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Sample records for kangaroo island kangaroo

  1. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  2. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  3. Observations on kangaroo baby care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukasa, G K

    1992-01-01

    The author's visit to "kangaroo care" programs in Guatemala and Colombia has led Uganda's University of Kampala to consider the introduction of this innovation in its neonatal special care unit. Such programs, which place premature infants in direct contact with their mother's skin during breastfeeding, represents a simple, inexpensive strategy for infant survival in developing countries and eliminates the need for mechanical incubators. Research conducted at the Hospital Universitario de Valle in Cali, Colombia, found that falls in the infant's body temperature. In the Latin American programs, premature infants are entered into the breastfeeding program immediately after delivery.

  4. Unlike Kangaroo care, mechanically simulated Kangaroo care does not change heart rate variability in preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Deedee; Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Feijs, Loe; Oei, Guid; Oetomo, Sidarto Bambang; Andriessen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Background: While numerous positive effects of Kangaroo care (KC) have been reported, the duration that parents can spend kangarooing is often limited. Aim: To investigate whether a mattress that aims to mimic breathing motion and the sounds of heartbeats (BabyBe GMBH, Stuttgart, Germany) can

  5. Ventilatory accommodation of oxygen demand and respiratory water loss in kangaroos from mesic and arid environments, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, T J; Munn, A J; Blaney, C E; Krockenberger, A; Maloney, S K

    2000-01-01

    We studied ventilation in kangaroos from mesic and arid environments, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), respectively, within the range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) from -5 degrees to 45 degrees C. At thermoneutral temperatures (Ta=25 degrees C), there were no differences between the species in respiratory frequency, tidal volume, total ventilation, or oxygen extraction. The ventilatory patterns of the kangaroos were markedly different from those predicted from the allometric equation derived for placentals. The kangaroos had low respiratory frequencies and higher tidal volumes, even when adjustment was made for their lower basal metabolism. At Ta>25 degrees C, ventilation was increased in the kangaroos to facilitate respiratory water loss, with percent oxygen extraction being markedly lowered. Ventilation was via the nares; the mouth was closed. Differences in ventilation between the two species occurred at higher temperatures, and at 45 degrees C were associated with differences in respiratory evaporative heat loss, with that of M. giganteus being higher. Panting in kangaroos occurred as a graded increase in respiratory frequency, during which tidal volume was lowered. When panting, the desert red kangaroo had larger tidal volumes and lower respiratory frequencies at equivalent T(a) than the eastern grey kangaroo, which generally inhabits mesic forests. The inference made from this pattern is that the red kangaroo has the potential to increase respiratory evaporative heat loss to a greater level.

  6. Impacts of visitor number on Kangaroos housed in free-range exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwen, Sally L; Hemsworth, Paul H; Butler, Kym L; Fanson, Kerry V; Magrath, Michael J L

    2015-01-01

    Free range exhibits are becoming increasingly popular in zoos as a means to enhance interaction between visitors and animals. However very little research exists on the impacts of visitors on animal behaviour and stress in free range exhibits. We investigated the effects of visitor number on the behaviour and stress physiology of Kangaroo Island (KI) Kangaroos, Macropus fuliginosus fuliginosus, and Red Kangaroos, Macropus rufus, housed in two free range exhibits in Australian zoos. Behavioural observations were conducted on individual kangaroos at each site using instantaneous scan sampling to record activity (e.g., vigilance, foraging, resting) and distance from the visitor pathway. Individually identifiable faecal samples were collected at the end of each study day and analysed for faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentration. When visitor number increased, both KI Kangaroos and Red Kangaroos increased the time spent engaged in visitor-directed vigilance and KI Kangaroos also increased the time spent engaged in locomotion and decreased the time spent resting. There was no effect of visitor number on the distance kangaroos positioned themselves from the visitor pathway or FGM concentration in either species. While there are limitations in interpreting these results in terms of fear of visitors, there was no evidence of adverse effects animal welfare in these study groups based on avoidance behaviour or stress physiology under the range of visitor numbers that we studied. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from HERON ISLAND, KANGAROO ISLAND and others in the Coral Sea, Great Australian Bight and Tasman Sea from 2009-10-09 to 2012-11-28 (NODC Accession 0100062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100062 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from HERON ISLAND, KANGAROO ISLAND, MARIA ISLAND, MOORING_HERON...

  8. Kangaroo Mother Care Management of a 750 Ggrammes Baby: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the successful management of 750 grammes low birth weight baby using kangaroo mother care in the hospital and at home. The baby had suffered a variety of morbidities associated with prematurity in the early neonatal period. Key words: Kangaroo mother care, low birth weight babies ...

  9. Parents\\' lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature and low birthweight infants pose particular challenges to health services in South Africa. While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low birthweight infants, limited research has been conducted locally on the experiences of parents who provide kangaroo care to their preterm ...

  10. Kangaroo mother care: a systematic review of barriers and enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Grace J; Labar, Amy S; Wall, Stephen; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    To investigate factors influencing the adoption of kangaroo mother care in different contexts. We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's regional databases, for studies on "kangaroo mother care" or "kangaroo care" or "skin-to-skin care" from 1 January 1960 to 19 August 2015, without language restrictions. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data on carers, health system characteristics and contextual factors. We developed a conceptual model to analyse the integration of kangaroo mother care in health systems. We screened 2875 studies and included 112 studies that contained qualitative data on implementation. Kangaroo mother care was applied in different ways in different contexts. The studies show that there are several barriers to implementing kangaroo mother care, including the need for time, social support, medical care and family acceptance. Barriers within health systems included organization, financing and service delivery. In the broad context, cultural norms influenced perceptions and the success of adoption. Kangaroo mother care is a complex intervention that is behaviour driven and includes multiple elements. Success of implementation requires high user engagement and stakeholder involvement. Future research includes designing and testing models of specific interventions to improve uptake.

  11. Kangaroo rats: intraspecific variation in Dipodomys spectabilis Merriam and Dipodomys deserti Stephens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nader, Iyad A

    1978-01-01

    Twenty morpholoigcl characters in addition to color were studied throughout the geographic range of two species of kangaroo rats, the banner-tailed kangaroo rat Dipodomys spectabilis and the desert...

  12. The Impact of Kangaroo Care on Premature Infant Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evereklian, Melvina; Posmontier, Bobbie

    Preterm births occur among 11.4% of all live infant births. Without steady weight gain, premature infants may experience lengthy hospitalizations, neurodevelopmental deficits and hospital readmissions, which can increase the financial burden on the health care system and their families. The total U.S. health-related costs linked to preterm infant deliveries are estimated at $4.33 billion. Kangaroo care is a feasible practice that can improve preterm infant weight gain. However, this intervention is utilized less often throughout the U.S. due to numerous barriers including a lack of consistent protocols, inadequate knowledge, and decreased level of confidence in demonstrating the proper kangarooing technique. An integrative review was conducted to evaluate the impact of kangaroo care on premature infant weight gain in order to educate nurses about its efficacy among preterm infants. A literature search was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, ClinicalKey and Google Scholar. Large volume searches were restricted using appropriate filters and limiters. Most of the evaluated studies determined that weight gain was greater among the kangarooing premature infants. Kangaroo care is a low-tech low-cost modality that can facilitate improved preterm infant weight gain even in low-resource settings. Despite its current efficacy, kangaroo care is not widely utilized due to several barriers including an absence of standardized protocols and a lack of knowledge about its benefits. Kangaroo care can become a widespread formalized practice after nurses and parents learn about the technique and its numerous benefits for premature infants, including its association with improved weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Kangaroo Care Education Effects on Nurses' Knowledge and Skills Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Wedad Matar; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M

    2016-11-01

    Less than 20% of the 996 NICUs in the United States routinely practice kangaroo care, due in part to the inadequate knowledge and skills confidence of nurses. Continuing education improves knowledge and skills acquisition, but the effects of a kangaroo care certification course on nurses' knowledge and skills confidence are unknown. A pretest-posttest quasi-experiment was conducted. The Kangaroo Care Knowledge and Skills Confidence Tool was administered to 68 RNs at a 2.5-day course about kangaroo care evidence and skills. Measures of central tendency, dispersion, and paired t tests were conducted on 57 questionnaires. The nurses' characteristics were varied. The mean posttest Knowledge score (M = 88.54, SD = 6.13) was significantly higher than the pretest score (M = 78.7, SD = 8.30), t [54] = -9.1, p = .000), as was the posttest Skills Confidence score (pretest M = 32.06, SD = 3.49; posttest M = 26.80, SD = 5.22), t [53] = -8.459, p = .000). The nurses' knowledge and skills confidence of kangaroo care improved following continuing education, suggesting a need for continuing education in this area. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(11):518-524. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Mechanism design and optimization of a bionic kangaroo jumping robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Zheng, L.; Ge, W. J.; Zou, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    Hopping robots have broad application prospects in the fields of military reconnaissance, field search or life rescue. However, current hopping robots still face the problems of weak jumping ability and load bearing. Inspired by the jumping of kangaroo, we design a Kangaroo hopping robot “Zbot”, which has two degrees of freedom and three joints. The geared five-bar mechanism is used to decouple the knee and ankle joints of the robot. In order to get a bionic performance, the coupling mechanism parameters are optimized. The simulation and experiments show that the robot has an excellent jumping ability and load capacity.

  15. Features of Heart Rate Variability Capture Regulatory Changes During Kangaroo Care in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommers, Deedee R; Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Atallah, Louis; Feijs, Loe; Oei, Guid; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; Andriessen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can serve as a surrogate measure to track regulatory changes during kangaroo care, a period of parental coregulation distinct from regulation within the incubator. Nurses annotated the starting and ending times of kangaroo care for 3 months. The pre-kangaroo care, during-kangaroo care, and post-kangaroo care data were retrieved in infants with at least 10 accurately annotated kangaroo care sessions. Eight HRV features (5 in the time domain and 3 in the frequency domain) were used to visually and statistically compare the pre-kangaroo care and during-kangaroo care periods. Two of these features, capturing the percentage of heart rate decelerations and the extent of heart rate decelerations, were newly developed for preterm infants. A total of 191 kangaroo care sessions were investigated in 11 preterm infants. Despite clinically irrelevant changes in vital signs, 6 of the 8 HRV features (SD of normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of the SD, percentage of consecutive normal-to-normal intervals that differ by >50 ms, SD of heart rate decelerations, high-frequency power, and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio) showed a visible and statistically significant difference (P heart rate decelerations. HRV-based features may be clinically useful for capturing the dynamic changes in autonomic regulation in response to kangaroo care and other changes in environment and state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Energetics and biomechanics of locomotion by red kangaroos (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, R; Dawson, T J

    1998-05-01

    As red kangaroos hop faster over level ground, their rate of oxygen consumption (indicating metabolic energy consumption) remains nearly the same. This phenomenon has been attributed to exceptional elastic energy storage and recovery via long compliant tendons in the legs. Alternatively, red kangaroos may have exceptionally efficient muscles. To estimate efficiency, we measured the metabolic cost of uphill hopping, where muscle fibers must perform mechanical work against gravity. We found that uphill hopping was much more expensive than level hopping. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption measured (3 ml O2 kg-1 s-1) exceeds all but a few vertebrate species. However, efficiency values were normal, approximately 30%. At faster level hopping speeds the effective mechanical advantage of the extensor muscles of the ankle joint remained the same. Thus, kangaroos generate the same muscular force at all speeds but do so more rapidly at faster hopping speeds. This contradicts a recent hypothesis for what sets the cost of locomotion. The cost of transport (J kg-1 m-1) decreases at faster hopping speeds, yet red kangaroos prefer to use relatively slow speeds that avoid high levels of tendon stress.

  17. Implementation of Kangaroo mother care by health workers in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-04

    Aug 4, 2016 ... thermia, hypoglycemia and nosocomial sepsis in neo- nates with birth weight ... for care for preterm babies with few neonatal care units, located often in .... Fig 2: Reasons for not practicing Kangaroo Mother Care in facilities of ...

  18. Kangaroo Care: Experiences and Needs of Parents in Neonatal Intensive Care: A Systematic Review ‘Parents’ Experience of Kangaroo Care’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriels, karlijn; Brouwer, AJ; maat, Jessica; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review is focusing on the experiences and needs of parents with infants within NICU regarding Kangaroo Care. Ten studies with qualitative designs were included. Kangaroo Care was overall experienced as positive; giving parents the opportunity to get to know their babies and (re-)

  19. Locomotion energetics and gait characteristics of a rat-kangaroo, Bettongia penicillata, have some kangaroo-like features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K N; Dawson, T J

    2003-09-01

    The locomotory characteristics of kangaroos and wallabies are unusual, with both energetic costs and gait parameters differing from those of quadrupedal running mammals. The kangaroos and wallabies have an evolutionary history of only around 5 million years; their closest relatives, the rat-kangaroos, have a fossil record of more than 26 million years. We examined the locomotory characteristics of a rat-kangaroo, Bettongia penicillata. Locomotory energetics and gait parameters were obtained from animals exercising on a motorised treadmill at speeds from 0.6 m s(-1) to 6.2 m s(-1). Aerobic metabolic costs increased as hopping speed increased, but were significantly different from the costs for a running quadruped; at the fastest speed, the cost of hopping was 50% of the cost of running. Therefore B. penicillata can travel much faster than quadrupedal runners at similar levels of aerobic output. The maximum aerobic output of B. penicillata was 17 times its basal metabolism. Increases in speed during hopping were achieved through increases in stride length, with stride frequency remaining constant. We suggest that these unusual locomotory characteristics are a conservative feature among the hopping marsupials, with an evolutionary history of 20-30 million years.

  20. Kangaroo – A pattern-matching program for biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betel Doron

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists are often interested in performing a simple database search to identify proteins or genes that contain a well-defined sequence pattern. Many databases do not provide straightforward or readily available query tools to perform simple searches, such as identifying transcription binding sites, protein motifs, or repetitive DNA sequences. However, in many cases simple pattern-matching searches can reveal a wealth of information. We present in this paper a regular expression pattern-matching tool that was used to identify short repetitive DNA sequences in human coding regions for the purpose of identifying potential mutation sites in mismatch repair deficient cells. Results Kangaroo is a web-based regular expression pattern-matching program that can search for patterns in DNA, protein, or coding region sequences in ten different organisms. The program is implemented to facilitate a wide range of queries with no restriction on the length or complexity of the query expression. The program is accessible on the web at http://bioinfo.mshri.on.ca/kangaroo/ and the source code is freely distributed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/. Conclusion A low-level simple pattern-matching application can prove to be a useful tool in many research settings. For example, Kangaroo was used to identify potential genetic targets in a human colorectal cancer variant that is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in coding regions containing mononucleotide repeats.

  1. Features of heart rate variability capture regulatory changes during kangaroo care in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, D.R.; Joshi, R.; van Pul, C.; Atallah, N.L.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Oei, S.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Andriessen, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can serve as a surrogate measure to track regulatory changes during kangaroo care, a period of parental coregulation distinct from regulation within the incubator. Study design: Nurses annotated the starting and ending times of kangaroo

  2. Good short-term outcome of kangaroo mother care in low birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good short-term outcome of kangaroo mother care in low birth weight infants in a rural South African hospital. A N Rodriguez, M Nel, H Dippenaar, E A Prinsloo. Abstract. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the outcome of kangaroo mother care (KMC) in low birth weight infants at a community hospital. Methods ...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with otitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Coke, Rob L; Kochunov, Peter; Davis, M Duff

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on an adult, male Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with a history of nonspecific neurologic signs and acute discharge from the left ear. MRI revealed findings consistent with otitis and possible osteomyelitis of the temporal and mastoid bones. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of otitis and MRI findings in a kangaroo.

  4. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATES OF FASCIOLIASIS IN TWO EASTERN GREY KANGAROOS (MACROPUS GIGANTEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, Timothy J; Taylor, David

    2015-12-01

    Infection with the introduced trematode Fasciola hepatica was associated with anemia, mild to moderate azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated liver enzymes and creatine kinase values in two free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Both kangaroos were euthanized because of the severity of clinical signs associated with infection. Histopathologic changes included severe cholangiohepatitis, biliary hyperplasia, and fibrosis. Hepatic, splenic, and intestinal amyloidosis was present in one kangaroo and hepatic abscessation in the other; neither histologic change has been reported in macropodids with fascioliasis previously.

  5. Inferring kangaroo phylogeny from incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Phillips

    Full Text Available The marsupial genus Macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of M. (Macropus and M. (Osphranter, as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of M. (Notamacropus. A recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby into Macropus. To further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. These sequences strongly favour the morphological placement of W. bicolor as sister to Macropus, although place M. irma (black-gloved wallaby within M. (Osphranter rather than as expected, with M. (Notamacropus. Species tree estimation from separately analysed mitochondrial and nuclear genes favours retaining Macropus and Wallabia as separate genera. A simulation study finds that incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear genes is a plausible explanation for incongruence with the mitochondrial placement of W. bicolor, while mitochondrial introgression from a wallaroo into M. irma is the deepest such event identified in marsupials. Similar such coalescent simulations for interpreting gene tree conflicts will increase in both relevance and statistical power as species-level phylogenetics enters the genomic age. Ecological considerations in turn, hint at a role for selection in accelerating the fixation of introgressed or incompletely sorted loci. More generally the inclusion of the mitochondrial sequences substantially enhanced phylogenetic resolution. However, we caution that the evolutionary dynamics that enhance mitochondria as speciation indicators in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting may also render them especially susceptible to introgression.

  6. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  7. Effect of Kangaroo care combined with music on the mother–premature neonate attachment: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Vahdati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature birth may complicate the development and quality of the mother–infant attachment relationship. Music and kangaroo care are two common complementary cares performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. The present study investigated the effect of kangaroo care combined with music on the mother–premature neonate attachment. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 64 mothers with premature neonates were selected and assigned to the control and study groups through random allocation. In the control group, kangaroo care, and in the study group, kangaroo care combined with music was adopted. The level of mother–premature neonate attachment was measured and compared before and after the intervention in both the groups using Avant's Maternal Attachment Assessment Scale. Results: There was a significant increase in the mean overall score of attachment in the kangaroo care combined with music group (70.72 (11.46 after the intervention compared to the kangaroo care without music group (53.61 (9.76. Conclusions: The mean overall score of mother–neonate attachment in the kangaroo care combined with music group was higher than the kangaroo care group. This difference can be related to the effectiveness of music combined with kangaroo care.

  8. Understanding kangaroo care and its benefits to preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell-Yeo ML

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marsha L Campbell-Yeo,1–4 Timothy C Disher,1 Britney L Benoit,1 C Celeste Johnston,2,4,5 1School of Nursing, Dalhousie University, 2Department of Pediatrics, IWK Health Centre, 3Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, 4Centre for Pediatric Pain Research, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, 5Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada Abstract: The holding of an infant with ventral skin-to-skin contact typically in an upright position with the swaddled infant on the chest of the parent, is commonly referred to as kangaroo care (KC, due to its simulation of marsupial care. It is recommended that KC, as a feasible, natural, and cost-effective intervention, should be standard of care in the delivery of quality health care for all infants, regardless of geographic location or economic status. Numerous benefits of its use have been reported related to mortality, physiological (thermoregulation, cardiorespiratory stability, behavioral (sleep, breastfeeding duration, and degree of exclusivity domains, as an effective therapy to relieve procedural pain, and improved neurodevelopment. Yet despite these recommendations and a lack of negative research findings, adoption of KC as a routine clinical practice remains variable and underutilized. Furthermore, uncertainty remains as to whether continuous KC should be recommended in all settings or if there is a critical period of initiation, dose, or duration that is optimal. This review synthesizes current knowledge about the benefits of KC for infants born preterm, highlighting differences and similarities across low and higher resource countries and in a non-pain and pain context. Additionally, implementation considerations and unanswered questions for future research are addressed. Keywords: kangaroo care, skin-to-skin contact, infant, preterm, review

  9. Spatial requirements of free-ranging Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei (Macropodidae, in upper montane forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Porolak

    Full Text Available Tree kangaroos (Macropodidae, Dendrolagus are some of Australasia's least known mammals. However, there is sufficient evidence of population decline and local extinctions that all New Guinea tree kangaroos are considered threatened. Understanding spatial requirements is important in conservation and management. Expectations from studies of Australian tree kangaroos and other rainforest macropodids suggest that tree kangaroos should have small discrete home ranges with the potential for high population densities, but there are no published estimates of spatial requirements of any New Guinea tree kangaroo species. Home ranges of 15 Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei, were measured in upper montane forest on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The home range area was an average of 139.6±26.5 ha (100% MCP; n = 15 or 81.8±28.3 ha (90% harmonic mean; n = 15, and did not differ between males and females. Home ranges of D. matschiei were 40-100 times larger than those of Australian tree kangaroos or other rainforest macropods, possibly due to the impact of hunting reducing density, or low productivity of their high altitude habitat. Huon tree kangaroos had cores of activity within their range at 45% (20.9±4.1 ha and 70% (36.6±7.5 ha harmonic mean isopleths, with little overlap (4.8±2.9%; n = 15 pairs between neighbouring females at the 45% isopleth, but, unlike the Australian species, extensive overlap between females (20.8±5.5%; n = 15 pairs at the complete range (90% harmonic mean. Males overlapped each other and females to a greater extent than did pairs of females. From core areas and overlap, the density of female D. matschiei was one per 19.4 ha. Understanding the cause of this low density is crucial in gaining greater understanding of variations in density of tree kangaroos across the landscape. We consider the potential role of habitat fragmentation, productivity and hunting pressure in limiting tree kangaroo

  10. Positive interactions between desert granivores: localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Edelman

    Full Text Available Facilitation, when one species enhances the environment or performance of another species, can be highly localized in space. While facilitation in plant communities has been intensely studied, the role of facilitation in shaping animal communities is less well understood. In the Chihuahuan Desert, both kangaroo rats and harvester ants depend on the abundant seeds of annual plants. Kangaroo rats, however, are hypothesized to facilitate harvester ants through soil disturbance and selective seed predation rather than competing with them. I used a spatially explicit approach to examine whether a positive or negative interaction exists between banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis mounds and rough harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus colonies. The presence of a scale-dependent interaction between mounds and colonies was tested by comparing fitted spatial point process models with and without interspecific effects. Also, the effect of proximity to a mound on colony mortality and spatial patterns of surviving colonies was examined. The spatial pattern of kangaroo rat mounds and harvester ant colonies was consistent with a positive interspecific interaction at small scales (<10 m. Mortality risk of vulnerable, recently founded harvester ant colonies was lower when located close to a kangaroo rat mound and proximity to a mound partly predicted the spatial pattern of surviving colonies. My findings support localized facilitation of harvester ants by kangaroo rats, likely mediated through ecosystem engineering and foraging effects on plant cover and composition. The scale-dependent effect of kangaroo rats on abiotic and biotic factors appears to result in greater founding and survivorship of young colonies near mounds. These results suggest that soil disturbance and foraging by rodents can have subtle impacts on the distribution and demography of other species.

  11. Interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature from Kangaroo-Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Eliene de Oliveira Callou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature newborns of the Kangaroo Unit. Methods: This was an exploratory study of qualitative approach. The interviews were conducted with 10 mothers and 7 professionals who joined in Kangaroo Program and then analyzed by the content analysis technique. The guiding questions used were related to feelings perceived in relation to the Kangaroo method, related to mother-child dyad and interpersonal relationships. Results: Mothers reported on their speeches: “safe to be with the baby in Kangaroo Method” and “sense of maternal feeling during breastfeeding”, while in the professionals’ discourses have emerged: “guidelines on caring for the babies”, “the embracement by the team” and “the importance of family support.” Conclusions: The interaction between professionals and mothers of Kangaroo Unit facilitates the permanence of the binomial in the method, therefore develops feelings of security, tranquility and confidence to take care of the baby. It is important that the team be aware of the difficulties, supporting them in the weakest moments and sharing their fears, doubts and concerns over the baby’s hospitalization.

  12. Kangaroo position: Immediate effects on the physiological variables of preterm and low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Cesário Defilipo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC method is a significant neonatal alternative that ensures better quality humanized care for preterm and low birth weight newborns. Objective: To analyze the immediate physiological effects of the kangaroo position in critically ill newborns. Methods: Open clinical trial with parallel interventions, involving preterm (up to 28 days old low or very low birth weight newborns (minimum weight of 1,250 grams of both sexes, that were clinically stable and undergoing enteral nutrition. The degree of respiratory distress was assessed and quantified using the Silverman-Anderson scoring system. Heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were collected using a pulse oximeter. Respiratory rate was determined by auscultation for one minute. The newborns were submitted to the kangaroo position once only, for 90 minutes. Results: Participants were 30 newborns, 56.7% of which were girls. Comparison of the variables before and after application of the kangaroo position using the Wilcoxon test showed a statistically significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.02 and Silverman-Anderson score (p < 0.01. The remaining variables showed no significant differences: heart rate (p = 0.21, peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.26 and axillary temperature (p = 0.12. Conclusion: There was a decline in the respiratory rate and Silverman-Anderson score after application of the kangaroo position, while peripheral oxygen saturation, axillary temperature and heart rate remained stable.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of mesenteric volvulus in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rosenblatt, Alana J; Morrisey, James K; Flanders, James A; Thompson, Margret S; Knapp-Hoch, Heather M

    2014-04-01

    An 8-year-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) was evaluated with a 2-week history of vomiting and anorexia. Four days prior, the patient became refractory to medical management. The kangaroo was admitted for diagnostic testing and treatment including whole body CT, blood work, and emergency laparotomy. CT findings of a severely enlarged stomach, splenic displacement, and a whirl sign were indicative of mesenteric volvulus with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Contrast enhancement of abdominal viscera suggested intact arterial blood supply; however, compression of the caudal vena cava and portal vein indicated venous obstruction. Results of preoperative blood work suggested biliary stasis without evidence of inflammation. Additionally, a tooth root abscess was diagnosed on the basis of results of CT. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric volvulus and GDV. The volvuli were corrected by clockwise derotation, and a gastropexy was performed. Tissue samples were obtained from the spleen and liver for evaluation. The kangaroo recovered from surgery, and the abscessed tooth was extracted 6 days later. Eight days after initial evaluation, the kangaroo was discharged. In the present report, the CT whirl sign was used to diagnose volvulus of the abdominal viscera, which suggests that this diagnostic indicator has utility in veterinary patients. Mesenteric volvulus with GDV was successfully treated in a nondomestic species. The tooth root abscess, a common condition in macropods, may explain the historic episodes of anorexia reported by the owner and may have contributed to the development of mesenteric volvulus and GDV in this kangaroo.

  14. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. A Test of Kangaroo Care on Preterm Infant Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C.; David, Richard; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effects of kangaroo care (KC) on breastfeeding outcomes in preterm infants compared to two control groups and to explore whether maternal-infant characteristics and the mother’s choice to use KC were related to breastfeeding measures. Design Secondary analysis of a multisite, stratified, and randomized 3-arm trial. The treatment groups used KC, auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention, or preterm infant care information. Setting Neonatal intensive care units from 4 hospitals in the United States from 2006–2011. Participants Racially diverse mothers (N=231) and their preterm infants born weighing breastfeeding, and breastfeeding exclusivity after hospital discharge did not differ statistically among the treatment groups. Regardless of group assignment, married, older, and more educated women were more likely to feed at the breast during hospitalization. Mothers who practiced KC, regardless of randomly allocated group, were more likely to provide their milk than those who did not practice KC. Breastfeeding duration was greatest among more educated women. Conclusion As implemented in this study, assignment to KC did not appear to influence the measured breastfeeding outcomes. PMID:26815798

  16. THE EFFECT OF KANGAROO METHOD APPLICATION TO BODY TEMPERATURE OF BABY WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW)

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Ayu Erika, Kadek Ayu Erika

    2012-01-01

    - Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW) care in Indonesia is still prioritizing the use of incubators but its presence is still very limited. Kangaroo method is now starting to be used as an alternative to incubator that is economically efficient and effective. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of the application of the kangaroo method to body temperature of baby with LBW. Method: This research was conducted at the Hospital Prof. DR. W.Z. Johannes Kupang with a sample of 25 lo...

  17. Investigation of the microbial metabolism of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the kangaroo foregut by stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V

    2014-09-01

    Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to investigate the organisms and biochemical pathways involved in the metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach. Our results clearly demonstrate that the activity of bacterial reductive acetogens is a key factor in the reduced methane output of kangaroos. In in vitro fermentations, the microbial community of the kangaroo foregut produced very little methane, but produced a significantly greater proportion of acetate derived from carbon dioxide than the microbial community of the bovine rumen. A bacterial operational taxonomic unit closely related to the known reductive acetogen Blautia coccoides was found to be associated with carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism in the kangaroo foregut. Other bacterial taxa including members of the genera Prevotella, Oscillibacter and Streptococcus that have not previously been reported as containing hydrogenotrophic organisms were also significantly associated with metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach.

  18. [Assessing the impact of kangaroo care on preterm infant stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collados-Gómez, Laura; Aragonés-Corral, Belén; Contreras-Olivares, Inmaculada; García-Feced, Elena; Vila-Piqueras, Maria Encarnación

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of Kangaroo Care (KC) in decreasing stress in newborns of 29-34 weeks' post-menstrual age (PMA). Quasi-experimental pre-post without control group analytical study conducted in the Gregorio Marañón University Hospital Neonatal Unit. The inclusion criteria were: infants 29 to 34 weeks' PMA, in an incubator, did not have neurological pathology, were not post-surgical, and with a Spanish-speaking mother and/or father. The sample size was fifty-one premature infants. The study variables selected were: clinical variables (additional oxygen and pathology), socio-demographical variables (PMA, KC duration) and the outcome variable, premature infant stress, which consisted of two variables: the physiological stress signal and the behavioural stress response. The variables were collected at three different times: basal stress, during KC and after KC completion, making a comparison analysis between the basal stress and after KC. The response rate was 100%, without registering any loss. The stress variables that changed after the intervention (statistically significant) were: irregular breathing, trunk arching or hyperextension, very open fingers, contraction of the face muscles, apnea, irritability and exaggerated and sustained extension of arms and legs. O(2) saturation was 94.73%±3.05% before KC and 95.92%±2.97% after the intervention. The heart rate (HR) ranged from 158.14±17.48 bpm (beats per minute) before the KC to 151.47±4.47 bpm after it. KC is related to the decrease in the occurrence of neonatal variables of stress, helping to organize motor and physiological systems to achieve a state of tranquility. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Water use and the thermoregulatory behaviour of kangaroos in arid regions: insights into the colonisation of arid rangelands in Australia by the Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; McTavish, Kirsten J; Munn, Adam J; Holloway, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) occurs mostly in the wetter regions of eastern Australia. However, in the past 30-40 years it has moved into more arid regions (rainfall Kangaroo (Macropus rufus). An increased access to water (supplied for domestic stock) may explain this range extension, but changes in the availability of preferred feed could also be involved. The water use, drinking patterns and thermoregulatory behaviour of these two species of kangaroo have been examined in a semi-free range study, during summer at an arid rangeland site. Foraging was largely nocturnal in both species and during the day they behaved to reduce heat loads. This was especially so for M. giganteus, which showed greater shade seeking. However, it still used more water (72 +/- 2.6 mL kg(-1) day(-1), mean +/- SE) than M. rufus (56 +/- 7.6 mL kg(-1) day(-1)) and drank twice as frequently. Although M. giganteus produced a less concentrated urine (1422 +/- 36 mosmol kg(-1)) than M. rufus (1843 +/- 28 mosmol kg(-1)), kidney physiology did not explain all of the differences in water metabolism between the species. Water from the feed and faecal water retention also appear to be involved. Broadly, a better access to reliable water and the utilisation of mesic microhabitats has enabled M. giganteus to make inroads into the changing rangelands of eastern Australia. However, changes in the vegetation, due to stock grazing, have also favoured M. giganteus, which is a grass eating specialist.

  20. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice

    2012-01-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out....

  1. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  2. Influence of small-scale disturbances by kangaroo rats on Chihuahuan Desert ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. L. Schooley; B. T. Bestelmeyer; J. F. Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) are prominent ecosystem engineers that build large mounds that influence the spatial structuring of fungi, plants, and some ground-dwelling animals. Ants are diverse and functionally important components of arid ecosystems; some species are also ecosystem engineers. We investigated the effects of...

  3. To kill a kangaroo: understanding the decision to pursue high-risk/high-gain resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James Holland; Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Bird, Douglas W

    2013-09-22

    In this paper, we attempt to understand hunter-gatherer foraging decisions about prey that vary in both the mean and variance of energy return using an expected utility framework. We show that for skewed distributions of energetic returns, the standard linear variance discounting (LVD) model for risk-sensitive foraging can produce quite misleading results. In addition to creating difficulties for the LVD model, the skewed distributions characteristic of hunting returns create challenges for estimating probability distribution functions required for expected utility. We present a solution using a two-component finite mixture model for foraging returns. We then use detailed foraging returns data based on focal follows of individual hunters in Western Australia hunting for high-risk/high-gain (hill kangaroo) and relatively low-risk/low-gain (sand monitor) prey. Using probability densities for the two resources estimated from the mixture models, combined with theoretically sensible utility curves characterized by diminishing marginal utility for the highest returns, we find that the expected utility of the sand monitors greatly exceeds that of kangaroos despite the fact that the mean energy return for kangaroos is nearly twice as large as that for sand monitors. We conclude that the decision to hunt hill kangaroos does not arise simply as part of an energetic utility-maximization strategy and that additional social, political or symbolic benefits must accrue to hunters of this highly variable prey.

  4. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  5. Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Coulson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most urban mammals are small. However, one of the largest marsupials, the Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus, occurs in some urban areas. In 2007, we embarked on a longitudinal study of this species in the seaside town of Anglesea in southern Victoria, Australia. We have captured and tagged 360 individuals to date, fitting each adult with a collar displaying its name. We have monitored survival, reproduction and movements by resighting, recapture and radio-tracking, augmented by citizen science reports of collared individuals. Kangaroos occurred throughout the town, but the golf course formed the nucleus of this urban population. The course supported a high density of kangaroos (2–5/ha, and approximately half of them were tagged. Total counts of kangaroos on the golf course were highest in summer, at the peak of the mating season, and lowest in winter, when many males but not females left the course. Almost all tagged adult females were sedentary, using only part of the golf course and adjacent native vegetation and residential blocks. In contrast, during the non-mating season (autumn and winter, many tagged adult males ranged widely across the town in a mix of native vegetation remnants, recreation reserves, vacant blocks, commercial properties and residential gardens. Annual fecundity of tagged females was generally high (≥70%, but survival of tagged juveniles was low (54%. We could not determine the cause of death of most juveniles. Vehicles were the major (47% cause of mortality of tagged adults. Road-kills were concentrated (74% in autumn and winter, and were heavily male biased: half of all tagged males died on roads compared with only 20% of tagged females. We predict that this novel and potent mortality factor will have profound, long-term impacts on the demography and behavior of the urban kangaroo population at Anglesea.

  6. Kangaroo care by fathers and mothers: comparison of physiological and stress responses in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, B K; Shah, J; Kumar, P; Shah, P S

    2016-05-01

    To compare physiological and biochemical responses in stable preterm neonates and their parents following kangaroo mother care (KMC) and kangaroo father care (KFC). We conducted a prospective cross-over design study of stable preterm neonates of KFC for 1 h on consecutive days in a random order. Heart rate, temperature, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and salivary cortisol in infants before and after kangaroo care and heart rate, temperature and salivary cortisol in parents before and after kangaroo care were measured. Pairwise comparisons of changes in these measures were analyzed. Twenty-six sets of neonates and their parents were studied for physiological parameters, of which 19 had adequate samples for salivary cortisol assessment. The infants had a mean birth weight of 1096 g (s.d.=217) and a mean postmenstrual age at study of 32 weeks (s.d.=2). There were no significant differences in the changes in mean heart rate (P=0.51), temperature (P=0.37), oxygen saturation (P=0.50), systolic blood pressure (P=0.32), mean blood pressure (0.10) and salivary cortisol (P=0.50) before and after KMC or KFC in the neonates. The changes in mean heart rate (P=0.62), temperature (P=0.28) and salivary cortisol (P=0.59) before and after kangaroo care were similar between mothers and fathers. No significant differences in physiological and stress responses were identified following KMC or KFC in preterm neonates. KFC may be as safe and as effective as KMC.

  7. Complete genomic characterisation of two novel poxviruses (WKPV and EKPV) from western and eastern grey kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark; Tu, Shin-Lin; Upton, Chris; McArtor, Cassie; Gillett, Amber; Laird, Tanya; O'Dea, Mark

    2017-10-15

    Poxviruses have previously been detected in macropods with cutaneous papillomatous lesions, however to date, no comprehensive analysis of a poxvirus from kangaroos has been performed. Here we report the genome sequences of a western grey kangaroo poxvirus (WKPV) and an eastern grey kangaroo poxvirus (EKPV), named for the host species from which they were isolated, western grey (Macropus fuliginosus) and eastern grey (Macropus giganteus) kangaroos. Poxvirus DNA from WKPV and EKPV was isolated and entire coding genome regions determined through Roche GS Junior and Illumina Miseq sequencing, respectively. Viral genomes were assembled using MIRA and SPAdes, and annotations performed using tools available from the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Centre. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy analysis was also performed on WKPV and its associated lesions. The WKPV and EKPV genomes show 96% identity (nucleotide) to each other and phylogenetic analysis places them on a distinct branch between the established Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera. WKPV and EKPV are 170 kbp and 167 kbp long, containing 165 and 162 putative genes, respectively. Together, their genomes encode up to 47 novel unique hypothetical proteins, and possess virulence proteins including a major histocompatibility complex class II inhibitor, a semaphorin-like protein, a serpin, a 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/δ 5→4 isomerase, and a CD200-like protein. These viruses also encode a large putative protein (WKPV-WA-039 and EKPV-SC-038) with a C-terminal domain that is structurally similar to the C-terminal domain of a cullin, suggestive of a role in the control of host ubiquitination. The relationship of these viruses to members of the Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera is discussed in terms of sequence similarity, gene content and nucleotide composition. A novel genus within subfamily Chordopoxvirinae is proposed to accommodate these two poxvirus species from kangaroos; we suggest

  8. Investigation of the microbial metabolism of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the kangaroo foregut by stable isotope probing

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to ...

  9. Molecular characterization and multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from captive red kangaroos (Macropus Rufus in Jiangsu province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhong

    Full Text Available Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common pathogen of microsporidian species infecting humans worldwide. Although E. bieneusi has been found in a variety of animal hosts, information on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos in China is limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos. A total of 61 fecal specimens (38 from red kangaroos and 23 from grey kangaroos were collected from Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo and Hongshan Kangaroo Breeding Research Base, Jiangsu province, China. Using the nested PCR amplification ITS gene of rRNA of E. bieneusi, totally 23.0% (14/61 of tested samples were PCR-positive with three genotypes (i.e. one known genotype, CHK1, and two novel genotypes, CSK1 and CSK2. Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7 and one minisatellite (MS4 revealed one, five, two, and one types at these four loci, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, the two genotypes, CHK1 and CSK1, were clustered into a new group of unknown zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype CSK2 was clustered into a separate clade with PtEb and PtEbIX. To date, this is the first report on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive red kangaroos in Jiangsu province, China. Furthermore, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed in the E. bieneusi genotype and seven MLGs (MLG1-7 were found in red kangaroos. Our findings suggest that infected kangaroo may act as potential reservoirs of E. bieneusi and be source to transmit infections to other animal.

  10. Trial of Repeated Analgesia with Kangaroo Mother Care (TRAKC Trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mother and infant, commonly referred to as Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC), is recommended as an intervention for procedural pain. Evidence demonstrates its consistent efficacy in reducing pain for a single painful procedure. The purpose of this study is to examine the sustained efficacy of KMC, provided during all routine painful procedures for the duration of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitalization, in diminishing behavioral pain response in preterm neonates. The efficacy of KMC alone will be compared to standard care of 24% oral sucrose, as well as the combination of KMC and 24% oral sucrose. Methods/design Infants admitted to the NICU who are less than 36 6/7 weeks gestational age (according to early ultrasound), that are stable enough to be held in KMC, will be considered eligible (N = 258). Using a single-blinded randomized parallel group design, participants will be assigned to one of three possible interventions: 1) KMC, 2) combined KMC and sucrose, and 3) sucrose alone, when they undergo any routine painful procedure (heel lance, venipuncture, intravenous, oro/nasogastric insertion). The primary outcome is infant’s pain intensity, which will be assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). The secondary outcome will be maturity of neurobehavioral functioning, as measured by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI). Gestational age, cumulative exposure to KMC provided during non-pain contexts, and maternal cortisol levels will be considered in the analysis. Clinical feasibility will be accounted for from nurse and maternal questionnaires. Discussion This will be the first study to examine the repeated use of KMC for managing procedural pain in preterm neonates. It is also the first to compare KMC to sucrose, or the interventions in combination, across time. Based on the theoretical framework of the brain opioid theory of attachment, it is expected that KMC will be a

  11. Transparency and communication can improve wildlife welfare outcomes: A case of kangaroos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available All countries manage human and wildlife coexistence. Where traditionally humans may have killed animals perceived to be a problem, this is often no longer legal or socially acceptable. Decision-makers tend to feel less strongly about coexistence issues than the people who attempt to influence them on behalf of human or wildlife interests. It has been argued that links between human interests and decisions affecting wildlife should be transparent, and that open decision making processes involving a range of local stakeholders will improve outcomes for humans and wildlife. This paper examines one case incident in an ongoing conflict between an international car racing track and kangaroos that have occasionally been found on the track during a race, causing danger to themselves and race participants. A secret local government report and plan to cull kangaroos was obtained using Freedom of Information legislation. When released to the media the subsequent public discussion showed a much greater concern for kangaroo stress, harm and right to live than the official report, and called for consideration of a range of alternatives to culling. This led to postponement of culling plans, and commitment to a more open community discussion of options. The case clearly supports claims that greater transparency and local stakeholder participation in management decision processes can improve welfare outcomes for non-human animals.

  12. Derivation of soil screening thresholds to protect chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.

  13. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Fuss and Crying Time in Colicky Infants

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    Zahra Akbarian Rad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic.Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant.Results:The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001Conclusions:Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic

  14. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus

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    Andrew Tribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours’ were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control.

  15. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Fuss and Crying Time in Colicky Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbarian Rad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infantile colic is a common complaint in the first few weeks of life. On the other hand, because of its unknown etiology, there is not a specific therapy for this complaint, but various therapeutic options for reducing pain and restlessness of these infants are recommended. Skin to skin contact by Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC increases in pain threshold and it seems to be a suitable method for the care of these infants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of KMC on infantile colic. Methods: This case- control study was performed between March 2012 and March 2013. Subjects were 55 infants with exclusive breast fed infant, aged 15-60 days with excessive fuss and crying, referred to Infant and Child Clinic in Ayatollah Rohani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. Babies whose weights were less than 2500 Grams and with inheritance and clinical diseases excluded from the study. Infants were subjected to KMC at least 2 hours a day. Standard questionnaire and Barr Scale were filled by interview. Data was analyzed by SPSS v.11.5 and T-test, a P- value less than 0.05 considered being significant. Results: The fuss and crying time before the KMC was 2.21±1.54 hours per day and decreased to 1.16±1.3 hours per day after the implementation of KMC. (p=0.001 Conclusions: Kangaroo mother care at home can be used as a simple and safe method for decreasing of cry and fussiness in colicky infants. Keywords: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC, fussiness, Colicky Infants, colic

  16. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  17. The physics of articulated toys—a jumping and rotating kangaroo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güémez, J; Fiolhais, M

    2014-01-01

    We describe the physics of an articulated toy with an internal source of energy provided by a spiral spring. The toy is a funny low cost kangaroo which jumps and rotates. The study consists of mechanical and thermodynamical analyses that make use of the Newton and centre of mass equations, the rotational equations and the first law of thermodynamics. This amazing toy provides a nice demonstrative example of how new physics insights can be brought about when links with thermodynamics are established in the study of mechanical systems. (papers)

  18. Using faecal DNA to determine consumption by kangaroos of plants considered palatable to sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K W; Krebs, G L; McCafferty, P; van Wyngaarden, S P; Addison, J

    2010-02-01

    Disagreement exists within the scientific community with regards to the level of competition for feed between sheep and kangaroos in the Australian rangelands. The greatest challenge to solving this debate is finding effective means of determining the composition of the diets of these potential grazing competitors. An option is to adopt a non-invasive approach that combines faecal collection and molecular techniques that focus on faecal DNA as the primary source of dietary information. As proof-of-concept, we show that a DNA reference data bank on plant species can be established. This DNA reference data bank was then used as a library to identify plant species in kangaroo faeces collected in the southern rangelands of Western Australia. To enhance the method development and to begin the investigation of competitive grazing between sheep and kangaroos, 16 plant species known to be palatable to sheep were initially targeted for collection. To ensure that only plant sequences were studied, PCR amplification was performed using a universal primer pair previously shown to be specific to the chloroplast transfer RNA leucine (trnL) UAA gene intron. Overall, genus-specific, single and differently sized amplicons were reliably and reproducibly generated; enabling the differentiation of reference plants by PCR product length heterogeneity. However, there were a few plants that could not be clearly differentiated on the basis of size alone. This prompted the adoption of a post-PCR step that enabled further differentiation according to base sequence variation. Restriction endonucleases make sequence-specific cleavages on DNA to produce discrete and reproducible fragments having unique sizes and base compositions. Their availability, affordability and simplicity-of-use put restriction enzyme sequence (RES) profiling as a logical post-PCR step for confirming plant species identity. We demonstrate that PCR-RES profiling of plant and faecal matter is useful for the identification

  19. Kangaroo care for adoptive parents and their critically ill preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Leslie; Anderson, Gene Cranston

    2002-01-01

    In this case study kangaroo care (KC) was facilitated for an adoptive mother and father who were planning to attend the birth of the infant they had arranged to adopt. Unexpectedly, the birth mother delivered at 27 weeks gestation. The infant was critically ill and required mechanical ventilation. However, in this neonatal intensive care unit where all adoptive parents and parents of mechanically ventilated infants are offered KC, these adoptive parents began KC on Day 3 while their infant daughter was still mechanically ventilated. She thrived thereafter and the entire experience was profoundly beneficial for this beginning family both at the hospital and after discharge home.

  20. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  1. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus

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    Mahmoud Badran Shoeib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the morphology and histomorphometry of stomach and gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus. The stomach was composed of three indistinctive separate parts namely sacciform forestomach, tubiform forestomach, and hindstomach. The tubiform forestomach was the main tubular section of the organ. The stomach had a compound lining. The non-glandular mucosa occupied the medial blind sac (MBS of the sacciform forestomach; the layer covered about one-third of the tubiform forestomach (non-glandular region and the entire length of the gastric sulcus. The glandular part lined the parietal blind sac (PBS of sacciform forestomach and the cardiac gland region of tubiform forestomach as well as fundic and pyloric gland regions of the hindstomach. The cardiac mucosa had smooth and folded areas; these were filled with mixed glands. In the fundic glands, the parietal cells outnumbered the chief cells. The pyloric glands were of serous-like in characteristics. In conclusion, gross and histological structures of the stomach of western grey kangaroo are adaptive with its food habitat, which allows thorough mixing of highly fibrous grasses.

  2. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Parents’ lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Leonard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature and low birthweight infants pose particular challenges to health services in South Africa. While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low birthweight infants, limited research has been conducted locally on the experiences of parents who provide kangaroo care to their preterm infants. This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of parents who provided their preterm infants with kangaroo care at a tertiary-level maternity centre in the Western Cape. In-depth interviews were conducted with six parents: four mothers and two fathers. Data was analysed using an adaptation of the approaches described by Colaizzi (1978:48-71 and Hycner (1985:280-294. To ensure trustworthiness, the trustworthiness criteria described by Guba and Lincoln (1989:242-243 were applied. Kangaroo care is a phased process, each phase bringing a unique set of experiences. The eight themes that emerged are described: unforeseen, unprepared and uncertain - the experience of birth; anxiety and barriers; an intimate connection; adjustments, roles and responsibilities; measuring success; a network of encouragement and support; living-in challenges; and living with the infant outside of hospital. Challenges facing health care providers are described and recommendations for information about kangaroo care and support for parents are made. Opsomming Vroeggebore babas en babas met ’n lae geboortegewig stel besondere uitdagings vir Suid-Afrikaanse gesondhiedsdienste. Daar bestaan goeie bewyse dat die kangaroesorgmetode voordelig is vir babas met ’n laegeboortegewig, dog is minimale plaaslike navorsing gedoen oor die ondervindinge van ouers wat hierdie metode gebruik om vir hul vroeggebore babas te sorg. Hierdie fenomenologiese studie verken die geleefde ervaringe van ouers wat vir hulle vroeggebore babas deur middel van die kangaroesorgmetode in ’n tersiêre kraamsentrum in die Weskaap gesorg het. Data is ingesamel deur in

  4. Original article The effects of kangaroo mother care in a sample of preterm, preschool aged children

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    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The research has shown that kangaroo mother care has a protective impact both on health and future cognitive skills of prematurely born babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the early skin-to-skin contact and the cognitive and emotional-social functioning of preschool aged preterm babies. Participants and procedure The study group included 99 preterm babies. The children participated in a psychological examination conducted using the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale and the Terman-Merrill Test. The data concerning the skin-to-skin contact during the child’s hospitalisation were acquired during interviews with mothers. The emotional development was assessed on the basis of interviews with mothers, conducted using the Rescorla DSM-IV Orientation Scale (2005. Results The study showed no relation between kangaroo mother care and cognitive development. Nevertheless the early skin-to-skin contact turned out to be connected with the emotional functioning of the subjects. Preterm babies who used to experience kangaroo mother care experienced fewer anxiety and depressive disorders than those who did not. In addition it was revealed that the children who suffered from early damage to the brain in the forms of intraventricular and periventricular haemorrhages and experienced kangaroo mother care demonstrated less intense depressive symptoms than those who did not. Conclusions The obtained results, combined with the review of the foreign literature of the subject, indicate the usefulness of introducing kangaroo mother care to neonatal wards and encouraging parents to care about their prematurely born babies in such a way.

  5. Energy requirements of the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus): impacts of age, growth and body size in a large desert-dwelling herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J

    2003-09-01

    Generally, young growing mammals have resting metabolic rates (RMRs) that are proportionally greater than those of adult animals. This is seen in the red kangaroo ( Macropus rufus), a large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupial common to arid and semi-arid inland Australia. Juvenile red kangaroos have RMRs 1.5-1.6 times those expected for adult marsupials of an equivalent body mass. When fed high-quality chopped lucerne hay, young-at-foot (YAF) kangaroos, which have permanently left the mother's pouch but are still sucking, and recently weaned red kangaroos had digestible energy intakes of 641+/-27 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 677+/-26 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1), respectively, significantly higher than the 385+/-37 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) ingested by mature, non-lactating females. However, YAF and weaned red kangaroos had maintenance energy requirements (MERs) that were not significantly higher than those of mature, non-lactating females, the values ranging between 384 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) and 390 kJ kg(-0.75) day(-1) digestible energy. Importantly, the MER of mature female red kangaroos was 84% of that previously reported for similarly sized, but still growing, male red kangaroos. Growth was the main factor affecting the proportionally higher energy requirements of the juvenile red kangaroos relative to non-reproductive mature females. On a good quality diet, juvenile red kangaroos from permanent pouch exit until shortly after weaning (ca. 220-400 days) had average growth rates of 55 g body mass day(-1). At this level of growth, juveniles had total daily digestible energy requirements (i.e. MER plus growth energy requirements) that were 1.7-1.8 times the MER of mature, non-reproductive females. Our data suggest that the proportionally higher RMR of juvenile red kangaroos is largely explained by the additional energy needed for growth. Energy contents of the tissue gained by the YAF and weaned red kangaroos during growth were estimated to be 5.3 kJ g(-1), within the range found for

  6. Energy, water and space use by free-living red kangaroos Macropus rufus and domestic sheep Ovis aries in an Australian rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, A J; Dawson, T J; McLeod, S R; Dennis, T; Maloney, S K

    2013-08-01

    We used doubly labelled water to measure field metabolic rates (FMR) and water turnover rates (WTR) in one of Australia's largest native herbivores, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and one of Australia's dominant livestock species, the wool-breed Merino sheep, under free-living conditions in a typical Australian rangeland. Also, we used GPS technology to examine animal space use, along with the comparisons of urine concentration, diet, diet digestibility, and subsequent grazing pressures. We found smaller space-use patterns than previously reported for kangaroos, which were between 14 and 25 % those of sheep. The FMR of a 25-kg kangaroo was 30 % that of a 45-kg sheep, while WTR was 15 % and both were associated with smaller travel distances, lower salt intakes, and higher urine concentration in kangaroos than sheep. After accounting for differences in dry matter digestibility of food eaten by kangaroos (51 %) and sheep (58 %), the relative grazing pressure of a standard (mature, non-reproductive) 25-kg kangaroo was 35 % that of a 45-kg sheep. Even for animals of the same body mass (35 kg), the relative grazing pressure of the kangaroo was estimated to be only 44 % that of the sheep. After accounting for the energetic costs of wool growth by sheep, the FMRs of our sheep and kangaroos were 2-3 times their expected BMRs, which is typical for mammalian FMR:BMRs generally. Notably, data collected from our free-living animals were practically identical to those from animals confined to a semi-natural enclosure (collected in an earlier study under comparable environmental conditions), supporting the idea that FMRs are relatively constrained within species.

  7. Plasma cholinesterase activity of rats, western grey kangaroos, alpacas, sheep, cattle, and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Chris; Mawson, Peter; Maloney, Shane K

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cholinesterase activity levels of various species may be of interest to toxicologists or pathologists working with chemicals that interfere with the activity of plasma cholinesterase. We used a pH titration method to measure the plasma cholinesterase activity of six mammalian species. Plasma cholinesterase activity varied up to 50-fold between species: sheep (88 ± 45 nM acetylcholine degraded per ml of test plasma per minute), cattle (94 ± 35), western grey kangaroos (126 ± 92), alpaca (364 ± 70), rats (390 ± 118) and horses (4539 ± 721). We present a simple, effective technique for the assay of plasma cholinesterase activity levels from a range of species. Although labour-intensive, it requires only basic laboratory equipment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Michael H; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2010-05-05

    Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces) from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo), along with a control (water). If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis) would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area. We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones). Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps) to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5). Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2) = 83.8; P<0.001). Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been experimentally observed among medium or large vertebrates - where a local response

  9. Familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Parsons

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo, along with a control (water. If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous, western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area.We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones. Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5. Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2 = 83.8; P<0.001.Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been experimentally observed among medium or large vertebrates - where a local

  10. Reproductive implications of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Chris; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Jeff; Mawson, Peter R; Bencini, Roberta

    2014-04-01

    Australian marsupials are thought to be particularly vulnerable to pathologic impacts of Toxoplasma gondii, and they may be similarly affected by Neospora caninum. Pathology due to either organism could be expressed as reduced female reproductive performance. We studied adult female western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus) from suburban Perth, Western Australia, between May 2006 and October 2008. We used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to look for evidence of exposure to T. gondii and N. caninum in M. fuliginosus ocydromus and tested the association between their reproductive performance and a positive test result. Although 20% of plasma samples collected from 102 female kangaroos were positive for T. gondii and 18% were positive for N. caninum, we found no association between positive results and reproductive performance. Further study will be required to clarify if, and under what circumstances, T. gondii and N. caninum are pathogenic to macropod marsupials.

  11. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS VAR. GRUBII-ASSOCIATED RENAL AMYLOIDOSIS CAUSING PROTEIN-LOSING NEPHROPATHY IN A RED KANGAROO (MACROPUS RUFUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gjeltema, Jenessa; Sheley, Matthew; Wack, Ray F

    2017-09-01

    A 10-year-old male castrated red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with mandibular swelling. Examination findings included pitting edema with no dental disease evident on examination or radiographs. The results of blood work were moderate azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and severely elevated urine protein:creatinine ratio (9.9). Radiographs showed an interstitial pattern of the caudal right lung, and an abdominal ultrasound demonstrated scant effusion. Symptomatic and empirical therapy with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor did not resolve clinical signs. Due to poor prognosis and declining quality of life, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed chronic granulomatous pneumonia of the caudal right lung lobe with intralesional Cryptococcus, identified as C. neoformans var. grubii by DNA sequencing. Severe bilateral glomerular and tubulointerstitial amyloidosis induced protein-losing nephropathy, leading to tri-cavitary effusion, subcutaneous edema, and cachexia. The authors speculate that renal amyloidosis was associated with chronic cryptococcal pneumonia in this red kangaroo.

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF KANGAROO POSITION ON PRETERM BABIES AND MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION UPON DISCHARGE

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Cynthia Ribeiro do Nascimento; Campos, Lu?s Gustavo; Lucena, Aline Moreira; Pereira, Janser Moura; da Costa, Patr?cia Rodrigues; de Lima, Fl?via Aparecida Felipe; Azevedo, Vivian Mara Gon?alves de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the influence of the Kangaroo Position duration in the initial interactions between mothers and preterm infants. Methods: This is an exploratory prospective observational study that analyzed the mother-infant interaction during breastfeeding, before hospital discharge. All eligible newborns, with a gestational age of 28-32 weeks and a birth weight of 1,000-1,800 g from June 11 to September 31, 2014 were included. The films of the interaction were evaluated by th...

  13. Characterization of a mutant rat kangaroo cell line with alterations in the cell cycle and DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Miyaji, E.N.; Johnson, R.T.; Downes, C.S.; Eveno, E.; Mezzina, M.; Sarasin, A.; Menck, C.F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Using a positive selection system for isolating DNA replication and repair related mutants, we isolated a clone from a rat kangaroo cell line (PtK2) that has increased sensitivity to UV light. Characterization of this clone indicated normal post-replication repair after UV irradiation, and normal removal rates of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts by excision repair. However, this cell line has decreased ability to make early incisions on damaged DNA, po...

  14. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care Immediately after Delivery on Mother-infant Attachment 3 Months after Delivery

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    Fatemeh Zahra Karimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background  The aim of this study was determine the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC immediately after delivery on mother-infant attachment 3-month after delivery. Materials and Methods: In this RCT study, 72 mother-infant pairs were randomly divided in to kangaroo mother care and routine care groups.The intervention group received kangaroo mother care (KMC in the first two hours post birth. The control group just received routine hospital care. Mothers in the intervention group were encouraged to keep the baby in KMC as much as possible during the day and night throughout the neonatal period. Participants were followed up for three months after birth. The Main outcome measure was mother-infant attachment at 3 months postpartum and maternal anxiety about the baby at the same time. The data was collected by questionnaire (demographic information of parents and neonates and maternal attachment scale. Analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 14. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding their baseline data. Mean maternal attachment score in the KMC group and in the routine care group at three months after delivery was 52.40±3.30 and 49.86±4.18 respectively, which was significantly higher in the KMC group (P

  15. The effects of thyroxine on metabolism and water balance in a desert-dwelling rodent, Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Marilyn R; Holcombe, Dale W

    2002-01-01

    Desert-dwelling mammals such as Merriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriani) need to conserve both energy and water to survive desert conditions characterized by aridity and low productivity. The thyroid hormone thyroxine increases both basal metabolic rate and urinary water loss in mammals. Increases in basal metabolism and urinary water loss are likely to be detrimental to D. merriami, therefore the regulation of this hormone may be important. To examine the effects of thyroxine in this species, we implanted adult kangaroo rats with pellets designed to release specific doses of thyroxine at a constant rate for 90 days or a placebo pellet. We measured plasma thyroxine concentration, basal metabolic rate, food consumption, urine concentration and water loss in all implanted animals. Thyroxine implants significantly increased both plasma thyroxine and basal metabolic rate in a relatively dose-dependent manner. In response to thyroxine. kangaroo rats increased food consumption only slightly, but this small increase was sufficient to compensate for their elevated metabolic rates. Neither urine concentration nor water loss varied among treatment groups. Thyroxine increased energy expenditure but not water loss in this species.

  16. Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine.

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    Ramp, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits.

  17. Parental involvement and kangaroo care in European neonatal intensive care units: a policy survey in eight countries.

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    Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Losacco, Valentina; Maraschini, Alice; Greisen, Gorm; Pierrat, Veronique; Warren, Inga; Haumont, Dominique; Westrup, Björn; Smit, Bert J; Sizun, Jacques; Cuttini, Marina

    2012-09-01

    To compare, in a large representative sample of European neonatal intensive care units, the policies and practices regarding parental involvement and holding babies in the kangaroo care position as well as differences in the tasks mothers and fathers are allowed to carry out. Prospective multicenter survey. Neonatal intensive care units in eight European countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Patients were not involved in this study. None. A structured questionnaire was mailed to 362 units (response rate 78%); only units with ≥50 very-low-birth-weight annual admissions were considered for this study. Facilities for parents such as reclining chairs near the babies' cots, beds, and a dedicated room were common, but less so in Italy and Spain. All units in Sweden, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Belgium reported encouraging parental participation in the care of the babies, whereas policies were more restrictive in Italy (80% of units), France (73%), and Spain (41%). Holding babies in the kangaroo care position was widespread. However, in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain, many units applied restrictions regarding its frequency (sometimes or on parents request only, rather than routinely), method (conventional rather than skin-to-skin), and clinical conditions (especially mechanical ventilation and presence of umbilical lines) that would prevent its practice. In these countries, fathers were routinely offered kangaroo care less frequently than mothers (p involvement as well as the role played by mothers and fathers varied within and between countries.

  18. The Effects of Kangaroo Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit on the Physiological Functions of Preterm Infants, Maternal-Infant Attachment, and Maternal Stress.

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    Cho, Eun-Sook; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kwon, Myung Soon; Cho, Haeryun; Kim, Eun Hye; Jun, Eun Mi; Lee, Sunhee

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the effects of kangaroo care on the physiological functions of preterm infants, maternal-infant attachment, and maternal stress. For this study, a quasi-experiment design was used with a nonequivalent control group, and a pre- and post-test. Data were collected from preterm infants with corrected gestational ages of ≥33weeks who were hospitalized between May and October 2011. Twenty infants were assigned to the experimental group and 20 to the control group. As an intervention, kangaroo care was provided in 30-min sessions conducted thrice a week for a total of 10 times. The collected data were analyzed by using the t test, repeated-measures ANOVA, and the ANCOVA test. After kangaroo care, the respiration rate significantly differed between the two groups (F=5.701, p=.020). The experimental group had higher maternal-infant attachment scores (F=25.881, pinfant physiological functions such as respiration rate, increasing maternal-infant attachment, and reducing maternal stress. This study suggests that kangaroo care can be used to promote emotional bonding and support between mothers and their babies, and to stabilize the physiological functions of premature babies. Kangaroo care may be one of the most effective nursing interventions in the neonatal intensive care unit for the care of preterm infants and their mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. EFFECT OF KANGAROO MOTHER CARE ON OUTCOME IN PRETERM AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEONATES

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    Chandra Sekhar Kondapalli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to study the effect of kangaroo mother care(KMC on preterm and LBW neonates’ vital parameters like temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate and oxygen saturation, establishment of breastfeeding and weight gain, morbidity and mortality, outcome in intramural and extramural neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hospital-based prospective study, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, 300 newborns shifted to KMC ward. In our study group, female newborns were more than male newborns. Inborn were more than outborn, late preterm more than early preterm and term neonates. A significant increase in axillary temperature, increase in respiratory rate, decrease in heart rate and increase in oxygen saturation was seen in neonates. Higher proportion of neonates achieved transition from predominant expressed breast milk consumption to predominant direct breastfeeding during hospital stay. RESULTS The study showed significantly mean weight gain per day during in hospital KMC of 20 g/kg/day. Mean age when neonates started to gain weight was 8.5 days. Neonates were discharged early as they met our discharge criteria with mean age being 11.6 days. Morbidity of neonates requiring NICU admissions apart from LBW in our study were hyperbilirubinaemia (49.9%, sepsis (19.4%, respiratory illness (7.8% and hypothermia (6.4%. During KMC stay, sepsis and NEC seen in 2 each, apnoea, PDA, jaundice in one each and maternal acceptance of KMC was good. During follow up, it was observed that all neonates were exclusively breastfed and the rate of weight gain (148 g/week was satisfactory with an exception that only 8 requiring hospitalisation and only 1 death due to severe infection. The response of the family and/or the father was supportive. CONCLUSION KMC sustains improvement in LBW neonates’ physiological parameters and accelerates growth pattern. Practice of KMC promote breastfeeding, shorten hospital stay without compromising survival, growth

  20. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Kangaroo Mother Care in Colombia: A Subaltern Health Innovation against For-profit Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto

    2018-01-24

    This ethnographic study presents the origins, growth, and collapse of the first Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) program, a well-established practice for neonatal care created in 1978 in Colombia. The WHO and UNICEF praised this zero-cost revolutionary technique for its promotion of skin-to-skin contact between premature and low-birth-weight newborns and family members. KMC facilitates early hospital discharge, brings many clinical and psychological benefits, and constitutes an excellent alternative to placing babies in incubators. However, these benefits and political potential against biomedical interventions were undermined after being relabeled as a "reverse innovation," a business concept that encourages corporate investments in low-income countries to develop technologies that can both solve global health problems and boost multinational corporations profits. In response, I propose "subaltern health innovations" as a label for KMC that accounts for the power dynamics in global health between health care initiatives that originate in the Global South and neoliberal configurations of for-profit biomedicine. © 2018 by the American Anthropological Association.

  2. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Neonatal Outcomes in Iranian Hospitals: A Review

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    Leila Sarparast

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is a supportive technique that beings at the neonatal period and is one of the skin-to-skin contact methods of holding neonate by mother. This method has an important role in exclusive breastfeeding and thermal care of neonates. This study aimed to investigate the application of KMC and evaluate the effect of this technique in different neonatal outcomes, particularly in Iranian neonates. Moreover, this review can be a tool for formative evaluation for this newly introduced treatment intervention in Iran. Evidence Acquisition: This review was conducted in national and international databases concerning experience with KMC on term and preterm neonates admitted in Iranian hospitals from 2006 to 2014. The measured outcomes included physiologic, psychologic, and clinical effects of this practice on newborn infants. Results: In this study, 42 Persian and English language papers were reviewed and finally 26 articles were selected. Various effects of KMC on different factors such as analgesia; physiological effects, breastfeeding, icterus, length of hospitalization, infection, psychologic effects, and weight gain were found. Conclusions: The results showed that as a simple and suitable strategy for increasing the health status of the mothers and newborns, KMC had an important role in improvement of neonatal outcomes in neonatal wards of Iranian hospitals in recent ten years. Therefore, promoting this technique in all neonatal wards of the country can promote health status of this population.

  3. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW) BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC) TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Purnendu Kumar Singh; Kumar Amritanshu; Bijoy Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW) babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along ...

  4. Kangaroo mother care in resource-limited settings: implementation, health benefits, and cost-effectiveness

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    Uwaezuoke SN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Samuel N Uwaezuoke Department of Pediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku–Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Abstract: Kangaroo mother care (KMC represents an intervention in low birth weight infants for resource-limited settings which aims to reduce mortality rates by thermoregulation, supporting breastfeeding, and promoting early hospital discharge. In terms of cost and impact on neonatal survival, it has comparative advantages over the conventional method of care (CMC. This paper aimed to review the evidence concerning the progress of KMC implementation, its health benefits, and its cost-effectiveness, especially in developing countries. From the synthesized evidence, KMC was shown to be a useful adjunct to CMC particularly with respect to improving neonatal survival, supporting breastfeeding, and promoting early discharge from the hospital. Substantial progress has been made in its implementation in many developing countries where facility-based KMC has been institutionalized. Despite the cost-effectiveness of KMC in neonatal care, its global implementation is bedeviled with country-specific, multifaceted challenges. In developed countries, there is an implementation gap due to easy accessibility to technology-based CMC. Nevertheless, many developing countries have initiated national policies to scale up KMC services in their domain. Given the major constraints to program implementation peculiar to these resource-limited countries, it has become imperative to boost caregiver confidence and experience using dedicated spaces in the hospital, as well as dedicated staff meant for adequate ambulatory follow-up and continuous health education. Capacity training for health professionals and provision of space infrastructure thus constitute the basic needs which could be funded by International Aid Agencies in order to scale up the program in these settings. Keywords: neonatal care, low birth weight infants, thermoregulation, breastfeeding

  5. Maternal mood and concordant maternal and infant salivary cortisol during heel lance while in kangaroo care.

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    Castral, T C; Warnock, F; Dos Santos, C B; Daré, M F; Moreira, A C; Antonini, S R R; Scochi, C G S

    2015-03-01

    Maternal kangaroo care (MKC) is a naturalistic intervention that alleviates neonatal pain, and mothers are assumed to play a stress regulatory role in MKC. Yet, no MKC infant pain study has examined relationship between maternal and infant stress reactivity concurrently, or whether post-partum depression and/or anxiety (PPDA) alters maternal and neonatal stress response and the regulatory effects of MKC. To examine the concordance of salivary cortisol reactivity between 42 mothers and their stable preterm infants during routine infant heel lance (HL) while in MKC and to compare salivary cortisol between groups of mothers with and without PPDA and their infants. Maternal and infant salivary cortisol samples were collected pre-HL and 20 min post-HL with two additional maternal samples at night and in the morning. Mothers and infants were allocated to with PPDA versus without PPDA study groups on the basis of maternal post-natal mental health assessment scores. Higher mothers' cortisol pre-HL was weakly associated with higher infants' salivary cortisol in response to the HL procedure. Maternal depression and/or anxiety were not associated with infants' cortisol. During HL, both groups of mothers and infants showed no change in salivary cortisol. Concordance between mother and infant salivary cortisol supports the maternal stress regulatory role in MKC. MKC may have stress regulatory benefits for mothers and their preterm infants during HL independent of PPDA. Future MKC studies that target mothers with altered mood will help to build on these findings. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  6. Increasing Confidence and Ability in Implementing Kangaroo Mother Care Method Among Young Mothers.

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    Kenanga Purbasary, Eleni; Rustina, Yeni; Budiarti, Tri

    Mothers giving birth to low birth weight babies (LBWBs) have low confidence in caring for their babies because they are often still young and may lack the knowledge, experience, and ability to care for the baby. This research aims to determine the effect of education about kangaroo mother care (KMC) on the confidence and ability of young mothers to implement KMC. The research methodology used was a controlled-random experimental approach with pre- and post-test equivalent groups of 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the intervention group and 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the control group. Data were collected via an instrument measuring young mothers' confidence, the validity and reliability of which have been tested with a resulting r value of .941, and an observation sheet on KMC implementation. After conducting the education, the confidence score of young mothers and their ability to perform KMC increased meaningfully. The score of confidence of young mothers before education was 37 (p = .1555: and the ability score for KMC Implementation before education was 9 (p = .1555). The median score of confidence of young mothers after education in the intervention group was 87 and in the control group was 50 (p = .001, 95% CI 60.36-75.56), and ability median score for KMC implementation after education in the intervention group was 16 and in the control group was 12 (p = .001, 95% CI 1.50-1.88). KMC education should be conducted gradually, and it is necessary to involve the family, in order for KMC implementation to continue at home. A family visit can be done for LBWBs to evaluate the ability of the young mothers to implement KMC.

  7. Kangaroo mother care: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions.

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    Vesel, Linda; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Kerber, Kate J; Valsangkar, Bina; Mazia, Goldy; Moxon, Sarah G; Blencowe, Hannah; Darmstadt, Gary L; de Graft Johnson, Joseph; Dickson, Kim E; Ruiz Peláez, Juan; von Xylander, Severin; Lawn, Joy E

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is now the leading cause of under-five child deaths worldwide with one million direct deaths plus approximately another million where preterm is a risk factor for neonatal deaths due to other causes. There is strong evidence that kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces mortality among babies with birth weight Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale-up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for KMC. Marked differences were found in the perceived severity of health system bottlenecks between Asian and African countries, with the former reporting more significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC with respect to all the health system building blocks. Community ownership and health financing bottlenecks were significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC in both low and high mortality contexts, particularly in South Asia. Significant bottlenecks were also reported for leadership and governance and health workforce building blocks. There are at least a dozen countries worldwide with national KMC programmes, and we identify three pathways to scale: (1) champion-led; (2) project-initiated; and (3) health systems designed. The combination of all three pathways may lead to more rapid scale-up. KMC has the potential to save lives, and change the face of facility-based newborn care, whilst empowering women to care for their preterm newborns.

  8. Comparison of skin-to-skin (kangaroo) and traditional care: parenting outcomes and preterm infant development.

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    Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I; Sirota, Lea; Weller, Aron

    2002-07-01

    To examine whether the kangaroo care (KC) intervention in premature infants affects parent-child interactions and infant development. Seventy-three preterm infants who received KC in the neonatal intensive care unit were matched with 73 control infants who received standard incubator care for birth weight, gestational age (GA), medical severity, and demographics. At 37 weeks' GA, mother-infant interaction, maternal depression, and mother perceptions were examined. At 3 months' corrected age, infant temperament, maternal and paternal sensitivity, and the home environment (with the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment [HOME]) were observed. At 6 months' corrected age, cognitive development was measured with the Bayley-II and mother-infant interaction was filmed. Seven clusters of outcomes were examined at 3 time periods: at 37 weeks' GA, mother-infant interaction and maternal perceptions; at 3-month, HOME mothers, HOME fathers, and infant temperament; at 6 months, cognitive development and mother-infant interaction. After KC, interactions were more positive at 37 weeks' GA: mothers showed more positive affect, touch, and adaptation to infant cues, and infants showed more alertness and less gaze aversion. Mothers reported less depression and perceived infants as less abnormal. At 3 months, mothers and fathers of KC infants were more sensitive and provided a better home environment. At 6 months, KC mothers were more sensitive and infants scored higher on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index (KC: mean: 96.39; controls: mean: 91.81) and the Psychomotor Developmental Index (KC: mean: 85.47; controls: mean: 80.53). KC had a significant positive impact on the infant's perceptual-cognitive and motor development and on the parenting process. We speculate that KC has both a direct impact on infant development by contributing to neurophysiological organization and an indirect effect by improving parental mood, perceptions, and interactive behavior.

  9. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care.

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    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá

    2007-10-01

    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.

  10. Aerobic characteristics of red kangaroo skeletal muscles: is a high aerobic capacity matched by muscle mitochondrial and capillary morphology as in placental mammals?

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    Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N

    2004-07-01

    Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme

  11. A micro case study of the legal and administrative arrangements for river health in the Kangaroo River (NSW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, C; Farrier, D

    2002-01-01

    Kangaroo Valley is a drinking water supply catchment for Kangaroo Valley village, parts of the Southern Highlands and Sydney. It is also a popular recreation area both for swimming and canoeing. Land use has traditionally been dominated by dairy farming but there has been significant and continuing development of land for hobby farms and rural residential subdivision. Dairy industry restructuring has affected the viability of some farms in the Valley and created additional pressure for subdivision. River health is a function of flows, water quality, riparian vegetation, geomorphology and aquatic habitat and riverine biota. River flows in the Kangaroo River are affected by water extraction and storage for urban water supply and extraction by commercial irrigators and riparian land holders which have a significant impact at low flows. Current water quality often does not meet ANZECC Guidelines for primary contact and recreation and the river is a poor source of raw drinking water. Key sources of contaminants are wastewater runoff from agriculture, and poorly performing on-site sewage management systems. Riparian vegetation, which is critical to the maintenance of in-stream ecosystems suffers from uncontrolled stock access and weed infestation. The management of land use and resulting diffuse pollution sources is critical to the long term health of the river. The Healthy Rivers Commission of New South Wales Independent Inquiry into the Shoalhaven River System Final Report July, 1999 found that the longer term protection of the health of the Kangaroo River is contingent upon achievement of patterns of land use that have regard to land capability and also to the capability of the river to withstand the impacts of inappropriate or poorly managed land uses. This micro case study of Kangaroo Valley examines the complex legal and administrative arrangements with particular reference to the management of diffuse pollution for river health. In the past, diffuse pollution has

  12. Kangaroo supported diagonal flexion positioning: New insights into skin-to-skin contact for communication between mothers and very preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil, A; Carchon, I; Apter, G; Laborne, F X; Granier, M; Devouche, E

    2016-09-01

    Skin-to-skin contact shows benefits in the relationship developed between a mother and her premature infant. In the skin-to-skin session, face-to-face exchanges are impossible in vertical infant positioning. We therefore undertook an observational, prospective, single-center study using kangaroo "supported diagonal flexion" (SDF) positioning. The first aim was to evaluate the safety of kangaroo SDF positioning compared to the usual vertical positioning. The second aim was to evaluate SDF positioning on early communication between the mother and her infant and to improve their well-being. Fifteen mothers and their very premature infants (birth 26communication with their infant were assessed through questionnaires. In terms of the infant's physiology, no negative effects were associated with SDF positioning in comparison with the usual vertical positioning. SDF positioning led to fewer disorganized gestures, negative vocalizations, and drowsiness, in favor of more deep sleep. SDF led to more mother-infant eye-to-eye contact as well as maternal vocalizations, smiles, and caressing, although these differences did not reach significance. The score for the risk of postnatal depression decreased significantly between the first and the last session in the SDF group, whereas it did not change in the vertical positioning group. These results support the idea that the kangaroo SDF positioning technique is physiologically safe, has obvious immediate benefits on mothers' infant-directed communicative behaviors, and respects the baby's naturally flexed and asymmetrical tonic neck posture. It is an innovative, inexpensive, easy-to-use technique in daily practice, by all healthcare professionals working in a neonatal intensive care unit. These data suggest that the current kangaroo positioning technique could be improved. More studies are needed to confirm the benefits and safety of the kangaroo SDF positioning in larger groups of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson

  13. Starting the conversation: community perspectives on preterm birth and kangaroo mother care in southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Megan; Longwe, Monica; Likomwa, Dyson; Lwesha, Victoria; Chimtembo, Lydia; Donohue, Pamela; Guenther, Tanya; Valsangar, Bina

    2018-06-01

    Despite introduction of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in Malawi over a decade ago, preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Although KMC is initiated in the health care facility, robust community follow-up is critical for survival and optimal development of preterm and low birth weight infants post-discharge. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into community and health worker understanding, attitudes, beliefs and practices around preterm and low birth weight babies and KMC in Malawi. A total of 152 participants were interviewed in two districts in southern Malawi, Machinga and Thyolo, in April 2015. Focus group discussions (groups = 11, n = 132) were conducted with pregnant women, community members and women who have practiced KMC. In-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted with fathers who have practiced KMC, community and religious leaders, and health workers. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to identify participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted. KMC mothers and fathers only learned about KMC and care for preterm newborns after delivery of a child in need of this care. Men typically were not included in KMC counseling due to societal gender roles. Health facilities were the main source of information on KMC, however informal networks among women provided some degree of knowledge exchange. Community leaders were regarded as major facilitators of health information, conveners, key influencers, and policy-makers. Religious leaders were regarded as advocates and emotional support for families with preterm infants. Finally, while many participants initially had negative feelings towards preterm births and KMC, the large majority saw a shift in their perceptions through health counseling, peer modeling, and personal success with KMC. The findings offer several opportunities to improve KMC implementation including 1) earlier introduction of KMC to pregnant women and their families that are

  14. Translating research findings into practice – the implementation of kangaroo mother care in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Anne-Marie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC is a safe and effective method of caring for low birth weight infants and is promoted for its potential to improve newborn survival. Many countries find it difficult to take KMC to scale in healthcare facilities providing newborn care. KMC Ghana was an initiative to scale up KMC in four regions in Ghana. Research findings from two outreach trials in South Africa informed the design of the initiative. Two key points of departure were to equip healthcare facilities that conduct deliveries with the necessary skills for KMC practice and to single out KMC for special attention instead of embedding it in other newborn care initiatives. This paper describes the contextualisation and practical application of previous research findings and the results of monitoring the progress of the implementation of KMC in Ghana. Methods A three-phase outreach intervention was adapted from previous research findings to suit the local setting. A more structured system of KMC regional steering committees was introduced to drive the process and take the initiative forward. During Phase I, health workers in regions and districts were oriented in KMC and received basic support for the management of the outreach. Phase II entailed the strengthening of the regional steering committees. Phase III comprised a more formal assessment, utilising a previously validated KMC progress-monitoring instrument. Results Twenty-six out of 38 hospitals (68 % scored over 10 out of 30 and had reached the level of ‘evidence of practice’ by the end of Phase III. Seven hospitals exceeded expected performance by scoring at the level of ‘evidence of routine and institutionalised practice.’ The collective mean score for all participating hospitals was 12.07. Hospitals that had attained baby-friendly status or had been re-accredited in the five years before the intervention scored significantly better than the rest, with a mean score of 14

  15. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC TECHNIQUE

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    Purnendu Kumar Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along with exclusive breast milk. Upon implementation of KMC babies under observation showed satisfactory gain in weight of average 25grams per day and an average hospital stay of 10 days. KMC aims towards achieving good weight gain in LBW babies. It is a simple hassle free technique which can be implemented at all levels of health care.

  16. [Effects of Kangaroo Care on anxiety, maternal role confidence, and maternal infant attachment of mothers who delivered preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Bok; Shin, Hye Sook

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Kangaroo Care(KC) on anxiety, maternal role confidence, and maternal infant attachment of mothers who delivered preterm infants. The research design was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest. Data was collected from September 1. 2006 to June 20. 2007. The participants were 22 mothers in the experimental group and 21 in the control group. KC was applied three times per day, for a total of ten times in 4 days to the experimental group. The degree of anxiety was statistically significantly different between the two groups but maternal role confidence and maternal infant attachment was statistically insignificant. This data suggests that KC was effective for mothers anxiety relief but it was not effective for maternal role confidence and maternal infant attachment of mothers. The implications for nursing practice and directions for future research need to be discussed.

  17. Characterization of a mutant rat kangaroo cell line with alterations in the cell cycle and DNA repair

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    Miyaji E.N.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a positive selection system for isolating DNA replication and repair related mutants, we isolated a clone from a rat kangaroo cell line (PtK2 that has increased sensitivity to UV light. Characterization of this clone indicated normal post-replication repair after UV irradiation, and normal removal rates of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4pyrimidone photoproducts by excision repair. However, this cell line has decreased ability to make early incisions on damaged DNA, possibly indicating a defect in preferential repair of actively transcribed genes, and a slower cell proliferation rate, including a longer S-phase. This phenotype reinforces the present notion that control of key mechanisms in cell metabolism, such as cell cycle control, repair, transcription and cell death, can be linked.

  18. Chromosome evolution in kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodidae): cross species chromosome painting between the tammar wallaby and rock wallaby spp. with the 2n = 22 ancestral macropodid karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, R J; Eldridge, M D; Toder, R; Ferguson-Smith, M A; O'Brien, P C; Graves, J A

    1999-06-01

    Marsupial mammals show extraordinary karyotype stability, with 2n = 14 considered ancestral. However, macropodid marsupials (kangaroos and wallabies) exhibit a considerable variety of karyotypes, with a hypothesised ancestral karyotype of 2n = 22. Speciation and karyotypic diversity in rock wallabies (Petrogale) is exceptional. We used cross species chromosome painting to examine the chromosome evolution between the tammar wallaby (2n = 16) and three 2n = 22 rock wallaby species groups with the putative ancestral karyotype. Hybridization of chromosome paints prepared from flow sorted chromosomes of the tammar wallaby to Petrogale spp., showed that this ancestral karyotype is largely conserved among 2n = 22 rock wallaby species, and confirmed the identity of ancestral chromosomes which fused to produce the bi-armed chromosomes of the 2n = 16 tammar wallaby. These results illustrate the fission-fusion process of karyotype evolution characteristic of the kangaroo group.

  19. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  20. Microstructural and compositional features of the fibrous and hyaline cartilage on the medial tibial plateau imply a unique role for the hopping locomotion of kangaroo.

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    Bo He

    Full Text Available Hopping provides efficient and energy saving locomotion for kangaroos, but it results in great forces in the knee joints. A previous study has suggested that a unique fibrous cartilage in the central region of the tibial cartilage could serve to decrease the peak stresses generated within kangaroo tibiofemoral joints. However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined. The present study showed that the fibrous cartilage was thicker and had a lower chondrocyte density than the hyaline cartilage. Despite having a higher PG content in the middle and deep zones, the fibrous cartilage had an inferior compressive strength compared to the peripheral hyaline cartilage. The fibrous cartilage had a complex three dimensional collagen meshwork with collagen bundles parallel to the surface in the superficial zone, and with collagen bundles both parallel and perpendicular to the surface in the middle and deep zones. The collagen in the hyaline cartilage displayed a typical Benninghoff structure, with collagen fibres parallel to the surface in the superficial zone and collagen fibres perpendicular to the surface in the deep zone. Elastin fibres were found throughout the entire tissue depth of the fibrous cartilage and displayed a similar alignment to the adjacent collagen bundles. In comparison, the elastin fibres in the hyaline cartilage were confined within the superficial zone. This study examined for the first time the fibrillary structure, PG content and compressive properties of the central fibrous cartilage pad and peripheral hyaline cartilage within the kangaroo medial tibial plateau. It provided insights into the microstructure and composition of the fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage in relation to the unique mechanical properties of the tissues to provide for the normal activities of kangaroos.

  1. Microstructural and compositional features of the fibrous and hyaline cartilage on the medial tibial plateau imply a unique role for the hopping locomotion of kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Wu, Jian Ping; Xu, Jiake; Day, Robert E; Kirk, Thomas Brett

    2013-01-01

    Hopping provides efficient and energy saving locomotion for kangaroos, but it results in great forces in the knee joints. A previous study has suggested that a unique fibrous cartilage in the central region of the tibial cartilage could serve to decrease the peak stresses generated within kangaroo tibiofemoral joints. However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined. The present study showed that the fibrous cartilage was thicker and had a lower chondrocyte density than the hyaline cartilage. Despite having a higher PG content in the middle and deep zones, the fibrous cartilage had an inferior compressive strength compared to the peripheral hyaline cartilage. The fibrous cartilage had a complex three dimensional collagen meshwork with collagen bundles parallel to the surface in the superficial zone, and with collagen bundles both parallel and perpendicular to the surface in the middle and deep zones. The collagen in the hyaline cartilage displayed a typical Benninghoff structure, with collagen fibres parallel to the surface in the superficial zone and collagen fibres perpendicular to the surface in the deep zone. Elastin fibres were found throughout the entire tissue depth of the fibrous cartilage and displayed a similar alignment to the adjacent collagen bundles. In comparison, the elastin fibres in the hyaline cartilage were confined within the superficial zone. This study examined for the first time the fibrillary structure, PG content and compressive properties of the central fibrous cartilage pad and peripheral hyaline cartilage within the kangaroo medial tibial plateau. It provided insights into the microstructure and composition of the fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage in relation to the unique mechanical properties of the tissues to provide for the normal activities of kangaroos.

  2. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

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    van Rooyen Elise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach

  3. Kangaroo care and behavioral and physiologic pain responses in very-low-birth-weight twins: a case study.

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    Cong, Xiaomei; Cusson, Regina M; Hussain, Naveed; Zhang, Di; Kelly, Sharon P

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this case study was to describe pain responses in three study conditions: longer (30 minutes) kangaroo care (KC) before and throughout heel stick (KC30), shorter (15 minutes) KC before and throughout heel stick (KC15), and incubator care throughout heel stick (IC) in 28-week gestational age twins. Pain responses were measured by crying time, Preterm Infant Pain Profile (PIPP), and heart rate variability indexes, including low-frequency power (LF, representing sympathetic activity), high-frequency power (HF, parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF ratio (sympathetic-parasympathetic balance). Both twins cried more and had higher PIPP pain scores and tachycardia during heel stick in the IC condition. Infant B had an incident of apnea and tachycardia by the end of the heel stick and a bradycardia episode during recovery in the IC condition. The twins had lower LF/HF ratios (better autonomic nervous system balance) during recovery in both longer and shorter KC conditions compared with the IC condition. Infant B had difficulty returning to LF/HF ratio baseline level after the painful procedure in the IC condition. These data suggest that both longer and shorter KC before and throughout painful procedures can be helpful in reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses in preterm infants. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lysine and glutamate transport in the erythrocytes of common brushtail possum, Tammar Wallaby and eastern grey, kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, E; Kuchel, P W; Agar, N S

    1998-04-01

    It was recently coincidentally discovered, using 1H NMR spectroscopy, that the erythrocytes of two species of Australian marsupials, Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and Bettong (Bettongia penicillata), contain relatively high concentrations of the essential amino acid lysine (Agar NS, Rae CD, Chapman BE, Kuchel PW. Comp Biochem Physiol 1991;99B:575-97). Hence, in the present work the rates of transport of lysine into the erythrocytes from the Common Brushtail Possum (Dactylopsilia trivirgata) and Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) (which both have low lysine concentrations), and Tammar Wallaby were studied, to explore the mechanistic basis of this finding. The concentration-dependence of the uptake was studied with lysine alone and in the presence of arginine, which may be a competitor of the transport in some species. In relation to GSH metabolism, glutamate uptake was determined in the presence and absence of Na+. The data was analysed to yield estimates of the maximal velocity (Vmax) and the Km in each of the species. Erythrocytes from Tammar Wallaby lacked saturable lysine transport in contrast to the other two species. The glutamate uptake was normal in all three animals for adequate GSH biosynthesis.

  5. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus and a Patagonian mara (Dolichotis patagonum in captivity

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    Nataly Díaz-Ayala

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxoplasmosis is an infectious, zoonotic and parasitic disease, caused by Toxoplasma gondii. In this manucript, two cases of infection with T. gondii in captive animals from a zoological park in the central region of Chile are described. One case was a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus, which is highly susceptible to the infection, and the other was a Patagonian mara (Dolichotis patagonum, a rodent in which there is no previous report of the infection. Both animals had myocarditis, with the presence of intralesional tachizoites and cysts suggestive of infection with T. gondii. This infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in both animals. The origin of the infection is unknown, but it is likely that free ranging domestic felines were associated with the dissemination of the parasites. This highlights the importance of controlling the domestic animal populations in zoological parks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that T. gondii infection is described in a Patagonian mara, adding a new host for this infectious agent.

  6. Evalvacija šolskega matematičnega tekmovanja Kenguru = Evaluation of the Kangaroo School Mathematical Competition

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    Barbara Komel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Each year Slovene students of secondary vocational schools, among them also the Construction and Service School in Kranj (Economics and Service Educational Centre Kranj, compete in knowledge in the Kangaroo International Mathematical Competition . We decided to evaluate two points of view of the competition, namely processional in the sense of extra-curricular activities, i.e. preparation for the competition, and interpersonal in the sense of deepening the relations between teachers and students. One of the main aims of our evaluation, besides deepening the relations, was to motivate and prepare as many students as possible for the competition. While carrying out the project, there was a growing conviction that the process of evaluation is more important than its results, because it has united and brought closer all the participants, students as well as teacher-mentors. An extremely positive consequence of evaluation is the fact that the understanding of the competition itself has improved and it has also boosted its own efficiency. School climate has become friendlier, while the project group of mathematicians gained new guidelines for further work.

  7. A new species of the basal "kangaroo" Balbaroo and a re-evaluation of stem macropodiform interrelationships.

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    Karen H Black

    Full Text Available Exceptionally well-preserved skulls and postcranial elements of a new species of the plesiomorphic stem macropodiform Balbaroo have been recovered from middle Miocene freshwater limestone deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area of northwestern Queensland, Australia. This constitutes the richest intraspecific sample for any currently known basal "kangaroo", and, along with additional material referred to Balbaroo fangaroo, provides new insights into structural variability within the most prolific archaic macropodiform clade--Balbaridae. Qualitative and metric evaluations of taxonomic boundaries demonstrate that the previously distinct species Nambaroo bullockensis is a junior synonym of B. camfieldensis. Furthermore, coupled Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal that our new Balbaroo remains represent the most derived member of the Balbaroo lineage, and are closely related to the middle Miocene B. camfieldensis, which like most named balbarid species is identifiable only from isolated jaws. The postcranial elements of Balbaroo concur with earlier finds of the stratigraphically oldest balbarid skeleton, Nambaroo gillespieae, and suggest that quadrupedal progression was a primary gait mode as opposed to bipedal saltation. All Balbaroo spp. have low-crowned bilophodont molars, which are typical for browsing herbivores inhabiting the densely forested environments envisaged for middle Miocene northeastern Australia.

  8. Secretion of whey acidic protein and cystatin is down regulated at mid-lactation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of ??-lactalbumin, ??-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  9. Health care professionals' perspectives on the requirements facilitating the roll-out of kangaroo mother care in South Africa

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    Wilma ten Ham

    2016-10-01

    Purpose of the research: To explore and describe the perspectives of health professionals on the requirements for the rolling-out process of KMC as a best practice in South Africa. Methodology: Twelve semi-structured individual interviews were conducted in 2012 with health professionals from various South African healthcare levels, involved in the implementation and the rolling-out process of kangaroo mother care. Content analysis were guided in terms of the four requirements for roll-out of best practices, identified in Edwards and Grinspun's Evidence Informed Model of Care. Results: The requirements for the successful rollout of best practices mentioned by the participants in this study concur with the requirements of Edwards and Grinspun: personal alignment and protocol/policy alignment with the best practice; a roll-out plan; leadership; and supporting and reinforcing structures such as: resources, communicating, education and development regarding the best practice, and the organisational structure. The requirements were identified at four different levels: individual level (e.g. the nurse and medical specialists, management level (of the hospital, provincial level and national level.

  10. The high aerobic capacity of a small, marsupial rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) is matched by the mitochondrial and capillary morphology of its skeletal muscles.

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    Webster, Koa N; Dawson, Terence J

    2012-09-15

    We examined the structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacities of marsupial mammals that hop. Marsupials have relatively low basal metabolic rates (BMR) and historically were seen as 'low energy' mammals. However, the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus (family Macropodidae), has aerobic capacities equivalent to athletic placentals. It has an extreme aerobic scope (fAS) and its large locomotor muscles feature high mitochondrial and capillary volumes. M. rufus belongs to a modern group of kangaroos and its high fAS is not general for marsupials. However, other hopping marsupials may have elevated aerobic capacities. Bettongia penicillata, a rat-kangaroo (family Potoroidae), is a small (1 kg), active hopper whose fAS is somewhat elevated. We examined the oxygen delivery system in its muscles to ascertain links with hopping. An elevated fAS of 23 provided a relatively high maximal aerobic oxygen consumption ( ) in B. penicillata; associated with this is a skeletal muscle mass of 44% of body mass. Ten muscles were sampled to estimate the total mitochondrial and capillary volume of the locomotor muscles. Values in B. penicillata were similar to those in M. rufus and in athletic placentals. This small hopper had high muscle mitochondrial volume densities (7.1-11.9%) and both a large total capillary volume (6 ml kg(-1) body mass) and total capillary erythrocyte volume (3.2 ml kg(-1)). Apparently, a considerable aerobic capacity is required to achieve the benefits of the extended stride in fast hopping. Of note, the ratio of to total muscle mitochondrial volume in B. penicillata was 4.9 ml O(2) min(-1) ml(-1). Similar values occur in M. rufus and also placental mammals generally, not only athletic species. If such relationships occur in other marsupials, a fundamental structure-function relationship for oxygen delivery to muscles likely originated with or before the earliest mammals.

  11. Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh: Implications for the adaptation of kangaroo mother care for community-based interventions.

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    Hunter, Erin C; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Shah, Rashed; Farzin, Azadeh; Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Akhter, Sadika; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2014-12-01

    Bangladesh has one of the world's highest rates of low birth weight along with prevalent traditional care practices that leave newborns highly vulnerable to hypothermia, infection, and early death. We conducted formative research to explore existing newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh with an emphasis on thermal protection, and to identify potential facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for the community level delivery of kangaroo mother care (CKMC). Forty in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions were conducted between September and December 2012. Participants included pregnant women and mothers, husbands, maternal and paternal grandmothers, traditional birth attendants, village doctors, traditional healers, pharmacy men, religious leaders, community leaders, and formal healthcare providers. Audio recordings were transcribed and translated into English, and the textual data were analyzed using the Framework Approach. We find that harmful newborn care practices, such as delayed wrapping and early initiation of bathing, are changing as more biomedical advice from formal healthcare providers is reaching the community through word-of-mouth and television campaigns. While the goal of CKMC was relatively easily understood and accepted by many of the participants, logistical and to a lesser extent ideological barriers exist that may keep the practice from being adopted easily. Women feel a sense of inevitable responsibility for household duties despite the desire to provide the best care for their new babies. Our findings showed that participants appreciated CKMC as an appropriate treatment method for ill babies, but were less accepting of it as a protective method of caring for seemingly healthy newborns during the first few days of life. Participants highlighted the necessity of receiving help from family members and witnessing other women performing CKMC with positive outcomes if they are to adopt the behavior themselves. Focusing intervention

  12. A retrospective study of Babesia macropus associated with morbidity and mortality in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis

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    Shannon L. Donahoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 38 cases of infection by Babesia macropus, associated with a syndrome of anaemia and debility in hand-reared or free-ranging juvenile eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from coastal New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland between 1995 and 2013. Infection with B. macropus is recorded for the first time in agile wallabies (Macropus agilis from far north Queensland. Animals in which B. macropus infection was considered to be the primary cause of morbidity had marked anaemia, lethargy and neurological signs, and often died. In these cases, parasitised erythrocytes were few or undetectable in peripheral blood samples but were sequestered in large numbers within small vessels of visceral organs, particularly in the kidney and brain, associated with distinctive clusters of extraerythrocytic organisms. Initial identification of this piroplasm in peripheral blood smears and in tissue impression smears and histological sections was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and molecular analysis. Samples of kidney, brain or blood were tested using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA and heat shock protein 70 gene using primers specific for piroplasms. The piroplasm detected in these samples had 100% sequence identity in the 18S rRNA region with the recently described Babesia macropus in two eastern grey kangaroos from New South Wales and Queensland, and a high degree of similarity to an unnamed Babesia sp. recently detected in three woylies (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi in Western Australia.

  13. Kangaroo mother care for clinically unstable neonates weighing ≤2000 g: Is it feasible at a hospital in Uganda?

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    Morgan, Melissa C; Nambuya, Harriet; Waiswa, Peter; Tann, Cally; Elbourne, Diana; Seeley, Janet; Allen, Elizabeth; Lawn, Joy E

    2018-06-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) for stable neonates ≤2000 g (g) is associated with decreased mortality, sepsis, hypothermia, and length of stay compared to conventional care. The World Health Organization states that KMC "should be initiated… as soon as newborns are clinically stable " [12]. However, the majority of deaths occur in unstable neonates. We aimed to determine the proportion of admitted neonates meeting proposed instability criteria, assess the feasibility of providing KMC to unstable neonates, and evaluate the acceptability of this intervention to parents and providers at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. This was a mixed-methods study. We recorded data including birthweight, chronological age, and treatments administered from medical charts, and calculated the percentage of clinically unstable neonates, defined as the need for ≥2 medical therapies in the first 48 hours of admission. We enrolled a sample of neonates meeting pre-defined instability criteria. Mothers were counselled to provide KMC as close to continuously as possible. We calculated the median duration of KMC per episode and per day. To explore acceptability, we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents and newborn unit care providers, and analysed data using the thematic content approach. We included 254 neonates in the audit, 10 neonates in the feasibility sub-study, and 20 participants in the acceptability sub-study. Instability criteria were easily implementable, identifying 89% of neonates as unstable in the audit. The median duration of individual KMC episodes ranged from 115 to 134 minutes. The median daily duration ranged from 4.5 to 9.7 hours. Seventy-five percent of interviewees felt KMC could be used in neonates concurrently receiving other medical therapies. Barriers included lack of resources (beds/space, monitoring devices), privacy issues, inadequate education, and difficulties motivating mothers to devote time to KMC. Recommendations included staff

  14. The three waves in implementation of facility-based kangaroo mother care: a multi-country case study from Asia.

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    Bergh, Anne-Marie; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Khadka, Neena; Om'Iniabohs, Alyssa; Udani, Rekha; Pratomo, Hadi; De Leon-Mendoza, Socorro

    2016-01-27

    Kangaroo mother care has been highlighted as an effective intervention package to address high neonatal mortality pertaining to preterm births and low birth weight. However, KMC uptake and service coverage have not progressed well in many countries. The aim of this case study was to understand the institutionalisation processes of facility-based KMC services in three Asian countries (India, Indonesia and the Philippines) and the reasons for the slow uptake of KMC in these countries. Three main data sources were available: background documents providing insight in the state of implementation of KMC in the three countries; visits to a selection of health facilities to gauge their progress with KMC implementation; and data from interviews and meetings with key stakeholders. The establishment of KMC services at individual facilities began many years before official prioritisation for scale-up. Three major themes were identified: pioneers of facility-based KMC; patterns of KMC knowledge and skills dissemination; and uptake and expansion of KMC services in relation to global trends and national policies. Pioneers of facility-based KMC were introduced to the concept in the 1990s and established the practice in a few individual tertiary or teaching hospitals, without further spread. A training method beneficial to the initial establishment of KMC services in a country was to send institutional health-professional teams to learn abroad, notably in Colombia. Further in-country cascading took place afterwards and still later on KMC was integrated into newborn and obstetric care programs. The patchy uptake and expansion of KMC services took place in three phases aligned with global trends of the time: the pioneer phase with individual champions while the global focus was on child survival (1998-2006); the newborn-care phase (2007-2012); and lastly the current phase where small babies are also included in action plans. This paper illustrates the complexities of implementing a

  15. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and identification of the first CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A70 from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Height, Tamara A; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2012-09-15

    Australian marsupials are unique fauna that have evolved and adapted to unique environments and thus it is likely that their detoxification systems differ considerably from those of well-studied eutherian mammals. Knowledge of these processes in marsupials is therefore vital to understanding the consequences of exposure to xenobiotics. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of both xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. In this study we have cloned and characterized CYP3A70, the first identified member of the CYP3A gene subfamily from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). A 1665 base pair kangaroo hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A70, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches, which encodes a protein of 506 amino acids. The CYP3A70 cDNA shares approximately 71% nucleotide and 65% amino acid sequence homology to human CYP3A4 and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Transfection of the CYP3A70 cDNAs into 293T cells resulted in stable cell lines expressing a CYP3A immuno-reactive protein that was recognized by a goat anti-human CYP3A4 polyclonal antibody. The anti-human CYP3A4 antibody also detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wallaby, and wombat, with multiple CYP3A immunoreactive bands observed in kangaroo and wallaby tissues. Relatively, very low CYP catalytic activity was detected for the kangaroo CYP3A70 cDNA-expressed proteins (19.6 relative luminescent units/μg protein), which may be due to low protein expression levels. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding the Eastern kangaroo hepatic CYP3A70 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP3A enzymes in marsupials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in soil and kangaroo rat liver samples near an oil well blowout site in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, S.T.; Lee, R.P.; Warrick, G.

    1996-01-01

    Following an accidental oil well blow out at an oil field in the western part of the San Joaquin Valley, soil samples and specimens of Heermann's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) were collected from two oil-impacted areas and one control area. Fingerprinting by GC-MS and quantitative evaluation of metabolized petroleum hydrocarbons was performed on oil, soil extracts, and rat livers. A liver from a domestically raised rabbit was used as an experimental control. The results show that there is no significant incorporation of PAHs or low molecular weight n-alkanes (C 13 --C 25 ) into the liver tissues. The C 25 --C 35 n-alkane range for all soil samples, kangaroo rat livers, and rabbit liver, is dominated by a high abundance of C 27 , C 29 , C 31 , and C 33 hydrocarbons typical of epicuticular plant waxes. In all liver tissue samples, squalene, the cholesterol precursor, is the dominant hydrocarbon. Although evidence is lacking for metabolism of PAHs and paraffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, very strong evidence is available for incorporation of a set of polycyclic hydrocarbons (biomarkers) belonging to the terpane, sterane, and monoaromatic and triaromatic sterane families, identified by ion monitoring at 191, 217, 253, and 231 m/z, respectively. Because these hydrocarbons are not known to exist in the biosphere, but are only synthesized during oil- and coal-forming processes, their presence in the liver samples constitutes proof for crude oil incorporation into tissues. This conclusion is further substantiated by the selective incorporation of only the 20S enantiomer of C 28 and C 29 steranes and aromatic steranes into the livers, with the exclusion of the 20R enantiomer. The results from the study conclusively demonstrate that polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers provide excellent indices for proof of petroleum exposure and metabolism in some terrestrial herbivores

  17. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride.

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    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species.

  18. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATION OF KANGAROO MOTHER CARE METHOD AND LULLABY MUSIC THERAPY ON VITAL SIGN CHANGE IN INFANTS WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

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    Nuuva Yusuf

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC and lullaby music methods have been considered as the alternative treatment for vital sign changes in low birth weight infants. However, little is known about the combination of the two methods. Objective: To identify effectiveness of combinations of Kangaroo mother care and Lullaby music methods on changes in vital signs in low birth weight infants. Methods: A quasi experiment with non-equivalent control group design. This study was conducted on October– December 2016 at the General Hospital of Ambarawa and General Hospital of Ungaran, Semarang. There were 36 samples selected using consecutive sampling divided into three groups, namely: 1 a group of LBW infants with the combination of KMC and lullaby music, 2 a LBW infant group with the lullaby music intervention, and 3 a control group given standard care in LBW infants by KMC method. Paired t-test and MANOVA test were used to analyzed the data. Results: Findings revealed that there were significant differences between the combination group, lullaby music group, and control group in temperature (p=0.003, pulse (p=0.001, respiration (p=0.001, and oxygen saturation (p=0.014 with significant value of <0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in vital sign changes among the three groups. Conclusion: The combination of KMC method and Lullaby music intervention was effective on vital sign changes (temperature, pulse, respiration, and oxygen saturation compared with the lullaby music group alone and control group with KMC method in low birth weight infants. It is suggested that the combination of KMC and Lullaby music methods can be used as an alternative to improve LBW care for mothers in the NICU and at home and to reach the stability of the baby's vital signs.

  19. Developmental and Post-Eruptive Defects in Molar Enamel of Free-Ranging Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Levels of Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Witzel, Carsten; Kierdorf, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Dental fluorosis has recently been diagnosed in wild marsupials inhabiting a high-fluoride area in Victoria, Australia. Information on the histopathology of fluorotic marsupial enamel has thus far not been available. This study analyzed the developmental and post-eruptive defects in fluorotic molar enamel of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from the same high-fluoride area using light microscopy and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The fluorotic enamel exhibited a brownish to blackish discolouration due to post-eruptive infiltration of stains from the oral cavity and was less resistant to wear than normally mineralized enamel of kangaroos from low-fluoride areas. Developmental defects of enamel included enamel hypoplasia and a pronounced hypomineralization of the outer (sub-surface) enamel underneath a thin rim of well-mineralized surface enamel. While the hypoplastic defects denote a disturbance of ameloblast function during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, the hypomineralization is attributed to an impairment of enamel maturation. In addition to hypoplastic defects, the fluorotic molars also exhibited numerous post-eruptive enamel defects due to the flaking-off of portions of the outer, hypomineralized enamel layer during mastication. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions in fluorotic enamel of M. giganteus match those previously described for placental mammals. It is therefore concluded that there exist no principal differences in the pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis between marsupial and placental mammals. The regular occurrence of hypomineralized, opaque outer enamel in the teeth of M. giganteus and other macropodids must be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis in these species. PMID:26895178

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial on Effect of Intermittent Early Versus Late Kangaroo Mother Care on Human Milk Feeding in Low-Birth-Weight Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Dhaarani; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Bhalla, Anil Kumar; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir Kaur

    2017-08-01

    Breastfeeding at discharge among sick low-birth-weight (LBW) infants is low despite counseling and intervention like kangaroo mother care (KMC). Research aim: The aim was to study the effects of early initiation of KMC on exclusive human milk feeding, growth, mortality, and morbidities in LBW neonates compared with late initiation of KMC during the hospital stay and postdischarge. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in level 2 and 3 areas of a tertiary care neonatal unit over 15 months. Inborn neonates weighing 1 to 1.8 kg and hemodynamically stable were randomized to receive either early KMC, initiated within the first 4 days of life, or late KMC (off respiratory support and intravenous fluids). Follow-up was until 1 month postdischarge. Outcomes were proportion of infants achieving exclusive human milk feeding and direct breastfeeding, growth, mortality and morbidities during hospital stay, and postdischarge feeding and KMC practices until 1 month. The early KMC group ( n = 80) achieved significantly higher exclusive human milk feeding (86% vs. 45%, p milk feeding (73% vs. 36%, p milk feeding and direct breastfeeding in LBW infants.

  1. [The kangaroo mothers' programme: a simple and cost-effective alternative for protecting the premature newborn or low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarazo-Medina, Jenny P; Ospina-Diaz, Juan M; Ariza-Riaño, Nelly E

    2012-06-01

    Describing the efficacy and achievements of the kangaroo mothers' programme (KMP) regarding preterm or low-birth-weight babies' health and development in Hospital San Rafael in Tunja from November 2007 to December 2009. This was a retrospective observational cohort study; 374 infants born prematurely or having low-birth-weight were included to assess household socio-demographic factors, maternal and obstetric history, delivery characteristics and complications and follow-up until 40 weeks post-conception age. There was a high prevalence of teenage pregnancy (17.5 %) and in women older than 35 years (12.6 %), unwanted pregnancy (40.6 %), low quality and poor availability of food in families, complications such as preeclampsia, infection and premature rupture of membranes, 1,969 grams average birth weight, 2,742.9 grams average weight on discharge and 22 grams average weight gain per day. It was found that KMP methodology substantially improved the mothers' psychological aspects and health status and the newborns' prognosis and led to stabilising body temperature and weight gain rate while decreasing risks of complications and nosocomial infection. It also lowered health care costs and shortened hospital stay.

  2. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

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    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  3. The impact of the method Kangaroo Mother Care in the learning process of low-birth-weight preterm infants: A literature review

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    Mariana de Paiva Franco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology advances and scientific studies in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU have contributed significantly to reduce mortality and morbidity of at-risk newborns (NB. However, they are more likely to present neurological and/or developmental psychomotor delay with neurological and sensory alterations. Therefore, proposals for neonatal intervention were developed with the aim of protecting the baby and offering appropriate incentives to minimize the effects of hospital intervention. To this end, programs of protective measures such as the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC were developed. Given the relevance of the issue described, this systematic review critically appraises articles from the national and international literature, published in recent years (from 2000 to 2011, that describe whether the KMC can be a protective factor for the development of writing in premature infants. The textual search was conducted using the Virtual Health Library (VHL, a website that covers publications worldwide, allowing access to articles from health science, including LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and SciELO, as database. The findings revealed that infants who participated in the KMC program showed improvements in their development and that factors such as low-birth-weight prematurity and learning disorders have close relationship with the onset of motor impairments and changes in psychomotor development. The findings showed no articles describing the KMC as a protective factor for the incidence of dysgraphia. Thus, we emphasize the importance of conducting further studies on these topics.

  4. Kangaroo mother method: randomised controlled trial of an alternative method of care for stabilised low-birthweight infants. Maternidad Isidro Ayora Study Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, N L; Camacho, L W; Rojas, E P; Stern, C

    1994-09-17

    Because resources for care of low-birthweight (LBW) infants in developing countries are scarce, the Kangaroo mother method (KMM) was developed. The infant is kept upright in skin-to-skin contact with the mother's breast. Previous studies reported several benefits with the KMM but interpretation of their findings is limited by small size and design weaknesses. We have done a longitudinal, randomised, controlled trial at the Isidro Ayora Maternity Hospital in Quito, Ecuador. Infants with LBW (groups (n = 128 and 147, respectively). During 6 months of follow-up the KMM group had a significantly lower rate than the control group of serious illness (lower-respiratory-tract disorders, apnoea, aspiration, pneumonia, septicaemia, general infections; 7 [5%] vs 27 [18%], p groups in less severe morbidity were not significant. There was no significant difference in growth or in the proportion of women breastfeeding, perhaps because the proportion breastfeeding was high in both groups owing to strong promotion. Mortality was the same in both groups; most deaths occurred during the stabilisation period before randomisation. KMM mothers made more unscheduled clinic visits than control mothers but their infants had fewer re-admissions and so the cost of care was lower with the KMM. Since the eligibility criteria excluded nearly 50% of LBW infants from the study, the KMM is not universally applicable to these infants. The benefits might be greater in populations where breastfeeding is not so common.

  5. Efeitos do Método Mãe Canguru nos sinais vitais de recém-nascidos pré-termo de baixo peso Effects of Kangaroo Mother Care on the vital signs of low-weight preterm newborns

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    CM Almeida

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, a pressão arterial média, a temperatura e a saturação periférica de oxigênio dos recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT de baixo peso, antes e após a aplicação do MMC. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 22 RNPT de baixo peso, saudáveis, de ambos os sexos, não portadores de deficiências neurológicas, cardíacas e/ou respiratórias. A avaliação foi realizada após trinta minutos de permanência do RNPT em berço comum e após trinta minutos de aplicação do MMC, por 3 dias consecutivos. Para a avaliação, foram utilizados monitor cardíaco com dispositivo para medida da pressão arterial média de forma não invasiva e sensor para a oximetria de pulso, termômetro e cronômetro. RESULTADOS: Os resultados não mostraram alterações significativas quanto à pressão arterial média (p> 0,05 e freqüência cardíaca (p> 0,05 após a aplicação do MMC, mas, por outro lado, houve aumento significativo da temperatura axilar (pOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the heart and respiration rates, mean arterial pressure, temperature and peripheral oxygen saturation of low-weight preterm newborns, before and after the application of kangaroo mother care. METHOD: Twenty-two healthy low-weight preterm newborns of both sexes were studied. None of them had neurological, cardiac and/or respiratory deficiencies. Assessments were made after the newborn had been left in an ordinary cot for 30 minutes and after 30 minutes of kangaroo mother care, on three consecutive days. For these evaluations, a heart monitor with a device for non-invasively measuring mean arterial pressure, a sensor for pulse oximetry, a thermometer and a chronometer were utilized. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (p> 0.05 or heart rate (p> 0.05 after applying kangaroo mother care. However, there were significant increases in axillary temperature (p< 0.05 and peripheral oxygen

  6. Produção de sentidos sobre a maternidade: uma experiência no Programa Mãe Canguru Senses production upon motherhood: an experience at the Kangaroo Mother Program

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    Solange Maria Sobottka Rolim de Moura

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa, sob a perspectiva da relação entre a família e instituições de saúde, os sentidos produzidos sobre a maternidade em um programa de saúde neonatal desenvolvido na rede pública - o Programa Mãe Canguru. A partir de entrevistas e observações feitas com usuárias durante sua participação no programa, buscamos apreender como as práticas discursivas e não discursivas sobre maternidade e maternagem, difundidas nesse processo, se articulam com as experiências concretas dessas mulheres para produzir novas configurações subjetivas. Na interpretação dos dados, realizada através de análise do discurso, os aspectos mais significativos das falas das entrevistadas foram agrupados em quatro núcleos de sentido: família e religião; o impacto do nascimento prematuro; desconfiança e resistência nas relações com instituições e profissionais de saúde; e a experiência com o Programa Mãe Canguru. Ao final, procurou-se identificar as principais estratégias e formas de singularização utilizadas por essas mulheres ao atribuírem sentidos ao papel materno.This article analises, under the perspective of the relationship between the family and health institutions, the senses produced upon motherhood on a neonatal health program developed at the public system - The Kangaroo Mother Program. As from interviews and observations made with users during their involvement on the program, we tried to perceive how discursive and non discursive practices about motherhood and maternal care, spreaded on this process, become linked with the factual experiences of this women in order to produce new subjective configurations. On data interpretation, realized through speech analysis, the most significant aspects of interviewees talks were gathered in four senses nucleus: family and religion; the impact of a premature birth; distrust and resistance on relations with institutions and health professionals; and the experience with the

  7. Latin American Clinical Epidemiology Network Series - Paper 4: Economic evaluation of Kangaroo Mother Care: cost utility analysis of results from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Bogotá.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Juan Gabriel; Charpak, Nathalie; Castillo, Mario; Bernal, Astrid; Ríos, John; Trujillo, Tammy; Córdoba, María Adelaida

    2017-06-01

    Although kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been shown to be safe and effective in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), there are no published complete economic evaluations including the three components of the full intervention. A cost utility analysis performed on the results of an RCT conducted in Bogotá, Colombia between 1993 and 1996. Hospital and ambulatory costs were estimated by microcosting in a sample of preterm infants from a University Hospital in Bogotá in 2011 and at a KMC clinic in the same period. Utility scores were assigned by experts by means of (1) direct ordering and scoring discrete health states and (2) constructing a multi-attribute utility function. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CIs) for the incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs) were computed by the Fiellers theorem method. One-way sensitivity analysis on price estimates for valuing costs was performed. ICUR at 1 year of corrected age was $ -1,546 per extra quality-adjusted life year gained using the KMC method (95% CI $ -7,963 to $ 4,910). In Bogotá, the use of KMC is dominant: more effective and cost-saving. Although results from an economic analysis should not be extrapolated to different systems and communities, this dominant result suggests that KMC could be cost-effective in similar low and middle income countries settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Amor y tragedia de los “Abuelos canguros”: un estudio fenomenológico, Cumaná, estado Sucre, Venezuela | Love and tragedy of “Kangaroo grandparents”: a phenomenological study. Cumaná, Sucre state, Venezuela

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    Ivonne Rodríguez Hernández

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current increase of the population with older age poses new urgencies in social aspects, which leads us to redefine our generational identity. The world of the elderly has changed, increasingly taking more active roles within the family dynamics where, with adjustments for mutual assistance, have led to a considerable number of them to become “caregiver grandparents” or “kangaroo grandparents”, to get in charge of their grandchildren. This task, which involves devotion from the grandparent’s part, also involves impacts on his physical and mental health that complicate his living conditions (material and symbolic. To understand this dynamic, this study aimed to interpret the experiences of three “kanguroo grandparents” from Cumana, Sucre State, Venezuela, under a phenomenological qualitative approach, with field design and descriptive-interpretatiive level. The techniques used were observation and in-depth interviews with three grandparents and their families, to deconstruct reality through categorized protocols and triangulated, which allowed the construction of a global structure of the phenomenon. As main findings, it was revealed the existence of a close relationship between the formation of matriarchal families, with a progressive process of feminization of poverty. Filial piety became the suitable channel to keep hogging and exploitative relations, that created stress and various conflicts. In addition, the displacement of patterns of breeding was evidenced that not only redefines parenting roles, but distorts the foreseeable development of families.

  9. Método Mãe Canguru: aplicação no Brasil, evidências científicas e impacto sobre o aleitamento materno Kangaroo Mother Care: scientific evidences and impact on breastfeeding

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    Sonia Isoyama Venancio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o histórico do Método Mãe Canguru e apresentar evidências científicas sobre os benefícios dessa prática para os bebês de baixo peso no tocante a morbimortalidade, desenvolvimento psicoafetivo, neurossensorial e amamentação. FONTES DE DADOS: Foram consultadas publicações sobre o Método Mãe Canguru abrangendo o período de 1983 até 2004, identificadas nas bases de dados MEDLINE e Lilacs, bem como livros, teses e publicações técnicas do Ministério da Saúde. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Desde sua primeira descrição, o Método Mãe Canguru tem sido amplamente estudado. A análise de experimentos randomizados mostrou que o mesmo consiste em fator de proteção para a amamentação exclusiva no momento da alta hospitalar (RR 0,41; IC95% 0,25-0,68. O método também está associado a redução do risco de infecção hospitalar com 41 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida (RR 0,49; IC95% 0,25-0,93; redução de enfermidades graves (RR 0,30; IC95% 0,14-0,67; redução de infecções do trato respiratório inferior aos 6 meses (RR 0,37; IC95% 0,15-0,89; e maior ganho ponderal diário (diferença de médias de 3,6 g/dia; IC95% 0,8-6,4. O desenvolvimento psicomotor foi semelhante entre bebês submetidos ao Método Mãe Canguru e controles aos 12 meses, e não houve evidências de impacto sobre a mortalidade infantil. CONCLUSÃO: Há evidências de impacto positivo do Método Mãe Canguru sobre a prática da amamentação. Embora o método pareça reduzir a morbidade infantil, as evidências são ainda insuficientes para que o mesmo seja recomendado rotineiramente. Por outro lado, não existem relatos sobre efeitos deletérios da aplicação do método. Há a necessidade de se realizar estudos sobre a efetividade, aplicabilidade e aceitabilidade do Método Mãe Canguru em nosso meio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the history of the Kangaroo Mother Care and present scientific evidence about benefits of this practice on morbidity and

  10. Evidence of the factors that influence the utilisation of Kangaroo Mother Care by parents with low-birth-weight infants in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs): a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Christina T; Mianda, Solange; Ginindza, Themba G

    2018-04-05

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 emphasises on reducing neonatal deaths caused by low birth weight (LBW) complications by the implementation and utilisation of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the empirical evidence of KMC optimising low-birth-weight infants' (LBWIs') survival, its advantages and the LMICs implementing the service, studies have shown that LBW infant deaths occurring in LMICs are largely contributing to global child mortality. The aim of this scoping review is to map out the literature on barriers, challenges and facilitators of KMC utilisation by parents with LBWIs. This scoping review will use Endnote X7 reference management software to manage articles. The review search strategy will use SCIELO and LILACS databases. Other databases will be used via EBSCOHost search engine and these are Academic search complete, CINAHL with full text, Education source, Health source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Medline with full text and Medline. We will also use Google Scholar, JSTOR, Open grey search engines and reference lists. A two-phase search mapping out process will be done. In phase 1, one reviewer will perform the title screening and removal of duplicates. Two reviewers will do a parallel abstract screening according to eligibility criteria. Phase 2 will involve the reading of full articles and exclusion of articles, in accordance with the eligibility criteria. Data extraction from the articles will be done by two reviewers independently and parallel to the data extraction form. The data quality assessment of the eligible studies will be done using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The extraction of the synthesised results and thematic content analysis of the studies will be done by NVIVO version 10. We expect to find studies on barriers, challenges and facilitating factors of KMC utilisation by parents with LBWIs in LMICs. The review outcomes will guide future research and practice and inform

  11. Atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo-peso. Método Canguru e cuidado centrado na família: correspondências e especificidades Humanized care for low birth weight newborns. The Kangaroo care Method and family-centered care: correspondence and specificities

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    Marcia de Abreu e Silva Hennig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru - como uma diretriz clínica na assistência neonatal, e busca traçar um paralelo com outro importante componente do cuidado infantil descrito na literatura internacional: o cuidado centrado na família. O artigo propõe que a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru seja vista como uma boa prática e seja considerada também no campo das tecnologias em saúde.The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care as clinical guidelines in neonatal intensive care. It will also try to link this clinical guideline and another component of neonatal infant care: the Family-Centered Care. Based on this relationship, this paper proposes that Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care should be catalogued as a Potentially Better Practices and also, considered as a Health Care Technology.

  12. Percepção dos pais sobre a vivência no método mãe-canguru La percepción de los padres en la vivencia del método madre-canguro Perception of parents in experiencing the kangaroo mother method

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    Cláudia Elisângela Fernandes Bis Furlan

    2003-08-01

    institucional del equipo de salud como de la relación con la clientela, posibilitando la comprensión de las dificultades y significados atribuidos a la vivencia y a la optimización del cuidado de enfermería.This study aimed at analyzing the perception of pre-term babies' parents in experiencing the Kangaroo Mother Method. It is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with 10 parents, held in the first 60 days after the discharge of the pre-term baby from the Kangaroo method, in a philanthropic hospital in the interior of São Paulo State. The parents' perception concerning the experience was grouped in four thematic units: making maternal stay in the Kangaroo Method flexible; favoring the mother-child and family relationship; completing the pre-term newborn's growth and development and developing skills in caring for the child. The obtained data provided information for the organization of care in the Kangaroo Mother Method, from the institutional perspective of the health care team as well as the relationship with clients, which enabled understanding about the difficulties and meanings attributed to the experience and optimization of nursing care.

  13. Evaluación auditiva neurosensorial en un grupo de prematuros del programa madre conguro Sensorineural auditory evaluation in a group of preterm neonates from the "Kangaroo mother" program

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    Gabriel Hernández

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1989 y diciembre de 1991 se buscó asociación entre algunos factores de riesgo comunes a los prematuros con peso menor de 1.500 g al nacer y el hecho de presentar disminución de la agudeza auditiva, medida con los potenciales evocados del tallo cerebral a los 4 meses y luego entre los 8 y los 14 meses. Los factores de riesgo tenidos en cuenta en 133 prematuros del ";Programa madre canguro"; del Instituto de los Seguros Sociales, en Medellín, fueron: Peso inferior a 1.500 g, hiperbilirrubinemia superior a 10 mg/ml, sufrimiento fetal, membranas hialinas, uso de aminoglicósidos, hipoglucemia, hemorragia del tercer trimestre e hipertensión arterial materna. Se halló pérdida de la agudeza auditiva en la evaluación inicial en 54 nifíos (40.6% mientras en la final sólo la presentaban 10 (7.5%; no pudo detectarse asociación entre los factores de riesgo y la disminución de la agudeza auditiva en la evaluación inicial ni en la final. La mejoría de resultados de agudeza auditiva entre las pruebas iniciales y las finales puede explicarse, entre otras razones, por la maduración cerebral del prematuro. Se debe investigar más la razón de los déficits finales y, ojalá, establecer programas de seguimiento con pruebas auditivas en este grupo de niños en riesgo. A study was carried out to investigate the association between risk factors commonly found in preterm neonates with very low birth-weight (Iess than 1.500 g and decreased auditory acuteness; the latter was measured according to brain stem evoked potentiaJs (BERA test In 133 preterm neonates belonging to the "Kangaroo mother program", in 'Medellín,Colombla. The following risk factors we~ evaluated: Hyperbilirrubinemia, hyaline membrane, birth weight lower than 1.500g, fetal distress, hypoglycemia, use of aminoglycosldes, thlrd trimester hemorrhage, and maternal high blood presssure. Abnormal results in BERA test were found in 54 cases (40.6% at 4 months and in only 10 (7

  14. Conhecimentos e práticas dos profissionais de saúde sobre a "atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo peso - método canguru" Health professional's knowledge and practices about "human attention of low birth weight- kangaroo care"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Abreu e Silva Hennig

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar os conhecimentos e as práticas sobre a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso - Método Canguru (AHRNBP-MC de profissionais médicos e de enfermagem em maternidades públicas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo transversal realizado através de questionário. Participaram das entrevistas 148 médicos e enfermeiros atuantes nestas unidades. Destes, os 116 profissionais que atuam exclusivamente na unidade intensiva responderam sobre quesitos específicos das práticas assistenciais sobre a perspectiva da AHRNBP-MC. RESULTADOS: em relação às estratégias apontadas para minimizar ruído e luminosidade, 39% dos profissionais referiram atender rapidamente aos alarmes/cuidados no uso dos equipamentos e 88% apontaram a diminuição da luminosidade em pelo menos 1 período em 24h. Como estratégias para dor/desconforto, 34% referiram usar a sucção não-nutritiva e 9% citaram utilizar glicose. Oitenta e três porcento relataram serem as informações do quadro clínico as principais informações aos pais na 1ª visita. O exame físico é o procedimento em que é permitida a presença da mãe para 73% dos entrevistados. Cinquenta e nove porcento usavam a estabilidade clínica como critério para a ida do bebê ao colo materno pela primeira vez. CONCLUSÃO: apesar do conhecimento teórico sobre a Atenção Humanizada, os profissionais ainda não o utilizam plenamente em sua prática clínica, sugerindo que ainda não está completamente assimilada a abrangência dessa forma de cuidado neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to identify knowledge and practices related to Low Weight Newborn Humane Care - the Kangaroo Method by the medical and nursing staff in public maternity hospitals located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHOD: a cross cutting descriptive method performed by questionnaire application aiming at the management of eleven public maternity hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, selected for the

  15. Os efeitos da posição canguru em resposta aos procedimentos dolorosos em recém-nascidos pré-termo: uma revisão da literatura Effects of kangaroo care during painful procedures in preterm infants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Almeida Maia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de ser conhecido que recém-nascidos de baixo peso são capazes de vivenciar a dor, muitos procedimentos de rotina ainda são realizados sem o uso de analgésicos farmacológicos ou não farmacológicos. A posição canguru é uma estratégia de baixo custo e pode ser utilizado como medida de escolha no manejo da dor de recém-nascidos pré-termos. Torna-se importante encorajar a prática desse método pelas mães, uma vez que é fácil e pode ser realizado antes e durante procedimentos dolorosos invasivos em unidades neonatais contribuindo para a redução álgicaAlthough low-birth neonates are acknowledged to experience pain, many routine procedures continue to be conducted without proper pharmacological or non-pharmacological analgesia. Kangaroo care is a low-cost strategy that can be used in the preterm newborn. Mothers should be encouraged to use this easy-to-perform method, which is feasible both before and during neonatal units' invasive procedures, therefore contributing to pain reduction

  16. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Vivendo no método canguru a tríade mãe-filho-família Viviendo en el método canguru la tríade madre-hijo-familia Living the mother-child-family triad in the kangaroo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laise Conceição Caetano

    2005-08-01

    con el hijo en el método canguro o con la familia.This study focuses on the experience of families in the Kangaroo Mother Method (KM and aims to understand the functioning of the family dynamics and to apprehend the family transformations as a result of their experience in the method. The study used Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical and Grounded Theory as a methodological reference framework. Data revealed the following phenomena: having an unexpected evolution and outcome of pregnancy, which is a phase in which the parents go through a pregnancy and suffer due to its premature interruption; coping with the prematurity of the child, in which the parents get into the world of prematurity and face the need to act for the child's survival; and living with the decision and the experience together with the child, which reveals the possibility of staying in hospital in the KM or not. These phenomena led to the central category: weighing the risks and benefits between staying with the child in the kangaroo method or with the family.

  18. Interação mãe-bebê pré-termo e mudança no estado de humor: comparação do Método Mãe-Canguru com visita na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Interaction between mothers and pre-term infants and mood changes: a comparison between the Kangaroo Mother Method and those observed on a visit to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guimarães Cruvinel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar mudanças nos estados de humor de mães de bebês pré-termo em função do tipo de contato com o seu filho: Método Mãe-Canguru (MMC e visita ao filho na incubadora da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. MÉTODOS: foi aplicada a Escala Analógica de Humor em 60 mães divididas em 2 grupos: mães que participam do Método Mãe-Canguru (GC e mães que acompanharam o bebê na incubadora (GI. Os grupos foram pareados em função da idade das mães, número de gestações e tipo de parto. As mães foram avaliadas antes e depois de uma das visitas ao filho na incubadora ou sessão de MMC. RESULTADOS: as mães do GC melhoraram o humor, relatando: sentirem-se mais calmas, fortes, com idéias claras, ágeis, dinâmicas, satisfeitas, tranqüilas, perspicazes, relaxadas, atentas, competentes, alegres e amistosas. As mães do GI não apresentaram melhora no estado de humor em nenhum item, mas pioraram no item "sentindo-se desajeitada". CONCLUSÕES: o Método Mãe-Canguru mostrou-se eficaz na melhora nos estados de humor de mães de bebês pré-termo, contribuindo assim para a minimização dos efeitos negativos da internação neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to assess changes in the subjective state of mood of mothers of pre-term babies, comparing different kinds of mother-infant interaction: the Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM and those observed on a visit to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: the Visual Analogue Mood Scale was used with 60 mothers divided into two groups: mothers included in the Kangaroo Program (KG and mothers with a baby on an incubator (IG. The groups were matched for the mothers' age, number of pregnancies and kind of delivery. The mothers were evaluated before and after a visit to the baby on an incubator or a KMM session. RESULTS: it was found that KG mothers were in a better mood, reporting that they felt calmer, stronger, more clear-headed, more agile, dynamic, satisfied, at ease, perceptive, relaxed, considerate

  19. Programa mãe-canguru e a relação mãe-bebê: pesquisa qualitativa na rede pública de Betim El programa madre-canguro y la relación madre-bebé: pesquisa cualitativade en la red pública de Betim Kangaroo mother program and the relationship mother-baby: qualitative research in a public maternity of Betim city

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    Jacqueline de Oliveira Moreira

    2009-09-01

    ás, que la madre, familiares, el equipo pueden crear un ambiente facilitador a partir del momento en que asumen una postura activa en la mediación de la relación del prematuro con el mundo.This text approaches the results of the qualitative research financed by FAPEMIG and PUC-MINAS and aims to investigate the effects of the kangaroo mother method in the relationship between the mother and the newborn baby. The field research had the data collected by semi structural interviews conducted with the mothers of newborn babies egressed from the Kangaroo program of Betim's Public Maternity named Maternidade Municipal Aidée Conroy Espejo. We utilized the content analyses with thematic categories on data assessment. The results showed the complexity of motherhood inside the prematurity, crossed by the trauma experience, by the fear of losing the baby and by the vision of the child's fragility. In this context, the Kangaroo-Mother Program facilitates the relationship between the mother and the premature baby, contributing to the dyadic's bound. We concluded that mother, family members, and staff can provide a facilitating environment as they take on an active attitude in the mediation between the premature relationship and the world.

  20. Método mãe canguru nos hospitais / maternidades públicos de Salvador e atuação dos profissionais da saúde na segunda etapa do método Kangaroo mother method in hospitals / public maternity in Salvador and performance of health professionals in the second stage of the method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rodrigues da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar quantos hospitais/ maternidades públicos em Salvador utilizam o método mãe-canguru, quais os profissionais estão inseridos na equipe e caracterizar a atuação dos profissionais de saúde que estão inseridos na segunda etapa do método. MÉTODO: trata-se de um estudo quantitativo descritivo do qual participaram os responsáveis pelo setor de neonatologia e os profissionais de saúde inseridos na segunda etapa do método respondendo a questionários. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva calculando-se frequências simples. RESULTADOS:das sete instituições públicas de Salvador quatro utilizam o método. Nas três instituições pesquisadas realizam-se as três etapas preconizadas, em duas delas o quadro profissional tem pelo menos um atuante de cada especialidade recomendada pelo Ministério da Saúde, no entanto evidencia-se reduzido número de fonoaudiólogos nos serviços. Dentre as principais ações dos profissionais da saúde inseridos na segunda etapa estão o incentivo ao posicionamento canguru, ao aleitamento materno exclusivo e orientação às mães quanto aos cuidados com o bebê. CONCLUSÕES:evidencia-se que a recomendação do Ministério da Saúde de que o método seja implantado nas unidades médico-assistenciais integrante do Sistema Único de Saúde ainda não é uma realidade em todos os hospitais/ maternidades públicos de Salvador, no entanto evidenciou-se quadro profissional em conformidade com a recomendação em duas das instituições pesquisadas e a atuação dos profissionais entrevistados se incorpora no campo da transdisciplinaridade.PURPOSE:to investigate how many public hospitals and maternity hospitals in Salvador use the Kangaroo Mother Method, who are the professionals inserted in the team, and to characterize the acting of the health professionals who are inserted in the second stage of the method. METHOD: a descriptive quantitative study, in which the

  1. Sucção do recém-nascido prematuro: comparação do método Mãe-Canguru com os cuidados tradicionais Suckling of the premature newborn child: comparison between the Kangaroo Mother method with traditional care

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    Izabella Santos Nogueira de Andrade

    2005-03-01

    newborns were evaluated and submitted to phoniatric intervention in the process of hospital discharge. RESULTS: in Group 1 there was a significant improvement related to behavior, stress signs, coordination and suction rhythm. Hospital stay was considerably shorter. In group 2 there was a significant improvement related to the coordination between suction, deglutition and breathing. CONCLUSIONS: newborns of both groups were benefited by phoniatrics, nevertheless, the best results related to the Kangaroo-Mother Method. It has been noted that this method is a good alternative for developing countries for it contributes to the effectiveness of nursing, shortening hospital stay and reducing public health costs.

  2. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental conditions.

  3. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper ... 3Department of Entomology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan. .... July, 2005 and for second year during mid July, 2006. .... by 20 cm broadcast, respectively, whereas for the last 20 .... on the Management of Grassy Ecosystem, Victoria University of ...

  4. Koalas, Kiwis and Kangaroos: The challenges of creating an Online ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consid-eration was given to the need for such a dictionary; terms to be included; information necessary for each entry (including audio and visual material); use of a limited defining vocabulary; example sentences; notes on each term's usage; and evaluation of user feedback once the dictionary had been launched online.

  5. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Sponsors Ages & Stages Ages & Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12- ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > ...

  6. Guidelines for kangaroo care in district hospitals and primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babies with a weight of between 1.5 kg and 1.6 kg are started with ... to provide guidelines for managing babies with insufficient weight gain, and to provide guidance for ... Gender, birth weight and gestational age at birth also did not have a ...

  7. Boundary-layer turbulence as a kangaroo process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.; Leeuw, G. de; Maassen van den Brink, A.

    1995-01-01

    A nonlocal mixing-length theory of turbulence transport by finite size eddies is developed by means of a novel evaluation of the Reynolds stress. The analysis involves the contruct of a sample path space and a stochastic closure hypothesis. The simplifying property of exhange (strong eddies) is

  8. Análise de custos da atenção hospitalar a recém-nascidos de risco: uma comparação entre Unidade Intermediária Convencional e Unidade Canguru Análisis de los costes de la atención hospitalaria para los recién nacidos en riesgo: una comparación entre la Unidad Intermedia Neonatal y la Unidad Canguro Cost analysis of hospital care for newborns at risk: comparison of an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit and a Kangaroo Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Magluta

    2013-06-01

    y R$394,22 en la Unidad Intermedia Convencional. El coste de la cohorte hipotética fue R$5,710,281.66 para la asistencia en la segunda y tercera etapa de la Unidad Canguro y R$7,119,865.61 para la Unidad Intermedia Convencional. La Unidad Intermedia Convencional tiene costes un 25% más altos que la Unidad Canguro. El presente estudio puede contribuir a la toma de decisiones en el cuidado de la salud.The aim of this study was to compare the direct costs of implementation of the Kangaroo Method and an Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit, from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Newborns were eligible for inclusion if they were clinically stable and were able to receive care in those two modalities. A decision tree model was developed that incorporated baseline variables and costs into a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 newborns, according to the literature and expert opinions. Daily cost was BR$343.53 for the second stage of the Kangaroo Unit and BR$394.22 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The total cost for the hypothetical cohort was BR$5,710,281.66 for the second and third stages of the Kangaroo Unit and R$7,119,865.61 for the Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit. The Intermediate Neonatal Care Unit cost 25% more than the Kangaroo Unit. The study can contribute to decision-making in health, in addition to providing support for studies related to economic evaluation in neonatal health.

  9. Método canguru: práticas investigativas e de cuidado de enfermagem no modelo de adaptação de Roy Método canguro: prácticas de investigación y de atención en enfermería en el modelo de adaptación de Roy Kangaroo method: investigative practices and nursing care in the Roy adaptation model

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    Márcia Borck

    2012-06-01

    se evidencia la tercera etapa como una oportunidad para retroalimentar el sistema de cuidado, apoyar las familias para sobreponer sus conflictos, preocupaciones, miedos, inseguridades y el propio comportamiento inmaduro del bebé.This study deals with a qualitative, Convergent-Care Research which objectives were to investigate the adaptation process experienced by six families in this third stage of the Kangaroo Method (KM with premature and/or low weight newborns, from Oct/06 to Feb/07, and implement a nursing visit with each participant of the study, in reference to the four adaptive modes of the Roy Theory. The Adaptation Model proposed by Sister Callista Roy was used as a theoretical reference. The data was collected through Roy's adaptive care process model, applying observation techniques and semi-structured interviews. The data analysis process occurred through apprehension, synthesis, theorization, and transference. The results show the need to strengthen the role of the family when release from the hospital, communication among the interdisciplinary team, reviewing the criteria for release in the third stage, as well as guaranteeing all the possibilities for continued care. This study evidences the third stage as an opportunity to reinforce the care system, support for the family in order to overcome their conflicts, concerns, fears, insecurities, and the very immature behavior of the baby.

  10. Assistência humanizada ao neonato prematuro e/ou de baixo peso: implantação do Método Mãe Canguru em Hospital Universitário Asistencia humanizada al recién nacido prematuro y/o de bajo peso: implantación del Método Madre Canguro en el Hospital Universitario Humanized assistence to premature and/or low weigh newborn: implantation of Kangaroo-Mother Method at a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Adriana Mazzo Neves

    2006-09-01

    asociación entre tecnología, relación interpersonal y entre diversas áreas, cuidado humano y participación familiar.Experience report about nurses and multiprofessional group during the process of implantation of Kangaroo-Mother Method at the University Hospital of Maringá State University, Paraná, in 2002, with the objectives of: humanize the care to premature and/or low weight newborn, refining the familiar support; promote a better level of satisfaction to the assistance group. The baby stands on skin to skin contact with the mother, father or significative relative's breast, with benefits to his weight, temperature, affection, breastfeeding, besides the probable decrease of time in hospital and infection risks. A group, trained by the Ministry of Health started the implantation and multiplication of the Method; sophisticated a multiprofessional Extension Project in the institution as organizer and integrating studies and assistance. The difficulties found were about association among tecnology, people's relation and many common areas, human care and familiar participation.

  11. impact of partial kangaroo mother care on growth rates and duration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-02

    Feb 2, 2012 ... rates and duration of hospital stay of Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants. Design: Unblinded ... on a warming table, a baby cries more and sleeps less. ... of hypoglycemia through early breastfeeding; exclusive breastfeeding ...

  12. Camels, Cormorants, and Kangaroo Rats: Integration and Synthesis in Organismal Biology After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the development of an area of research variously referred to as physiological ecology, environmental physiology, or ecophysiology. This area of research was distinctive in its self-conscious blend of field and laboratory practices and its explicit integration with other areas of biology such as ecology, animal behavior, and evolution in order to study adaptation. Comparing the intersecting careers of Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew highlights two strikingly different approaches to physiological ecology. These alternative approaches to studying the interactions of organisms and environments also differed in important ways from the organismal biology championed by leading figures in the modern synthesis.

  13. Good short-term outcomes of kangaroo mother care in infants with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive study included 87 mothers and their low birth weight infants who were ... Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free ... mother was unwilling to participate. ... Child can be without oxygen for most of the day .... are related to both gestational age and ... mother intervention.

  14. INPUT PELAKSANAAN KANGAROO MOTHER CARE PADA BERAT LAHIR RENDAH DI RUMAH SAKIT

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    Andi Kasrida Dahlan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The research was aimed to explain the implementation ofKMC on LBW input. The research was qualitative descriptive phenomenologystudy was conducted at Hospital Sawerigading Palopo with4 main informant midwife / nurse who has done KMC. Collecting datausing the technique of in-depth interviews, observation and documentation.Analysis of the data with models Miles and Huberman. The resultsof this study showed that there is a policy, but still lacking socializationrelated to the implementation of KMC mothers and families with babiesof low birth weight, lack of human resources training and infrastructuredo not meet the standards. Conclusion: The availability of input componentsKMC implementation is notmaximized.Keywords: input, implementation, KMC, LBW, qualitative

  15. Bouncing Towards the Future with Kangaroo Panze: Human Media Interaction in Music Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkenburg, W; Wassink, D.; Reidsma, Dennis; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Jansen, L.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces some opportunities we see for the use of novel technologies in music education, now and in the future. Not in substituting the human artistic work, but rather in tools supporting the training of musicians and e.g. in cases were some skills become rare or underdeveloped and

  16. Utility of kangaroo mother care in preterm and low birthweight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mothers who practise KMC exhibit less maternal stress and fewer symptoms of depression, and have a better sense of the parenting role and more confidence in meeting their babies' needs than those who don't. Despite the apparent feasibility of KMC, currently, only a few preterm babies in low-income countries have

  17. Aplicabilidade das ações preconizadas pelo método canguru Share applicability recommended by kangaroo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Patricia Stelmak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:Identificar a prevalência das ações preconizadas pelo MC, na prática de cuidados ao recém-nascido pré-termo e/ou baixo peso, pela equipe de enfermagem de uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal que é referência estadual para o MC. Método: Pesquisa descritiva quantitativa, realizada através da aplicação de um questionário estruturado com 37 profissionais de enfermagem de nível médio, em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal, de fevereiro a abril de 2014. Resultados: o acolhimento, o incentivo ao toque, o aleitamento materno e o controle ambiental são as ações mais executadas pela equipe, apresentando cada uma 97% de aplicabilidade prática, e como ações menos executadas, a troca de fralda em decúbito lateral (83%, e o banho envolto em cueiros (58%. Conclusão: Esta equipe realiza as ações humanizadas de cuidado conforme preconizados pelo MC, e compreende a importância desses cuidados para o desenvolvimento infantil dos recém-nascidos. Existe necessidade de processo de educação permanente em serviço.

  18. A >46,000-year-old kangaroo bone implement from Carpenter's Gap 1 (Kimberley, northwest Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Michelle C.; O'Connor, Sue; Aplin, Ken

    2016-12-01

    Here we describe the oldest shaped and utilised bone implement recovered from an Australian context. Dated to beyond 46,000 years cal. BP and recovered from Carpenter's Gap 1 rockshelter, in the Kimberley region of northern Western Australia, this artefact demonstrates not only that Australian osseous technology has a time depth almost 25,000 years older than previously believed, but that bone technology was present in the opposite corner of the country from which it was proposed to have been innovated around 20,000 years ago. Comparison of this artefact with ethnographic implements found that the CG1 point was most consistent with an awl or a 'nose-bone'. If the implement was an awl it provides evidence for intangible behaviours such as leather working or basketry being enacted more than 46,000 years cal. BP ago, while the alternative - a nose-bone - would constitute the earliest piece of personal ornamentation in Sahul. In either case, this single artefact provides rare insights into the culture and technology of Australia's earliest peoples.

  19. Health care professionals' perspectives on the requirements facilitating the roll-out of kangaroo mother care in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma ten Ham

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Although certain requirements, such as personal alignment and reinforcing structures can be used in the roll-out of best practices, further research is desirable to promote fuller understanding of how to devise and apply the requirements in the wider adoption of best practices in South African health care settings.

  20. SAJCH 417 NEW.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the optimal choice of infant feeding whenever possible. The third component ... Kangaroo Foundation and Kangaroo Mother Care Program, Bogotá, Colombia. Aino Ezeonodo .... implementation depended on context, that training was required.

  1. Environmental Assessment for Routine and Recurring Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Operations at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Kern County. The giant kangaroo rat and Tipton kangaroo rat are both state and 8 federally listed as endangered species. The giant kangaroo rat occurs...on or just outside the western limits 9 of the R-2508 Complex in Kern County. The Tipton kangaroo rat once ranged throughout much of the 10 southern...overflight of the desert tortoise resulted in a 12 “slight freeze” response with no long term ill effects or changes in metabolic rates. No adverse

  2. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement, Flight Operations in the Sells Airspace Overlying the Tohono O’Odham Indian Reservation & Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Southern Arizona. Revised Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    al. 1970. Endocrine and metabolic effects of noise in normal, hypertensive and psychotic subjects. IN: Physiological Effects of Noise. Welch, B. L...Perognathus baileyi Bannertail Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys spectabilis Cactus Mouse Peromyscus eremicus Canyon Mousea Peromyscus crinitus Desert Kangaroo Rat...Dipodomys deserti Desert Pocket Mouse Perognathus penicillatus Desert Woodrat Neotoma lepida Merriam Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys merriami Merriam Mouse

  3. Stable carbon isotope variability of bone collagen and hair within a modern population of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) in south western Queensland: some implications for palaeoecological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Before any palaeo-reconstruction work can be attempted using stable isotope analysis of macropod remains it will be necessary to determine the nature of natural variability within contemporary populations. This research indicates that δ 13 C of bone collagen is strongly related to age. Furthermore, bone collagen δ 13 C not at equilibrium with dietary δ 13 C, as indicated by analysis of hair, until animals are several years old. These preliminary data suggest that in younger macropods most carbon in bone collagen has been derived via the mother's milk which may have undergone fractionation. These findings have significant implications for any palaeoecological research using bone or tooth. Teeth of macropods erupt from the rear of the jaw and move forward in molar progression. Since the rate of eruption is variable, and many of the forward molars are well formed while the joey is still at the pouch, teeth formed early in the life of a macropod may be isotopically distinct from those that develop later. This hypothesis is currently under investigation

  4. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  5. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  6. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume II (Appendices A through D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    diet of higher trophic level species, such as raptors. Ord’s Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys ordii). The Ord’s kangaroo rat is chiefly a nocturnal mammal...sandy soils. The entrances of these burrow systems are plugged during the day to maintain humidity and coolness. The kangaroo rat can obtain...sufficient quantities of water from the metabolism of food in their diet, but will drink water when it is available. TSK 0003/SWERA/Rev Final Rpt/November

  7. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  8. Components of Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-15

    fragments would create more invariant properties, forcing the preprocessing subsystem to expend more resources (time, blood flow, metabolism , etc...piano ( kangaroo ) refrigerator (iron) ruler (hand) saltshaker (grapes) shirt (flower) scissors (drum) stool (chain) table (cake) toaster (butterfly...saltshaker) hand (ruler) iron (refrigerator) kangaroo (piano) leaf (pants) mushroom (motorcycle) pot (lock) pumpkin (ladder) rabbit (house) sailboat

  9. Effect of diverse ecological conditions on biomass production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kangaroo grass native to Australia is known as the best grass to grow on different environmental and soil conditions. Biomass production of any grass is the key factor to estimate that if the grass could fulfill the animal requirements. Biomass production of kangaroo grass was estimated in this study at three growth stages on ...

  10. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  11. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  12. Across the Indian Ocean: A remarkable example of trans-oceanic dispersal in an austral mygalomorph spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E Harrison

    Full Text Available The Migidae are a family of austral trapdoor spiders known to show a highly restricted and disjunct distribution pattern. Here, we aim to investigate the phylogeny and historical biogeography of the group, which was previously thought to be vicariant in origin, and examine the biogeographic origins of the genus Moggridgea using a dated multi-gene phylogeny. Moggridgea specimens were sampled from southern Australia and Africa, and Bertmainus was sampled from Western Australia. Sanger sequencing methods were used to generate a robust six marker molecular dataset consisting of the nuclear genes 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS rRNA, XPNPEP3 and H3 and the mitochondrial gene COI. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods were used to analyse the dataset, and the key dispersal nodes were dated using BEAST. Based on our data, we demonstrate that Moggridgea rainbowi from Kangaroo Island, Australia is a valid member of the otherwise African genus Moggridgea. Molecular clock dating analyses show that the inter-specific divergence of M. rainbowi from African congeners is between 2.27-16.02 million years ago (Mya. This divergence date significantly post-dates the separation of Africa from Gondwana (95 Mya and therefore does not support a vicariant origin for Australian Moggridgea. It also pre-dates human colonisation of Kangaroo Island, a result which is further supported by the intra-specific divergence date of 1.10-6.39 Mya between separate populations on Kangaroo Island. These analyses provide strong support for the hypothesis that Moggridgea colonised Australia via long-distance trans-Indian Ocean dispersal, representing the first such documented case in a mygalomorph spider.

  13. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  14. Eksootikat suusatajaile / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Worldloppeti sõitude koordinaatori ametit pidav Epp Paal uudistas sarja ihkavaid suusamaratone Kangaroo Hoppetit Austraalias Falls Creekis ja Merino Musteri maratoni Uus-Meremaal. Tabel: Uued eksootilised suusamaratonid Worldloppeti sarjas

  15. Infant hearing screening in a developing-country context: Status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-14

    Dec 14, 2017 ... and infant hearing screening (NIHS) at primary healthcare level (clinic- .... up clinics; KMC = kangaroo mothercare; DSC = Down syndrome clinic; ... of the current reliance on caregiver concern as the primary identifier of.

  16. Identification of retrotransposon-like sequences in Iranian river buffalo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-03-29

    % of a genome (Waterston et al., 2002). Mobile elements can be divided into two classes: Class I includes retrotransposons and class II includes DNA tran- sposons ... including dog, cat, horse, cattle, donkey, kangaroo, etc.

  17. Forecasting the Relative and Cumulative Effects of Multiple Stressors on At-risk Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    applied to model populations of Ord’s kangaroo rat, Spotted Owls, and elk. Although the model was recently demonstrated to members of the DoD...C. C. Peterson, I. R. Wallis, K. H. Berry, and K. A. Nagy. 1998. Effects of climatic variation on field metabolism and water relations of desert...simulation experiment with endangered kangaroo rats. International Association for Landscape Ecology Annual Meeting, April 2009. A. 2 A. 3

  18. Effects of Simultaneous Radiofrequency Radiation and Chemical Exposure of Mammalian Cells. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    chromosome - - - - - - -I aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Yao (1982) exposed rat kangaroo RH5 and RH1l6 cells to 2.45 GHz radiation, and...control was reported in chromosome aberrations. Yac (1982) investigated the cytogenetic consequences of chronic microwave exposure on rat kangaroo RH5...was said to be 280C. The cells were exposed both as conidia, which are "rather inactive metabolically ," and also after DNA replication had been

  19. mu-crystallin is a mammalian homologue of Agrobacterium ornithine cyclodeaminase and is expressed in human retina.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, R Y; Gasser, R; Wistow, G J

    1992-01-01

    mu-Crystallin is the major component of the eye lens in several Australian marsupials. The complete sequence of kangaroo mu-crystallin has now been obtained by cDNA cloning. The predicted amino acid sequence shows similarity with ornithine cyclodeaminases encoded by the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Until now, neither ornithine cyclodeaminase nor any structurally related enzymes have been observed in eukaryotes. RNA analysis of kangaroo tissues shows that mu-cryst...

  20. Load Lugging Locomotion: Lessons from Indigenous People, Rhino Beetles, and Wallabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    they consume metabolic energy at the same rate! Even hopping at a 4-minute mile pace, kangaroos are only at about a third of their aerobic capacity...carried for free. However, there is not a clear link between the mechanical work performed in walking and the metabolic cost. Rhinoceros beetles are...more cheaply. But kangaroos and wallabies can use internal springs to save energy during their hopping gait and to carry loads in their pouches. These

  1. Litigation Technical Support and Services, Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Biota Remedial Investigation, Version 3.2. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    significantly. while isodrin is an analog of endrtr and is converted metabolically to that compound. Analyses were also performed for I *l.-dichloro-2,2-bis...abundant are the deer mouse, prairie and meadow voles, and Ord’s kangaroo rat. Larger, more conspicuous rodents include the black-tailed prairie dog...meadow vole, Ord’s kangaroo rat, hispid pocket mouse, and silky pocket mouse(MKE, 1988). Tall weedy forb$, yucca, sand sagebrush, and cattails are

  2. Returns on investment in wild dog management-beef production in the South Australian Arid Lands

    OpenAIRE

    Wicks, Santhi; Allen, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Beef cattle producers in Australia have reported an increase in calf losses as a result of wild dog attacks in recent years. However, while control measures may reduce calf losses from wild dog attacks, they may also reduce attacks on kangaroos. Thus, wild dog control measures may inadvertently increase kangaroo competition with cattle for grazing vegetation, which is potentially costly for graziers. In this study the net returns to beef production from investments in wild dog controls in a c...

  3. East-west genetic differentiation in Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) of Australia suggests late Pleistocene divergence at the Nullarbor Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, P.-J.; Chesser, R.T.; Mulder, R.A.; Afton, A.D.; Paton, D.C.; McCracken, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are endemic to Australia and occur as two geographically isolated populations separated by the Nullarbor Plain, a vast arid region in southern Australia. We studied genetic variation in Musk Duck populations at coarse (eastern versus western Australia) and fine scales (four sites within eastern Australia). We found significant genetic structure between eastern and western Australia in the mtDNA control region (??ST = 0. 747), one nuclear intron (??ST = 0.193) and eight microsatellite loci (FST = 0.035). In contrast, there was little genetic structure between Kangaroo Island and adjacent mainland regions within eastern Australia. One small population of Musk Ducks in Victoria (Lake Wendouree) differed from both Kangaroo Island and the remainder of mainland eastern Australia, possibly due to genetic drift exacerbated by inbreeding and small population size. The observed low pairwise distance between the eastern and western mtDNA lineages (0.36%) suggests that they diverged near the end of the Pleistocene, a period characterised by frequent shifts between wet and arid conditions in central Australia. Our genetic results corroborate the display call divergence and Mathews' (Austral Avian Record 2:83-107, 1914) subspecies classification, and confirm that eastern and western populations of Musk Duck are currently isolated from each other. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Identification and return of a skull from Tasmania in the Berlin anatomical collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Andreas; Teßmann, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Following a request by the Australian government, human remains of Australian origin were identified in the anatomical collection of Charité, the medical faculty of Berlin. We initiated an interdisciplinary provenance research on such remains to ensure their identity, elucidate their history, and prepare for a possible return to Australia. Here, we present results regarding a skull in the collection labeled as stemming from Tasmania. The non-invasive anthropological investigation revealed the skull to stem from a girl of about 15 years of age who most likely died of a massive otitis/petrositis with subsequent meningitis. These results match the historical findings, which started from an inscription on the frontal bone giving a first name ("Nanny"), an ancestry ("native of Kangaroo Island"), a collector ("Schayer"), and a location ("van Diemensland", i.e. Tasmania). The collector, Adolph Schayer, was a German sheep breeder and botanical/zoological collector living in north-western Tasmania from 1831 to 1843. In archival sources, a girl named Nanny Allan could be identified, who was a native of Kangaroo Island and died in Launceston/Tasmania in 1836 at the age of about 14 years. As there were no doubts that these remains stem from a Tasmanian individual, they were handed over to representatives of the Tasmanian Aboriginal Centre in July 2014.

  5. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  6. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  8. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  9. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  10. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  11. Modelling digestive constraints in non-ruminant and ruminant foregut-fermenting mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Adam J; Streich, W Jürgen; Hummel, Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-09-01

    It has been suggested that large foregut-fermenting marsupial herbivores, the kangaroos and their relatives, may be less constrained by food intake limitations as compared with ruminants, due mainly to differences in their digestive morphology and management of ingesta particles through the gut. In particular, as the quality of forage declines with increasing contents of plant fibre (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin; measured as neutral-detergent fibre, NDF), the tubiform foregut of kangaroos may allow these animals to maintain food intakes more so than ruminants like sheep, which appear to be limited by fibrous bulk filling the foregut and truncating further ingestion. Using available data on dry matter intake (DMI, g kg(-0.75) d(-1)), ingesta mean retention time (MRT, h), and apparent digestibility, we modelled digestible dry matter intake (DDMI) and digestible energy intake (DEI) by ruminant sheep (Ovis aries) and by the largest marsupial herbivore, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus). Sheep achieved higher MRTs on similar DMIs, and hence sheep achieved higher DDMIs for any given level of DMI as compared with kangaroos. Interestingly, MRT declined in response to increasing DMI in a similar pattern for both species, and the association between DMI and plant NDF contents did not support the hypothesis that kangaroos are less affected by increasing fibre relative to sheep. However, when DEI was modelled according to DDMIs and dietary energy contents, we show that the kangaroos could meet their daily maintenance energy requirements (MER) at lower levels of DMI and on diets with higher fibre contents compared with sheep, due largely to the kangaroos' lower absolute maintenance and basal energy metabolisms compared with eutherians. These results suggest that differences in the metabolic set-point of different species can have profound effects on their nutritional niche, even when their digestive constraints are similar, as was the case for these ruminant and non

  12. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  13. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  14. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  15. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  16. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  17. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  18. Translating Neurodevelopmental Care Policies Into Practice: The Experience of Neonatal ICUs in France-The EPIPAGE-2 Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrat, Veronique; Coquelin, Anaëlle; Cuttini, Marina; Khoshnood, Babak; Glorieux, Isabelle; Claris, Olivier; Durox, Mélanie; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Arnaud, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    To describe the implementation of neurodevelopmental care for newborn preterm infants in neonatal ICUs in France in 2011, analyze changes since 2004, and investigate factors associated with practice. Prospective national cohort study of all births before 32 weeks of gestation. Twenty-five French regions. All neonatal ICUs (n = 66); neonates surviving at discharge (n = 3,005). None. Neurodevelopmental care policies and practices were assessed by structured questionnaires. Proportions of neonates initiating kangaroo care during the first week of life and those whose mothers expressed breast milk were measured as neurodevelopmental care practices. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationships between kangaroo care or breast-feeding practices and unit policies, taking into account potential confounders. Free visiting policies, bed availability for parents, and kangaroo care encouragement significantly improved between 2004 and 2011 but with large variabilities between units. Kangaroo care initiation varied from 39% for neonates in the most restrictive units to 68% in less restrictive ones (p neurodevelopmental care significantly influenced kangaroo care initiation (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.8-7.0 for Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program implementation compared with no training). Breast milk expression by mothers was greater in units with full-time availability professionals trained for breast-feeding support (60% vs 73%; p neurodevelopmental practices occurred between 2004 and 2011, but large variabilities between units persist. Practices increased in units with supportive policies. Specific neurodevelopmental care training with multifaceted interventions strengthened the implementation of policies.

  19. Percepções e comportamentos de cuidado neonatal de mulheres participantes de um Programa Mãe-Canguru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Beltrão Oliveira e Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze the perceptions, experiences and neonatal care behavior of women in a Kangaroo-Mother Care Program so as to understand how they perceived this experience. The sample was composed of 5 mother-baby dyads (mother’s ages ranged between 16 and 33 years. Collected data included the Beck Depression Inventory and the Maternal Acceptance questionnaire with respect to the Kangaroo Program. Non-verbal behavior was observed through daily sessions while two thematic interviews were used to clarify various obscure aspects of the data. The results suggest that the Kangaroo mother care Program was well tolerated by mothers, but outside factors also influenced maternal behavior and participant’s emotions. All mothers followed the prescribed activities and the period spent on the Program seems to have been used as a reflective moment in their lives. Further investigations remain to be conducted, in order to improve Kangaroo-Mother Care Program development.   Keywords: Kangaroo-Mother Care Program; maternal behavior; women.

  20. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  1. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  2. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  3. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  4. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  5. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  6. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  7. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  8. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  9. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  10. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  11. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  12. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  13. Magnetic-island formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  14. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  15. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  16. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  17. Plasma biochemistry and urinalysis variables of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with and without oxalate nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K Natasha; Haynes, Julie I; Boardman, Wayne; Breed, William G; Taggart, David A; Rich, Brian; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    Oxalate nephrosis is a highly prevalent disease in the Mount Lofty Ranges koala population in South Australia, but associated clinicopathologic findings remain undescribed. The aims of this study were to determine plasma biochemical and urinalysis variables, particularly for renal function and urinary crystal morphology and composition, in koalas with oxalate nephrosis. Blood and urine samples from Mount Lofty Ranges koalas with oxalate nephrosis were compared with those unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition from Mount Lofty and Kangaroo Island, South Australia and Moggill, Queensland. Plasma and urine biochemistry variables were analyzed using a Cobas Bio analyzer, and urinary oxalate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Urinary crystal composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Azotemia (urea > 6.6 mmol/L, creatinine > 150 μmol/L) was found in 93% of koalas with oxalate nephrosis (n = 15). All azotemic animals had renal insufficiency (urine specific gravity [USG] < 1.035), and in 83%, USG was < 1.030. Koalas with oxalate nephrosis were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P < .01). Urinary crystals from koalas with oxalate nephrosis had atypical morphology and were composed of calcium oxalate. Mount Lofty Ranges koalas unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition had renal insufficiency (43%), although only 14% had USG < 1.030 (n = 7). Unaffected Mount Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island koalas were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P < .01). Koalas with oxalate nephrosis from the Mount Lofty Ranges had renal insufficiency, hyperoxaluria, and pathognomonic urinary crystals. The findings of this study will aid veterinary diagnosis of this disease. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  19. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  20. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  1. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  2. Pain Control Interventions in Preterm Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vivek V; Bansal, Satvik; Nimbalkar, Archana; Chapla, Apurva; Phatak, Ajay; Patel, Dipen; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2018-04-15

    To compare individual efficacy and additive effects of pain control interventions in preterm neonates. Randomized controlled trial. Level-3 University affiliated neonatal intensive care unit. 200 neonates (26-36 wk gestational age) requiring heel-prick for bedside glucose assessment. Exclusion criteria were neurologic impairment and critical illness precluding study interventions. Neonates were randomly assigned to Kangaroo mother care with Music therapy, Music therapy, Kangaroo Mother care or Control (no additional intervention) groups. All groups received expressed breast milk with cup and spoon as a baseline pain control intervention. Assessment of pain using Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score on recorded videos. The mean (SD) birth weight and gestational age of the neonates was 1.9 (0.3) kg and 34 (2.3) wk, respectively. Analysis of variance showed significant difference in total PIPP score across groups (P<0.001). Post-hoc comparisons using Sheffe's test revealed that the mean (SD) total PIPP score was significantly lower in Kangaroo mother care group [7.7 (3.9) vs. 11.5 (3.4), 95% CI(-5.9, -1.7), P<0.001] as well as Kangaroo mother care with Music therapy group [8.5 (3.2) vs. 11.5 (3.4), 95%CI (-5.1, -0.9), P=0.001] as compared to Control group. PIPP score was not significantly different between Control group and Music therapy group. Kangaroo mother care with and without Music therapy (with expressed breast milk) significantly reduces pain on heel-prick as compared to expressed breast milk alone. Kangaroo mother care with expressed breast milk should be the first choice as a method for pain control in preterm neonates.

  3. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  4. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, J H; Luciani, J F [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author). 30 refs.

  5. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, J.H.; Luciani, J.F.; Garbet, X.

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author)

  6. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  7. 现实版“马达加斯加”德国上演

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A kangaroo is on the lam(在潜逃中)in Germany after breaking out of a wildlife park,with the help of a fox and a wild boar(野猪).Michael Hoffmann,assistant head of the Hochwildschutzpark,says the kangaroos got out of their cage after a young fox snuck into the park and dug a hole next to the cage’s fencing.Two of the three were then able to get out of the park entirely through

  8. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  9. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  10. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  11. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  12. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  13. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  14. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  15. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  16. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  17. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  18. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  19. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  20. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  1. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  2. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  3. Three Mile Island update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Almost six years after the accident at Three Mile Island-2, cleanup operations are proceeding and the financial condition of the owners has improved. The author reviews some of the cleanup activities and notes the milestones ahead before reaching the September, 1988 target date for completion. A decision to decommission or refurbish will follow the completion of fuel removal activities in 1987. The cleanup has produced considerable data and useful information. In particular, the experience of large-scale decontamination and radioactive waste processing, along with information on fission product transport, is relevant for maintenance and safe operation of other plants. Both macro- and microscopic examination of the core could help in developing safer reactors in the future. 3 figures, 1 table

  4. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  5. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  6. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  7. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  8. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  9. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  10. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  11. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  12. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  13. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  14. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  15. Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.

    Explorations along the shore and in the intertidal zone at Bet Dwarka island, Gujarat, India were carried out by the Marine Archaeology Centre of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India between 1981-1994. Artefacts of both...

  16. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs

  17. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  18. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document addresses the Three Mile Island accident which resulted in a core partial fusion. It recalls that other reactors of this plant are still being operated. The operation of this PWR is briefly described, and the main events and phases of the accident are briefly presented (failure of the secondary circuit supply pump, failure of a pressurizer component and wrong information about it, mistaken reaction in the control room, core partial fusion due to insufficient cooling means). It shows that the accident occurred because of a combination of technical failures and human mistakes. This situation has put operator education and organisation into question again. The main actors and their mistakes, weaknesses and responsibilities are indicated: Metropolitan Edison (the operator), the NRC (the US nuclear safety authority). Some key figures are recalled, as well as the context of construction of the plant. Impacts and consequences are reviewed: implementation of new standards, population concern. The document outlines that radioactive exposures due to the accident were minor

  19. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  20. Foundation Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project-Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    iL_ COPY MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-90-5 i iFOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR GROUND BASED RADAR PROJECT--KWAJALEIN ISLAND, MARSHALL ISLANDS by Donald E...C!assification) Foundatioa Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Yule, Donald E...investigation for the Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands , are presented.- eophysical tests comprised of surface refrac- tion

  1. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  2. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 483 ... Vol 44, No 3 (2017), Hepatitis c virus antibodies in mother-infant blood ... Care Management for Sickle Cell Disease in an African Setting, Abstract PDF ... Vol 30, No 3 (2003), Kangaroo Mother Care: Using Appropriate ... of Healthcare Workers towards Kidney Transplantation in Nigeria, Abstract PDF.

  4. Environmental Assessment for the Orbital Reentry Corridor for Generic Unmanned Lifting Entry Vehicle Landing at Edwards Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    mouse (Onychomys torridus), little pocket mouse (Perognathus longimembris), Merriam’s kangaroo rat (Dipodymus merriami), and desert woodrat (Neotoma...mild, such as an increase in heart rate, to more severe, such as effects on metabolism and hormone balance. Behavioral responses can also be mild

  5. A Coupled k-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Multi-Label Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    classification, an image may contain several concepts simultaneously, such as beach, sunset and kangaroo . Such tasks are usually denoted as multi-label...informatics, a gene can belong to both metabolism and transcription classes; and in music categorization, a song may labeled as Mozart and sad. In the

  6. 2ND International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-08

    involved in lens carbohydrate metabolism ", Lens Res 2:23, 1984. 5. Blanchard, P.M., and Greenaway, A. H. "Multiple-plane imaging with a distorted...confocal images of a kangaroo rat kidney cell. Each image is 75 microns across. 3 Using a CCD to create a ’virtual pinhole’ In 1992 [1,3] we first

  7. Environmental Assessment: Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) 2005 Mission Realignments to Vandenberg AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    implied by altered connective tissue metabolism and altered pulmonary morphology in animals after long-term exposures and pulmonary function...addition to the wildlife found in chaparral, other species include mammals like Heerman’s kangaroo rat (Dipodomys heermanni), Broad-footed mole (Scapanus

  8. Fungal bis-Naphthopyrones as Inhibitors of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    compounds that appeared in all three rescored hit lists. The second, the MET-TOX list, consisted of 570 compounds that passed an imposed metabolism ...Delitschia sp. (JS 300) isolated from a sample of kangaroo dung collected in Australia. The talaroderxines were originally described as metabolites of

  9. Environmental Assessment for Armed Munitions Integration Testing on the Precision Impact Range Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Perognathus 11 longimembris), Merriam’s kangaroo rat (Dipodymus merriami), and desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida). 12 Common bats include the western pipistrelle...or behavioral. Physiological effects can be mild, such as 3 an increase in heart rate, to more severe, such as effects on metabolism and hormone

  10. 78 FR 53777 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Visual Resource Management and Areas of Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... species, a unique sand dune community and habitat, the desert kangaroo rat, and for scenic quality. The... criteria: McCarty Canyon; for scenic quality and wildlife habitat; Seminoe and Pathfinder Reservoirs; for sensitive plant species, scenic quality, and wildlife habitat; Flattop Mountain; for sensitive plant species...

  11. 袋鼠和海马

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志明

    1989-01-01

    The kangaroo is a strange animal. It lives in Australia. The motherhas a pouch (育儿袋). She keeps her babies in the pouch. The babieswill live there happily for a long time. In the pouch there are breasts(乳房). There they drink milk and sleep warmly. The babies will notleave the pouch until they are 8 months old.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 356 ... Vol 23, No 4 (2010), Food and beverage marketing to children in South ... Global strategies to prevent non-communicable diseases: a view for the ... and mothers towards kangaroo mother care in the eastern sub-district ...

  13. Do fire-related cues, including smoke-water, karrikinolide, glyceronitrile and nitrate, stimulate the germination of 17 Anigozanthos taxa and Blancoa canescens (Haemodoraceae)?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Downes, K. S.; Light, M. E.; Pošta, Martin; Kohout, Ladislav; Staden van, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 4 (2014), s. 347-358 ISSN 0067-1924 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : kangaroo paw * KAR(1) * morphophysiological dormancy * underdeveloped embryos * 2,3-dihydroxypropanenitrile * 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2014

  14. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  15. Teacher Gender and Student Performance in Mathematics. Evidence from Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escardíbul, Josep-Oriol; Mora, Toni

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of teacher gender towards students' test results in a blinded Math test administered to students in Catalonia (Spain). The data for this analysis are drawn from a sample of secondary school students who participated in an international blind-test known as the "Mathematical Kangaroo" in 2008. The estimation…

  16. Parental Perceptions about Pain and Pain Management Practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pain management in neonates remains sub-optimal in sub-Saharan countries like Kenya due to lack of resources to procure pharmacological analgesics. There, however, exist low-cost, mother-driven pain management strategies such as breastfeeding and kangaroo care that can be used for pain relief in ...

  17. The Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site: Through My Own Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    compounds as strontium-90, zirconium-95, cesium-137, carbon-14, plutonium-239, polonium - 210 , and lead- 210 . Plutonium and lead (sic) have not been studied as...times greater than in the population in Europe. This means that the sheep and the kangaroo feed on plants which are filled with lead- 210 and polonium ...9 2.3 POISONED FOOD

  18. Rapid genetic restoration of a keystone species exhibiting delayed demographic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic founder effects are often expected when animals colonize restored habitat in fragmented landscapes, but empirical data on genetic responses to restoration are limited. We examined the genetic response of banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) to landscape-scale grassland restor...

  19. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  20. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  1. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  2. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  3. Greece, Milos Island Geothermal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delliou, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    On Milos island (Aegean Sea) a high enthalpy, water dominated geothermal field of high salinity exists. At 1985, a 2MW geothermoelectric pilot plant was installed on the island. This plant has been provided by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan under a contract with Public Power Corporation of Greece. Due to high salinity of the geothermal fluid, unforeseen problems (scaling mainly) arisen in both steam and brine cycles. As a consequence, the operation (trial mainly) of the power plant have been interrupted several times for long periods, in order to identify the arisen, each time, problems and find the most appropriate technical solution. The above fact, as well as, some unfortunate coincidences described in this paper, led Milos people to react against geothermal development in their island. The sequence of the events, technical and non-technical, their approach and the relevant conclusions are reported in this presentation

  4. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. Anthropic pressures on Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peronaci, Marcello; Luciani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The Egadi Islands, like most Mediterranean islets, have radically changed the traditional lifestyle and the economic development model, based for centuries on the almost self-sufficient resources and production activities, mostly related to the sea (fishing and fish processing) and to the land. During the second half of the 1900., the development of transport radically transformed this model to make smaller islands, at least those closest to the coast, more tightly interconnected and dependent on the mainland. In particular, in Favignana, which is the most populous island and very close to the coast, the traditional activities tourism have led to a strong anthropic pressure concentrated in a few months of the year (summer) on the one hand, and a reduction of the resident population during the winter months on the other, with a serious impact on the care of the land [it

  6. Review of islanding detection methods for distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Mahat, Pukar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of power system islanding and islanding detection techniques. Islanding detection techniques, for a distribution system with distributed generation (DG), can broadly be divided into remote and local techniques. A remote islanding detection technique is associated...

  7. HYDROGEOLOGICAL RELATIONS ON KARSTIFIED ISLANDS - VIS ISLAND CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Terzić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the hydrogeological investigations on Adriatic islands is presented on the Island of Vis case study. Infiltration, accumulation and discharge of the groundwater occur in karstified rock mass. Hydrogeological relations are mostly a consequence of the geological setting, because of the complete hydrogeologic barrier in Komiža bay, and relative barrier in the area of karst poljes. Significant research was performed in the 1999 – 2000 period aimed of better understanding of hydrogeological relations. These investigations, as well as reinterpretation of some previously known data, included structural geology, hydrogeology, hydrology and hydrochemistry. Approximate rock mass hydraulic conductivity calculation is also shown, as well as level of its usability in such terrain. Based on all these methods, it is possible to conclude that on the Island of Vis there is no saline water present underneath the entire island. There is only a saline water wedge which is formed on the top of relatively impermeable base rock, some few tens of meters under recent sea level. With such a model, and taking in account the hydrological balance, it is possible to conclude that there is possibility of higher amount of groundwater exploitation then it is today (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  9. Submarine physiography off Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S; Chaubey, A

    Analysis of echosoundings, side scan sonar and shallow seismic data, supplementEd. by 152 sediment samples, collected along 150 km around Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea, revealed that the islands have a very narrow shelf, and an abrupt, shelf...

  10. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  11. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  12. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  13. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  14. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  15. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island. (j) An east-west line from the southernmost extremity of Sea Island across Goulds Inlet to St... Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to... shoreline across Cabretta Inlet. (g) A north-south line (longitude 81°16.9′ W.) drawn from the south...

  16. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in abo...

  17. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  18. The geology of the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Aldiss, D.T.; Edwards, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is complementary to the 1:250 000 scale geological map of the Falkland Islands compiled in 1998. The report and map are products of the Falkland Islands Geological Mapping Project (1996-1998). Geological observation and research in the Islands date from 1764. The Islands were visited during two pioneering scientific cruises in the 19th century. Subsequently, many scientists visited en route to the Antarctic or Patagonia. Geological affinities to other parts of the sout...

  19. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  20. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  1. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  2. seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population increase in the Amsterdam Island fur seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island. M.N. Bester. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. Population size of Arctocephalus tropicalis on Gough Island was determined by direct censuses of parts of the coast duro ing the summers of 1974 - 1976 ...

  3. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31

  4. Stepping-stones to the Edge: Artistic Expressions of Islandness in an Ocean of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest of times, islands have captured the artistic imagination—and, often, for the artist who finds his or her muse in being ‘islanded’, the smaller the island the better. Archipelagos offer an ideal setting for artists who take their inspiration from place: on small islands off islands they can experience an intensity of island living they might not otherwise have on a main island: boundedness and connection, isolation and community. This paper examines expressions of islandness by artists who live on islands off islands that are poles apart—‘archipelagos’ of the Canadian North Atlantic and the Great Southern Ocean. It draws upon interviews with those artists and writers to consider the nature of humans’ attachment and attraction to islands, exploring through the lens of phenomenology what Stratford et al. call the “entanglement between and among islands”.

  5. Translating Neurodevelopmental Care Policies Into Practice: The Experience of Neonatal ICUs in France—The EPIPAGE-2 Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquelin, Anaëlle; Cuttini, Marina; Khoshnood, Babak; Glorieux, Isabelle; Claris, Olivier; Durox, Mélanie; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Arnaud, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the implementation of neurodevelopmental care for newborn preterm infants in neonatal ICUs in France in 2011, analyze changes since 2004, and investigate factors associated with practice. Design: Prospective national cohort study of all births before 32 weeks of gestation. Setting: Twenty-five French regions. Participants: All neonatal ICUs (n = 66); neonates surviving at discharge (n = 3,005). Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Neurodevelopmental care policies and practices were assessed by structured questionnaires. Proportions of neonates initiating kangaroo care during the first week of life and those whose mothers expressed breast milk were measured as neurodevelopmental care practices. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationships between kangaroo care or breast-feeding practices and unit policies, taking into account potential confounders. Free visiting policies, bed availability for parents, and kangaroo care encouragement significantly improved between 2004 and 2011 but with large variabilities between units. Kangaroo care initiation varied from 39% for neonates in the most restrictive units to 68% in less restrictive ones (p neurodevelopmental care significantly influenced kangaroo care initiation (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.8–7.0 for Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program implementation compared with no training). Breast milk expression by mothers was greater in units with full-time availability professionals trained for breast-feeding support (60% vs 73%; p neurodevelopmental practices occurred between 2004 and 2011, but large variabilities between units persist. Practices increased in units with supportive policies. Specific neurodevelopmental care training with multifaceted interventions strengthened the implementation of policies. PMID:27518584

  6. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  7. Destination: Marshall Islands. Video Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Margaret

    This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. Activities that the guide describes are for use in a 3- to 5-day unit on one of the nations of Oceania, the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The activities are designed to provide students with opportunities to: (1) compare and contrast Marshallese and U.S. culture;…

  8. Modeling the distribution of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus on offshore islands in the Falkland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tabak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native rats (Rattus spp. threaten native island species worldwide. Efforts to eradicate them from islands have increased in frequency and become more ambitious in recent years. However, the long-term success of some eradication efforts has been compromised by the ability of rats, particularly Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus which are good swimmers, to recolonize islands following eradications. In the Falkland Islands, an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, the distance of 250 m between islands (once suggested as the minimum separation distance for an effective barrier to recolonization has shown to be insufficient. Norway rats are present on about half of the 503 islands in the Falklands. Bird diversity is lower on islands with rats and two vulnerable passerine species, Troglodytes cobbi (the only endemic Falkland Islands passerine and Cinclodes antarcticus, have greatly reduced abundances and/or are absent on islands with rats. We used logistic regression models to investigate the potential factors that may determine the presence of Norway rats on 158 islands in the Falkland Islands. Our models included island area, distance to the nearest rat-infested island, island location, and the history of island use by humans as driving variables. Models best supported by data included only distance to the nearest potential source of rats and island area, but the relative magnitude of the effect of distance and area on the presence of rats varied depending on whether islands were in the eastern or western sector of the archipelago. The human use of an island was not a significant parameter in any models. A very large fraction (72% of islands within 500 m of the nearest potential rat source had rats, but 97% of islands farther than 1,000 m away from potential rat sources were free of rats.

  9. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  10. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  11. Shape and coarsening dynamics of strained islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifani, Guido; Frisch, Thomas; Argentina, Mederic

    2016-01-01

    and numerically the formation of an equilibrium island using a two-dimensional continuous model. We have found that these equilibrium island-like solutions have a maximum height h_{0} and they sit on top of a flat wetting layer with a thickness h_{w}. We then consider two islands, and we report that they undergo...... and leads to the shrinkage of the smallest island. Once its height becomes smaller than a minimal equilibrium height h_{0}^{*}, its mass spreads over the entire system. Our results pave the way for a future analysis of coarsening of an assembly of islands....

  12. The Kattegat Island of Anholt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels

    2015-01-01

    relatively simple models can describe the processes that take place. New data are presented which provide a detailed description of the last 16,000 years of climate and sea level change influence on the forces that have formed the island. This geological history can be used to provide information...... on the history of groundwater recharge and drainage, and the development of the salt-fresh groundwater interface under a sand island. The fact that the center of Anholt was covered by the sea 6,000 years ago, and consequently the freshwater lens, over 100 m below sea level, did not exist means that the present......Fluctuations in sea level influence the condition of many coastal groundwater aquifers. A rise in sea level can result in seawater intrusion in areas where the groundwater level is near the present sea level, and it may take a long time for the boundary between salt and fresh groundwater to reach...

  13. Tsunami Forecast for Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, W.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to present a model for the short-term and long-term tsunami forecast for Galapagos Islands. For both cases the ComMIT/MOST(Titov,et al 2011) numerical model and methodology have been used. The results for the short-term model has been compared with the data from Lynett et al, 2011 surveyed from the impacts of the March/11 in the Galapagos Islands. For the case of long-term forecast, several scenarios have run along the Pacific, an extreme flooding map is obtained, the method is considered suitable for places with poor or without tsunami impact information, but under tsunami risk geographic location.

  14. Nuclear treasure island [superheavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. Soon after the experiments at Dubna, which synthesized element 114 and made the first footprints on the beach of the "island of nuclear stability", two new superheavy elements have been discovered at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Element 118 and its immediate decay product, element 116, were manufactured at Berkeley's 88 inch cyclotron by fusing targets of lead-208 with an intense beam of 449 MeV krypton-86 ions. Although both new nuclei almost instantly decay into lighter ones, the decay sequence is consistent with theories that have long predicted the island of stability for nuclei with approximately 114 protons and 184 neutrons. Theorist Robert Smolanczuk, visiting from the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Poland, had calculated that this reaction should have particularly favourable production rates. Now that this route has been signposted, similar reactions could be possible: new elements and isotopes, tests of nuclear stability and mass models, and a new under...

  15. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    During the 1998 marine biological survey, a total of 122 species of reef fish, 41 species of corals, 39 species of other macroinvertebrates , and 19...The lagoon supports a large population of fish and the surrounding reefs host a diverse assemblage of reef fish. Nearshore fish important for food...found at Wake Island. The Federally threatened Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) was observed multiple times in the near shore ocean and lagoon

  16. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layfield, R.P.; Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards

  17. The Three Mile Island crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, P.S.; Cleary, P.D.; Hu, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample of the population (with telephones) around TMI

  18. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layfield, R.P. (Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H. (Arco Oil and Gas Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards.

  19. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  20. Tilt measurements at Vulcano Island

    OpenAIRE

    B. Saraceno; G. Laudani; F. Guglielmino; A. Ferro; G. Falzone; O. Campisi; S. Gambino

    2007-01-01

    A network of tiltmeters has been operational on Vulcano Island for numerous years. At present, the network comprises five functioning borehole stations, four of which are installed at 8-10 m and allow recording very stable, high precision signals with very low noise. We report observations over the last 12 years that illustrate impulsive variations linked to seismicity and long-term (several years) trends in the signals. We suggest a relationship between tilt changes correlated to the stro...

  1. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suetsugu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  2. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI. The Bucholz AAF geographic coordinates information was updated in the Kwajalein Island Class E airspace descriptions in 2011, but was inadvertently overlooked in the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description. This action ensures the safety of aircraft operating in the Kwajalein Island airspace area. This is an administrative action and does not affect the operating requirements of the airspace.

  3. Depopulation of Vis Island, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses population dynamics of Vis Island along with geographic, demographic and social features related to this process. Data from demographic statistics and research results show that Vis Island has been affected by strong populational regression. This process originated at the beginning of the 20th century, and intensified after the Second World War. Depopulation was generated by retardation in socio-economic development, but it was directly caused by centennial emigration. At the beginning of 1960s, natural decrease occurred as another important cause of depopulation. It was the result of postponed effect of emigration, demographic losses in world wars and birth rate transition (changes in number of children per family. Long-term unfavorable demographic processes (emigration, depopulation, demographic aging, reduced birth rates have led to weakening of (bioreproduction and vital potential. The above-mentioned fact has also influencedthe age structure of the population. Population of Vis Island has aged and belongs to a particular demographic type named very old population. However, depopulation, that used to be the result of social phenomena, has become an important factor of social and spatial processes.

  4. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  5. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  6. Island development: Local governance under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Min Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues surrounding island development have generated a growing volume of research. What does it mean to develop? How can island communities maintain control over development processes to the benefit of the local economy, rather than seeing economic flows enter and exit the island with little or a primarily negative impact? And how important is local knowledge for edifying local governance and enhancing potentials for innovation in island development? Island histories have repeatedly been forwarded as exemplars and ‘lessons’ for global learning on (unsustainability. To consider these issues, we have selected a number of papers from among the presentations given at the International Geographical Union’s Commission on Islands Conference, Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability, which took place in the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan, 1–5 October 2013. These papers serve as examples of how the processes of globalization have penetrated the borders and changed the political and economic structures of islands. They also explore how island-based innovations in science, technology, culture, and formal or informal governance might contribute to sustainable island development.

  7. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  8. Mosquito Surveys Carried out On Green Island, Orchid Island, and Penghu Island, Taiwan, in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jen Teng

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys of mosquitoes were carried out on Green, Orchid, and Penghu Islands in 2003 to ascertain the status of mosquito vectors. Eighteen species of mosquitoes were collected, including three species of Anopheles, four species of Aedes, eight species of Culex, two species of Armigeres, and one species of Malaya. Seventeen previously recorded species were not collected in this study but 11 species collected had not previously been recorded. Ten newly recorded species, An. maculatus, An. takasagoensis, Ae. alcasidi, Ae. lineatopennis, Ae. vexans vexans, Ar. omissus, Cx. vishnui, Cx. halifaxii, Cx. hayashii, and Cx. neomimulus, were collected on Green Island and one previously unrecorded species, Ar. subalbatus, was collected on Orchid Island. Potential vectors An. maculatus and An. sinensis, malaria vectors in Korea and Mainland China, Ae. albopictus, a vector of dengue in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, Cx. vishnui and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Japanese encephalitis vectors in Taiwan, Ae. vexans vexans, an eastern equine encephalitis vector in the USA, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, a vector of filariasis in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, were among the mosquito species collected.

  9. Sedimentary Fatty Alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Farahin Amiruddin; Mohamad Iznul Muazim Mohamad Zabidi; Nurul Fathihah Mt Nanyan; Masni Mohd Ali; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    A geochemical study was carried out to identify the composition and sources of fatty alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Fatty alcohols in surface sediments were extracted and analyzed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 23 fatty alcohol compounds were identified in the Kapas Island sediment. Total concentrations of fatty alcohols ranged from 0.53 to 21.31 ng/ g dry weight and the highest total concentration was found at S2, which is probably due to its location profile that is located north of Kapas Island which is close to several small islands. The short chain/ long chain fatty alcohol ratio and alcohol source index (ASI) were used together to identify the dominant input in Kapas Island. Kapas Island sediments contained a mixture of organic sources, of which terrestrial sources were indicated to be the most abundant sources in these marine sediments. (author)

  10. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  11. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  12. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  13. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  14. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  15. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the...′ W. (Port Royal Sound Lighted Whistle Buoy “2PR”); thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head...

  16. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from latitude 31°04.1′ N. longitude 81°16.7′ W. (St. Simons Lighted Whistle Buoy “ST S”) to latitude 30...

  17. Renewable technologies for generation systems in islands and their application to Cozumel Island, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Vizcaino, Javier; Sumper, Andreas; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni; Ramirez, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The electric generation systems on islands are based generally on fossil fuel. This fact and its supply make the electricity cost higher than in systems used in the continent. In this article, we present a review of the renewable energy generation systems on islands. To do it we analysed 77 islands from 45 different countries. This work will allow us to know how the implementation of renewable energy sources could help these islands in developing a renewable and sustainable energy sector, inc...

  18. Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdzhanova, T.; Kiravittaya, S.; Rastelli, A.; Stoffel, M.; Denker, U.; Schmidt, O.G.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes

  19. Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G

    2006-06-09

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

  20. Simple method for calculating island widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.; Hanson, J.D.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    A simple method for calculating magnetic island widths has been developed. This method uses only information obtained from integrating along the closed field line at the island center. Thus, this method is computationally less intensive than the usual method of producing surfaces of section of sufficient detail to locate and resolve the island separatrix. This method has been implemented numerically and used to analyze the buss work islands of ATF. In this case the method proves to be accurate to at least within 30%. 7 refs

  1. RAINDROP DISTRIBUTIONS AT MAJURO ATOLL, MARSHALL ISLANDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAINDROPS, MARSHALL ISLANDS ), (*ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION, TROPICAL REGIONS), PARTICLE SIZE, SAMPLING, TABLES(DATA), WATER, ATTENUATION, DISTRIBUTION, VOLUME, RADAR REFLECTIONS, RAINFALL, PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, COMPUTERS

  2. Coastal management strategy for small island: ecotourism potency development in Karimata Island, West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiastuti, A. W.; Munawaroh; Setyawan, I. E.; Pramono, G. H.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainable coastal management is playing an important role in coastal resources conservation, particularly on small islands. Karimata archipelago has unique characteristics and great potential to be developed as a tourism object, one of which is Karimata Island as the largest island and also reserve area. The concept of ecotourism focuses on the ecology conservation, economic benefits, and social life. Ecotourism aims to build sustainable tourism that provides economically viable and social benefits to the community. This study aims to develop coastal management strategy based on ecotourism at Karimata Island. Spatial approaching through coastal type was done. Qualitative descriptive analysis and SWOT are used to develop sustainable management strategies for the coast of Karimata Island, where the opportunities and challenges to the development of coastal ecotourism Karimata Island also included. If this potential is optimally utilized, it can be relied as an economic opportunity for local communities. Structurally shaped coast, marine depositional coast and coast build by organism are several of coastal types found at Karimata Island. Coastal ecosystems inhabited Karimata Island are mangroves, coral reefs, and macro-algae. Karimata Island have not been optimally utilized for tourist destinations. The biggest obstacle encountered is the accessibility from Kalimantan or other island at Karimata islands. Several problems related to the utilization of coastal resources were found such as mangrove and coral reef damage, also regulation that less supportive. The results of this study are expected to provide an overview of solutions for the development of coastal tourism potentials in Karimata Island.

  3. Some data on the avifauna of the Island of Roti, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, J.A.J.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For several years I had been looking for an opportunity to visit the island of Roti (Rotti, Roté, Loté). Junge (1954) mentions that only once an ornithological collection was made in the island, namely by Dr. H. F. C. ten Kate, an ethnologist who visited the island in 1891. Büttikofer

  4. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...This action removes the reference to the Kwajalein Tactacial Air Navigation (TACAN) System from the legal description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The U.S. Army notified the FAA that the Kwajalein TACAN was decommissioned. This action corrects the legal descriptions for the Class E airspace areas in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands.

  5. In or On? Island Words, Island Worlds: II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronstrom Owe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines uses and meanings of the orientational metaphors ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘out’ and ‘off’. In the discussed languages in North Western Europe there are general principles of metaphoric entailment and underlying image schemas that guide the choice of positional metaphor: islands you are normally ‘on’, and mainlands ‘in’. The second part of the paper examines cases where this use is debated or contested. The author finds that these contestations seem to be fuelled by the different relations between subject and object that positional metaphors entail. Expressions with ‘in’ highlight belonging and collective identity, enlarge objects by conceptualizing them as encompassing containers, and reduce subjects to a part of the object. Expressions with ‘on’ highlight individuality and agency, reduce the object, and enlarge the subject by placing it above the object. Such differing entailments of positional metaphors may influence how islands are positioned and understood.

  6. Sable Island: A heritage to preserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, C.

    1997-09-01

    Sable Island is strategically located on the edge of the teeming fisheries of the Newfoundland Grand Banks and near one of the main sea routes between North America and Europe. It has been the bane of navigators from 1583 onward, with 250 ships running aground, the latest in 1947. Marine productivity around Sable Island is very high owing to the temperature differences between the currents and the adjacent underwater topography. Dolphins and whales abound in the area known as the `Gully`, and there are no fewer than 36 fish species present in the waters surrounding the Island. Approximately 35 per cent of the Island is covered by vegetation which is limited to species adapted to sandy soil containing little organic matter and few nutrients. Some plants, such as the American beachgrass, grow in dense colonies and help to stabilize the dunes. Bird diversity is limited to species adapted to open areas, ponds and the littoral. Some 324 species have been recorded on the Island, but only 25 are known to nest there. The Island is one of world`s most important breeding sites for grey seals where they can be observed in great numbers during mating, whelping and moulting season. Among the many introduced animals only the legendary horses of Sable Island remain to this day. Despite its remoteness and isolation, the Island faces many threats, one of the most worrysome being the erosion of the eastern extremity of the Island during severe winter storms. The Island benefits from its status as a Migratory Bird Sanctuary, and is legally protected under Sable Island Regulations of the Navigation Act.

  7. Surficial geology of Coats and Mansel Islands, Northwest Territories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aylsworth, J. M; Shilts, W. W

    1991-01-01

    ... islands.A second objective was to determine the maximum level of marine submergence on Coats Island and, if possible, to collect marine shells for dating purposes from the extensive flights of beaches developed on both islands...

  8. Updating Rhode Island's strategic highway safety plan (SHSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes the peer exchange sponsored by the Rhode Island : Department of Transportation (RIDOT) that focused on Rhode Islands SHSP : update. : Rhode Islands goals for the peer exchange included learning from other States : expe...

  9. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  10. Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya | Etayeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya. ... They provide food, shelter and nesting grounds for many avifauna during their migration ... northern part of the island and at Ras-Attalgha, beside the plant cover of the island itself.

  11. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available This report gives the results of a workshop held on historical sites at the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward islands, southern Indian Ocean. All known visits and sojourns on the Prince Edward islands up to 1948 are tabulated. All known historical sites...

  12. African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  13. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  14. Storm impacts on small barrier islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    The shorelines of the Baltic Sea and the inner coastal waters in Denmark consist of many barrier islands. These sandy barrier islands were mainly formed in the Holocene and are still very dynamic. The present day changes in the morphology are dominantly governed by storm waves and associated high...

  15. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  16. African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Home > African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal ...

  17. The water landscapes of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Gini; Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Island environments, particularly small archipelagos such as the Canary Islands, are more visible subject to the vagaries of change wrought by ecological and climate dynamics, shifting social conditions and economic impacts subject to global markets, than is witnessed on continental worlds....

  18. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  19. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  20. The avifauna of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    The avifauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands) is reviewed. Introductory sections, which include a chapter on the history of ornithological discovery, are followed by the main part, a systematic account in which each species and subspecies known from Flores is treated separately. A

  1. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from

  2. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  3. Analysis of hybrid systems for La Graciosa Island (Canary Islands)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, L.; Gomez, A. [Departament of Process Engineering Industrial Enviromental Section, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Campus Universitario of Tafira 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Leon, V. [Red Electrica de Espana, Polygono de la Majuelos 38108 San Cristobal de La Laguna (Spain); Nuez, I. [Departament of Electronic and Automatic Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Campus Universitario of Tafira 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The main objectives of the study are the integration of the renewable energies, the study of the production of the hydrogen and the utilization in areas where have a high potential of renewable origin sources and a low capacity of drinkable water and energy power. In this work, it has been done the study of the actual energy necessity of the island and it is posed a series of solutions to its energy system. It is analyzed three cases. In the first step, it is exposed an isolated system with renewable energies and hydrogen as energy storage; in the second step, it is studied a system with renewable energies, hydrogen and an electricity-generating group as support; and in the third step, it is analyzed a case with renewable energy and connexion to the network (in this case, it would already not be an isolated system). (authors)

  4. Analysis of hybrid systems for La Graciosa Island (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, L.; Gomez, A.; Leon, V.; Nuez, I.

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives of the study are the integration of the renewable energies, the study of the production of the hydrogen and the utilization in areas where have a high potential of renewable origin sources and a low capacity of drinkable water and energy power. In this work, it has been done the study of the actual energy necessity of the island and it is posed a series of solutions to its energy system. It is analyzed three cases. In the first step, it is exposed an isolated system with renewable energies and hydrogen as energy storage; in the second step, it is studied a system with renewable energies, hydrogen and an electricity-generating group as support; and in the third step, it is analyzed a case with renewable energy and connexion to the network (in this case, it would already not be an isolated system). (authors)

  5. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  6. Further characterisation of two Eimeria species (Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis) in quokkas (Setonix brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, J M; Friend, J A; Yang, R; Ryan, U M

    2014-03-01

    The identification and characterisation of novel Eimeria species has largely been based on sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphology, the host species and the geographical range. Variation in the size and shape of Eimeria oocysts across their host range however, make the identification and characterisation of novel species using traditional methodologies alone problematic. The use of molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis has greatly advanced our ability to characterise Eimeria species and has recently been applied to understand evolutionary relationships among Eimeria species from Australian marsupials. In the present study, Eimeria species isolated from quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) captured from Two Peoples Bay, Bald Island and Rottnest Island, Western Australia, were morphologically identified as Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis. Both Eimeria species were identified as being polymorphic in nature with regards to sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphometrics. Phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA and COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) genes, grouped E. quokka and E. setonicis within the Eimeria marsupial clade together with Eimeria trichosuri from brushtail possums, Eimeria macropodis from tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) and several unidentified macropod Eimeria species from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). This study is the first to characterise E. quokka and E. setonicis by molecular analysis, enabling more extensive resolution of evolutionary relationships among marsupial-derived Eimeria species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pengaruh Perawatan Metode Kanguru terhadap Perubahan Berat Badan Bayi Lahir Rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ,

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Berat Badan Lahir Rendah (BBLR adalah bayi dengan berat badan  bayi lahir kurang dari 2500 gram tanpa memandang masa gestasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui Pengaruh Perawatan Metode Kanguru Terhadap Perubahan Berat Badan Bayi BBLR di ruang inap perinatology  RSUD Dr.Achmad  Mochtar Bukittinggi tahun 2014.  Penelitian ini menggunakan desain  Quasi Eksperimental dengan rancangan one group pretest posttest design, dan pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik purposive  sampling dengan  sampel 10 orang. Hasil penelitian  di dapatkan rata-rata berat badan bayi sebelum perawatan metode kanguru adalah 1738,60 gram, sedangkan setelah dilakukan perawatan metode kanguru berat badan bayi meningkat menjadi 1766,90 gram, dengan peningkatan berat badan sebanyak 28,30 gram dimana  p value = 0.00 <  Dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh perawatan metode kanguru terhadap perubahan berat badan bayi BBLR di ruang inap perinatologi RSUD dr.Achmad Mochtar Bukittinggi tahun 2014. Dan disarankan kepada ibu-ibu untuk melakukan perawatan metode kanguru secara rutin dan pemberian ASI yang cukup terhadap bayi BBLR.Kata kunci: Perawatan Metode Kanguru, Berat Badan bayi. Low Birth Weight (LBW is a baby with a birth weight less than 2500 grams regardless of gestation. This research used a quasi-experimental design with one group pretest posttest design. The samples were taken using purposive sampling technique. The results showed that all respondents experienced weight gain. The weight of babies before applying kangaroo care method was 1738.60 grams in average. While after applying the kangaroo care method, the baby's weight increased to 1766.90 grams. After using a statistical test of dependent t-test (paired t-test, pvalue gotten was 0.000, with standard error (α 0.05. It means that there is a significant difference between the average weight before and after the treatment of kangaroo care methods with weight gain as much as 28.30 gram. Based

  8. Crystalline islands of semiconductor films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmievskaya, G. I.; Bondareva, A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nucleation in the form of powder in a discharge plasma and the formation of thin film islands on a Si(100) substrate in the course of gas-phase epitaxy are simulated numerically. Models of plasma-like media and nonequilibrium processes accompanying phase transitions of the first kind (such as condensation and crystallization) in the initial fast (fluctuation) stage are described. The nonstationary evolution of nuclei size distribution functions is modeled by solving kinetic equations in partial derivatives and stochastic Ito-Stratonovich analog equations. This makes it possible to refine the formation mechanisms of microcrystalline state polytypes and calculate the nucleation rate and the initial roughness of a SiC coating.

  9. SRTM Stereo Pair: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This stereoscopic view was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Also, colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to pink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters (4300 feet) of total relief. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shading and colors back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The 3-D perception is achieved by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the

  10. Three-Mile Island Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    Activities associated with the Three-Mile Island (TMI) Program were of two types. One involved providing technical review and guidance for specific recovery efforts at TMI, whereas the second was concerned more directly with providing technical assistance to recovery operations through detailed analyses and experimental activities. The work was divided into four elements: Task I - coordination of and participation in the operation of the Technical Advisory Group (TAG) for the cleanup of aqueous streams at TMI; Task II - participation in the Technical Assistance and Advisory Group (TAAG) on TMI operations; Task III - chemical development and other technical support to TMI recovery operations; and Task IV - development of inorganic sorbents for the decontamination of aqueous streams. At the program review that was conducted approximately mid-fiscal year, it was decided to curtail the Task IV activities in favor of studies of more-urgent problems. Technical progress for each of the tasks of this program is presented

  11. Fuelwood production in Prince Edward Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    The most recent Prince Edward Island Fuelwood Survey occurred in 1990-91. Consumption of fuelwood rose again to 49% of Prince Edward Island's 43,170 households. Total residential fuelwood consumption was estimated to be 242,000 m 3 . The fuelwood industry makes an important contribution to the economy of Prince Edward Island. In the 1990-91 heating season, fuelwood valued at USD 9 million displaced approximately 43 million litres of domestic heating oil valued at USD 16.4 million. In addition, it is estimated that 70 cents of every dollar spent on fuelwood remains in the province and contributes spin-off benefits, whereas 90 cents of every dollar spent on heating oil is lost to the economy of Prince Edward Island. The percentage of people cutting their own fuelwood decreased from 52 in 1984-85 to only 23.4 in 1990-91. The governments of Canada and Prince Edward Island have implemented a series of Forest Resource Development Agreements (FRDAs) starting in 1983. The current 1988-1993 FRDA provides USD 24 million for research and incentives for reforestation and management of Prince Edward Island woodlots. It is expected that 3,800 Prince Edward Island woodlot owners will be participating in a woodlot management program by 1993. Silviculture treatments of hardwood stands include thinning, stand conversion (removal of lowgrade softwoods such as balsam fir in mainly hardwood stands), and shelterwood (strip) cutting, particularly in marginal stands. (9 refs.)

  12. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, K.J.; Laford, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m 3 of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations

  13. Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Pugh

    2013-01-01

    Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011) say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Au...

  14. [Biodemographical study in the Island of Pascua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, B; Campusano, C; Figueroa, H

    1993-06-01

    The aim of this study was to know the degree of miscegenation in the Easter Island population. One hundred two weddings carried out between 1987 and 1991 were recorded and the proportion of marriages between islanders and immigrants was analyzed. Also, ABO and Rh blood groups of all deliveries occurred between 1988 and 1991 were compiled. There was a particular tendency of islanders to marry with immigrants and the proportion of miscegenation was 75.5%. Additionally a decline in the frequency of A blood group is observed, comparing results from studies performed since 1932 up to date.

  15. FBSAD Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  16. FBSAB RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  17. On the form of species–area relationships in habitat islands and true islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Guilhaumon, François; Triantis, Kostas A.

    2016-01-01

    and c vary between different island types. Location: Global. Methods: We used an information theoretic approach to compare the fit of 20 ISAR models to 207 habitat island datasets. Model performance was ranked according to pre-set criteria, including metrics of generality and efficiency. We also fitted......, and was the highest ranked model overall. In general, the more complex models performed badly. Average z-values were significantly lower for habitat island datasets than for true islands, and were higher for mountaintop and urban habitat islands than for other habitat island types. Average c-values were significantly...... multimodel comparisons demonstrated the nonlinear implementation of the power model to be the best overall model and thus to be a sensible choice for general use. As the z-value of the log–log power model varied in relation to ecological and geographical properties of the study systems, caution should...

  18. Adaptive radiation of island plants: Evidence from Aeonium (Crassulaceae) of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    evidence that such traits have been acquired through convergent evolution on islands comes from molecular phylogenies; however, direct evidence of their selective value rarely is obtained. The importance of hybridization in the evolution of island plants is also considered as part of a more general......The presence of diverse and species-rich plant lineages on oceanic islands is most often associated with adaptive radiation. Here we discuss the possible adaptive significance of some of the most prominent traits in island plants, including woodiness, monocarpy and sexual dimorphisms. Indirect...... discussion of the mechanisms governing radiations on islands. Most examples are from the Hawaiian and Canarian floras, and in particular from studies on the morphological, ecological and molecular diversification of the genus Aeonium, the largest plant radiation of the Canarian Islands....

  19. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio All Sites ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio Liver & IBD* ...

  20. The effects of island ontogeny on species diversity and phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente, Luis M.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Phillimore, Albert B.

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of island biogeography is to understand how island communities are assembled over time. However, we know little about the influence of variable area and ecological opportunity on island biotas over geological time-scales. Islands have limited life spans, and it has been posited that

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Transportation Data for

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations in Rhode Island with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 3 3 More Rhode Island Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 https://www.youtube.com/embed

  2. Island dynamics and Minoan expansion in the Aegean: the Kythera Island Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyprian Broodbank

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years archaeologists have become increasingly interested in the investigation of island societies. At a global level, discoveries in the Pacific, Caribbean, Mediterranean and elsewhere have greatly improved our understanding of the antiquity and dynamics of island life. Now archaeologists at the Institute, together with other colleagues, have embarked on a long-term interdisciplinary study of the island of Kythera in the Aegean.

  3. Wind energy potential on Malaysian Resort Islands: a case study of Tioman, Redang and Perhentian Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2000-01-01

    Wind data collected at three east coast islands of Peninsular Malaysia namely Tioman, Redang and Perhentian Island were analyzed for the wind energy potential. The results were presented as Weibull distribution and preliminary analysis indicate that the site at Redang Island have the greatest potential with a mean power density of 85.1 w/m 2 at 10 meters above sea level. (Author)

  4. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head..., SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost tip of Folley Island to the... easternmost extremity of Hilton Head at latitude 32°13.0′ N. longitude 80°40.1′ W. [CGD 77-118a, 42 FR 35784...

  5. Elastic energies of coherent germanium islands on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderbilt, D.; Wickham, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by recent observations of coherent Ge island formation during growth of Ge on Si (100), the authors of this paper have carried out a theoretical study of the elastic energies associated with the evolution of a uniform strained overlayer as it segregates into coherent islands. In the context of a two-dimensional model, the authors have explored the conditions under which coherent islands may be energetically favored over both uniform epitaxial films and dislocated islands. The authors find that if the interface energy (for dislocated islands) is more than about 15% of the surface energy, then there is a range of island sizes for which the coherent island structure is preferred

  6. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  7. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  8. A new species of iguana Brachylophus Cuvier 1829 (Sauria: Iguania: Iguanidae) from Gau Island, Fiji Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S

    2017-06-06

    The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji.  Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species.  One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province.  Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations.  We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.

  9. Issues and Tensions in Island Heritage Management: A Case Study of Motuihe Island, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bade

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on a New Zealand case study, Motuihe Island, to examine the challenges of conserving cultural heritage in places renowned for natural heritage values. In keeping with the broader trend toward the ecological restoration of islands close to Auckland, Motuihe Island is undergoing conversion into an ecosystem of native flora and fauna. Issues and tensions relating to the management of natural and cultural heritage will be discussed and influencing aspects investigated: the nature/culture dualism, the effect of New Zealand’s history and identity, and the influence of islandness on heritage management.

  10. Hillshades for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These hillshade datasets were derived from USGS 7.5' DEM Quads for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands. Individual DEM quads were first converted to a common datum, and...

  11. Control and Operation of Islanded Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar

    deviation and real power shift. When a distribution system, with all its generators operating at maximum power, is islanded, the frequency will go down if the total load is more than the total generation. An under-frequency load shedding procedure for islanded distribution systems with DG unit(s) based...... states. Short circuit power also changes when some of the generators in the distribution system are disconnected. This may result in elongation of fault clearing time and hence disconnection of equipments (including generators) in the distribution system or unnecessary operation of protective devices...... operational challenges. But, on the other hand, it has also opened up some opportunities. One opportunity/challenge is an islanded operation of a distribution system with DG unit(s). Islanding is a situation in which a distribution system becomes electrically isolated from the remainder of the power system...

  12. Studies on littoral flora of Andaman Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Marine macrophytes of Andaman islands were qualitatively surveyed. In all 40 genera, 64 species of marine algae, 17 genera, 22 species of mangroves while 3 genera, 3 species of seagrasses are reported. There were 26 species of rhodophyta, 21 species...

  13. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Howland Island 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at Howland Island in the...

  14. In the Shadow of Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair-Clough, Ida; Wheeler, Brenda

    1979-01-01

    Describes how teachers turned the reality of the nuclear reactor incident at Three Mile Island into a learning experience for children by recreating the sequence of events through creative dramatics. (CM)

  15. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  16. Development of Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1994-01-01

    .... The DoD Hotline complaint alleged that the Navy was not receiving the fair market value for the land, the Navy was understating the estimated cost to construct the causeway and to develop Ford Island...

  17. A Chemistry Lesson at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammano, Nicholas J.

    1980-01-01

    Details the procedures used in utilizing the hydrogen bubble incident at Three Mile Island to relate these basic chemical principles to nuclear chemistry: gas laws, Le Chatelier's principle and equilibrium, and stoichiometry. (CS)

  18. Reef Fish of Navassa Island 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This record refers to reef fish data collected on the 2004 cruise to Navassa Island National Wildlife Refuge. The random point count method (Bohnsack-Bannerot 1986)...

  19. Marine investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    to navigators through the ages. Recent discoveries made during marine archaeological exploration and excavations in the Lakshadweep have revealed evidences of early settlement and shipwrecks. The findings suggest that the islands had been inhabited much before...

  20. Potential For Conflict in the Spratly Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chin, Chin

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the potential for conflict in the Spratly Islands and determines whether the Declaration of Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea signed between China and ASEAN on November 4...

  1. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  2. Maritime archaeology of Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.

    route from Europe to Asia before the opening of the Suez Canal In order to delineate the earliest human habitation and maritime contacts of Lakshadweep Islands, archaeological explorations was carried on by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI...

  3. One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja

    2011-01-01

    The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.

  4. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Baker Island 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Baker Island in the US...

  5. Coral Reef Status of Navassa Island 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic and habitat data collected on the 2004 cruise to Navassa Islands National Wildlife Refuge. Parameters include benthic cover, coral disease prevalence,...

  6. The Faroe Islands: Options for Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ackren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The Faroe Islands are currently at a crossroads in their constitutional status. Discussions concerning changes in the current constitutional status are ongoing and several analyses about possible trajectories of future development are being proposed. Argued in a context of Faroese nationalism, this article tries to assess these trajectories in the future jurisdictional and political development of the Faroe Islands in terms of three possible scenarios: independence or full sovereignty (as is Iceland; a freely associated statehood (as are Niue and the Cook Islands in relation to New Zealand; or a confederation, probably involving changes at both the central level of the Danish state and the European Union level. This article argues that the most likely future development is that of a state in free association with Denmark. Meanwhile, island politics can change very quickly and the traditional cleavages in Faroese politics are liable to changing degrees of public support.

  7. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  8. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  9. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  10. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  11. Unsupervised statistical identification of genomic islands using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vibrio species. These investigations lead to observations that are of evolutionary ... Identification of genomic islands in prokaryotic genomes has received considerable attention in the literature due to .... For instance, selective pres- sures as a ...

  12. Urban Heat Island Effect Actions - Neighborhood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisville Metro Government — The urban heat island effect — defined as the difference in temperature between the core of Louisville and its suburbs — contributes to heat-related illnesses and...

  13. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere. Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  14. The urban heat island in Akron, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank P. Martin; Grace L. Powell

    1977-01-01

    Data gathered by automobile traverse were used to describe the urban heat of Akron, Ohio. Observations were made at 2100 or 2200 EST on four nights-17 April, 11 July, 10 October, and 2 January. Weather conditions not conducive to heat-island development were avoided. Temperatures in the center of the heat island were 6 to 14?F warmer than rural areas outside the city....

  15. Cultural ecotourism and the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the same way that the Ogasawara Islands have been able to utilize their natural assets as tourist resources, many hope the islands may be able to use their unique cultural heritage to their commercial advantage as a tourism resource well. But the harnessing of local culture as a tourism resource involves many problems. Cultural tourism may negatively impact the natural environment if visitors have to traverse nature areas to view points of cultural interest. Cultural resources themselves h...

  16. Analysis of volcano rock from Canary islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Sedlackova, K.; Dekan, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have analyzed the basalt rock from Lanzarote, which is the easternmost island of the Canary Islands lying in the Atlantic Ocean and has a volcanic origin. It was born through fiery eruptions and has solidified lava streams as well as extravagant rock formations. We compared our results with composition of basalt rocks from some other places on the Earth. Different iron oxides created on the volcanic rocks during their weathering on the Earth surface has been also analyzed. (authors)

  17. Conventional Deterrence and the Falkland Islands Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    clear, or misread . The goal of a state in signaling is to send a “clear declaratory policy that makes clear what is to be deterred.”128 A challenge...render medical , educational, and other support to the islands. Britain even attempted to ignore numerous Argentine aggressive actions in order to...order to attain this goal. As mentioned earlier, it had successfully lobbied around the world to have the Falkland Islands situation labeled as a

  18. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  19. Bone island (enostosis): current concept - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, A.

    1995-01-01

    A bone island can be virtually diagnosed based on its characteristic clinical and radiologic features. Typically asymptomatic, the lesion is usually an incidental finding, with a preference for the pelvis, femur, and other long bones, although it may be found anywhere in the skeleton, including the spine. Plain radiography reveals a homogeneously dense, sclerotic focus in the cancellous bone with distinctive radiating bony streaks (''thorny radiation'') that blend with the trabeculae of the host bone, creating a feathered or brush-like border. On CT scan, a bone island appears as a low-attenuation focus, and on MRI sequences it shows low signal intensity like cortical bone. A distinguishing feature of bone islands is that they are usually ''cold'' on skeletal scintigraphy. Thus, bone scan has been and continues to be the means of differentiating bone islands from the more aggressive entities. However, reports of histologically confirmed bone islands that were scintigraphically active have raised a note of caution about relying on this modality in the differential consideration of lesions otherwise characteristic of bone islands. Guides to the correct diagnosis should be looked for in the individual clinical situation and in the morphologic features of the lesion on plain radiography, CT, and MRI, without regard to the lesion's activity on bone scan. If such a lesion, however, is symptomatic and ''hot'' on scintigraphy, it demands close observation with follow-up imaging studies. (orig./VHE)

  20. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.

  1. Tilt measurements at Vulcano Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saraceno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A network of tiltmeters has been operational on Vulcano Island for numerous years. At present, the network comprises five functioning borehole stations, four of which are installed at 8-10 m and allow recording very stable, high precision signals with very low noise. We report observations over the last 12 years that illustrate impulsive variations linked to seismicity and long-term (several years trends in the signals. We suggest a relationship between tilt changes correlated to the strongest regional seismic events and site acceleration; long-term tilt variations analyzed in combination with other ground deformation data seem to represent the evidence of a contraction of the La Fossa cone. We also analyzed how the tilt device has the capability to detect possible magma migrations; we considered previous studies that have imaged spatially well-defined levels of magma accumulation beneath La Fossa, and Vulcanello; we concluded that the Vulcano tilt network should be capable of detecting the upward migration of small magma volumes. Finally, we show that no evidence of changes are visible on tilt signals during anomalous degassing episodes (linked to a building up input of magmatic fluids at the La Fossa thereby evidencing that no magma migration occurred during such events.

  2. 36 CFR 13.1178 - Closed waters, islands and other areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... southeast of Flapjack Island; or Eider Island; or Boulder Island; or Geikie Rock; or Lone Island; or the... islands) of the easternmost point of Russell Island; or Graves Rocks (on the outer coast); or Cormorant... and Preserve Vessel Operating Restrictions § 13.1178 Closed waters, islands and other areas. The...

  3. Forces in the development of remote islands in Japan : A case study of local energy enterprises in Tsushima Island

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Yuko; Miyoshi, Emako

    2018-01-01

    Japan, one of the most famous islander nations in the world, has promoted the development of its remote islands for over 60 years after the Second World War. The target islands and projects for fostering development have been steadily expanded. However, the country is facing serious socio-economic challenges such as aging and recession, resulting in less available funding for preferential treatment to remote islands. Thus, the framework for boosting island development should be reconsidered, ...

  4. Terrestrial radiation measurements in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    With the prospect of habitation in the near future, radiological surveys were undertaken of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls to provide a basis for determining whether or not the atolls can be safely reinhabited. The surveys included all of the forty islands within Enewetak Atoll, but only the two principal islands, Bikini and Eneu Islands, of Bikini Atoll. These atolls were former U.S. nuclear weapons test sites in the Pacific. Integral parts of the surveys were the measurements of the distributions of radioactivity in the soil and the resulting gamma ray exposure rates for external dose estimation. Numerous soil samples were collected from both atolls for analysis by Ge (Li) gamma spectrometry and by wet chemistry techniques. At Enewetak Atoll the gamma exposure rates were measured by TLDs and a helicopter-borne array of Nal detectors, while at Bikini Atoll portable Nal detectors, pressurized ion-chambers, and TLDs were utilized. The predominant species measured in the soil samples collected from both atolls were 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu, 137 Cs and 60 Co with the latter two nuclides being the primary contributors to the gamma-ray exposure rates. The geographical distribution of the exposure rates measured on both atolls, was highly variable ranging from less than 1 μR/h on islands that had not been impacted radiologically by the testing program, to over 100 μR/h near weapon detonation sites. Thus, within Enewetak Atoll, the highest soil activities and gamma-ray exposure rates were measured on the northern islands, where the weapons testing had been most intense. Bikini Island exhibited contamination levels that were considerably higher than those on Eneu Island. Generally, the highest activity levels were observed within the island interiors or in proximity to ground zero sites, and could usually be related to the surrounding vegetation density. The island of Yvonne, within Enewetak Atoll, is the most severely contaminated land area. Particles containing as much as several

  5. Conserving the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis by translocation : a transfer from Cousin Island to Aride Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Bullock, Ian D.; Rands, Michael R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Seychelles Warbler was once a highly threatened single-island endemic species with a population of 26 individuals confined to Cousin Island in the inner Seychelles. Following long-term management of Cousin, the population steadily recovered to around 300-360 birds. Given the vulnerability of one

  6. Revisiting the Metaphor of the Island: Challenging "World Culture" from an Island Misunderstood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the newly "discovered" island that world culture theorists have repeatedly utilised to explain their theoretical stance, conceptual preferences and methodological approach. Yet, it seeks to (re)connect world culture with the real world by replacing their imagined atoll with a real one--the island-nation of Japan. In…

  7. Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 9. The amphipod genus Pseudoniphargus (Crustacea) in the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1988-01-01

    Pseudoniphargus was known from inland stygohabitats in the Iberian peninsula, the Azores, Madeira, N.W. Africa, and Bermuda, but not from the Canary Islands. Systematic sampling in six of the seven larger islands of the latter archipelago has revealed the presence of the genus in Tenerife (4

  8. 76 FR 27253 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. Indian Tribal...-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH AGENCY: Coast... zone in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone on Lake Erie, Port Clinton, Ohio. This zone is intended to...

  9. Biological invasions on oceanic islands: Implications for island ecosystems and avifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions present a global threat to biodiversity, but oceanic islands are the systems hardest hit by invasions. Islands are generally depauperate in species richness, trophic complexity, and functional diversity relative to comparable mainland ecosystems. This situation results in low biotic resistance to invasion and many empty niches for invaders to...

  10. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  11. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Nihoa Island (100-025) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-025b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Nihoa Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  12. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Laysan Island (100-006), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-006b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  13. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Lisianski Island (100-001), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-001b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Lisianski Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  14. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank (100-002), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-002b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has...

  15. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Necker Island (100-021) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-021b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Necker Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  16. Coastal groundwater exchange on a small Pacific atoll island: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-04-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands globally due to their unique geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources of atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island communities, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. We here present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data to determine the role of the atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange on the island of Roi Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on such islands to expected climate change-driven perturbations.

  17. Autumn monitoring of resident avifauna on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Boal; J.M. Wunderle Jr.; W.J. Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Although the Caribbean region is considered a biodiversity hotspot and a priority for ecological conservation efforts, little information exists on population trends of West Indian landbirds. We combined avian survey data collected from three studies spanning a 16-year period on a small island with a minimal human presence in the British Virgin Islands. Although...

  18. Runaway electrons and magnetic island confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2016-01-01

    The breakup of magnetic surfaces is a central feature of ITER planning for the avoidance of damage due to runaway electrons. Rapid thermal quenches, which lead to large accelerating voltages, are thought to be due to magnetic surface breakup. Impurity injection to avoid and to mitigate both halo and runaway electron currents utilizes massive gas injection or shattered pellets. The actual deposition is away from the plasma center, and the breakup of magnetic surfaces is thought to spread the effects of the impurities across the plasma cross section. The breakup of magnetic surfaces would prevent runaway electrons from reaching relativistic energies were it not for the persistence of non-intercepting flux tubes. These are tubes of magnetic field lines that do not intercept the walls. In simulations and in magnetic field models, non-intercepting flux tubes are found to persist near the magnetic axis and in the cores of magnetic islands even when a large scale magnetic surface breakup occurs. As long as a few magnetic surfaces reform before all of the non-intercepting flux tubes dissipate, energetic electrons confined and accelerated in these flux tubes can serve as the seed electrons for a transfer of the overall plasma current from thermal to relativistic carriers. The acceleration of electrons is particularly strong because of the sudden changes in the poloidal flux that naturally occur in a rapid magnetic relaxation. The physics of magnetic islands as non-intercepting flux tubes is studied. Expressions are derived for (1) the size of islands required to confine energetic runaway electrons, (2) the accelerating electric field in an island, (3) the increase or reduction in the size of an island by the runaway electron current, (4) the approximate magnitude of the runaway current in an island, and (5) the time scale for the evolution of an island.

  19. Neoclassical islands on COMPASS-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Lloyd, B.; Morris, A.W.; McArdle, G.; O'Brien, M.R.; Valovic, M.; Warrick, C.D.; Wilson, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical magnetic islands are observed to limit the achievable β in COMPASS-D low collisionality single null divertor tokamak plasmas with ITER-like geometry (R 0 = 0.56 m, B 0 1.2 T, I p = 120-180 kA, κ = 1.6, ε = 0.3). The limiting β is typically well below that expected from ideal instabilities with maximum βN in the range of 1.6 to 2.1. The plasma is heated with up to 1.8 MW of 60 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at the second harmonic with X mode polarization. The time history of the measured island width is compared with the predictions of neoclassical tearing mode theory, with good agreement between theory and experiment. The measured islands have a threshold width below which the mode will not grow. The density scaling of the point of onset of the measured instabilities is compared with two theories that predict a threshold island width for the onset of neoclassical tearing modes. Applied resonant helical error fields are used to induce islands in collisionality regimes wherein the neoclassical islands do not occur naturally, allowing the study of the behaviour of neoclassical tearing modes in this regime. The critical β for the onset of neoclassical tearing modes is seen to be ∼3 times higher in the naturally stable region. This observation is compared with the predictions of both threshold theories. A simple expression for the q scaling of the maximum achievable β N in the presence of neoclassical tearing modes is derived on the basis of the assumption of a maximum allowable island width. The predicted q scaling of this β limit is compared with data from a q scan, and the results are in good agreement. (author)

  20. Recent hydrogeologic study of the Vis island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janislav Kapelj

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vis Island belongs to the group of the Middle Dalmatian islands. It comprises an area of about 90.2 km2. Morphologically, three belts of highlands and two depressions with karst poljes are significant. The highest point on the island is Hum with 587 m a.s.l. theisland’s water supply is organized from the water-supply station “Korita”, situated in the central part of island, in tectonically formed depression. There are two additional capturedobjects: the well K-1 above the Komiža town and the spring “Pizdica”. The most important hydrogeological role on the island have two hydrogeological barriers, one in the KomižaBay, completely made of impermeable igneous and clastic rocks, and another one, the recently recognized relative barrier in the area of Dra~evo, Plisko and Velo polje. Since the island karst aquifer is in permanent dynamic relation with seawater, classical geologic,structural and hydrogeologic investigations have been performed with application of hydrogeochemical methods taking into account the natural chemical tracer content of groundwater and its variations in different hydrologic and vegetation conditions. Precipitationregime is very unfavorable with regard to the recharging of island’s aquifer, because dry periods are usually very long. During the summer tourist season, when the number of inhabitants and fresh water consumption considerably increase, amounts of island’sgroundwater suitable for water supply and irrigation rapidly decrease. Sometimes, insufficient quantity of fresh water on the Vis Island causes restrictions. Concerning the development of tourist potential and the present agricultural activities, summer lack ofwater is a serious restrictive factor. Some results of the performed hydrogeological study, important as a basis for island’s fresh water potential assessment, will be presented.

  1. Runaway electrons and magnetic island confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, Allen H., E-mail: ahb17@columbia.edu [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The breakup of magnetic surfaces is a central feature of ITER planning for the avoidance of damage due to runaway electrons. Rapid thermal quenches, which lead to large accelerating voltages, are thought to be due to magnetic surface breakup. Impurity injection to avoid and to mitigate both halo and runaway electron currents utilizes massive gas injection or shattered pellets. The actual deposition is away from the plasma center, and the breakup of magnetic surfaces is thought to spread the effects of the impurities across the plasma cross section. The breakup of magnetic surfaces would prevent runaway electrons from reaching relativistic energies were it not for the persistence of non-intercepting flux tubes. These are tubes of magnetic field lines that do not intercept the walls. In simulations and in magnetic field models, non-intercepting flux tubes are found to persist near the magnetic axis and in the cores of magnetic islands even when a large scale magnetic surface breakup occurs. As long as a few magnetic surfaces reform before all of the non-intercepting flux tubes dissipate, energetic electrons confined and accelerated in these flux tubes can serve as the seed electrons for a transfer of the overall plasma current from thermal to relativistic carriers. The acceleration of electrons is particularly strong because of the sudden changes in the poloidal flux that naturally occur in a rapid magnetic relaxation. The physics of magnetic islands as non-intercepting flux tubes is studied. Expressions are derived for (1) the size of islands required to confine energetic runaway electrons, (2) the accelerating electric field in an island, (3) the increase or reduction in the size of an island by the runaway electron current, (4) the approximate magnitude of the runaway current in an island, and (5) the time scale for the evolution of an island.

  2. Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E

    2009-01-01

    We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years.

  3. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnett, Michael P.

    Climate change have been a major concern among Pacific Islanders since the late 1990s. During that period, Time Magazine featured a cover story that read: Say Goodbye to the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu from sea level rise. Since that time, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UN and government agencies and academic researchers have been assessing the impacts of long-term climate change and seasonal to inter-annual climate variability on the Pacific Islands. The consensus is that long-term climate change will result in more extreme weather and tidal events including droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, and salt water inundation. Extreme weather events already occur in the Pacific Islands and they are patterned. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events impact rainfall, tropical cyclone and tidal patterns. In 2000, the first National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change concluded that long-term climate change will result in more El Niño events or a more El Niño like climate every year. The bad news is that will mean more natural disasters. The good news is that El Niño events can be predicted and people can prepare for them. The reallly bad news is that some Pacific Islands are already becoming uninhabitable because of erosion of land or the loss of fresh water from droughts and salt water intrusion. Many of the most vulnerable countries already overseas populations in New Zealand, the US, or larger Pacific Island countries. For some Pacific Islander abandoning their home countries will be their only option.

  4. Tools for sustainability assessment in island socio-ecological systems: an application to the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Banos-González

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integral dynamic model, in combination with other methods (indicators, policy and scenario analysis, is presented as a tool for sustainability assessment in island socio-ecological systems (SES. The Fuerteventura sustainability model (FSM, tested for the 1996-2011, allows a better understanding of the dynamic interactions between sustainability indicators and other factors of this island. The FSM was first applied to analyse the vulnerability of this island to climate change for the 2012-2025 period; results point to the need for urgent measures to mitigate its effects on some of the analysed indicators. A set of policy measures was then assessed from the behaviour of nine indicators and their sustainability thresholds. Finally, the FSM facilitated the development of a dynamic model of the island of El Hierro, extrapolating the features common to both SES. We propose this to be a useful tool for the quantitative sustainability assessment and the management of real island socio-ecological systems

  5. Virtually Impossible: Deleuze and Derrida on the Political Problem of Islands (and Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Williams

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is commonplace to think of an island as a discreetly bounded unit. Selected writings on islands by the poststructuralist philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Derrida reveal the island variously to be both real and imaginary, mythological and scientific, but as most problematic when constituted in political terms as an indivisible, sovereign entity. These two thinkers’ more broadly developed concepts of the virtual and the impossible, respectively, are seen to disrupt any assumptions about the fixity and closure of the island polity. Instead they emphasize its actualization through processual relations that can be difficult yet dynamic and decisive in effecting the move from being to becoming-other. As the possibilities for instituting more ethical as well as different political relations open up, the question of island studies remaining in its currently coherent, familiar form is raised for consideration.

  6. Environmental assessment for the resettlement of Eneu Island on Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragos, J.E.; Agegian, Catherine

    1986-01-01

    This environmental assessment evaluates various alternatives to return the Bikini people to their homeland on Bikini Atoll. Eneu Island was spared the heavy nuclear contamination that rendered Bikini Island, the largest and main inhabitable island on the atoll, presently unsuitable for resettlement. The economic, social, technical and environmental consequences of all alternatives were compared, and alternative sites, purposes and scales for resettlement were included in the analysis. This environmental assessment explores these alternatives in detail and concludes that the resettlement of Eneu Island by some of the Bikini people at this time will not result in significant adverse effects to the environment nor will it foreclose any other full scale resettlement option involving the cleanup of Bikini Atoll. In addition, it concludes that the resettlement of Eneu can be accomplished independently from the planned cleanup and resettlement of Bikini Island. Plans and combination of plans involving the early resettlement of Eneu are fully feasible and implementable at this time. (author)

  7. Environmental assessment for the resettlement of Eneu Island on Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maragos, J E [Environmental Resources Section, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pacific Ocean Division, HI (United States); Agegian, Catherine [University of Hawaii, Department of Oceanography, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1986-07-01

    This environmental assessment evaluates various alternatives to return the Bikini people to their homeland on Bikini Atoll. Eneu Island was spared the heavy nuclear contamination that rendered Bikini Island, the largest and main inhabitable island on the atoll, presently unsuitable for resettlement. The economic, social, technical and environmental consequences of all alternatives were compared, and alternative sites, purposes and scales for resettlement were included in the analysis. This environmental assessment explores these alternatives in detail and concludes that the resettlement of Eneu Island by some of the Bikini people at this time will not result in significant adverse effects to the environment nor will it foreclose any other full scale resettlement option involving the cleanup of Bikini Atoll. In addition, it concludes that the resettlement of Eneu can be accomplished independently from the planned cleanup and resettlement of Bikini Island. Plans and combination of plans involving the early resettlement of Eneu are fully feasible and implementable at this time. (author)

  8. Endangered Species Program Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Construction and development activities, which are conducted by DOE at Naval Petroleum Reserve number-sign 1 (NPR-1) to comply with the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258), potentially threaten the continued existence of four federally-listed endangered species: the San Joaquin kit fox, (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), and Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides). All four are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The major objective of the Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for continued compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1990 (FY90)

  9. Thomas George Lee - Implantation and early development of North American rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    A century ago Thomas G. Lee amassed an unparalleled collection of developmental series of North American rodents such as the thirteen-lined ground squirrel, the Plains pocket gopher and Merriam's kangaroo rat. He was the first to describe the initial attachment of the squirrel blastocyst to the a......A century ago Thomas G. Lee amassed an unparalleled collection of developmental series of North American rodents such as the thirteen-lined ground squirrel, the Plains pocket gopher and Merriam's kangaroo rat. He was the first to describe the initial attachment of the squirrel blastocyst...... to the antimesometrial side of the uterus. The full potential of Lee's material was not realized until after his death, when it came into the possession of Mossman. The latter relied heavily on Lee's collection when writing his seminal monograph on the comparative morphogenesis of fetal membranes and much of Lee...

  10. Comparative mtDNA analyses of three sympatric macropodids from a conservation area on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Husband, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei), New Guinea pademelon (Thylogale browni), and small dorcopsis (Dorcopsulus vanheurni) are sympatric macropodid taxa, of conservation concern, that inhabit the Yopno-Urawa-Som (YUS) Conservation Area on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. We sequenced three partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes from the three taxa to (i) investigate network structure; and (ii) identify conservation units within the YUS Conservation Area. All three taxa displayed a similar pattern in the spatial distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes and the Urawa and Som rivers on the Huon may have acted as a barrier to maternal gene flow. Matschie's tree kangaroo and New Guinea pademelon within the YUS Conservation Area should be managed as single conservation units because mtDNA nucleotides were not fixed for a given geographic area. However, two distinct conservation units were identified for small dorcopsis from the two different mountain ranges within the YUS Conservation Area.

  11. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Dunn

    Full Text Available We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae, chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum, chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum. The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a

  12. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael J; Jackson, Jennifer A; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S; Briggs, Dirk R; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  13. Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pugh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

  14. Earthquake location in island arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, E.R.; Dewey, J.W.; Fujita, K.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive data set of selected teleseismic P-wave arrivals and local-network P- and S-wave arrivals from large earthquakes occurring at all depths within a small section of the central Aleutians is used to examine the general problem of earthquake location in island arcs. Reference hypocenters for this special data set are determined for shallow earthquakes from local-network data and for deep earthquakes from combined local and teleseismic data by joint inversion for structure and location. The high-velocity lithospheric slab beneath the central Aleutians may displace hypocenters that are located using spherically symmetric Earth models; the amount of displacement depends on the position of the earthquakes with respect to the slab and on whether local or teleseismic data are used to locate the earthquakes. Hypocenters for trench and intermediate-depth events appear to be minimally biased by the effects of slab structure on rays to teleseismic stations. However, locations of intermediate-depth events based on only local data are systematically displaced southwards, the magnitude of the displacement being proportional to depth. Shallow-focus events along the main thrust zone, although well located using only local-network data, are severely shifted northwards and deeper, with displacements as large as 50 km, by slab effects on teleseismic travel times. Hypocenters determined by a method that utilizes seismic ray tracing through a three-dimensional velocity model of the subduction zone, derived by thermal modeling, are compared to results obtained by the method of joint hypocenter determination (JHD) that formally assumes a laterally homogeneous velocity model over the source region and treats all raypath anomalies as constant station corrections to the travel-time curve. The ray-tracing method has the theoretical advantage that it accounts for variations in travel-time anomalies within a group of events distributed over a sizable region of a dipping, high

  15. Molecular Markers for Breast Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    experiments have allowed insight into the nature of Laboratory of Biochemistry and Metabolism , Bethesda, Mary- interions bewe the strom and the nathe...rat kangaroo cells. These investigators further demonstrated a direct correlation between the number of fluorescent spots in the interphase nuclei and...overall length of human chromosomes was greatest after treatment with 5-azacytidine following a fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR)/uridine metabolic block

  16. Installation Restoration of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Pilot Containment Operations, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    proceeding with chronic tests. The metabolism of the contaminant in question will be investigated, where appropriate, with emphasis on isolation and...from mammalian and avian species which represent various taxa, habitats, positions in the food chain, body sizes/ metabolic rates, migratory/sedentary...prairie and meadow voles, and ord’s kangaroo rats. The larger, more conspicuous rodents include the black-tailed prairie dog, thirteen- lined ground

  17. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 6: Southern Study Area, Sections 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 Text, Version 3.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    plains harvest mice, western harvest mice, northern grasshopper mice, prairie voles, meadow voles, Ord’s kangaroo rats, hispid pocket mice, and...both metabolically and from a manufacturing perspective. DDT and DDE are two of the more persistent OCPs (Edwards, 1972). This may be due in part to...DBPC, although toxic, does not bioaccumulate significantly, while isodrin, an analog of endrin, is converted to endrin by metabolic processes. Two

  18. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Science in Sports and Exercise. 22:2, S69, April, 1990. Ebbeling, C. J., Hamill, J., Freedson, P. S., Rowland, T. W. Metabolic and mechanical differences...Stability and the metabolic cost of human walking. XIth International Symposium on Posture and Gait: Control Mechanisms, Portland, OR, May, 1992. Li, L...extremity function, Isotechnologies, Inc., $12,000, 9/1982 - 6/1984. 2. Ergonomics of lower extremity function, KangaROOS , USA, $58,000, 9/1986 - 9

  19. Enhancing Warfighter Cognitive Abilities with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Feasibility Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    attenuate, whereas higher frequencies (5-20 Hz), increase blood flow and metabolism . These effects are not only seen locally at the site of rTMS, but...increase in regional blood flow and metabolism (George & Belmaker, 2007). Enhanced cortical excitability can be achieved with single or repetitive pulse...the best view and point it out. While we were still in the quad, I quickly glanced around and immediately found the kangaroo statue among the many

  20. Tooele Army Depot - South Area Suspected Release Units. RCRA Facility Investigation - Phase 2, for SWMUs 1, 25, and 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    metabolism before reaching the systemic circulation. Therefore, a toxic effect attributable to an active metabolite might be more pronounced if the compound...no first-pass metabolism might result in a greater dose of the toxic constituent entering the systemic circulation than if the compound were absorbed...great horned owls, red-tailed hawks, loggerhead shrikes, badgers, Ord’s kangaroo rats, horned larks, and sagebrush lizards. The vegetation types

  1. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii)

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Hardip R; Wakefield Matthew J; Wei Ke-jun; Webley Lee; Wang Chenwei; Deakin Janine E; Alsop Amber; Marshall Graves Jennifer A; Cooper Desmond W; Nicholas Frank W; Zenger Kyall R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing...

  2. Environmental Assessment: Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Management Cannon Air Force Base and Melrose Air Force Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    requirements are met by metabolizing grazed vegetation. Prairie dogs dig burrows to an average depth of 2-3 meters with some tunnels interconnecting with...the potential to impact non- target species such as mice, kangaroo rats, and some songbirds. Establishing control zones at CAFB and MAFR could not be...Gutierrezia sarothrae), and Russian thistle (Salsola iberica). Water requirements are met by metabolizing grazed vegetation. Prairie dogs dig burrows

  3. Solving Langevin equation with the stochastic algebraically correlated noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploszajczak, M.; Srokowski, T.

    1996-01-01

    Long time tail in the velocity and force autocorrelation function has been found recently in the molecular dynamics simulations of the peripheral collisions of ions. Simulation of those slowly decaying correlations in the stochastic transport theory requires the development of new methods of generating stochastic force of arbitrarily long correlation times. The Markovian process and the multidimensional Kangaroo process which permit describing various algebraic correlated stochastic processes are proposed. (author)

  4. Non-Gaussianity in island cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Yunsong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we fully calculate the non-Gaussianity of primordial curvature perturbation of the island universe by using the second order perturbation equation. We find that for the spectral index n s ≅0.96, which is favored by current observations, the non-Gaussianity level f NL seen in an island will generally lie between 30 and 60, which may be tested by the coming observations. In the landscape, the island universe is one of anthropically acceptable cosmological histories. Thus the results obtained in some sense mean the coming observations, especially the measurement of non-Gaussianity, will be significant to clarify how our position in the landscape is populated.

  5. Resonant island divertor experiments on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGrassie, J.S.; Evans, T.E.; Jackson, G.L.

    1988-09-01

    The first experimental tests of the resonant island divertor (RID) concept have been carried out on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). Modular perturbation coils produce static resonant magnetic fields at the tokamak boundary. The resulting magnetic islands are used to guide heat and particle fluxes around a small scoop limiter head. An enhancement in the limiter collection efficiency over the nonisland operation, as evidenced by enhanced neutral density within the limiter head, of up to a factor of 4 is obtained. This enhancement is larger than one would expect given the measured magnitude of the cross-field particle transport in TEXT. It is proposed that electrostatic perturbations occur which enhance the ion convection rate around the islands. Preliminary experiments utilizing electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in conjunction with RID operation have also have been performed. 6 refs., 3 figs

  6. Neogene displacements in the Solomon Islands Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, J.

    1987-02-01

    The geology and present configuration of the Solomon Island arc can be explained in terms of the Neogene displacement of a single linear chain of islands. The central part of an original arc consisting of Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Ysabel, Guadalcanal and San Cristobal was displaced to the northeast as a consequence of the attempted subduction of the Woodlark spreading system. Malaita arose on the northeastern side of the arc as a result of interaction between the arc and the Pacific Ocean floor and the volcanic islands of the New Georgia group formed to the southwest in response to the subduction of a spreading ridge, thus giving rise to the present double chain structure of the arc.

  7. Different shades of green on small islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tiago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questions using data covering firm and tourism perceptions of green products. The results show that tourists tend to value green efforts with different intensities, corresponding to three segments: Light Green, Green, and Super Green. These findings should help hotels adjust their communication strategies and develop new services. Further, destination marketing organizations can devise a consistent destination strategy, integrating all stakeholders by including their most valued concepts.

  8. Checklist of marine fishes of the Zunan Islands, located between the Izu and Ogasawara (Bonin) islands, Japan, with zoogeographical comments

    OpenAIRE

    Kuriiwa, Kaoru; Arihara, Hisashi; Chiba, Satoru; Kato, Shoichi; Senou, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    The Zunan Islands are located 360–650 km south of Tokyo, and consist of four uninhabited volcanoes: the Bayonnaise Rocks, the Smith Rocks, Torishima Island and the Sofugan Rock. Although all of the elements of the Zunan Islands are tiny islets and rocks, they form a series of stepping stones for shallow water fishes between the Izu Islands in the north and the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands in the south. We report here the first comprehensive survey of marine fishes in the Zunan Islands. A total o...

  9. Vegetation assessment of forests of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Linda W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Marianas Expedition Wildlife Surveys-2010, the forest vegetation of the island of Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), was sampled with a series of systematic plots along 13 transects established for monitoring forest bird populations. Shrubland and grassland were also sampled in the northern half of the island. Data collected were woody plant density, tree diameter at breast height, woody plant density in height classes below 2 m, and ground cover measured with the point-intercept method. Coconut forests (Cocos nucifera) were generally found to have low native tree diversity, little regeneration of trees and shrubs in the forest understory, and little live ground cover. The sole exception was a coconut-dominated forest of the northeast side of the island that exhibited high native tree diversity and a large number of young native trees in the understory. Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) forests on the northern half of the island were nearly monocultures with almost no trees other than ironwood in vegetation plots, few woody plants in the understory, and low ground cover dominated by native ferns. Mixed native forests of both northern and southern sections of the island had a diversity of native tree species in both the canopy and the sparse understory. Ground cover of native forests in the north had a mix of native and alien species, but that of the southern half of the island was dominated by native ferns and woody plants.

  10. A man and his island: The island mirror in Michael Crummey’s Sweetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1946 and 1975, dozens of islands and outports in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador were abandoned as part of a government resettlement policy. Families and communities were torn apart, and a culture and way of life that revolved around the fishery changed irrevocably. The practice, which continues to this day, has been well documented, particularly by artists and writers. Michael Crummey’s 2014 novel Sweetland is a recent iteration. The relationship between humans and place is complex: on an island, with compressed space and a very real boundary that is the ocean, emotional attachments to one’s place are often heightened and distilled. What happens when a person is displaced from his or her island; when bonds of attachment are severed and one’s mirrored double is destroyed? Sweetland offers a fictional lens through which we see an example of a mirrored relationship between an island protagonist and his island setting. Exploring themes of attachment to place, and what Barry Lopez calls a “storied” or “reciprocal” relationship with the land, this paper examines what happens to a man when confronted with leaving an island he knows as deeply as his own body and soul; and how the island reacts.

  11. Physically Based Modeling of Delta Island Consumptive Use: Fabian Tract and Staten Island, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas J. Siegfried

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v12iss4art2Water use estimation is central to managing most water problems. To better understand water use in California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, a collaborative, integrated approach was used to predict Delta island diversion, consumption, and return of water on a more detailed temporal and spatial resolution. Fabian Tract and Staten Island were selected for this pilot study based on available data and island accessibility. Historical diversion and return location data, water rights claims, LiDAR digital elevation model data, and Google Earth were used to predict island diversion and return locations, which were tested and improved through ground-truthing. Soil and land-use characteristics as well as weather data were incorporated with the Integrated Water Flow Model Demand Calculator to estimate water use and runoff returns from input agricultural lands. For modeling, the islands were divided into grid cells forming subregions, representing fields, levees, ditches, and roads. The subregions were joined hydrographically to form diversion and return watersheds related to return and diversion locations. Diversions and returns were limited by physical capacities. Differences between initial model and measured results point to the importance of seepage into deeply subsided islands. The capabilities of the models presented far exceeded current knowledge of agricultural practices within the Delta, demonstrating the need for more data collection to enable improvements upon current Delta Island Consumptive Use estimates.

  12. Socio-Spatial Typology In Karanrang Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ishak Rahmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of community life on the small island is influenced by the stimulating factor of harmonious social interaction system through cooperation, kinship, economic activity, children playing, transportation system, religion and other social activities. The social dynamics of small island communities appear in the layout and environment in which they live, how they manage and utilize space, both indoors and outdoors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the socio-spatial typology of settlements on Karanrang Island, including a description of the spatial pattern of communalenvironments. Research approaches through spatial similarities and differences in the classification of behavioral setting, including physical, non-physical, socio-spatial arrangements. Karanrang Island as a research focus which has an area of 7.8 Ha is one of small islands inhabited in cluster PangkajeneIslands (Pangkep South Sulawesi, with characteristic of dense settlement, and diversity of tribe, also inhabited by 434 families. The method of this research is observation, data collection through field survey with descriptive analysis based on empirical data on meso / environment which is divided into:1 inter building space; 2 Space in the building; 3 Open space, and; 4 Environmental facilities. The results showed that classification of socio-spatial typology of communal environment is divided into four types of socio-spatial models based on the configuration of social interaction activities, namely:1 Type of Linear Centripetal, at the inter buildings space; 2 Type of Centripetal Cluster, space on the building; 3 Type of Centrifugal Cluster, at green open space/field; 4 Type of cluster Centripetal, at environmental facilities. The socio-spatial type based on actor’s activities, occupancy, and territory, can be distinguished on: 1 Type of children’s activity; 2 Type of mother’sactivity; 3 Type of father’s activity, and 4 Type of combination activity.

  13. Equilibrium Bird Species Diversity in Atlantic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Luis; Illera, Juan Carlos; Havenstein, Katja; Pallien, Tamara; Etienne, Rampal S; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2017-06-05

    Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]. We estimate the times at which birds colonized and speciated in the four archipelagos, including many previously unsampled endemic and non-endemic taxa and their closest continental relatives. We develop and fit a new multi-archipelago dynamic stochastic model to these data, explicitly incorporating information from 91 taxa, both extant and extinct. Remarkably, we find that all four archipelagos have independently achieved and maintained a dynamic equilibrium over millions of years. Biogeographical rates are homogeneous across archipelagos, except for the Canary Islands, which exhibit higher speciation and colonization. Our finding that the avian communities of the four Macaronesian archipelagos display an equilibrium diversity pattern indicates that a diversity plateau may be rapidly achieved on islands where rates of in situ radiation are low and extinction is high. This study reveals that equilibrium processes may be more prevalent than recently proposed, supporting MacArthur and Wilson's 50-year-old theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elapid Snake Venom Analyses Show the Specificity of the Peptide Composition at the Level of Genera Naja and Notechis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Munawar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms—that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja, and the Peninsula tiger snake, N. scutatus, from Kangaroo Island (genus Notechis. A combination of chromatographic methods was used to isolate the peptides, which were characterized by combining complimentary mass spectrometric techniques. Comparative analysis of the peptide compositions of two venoms showed specificity at the genus level. Three-finger (3-F cytotoxins, bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs and a bradykinin inhibitor were isolated from the Naja venom. 3-F neurotoxins, Kunitz/basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-type inhibitors and a natriuretic peptide were identified in the N. venom. The inhibiting activity of the peptides was confirmed in vitro with a selected array of proteases. Cytotoxin 1 (P01467 from the Naja venom might be involved in the disturbance of cellular processes by inhibiting the cell 20S-proteasome. A high degree of similarity between BPPs from elapid and viperid snake venoms was observed, suggesting that these molecules play a key role in snake venoms and also indicating that these peptides were recruited into the snake venom prior to the evolutionary divergence of the snakes.

  15. A Paleomagnetic Reconnaissance of the Bonin Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Kazuto

    1981-01-01

    A paleomagnetic study has been carried out on the volcanic rocks of the Bonin Islands (27°N, 142°E). A total of 15 sites were visited for sampling; eight sites on Chichi-jima, four on Haha-jima, two on Muko-jima and one on Yome-jima. The directions of natural remanent magnetization of the samples after alternating field demagnetization not only deflect considerably from the present geomagnetic field but they clearly show that Chichi-jima differs from the other islands. That is, the mean direc...

  16. Stabilization of sawtooty oscillation by island heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Chu, T.K.

    1986-10-01

    Using the compressible resistive MHD equations in a finite aspect ratio cylinder, it is found that the m = 1 mode (the sawtooth oscillation) can saturate when the pressure inside the magnetic island is higher than that of the original core plasma. The saturation condition is of the form Δβ/sub p/ ≥ 8 ε -1 /sub q = 1/ (1 - q 0 ) 2 . This saturation effect can be used to actively stabilize sawteeth by heating the island and/or by cooling the core plasma. This mechanism together with a stabilizing toroidal effect may also explain recent lower-hybrid-wave-driven tokamak experiments where the saturation of sawteeth has been observed

  17. Local island divertor experiments on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Komori, A.; Ohyabu, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Narihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Ida, K.; Peterson, B.J.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Emoto, M.; Funaba, H.; Goto, M.; Ikeda, K.; Inagaki, S.; Kaneko, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kubo, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Morita, S.; Nagaoka, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Nakanishi, H.; Ohkubo, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Sakakibara, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Sato, K.; Toi, K.; Tsumori, K.; Watababe, K.Y.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, I.; Yoshimura, Y.; Motojima, O.

    2005-01-01

    A local island divertor (LID) experiment has begun on LHD, with the aims of controlling edge recycling and improving the plasma confinement. The fundamental divertor functions of the LID have been demonstrated in the recent experiments. From the particle flux profile measurements on the LID head it was found that the particles diffusing out from the core region are well guided along the island separatrix to the LID head. Owing to the closed configuration around the LID head, evidence of the high efficient pumping was observed, together with a strong capacity to screen impurities. The first results of edge modeling using the EMC3-EIRENE code are also presented

  18. Evolution of magnetic islands in a Heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.; Gardner, H.J.; Meiss, J.D.

    1994-09-01

    Simulations of three-dimensional equilibria in the H-1 Heliac with the HINT code show that the size of a dangerous magnetic island should increase with plasma pressure but that a destruction of the equilibrium at low β is avoided because the rotational transform evolves to exclude the rational surface concerned. At higher pressures there is evidence of near-resonant flux surface deformations which may lead to an equilibrium limit. A reconnected equilibrium at still higher pressures exhibits a double island structure which is similar to homoclinic phase portraits which have been observed after separatrix reconnection in Hamiltonian systems. (author)

  19. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  20. Islands in the Midst of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a portion of the

  1. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  2. Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Division Reef Fish Biomass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents island-scale mean and Standard Error of biomass for 4 trophic groups using all data from North West Hawaiian Islands gathered using NOAA's...

  3. 75 FR 3981 - National Angel Island Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ...--from Chinese, Japanese, and Korean to Russian, German, and Urdu. These etchings remain on Angel Island... learn more about the history of Angel Island and to observe this anniversary with appropriate ceremonies...

  4. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  5. Mechanism of viscosity effect on magnetic island rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Konovalov, S.V. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pustovitov, V.D. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Tsypin, V.S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, SP (Brazil)

    2000-04-01

    It is shown that plasma viscosity does not influence the magnetic island rotation directly. Nevertheless, it leads to nonstationarity of the plasma velocity. This nonstationarity is the reason of the viscosity effect on island rotation. (author)

  6. Preliminary observations of birds of Songo Songo Island, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods ... The island rises some 10 m above sea level and is c. ... PM a. Greater Sandplover Charadrius leschenaultii. Obs. Littoral. PM a .... terrestrial birds on Pemba Island (Tanzania), with particular reference to six endemic ...

  7. The subantarctic Prince Edward Islands are globally important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    (Vulnerable) has increased significantly, making Prince Edward Island equal with Marion Island as supporting ... 3 Marine & Coastal Management, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, ... breeding on inaccessible cliff areas were estimated by ...... Penguin Conservation Assessment and Management Plan.

  8. Rhode Island Hurricane Evacuation Study Technical Data Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... The purpose of the study is to provide the Rhode Island Emergency Management Agency and Rhode Island coastal communities with realistic data quantifying the major factors involved in hurricane...

  9. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  10. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  11. Examples of storm impacts on barrier islands: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the morphologic variability of barrier islands and on the differences in storm response. It describes different types of barrier island response to individual storms, as well as the integrated response of barrier islands to many storms. The chapter considers case study on the Chandeleur Island chain, where a decadal time series of island elevation measurements have documented a wide range of barrier island responses to storms and long-term processes that are representative of barrier island behaviour at many other locations. These islands are low elevation, extremely vulnerable to storms and exhibit a diversity of storm responses. Additionally, this location experiences a moderately high rate of relative sea-level rise, increasing its vulnerability to the combined impacts of storms and long-term erosional processes. Understanding how natural processes, including storm impacts and intervening recovery periods interact with man-made restoration processes is also broadly relevant to understand the natural and human response to future storms.

  12. Epigean freshwater Gammaridae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from La Gomera (Canary Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, Gabriele; Stock, Jan H.

    1994-01-01

    Description of two new species of freshwater amphipods from La Gomera (Canary Islands), both found in the higher parts of the island: Chaetogammarus chaetocerus n. sp. and Rhipidogammarus gomeranus n. sp. Both species have distinct Afro- Iberian relationships.

  13. Decay process of a magnetic island by forced reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, K.; Itoh, K.

    1991-03-01

    Time evolution of a magnetic island by forced reconnection, especially the decay process is analyzed. A simple slab model is used and the magnetic island is considered to have a single helicity. The plasma is assumed to be incompressible. The evolution time is affected by the presence of an original magnetic island. In the decay process, a current flows along the separatrix of the magnetic island, and the current layer width depends on the magnetic island width, when the island is relatively wide compared to the current layer. In the presence of a magnetic island, even if the magnetic Reynolds number S increases, the current layer does not become narrower. This leads to the slow evolution of the magnetic island. It is found that the time scale S 1 τ A is required to reach the last equilibrium regardless of the nonlinear terms. This is slower than that of the growth process, S 3/5 τ A . (author)

  14. Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations...

  15. Photo-geomorphologic study of representative islands of Lakshadweep

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.; Kunte, P.D.

    by beach material all around the island. They are largely composed of course sand, disintegrated corals, shell fragments and uncemented pebbles, shingles, cobbles and boulders. The western side of most of the islands is fringed by coralline reef enclosing...

  16. Vulnerability assessment of small islands to tourism: The case of the Marine Tourism Park of the Gili Matra Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Kurniawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian government is currently directing its focus of development on the optimum uses of marine and coastal ecosystem services including the marine and coastal tourism. One of the main locus of coastal and marine tourism is the small islands tourism such as Gili Matra Islands among others. Small islands tourism is one of the favourite touristic activities because the destination provides beauty, exotism, aesthetic and a diversity of natural habitats including the warm, clear and attractive water. Tourism is being considered as a development instrument in order to boost a country’s economy and has become part of the global industry. However, tourism is also one of the actors that is responsible for environmental depletion, due to the constructions of buildings and tourism activities. This paper aims to study the level of vulnerability in small islands to tourism as a basis of integrated small islands management in Indonesian conservation area. The group of islands in this study consists of three islands namely Gili Ayer Island, Gili Meno Island and Gili Trawangan Island (known as Gili Matra Islands that were observed using Small Islands Vulnerability Index (SIVI. The results indicate that Gili Matra Islands have a vulnerability status from low into moderate, ranging from 2.25 to 2.75. Gili Ayer Island has the highest vulnerability with SIVI of 2.75 (Moderate, followed by Gili Meno Island with SIVI of 2.50 (Low and Gili Trawangan Island with SIVI of 2.25 (Low. The driving factor of vulnerability is the intensive utilization of marine tourism activities. Tourism is the sole stress to Gili Matra Island’s ecosystem due to its direct damaging impact and reducing its environmental quality. The vulnerability index which was built from the coastline, coral reef, live coral reef, and development area was applicable to assess the small island’s vulnerability in Indonesia, especially for coral island.

  17. Epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung Uk

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Scrub typhus is the most common febrile disease in Korea during the autumn. Jeju Island is the largest island in South Korea and has a distinctive oceanic climate. This study aimed to identify epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island. METHODS From January 2011 to December 2016, 446 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus on Jeju Island. The patients’ personal data and the environmental factors that might be related to scrub typhus were investigated and retrosp...

  18. Canary Islands (Spain): Their Importance in NATO’s Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-22

    considered to be divided into two groups of * islands. One is the eastern islands, made up of Gran Canaria, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura and the other...feet (1,370 to 2,130 meters) and Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the islands closest to the African coast, do not exceed 2,400 feet (730 meters) in...heights. Each island, except Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, is divided into two faces, one to the north, exposed to the humid winds, full of vegetation

  19. PERMAINAN LOMPAT KANGURU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR LOMPAT JAUH GAYA JONGKOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Bagus suroso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the effectiveness of learning long jump squat-style through a kangaroo jump play approach for students of class IV SD Negeri Bangungalih Tegal Regency Kramat District 02 This type of research is the Research Action class Research is carried out in SD Negeri Bangungalih Kecamatan Tegal Regency Kramat 02, subject of research grade IV with 48 students, consisting of 20 men and 28 students student daughter. The instruments used are observation sheet implementation of learning, learning results sheets, now students and student performance tests. Results of the research cycle 1 showed the basic motion skills reach 70.83% and yield learning long jump reached 71% of the research cycle II increased 18.75% i.e. reaching 89,58% and 71% and the results of the learning process the long jump 21% increase that reached 92%. The determination of indicators for success in learning that is 85%, so it can be concluded that the activity of students in learning is said to follow successfully. Based on the results of the research study of the long jump Kangaroo jump game approach through, can improve the learning results of long jump squat style of 70,83% to 89,58% advice from researchers teachers are expected to utilize the research results of model learning long jump squat-style through a kangaroo jump approach taking into account the situation and condition of the local environment.

  20. Neonatal pain and reduced maternal care: Early-life stressors interacting to impact brain and behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney-Leber, Sean M; Brummelte, Susanne

    2017-02-07

    Advances in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have drastically increased the survival chances of preterm infants. However, preterm infants are still exposed to a wide range of stressors during their stay in the NICU, which include painful procedures and reduced maternal contact. The activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, in response to these stressors during this critical period of brain development, has been associated with many acute and long-term adverse biobehavioral outcomes. Recent research has shown that Kangaroo care, a non-pharmacological analgesic based on increased skin-to-skin contact between the neonate and the mother, negates the adverse outcomes associated with neonatal pain and reduced maternal care, however the biological mechanism remains widely unknown. This review summarizes findings from both human and rodent literature investigating neonatal pain and reduced maternal care independently, primarily focusing on the role of the HPA axis and biobehavioral outcomes. The physiological and positive outcomes of Kangaroo care will also be discussed in terms of how dampening of the HPA axis response to neonatal pain and increased maternal care may account for positive outcomes associated with Kangaroo care. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.