c. infection of neonates causes a persistent infection in the absence of overt signs of brain inflammation. These rats (designated PTI-NB) display distinct behavioral and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. However, the molecular mechanisms for these virally induced CNS disturbances are unknown. Cytokines play an important role in CNS function, both under normal physiological and pathological conditions. Astrocytes and microglia are the primary resident cells of the central nervous system with the capacity to produce cytokines. Strong reactive astrocytosis is observed in the PTI-NB rat brain. We have used a ribonuclease protection assay to investigate the mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines in different brain regions of PTI-NB and control rats. We show here evidence of a chronic upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukins-1alpha, and -1beta in the hippocampus and cerebellum of the PTI-NB rat brain. These brain regions exhibited only a very mild and transient immune infiltration. In contrast, in addition to reactive astrocytes, a strong and sustained microgliosis was observed in the PTI-NB rat brains. Our data suggest that CNS resident cells, namely astrocytes and microglia, are the major source of cytokine expression in the PTI-NB rat brain. The possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Ovariectomy-induced chronic abdominal hypernociception in rats: Relation with brain oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara B. Garrido-Suárez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ovarian hormone deficiency observed in menopausal women increases the production of reactive oxygen species, which could be implicated in central sensitization subjacent in chronic functional pain syndromes. Aims: To examine the hyperalgesic state induced by ovariectomy in adult rats and its relation to some oxidative stress outcomes. Methods: The female Wistar rats were divided into normal, sham ovariectomized (OVX and OVX groups, which were tested for mechanical and thermal hypernociception during 6 weeks and a single acetic acid-induced test 6 weeks after surgery. Redox biomarkers determinations of superoxide dismutase (SOD enzyme activity, glutathione (GSH and nitrates/nitrites as an indicator of nitric oxide (NO concentrations were determined in the brain and cerebellum of 6 animals of each group. Results: Exclusivity OVX rats developed a robust state of mechanical hypernociception and allodynia in the abdomen, hindlimbs and proximal tail. Besides, thermal pain thresholds (hot plate decreased. That was established 3-4 weeks after OVX and lasted for the 6 weeks of the experiment. Increases in visceral sensitivity were also observed in OVX rats. SOD enzyme activity decreased in OVX rats, which showed major deficit for this enzymatic defense under visceral inflammatory injury. However GSH concentrations were increased in brain of OVX animals that allow the balance during acute inflammation. NO concentrations were raised only in OVX rats exposure to chemical inflammatory injury. Conclusions: OVX in rats provide a useful model, which mimics the functional pain in females that could be related with brain oxidative stress.

  18. Implantação do Método Mãe-Canguru na percepção de enfermeiras de um hospital universitário Implantación del Método Madre canguro en la percepción de enfermeras de un hospital universitario Implantation of the Kangaroo Mother Method in the perception of nurses in a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Cristina de Hollanda Parisi

    2008-01-01

    involucramiento de los colaboradores de la institución, en los procesos de cambio y la necesidad de adecuación de los recursos humanos y físicos para la implantación efectiva del método. De esta forma, dio subsidios para la reorganización de las actividades asistenciales y gerenciales en el referido servicio.OBJECTIVE: To understand the perception of nurses in a Neonatal Unit about the implantation of the Kangaroo Mother Method. METHODS: This is an exploratory-descriptive, qualitative study, performed at the Neonatal Unit at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, with the participation of five nurses. Data collection occurred through interviews, which were transformed into narratives and then categorized. RESULTS: Three categories were extracted from the narratives and interpreted according to the planned changes: the decision-making and awareness processes of the healthcare team, the intervenient factors and the beliefs and feelings associated to the implantation of the Kangaroo Mother Method. CONCLUSION: This study showed the importance of the involvement of the collaborators at the institution during the processes of change and the need to adequate the human and physical resources for the effective implantation of the method. Therefore, it yielded subsidies for the reorganization of the healthcare and managerial activities of the service.

  19. Integrated genomic approaches implicate osteoglycin (Ogn) in the regulation of left ventricular mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petretto, Enrico; Sarwar, Rizwan; Grieve, Ian; Lu, Han; Kumaran, Mande K; Muckett, Phillip J; Mangion, Jonathan; Schroen, Blanche; Benson, Matthew; Punjabi, Prakash P; Prasad, Sanjay K; Pennell, Dudley J; Kiesewetter, Chris; Tasheva, Elena S; Corpuz, Lolita M; Webb, Megan D; Conrad, Gary W; Kurtz, Theodore W; Kren, Vladimir; Fischer, Judith; Hubner, Norbert; Pinto, Yigal M; Pravenec, Michal; Aitman, Timothy J; Cook, Stuart A

    2009-01-01

    Left ventricular mass (LVM) and cardiac gene expression are complex traits regulated by factors both intrinsic and extrinsic to the heart. To dissect the major determinants of LVM, we combined expression quantitative trait locus1 and quantitative trait transcript2 (QTT) analyses of the cardiac transcriptome in the rat. Using these methods and in vitro functional assays, we identified osteoglycin (Ogn) as a major candidate regulator of rat LVM, with increased Ogn protein expression associated with elevated LVM. We also applied genome-wide QTT analysis to the human heart and observed that, out of ~22,000 transcripts, OGN transcript abundance had the highest correlation with LVM. We further confirmed a role for Ogn in the in vivo regulation of LVM in Ogn knockout mice. Taken together, these data implicate Ogn as a key regulator of LVM in rats, mice and humans, and suggest that Ogn modifies the hypertrophic response to extrinsic factors such as hypertension and aortic stenosis. PMID:18443592

  20. Epigenetics and its implications for ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Janssen, Colin R

    2011-05-01

    Epigenetics is the study of mitotically or meiotically heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. Interestingly, epigenetic changes can be triggered by environmental factors. Environmental exposure to e.g. metals, persistent organic pollutants or endocrine disrupting chemicals has been shown to modulate epigenetic marks, not only in mammalian cells or rodents, but also in environmentally relevant species such as fish or water fleas. The associated changes in gene expression often lead to modifications in the affected organism's phenotype. Epigenetic changes can in some cases be transferred to subsequent generations, even when these generations are no longer exposed to the external factor which induced the epigenetic change, as observed in a study with fungicide exposed rats. The possibility of this phenomenon in other species was demonstrated in water fleas exposed to the epigenetic drug 5-azacytidine. This way, populations can experience the effects of their ancestors' exposure to chemicals, which has implications for environmental risk assessment. More basic research is needed to assess the potential phenotypic and population-level effects of epigenetic modifications in different species and to evaluate the persistence of chemical exposure-induced epigenetic effects in multiple subsequent generations.

  1. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  2. Attachment behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that the

  3. Culturing rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T; Ferguson, C

    2001-01-01

    Cultured neurons are widely used to investigate the mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Embryonic rat hippocampal neurons may be grown as described under a wide variety of conditions to suit differing experimental procedures, including electrophysiology, morphological analysis of neurite development, and various biochemical and molecular analyses.

  4. Sex Differences in Effects of Ketamine on Behavior, Spine Density, and Synaptic Proteins in Socially Isolated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ambalika; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    The mechanistic underpinnings of sex differences in occurrence of depression and efficacy of antidepressant treatments are poorly understood. We examined the effects of isolation stress (IS) and the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine on anhedonia and depression-like behavior, spine density, and synaptic proteins in male and female rats. We used a chronic social IS paradigm to test the effects of ketamine (0, 2.5 mg/kg, and 5 mg/kg) on behavior and levels of synaptic proteins synapsin-1, postsynaptic density protein 95, and glutamate receptor 1 in male rats and female rats in diestrus. Medial prefrontal cortex spine density was also examined in male rats and female rats that received ketamine during either the diestrus or the proestrus phase of their estrous cycle. Male rats showed anhedonia and depression-like behavior after 8 weeks of IS, concomitant with decreases in spine density and levels of synapsin-1, postsynaptic density protein 95, and glutamate receptor 1 in the medial prefrontal cortex; these changes were reversed by a single injection of ketamine (5 mg/kg). After 11 weeks of IS, female rats showed depression-like behavior but no signs of anhedonia. Although both doses of ketamine rescued depression-like behavior in female rats, the decline observed in synaptic proteins and spine density in IS and in diestrus female rats could not be reversed by ketamine. Spine density was higher in female rats during proestrus than in diestrus. Our findings implicate a role for synaptic proteins synapsin-1, postsynaptic density protein 95, and glutamate receptor 1 and medial prefrontal cortex spine density in the antidepressant effects of ketamine in male rats subjected to IS but not in female rats subjected to IS, suggesting dissimilar underlying mechanisms for efficacy of ketamine in the two sexes. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementation of Kangaroo mother care by health workers in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-04

    Aug 4, 2016 ... mother (or substitute) and her low birth weight infant, both in hospital and ... come countries. In Nigeria, it was estimated that KMC would save over ..... parents and also benefit the hospital, with improved in- fant survival and ...

  6. Implications of antisocial parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  7. Sampling phasic dopamine signaling with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in awake, behaving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, S M; Cone, J J; Ng-Evans, S; McCutcheon, J E; Roitman, M F

    2015-01-05

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical technique that permits the in vivo measurement of extracellular fluctuations in multiple chemical species. The technique is frequently utilized to sample sub-second (phasic) concentration changes of the neurotransmitter dopamine in awake and behaving rats. Phasic dopamine signaling is implicated in reinforcement, goal-directed behavior, and locomotion, and FSCV has been used to investigate how rapid changes in striatal dopamine concentration contribute to these and other behaviors. This unit describes the instrumentation and construction, implantation, and use of components required to sample and analyze dopamine concentration changes in awake rats with FSCV.

  8. Identification of rat genes by TWINSCAN gene prediction, RT-PCR, and direct sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jia Qian; Shteynberg, David; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan

    2004-01-01

    The publication of a draft sequence of a third mammalian genome--that of the rat--suggests a need to rethink genome annotation. New mammalian sequences will not receive the kind of labor-intensive annotation efforts that are currently being devoted to human. In this paper, we demonstrate...... an alternative approach: reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing based on dual-genome de novo predictions from TWINSCAN. We tested 444 TWINSCAN-predicted rat genes that showed significant homology to known human genes implicated in disease but that were partially...

  9. Neutrino Experiments and Their Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in solar, reactor, and accelerator neutrino physics are reviewed. Implications for neutrino physics, solar physics, nuclear two-body physics, and r-process nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed.

  10. Tuberculosis: the implications for anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetics Supplement: Tuberculosis: the implications for anaesthesia. S Afr Fam Pract 2014 .... quicker results (within two hours), as well as information on rifampicin .... management of patients with active tuberculosis.21. Elective surgery ...

  11. The dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride accelerates extinction and delays reacquisition of food self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerber, Jonathon; Goodman, David; Barnes, Jesse L; Grimm, Jeffrey W

    2013-12-01

    Dopamine receptors are implicated in the reinforcing effects of food and drug reinforcement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether blocking D2 dopamine receptors during extinction (secondary reinforcement) would affect reacquisition of responding for food pellets (primary reinforcement). Food-restricted rats self-administered (fixed-ratio 1) food pellets in 1-h daily sessions for 7 days. For the next 7 days rats responded in extinction conditions. Before each extinction session rats were injected with saline or the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride (0.03 mg/kg, subcutaneously). After the extinction phase, rats were allowed to reacquire food pellet self-administration in seven daily sessions, and received saline or eticlopride before each session. Four treatment groups were represented: saline extinction, saline reacquisition; eticlopride extinction, saline reacquisition; saline extinction, eticlopride reacquisition; and eticlopride extinction, eticlopride reacquisition. Locomotor activity did not differ between eticlopride-treated and saline-treated rats throughout the study. Extinction was accelerated in eticlopride-treated rats. Eticlopride also delayed reacquisition of food self-administration compared with saline-treated rats. Rats administered eticlopride during extinction showed delayed reacquisition and a decreased response rate for food during the reacquisition phase. Indirectly reducing the value of a reinforcer in this way may provide a novel approach for reducing addiction-related food or drug self-administration behaviors.

  12. Voluntary Alcohol Intake following Blast Exposure in a Rat Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yi Wei; Meyer, Nathan P.; Shah, Alok S.; Budde, Matthew D.; Stemper, Brian D.; Olsen, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a frequent comorbidity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), even in patients without a previous history of alcohol dependence. Despite this correlational relationship, the extent to which the neurological effects of mTBI contribute to the development of alcoholism is unknown. In this study, we used a rodent blast exposure model to investigate the relationship between mTBI and voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol naïve rats. We have previously demonstrated in Sprague Dawley rats that blast exposure leads to microstructural abnormalities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions that progress from four to thirty days. The mPFC is a brain region implicated in alcoholism and drug addiction, although the impact of mTBI on drug reward and addiction using controlled models remains largely unexplored. Alcohol naïve Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a blast model of mTBI (or sham conditions) and then tested in several common measures of voluntary alcohol intake. In a seven-week intermittent two-bottle choice alcohol drinking test, sham and blast exposed rats had comparable levels of alcohol intake. In a short access test session at the conclusion of the two-bottle test, blast rats fell into a bimodal distribution, and among high intake rats, blast treated animals had significantly elevated intake compared to shams. We found no effect of blast when rats were tested for an alcohol deprivation effect or compulsive drinking in a quinine adulteration test. Throughout the experiment, alcohol drinking was modest in both groups, consistent with other studies using Sprague Dawley rats. In conclusion, blast exposure had a minimal impact on overall alcohol intake in Sprague Dawley rats, although intake was increased in a subpopulation of blast animals in a short access session following intermittent access exposure. PMID:25910266

  13. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates uranium-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats: Role of antioxidant and antiapoptotic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yan; Zheng, Jifang; Zhao, Tingting; Tang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Nan

    2017-02-01

    As an endogenous gaseous mediator, H2 S exerts antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and cytoprotective effects in livers. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of H2 S against uranium-induced hepatotoxicity in adult SD male rats after in vivo effect of uranium on endogenous H2 S production was determined in livers. The levels of endogenous H2 S and H2 S-producing enzymes (CBS and CSE) were measured in liver homogenates from uranium -intoxicated rats. In rats injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with uranyl acetate or NaHS (an H2 S donor) alone or in combination, we examined biochemical parameters to assess liver function, revealed hepatic histopathological alteration, investigated oxidative stress markers, and explored apoptotic signaling in liver homogenates. The results suggest that uranium-intoxication in rats decreased CBS and CSE protein expression, H2 S synthesis capacity, and endogenous H2 S generation. NaHS administration in uranium-intoxicated rats produced amelioration in liver biochemical indices and histopathological effects, decreased MDA content, and increased GSH level and antioxidative enzymes activities like SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST. NaHS administration in uranium-intoxicated rats attenuated uranium-activated phosphorylation state of JNK. NaHS treatment in uranium-intoxicated rats increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 but decreased pro-apoptotic Bax, resulting in the rise of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. NaHS treatment in uranium-intoxicated rats reduced the apoptosis mediator caspase-3 and cytochrome c release and elevated ATP contents. Taken together, these data implicate that H2 S can afford protection to rat livers against uranium-induced adverse effects mediated by up-regulation of antioxidant and antiapoptotic signaling. The anti-apoptotic property of H2 S may be involved, at least in part, in inhibiting JNK signaling. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 581-593, 2017.

  14. The effect of defatted cocoa powder on cholesterol-induced changes of serum lipids in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mousa Numan; Amr, Amira Mohammad

    2017-06-05

    Cocoa has been known for many health benefits, but its lipid-lowering activity still remains unresolved. To investigate effects of varying amounts of defatted cocoa on serum lipids in cholesterol-fed rats. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four cholesterol-free (control) and four cholesterol-supplemented (experimental) diets containing 0, 1, 2 or 3% defatted cocoa (DC) and given ad libitumto the rats for ten weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low- and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and VLDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were quantified, atherogenic index (AI) was calculated, and other biological parameters were assessed. Food intake and body weight did not respond to DC. Compared to 0% DC, 3% DC had the most prominent effect on serum lipids inducing significant fall in LDL-C and TG, and rise in TC/TG in cholesterol-deprived rats, and increase in VLDL-C and AI, and decrease in HDL-C in cholesterol-fed rats. Compared to cholesterol-deprived rats, 3% DC caused significant rise in VLDL-C, AI and TC/TG, and fall in TG in cholesterol-fed rats. This lipid-modifying effect was markedly substantiated by corresponding linear trend responses to DC. Differences in lipid variables of rats fed on DC diets were less evident. Results suggest that, in contrast to cholesterol-free situations, defatted cocoa is seemingly incapable of counteracting the atherogenic effect of cholesterol in rats, perhaps in an interaction that is likely to have clinical implications in cardiometabolic conditions.

  15. Expression of myostatin, myostatin receptors and follistatin in diabetic rats submitted to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Daniela B; Bueno, Patrícia G; Silva, Rafaella N; Nakahara, Natália H; Selistre-Araújo, Heloísa S; Nonaka, Keico O; Leal, Angela Mo

    2012-05-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) has been implicated in metabolic adaptation to physiological stimuli, such as physical exercise, which is linked to improved glucose homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of exercise on the expression of MSTN, MSTN receptors (ActRIIB and ALK4) and follistatin (FS) in the muscle and fat of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Control and diabetic rats were randomly assigned to a swimming training group (EC and ED, respectively) and a sedentary group (SC and SD, respectively). Exercising animals swam for 45 min at 0900 and 1700 hours, 5 day/week, for 4 weeks. The mRNA expression of MSTN, ActRIIB, ALK4 and FS mRNA was quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of MSTN and FS mRNA increased in the muscle and subcutaneous fat of SD compared with SC rats. Expression of ActRIIB mRNA was increased in the muscle, mesenteric fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of SD compared with SC rats, whereas ALK4 mRNA expression was only increased in the BAT of SD compared with SC rats. After training, MSTN and ActRIIB expression was lower in the BAT of EC compared with SC rats. Expression of MSTN mRNA increased in the mesenteric fat of ED compared with SD rats, whereas FS mRNA expression decreased in the muscle, mesenteric and subcutaneous fat and BAT. Lower ALK4 mRNA expression was noted in the BAT of ED compared with SD rats. These results indicate that MSTN, its receptors and FS expression change in both the muscle and fat of diabetic rats and that the expression of these factors can be modulated by exercise in diabetes.

  16. MARITIME VIOLENCE : IMPLICATIONS TO MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nurulizwan Ahmad Zubir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in M...

  17. The Year of the Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Do you know what your Chinese sign of the zodiac is? According to the Chinese lunar calendar,every year corre- sponds to one of twelve animals(rat,ox,tiger,rabbit,dragon, snake,horse,sheep,monkey,rooster,dog and pig)and these animals are used to identify years. After the Lunar New Year in 2008 we enter the rat year. All those born in 1996,1984,1972.1960,1948,1936 or 1924, also have a rat as their sign.

  18. The Protective Effect of Beraprost Sodium on Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Inflammation and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li Peng; Jie Li; Yixing Xu; Yangtian Wang; Hong Du; Jiaqing Shao; Zhimin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a crucial role in regulating signaling pathways implicated in inflammatory processes leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study aimed to examine p38 MAPK activation in DN and determine whether beraprost sodium (BPS) ameliorates DN by inhibiting inflammation and p38 MAPK signaling pathway in diabetic rats. Methods. Forty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, type 2 diabetic group, a...

  19. Aldose reductase inhibition counteracts nitrosative stress and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in diabetic rat kidney and high-glucose-exposed human mesangial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Drel, Viktor R.; Pacher, Pal; Stevens, Martin J; Obrosova, Irina G.

    2006-01-01

    Both increased aldose reductase (AR) activity and oxidative/nitrosative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, but the relation between the two factors remains a subject of debate. This study evaluated the effects of AR inhibition on nitrosative stress and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation in diabetic rat kidney and high-glucose-exposed human mesangial cells. In animal experiments, control (C) and streptozotocin-diabetic (D) rats were treated with...

  20. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  1. Prevention of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcomas in rats pre-inoculated with endogenous rat retrovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Fish, D C; Demarais, J T; Djurickovic, D B; Huebner, R J

    1981-01-01

    Weanling Fischer 344 rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of a 1000-fold concentrated preparation of endogenous nontransforming rat retrovirus. Ten days later, the rats were each given a single subcutaneous injection of 3-methylcholanthrene. The rats inoculated with the endogenous rat retrovirus were significantly protected against the development of cancer, whereas uninoculated rats and rats given one of several murine retroviruses or baboon retrovirus were not protected.

  2. Extended exposure to a palatable cafeteria diet alters gene expression in brain regions implicated in reward, and withdrawal from this diet alters gene expression in brain regions associated with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Sarah I; Maniam, Jayanthi; South, Timothy; Holmes, Nathan; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2014-05-15

    Like people, rodents exposed to energy-rich foods over-eat and become overweight. Removal of this diet activates stress systems, which may explain why people have difficulty dieting. We exposed rats to energy-rich foods in order to identify changes in the brain induced by that diet and by its removal. Sprague Dawley rats were fed lab-chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow). Following 6 or 15 weeks, half of each group was switched to the opposing diet. Rats were culled 48-h later. We measured fat mass, plasma hormones, and assessed brains for mRNA expression of several genes. Cafeteria-fed rats consumed more kilojoules, weighed more and had elevated leptin (plus reduced CORT at 15 weeks) relative to chow-fed rats. Fifteen weeks of cafeteria diet suppressed μ-opioid and CB1 receptor mRNA in the VTA, but elevated amygdala GR, and 6 weeks of cafeteria diet reduced BDNF, compared to chow-fed rats. Rats switched to the cafeteria diet ate similar amounts as rats maintained on the diet, and switching to cafeteria diet after 15 weeks reduced amygdala GR expression. Rats switched to chow ate less than rats maintained on chow, and switching to chow following 15 weeks of cafeteria diet increased hypothalamic CRH mRNA. Therefore, 15 weeks of cafeteria diet produced changes in brain regions implicated in reward processes. Switching these rats to chow activated the HPA axis, while switching chow-fed rats to the cafeteria diet decreased GR expression in the amygdala, a region associated with stress. These findings have implications for dieting in humans. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rat traps: filling the toolbox for manipulating the rat genome

    OpenAIRE

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Cuppen, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory rat is rapidly gaining momentum as a mammalian genetic model organism. Although traditional forward genetic approaches are well established, recent technological developments have enabled efficient gene targeting and mutant generation. Here we outline the current status, possibilities and application of these techniques in the rat.

  4. Relationship between coumarin-induced hepatocellular toxicity and mitochondrial function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Wataru; Hori, Hisako; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-04-01

    The manifestation of coumarin-induced hepatocellular toxicity may differ and depends on the frequency of administration to rats. A single coumarin dose induces hepatocellular necrosis while repeated doses induce only hepatocyte degeneration. However, the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism of coumarin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Coumarin was administered to male rats as a single dose or for 4 consecutive days, and samples were obtained 4 or 24 h after a single dose or 24 h after the repeated doses. A single coumarin dose significantly induced hepatocellular necrosis in rats; however, toxicity was attenuated after repeated dosing. With a single dose, hepatocellular necrosis was preceded by increased mitochondrial number and size and decreased mitochondrial function. An increased expression of granular cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 protein was observed in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of coumarin-treated rats compared to the expression in the untreated controls. Nevertheless, repeated dosing showed mitochondrial function that was equivalent to that of the control while enlarged CYP2E1 protein droplets were distributed outside the mitochondria. These results suggest that mitochondrial function and CYP2E1 expression might be involved in coumarin-induced hepatocellular toxicity in rats. A reduction in mitochondrial CYP2E1 might be implicated in the acquisition of coumarin resistance after repeated doses.

  5. Adrenergic mechanism responsible for pathological alteration in gastric mucosal blood flow in rats with ulcer bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskiy, I. A.; Gekalyuk, A. S.; Ulanova, M. V.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    The adrenergic system plays an important role in regulation of central and peripheral circulation in normal state and during hemorrhage. Because the impaired gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) is the major cause of gastroduodenal lesions, including ulcer bleeding (UB), we studied the adrenergic mechanism responsible for regulation of GMBF in rats with a model of stress-induced UB (SUB) using the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). First, we examined the effect of adrenaline on GMBF in rats under normal state and during UB. In all healthy animals the submucosal adrenaline injection caused a decrease in local GMBF. During UB the submucosal injection of adrenaline was accompanied by less pronounced GMBF suppression in 30,3% rats with SUB vs. healthy ones. In 69,7% rats with SUB we observed the increase in local GMBF after submucosal injection of adrenaline. Second, we studied the sensitivity of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors and the activity of two factors which are involved in β2-adrenomediated vasorelaxation-KATP -channels and NO. The effects of submucosal injection of isoproterenol, ICI118551 and glybenclamide on GMBF as well as NO levels in gastric tissue were significantly elevated in rats with SUB vs. healthy rats. Thus, our results indicate that high activation of gastric β2-adrenoreceptors associated with the increased vascular KATP -channels activity and elevated NO production is the important adrenergic mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis of UB.

  6. In utero dimethadione exposure causes postnatal disruption in cardiac structure and function in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Kristiina L; Purssell, Elizabeth; Adams, Michael A; Ozolinš, Terence R S

    2014-12-01

    In utero exposure of rat embryos to dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated teratogenic metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, induces a high incidence of cardiac heart defects including ventricular septal defects (VSDs). The same exposure regimen also leads to in utero cardiac functional deficits, including bradycardia, dysrhythmia, and a reduction in cardiac output (CO) and ejection fraction that persist until parturition (10 days after the final dose). Despite a high rate of spontaneous postnatal VSD closure, we hypothesize that functional sequelae will persist into adulthood. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were administered six 300 mg/kg doses of DMO, one every 12 h in mid-pregnancy beginning on the evening of gestation day 8. Postnatal cardiac function was assessed in control (CTL) and DMO-exposed offspring using radiotelemetry and ultrasound at 3 and 11 months of age, respectively. Adult rats exposed to DMO in utero had an increased incidence of arrhythmia, elevated blood pressure and CO, greater left ventricular volume and elevated locomotor activity versus CTL. The mean arterial pressure of DMO-exposed rats was more sensitive to changes in dietary salt load compared with CTL. Importantly, most treated rats had functional deficits in the absence of a persistent structural defect. It was concluded that in utero DMO exposure causes cardiovascular deficits that persist into postnatal life in the rat, despite absence of visible structural anomalies. We speculate this is not unique to DMO, suggesting possible health implications for infants with unrecognized gestational chemical exposures.

  7. Lead Induced Hepato-renal Damage in Male Albino Rats and Effects of Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offor, Samuel J.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2017-01-01

    Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various cancers, diseases of the hepatic, renal, and reproductive systems etc. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated the role of activated charcoal in chronic lead exposure in albino rats. Eighteen mature male albino rats were used, divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats) received deionised water (10 ml/kg), group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg) followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Rats in group 2 showed significant increases in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotransferase, urea, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein, Very Low Density Lipoproteins, Total White Blood Cell Counts, Malondialdehyde, Interleukin-6, and decreases in Packed Cell Volume, hemoglobin concentration, Red blood cell count, total proteins, albumins, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total glutathione. Co-administration of AC significantly decreased these biomarkers with the exception of the sperm parameters. Histopathology of liver and kidney also confirmed the protective effective of AC against lead induced hepato-renal damage. AC may be beneficial in chronic lead induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:28352230

  8. Passion flower extract antagonizes the expression of nicotine locomotor sensitization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivogel, Chris; Jamerson, Brenda

    2012-10-01

    Nicotine, a bioactive component of tobacco, is highly addictive. Numerous therapies have been developed or are currently under investigation for smoking cessation, and all have met with limited success and/or side effects, indicating the need for additional therapies. This study examines the ability of a commerically-available aqueous extract of Passiflora incarnata Linn. (Passifloraceae) to ameliorate the signs of nicotine sensitization using a rat model. Rats were administered 0.4 mg/kg nicotine or vehicle once a day for four consecutive days. Nicotine adminstration produces sensitization of locomotor activity, a phenomenon implicated in the development of nicotine dependence. On the fifth day, locomotor activity of the subjects was monitored as rats from each treatment group were administered 800 mg/kg of Passiflora incarnata extract (or its vehicle) followed by a challenge dose of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine. When given to rats sensitized to nicotine for 4 days, the challenge dose of nicotine increased locomotor activity by more than 2-fold over activity following nicotine challenge in rats treated with vehicle during the sensitization phase. The difference was significant from 15-40 min after nicotine administration. Rats sensitized to nicotine then treated with Passiflora incarnata extract prior to the nicotine challenge exhibited a level of locomotor activity the same as the vehicle-treated controls. Passiflora incarnata extract did antagonize the expression of nicotine locomotor sensitization. Passiflora incarnata extract should be examined in future studies to evaluate its potential for treating nicotine addiction in humans.

  9. Insulin mediated hemodynamic responses in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs): effect of chromosome 4 gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sumangala P; McRae, Crystal; Lapanowski, Karen; Churchill, Monique; Kurtz, Theodore W; Dunbar, Joseph C

    2003-02-01

    The spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely studied model of essential hypertension and has been reported to exhibit alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Genetic linkage studies implicated that SHR carries deletion variant of Cd36 gene of chromosome 4, the gene that encodes fatty acid transporter. Thus it could be possible that primary genetic defect in SHR is compromised tissue utilization of fatty acid that would form the basis for the pathogenesis of hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and insulin-mediated responses. We measured both the hemodynamic and metabolic responses to insulin in SHR in comparison with the chromosome congenic spontaneous hypertensive rats (cSHRs) (rats in which piece of chromosome 4 containing wild type Cd36 was integrated into the SHR genome). A bolus infusion of insulin increased iliac conductance and decreased blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. However, in SHR insulin did not reduce blood pressure as in WKY but after about 15 min it significantly enhanced blood pressure and reduced iliac conductance. Whereas in cSHR insulin did not reduce blood pressure as in WKY rats. However, pressor responses to insulin were eliminated by chromosome 4 gene transfer. Glucose clearance was significantly slower in both SHR and cSHR. Glucose tolerance test revealed that SHR are hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant. These findings indicate that transfer of segment of chromosome 4 from Brown Norway rats onto spontaneous hypertensive background eliminates hyperinsulinemia and pressor effects of insulin.

  10. Repeated anticonvulsant testing: contingent tolerance to diazepam and clobazam in kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, E I

    1992-04-01

    The acute anticonvulsant efficacy of diazepam (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated by repeated test injection in kindled rats subcutaneously implanted with diazepam-filled or empty silastic tubes for 3 weeks. Tolerance developed to acute test injections in both diazepam- and sham-implanted rats. Tolerance developed to a lesser extent in another group of diazepam-implanted rats which did not receive acute intermittent anticonvulsant tests. The hypothesis that contingent tolerance had developed to the anticonvulsant actions of benzodiazepines (diazepam, 1.5 mg/kg, i.p. and clobazam, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) in kindled rats given acute intermittent injections was investigated using a 'before-after' design. Significant contingent tolerance developed in rats which received intermittent benzodiazepine treatment before, but not after, amygdala stimulation. Tolerance developed to different extents depending on the seizure measure evaluated (forelimb clonus duration, amygdala afterdischarge duration, motor seizure latency and duration, and seizure stage). Contingent tolerance to both benzodiazepines developed at a similar rate. The findings suggest that contingent tolerance may contribute a sizeable component to the overall functional benzodiazepine tolerance measured in long-term anticonvulsant drug studies in kindled rats. Several questions regarding contingent tolerance phenomena are posed and the implications of these findings for studies using repeated anticonvulsant testing are discussed.

  11. Faster non-renal clearance of metoprolol in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Unji; Lee, Inchul; Lee, Byung K; Kang, Hee E

    2013-11-20

    Metoprolol is a selective β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs). In this study, we evaluated pharmacokinetic changes following intravenous (i.v.) and oral metoprolol in rats with diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin (DMIS). Metoprolol has an intermediate hepatic extraction ratio in rats (0.586-0.617), and it is assumed that the liver is exclusively responsible for metoprolol metabolism. Thus, the hepatic clearance, CL(H) (the non-renal clearance, CL(NR)) of metoprolol depends on the hepatic blood flow rate (Q(H)), the free fraction in plasma (f(p)), and in vitro hepatic intrinsic clearance, CL(int). After i.v. administration of 1.5 mg/kg metoprolol to DMIS rats, its CLNR was 40.9% faster than control animals. This could be due to a significantly faster QH because hepatic CL(int) and fp were comparable between the two groups of rats due to unchanged hepatic CYP2D activity. After oral administration of 1.5 mg/kg metoprolol to DMIS rats, gastrointestinal absorption was >99% of the oral dose for both groups, while the area under the curve (AUC) was 27.9% smaller, which could be caused by the greater hepatic metabolism seen in the i.v. study. These findings have potential therapeutic implications, assuming that the DMIS rats qualitatively reflect similar changes in patients with diabetes.

  12. Método Mãe-Canguru: evolução ponderal de recém-nascidos Método Madre Canguro: evolución ponderal de recién nacidos Kangaroo Mother Method: newborn weight outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Oliveira Freitas

    2007-03-01

    estudio revela la necesidad de acompañar a los RN en pequeño, mediano y largo plazo y ampliar las discusiones sobre el acompañamiento de su crecimiento como una estrategia de atención básica, con miras a brindar atención de calidad a los RN y sus familias.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pattern of newborns weight gain in the second phase of the Kangaroo Mother Method and to determine the influence of breast feeding on newborns weight gain METHODS: This was a prospective study of 22 newborns. Data were collected from March to August 2005. RESULTS: More than a half (54.6% of the newborns had weight below the 5 percentile of the weight curve. The percentile of weight loss was of 9.8%. The mean of days for newborns to achieve the minimum weight and progress to normal weight was 5.2 days and 17.4 days, respectively. The relative rate of weight gain was 9g/kg/day and13.2g/kg/day in the first phase and in the second phase, respectively. The relative rate of weight gain of newborns who breast fed at the second phase was of 11.9g/kg/day. And, the relative rate of weight gain of newborns who breast fed and who were also fed with milk from the Human Milk Bank was 14.5g/kg/day. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the importance of short, medium and long term follow-up of newborns. Monitoring the growth of newborns may be a strategy to improve the quality care to newborns and their families.

  13. Maternal factors regulating preterm infants' responses to pain and stress while in maternal kangaroo care Los factores maternos regula la respuesta al dolor y al estrés del recién nacido en posición canguro Fatores maternos influenciam a resposta à dor e ao estresse do neonato em posição canguru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíla Corrêa Castral

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between maternal factors and the response of preterm infants to pain and stress experienced during heel puncture while in maternal kangaroo care was investigated. This descriptive study included 42 mothers and their preterm infants cared for in a neonatal unit. Data were collected in the baseline, procedure, and recovery phases. We measured the neonates' facial actions, sleep and wake states, crying, salivary cortisol levels, and heart rate, in addition to the mothers' behavior, salivary cortisol levels, and mental condition. The influence of the maternal explanatory variables on the neonatal response variables were verified through bivariate analysis, ANOVA, and multiple regression. The mothers' behavior and depression and/or anxiety did not affect the neonates' responses to pain and stress, though the mothers' levels of salivary cortisol before the procedure explained the variance in the neonates' levels of salivary cortisol after the procedure (p=0.036. Additionally, the mothers' baseline levels of salivary cortisol along with the neonates' age explained the variance in the neonates' heart rate (p=0.001. The ability of mothers to regulate their own stress contributed to the infants' responses to pain and stress.Asociación entre los factores maternos y la respuesta de los prematuros sometidos a punción del calcáneo en posición canguro. Estudio descriptivo envolviendo 42 madres y prematuros de una unidad neonatal. La colecta se dio en el período basal, procedimiento y recuperación. Se midieron la mímica facial, sueño y vigilia, llanto, cortisol salival y frecuencia cardíaca neonatal; y el comportamiento, cortisol salival y estado mental materno. Se analizó la influencia de las variables maternas en las variables neonatales por análisis bi-variada, análisis de variancia y regresión múltiple. La depresión, ansiedad y comportamiento materno no influenciaron la respuesta del prematuro al dolor. El cortisol pre

  14. Kangaroo Mother Method: Mothers' Experiences and Contributions to Nursing Método madre canguro: vivencias maternas y contribuciones para la enfermería Método mãe canguru: vivências maternas e contribuições para a enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Arivabene

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe mothers' experiences, analyzing them in the light of the principles of the Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM, and discuss the mothers' contributions based on the meanings of these experiences for nursing actions. In data collection, a questionnaire was used that characterized the mothers' socioeconomic profile and, through focus groups, stories were obtained about the benefits of these experiences, which supported the construction of the following categories: survival and recovery of the baby; the mothers' daily life modified by the KMM and valuation of affective family bonds in the KMM. The experiences are related to increased bonding between mother and baby, reduction of the infant's time of separation from the family, besides leading to increased competition and confidence in the parents to take care of their child, even before discharge, improving the mother's relation with the family, inside the family and with the team that takes care of the baby.El objetivo de este estudio fue describir vivencias de las madres, analizándolas bajo los principios del Método de la Madre Canguro (MMC y discutir las contribuciones de las madres a partir de los significados de esas vivencias para las acciones de enfermería. En la recolección de los datos, se empleó un cuestionario que caracterizó el perfil socioeconómico de las madres y, por medio de la técnica grupo focal, se obtuvieron relatos de los beneficios de esas vivencias que subsidiaron la construcción de las categorías: sobrevivencia y recuperación del bebé; el día a día de las madres modificado por el MMC; y, valorización de los lazos afectivos familiares en el MMC. Se constató que las vivencias están relacionadas al aumento del vínculo entre la madre y el bebé, a la disminución del tiempo de separación del recién nacido de la familia, además de proporcionar mayor competencia y confianza a los padres en los cuidados con su hijo, inclusive antes del

  15. Differential interleukin-1 receptor antagonism on pancreatic beta and alpha cells. Studies in rodent and human islets and in normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zumsteg, U; Reimers, J I; Pociot, F;

    1993-01-01

    The monokines interleukin-1 alpha and -beta have been implicated as effector molecules in the immune-mediated pancreatic beta-cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Here we investigated the effects of interleukin-1 receptor antagonism on insulin and glucagon release of rat......, mouse and human islets exposed to recombinant human interleukin-1 beta, and on interleukin-1 beta induced changes in blood glucose, serum insulin and serum glucagon levels in Wistar Kyoto rats. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist reduced the co-mitogenic effect of interleukin-1 beta on mouse and rat...

  16. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    in both Dahl-S and salt-resistant Dahl rats on high- and low-salt diets. TGF was investigated in the closed-loop mode with a videometric technique, in which the response in late proximal flow rate to perturbations in Henle flow rate was measured. All Dahl rats showed a similar compensatory response...

  17. High glucose stimulates the expression of erythropoietin in rat glomerular epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Seul Ki; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that the levels of erythropoietin are associated with diabetes mellitus. Glomerular epithelial cells, located in the renal cortex, play an important role in the regulation of kidney function and hyperglycemia-induced cell loss of glomerular epithelial cells is implicated in the onset of diabetic nephropathy. This study investigated the effect of high glucose on erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in rat glomerular epithelial cells. We found that 25 mM D-...

  18. Superoxide and Respiratory Coupling in Mitochondria of Insulin-Deficient Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Herlein, Judith A.; Fink, Brian D.; O'Malley, Yunxia; Sivitz, William I.

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species have been implicated in both diabetic complications and the progression of the underlying diabetic state. However, it is not clear whether mitochondria of diabetic origin are intrinsically altered to generate excess reactive oxygen species independent of the surrounding diabetic milieu. Mitochondria were isolated from gastrocnemius, heart, and liver of 2-wk and 2-month streptozotocin diabetic rats and controls. We rigidly quantified mitochondrial superoxi...

  19. The injustice of excluding laboratory rats, mice, and birds from the Animal Welfare Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlans, F Barbara

    2000-09-01

    A major shortcoming of the Animal Welfare Act is its exclusion of the species most-used in experimentation -- rats, mice, and birds. Considerations of justice dictate that extension of the law to these three species is the morally right thing to do. A brief history of how these species came to be excluded from the laws protecting laboratory animals is also provided, as well as discussion of the implications and significance of expanding the law.

  20. Matrine Inhibits the Proliferation of Rat Cardiac Fibroblasts Induced by AngiotensinⅡ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionMatrine, as an active component of chinese traditional medicine, has a great effect on anti-inflammation, anti-arrhythmia. But the recent evidences indicate that matrine also plays an important role in anti-proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism of action of matrine is incompletely understood, and further insights into its effects may have important therapeutic implications. Thus, our experiment was designed to determine the inhibitory effect of matrine on the proliferation of rat car...

  1. Differences in voluntary ethanol consumption in Wistar rats from five different suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Sara; Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the mechanism of action of ethanol and the neurobiological substrates for alcohol use disorders is challenging. In search of this knowledge, it is imperative to use valid animal experimental models. The Wistar rat is one example of a commonly used strain that also exert foundation stock for several rat lines selectively bred for high and low voluntary ethanol intake. Different studies report varying ethanol intake in Wistar rats posing the question of whether this is because of the methodological differences or the rat strain. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats from five different suppliers. Rats from B&K Universal, UK (BK); Charles River, Germany; Harlan Laboratories, IN (Hsd); Harlan Laboratories, The Netherlands (RccHan™); and Taconic, Denmark were exposed to a three-bottle free-choice paradigm with intermittent 24 h access to 5 and 20% ethanol and water three times per week for 6 weeks. A general finding was that the RccHan™ rats differed significantly from the other groups. At the end of the experiment, the RccHan™ group had the highest median ethanol intake of 3.85 g/kg/24 h, whereas the BK rats had the lowest intake of 1.84 g/kg/24 h. The preference for ethanol was also different throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the RccHan™ rats had the highest preference of approximately 80%, whereas the BK rats had the lowest preference around 25%. During the 6-week drinking period, only the Hsd rats increased their ethanol intake, as evidenced by a significant increase of 5% ethanol intake. Although all rats are of Wistar origin, they display profound differences in voluntary ethanol consumption depending on the supplier. The choice of Wistar can therefore have implications for the outcome and make comparisons between studies difficult. The present findings highlight the supplier as an important parameter to consider when planning and performing preclinical animal studies

  2. Dynamic Analysis of the Expression of HSP70 during Experimental Tooth Movement in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the expression of HSP70 during experimental tooth movement was dynamically observed and the relationship between HSP70 and orthodontic periodontal tissue remodeling were observed. The orthodontic appliance was placed between the right maxillary first molar and maxillary central incisors of adult SD rats to establish a rat molar movement model. Immunohistochemistry was performed 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 day(s) after orthodontic force application to observe the expression and localization of inducible HSP70. The expression of HSP70 was strongly positive in the early stage of the tooth movement, became gradually less positive, and was weakly positive in the restoration stage. There was difference in staining pattern between different parts of PDL during the same period. These results suggest that the expression of HSP70 and difference in staining pattern among different parts of PDL during orthodontic tooth movement in rats may be implicated in stress response and remodeling of periodontal tissue.

  3. Influence of glutamine on the effect of resistance exercise on cardiac ANP in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various nutritional supplements (herbs, vitamins, and micronutrients improve responses and adaptations to resistance exercise. ANP is a heart hormone that contributes to fluid, electrolyte and blood pressure homeostasis through its natriuretic and vasodilative actions. In the present study, the adaptation of ANP in response to resistance exercise was investigated in rats supplemented with glutamine for five weeks. The results showed that supplementation with glutamine did not influence the number of ANP granules per atrial cardiocyte in sedentary animals. In exercised-trained rats, the number and diameter of the granules was significantly higher in comparison with the control group and in exercised animals supplemented with glutamine there was significant increase in the number and diameter of ANP granules compared with controls. Altogether, these data indicated that in resistance exercise rats, glutamine significantly enhances cardiac ANP thus implicating the beneficial effects of glutamine supplementation to the ANP system.

  4. Do rats have orgasms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Pfaus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method: Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs in other species: 1 physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2 short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3 long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results: Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions: The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  5. Do rats have orgasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G.; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R.; Coria-Avila, Genaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research. PMID:27799081

  6. Cocaine is low on the value ladder of rats: possible evidence for resilience to addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriane Cantin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assessing the relative value of cocaine and how it changes with chronic drug use represents a long-standing goal in addiction research. Surprisingly, recent experiments in rats--by far the most frequently used animal model in this field--suggest that the value of cocaine is lower than previously thought. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a series of choice experiments that better define the relative position of cocaine on the value ladder of rats (i.e., preference rank-ordering of different rewards. Rats were allowed to choose either taking cocaine or drinking water sweetened with saccharin--a nondrug alternative that is not biologically essential. By systematically varying the cost and concentration of sweet water, we found that cocaine is low on the value ladder of the large majority of rats, near the lowest concentrations of sweet water. In addition, a retrospective analysis of all experiments over the past 5 years revealed that no matter how heavy was past cocaine use most rats readily give up cocaine use in favor of the nondrug alternative. Only a minority, fewer than 15% at the heaviest level of past cocaine use, continued to take cocaine, even when hungry and offered a natural sugar that could relieve their need of calories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This pattern of results (cocaine abstinence in most rats; cocaine preference in few rats maps well onto the epidemiology of human cocaine addiction and suggests that only a minority of rats would be vulnerable to cocaine addiction while the large majority would be resilient despite extensive drug use. Resilience to drug addiction has long been suspected in humans but could not be firmly established, mostly because it is difficult to control retrospectively for differences in drug self-exposure and/or availability in human drug users. This conclusion has important implications for preclinical research on the neurobiology of cocaine addiction and for future medication

  7. What makes a feline fatal in Toxoplasma gondii's fatal feline attraction? Infected rats choose wild cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, M; Knowles, S C L; Webster, J P

    2014-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an indirectly transmitted protozoan parasite, of which members of the cat family (Felidae) are the only definitive hosts and small mammals such as rats serve as intermediate hosts. The innate aversion of rodents to cat odor provides an obstacle for the parasite against successful predation by the feline definitive host. Previous research has demonstrated that T. gondii appears to alter a rat's perception of the risk of being preyed upon by cats. Although uninfected rats display normal aversion to cat odor, infected rats show no avoidance and in some cases even show attraction to cat odor, which we originally termed the "Fatal Feline Attraction." In this study, we tested for the first time whether the "Fatal Feline Attraction" of T. gondii-infected rats differed according to the type of feline odor used, specifically whether it came from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) or wild cats-cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) or pumas (Felis concolor). In two-choice odor trials, where wild and domestic cat odors were competed against one another, consistent with previous findings we demonstrated that infected rats spent more time in feline odor zones compared with uninfected rats. However, we further demonstrated that all cat odors are not equal: infected rats had a stronger preference for wild cat odor over that of domestic cats, an effect that did not differ significantly according to the type of wild cat odor used (cheetah or puma). We discuss these results in terms of the potential mechanism of action and their implications for the current and evolutionary role of wild, in addition to domestic, cats in transmission of T. gondii.

  8. THE ACTUAL IMPLICATIONS OF INFLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murăriţa Ilie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors have started from the idea that inflationary phenomenon is a companion, the cause and the effect of the globalization of poverty in the broader context of world economy globalization. Therefore, starting from a common definition of inflation, the first objective was to identify causal relationships that singularize contemporary inflationary process. After that, attention was focused on the implications of inflation in the current stage, bearing in mind that monetary financial theory and practice are operating with perfectly anticipated inflation or imperfectly anticipated inflation. Inflation has great implications on the long-term contracts and wage contracts.

  9. Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order The Implicate Order Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pylkkänen, Paavo T I

    2007-01-01

    Proposes that Bohm's alternative interpretation of quantum theory resolves the paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat, and the EPR paradox. This work uses Bohm's concepts of "implicate order", "active information" and "soma-significance" as tools to tackle several well-known problems in the philosophy of mind.

  10. A novel method for delivering ramped cooling reveals rat behaviours at innocuous and noxious temperatures: A comparative study of human psychophysics and rat behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, James P; Hulse, Richard P; Donaldson, Lucy F

    2015-07-15

    Thermal sensory testing in rodents informs human pain research. There are important differences in the methodology for delivering thermal stimuli to humans and rodents. This is particularly true in cold pain research. These differences confound extrapolation and de-value nociceptive tests in rodents. We investigated cooling-induced behaviours in rats and psychophysical thresholds in humans using ramped cooling stimulation protocols. A Peltier device mounted upon force transducers simultaneously applied a ramped cooling stimulus whilst measuring contact with rat hind paw or human finger pad. Rat withdrawals and human detection, discomfort and pain thresholds were measured. Ramped cooling of a rat hind paw revealed two distinct responses: Brief paw removal followed by paw replacement, usually with more weight borne than prior to the removal (temperature inter-quartile range: 19.1 °C to 2.8 °C). Full withdrawal was evoked at colder temperatures (inter quartile range: -11.3 °C to -11.8 °C). The profile of human cool detection threshold and cold pain threshold were remarkably similar to that of the rat withdrawals behaviours. Previous rat cold evoked behaviours utilise static temperature stimuli. By utilising ramped cold stimuli this novel methodology better reflects thermal testing in patients. Brief paw removal in the rat is driven by non-nociceptive afferents, as is the perception of cooling in humans. This is in contrast to the nociceptor-driven withdrawal from colder temperatures. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of data generated in older cold pain models and consequently our understanding of cold perception and pain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Increased Mesohippocampal Dopaminergic Activity and Improved Depression-Like Behaviors in Maternally Separated Rats Following Repeated Fasting/Refeeding Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Won Jahng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that rats that experienced 3 h of daily maternal separation during the first 2 weeks of birth (MS showed binge-like eating behaviors with increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis when they were subjected to fasting/refeeding cycles repeatedly. In this study, we have examined the psychoemotional behaviors of MS rats on the fasting/refeeding cycles, together with their brain dopamine levels. Fasting/refeeding cycles normalized the ambulatory activity of MS rats, which was decreased by MS experience. Depression-like behaviors, but not anxiety, by MS experience were improved after fasting/refeeding cycles. Fasting/refeeding cycles did not significantly affect the behavioral scores of nonhandled (NH control rats. Fasting/refeeding cycles increased dopamine levels not only in the hippocampus but also in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in MS rats, but not in NH controls. Results demonstrate that fasting/refeeding cycles increase the mesohippocampal dopaminergic activity and improve depression-like behaviors in rats that experienced MS. Together with our previous paper, it is suggested that increased dopamine neurotransmission in the hippocampus may be implicated in the underlying mechanisms by which the fasting/refeeding cycles induce binge-like eating and improve depression-like behaviors in MS rats.

  12. Effect of social isolation on CB1 and D2 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, D T; Kearn, C S; Chongue, L; Mackie, K; Taylor, D A

    2008-03-03

    Rearing rats in isolation has been shown to produce behavioral and neurochemical alterations similar to those observed in psychoses such as schizophrenia. Also, a dysregulation in both the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems has been implicated in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in CB1 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) protein expression, as well as D2 dopamine receptor expression in different brain regions in rats reared in different environmental conditions. Twenty-one-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were either reared in individual cages (isolated rats) or in group cages of six per cage (group-housed rats) for 8 weeks. Quantitative fluorescence immunohistochemistry was performed on brain slices using antibodies specific to the CB1 or D2 receptor, or the enzyme FAAH. Raising rats in isolation led to a significant decrease in CB1 receptor expression in the caudate putamen and the amygdala, a significant increase in FAAH expression in the caudate putamen and the nucleus accumbens core and shell, and no significant change in D2 receptor expression in any region studied. These results indicate that the endocannabinoid system is altered in an animal model of aspects of psychosis. This implies that rearing rats under different housing conditions may provide new insight into the role of the endocannabinoid system in the development of psychoses.

  13. Rapamycin increases grip strength and attenuates age-related decline in maximal running distance in old low capacity runner rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qian-Li; Yang, Huanle; Li, Hui-Fen; Abadir, Peter M; Burks, Tyesha N; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Carlson, Joshua; Chen, Laura; Walston, Jeremy D; Leng, Sean X

    2016-04-01

    Rapamycin is known to extend lifespan. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled study of enteric rapamycin-treatment to evaluate its effect on physical function in old low capacity runner (LCR) rats, a rat model selected from diverse genetic background for low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity without genomic manipulation and characterized by increased complex disease risks and aging phenotypes. The study was performed in 12 male and 16 female LCR rats aged 16-22 months at baseline. The treatment group was fed with rapamycin-containing diet pellets at approximately 2.24mg/kg body weight per day and the placebo group with the same diet without rapamycin for six months. Observation was extended for additional 2 months. Physical function measurements include grip strength measured as maximum tensile force using a rat grip strength meter and maximum running distance (MRD) using rat physical treadmill test. The results showed that rapamycin improved grip strength by 13% (p=.036) and 60% (p=.001) from its baseline in female and male rats, respectively. Rapamycin attenuated MRD decline by 66% (p=.001) and 46% (p=.319) in females and males, respectively. These findings provide initial evidence for beneficial effect of rapamycin on physical functioning in an aging rat model of high disease risks with significant implication in humans.

  14. Caffeic acid attenuates oxidative stress, learning and memory deficit in intra-cerebroventricular streptozotocin induced experimental dementia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Rahul; Kaundal, Madhu; Bansal, Vikas; Samardeep

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in cognitive decline as seen during normal aging and in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Caffeic acid, a polyphenolic compound, has been reported to possess potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. The role of caffeic acid in experimental dementia is not fully understood. Thus the present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential of caffeic acid in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer's type in rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) was administered intracerebroventrically (ICV) on day 1 and 3 (3mg/kg, ICV bilaterally) in Wistar rats. Caffeic acid was administered (10, 20 and 40mg/kg/day p.o.) 1h following STZ infusion upto 21st day. Morris water maze and object recognition task were used to assess learning and memory in rats. Terminally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the levels of oxido-nitrosative stress markers were determined in cortical and hippocampal brain regions of rats. STZ produced significant (plearning and memory impairment, oxido-nitrosative stress and cholinergic deficit in rats. Whereas, caffeic acid treatment significantly (p<0.001) and dose dependently attenuated STZ induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in rats. The observed cognitive improvement following caffeic acid in STZ treated rats may be due to its antioxidant activity and restoration of cholinergic functions. Our results suggest the therapeutic potential of caffeic acid in cognitive disorders such as AD.

  15. Effect of forced swimming stress on in-vivo fertilization capacity of rat and subsequent offspring quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Saki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to determine the effect of 50 days of forced swimming stress on fertilization capacity of rat and subsequent offspring quality. Setting and Design: The prospective study designed in vivo. Materials and Methods: Total 90 Wistar rats including 30 adult male (3 months of age, weighing 210 ± 10.6 g and 60 female rats (3 months of age, weighing 230 ± 12.2 g were engaged in this study. Male rats were randomly divided in two equal groups (n=15: Control and experimental groups. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to forced swimming stress for 3 min in water at 32oC daily for 50 days. Then all adult male rats were mated with normal females (2 per each male for 7 days. Female rats were sacrificed and autopsy was performed on day 20 of pregnancy when uterus and ovaries were examined for the number of corpora lutea, dead and live fetuses, embryo resorption, implantation sites, and fetus weight. Conclusion: Results of this study have important implications for families attempting pregnancy. Stress pursuant to life events may have a negative impact on in vivo fertilization capacity of male rats and subsequent offspring quality.

  16. Effect of forced swimming stress on in-vivo fertilization capacity of rat and subsequent offspring quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, Ghasem; Rahim, Fakher; Vaysi, Ozra Allah

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of 50 days of forced swimming stress on fertilization capacity of rat and subsequent offspring quality. The prospective study designed in vivo. Total 90 Wistar rats including 30 adult male (3 months of age, weighing 210 +/- 10.6 g) and 60 female rats (3 months of age, weighing 230 +/- 12.2 g) were engaged in this study. Male rats were randomly divided in two equal groups (n = 15): Control and experimental groups. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to forced swimming stress for 3 min in water at 32 degrees C daily for 50 days. Then all adult male rats were mated with normal females (2 per each male) for 7 days. Female rats were sacrificed and autopsy was performed on day 20 of pregnancy when uterus and ovaries were examined for the number of corpora lutea, dead and live fetuses, embryo resorption, implantation sites, and fetus weight. Results of this study have important implications for families attempting pregnancy. Stress pursuant to life events may have a negative impact on in vivo fertilization capacity of male rats and subsequent offspring quality.

  17. Cannabidivarin is anticonvulsant in mouse and rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, AJ; Mercier, MS; Hill, TDM; Glyn, SE; Jones, NA; Yamasaki, Y; Futamura, T; Duncan, M; Stott, CG; Stephens, GJ; Williams, CM; Whalley, BJ

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Phytocannabinoids in Cannabis sativa have diverse pharmacological targets extending beyond cannabinoid receptors and several exert notable anticonvulsant effects. For the first time, we investigated the anticonvulsant profile of the phytocannabinoid cannabidivarin (CBDV) in vitro and in in vivo seizure models. Experimental Approach The effect of CBDV (1–100 μM) on epileptiform local field potentials (LFPs) induced in rat hippocampal brain slices by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) application or Mg2+-free conditions was assessed by in vitro multi-electrode array recordings. Additionally, the anticonvulsant profile of CBDV (50–200 mg·kg−1) in vivo was investigated in four rodent seizure models: maximal electroshock (mES) and audiogenic seizures in mice, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats. The effects of CBDV in combination with commonly used antiepileptic drugs on rat seizures were investigated. Finally, the motor side effect profile of CBDV was investigated using static beam and grip strength assays. Key Results CBDV significantly attenuated status epilepticus-like epileptiform LFPs induced by 4-AP and Mg2+-free conditions. CBDV had significant anticonvulsant effects on the mES (≥100 mg·kg−1), audiogenic (≥50 mg·kg−1) and PTZ-induced seizures (≥100 mg·kg−1). CBDV (200 mg·kg−1) alone had no effect against pilocarpine-induced seizures, but significantly attenuated these seizures when administered with valproate or phenobarbital at this dose. CBDV had no effect on motor function. Conclusions and Implications These results indicate that CBDV is an effective anticonvulsant in a broad range of seizure models. Also it did not significantly affect normal motor function and, therefore, merits further investigation as a novel anti-epileptic in chronic epilepsy models. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http

  18. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  19. Rat myocardial protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, J H; Hopkins, B E

    1981-07-01

    1. Myocardial protein degradation rates were determined by following tyrosine release from rat isolated left hemi-atria in vitro. 2. After two 20 min preincubations the rate of tyrosine release from hemi-atria was constant for 4 h. 3. Skeletal muscle protein degradation was determined by following tyrosine release from rat isolated hemi-diaphragm (Fulks, Li & Goldberg, 1975). 4. Insulin (10(-7) M) inhibited tyrosine release from hemi-atria and hemi-diaphragm to a similar extent. A 48 h fast increased tyrosine release rate from hemi-diaphragm and decreased tyrosine release rate from hemi-atria. Hemi-diaphragm tyrosine release was inhibited by 15 mmol/l D-glucose but a variety of concentrations of D-glucose (0, 5, 15 mmol/l) had no effect on tyrosine release from hemi-atria. Five times the normal plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine had no effect on tyrosine release from either hemi-atria or hemi-diaphragm.

  20. Male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.

  1. Educational Implications of the Bender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Examples of diagnostic formulations of the "Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt" are outlined and their instructional implications are delineated. The difficulties in paper and pencil copying of geometric designs focus primarily on: separation and overlapping of figures, repetition of design elements, pencil grip, visual perceptions, pattern reversals,…

  2. Military Implications of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  3. Critical Thinking: Implications for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Kathleen W.

    1989-01-01

    Synthesizes critical thinking research in four areas--reading, writing, group interactions, and speaking--and discusses the implications of those studies for library information science research. The potential for employing critical thinking strategies in bibliographic instruction and the need for library science educators to initiate their own…

  4. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.

    2008-01-01

    cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis...

  5. The Educational Implications of NAFTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994

    The transcript provided in this document is from a symposium set up to explore the educational implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). NAFTA, which will remove trade barriers between the United States, Mexico, and Canada contains no educational provisions. The panelists discuss the new educational challenges that NAFTA may…

  6. Rat traps: filling the toolbox for manipulating the rat genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, R.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory rat is rapidly gaining momentum as a mammalian genetic model organism. Although traditional forward genetic approaches are well established, recent technological developments have enabled efficient gene targeting and mutant generation. Here we outline the current status, possibilities

  7. Análise de custos da atenção hospitalar a recém-nascidos de risco: uma comparação entre Unidade Intermediária Convencional e Unidade Canguru Análisis de los costes de la atención hospitalaria para los recién nacidos en riesgo: una comparación entre la Unidad Intermedia Neonatal y la Unidad Canguro Cost analysis of hospital care for newborns at risk: comparison of an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit and a Kangaroo Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Magluta

    2013-06-01

    y R$394,22 en la Unidad Intermedia Convencional. El coste de la cohorte hipotética fue R$5,710,281.66 para la asistencia en la segunda y tercera etapa de la Unidad Canguro y R$7,119,865.61 para la Unidad Intermedia Convencional. La Unidad Intermedia Convencional tiene costes un 25% más altos que la Unidad Canguro. El presente estudio puede contribuir a la toma de decisiones en el cuidado de la salud.The aim of this study was to compare the direct costs of implementation of the Kangaroo Method and an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit, from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Newborns were eligible for inclusion if they were clinically stable and were able to receive care in those two modalities. A decision tree model was developed that incorporated baseline variables and costs into a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 newborns, according to the literature and expert opinions. Daily cost was BR$343.53 for the second stage of the Kangaroo Unit and BR$394.22 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The total cost for the hypothetical cohort was BR$5,710,281.66 for the second and third stages of the Kangaroo Unit and R$7,119,865.61 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit cost 25% more than the Kangaroo Unit. The study can contribute to decision-making in health, in addition to providing support for studies related to economic evaluation in neonatal health.

  8. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangion Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume

  9. Androgen receptor isoforms in human and rat prostate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-JieXIA; Gang-YaoHAO; Xiao-DaTANG

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the androgen receptor (AR) isoforms and its variability of expression in human and rat prostatic tissues. Methods: Human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic cancer tissues were obtained from patients undergoing prostatectomy, and rat ventral prostate was incised 3 days after castration. Forty-one AR-positive BPH specimens, 3 prostatic cancer specimens, and 6 rat prostates were used. After processing at 4℃, the tissues were examined by means of high resolution isoelectric focusing (IEF) technique to determine their AR isoforms. Results:From the prostatic specimens, 3 types of AR isoforms were detected with pI values at 6.5, 6.0, and 5.3. In human BPH tissues, 15/41 (36.6%) specimens showed all the three types of isoforms, while 19/41 (46.3%) showed 2 isoforms at various combinations and 7/41(17.1%), 1 isoform. For the 3 prostatic cancer specimens, one showed 3 isoforms, one, 2 isoforms, and the other failed to show any isoform. All rat prostatic tissues showed 2 isoforms at different combinations. Binding of 3H-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to the isoforms was inhibited by the addition of 100-fold excess of DHT or testosterone, but not progesterone, oestradiol or diethylstilboestrol. Conclusion: AR isoforms are different in different patients. Although their genesis is not clear, the therapeutic implication of the present observation appears to be interesting, that may help clarifying the individual differences in the response to hormonal therapy.(Asian J Androl 2000 Dec;2:307-310)

  10. Modelling the black death. A historical case study and implications for the epidemiology of bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Monecke, Hannelore; Monecke, Jochen

    2009-12-01

    We analysed a plague outbreak in the mining town of Freiberg in Saxony which started in May 1613 and ended in February 1614. This epidemic was selected for study because of the high quality of contemporary sources. It was possible to identify 1400 individual victims meaning that more than 10% of the population of the city perished. The outbreak was modelled by 9 differential equations describing flea, rat, and human populations. This resulted in a close fit to the historical records of this outbreak. An interesting implication of the model is that the introduction of even a small number of immune rats into an otherwise unchanged setting results in an abortive outbreak with very few human victims. Hence, the percentage of immune rats directly influences the magnitude of a human epidemic by diverting search activities of the fleas. Thus, we conclude that the spread of Rattus norvegicus, which might acquire partial herd immunity by exposure to soil- or water-borne Yersinia species due to its preference for wet habitats, contributed to the disappearance of Black Death epidemics from Europe in the 18th century. In order to prove whether or not the parameter values obtained by fitting a given outbreak are also applicable to other cases, we modelled the plague outbreak in Bombay 1905/06 using the same parameter values except for the number of humans as well as of immune and susceptible rats.

  11. Morphogenesis of rat myotendinous junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzi, Davide; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Burattini, Sabrina

    2013-10-01

    Myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the highly specialized complex which connects the skeletal muscle to the tendon for transmitting the contractile force between the two tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MTJ development and rat EDL was chosen as a model. 1, 15, 30 day animals were considered and the junctions were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The MTJ interface architecture increased during the development, extending the interaction between muscle and tendon. 1-day-old rats showed disorganized myofibril bundles, spread cytosol and incomplete rough endoplasmic reticulum, features partially improved in 15-day-old rats, and completely developed in 30-day-old animals. These findings indicate that muscle-tendon interface displays, during rat lifetime, numerically increased and longer tendon interdigitations, correlated with an improved organization of both tissues and with a progressive acquirement of full functionality.

  12. Increased protein aggregation in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat brain : identification of key mechanistic targets and the therapeutic application of hydrogen sulfide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talaei, Fatemeh; Van Praag, Veroniek M; Shishavan, Mahdi H; Landheer, Sjoerd W; Buikema, Henk; Henning, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes and particularly high blood glucose levels are implicated in neurodegeneration. One of the hallmarks of neurodegeneration is protein aggregation. We investigated the presence of protein aggregation in the frontal brain of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an animal model for dia

  13. Chronic enhancement of brain oxytocin levels causes enduring anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative behavioral effects in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagnoli, Federica; Meyer, Neele; de Boer, Sietse F.; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in the regulation of social behaviors, including intermale offensive aggression. Recently, we showed that acute enhancement of brain OXT levels markedly suppressed offensive aggression and increased social exploration in resident rats confronted with an intruder in

  14. Intraprostatic injection of neutralized zinc in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, M.S.; Wang, M.; Sutcu, M.F.; Fahim, Z.; Safron, J.A.; Ganjam, V.K. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (United States) Xian Medical University (China))

    1991-03-11

    Zinc has been implicated in steroid endocrinology of the prostate gland. The conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5{alpha}-reductase enzyme is believed to express androgenic responses in the prostate. To note the effect of neutralized zinc on the prostate, 50 sexually mature rats, weighing 325 {plus minus} 20 grams, were divided into 5 groups as follows: (1) control, (2) sham, (3) castrated, (4) injected intraprostatically with 10 mg. neutralized zinc, and (5) injected intraprostatically with 20 mg. neutralized zinc. Results in the treated groups indicated significant reduction of prostate weights, 12% and 53% and histologically normal prostate; no significant change in weight and histological structure of testes, epididymides, and seminal vesicles; significant reduction in 5{alpha}-reductase activity and total protein and DNA concentrations in prostate tissue; and no significant effect on progeny of treated animals. These results suggest that direct application of neutralized zinc to the prostate offers a new modality for treatment of prostatitis without affecting spermatogenesis and testosterone production.

  15. The carcinogenic effect of localized fission fragment irradiation of rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, A L; Buckley, P; Gore, D J; Jenner, T J; Major, I R; Bailey, M R

    1980-03-01

    In a preliminary investigation of 'hot particle' carcinogenesis uranium oxide particles were introduced into the lungs of rats either by intubation of a liquid suspension of the particles or by inhalation of an aerosol. Subsequently the animals were briefly exposed to slow neutrons in a nuclear reactor, resulting in localized irradiation of the lung by fission fragments emitted from 235U atoms in the oxide particles. The uranium used in the intubation experiments was either enriched or depleted in 235U. Squamous cell carcinomas developed at the site of deposition of the enriched uranium oxide in many cases but no lung tumours occurred in the rats with the depleted uranium oxide, in which the lung tissue was exposed to very few fission fragments. Only enriched uranium oxide was used in the inhalation experiments. Pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas occurred after the fission fragment irradiation but were fewer than in the intubation experiments. Adenocarcinomas of the lung were seen in rats exposed to uranium oxide without subsequent irradiation by neutrons in the reactor and in rats irradiated with neutrons but not previously exposed to uranium oxide. It is concluded that (i) fission fragments were possibly implicated in the genesis of the squamous cell carcinomas, which only developed in those animals exposed to enriched uranium oxide and neutrons and (ii) the adenocarcinomas in the rats inhaling enriched uranium oxide only were likely to have been caused by protracted irradiation of the lung with alpha-rays emitted from the enriched uranium.

  16. Antigen-induced pleural eosinophilia is suppressed in diabetic rats: role of corticosteroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Diaz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have evidenced for the existence of interactive regulatory mechanisms between insulin and steroid hormones in different systems. In this study, we have investigated whether endogenous corticosteroids could be implicated in the hyporeactivity to antigen challenge observed in sensitized diabetic rats. Alloxinated rats showed a long-lasting increase in the blood glucose levels and a reduction in the number of pleural mast cells at 48 and 72 hr, but not at 24 hr after alloxan administration. In parallel, they also showed a significant elevation in the plasma levels of corticosterone together with an increase in the adrenal/body weight ratio. Antigen-evoked eosinophil accumulation appeared significantly reduced in rats pretreated with dexamethasone as well as in those rendered diabetic 72 hr after alloxan. In the same way, naive animals treated with dexamethasone also responded with a significant decrease in the number of pleural mast cells. Interestingly, when sensitized diabetic rats were pretreated with the steroid antagonist RU 38486 a reversion of the reduction in the allergen-induced eosinophil accumulation was noted. We conclude that the down-regulation of the allergic inflammatory response in diabetic rats is close-related to reduction in mast cell numbers and over expression of endogenous corticosteroids.

  17. Histomorphometric features of ventral prostate in different aged rats after central ghrelin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plecas-Solarovic, Bosiljka A; Nesic, Dejan M; Stevanovic, Darko M; Obradovic, Aleksandar Lj; Djelic, Marina N; Milosevic, Verica Lj; Starcevic, Vesna P

    2012-06-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), has emerged as pleiotropic modulator of diverse biological functions, including energy homeostasis and recently, reproduction. The influence of intracerebroventricularly (ICV) administered ghrelin (1 μg/day/rat for 5 days) to rats of different ages, i.e, peripubertal (38 days), adult (60 days) and middle-aged (180 days) on the ventral prostate size and morphology, serum testosterone levels and testis weight was examined. Ghrelin treatment significantly increased (p prostate weight in peripubertal and middle-aged rats, by 27% and 37% respectively, due to enhancement of epithelial and/or luminal compartment of the gland. In adult rats, both absolute and relative volumes of the acinar lumen were significantly decreased (p prostate weigh was unchanged. Irrespective of animal age, ghrelin did not affect serum testosterone levels. These are the first results of ghrelin treatment effects on healthy prostate appearance, which allow us to conclude that the rat ventral prostate response to ghrelin depends on the developmental stage of animals. Our results merit further investigations and may have clinical implications, especially in the light of data on possible role of ghrelin in prostate hypertrophy and adenomas.

  18. Effect of a growth hormone treatment on bone orthotropic elasticity in dwarf rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, S. S.; Martinez, D. A.; Bowers, J. R.; Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R. Jr

    1997-01-01

    A refinement of the current ultrasonic elasticity technique was used to measure the orthotropic elastic properties of rat cortical bone as well as to quantify changes in elastic properties, density, and porosity of the dwarf rat cortex after a treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). The ultrasonic elasticity technique was refined via optimized signal management of high-frequency wave propagation through cubic cortical specimens. Twenty dwarf rats (37 days old) were randomly assigned to two groups (10 rats each). The dwarf rat model (5-10% of normal GH) was given subcutaneous injections of either rhGH or saline over a 14-day treatment period. Density was measured using Archimedes technique. Porosity and other microstructural characteristics were also explored via scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Statistical tests verified significant decreases in cortical orthotropic Young's (-26.7%) and shear (-16.7%) moduli and density (-2.42%) concomitant with an increase in porosity (+125%) after rhGH treatments to the dwarf model (p bone properties at this time interval. Structural implications of these changes throughout physiological loading regimens should be explored.

  19. Novel immunohistochemical monoclonal antibody against rat B cell receptor Associated Protein 31 (BAP31).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chaojun; Yan, Binyuan; Chen, Lihua; Li, Yongming; Wei, Yuying; Sun, Yuanjie; Yang, Angang; Yang, Kun; Jin, Boquan

    2009-10-01

    BAP31 is an evolutionarily conserved polytopic integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane implicated in regulating the export of selected membrane proteins from the ER to downstream compartments of the secretory pathway. BAP31 interacts with mIgD, cellubrevin, major histocompatibility complex class I, and BCL-2/BCL-X(L) and plays an important role in regulating the egress of these proteins and in apoptosis. Although BAP31 RNA is ubiquitous, the protein's anatomic localization in rat tissues has not been determined. This is partially because production of high affinity antibodies, especially monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) suitable for immunohistochemical staining, has lagged. To gain further insight into its possible functions, we generated a novel MAb specific for rat BAP31 in immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry and localized BAP31 in some rat tissues. Immunoreactivity of BAP31 was prominent in fundic glands, colon, pancreatic acinuses, and liver but not in skeleton muscle and lung. Thus, successful production of rat BAP31 monoclonal antibodies provides a new powerful tool for investigation of BAP31 function in the rat model.

  20. Early repeated maternal separation induces alterations of hippocampus reelin expression in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianlong Zhang; Lina Qin; Hu Zhao

    2013-03-01

    The long-term effects of repeated maternal separation (MS) during early postnatal life on reelin expression in the hippocampus of developing rats were investigated in the present study. MS was carried out by separating Wistar rat pups singly from their mothers for 3 h a day during postnatal days (PND) 2–14. Reelin mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus were determined using qRT-PCR and Western blotting, at PND 22, PND 60 and PND 90. MS resulted in the loss of body weight in the developing rats, and reelin mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus generally were down-regulated over the developing period, but the reelin mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus of 90-day-old male rats were up-regulated. These findings suggest that the long-term effects of MS on the expression levels of hippocampal reelin mRNA and protein depends on the age at which the stressed rats’ brains were collected; reelin had important implications for the maternal-neonate interaction needed for normal brain development. In conclusion, repeated MS occurring during early postnatal life may cause the alterations of hippocampal reelin expression with the increasing age of developing rats.

  1. Impaired Mitochondrial Respiratory Functions and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbuswamy K. Prabu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a tissue-specific increase in oxidative stress in the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress-related long-term complications and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the different tissues of STZ-induced diabetic rats (>15 mM blood glucose for 8 weeks. These animals showed a persistent increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively production. Oxidative protein carbonylation was also increased with the maximum effect observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Complex III and cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV were significantly decreased while that of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I and succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex II were moderately increased in diabetic rats, which was confirmed by the increased expression of the 70 kDa Complex II sub-unit. Mitochondrial matrix aconitase, a ROS sensitive enzyme, was markedly inhibited in the diabetic rat tissues. Increased expression of oxidative stress marker proteins Hsp-70 and HO-1 was also observed along with increased expression of nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiratory complexes may play a critical role in ROS/RNS homeostasis and oxidative stress related changes in type 1 diabetes and may have implications in the etiology of diabetes and its complications.

  2. Effect of a growth hormone treatment on bone orthotropic elasticity in dwarf rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, S. S.; Martinez, D. A.; Bowers, J. R.; Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R. Jr

    1997-01-01

    A refinement of the current ultrasonic elasticity technique was used to measure the orthotropic elastic properties of rat cortical bone as well as to quantify changes in elastic properties, density, and porosity of the dwarf rat cortex after a treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). The ultrasonic elasticity technique was refined via optimized signal management of high-frequency wave propagation through cubic cortical specimens. Twenty dwarf rats (37 days old) were randomly assigned to two groups (10 rats each). The dwarf rat model (5-10% of normal GH) was given subcutaneous injections of either rhGH or saline over a 14-day treatment period. Density was measured using Archimedes technique. Porosity and other microstructural characteristics were also explored via scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Statistical tests verified significant decreases in cortical orthotropic Young's (-26.7%) and shear (-16.7%) moduli and density (-2.42%) concomitant with an increase in porosity (+125%) after rhGH treatments to the dwarf model (p < 0.05). A change in material symmetry from orthotropy toward planar isotropy within the radial-circumferential plane after GH treatments was also noted. These results demonstrate some alteration in bone properties at this time interval. Structural implications of these changes throughout physiological loading regimens should be explored.

  3. Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittby, Henrietta; Grafström, Gustav; Tian, Dong Ping; Malmgren, Lars; Brun, Arne; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G; Eberhardt, Jacob

    2008-04-01

    Considering the frequent use of mobile phones, we have directed attention to possible implications on cognitive functions. In this study we investigated in a rat model the long-term effects of protracted exposure to Global System for Mobile Communication-900 MHz (GSM-900) radiation. Out of a total of 56 rats, 32 were exposed for 2 h each week for 55 weeks to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation at different SAR levels (0.6 and 60 mW/kg at the initiation of the experimental period) emitted by a (GSM-900) test phone. Sixteen animals were sham exposed and eight animals were cage controls, which never left the animal house. After this protracted exposure, GSM-900 exposed rats were compared to sham exposed controls. Effects on exploratory behaviour were evaluated in the open-field test, in which no difference was seen. Effects on cognitive functions were evaluated in the episodic-like memory test. In our study, GSM exposed rats had impaired memory for objects and their temporal order of presentation, compared to sham exposed controls (P = 0.02). Detecting the place in which an object was presented was not affected by GSM exposure. Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02).

  4. Pavlovian inhibitory conditioning and tolerance to pentobarbital-induced hypothermia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, R E; Siegel, S

    1986-10-01

    In this experiment we investigated inhibitory Pavlovian conditioning in the development of tolerance to pentobarbital-induced hypothermia. During an initial phase, one group of rats (discrimination group) received training in which, on alternate days, one conditional stimulus (CS+) was associated with administration of 30 mg/kg pentobarbital, and a different conditional stimulus (CS-) was associated with administration of physiological saline. During the phase, control groups received either exposure to both CSs but not the drug or to the drug but no CSs or to neither the CSs nor the drug. Subsequently, half the rats in each group received injections of pentobarbital in the presence of one of the CSs and the remaining half in the presence of the other CS. Rats from the discrimination group injected with pentobarbital in the presence of CS+ displayed the most tolerance (i.e., smallest drug effect), whereas rats from the discrimination group injected with pentobarbital in the presence of CS- displayed the least tolerance (i.e., greatest drug effect). The attenuation of tolerance seen in rats of the discrimination group injected in the presence of CS- provides evidence of inhibitory Pavlovian conditioning. Additional evidence of inhibitory conditioning was provided by the fact that CS2 enhanced the hypothermic effects of pentobarbital in the discrimination group, whereas CS1 attenuated these effects. Implications of the results for the nature of inhibitory conditioning are discussed.

  5. Acute effect of substance P in immunologic vasculitis in the rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, S N; DePace, D M; Shah, R S; Podell, R

    1991-01-01

    Substance P has been implicated as a neuronal mediator of inflammation in various inflammatory conditions. However, the exact role played by substance P in inflammatory bowel diseases or in experimental colonic vasculitis has not been clearly understood. In this study, we examined the effect of close superior mesenteric artery injection of substance P under prevailing inflammatory conditions induced by intravenous human albumin antialbumin immune complex followed by intracolonic perfusion of 2.5% formaldehyde in rats or intracolonic perfusion of 5% alcohol alone. The immune complex- and formaldehyde-treated rats showed severe microvascular changes such as microvascular plugging by red blood cells, endothelial breakage and extravasation of plasma proteins and red blood cells. The bolus injection of 10(-8) M substance P reduced extravasation of Evans blue dye by 50% and the tissue wet to dry ratio by 20% in immune complex- and formaldehyde-perfused rats. Myeloperoxidase activity was not changed. Substance P also significantly inhibited (44%) the extravasation in alcohol-perfused rats. Pretreatment of immune complex- and formaldehyde-treated rats with substance P antagonist reversed the effect of substance P. These findings suggest that the most immediate effect of substance P may be vasodilation and clearing of vascular plugs induced by immune complex and formaldehyde. This effect of substance P differs from its chronic effect, which causes vasodilation and extravasation.