WorldWideScience

Sample records for kalpakjian manufacturing processes

  1. Green manufacturing processes and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davim, J. Paulo (ed.) [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Santiago

    2013-02-01

    This book provides the recent advances on green manufacturing processes and systems for modern industry. Chapter 1 provides information on sustainable manufacturing through environmentally-friendly machining. Chapter 2 is dedicated to environmentally-friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids. Chapter 3 describes environmental-friendly joining of tubes. Chapter 4 contains information on concepts, methods and strategies for zero-waste in manufacturing. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to the application of hybrid MCDM approach for selecting the best tyre recycling process.

  2. Large forging manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamboo, Samuel V.; Yang, Ling

    2002-01-01

    A process for forging large components of Alloy 718 material so that the components do not exhibit abnormal grain growth includes the steps of: a) providing a billet with an average grain size between ASTM 0 and ASTM 3; b) heating the billet to a temperature of between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; c) upsetting the billet to obtain a component part with a minimum strain of 0.125 in at least selected areas of the part; d) reheating the component part to a temperature between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; e) upsetting the component part to a final configuration such that said selected areas receive no strains between 0.01 and 0.125; f) solution treating the component part at a temperature of between 1725.degree. F. and 1750.degree. F.; and g) aging the component part over predetermined times at different temperatures. A modified process achieves abnormal grain growth in selected areas of a component where desirable.

  3. Implementation of hierarchical design for manufacture rules in manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Parvez, Masud

    2008-01-01

    In order to shorten the product development cycle time, minimise overall cost and smooth transition into production, early consideration of manufacturing processes is important. Design for Manufacture (DFM) is the practice of designing products with manufacturing issues using an intelligent system, which translates 3D solid models into manufacturable features. Many existing and potential applications, particularly in the field of manufacturing, require various aspects of features technology. ...

  4. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  5. Improved Methods for Production Manufacturing Processes in Environmentally Benign Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How to design a production process with low carbon emissions and low environmental impact as well as high manufacturing performance is a key factor in the success of low-carbon production. It is important to address concerns about climate change for the large carbon emission source manufacturing industries because of their high energy consumption and environmental impact during the manufacturing stage of the production life cycle. In this paper, methodology for determining a production process is developed. This methodology integrates process determination from three different levels: new production processing, selected production processing and batch production processing. This approach is taken within a manufacturing enterprise based on prior research. The methodology is aimed at providing decision support for implementing Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM and low-carbon production to improve the environmental performance of the manufacturing industry. At the first level, a decision-making model for new production processes based on the Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (GSAA is presented. The decision-making model considers not only the traditional factors, such as time, quality and cost, but also energy and resource consumption and environmental impact, which are different from the traditional methods. At the second level, a methodology is developed based on an IPO (Input-Process-Output model that integrates assessments of resource consumption and environmental impact in terms of a materials balance principle for batch production processes. At the third level, based on the above two levels, a method for determining production processes that focus on low-carbon production is developed based on case-based reasoning, expert systems and feature technology for designing the process flow of a new component. Through the above three levels, a method for determining the production process to identify, quantify, assess, and optimize the

  6. Improved Manufacturing Process for Pyronaridine Tetraphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Seung Kyu; Cho, Jun Ho; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Pyronaridine tetraphosphate (1) is a well-known antimalarial drug. However, it required a carefully optimized production process for the manufacture of pyronaridine tetraphosphate. Each step of its manufacturing process was reinvestigated. For the cyclization of 4-chloro-2-(6-methoxy-pyridin-3-yl-amino)-benzoic acid 6 to 7,10-dichloro-2-methoxybenzo[b]-1,5-naphthyridine 5, an improved process was developed to eliminated critical process impurity (BIA). By the redesign of the formation of triphosphate salt, the purity as API grade was increased. Thus, a robust manufacturing process with an acceptable process performance has been developed to produce high quality pyronaridine tetraphosphate

  7. Fundamentals of semiconductor manufacturing and process control

    CERN Document Server

    May, Gary S

    2006-01-01

    A practical guide to semiconductor manufacturing from process control to yield modeling and experimental design Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control covers all issues involved in manufacturing microelectronic devices and circuits, including fabrication sequences, process control, experimental design, process modeling, yield modeling, and CIM/CAM systems. Readers are introduced to both the theory and practice of all basic manufacturing concepts. Following an overview of manufacturing and technology, the text explores process monitoring methods, including those that focus on product wafers and those that focus on the equipment used to produce wafers. Next, the text sets forth some fundamentals of statistics and yield modeling, which set the foundation for a detailed discussion of how statistical process control is used to analyze quality and improve yields. The discussion of statistical experimental design offers readers a powerful approach for systematically varying controllable p...

  8. A Process Management System for Networked Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Wang, Huifen; Liu, Linyan

    With the development of computer, communication and network, networked manufacturing has become one of the main manufacturing paradigms in the 21st century. Under the networked manufacturing environment, there exist a large number of cooperative tasks susceptible to alterations, conflicts caused by resources and problems of cost and quality. This increases the complexity of administration. Process management is a technology used to design, enact, control, and analyze networked manufacturing processes. It supports efficient execution, effective management, conflict resolution, cost containment and quality control. In this paper we propose an integrated process management system for networked manufacturing. Requirements of process management are analyzed and architecture of the system is presented. And a process model considering process cost and quality is developed. Finally a case study is provided to explain how the system runs efficiently.

  9. Features of the Manufacturing Vision Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Riis, Jens Ove; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    of action research. The methodology recommends wide participation of people from different hierarchical and functional positions, who engage in a relatively short, playful and creative process and come up with a vision (concept) for the future manufacturing system in the company. Based on three case studies......This paper discusses the key features of the process of Manufacturing Vision Development, a process that enables companies to develop their future manufacturing concept. The basis for the process is a generic five-phase methodology (Riis and Johansen, 2003) developed as a result of ten years...... of companies going through the initial phases of the methodology, this research identified the key features of the Manufacturing Vision Development process. The paper elaborates the key features by defining them, discussing how and when they can appear, and how they influence the process....

  10. Manufacturing processes 2 grinding, honing, lapping

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Presents a view of the most common machining and non-machining manufacturing processes. This volume describes the characteristics of abrasive tools, their design and manufacturing, followed by the fundamentals of grinding fluids. It also discusses grinding of different materials (steel, cast iron, hard and brittle materials, nickel and titanium).

  11. Recent Developments in Abrasive Hybrid Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszaj Adam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent dynamic development of abrasive hybrid manufacturing processes results from application of a new difficult for machining materials and improvement of technological indicators of manufacturing processes already applied in practice. This tendency also occurs in abrasive machining processes which are often supported by ultrasonic vibrations, electrochemical dissolution or by electrical discharges. In the paper we present the review of new results of investigations and new practical applications of Abrasive Electrodischarge (AEDM and Electrochemical (AECM Machining.

  12. DECOMPOSITION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.Z.N. Mohamed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing is a global activity that started during the industrial revolution in the late 19th century to cater for the large-scale production of products. Since then, manufacturing has changed tremendously through the innovations of technology, processes, materials, communication and transportation. The major challenge facing manufacturing is to produce more products using less material, less energy and less involvement of labour. To face these challenges, manufacturing companies must have a strategy and competitive priority in order for them to compete in a dynamic market. A review of the literature on the decomposition of manufacturing processes outlines three main processes, namely: high volume, medium volume and low volume. The decomposition shows that each sub process has its own characteristics and depends on the nature of the firm’s business. Two extreme processes are continuous line production (fast extreme and project shop (slow extreme. Other processes are in between these two extremes of the manufacturing spectrum. Process flow patterns become less complex with cellular, line and continuous flow compared with jobbing and project. The review also indicates that when the product is high variety and low volume, project or functional production is applied.

  13. Multiphysics modelling of manufacturing processes: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Baran, Ismet; Mohanty, Sankhya

    2018-01-01

    Numerical modelling is increasingly supporting the analysis and optimization of manufacturing processes in the production industry. Even if being mostly applied to multistep processes, single process steps may be so complex by nature that the needed models to describe them must include multiphysics...... the diversity in the field of modelling of manufacturing processes as regards process, materials, generic disciplines as well as length scales: (1) modelling of tape casting for thin ceramic layers, (2) modelling the flow of polymers in extrusion, (3) modelling the deformation process of flexible stamps...... for nanoimprint lithography, (4) modelling manufacturing of composite parts and (5) modelling the selective laser melting process. For all five examples, the emphasis is on modelling results as well as describing the models in brief mathematical details. Alongside with relevant references to the original work...

  14. Process of gas manufacture: retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, N M

    1883-01-01

    Improvements in the process and apparatus for the destructive distillation of shale, etc., described in Specification No. 1327, A.D. 1873. According to one modification a series of vertical retorts are arranged opposite to each other in two rows, the retorts in each row having flue spaces between them. The retorts have inclined bottoms beneath which are combustion chambers connected by flues to the spaces, and by flues to regenerative chambers, provided with flues, arranged with suitable valves. The fresh air and combustible gas enter at the bottom of one pair of regenerators, and after being heated enter one of the chambers, where they are ignited. The products pass through the adjacent spaces, which are connected at the top, and having heated the retorts pass through the other chamber and through the other pair of regenerators to the chimney. The retorts opposite to each other are connected by a port at the top, and they are charged alternately with fresh material. Each retort is fitted with an outlet pipe leading to a main, and with a steam jet by which air and steam may be forced into the mouth piece. The fresh charge is subjected to a comparatively low temperature at first to distill the oil, and then a higher heat is applied to the partially-spent shale and highly-superheated steam, and air admitted to the retort to decompose the coke and drive off the remaining carbon and ammonia.

  15. Processes for manufacture of products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a process for inhibiting browning of plant material comprising adding a chelating agent to a disrupted plant material and adjusting the pH to a value of 2.0 to 4.5. Processes for manufacture of soluble and insoluble products from a plant material are also disclosed. Soluble...

  16. Manufacturing Vision Development – Process and Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    This Ph.D. project has been conducted in the context of PRODUCTION+5 methodology for devel¬oping manufacturing visions for companies, and related to Experimental Laboratory for Production. Both have been established in the Center for Industrial Production. The empirical parts of the research invo...... involve case studies of three companies that are part of the MCD-process. The cases primarily are focusing on the process and the dialogue dur¬ing the manufacturing vision development.......This Ph.D. project has been conducted in the context of PRODUCTION+5 methodology for devel¬oping manufacturing visions for companies, and related to Experimental Laboratory for Production. Both have been established in the Center for Industrial Production. The empirical parts of the research...

  17. Electropulsing to assist conventional manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Egea, Antonio José

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a study on the variation of the mechanical properties of some materials. These variations are registered for processes as bottom bending, wire drawing or round turning, which are performed under high density electropulses. This research implied the study of several issues related to the manufacturing processes and the electric pulses. For example, some isolated systems are developed for each process. This is required for protecting the monitoring devices and machinery fro...

  18. Manufacturing technology and process for BWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shigeru

    1996-01-01

    Following recent advanced technologies, processes and requests of the design changes of BWR fuel, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (NFI) has upgraded the manufacturing technology and honed its own skills to complete its brand-new automated facility in Tokai in the latter half of 1980's. The plant uses various forms of automation throughout the manufacturing process: the acceptance of uranium dioxide powder, pelletizing, fuel rod assembling, fuel bundle assembling and shipment. All processes are well computerized and linked together to establish the integrated control system with three levels of Production and Quality Control, Process Control and Process Automation. This multi-level system plays an important role in the quality assurance system which generates the highest quality of fuels and other benefits. (author)

  19. Microeconomics of process control in semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.

    2003-06-01

    Process window control enables accelerated design-rule shrinks for both logic and memory manufacturers, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of process window control to maximum profitability are rare. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the maximum rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We show that the ability of process window control to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process variation at the lot, wafer, x-wafer, x-field, and x-chip levels. We conclude that x-wafer and x-field CD control strategies will be critical enablers of density, performance and optimum profitability at the 90 and 65nm technology nodes. These analyses correlate well with actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential incremental revenue and cost savings. As an example, we show that a scatterometry-based CD Process Window Monitor is an economically justified, enabling technology for the 65nm node.

  20. Materials processing in zero gravity. [space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuenscher, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    Manufacturing processes which are expected to show drastic changes in a space environment due to the absence of earth gravity are classified according to (1) buoyancy and thermal convection sensitive processes and (2) processes where molecular forces like cohesion and adhesion remain as the relatively strongest and hence controlling factors. Some specific process demonstration experiments carried out during the Apollo 14 mission and in the Skylab program are described. These include chemical separation by electrophoresis, the M551 metals melting experiment, the M552 exothermic brazing experiment, the M553 sphere forming experiment, the M554 composite casting experiment, and the M555 gallium arsenide crystal growth experiment.

  1. 21 CFR 1005.25 - Service of process on manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of process on manufacturers. 1005.25....25 Service of process on manufacturers. (a) Every manufacturer of electronic products, prior to... United States as the manufacturer's agent upon whom service of all processes, notices, orders, decisions...

  2. Aggregates in monoclonal antibody manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rey, María; Lang, Dietmar A

    2011-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have proved to be a highly successful class of therapeutic products. Large-scale manufacturing of pharmaceutical antibodies is a complex activity that requires considerable effort in both process and analytical development. If a therapeutic protein cannot be stabilized adequately, it will lose partially or totally its therapeutic properties or even cause immunogenic reactions thus potentially further endangering the patients' health. The phenomenon of protein aggregation is a common issue that compromises the quality, safety, and efficacy of antibodies and can happen at different steps of the manufacturing process, including fermentation, purification, final formulation, and storage. Aggregate levels in drug substance and final drug product are a key factor when assessing quality attributes of the molecule, since aggregation might impact biological activity of the biopharmaceutical. In this review it is analyzed how aggregates are formed during monoclonal antibody industrial production, why they have to be removed and the manufacturing process steps that are designed to either minimize or remove aggregates in the final product. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1996-01-01

    Processes for the manufacture of advanced metal matrix composites are rapidly approaching maturity in the research laboratory and there is growing interest in their transition to industrial production. However, research conducted to date has almost exclusively focused on overcoming the technical barriers to producing high-quality material and little attention has been given to the economical feasibility of these laboratory approaches and process cost issues. A quantitative cost modeling (QCM) approach was developed to address these issues. QCM are cost analysis tools based on predictive process models relating process conditions to the attributes of the final product. An important attribute, of the QCM approach is the ability to predict the sensitivity of material production costs to product quality and to quantitatively explore trade-offs between cost and quality. Applications of the cost models allow more efficient direction of future MMC process technology development and a more accurate assessment of MMC market potential. Cost models were developed for two state-of-the art metal matrix composite (MMC) manufacturing processes: tape casting and plasma spray deposition. Quality and Cost models are presented for both processes and the resulting predicted quality-cost curves are presented and discussed.

  4. Big Data Analysis of Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmann, Stefan; Maier, Alexander; Niggemann, Oliver; Frey, Christian; Bernardi, Ansgar; Gu, Ying; Pfrommer, Holger; Steckel, Thilo; Krüger, Michael; Kraus, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The high complexity of manufacturing processes and the continuously growing amount of data lead to excessive demands on the users with respect to process monitoring, data analysis and fault detection. For these reasons, problems and faults are often detected too late, maintenance intervals are chosen too short and optimization potential for higher output and increased energy efficiency is not sufficiently used. A possibility to cope with these challenges is the development of self-learning assistance systems, which identify relevant relationships by observation of complex manufacturing processes so that failures, anomalies and need for optimization are automatically detected. The assistance system developed in the present work accomplishes data acquisition, process monitoring and anomaly detection in industrial and agricultural processes. The assistance system is evaluated in three application cases: Large distillation columns, agricultural harvesting processes and large-scale sorting plants. In this paper, the developed infrastructures for data acquisition in these application cases are described as well as the developed algorithms and initial evaluation results.

  5. A simulation study on garment manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liong, Choong-Yeun; Rahim, Nur Azreen Abdul

    2015-02-01

    Garment industry is an important industry and continues to evolve in order to meet the consumers' high demands. Therefore, elements of innovation and improvement are important. In this work, research studies were conducted at a local company in order to model the sewing process of clothes manufacturing by using simulation modeling. Clothes manufacturing at the company involves 14 main processes, which are connecting the pattern, center sewing and side neating, pockets sewing, backside-sewing, attaching the front and back, sleeves preparation, attaching the sleeves and over lock, collar preparation, collar sewing, bottomedge sewing, buttonholing sewing, removing excess thread, marking button, and button cross sewing. Those fourteen processes are operated by six tailors only. The last four sets of processes are done by a single tailor. Data collection was conducted by on site observation and the probability distribution of processing time for each of the processes is determined by using @Risk's Bestfit. Then a simulation model is developed using Arena Software based on the data collected. Animated simulation model is developed in order to facilitate understanding and verifying that the model represents the actual system. With such model, what if analysis and different scenarios of operations can be experimented with virtually. The animation and improvement models will be presented in further work.

  6. Big Data Analysis of Manufacturing Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windmann, Stefan; Maier, Alexander; Niggemann, Oliver; Frey, Christian; Bernardi, Ansgar; Gu, Ying; Pfrommer, Holger; Steckel, Thilo; Krüger, Michael; Kraus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The high complexity of manufacturing processes and the continuously growing amount of data lead to excessive demands on the users with respect to process monitoring, data analysis and fault detection. For these reasons, problems and faults are often detected too late, maintenance intervals are chosen too short and optimization potential for higher output and increased energy efficiency is not sufficiently used. A possibility to cope with these challenges is the development of self-learning assistance systems, which identify relevant relationships by observation of complex manufacturing processes so that failures, anomalies and need for optimization are automatically detected. The assistance system developed in the present work accomplishes data acquisition, process monitoring and anomaly detection in industrial and agricultural processes. The assistance system is evaluated in three application cases: Large distillation columns, agricultural harvesting processes and large-scale sorting plants. In this paper, the developed infrastructures for data acquisition in these application cases are described as well as the developed algorithms and initial evaluation results. (paper)

  7. Manufacturing Process for OLED Integrated Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Cheng-Hung [Vitro Flat Glass LLC, Cheswick, PA (United States). Glass Technology Center

    2017-03-31

    The main objective of this project was to develop a low-cost integrated substrate for rigid OLED solid-state lighting produced at a manufacturing scale. The integrated substrates could include combinations of soda lime glass substrate, light extraction layer, and an anode layer (i.e., Transparent Conductive Oxide, TCO). Over the 3+ year course of the project, the scope of work was revised to focus on the development of a glass substrates with an internal light extraction (IEL) layer. A manufacturing-scale float glass on-line particle embedding process capable of producing an IEL glass substrate having a thickness of less than 1.7mm and an area larger than 500mm x 400mm was demonstrated. Substrates measuring 470mm x 370mm were used in the OLED manufacturing process for fabricating OLED lighting panels in single pixel devices as large as 120.5mm x 120.5mm. The measured light extraction efficiency (calculated as external quantum efficiency, EQE) for on-line produced IEL samples (>50%) met the project’s initial goal.

  8. Process and control systems for composites manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiang, T. H.; Wanamaker, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A precise control of composite material processing would not only improve part quality, but it would also directly reduce the overall manufacturing cost. The development and incorporation of sensors will help to generate real-time information for material processing relationships and equipment characteristics. In the present work, the thermocouple, pressure transducer, and dielectrometer technologies were investigated. The monitoring sensors were integrated with the computerized control system in three non-autoclave fabrication techniques: hot-press, self contained tool (self heating and pressurizing), and pressure vessel). The sensors were implemented in the parts and tools.

  9. Tendency of lubricating oil manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Toshio

    1988-09-30

    The manufacturing method of paraffin base oil and the tendency are explained in details. The base oil is distillate of petroleum which is obtained at the high boiling of 400/degree/C or higher. The base oil is made from the distillate which is obtained through solvent deasphalting of the vacuum distillated residual oil. The refining process of those material is classified into the two different process steps such as refining and modifying process step in which the quality of the material is improved while eliminating unstable resin, aromatic compound, and sulfur contained in the material, and dewaxing process step in which the wax contained in the material is removed. The former is combination of the two different process steps such as solvent extraction process and hydrogen finishing process or hydroforming process. The latter is a combination of the two different process steps such as solvent dewaxing and catalytic dewaxing (hydro-dewaxing). Various examples of reactions, features and industrial processes are given in accordance with each of these process steps. Regarding the tendency toward the future, the kinds of materials will be expanded in the way that naphthene base oil will adopted as the material oil along with diversification of the quality of lubricating oil, and the processing technology including two-stage processing, catalytic dewaxing, etc. will be expected to be improved. 18 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  10. 77 FR 16158 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or Holding of Drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    .... FDA-1997-N-0518] (formerly 97N-0300) Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing... labeling control provisions of the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for human and... GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part...

  11. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  12. Process chain modeling and selection in an additive manufacturing context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Stolfi, Alessandro; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new two-dimensional approach to modeling manufacturing process chains. This approach is used to consider the role of additive manufacturing technologies in process chains for a part with micro scale features and no internal geometry. It is shown that additive manufacturing...... evolving fields like additive manufacturing....

  13. Improving drug manufacturing with process analytical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Licinia O; Alves, Teresa P; Cardoso, Joaquim P; Menezes, José C

    2006-01-01

    Within the process analytical technology (PAT) framework, as presented in the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines, the aim is to design, develop and operate processes consistently to ensure a pre-defined level of quality at the end of the manufacturing process. Three PAT implementation scenarios can be envisaged. Firstly, PAT could be used in its most modest version (in an almost non-PAT manner) to simply replace an existing quality control protocol (eg, using near-infrared spectroscopy for an in-process quality control, such as moisture content). Secondly, the use of in-process monitoring and process analysis could be integrated to enhance process understanding and operation for an existing industrial process. Thirdly, PAT could be used extensively and exclusively throughout development, scale-up and full-scale production of a new product and process. Although the first type of implementations are well known, reports of the second and third types remain scarce. Herein, results obtained from PAT implementations of the second and third types are described for two industrial processes for preparing bulk active pharmaceutical ingredients, demonstrating the benefits in terms of increased process understanding and process control.

  14. Laser processing of ceramics for microelectronics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposili, Robert S.; Bovatsek, James; Patel, Rajesh

    2017-03-01

    Ceramic materials are used extensively in the microelectronics, semiconductor, and LED lighting industries because of their electrically insulating and thermally conductive properties, as well as for their high-temperature-service capabilities. However, their brittleness presents significant challenges for conventional machining processes. In this paper we report on a series of experiments that demonstrate and characterize the efficacy of pulsed nanosecond UV and green lasers in machining ceramics commonly used in microelectronics manufacturing, such as aluminum oxide (alumina) and aluminum nitride. With a series of laser pocket milling experiments, fundamental volume ablation rate and ablation efficiency data were generated. In addition, techniques for various industrial machining processes, such as shallow scribing and deep scribing, were developed and demonstrated. We demonstrate that lasers with higher average powers offer higher processing rates with the one exception of deep scribes in aluminum nitride, where a lower average power but higher pulse energy source outperformed a higher average power laser.

  15. CHO Quasispecies—Implications for Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M. Wurm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are a source of multi-ton quantities of protein pharmaceuticals. They are, however, immortalized cells, characterized by a high degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity. As is known for any biological system, this diversity is enhanced by selective forces when laboratories (no sharing of gene pools grow cells under (diverse conditions that are practical and useful. CHO cells have been used in culture for more than 50 years, and various lines of cells are available and have been used in manufacturing. This article tries to represent, in a cursory way, the history of CHO cells, particularly the origin and subsequent fate of key cell lines. It is proposed that the name CHO represents many different cell types, based on their inherent genetic diversity and their dynamic rate of genetic change. The continuing remodeling of genomic structure in clonal or non-clonal cell populations, particularly due to the non-standardized culture conditions in hundreds of different labs renders CHO cells a typical case for “quasispecies”. This term was coined for families of related (genomic sequences exposed to high mutation rate environments where a large fraction of offspring is expected to carry one or more mutations. The implications of the quasispecies concept for CHO cells used in protein manufacturing processes are significant. CHO genomics/transcriptomics may provide only limited insights when done on one or two “old” and poorly characterized CHO strains. In contrast, screening of clonal cell lines, derived from a well-defined starting material, possibly within a given academic or industrial environment, may reveal a more narrow diversity of phenotypes with respect to physiological/metabolic activities and, thus, allow more precise and reliable predictions of the potential of a clone for high-yielding manufacturing processes.

  16. WWER-1000 nuclear fuel manufacturing process at PJSC MSZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morylev, A.; Bagdatyeva, E.; Aksenov, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this report a brief description of WWER-1000 fuel manufacturing process steps at PJSC MSZ as: uranium dioxide powder fabrication; fuel pellet manufacture fuel rod manufacture working assembly and fuel assembly manufacture is given. The implemented innovations are also presented

  17. Process simulations for manufacturing of thick composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempner, Evan A.

    The availability of manufacturing simulations for composites can significantly reduce the costs associated with process development. Simulations provide a tool for evaluating the effect of processing conditions on the quality of parts produced without requiring numerous experiments. This is especially significant in parts that have troublesome features such as large thickness. The development of simulations for thick walled composites has been approached by examining the mechanics of resin flow and fiber deformation during processing, applying these evaluations to develop simulations, and evaluating the simulation with experimental results. A unified analysis is developed to describe the three-dimensional resin flow and fiber preform deformation during processing regardless of the manufacturing process used. It is shown how the generic governing evaluations in the unified analysis can be applied to autoclave molding, compression molding, pultrusion, filament winding, and resin transfer molding. A comparison is provided with earlier models derived individually for these processes. The evaluations described for autoclave curing were used to produce a one-dimensional cure simulation for autoclave curing of thick composites. The simulation consists of an analysis for heat transfer and resin flow in the composite as well as bleeder plies used to absorb resin removed from the part. Experiments were performed in a hot press to approximate curing in an autoclave. Graphite/epoxy laminates of 3 cm and 5 cm thickness were cured while monitoring temperatures at several points inside the laminate and thickness. The simulation predicted temperatures fairly closely, but difficulties were encountered in correlation of thickness results. This simulation was also used to study the effects of prepreg aging on processing of thick composites. An investigation was also performed on filament winding with prepreg tow. Cylinders were wound of approximately 12 mm thickness with pressure

  18. Advanced Manufacturing Office Clean Water Processing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-03-01

    The DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)’s Advanced Manufacturing Office partners with industry, small business, universities, and other stakeholders to identify and invest in emerging technologies with the potential to create high-quality domestic manufacturing jobs and enhance the global competitiveness of the United States.

  19. Offshoring trends in the manufacturing process within the automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simplay, S.; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2014-01-01

    consisting of original equipment manufacturers and engineering service providers. The findings indicated some offshoring trends in the automotive industry. Offshoring in this industry is moving from a manufacturing focus to incorporate large parts of the process, including high-level product development...... engineering activities. This development has created several challenges. These challenges arose as organisations are not considering how offshoring activities could be integrated with an increasingly global supply chain for the manufacturing of the final product. The paper contributes to manufacturing theory...

  20. Modular manufacturing processes : Status, challenges, and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldea, Michael; Edgar, Thomas F.; Stanley, Bill L.; Kiss, Anton A.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical companies are constantly seeking new, high-margin growth opportunities, the majority of which lie in high-grade, specialty chemicals, rather than in the bulk sector. To realize these opportunities, manufacturers are increasingly considering decentralized, flexible production facilities:

  1. Rapsodie first core manufacture. 1. part: processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masselot, Y.; Bataller, S.; Ganivet, M.; Guillet, H.; Robillard, A.; Stosskopf, F.

    1968-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of three describing the processes, results and peculiar technical problems related to the manufacture of the first core of the fast reactor Rapsodie. A detailed study of manufacturing processes(pellets, pins, fissile sub-assemblies), the associated testings (raw materials, processed pellets and pins, sub-assemblies before delivery), manufacturing facilities and improvements for a second campaign are described. (author) [fr

  2. Quality and Safety Assurance of Iron Casts and Manufacturing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kukla S.

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this work focuses on the aspects of quality and safety assurance of the iron cast manufacturing processes. Special attention was given to the processes of quality control and after-machining of iron casts manufactured on automatic foundry lines. Due to low level of automation and huge work intensity at this stage of the process, a model area was established which underwent reorganization in accordance with the assumptions of the World Class Manufacturing (WCM). An analysis of wor...

  3. Uranium manufacturing process employing the electrolytic reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yoshio; Kazuhare, Manabu; Morimoto, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention related to a uranium manufacturing process that employs the electrolytic reduction method, but particularly to a uranium manufacturing process that employs an electrolytic reduction method requiring low voltage. The process, in which uranium is obtained by means of the electrolytic method and with uranyl acid as the raw material, is prior art

  4. Printing Processes Used to Manufacture Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rardin, Tina E.; Xu, Renmei

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing need for renewable energy sources, and solar power is a good option in many instances. Photovoltaic solar panels are now being manufactured via various methods, and different printing processes are being incorporated into the manufacturing process. Screen printing has been used most prevalently in the printing process to make…

  5. Radiological significance of thorium processing in manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The study of thorium processing in manufacturing comprised monitoring programs at a plant where thorium dioxide was in use and another where the use of thorium nitrate had been discontinued. The measurements of the solubility in simulated lung fluid proved that both materials belonged in the Y Class with dissolution half-times greater than 500 days. Bioassay measurements of 20 subjects from both facilities proved that in vitro monitoring methods, urine, feces, hair and nails analysis were not sufficient indicators of thorium uptake. In vivo monitoring by phoswich and large sodium iodide detectors were proven to be good methods of determining thorium lung burdens. The thoron in breath technique was shown to have a lower limit of sensitivity than lung counting, however, due to lack of information regarding the thoron escape rate from the thorium particles in the lungs the method is not as accurate as lung counting. Two subjects at the thorium dioxide facility had lung burdens of 21+- 16 Bq and 29+- 24 Bq Th 232 and one at the thorium nitrate facility had a lung burden of 37+- 13 Bq. Improvements in the procedures and use of a glove box were among the recommendations to reduce the inhalation of thorium by workers at the thorium dioxide facility. Decontamination of several rooms at the thorium nitrate facility and sealing of the walls and floors were recommended in order to reduce the escape of thoron gas into the room air. The risk to non Atomic Radiation Workers was primarily due to thoron daughters in air while gamma radiation and thorium in air were less important. Conversely, at the thorium dioxide facility the inhalation of thorium in air was the most significant exposure pathway

  6. Additive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue

    This Ph.D dissertation,ffAdditive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Controlff, deal with Additive Manufacturing technologies which is a common name for a series of processes that are recognized by being computer controlled, highly automated, and manufacture objects...... by a layered deposition of material. Two areas of particular interest is addressed. They are rooted in two very different areas, yet is intended to fuel the same goal. To help Additive Manufacturing technologies one step closer to becoming the autonomous, digital manufacturing method of tomorrow. Vision...... systems A paradox exist in the field of Additive Manufacturing. The technologies allow for close-to unrestrained and integral geometrical freedom. Almost any geometry can be manufactured fast, e"ciently and cheap. Something that has been missing fundamental capability since the entering of the industrial...

  7. UOE Pipe Manufacturing Process Simulation: Equipment Designing and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistoian, Dmitri; Chirchor, Mihael

    2017-12-01

    UOE pipe manufacturing process influence directly on pipeline resilience and operation capacity. At present most spreaded pipe manufacturing method is UOE. This method is based on cold forming. After each technological step appears a certain stress and strain level. For pipe stress strain study is designed and constructed special equipment that simulate entire technological process.UOE pipe equipment is dedicated for manufacturing of longitudinally submerged arc welded DN 400 (16 inch) steel pipe.

  8. Process for the manufacture of ajoene derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    to a method for manufacturing (E,Z) ajoene of formula (1) wherein the conformation of the internal C=C- bond can be either E or Z or a mixture thereof, said method comprising reacting allicin of formula (3) with an acid in the presence of a solvent to provide (E,Z ajoene) of formula (1) as defined above. Yet...

  9. Process for the Manufacture of Ajoene Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    to a method for manufacturing (E,Z) ajoene of formula (1) wherein the conformation of the internal C=C- bond can be either E or Z or a mixture thereof, said method comprising reacting allicin of formula (3) with an acid in the presence of a solvent to provide (E,Z ajoene) of formula (1) as defined above. Yet...

  10. Sustainable Manufacturing via Multi-Scale, Physics-Based Process Modeling and Manufacturing-Informed Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-04-01

    This factsheet describes a project that developed and demonstrated a new manufacturing-informed design framework that utilizes advanced multi-scale, physics-based process modeling to dramatically improve manufacturing productivity and quality in machining operations while reducing the cost of machined components.

  11. 78 FR 18234 - Service of Process on Manufacturers; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1005 [Docket No. FDA-2007-N-0091; (formerly 2007N-0104)] Service of Process on Manufacturers; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United States; Agent Designation; Change of Address AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  12. External designers in product design processes of small manufacturing firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, Hans; Reymen, Isabelle; Stultiëns, Rutger G L; Peutz, Murk

    Small manufacturing firms often fail to reap the benefits of good design practices. This study investigates how the involvement of external designers influences the evolution of product design processes in small manufacturing firms. Qualitative and quantitative process research methods were used to

  13. 31 CFR 500.412 - Process vs. manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process vs. manufacture. 500.412 Section 500.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 500.412 Process vs. manufacture. A commodity subject to § 500.204 remains subject howsoever it...

  14. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT MODEL AT THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS PREPARATION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusko Pavletic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper expresses base for an operational quality improvement model at the manufacturing process preparation level. A numerous appropriate related quality assurance and improvement methods and tools are identified. Main manufacturing process principles are investigated in order to scrutinize one general model of manufacturing process and to define a manufacturing process preparation level. Development and introduction of the operational quality improvement model is based on a research conducted and results of methods and tools application possibilities in real manufacturing processes shipbuilding and automotive industry. Basic model structure is described and presented by appropriate general algorithm. Operational quality improvement model developed lays down main guidelines for practical and systematic application of quality improvements methods and tools.

  15. Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian Alexander; Geddes, Cameron James; Rudolf, Randall Lynn; Selby, Bruce Allen; MacDonald, Duncan Charles

    2012-12-11

    A method includes making coiled tubing at a coiled tubing manufacturing unit coupled to a coiled tubing transportation system. One or more coiled tubing reels are transported from the coiled tubing manufacturing unit to one or more moveable well drilling systems using the coiled tubing transportation system. The coiled tubing transportation system runs from the tubing manufacturing unit to one or more movable well drilling systems, and then back to the coiled tubing manufacturing unit.

  16. Scalable manufacturing processes with soft materials

    OpenAIRE

    White, Edward; Case, Jennifer; Kramer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The emerging field of soft robotics will benefit greatly from new scalable manufacturing techniques for responsive materials. Currently, most of soft robotic examples are fabricated one-at-a-time, using techniques borrowed from lithography and 3D printing to fabricate molds. This limits both the maximum and minimum size of robots that can be fabricated, and hinders batch production, which is critical to gain wider acceptance for soft robotic systems. We have identified electrical structures, ...

  17. Computer simulation of gear tooth manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri; Huston, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate gear tooth manufacturing procedures is discussed. An analytical basis for the simulation is established for spur gears. The simulation itself, however, is developed not only for spur gears, but for straight bevel gears as well. The applications of the developed procedure extend from the development of finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring the fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms.

  18. Manufacturing Process Simulation of Large-Scale Cryotanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Majid; Phillips, Steven; Griffin, Brian

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) is an effort to research and develop the technologies needed to build a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. It is required that this new launch vehicle be 100 times safer and 10 times cheaper to operate than current launch vehicles. Part of the SLI includes the development of reusable composite and metallic cryotanks. The size of these reusable tanks is far greater than anything ever developed and exceeds the design limits of current manufacturing tools. Several design and manufacturing approaches have been formulated, but many factors must be weighed during the selection process. Among these factors are tooling reachability, cycle times, feasibility, and facility impacts. The manufacturing process simulation capabilities available at NASA.s Marshall Space Flight Center have played a key role in down selecting between the various manufacturing approaches. By creating 3-D manufacturing process simulations, the varying approaches can be analyzed in a virtual world before any hardware or infrastructure is built. This analysis can detect and eliminate costly flaws in the various manufacturing approaches. The simulations check for collisions between devices, verify that design limits on joints are not exceeded, and provide cycle times which aide in the development of an optimized process flow. In addition, new ideas and concerns are often raised after seeing the visual representation of a manufacturing process flow. The output of the manufacturing process simulations allows for cost and safety comparisons to be performed between the various manufacturing approaches. This output helps determine which manufacturing process options reach the safety and cost goals of the SLI. As part of the SLI, The Boeing Company was awarded a basic period contract to research and propose options for both a metallic and a composite cryotank. Boeing then entered into a task agreement with the Marshall Space Flight Center to provide manufacturing

  19. Current manufacturing processes of drug-eluting sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel; Tassaing, Thierry; Jérôme, Christine

    2017-11-01

    Drug-eluting sutures represent the next generation of surgical sutures since they fulfill their mechanical functions but also deliver the drug in their vicinity after implantation. These implants are produced by a variety of manufacturing processes. Drug-eluting sutures represent the next generation of surgical sutures since they fulfill their mechanical functions but also deliver the drug in their vicinity after implantation. These implants are produced by a variety of manufacturing processes. Two general approaches can be followed: (i) the ones that add the API into the material during the manufacturing process of the suture and (ii) the ones that load the API to an already manufactured suture. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the current manufacturing processes for drug-eluting suture production and discusses their benefits and drawbacks depending on the type of drugs. The mechanical properties and the drug delivery profile of drug-eluting sutures are highlighted since these implants must fulfill both criteria. Expert opinion: For limited drug contents, melt extrusion and electrospinning are the emerging processes since the drug is added during the suture manufacture process. Advantageously, the drug release profile can be tuned by controlling the processing parameters specific to each process and the composition of the drug-containing polymer. If high drug content is targeted, the coating or grafting of a drug layer on a pre-manufactured suture allows for preservation of the tensile strength requirements of the suture.

  20. SDIO Producibility and Manufacturing Intelligent Processing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottlemyer, Greg

    1992-01-01

    SDIO has to fashion a comprehensive strategy to insert the capability of an industrial base into ongoing design tradeoffs. This means that there is not only a need to determine if something can be made to the precision needed to meet system performance, but also what changes need to be made in that industry sector to develop a deterministic approach to fabrication precision components. Developing and introducing advanced production and quality control systems is part of this success. To address this situation, SDIO has developed the MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Labs) program. MODILs were developed into three areas: Survivable Optics, Electronics and Sensors, and Spacecraft Fabrication and Test.

  1. Process for the manufacture of whey products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanie, P

    1980-01-01

    Whey is subjected to ultrafiltration to retain about 10% of the T5, whilst the permeate is demineralized to 7% or less ash in the final product and dried to 3% moisture. The product, containing (in DM) 75% or more lactose, 6% or less protein and 8% or less minerals, is hydrolysed, e.g. with beta-galactosidase. It may be used for replacing sucrose, in the manufacture of a range of foods. Applications include chewing gum, fondants, nougats, chocolate, bakery and confectionery products as well as cream and yoghurt.

  2. Key Features of the Manufacturing Vision Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Riis, Jens Ove; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    of action research. The methodology recommends wide participation of people from different hierarchical and functional positions, who engage in a relatively short, playful and creative process and come up with a vision (concept) for the future manufacturing system in the company. Based on three case studies......This paper discusses the key features of the process of Manufacturing Vision Development, a process that enables companies to develop their future manufacturing concept. The basis for the process is a generic five-phase methodology (Riis and Johansen 2003) developed as a result of ten years...... of companies going through the initial phases of the methodology, this research identified the key features of the Manufacturing Vision Development process. The paper elaborates the key features by defining them, discussing how and when they can appear, and how they influence the process....

  3. Manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents by a rapid prototyping process chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knitter, R.; Bauer, W.; Goehring, D.; Hausselt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing of new ceramic components may be improved significantly by the use of rapid prototyping processes especially in the development of miniaturized or micropatterned components. Most known generative ceramic molding processes do not provide a sufficient resolution for the fabrication of microstructured components. In contrast to this, a rapid prototyping process chain that for example, combines micro-stereolithography and low-pressure injection molding, allows the rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to preliminary or small-lot series. (orig.)

  4. Nonterrestrial material processing and manufacturing of large space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G.

    1979-01-01

    Nonterrestrial processing of materials and manufacturing of large space system components from preprocessed lunar materials at a manufacturing site in space is described. Lunar materials mined and preprocessed at the lunar resource complex will be flown to the space manufacturing facility (SMF), where together with supplementary terrestrial materials, they will be final processed and fabricated into space communication systems, solar cell blankets, radio frequency generators, and electrical equipment. Satellite Power System (SPS) material requirements and lunar material availability and utilization are detailed, and the SMF processing, refining, fabricating facilities, material flow and manpower requirements are described.

  5. A risk-based auditing process for pharmaceutical manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Susan; Dana, Bob; Rangavajhula, Vijaya; Rönninger, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share ideas on developing a risk-based model for the scheduling of audits (both internal and external). Audits are a key element of a manufacturer's quality system and provide an independent means of evaluating the manufacturer's or the supplier/vendor's compliance status. Suggestions for risk-based scheduling approaches are discussed in the article. Pharmaceutical manufacturers are required to establish and implement a quality system. The quality system is an organizational structure defining responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources that the manufacturer has established to ensure quality throughout the manufacturing process. Audits are a component of the manufacturer's quality system and provide a systematic and an independent means of evaluating the manufacturer's overall quality system and compliance status. Audits are performed at defined intervals for a specified duration. The intention of the audit process is to focus on key areas within the quality system and may not cover all relevant areas during each audit. In this article, the authors provide suggestions for risk-based scheduling approaches to aid pharmaceutical manufacturers in identifying the key focus areas for an audit.

  6. Defective Reduction in Frozen Pie Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooted, Oranuch; Tangjitsitcharoen, Somkiat

    2017-06-01

    The frozen pie production has a lot of defects resulting in high production cost. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) technique has been applied to improve the frozen pie process. Pareto chart is also used to determine the major defects of frozen pie. There are 3 main processes that cause the defects which are the 1st freezing to glazing process, the forming process, and the folding process. The Risk Priority Number (RPN) obtained from FMEA is analyzed to reduce the defects. If RPN of each cause exceeds 45, the process will be considered to be improved and selected for the corrective and preventive actions. The results showed that RPN values decreased after the correction. Therefore, the implementation of FMEA technique can help to improve the performance of frozen pie process and reduce the defects approximately 51.9%.

  7. Manufacturing of anode supported SOFCs: Processing parameters and their influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramousse, Severine; Menon, Mohan; Brodersen, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of low cost, highly reliable and reproducible manufacturing processes has been focused for commercialization of SOFC technology. A major challenge in the production chain is the manufacture of anode-supported planar SOFC's single cells in which each layer in a layered structure...... contains a complex microstructure. In order to improve the cell performance as well as reducing the processing costs, it has been found necessary to consider the process chain holistically, because successful manufacture of such a cell and the achievement of optimal final properties depend on each...... of the processing steps and their interdependence. A large database for several thousand anode-supported SOFCs manufactured annually at the Risoe National Laboratory in collaboration with Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S has been constructed. This enables a statistical analysis of the various controlling parameters. Some...

  8. Systems engineering management process maturity of South African manufacturing organisations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemberger, ID

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available to integrate people, processes and technologies to deliver innovative complex systems. The investigation set out to improve the understanding of systems engineering (SE) with focus on organisations in manufacturing of coke, petroleum, chemical products, rubber...

  9. In-Process Monitoring of Additive Manufacturing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this project is the implementation of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) for in situ metal additive manufacturing process...

  10. Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing processes: Variational model and numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir; El Sayed, Tamer

    2012-01-01

    We present a computational study of ultrasonic assisted manufacturing processes including sheet metal forming, upsetting, and wire drawing. A fully variational porous plasticity model is modified to include ultrasonic softening effects

  11. Hopper design for metallic powders used in additive manufacturing processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Visagie, N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of hopper geometry on the flow behaviour of typical metallic powders used in additive manufacturing processes is investigated. Bulk hopper theory provides a method of determining critical hopper parameters for bulk amounts...

  12. In-situ acoustic signature monitoring in additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Lucas W.; Taheri, Hossein; Bigelow, Timothy A.; Bond, Leonard J.; Faierson, Eric J.

    2018-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapidly maturing process for the production of complex metallic, ceramic, polymeric, and composite components. The processes used are numerous, and with the complex geometries involved this can make quality control and standardization of the process and inspection difficult. Acoustic emission measurements have been used previously to monitor a number of processes including machining and welding. The authors have identified acoustic signature measurement as a potential means of monitoring metal additive manufacturing processes using process noise characteristics and those discrete acoustic emission events characteristic of defect growth, including cracks and delamination. Results of acoustic monitoring for a metal additive manufacturing process (directed energy deposition) are reported. The work investigated correlations between acoustic emissions and process noise with variations in machine state and deposition parameters, and provided proof of concept data that such correlations do exist.

  13. Enhancing Manufacturing Process Education via Computer Simulation and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Priyadarshan A.; Acharya, Sushil; Wu, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrially significant metal manufacturing processes such as melting, casting, rolling, forging, machining, and forming are multi-stage, complex processes that are labor, time, and capital intensive. Academic research develops mathematical modeling of these processes that provide a theoretical framework for understanding the process variables…

  14. Engineering aspects of rate-related processes in food manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Many rate-related phenomena occur in food manufacturing processes. This review addresses four of them, all of which are topics that the author has studied in order to design food manufacturing processes that are favorable from the standpoint of food engineering. They include chromatographic separation through continuous separation with a simulated moving adsorber, lipid oxidation kinetics in emulsions and microencapsulated systems, kinetic analysis and extraction in subcritical water, and water migration in pasta.

  15. Efficiency of manufacturing processes energy and ecological perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

     This monograph presents a reliable methodology for characterising the energy and eco-efficiency of unit manufacturing processes. The Specific Energy Consumption, SEC, will be identified as the key indicator for the energy efficiency of unit processes.  An empirical approach will be validated on different machine tools and manufacturing processes to depict the relationship between process parameters and energy consumptions. Statistical results and additional validation runs will corroborate the high level of accuracy in predicting the energy consumption. In relation to the eco-efficiency, the value and the associated environmental impacts of  manufacturing processes will also be discussed. The interrelationship between process parameters, process value and the associated environmental impact will be integrated in the evaluation of eco-efficiency. The book concludes with a further investigation of the results in order to develop strategies for further efficiency improvement. The target audience primarily co...

  16. Process chains for the manufacturing of moulded interconnect devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    process chains for the manufacturing of MIDs. This paper presents a comparison among the MID manufacturing process chains, and it presents experimental results based on two of the most industrially adapted processes. Experiments with two-component (2k) injection molding and subsequent selective......) process show that the success of the process is heavily dependant on the choice of material. It presents how the surface topographies are varied as a function of laser type and material choice. The amount of seed metal particles in the plastic material is a crucial factor that controls laser...

  17. Manufacture of functional surfaces through combined application of tool manufacturing processes and Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Arentoft, Mogens; Grønbæk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tool surface topography is often a key parameter in the tribological performance of modern metal forming tools. A new generation of multifunctional surfaces is achieved by combination of conventional tool manufacturing processes with a novel Robot Assisted Polishing process. This novel surface...

  18. Risk calculations in the manufacturing technology selection process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, S.; O'Brien, C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present result obtained from a developed technology selection framework and provide a detailed insight into the risk calculations and their implications in manufacturing technology selection process. Design/methodology/approach - The results illustrated...... in the paper are the outcome of an action research study that was conducted in an aerospace company. Findings - The paper highlights the role of risk calculations in manufacturing technology selection process by elaborating the contribution of risk associated with manufacturing technology alternatives...... in the shape of opportunities and threats in different decision-making environments. Practical implications - The research quantifies the risk associated with different available manufacturing technology alternatives. This quantification of risk crystallises the process of technology selection decision making...

  19. Laser processing for manufacturing nanocarbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Hai Hoang

    CNTs have been considered as the excellent candidate to revolutionize a broad range of applications. There have been many method developed to manipulate the chemistry and the structure of CNTs. Laser with non-contact treatment capability exhibits many processing advantages, including solid-state treatment, extremely fast processing rate, and high processing resolution. In addition, the outstanding monochromatic, coherent, and directional beam generates the powerful energy absorption and the resultant extreme processing conditions. In my research, a unique laser scanning method was developed to process CNTs, controlling the oxidation and the graphitization. The achieved controllability of this method was applied to address the important issues of the current CNT processing methods for three applications. The controllable oxidation of CNTs by laser scanning method was applied to cut CNT films to produce high-performance cathodes for FE devices. The production method includes two important self-developed techniques to produce the cold cathodes: the production of highly oriented and uniformly distributed CNT sheets and the precise laser trimming process. Laser cutting is the unique method to produce the cathodes with remarkable features, including ultrathin freestanding structure (~200 nm), greatly high aspect ratio, hybrid CNT-GNR emitter arrays, even emitter separation, and directional emitter alignment. This unique cathode structure was unachievable by other methods. The developed FE devices successfully solved the screening effect issue encounter by current FE devices. The laser-control oxidation method was further developed to sequentially remove graphitic walls of CNTs. The laser oxidation process was directed to occur along the CNT axes by the laser scanning direction. Additionally, the oxidation was further assisted by the curvature stress and the thermal expansion of the graphitic nanotubes, ultimately opening (namely unzipping) the tubular structure to

  20. Encapsulation Processing and Manufacturing Yield Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation system is presented. This work is part of the materials baseline needed to demonstrate a 30 year module lifetime capability. Process and compound variables are both being studied along with various module materials. Results have shown that EVA should be stored rolled up, and enclosed in a plastic bag to retard loss of peroxide curing agents. The TBEC curing agent has superior shelf life and processing than the earlier Lupersol-101 curing agent. Analytical methods were developed to test for peroxide content, and experimental methodologies were formalized.

  1. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  2. Process for manufacture of Te microwire in glass insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodiul, Pavel; Nicolaeva, Alibina; Konopko, Leonid; Bondarciuc, Nicolae

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to the manufacturing of microwires in glass insulation and can be used in electronics and in the manufacturing of thermoelectrodes for thermoelectric sensors. The process for manufacture of Te microwire in glass insulation consists in softening the Te sample and its pulling in glass insulation. Near the microwire pulling zone through the furnace is maintained a temperature of 430-440 degrees Celsius, which causes the solidification firstly of Te microwire, and then of glass insulation. The result of the invention is to obtain Te microwires in glass insulation of high quality with a diameter of 50-100 μm and a length of 3-15 cm.

  3. The Lean Design of Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Strachotová

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to using of Six Sigma methodology. A break trough strategy to significantly improve customer satisfaction and shareholder value by reducing variability in every aspects of business. It enhances the ability to delivery customer satisfaction and cost improvement results faster – within months from the start, and sustains the rate of improvement on-going. One of the most powerful ways to improve business performance is combining business process management (BPM strategies with Six Sigma strategies. BPM strategies emphasize process improvements and automation to drive performance, while Six Sigma uses statistical analysis to drive quality improvements. The two strategies are not mutually exclusive, however, and some savvy companies have discovered that combining BPM and Six Sigma can create dramatic results. Six Sigma methodology teaches and deploys hard skills and business practices emphasizing.

  4. Topology Optimization for Reducing Additive Manufacturing Processing Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    distribution is unlimited. 1. Introduction Additive manufacturing (AM) is a production method that involves gradual, layer- by-layer building of material... design space—allowing the production of pre- viously unmanufacturable topologically optimized structures—constraints remain. One constraint, for...ARL-TR-8242•DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Topology Optimization for ReducingAdditive Manufacturing ProcessingDistortions by Raymond A Wildman

  5. Ramp Technology and Intelligent Processing in Small Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    To address the issues of excessive inventories and increasing procurement lead times, the Navy is actively pursuing flexible computer integrated manufacturing (FCIM) technologies, integrated by communication networks to respond rapidly to its requirements for parts. The Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts (RAMP) program, initiated in 1986, is an integral part of this effort. The RAMP program's goal is to reduce the current average production lead times experienced by the Navy's inventory control points by a factor of 90 percent. The manufacturing engineering component of the RAMP architecture utilizes an intelligent processing technology built around a knowledge-based shell provided by ICAD, Inc. Rules and data bases in the software simulate an expert manufacturing planner's knowledge of shop processes and equipment. This expert system can use Product Data Exchange using STEP (PDES) data to determine what features the required part has, what material is required to manufacture it, what machines and tools are needed, and how the part should be held (fixtured) for machining, among other factors. The program's rule base then indicates, for example, how to make each feature, in what order to make it, and to which machines on the shop floor the part should be routed for processing. This information becomes part of the shop work order. The process planning function under RAMP greatly reduces the time and effort required to complete a process plan. Since the PDES file that drives the intelligent processing is 100 percent complete and accurate to start with, the potential for costly errors is greatly diminished.

  6. Framework for Sustainability Performance Assessment for Manufacturing Processes- A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K.; Sultan, I.

    2017-07-01

    Manufacturing industries are facing tough competition due to increasing raw material cost and depleting natural resources. There is great pressure on the industry to produce environmental friendly products using environmental friendly processes. To address these issues modern manufacturing industries are focusing on sustainable manufacturing. To develop more sustainable societies, industries need to better understand how to respond to environmental, economic and social challenges. This paper proposed some framework and tools that accelerate the transition towards a sustainable system. The developed framework will be beneficial for sustainability assessment comparing different plans alongside material properties, ultimately helping the manufacturing industries to reduce the carbon emissions and material waste, besides improving energy efficiency. It is expected that this would be highly beneficial for determination of environmental impact of a process at early design stages. Therefore, it would greatly help the manufacturing industries for selection of process plan based on sustainable indices. Overall objective of this paper would have good impact on reducing air emissions and protecting environment. We expect this work to contribute to the development of a standard reference methodology to help further sustainability in the manufacturing sector.

  7. Manufacturing processes of cellular metals. Part I. Liquid route processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Cruz, L. J.; Coleto, J.

    2008-01-01

    With its interesting and particular characteristics, cellular metals are taking part of the great family of new materials. They can have open or closed porosity. At the present time, the major challenge for the materials researchers is based in the manufacturing techniques improvement in order to obtain reproducible and reliable cellular metals with quality. In the present paper, the different production methods to manufacture cellular metals by liquid route are reviewed; making a short description about the main parameters involved and the advantages and drawbacks in each of them. (Author) 106 refs

  8. A Review on the Mechanical Modeling of Composite Manufacturing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Cinar, Kenan; Ersoy, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    The increased usage of fiber reinforced polymer composites in load bearing applications requires a detailed understanding of the process induced residual stresses and their effect on the shape distortions. This is utmost necessary in order to have more reliable composite manufacturing since...... the residual stresses alter the internal stress level of the composite part during the service life and the residual shape distortions may lead to not meeting the desired geometrical tolerances. The occurrence of residual stresses during the manufacturing process inherently contains diverse interactions...... between the involved physical phenomena mainly related to material flow, heat transfer and polymerization or crystallization. Development of numerical process models is required for virtual design and optimization of the composite manufacturing process which avoids the expensive trial-and-error based...

  9. Mining manufacturing data for discovery of high productivity process characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaniya, Salim; Le, Huong; Rangwala, Huzefa; Mills, Keri; Johnson, Kevin; Karypis, George; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2010-06-01

    Modern manufacturing facilities for bioproducts are highly automated with advanced process monitoring and data archiving systems. The time dynamics of hundreds of process parameters and outcome variables over a large number of production runs are archived in the data warehouse. This vast amount of data is a vital resource to comprehend the complex characteristics of bioprocesses and enhance production robustness. Cell culture process data from 108 'trains' comprising production as well as inoculum bioreactors from Genentech's manufacturing facility were investigated. Each run constitutes over one-hundred on-line and off-line temporal parameters. A kernel-based approach combined with a maximum margin-based support vector regression algorithm was used to integrate all the process parameters and develop predictive models for a key cell culture performance parameter. The model was also used to identify and rank process parameters according to their relevance in predicting process outcome. Evaluation of cell culture stage-specific models indicates that production performance can be reliably predicted days prior to harvest. Strong associations between several temporal parameters at various manufacturing stages and final process outcome were uncovered. This model-based data mining represents an important step forward in establishing a process data-driven knowledge discovery in bioprocesses. Implementation of this methodology on the manufacturing floor can facilitate a real-time decision making process and thereby improve the robustness of large scale bioprocesses. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of Test Parts to Characterize Micro Additive Manufacturing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Mischkot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The minimum feature size and obtainable tolerances of additive manufacturing processes are linked to the smallest volumetric elements (voxels) that can be created. This work presents the iterative design of a test part to investigate the resolution of AM processes with voxel sizes at the micro...... scale. Each design iteration reduces the test part size, increases the number of test features, improves functionality, and decreases coupling in the part. The final design is a set of three test parts that are easy to orient and measure, and that provide useful information about micro additive...... manufacturing processes....

  11. Review of manufacturing processes for fabrication of SOFC components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, B.; Badwal, S.P.S.; Foger, K.

    1998-01-01

    In order for fuel cell technology to be commercial, it must meet stringent criteria of reliability, life-time expectations and cost. While materials play an important role in determining these parameters, engineering design and manufacturing processes for fuel cell stack components are equally important. Manufacturing processes must be low cost and suitable for large volume production for the technology to be viable and competitive in the market place. Several processes suitable for the production of ceramic components used in solid oxide fuel cells as well as ceramic coating techniques required for the protection of some metal components have been described. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  12. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  13. 76 FR 36078 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...] Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for... to quality and sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing grade milk... Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Recommended Requirements for Adoption by State...

  14. 77 FR 24722 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Assessing the Effects of Significant Manufacturing Process Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Assessing the Effects of Significant Manufacturing Process Changes... Manufacturing Process Changes, Including Emerging Technologies, on the Safety and Regulatory Status of Food... determining whether changes in manufacturing process, including the intentional reduction in particle size to...

  15. Parallel direct solver for finite element modeling of manufacturing processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P.A.F.

    2017-01-01

    The central processing unit (CPU) time is of paramount importance in finite element modeling of manufacturing processes. Because the most significant part of the CPU time is consumed in solving the main system of equations resulting from finite element assemblies, different approaches have been...

  16. Additive Manufacturing of High-Entropy Alloys by Laser Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Janssen, Niels; Smith, Stefan; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    This contribution concentrates on the possibilities of additive manufacturing of high-entropy clad layers by laser processing. In particular, the effects of the laser surface processing parameters on the microstructure and hardness of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were examined. AlCoCrFeNi alloys with

  17. Manufacturing Squares: An Integrative Statistical Process Control Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    In the exercise, students in a junior-level operations management class are asked to manufacture a simple product. Given product specifications, they must design a production process, create roles and design jobs for each team member, and develop a statistical process control plan that efficiently and effectively controls quality during…

  18. Application of Contact Mode AFM to Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Michael A.; Schmid, Steven R.

    A review of the application of contact mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) to manufacturing processes is presented. A brief introduction to common experimental techniques including hardness, scratch, and wear testing is presented, with a discussion of challenges in the extension of manufacturing scale investigations to the AFM. Differences between the macro- and nanoscales tests are discussed, including indentation size effects and their importance in the simulation of processes such as grinding. The basics of lubrication theory are presented and friction force microscopy is introduced as a method of investigating metal forming lubrication on the nano- and microscales that directly simulates tooling/workpiece asperity interactions. These concepts are followed by a discussion of their application to macroscale industrial manufacturing processes and direct correlations are made.

  19. Introduction to powder metallurgy processes for titanium manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, P. G.; Bolzoni, L.; Ruiz-Navas, E. M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-01-01

    The development of new extraction processes to produce titanium in powder form leads Powder Metallurgy to an advantage position among the manufacturing processes for titanium. The cost reduction of base material, coupled with the economy of the powder metallurgy processes, give titanium industry the chance to diversify its products, which could lead to production volumes able to stabilise the price of the metal. This work reviews some of the Powder Metallurgy techniques for the manufacturing of titanium parts, and describes the two typical approaches for titanium manufacturing: Blending Elemental and Prealloyed Powders. Among others, conventional pressing and sintering are described, which are compared with cold and hot isostatic pressing techniques. Real and potential applications are described. (Author) 71 refs.

  20. Toward Meaningful Manufacturing Variation Data in Design - Feature Based Description of Variation in Manufacturing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eifler, Tobias; Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The need to mitigate the effects of manufacturing variation already in design is nowadays commonly acknowledged and has led to a wide use of predictive modeling techniques, tolerancing approaches, etc. in industry. The trustworthiness of corresponding variation analyses is, however, not ensured...... by the availability of sophisticated methods and tools alone, but does evidently also depend on the accuracy of the input information used. As existing approaches for the description of manufacturing variation focus however, almost exclusively, on monitoring and controlling production processes, there is frequently...... a lack of objective variation data in design. As a result, variation analyses and tolerancing activities rely on numerous assumptions made to fill the gaps of missing or incomplete data. To overcome this hidden subjectivity, a schema for a consistent and standardised description of manufacturing...

  1. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  2. A factory concept for processing and manufacturing with lunar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for an orbital factory sized to process 1.5 million metric tons per year of raw lunar fines into 0.3 million metric tons of manufacturing materials is presented. A conservative approach involving application of present earth-based technology leads to a design devoid of new inventions. Earth based counterparts to the factory machinery were used to generate subsystem masses and lumped parameters for volume and mass estimates. The results are considered to be conservative since technologies more advanced than those assumed are presently available in many areas. Some attributes of potential space processing technologies applied to material refinement and component manufacture are discussed.

  3. Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing processes: Variational model and numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2012-04-01

    We present a computational study of ultrasonic assisted manufacturing processes including sheet metal forming, upsetting, and wire drawing. A fully variational porous plasticity model is modified to include ultrasonic softening effects and then utilized to account for instantaneous softening when ultrasonic energy is applied during deformation. Material model parameters are identified via inverse modeling, i.e. by using experimental data. The versatility and predictive ability of the model are demonstrated and the effect of ultrasonic intensity on the manufacturing process at hand is investigated and compared qualitatively with experimental results reported in the literature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustainable manufacturing: Effect of material selection and design on the environmental impact in the manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, Mohd Hazwan Syafiq; Salaam, Hadi Abdul; Taha, Zahari

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of a manufacturing process is also dependent on the selection of the material and design of a product. This is because the manufacturing of a product is directly connected to the amount of carbon emitted in consuming the electrical energy for that manufacturing process. The difference in the general properties of materials such as strength, hardness and impact will have significant effect on the power consumption of the machine used to complete the product. In addition the environmental impact can also be reduced if the proposed designs use less material. In this study, an LCA tool called Eco-It is used. Evaluate the environmental impact caused by manufacturing simple jig. A simple jig with 4 parts was used as a case study. Two experiments were carried out. The first experiment was to study the environmental effects of different material, and the second experiment was to study the environmental impact of different design. The materials used for the jig are Aluminium and mild steel. The results showed a decrease in the rate of carbon emissions by 60% when Aluminium is use instead from mild steel, and a decrease of 26% when the-design is modified

  5. Development of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Integrated with Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Nagpal, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    An effort has been initiated to integrate manufacturing process simulations with probabilistic structural analyses in order to capture the important impacts of manufacturing uncertainties on component stress levels and life. Two physics-based manufacturing process models (one for powdered metal forging and the other for annular deformation resistance welding) have been linked to the NESSUS structural analysis code. This paper describes the methodology developed to perform this integration including several examples. Although this effort is still underway, particularly for full integration of a probabilistic analysis, the progress to date has been encouraging and a software interface that implements the methodology has been developed. The purpose of this paper is to report this preliminary development.

  6. Cold Spraying of Armstrong Process Titanium Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Fernández, R.; Delloro, F.; Jodoin, B.

    2017-04-01

    Titanium parts are ideally suited for aerospace applications due to their unique combination of high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. However, titanium as bulk material is expensive and challenging/costly to machine. Production of complex titanium parts through additive manufacturing looks promising, but there are still many barriers to overcome before reaching mainstream commercialization. The cold gas dynamic spraying process offers the potential for additive manufacturing of large titanium parts due to its reduced reactive environment, its simplicity to operate, and the high deposition rates it offers. A few challenges are to be addressed before the additive manufacturing potential of titanium by cold gas dynamic spraying can be reached. In particular, it is known that titanium is easy to deposit by cold gas dynamic spraying, but the deposits produced are usually porous when nitrogen is used as the carrier gas. In this work, a method to manufacture low-porosity titanium components at high deposition efficiencies is revealed. The components are produced by combining low-pressure cold spray using nitrogen as the carrier gas with low-cost titanium powder produced using the Armstrong process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of additive manufactured titanium components are investigated.

  7. Process Modeling and Validation for Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL; Nycz, Andrzej [ORNL; Noakes, Mark W. [ORNL; Chin, Charlie [Dassault Systemes; Oancea, Victor [Dassault Systemes

    2017-05-01

    Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing (mBAAM) is a new additive manufacturing (AM) technology based on the metal arc welding. A continuously fed metal wire is melted by an electric arc that forms between the wire and the substrate, and deposited in the form of a bead of molten metal along the predetermined path. Objects are manufactured one layer at a time starting from the base plate. The final properties of the manufactured object are dependent on its geometry and the metal deposition path, in addition to depending on the basic welding process parameters. Computational modeling can be used to accelerate the development of the mBAAM technology as well as a design and optimization tool for the actual manufacturing process. We have developed a finite element method simulation framework for mBAAM using the new features of software ABAQUS. The computational simulation of material deposition with heat transfer is performed first, followed by the structural analysis based on the temperature history for predicting the final deformation and stress state. In this formulation, we assume that two physics phenomena are coupled in only one direction, i.e. the temperatures are driving the deformation and internal stresses, but their feedback on the temperatures is negligible. The experiment instrumentation (measurement types, sensor types, sensor locations, sensor placements, measurement intervals) and the measurements are presented. The temperatures and distortions from the simulations show good correlation with experimental measurements. Ongoing modeling work is also briefly discussed.

  8. 75 FR 61418 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for Adoption by... sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing grade milk. These Recommended... comments. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the recommended manufacturing milk requirements...

  9. Modelling of additive manufacturing processes: a review and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Panagiotis; Foteinopoulos, Panagis

    2018-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a very promising technology; however, there are a number of open issues related to the different AM processes. The literature on modelling the existing AM processes is reviewed and classified. A categorization of the different AM processes in process groups, according to the process mechanism, has been conducted and the most important issues are stated. Suggestions are made as to which approach is more appropriate according to the key performance indicator desired to be modelled and a discussion is included as to the way that future modelling work can better contribute to improving today's AM process understanding.

  10. AN OVERVIEW OF PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESS VALIDATION AND PROCESS CONTROL VARIABLES OF TABLETS MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh B. Wazade*, Sheelpriya R. Walde and Abhay M. Ittadwar

    2012-01-01

    Validation is an integral part of quality assurance; the product quality is derived from careful attention to a number of factors including selection of quality parts and materials, adequate product and manufacturing process design, control of the process variables, in-process and end-product testing. Recently validation has become one of the pharmaceutical industry’s most recognized and discussed subjects. It is a critical success factor in product approval and ongoing commercialization, fac...

  11. Thin Slits Manufacturing Process Using Electro Discharge Technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jan

    -, č. 40 (2011), s. 175-178 ISSN 1584-5982 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : thin slit * EDM process * manufacturing Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  12. NICE3 SO3 Cleaning Process in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This fact sheet explains how Anon, Inc., has developed a novel method of removing photoresist--a light-sensitive material used to produce semiconductor wafers for computers--from the computer manufacturing process at reduced cost and greater efficiency. The new technology is technically superior to existing semiconductor cleaning methods and results in reduced use of hazardous chemicals

  13. Customer-driven manufacturing in the food processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, D.P. van

    2000-01-01

    Food processing industry copes with high logistical demands from its customers. This paper studies a company changing to more customer (order) driven manufacturing. In order to help decide which products should be made to order and which made to stock, a frame is developed and applied to find and

  14. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Roll-to-Roll Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Jacobs, Christopher B [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL; Moon, Ji Won [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)e roll-to-roll processing effort described in this report provided an excellent opportunity to investigate a number of advanced manufacturing approaches to achieve a path for low cost devices and sensors. Critical to this effort is the ability to deposit thin films at low temperatures using nanomaterials derived from nanofermentation. The overarching goal of this project was to develop roll-to-roll manufacturing processes of thin film deposition on low-cost flexible substrates for electronics and sensor applications. This project utilized ORNL s unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technologies coupled with non-vacuum low temperature deposition techniques, ORNL s clean room facility, slot dye coating, drop casting, spin coating, screen printing and several other equipment including a Dimatix ink jet printer and a large-scale Kyocera ink jet printer. The roll-to-roll processing project had three main tasks: 1) develop and demonstrate zinc-Zn based opto-electronic sensors using low cost nanoparticulate structures manufactured in a related MDF Project using nanofermentation techniques, 2) evaluate the use of silver based conductive inks developed by project partner NovaCentrix for electronic device fabrication, and 3) demonstrate a suite of low cost printed sensors developed using non-vacuum deposition techniques which involved the integration of metal and semiconductor layers to establish a diverse sensor platform technology.

  15. Recent advances in fuel product and manufacturing process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slember, R.J.; Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses advancements in commercial nuclear fuel products and manufacturing made by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in response to the commercial nuclear fuel industry's demand for high reliability, increased plant availability and improved operating flexibility. The features and benefits of Westinghouse's most advanced fuel products--VANTAGE 5 for PWR plants and QUAD+ for BWR plants--are described, as well as 'high performance' fuel concepts now under development for delivery in the late 1980s. The paper also disusses the importance of in-process quality control throughout manufacturing towards reducing product variability and improving fuel reliability. (author)

  16. Use of residual wood in the cement manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, R.

    2005-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of wood residuals in the cement manufacturing process. An outline of the cement manufacturing process was presented. Raw materials are combined in exact proportions to create a chemically correct mix, which is then pulverized in a mill. The mix is then burned in a kiln. The end product is cooled to form the pellet sized material known as clinker, which is then milled to form cement. The combustion and destruction characteristics of a cement kiln were presented. Modern cement kilns require approximately 3.2 Gj of energy to produce one tonne of cement. It was noted that wood residuals do not contain halogens, sulfur or other materials detrimental to the cement manufacturing process. Possible injection points for kilns were presented. Various studies have shown that wood residuals can be safely used as a fuel in the manufacture of cement. Environmental benefits derived from using wood included the complete destruction of organic portions, and the fact that residual ash becomes an indistinguishable part of the final product. It was concluded that wood residual materials are a satisfactory alternative fuel for the cement industry. tabs., figs

  17. Quality and Safety Assurance of Iron Casts and Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this work focuses on the aspects of quality and safety assurance of the iron cast manufacturing processes. Special attention was given to the processes of quality control and after-machining of iron casts manufactured on automatic foundry lines. Due to low level of automation and huge work intensity at this stage of the process, a model area was established which underwent reorganization in accordance with the assumptions of the World Class Manufacturing (WCM. An analysis of work intensity was carried out and the costs were divided in order to identify operations with no value added, particularly at individual manufacturing departments. Also an analysis of ergonomics at work stations was carried out to eliminate activities that are uncomfortable and dangerous to the workers' health. Several solutions were proposed in terms of rationalization of work organization at iron cast after-machining work stations. The proposed solutions were assessed with the use of multi-criteria assessment tools and then the best variant was selected based on the assumed optimization criteria. The summary of the obtained results reflects benefits from implementation of the proposed solutions.

  18. Automated input data management in manufacturing process simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ettefaghian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Input Data Management (IDM) is a time consuming and costly process for Discrete Event Simulation (DES) projects. Input Data Management is considered as the basis of real-time process simulation (Bergmann, Stelzer and Strassburger, 2011). According to Bengtsson et al. (2009), data input phase constitutes on the average about 31% of the time of an entire simulation project. Moreover, the lack of interoperability between manufacturing applications and simulation software leads to a high cost to ...

  19. Influence of Manufacturing Processes on the Performance of Phantom Lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Chest counting is an important tool for estimating the radiation dose to individuals who have inhaled radioactive materials. Chest counting systems are calibrated by counting the activity in the lungs of phantoms where the activity in the phantom lungs is known. In the United States a commonly used calibration phantom was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is referred to as the Livermore Torso Phantom. An important feature of this phantom is that the phantom lungs can be interchanged so that the counting system can be challenged by different combinations of radionuclides and activity. Phantom lungs are made from lung tissue substitutes whose constituents are foaming plastics and various adjuvants selected to make the lung tissue substitute similar to normal healthy lung tissue. Some of the properties of phantom lungs cannot be readily controlled by phantom lung manufacturers. Some, such as density, are a complex function of the manufacturing process, while others, such as elemental composition of the bulk plastic are controlled by the plastics manufacturer without input, or knowledge of the phantom manufacturer. Despite the fact that some of these items cannot be controlled, they can be measured and accounted for. This report describes how manufacturing processes can influence the performance of phantom lungs. It is proposed that a metric that describes the brightness of the lung be employed by the phantom lung manufacturer to determine how well the phantom lung approximates the characteristics of a human lung. For many purposes, the linear attenuation of the lung tissue substitute is an appropriate surrogate for the brightness

  20. Process monitoring for intelligent manufacturing processes - Methodology and application to Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas

    Process monitoring provides important information on the product, process and manufacturing system during part manufacturing. Such information can be used for process optimization and detection of undesired processing conditions to initiate timely actions for avoidance of defects, thereby improving...... quality assurance. This thesis is aimed at a systematic development of process monitoring solutions, constituting a key element of intelligent manufacturing systems towards zero defect manufacturing. A methodological approach of general applicability is presented in this concern.The approach consists...... of six consecutive steps for identification of product Vital Quality Characteristics (VQCs) and Key Process Variables (KPVs), selection and characterization of sensors, optimization of sensors placement, validation of the monitoring solutions, definition of the reference manufacturing performance...

  1. Manufacturing Process Selection of Composite Bicycle’s Crank Arm using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqman, M.; Rosli, M. U.; Khor, C. Y.; Zambree, Shayfull; Jahidi, H.

    2018-03-01

    Crank arm is one of the important parts in a bicycle that is an expensive product due to the high cost of material and production process. This research is aimed to investigate the potential type of manufacturing process to fabricate composite bicycle crank arm and to describe an approach based on analytical hierarchy process (AHP) that assists decision makers or manufacturing engineers in determining the most suitable process to be employed in manufacturing of composite bicycle crank arm at the early stage of the product development process to reduce the production cost. There are four types of processes were considered, namely resin transfer molding (RTM), compression molding (CM), vacuum bag molding and filament winding (FW). The analysis ranks these four types of process for its suitability in the manufacturing of bicycle crank arm based on five main selection factors and 10 sub factors. Determining the right manufacturing process was performed based on AHP process steps. Consistency test was performed to make sure the judgements are consistent during the comparison. The results indicated that the compression molding was the most appropriate manufacturing process because it has the highest value (33.6%) among the other manufacturing processes.

  2. Fundamental atomic plasma chemistry for semiconductor manufacturing process analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventzek, P.L.G.; Zhang, D.; Stout, P.J.; Rauf, S.; Orlowski, M.; Kudrya, V.; Astapenko, V.; Eletskii, A.

    2002-01-01

    An absence of fundamental atomic plasma chemistry data (e.g. electron impact cross-sections) hinders the application of plasma process models in semiconductor manufacturing. Of particular importance is excited state plasma chemistry data for metallization applications. This paper describes important plasma chemistry processes in the context of high density plasmas for metallization application and methods for the calculation of data for the study of these processes. Also discussed is the development of model data sets that address computational tractability issues. Examples of model electron impact cross-sections for Ni reduced from multiple collision processes are presented

  3. Electron beam additive manufacturing with wire - Analysis of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglowski, Marek St.; Błacha, Sylwester; Pilarczyk, Jan; Dutkiewicz, Jan; Rogal, Łukasz

    2018-05-01

    The electron beam additive manufacturing process with wire is a part of global trend to find fast and efficient methods for producing complex shapes elements from costly metal alloys such as stainless steels, nickel alloys, titanium alloys etc. whose production by other conventional technologies is unprofitable or technically impossible. Demand for additive manufacturing is linked to the development of new technologies in the automotive, aerospace and machinery industries. The aim of the presented work was to carried out research on electron beam additive manufacturing with a wire as a deposited (filler) material. The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selected technological parameters such as: wire feed rate, beam current, travelling speed, acceleration voltage on stability of the deposition process and geometric dimensions of the padding welds. The research revealed that, at low beam currents, the deposition process is unstable. The padding weld reinforcement is non-uniform. Irregularity of the width, height and straightness of the padding welds can be observed. At too high acceleration voltage and beam current, burn-through of plate and excess penetration weld can be revealed. The achieved results and gained knowledge allowed to produce, based on EBAM with wire process, whole structure from stainless steel.

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, Mohd Shafie; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  6. 15 CFR 400.33 - Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-TRADE ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.33 Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity. (a) In general. In approving manufacturing or processing activity for a zone... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on manufacturing and...

  7. Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

  8. Improvement of the Zircaloy fuel can manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The following work has been performed in order to ensure more reliable supply of start material for the manufacture of Zy-2 and Zy-4 fuel cans, and to improve the processing techniques and product quality: 1) Two complete production campaigns with the ingot suppliers Western Zirconium and Ugine Aciers. 2) Development of new ingot dimensions (rolling tests). 3) Development of a mechanized washing and cleansing procedure. 4) Development of a new abrasive treatment technique (wet sand blasting). (orig./HP) [de

  9. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, Charles; Heidel, Donna; Sayes, Christie; Hodson, Laura; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne; Brenner, Sara

    2015-01-01

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles, which includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial

  10. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, Charles [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States); Heidel, Donna [Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. (United States); Sayes, Christie [Baylor University (United States); Hodson, Laura, E-mail: lhodson@cdc.gov; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States); Brenner, Sara [Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, (SUNY Poly) (United States)

    2015-09-15

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles, which includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial.

  11. Materials, Processes, and Facile Manufacturing for Bioresorbable Electronics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaowei; Shou, Wan; Mahajan, Bikram K; Huang, Xian; Pan, Heng

    2018-05-07

    Bioresorbable electronics refer to a new class of advanced electronics that can completely dissolve or disintegrate with environmentally and biologically benign byproducts in water and biofluids. They have provided a solution to the growing electronic waste problem with applications in temporary usage of electronics such as implantable devices and environmental sensors. Bioresorbable materials such as biodegradable polymers, dissolvable conductors, semiconductors, and dielectrics are extensively studied, enabling massive progress of bioresorbable electronic devices. Processing and patterning of these materials are predominantly relying on vacuum-based fabrication methods so far. However, for the purpose of commercialization, nonvacuum, low-cost, and facile manufacturing/printing approaches are the need of the hour. Bioresorbable electronic materials are generally more chemically reactive than conventional electronic materials, which require particular attention in developing the low-cost manufacturing processes in ambient environment. This review focuses on material reactivity, ink availability, printability, and process compatibility for facile manufacturing of bioresorbable electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Precision laser processing for micro electronics and fiber optic manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Andrew; Osborne, Mike; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Dinkel, Duane W.

    2008-02-01

    The application of laser based materials processing for precision micro scale manufacturing in the electronics and fiber optic industry is becoming increasingly widespread and accepted. This presentation will review latest laser technologies available and discuss the issues to be considered in choosing the most appropriate laser and processing parameters. High repetition rate, short duration pulsed lasers have improved rapidly in recent years in terms of both performance and reliability enabling flexible, cost effective processing of many material types including metal, silicon, plastic, ceramic and glass. Demonstrating the relevance of laser micromachining, application examples where laser processing is in use for production will be presented, including miniaturization of surface mount capacitors by applying a laser technique for demetalization of tracks in the capacitor manufacturing process and high quality laser machining of fiber optics including stripping, cleaving and lensing, resulting in optical quality finishes without the need for traditional polishing. Applications include telecoms, biomedical and sensing. OpTek Systems was formed in 2000 and provide fully integrated systems and sub contract services for laser processes. They are headquartered in the UK and are establishing a presence in North America through a laser processing facility in South Carolina and sales office in the North East.

  13. Manufacturing process design for multi commodities in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Santosa, Andrian Henry

    2017-06-01

    High-potential commodities within particular agricultural sectors should be accompanied by maximum benefit value that can be attained by both local farmers and business players. In several cases, the business players are small-medium enterprises (SMEs) which have limited resources to perform added value process of the local commodities into the potential products. The weaknesses of SMEs such as the manual production process with low productivity, limited capacity to maintain prices, and unattractive packaging due to conventional production. Agricultural commodity is commonly created into several products such as flour, chips, crackers, oil, juice, and other products. This research was initiated by collecting data by interview method particularly to obtain the perspectives of SMEs as the business players. Subsequently, the information was processed based on the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to determine House of Quality from the first to fourth level. A proposed design as the result of QFD was produced and evaluated with Technology Assessment Model (TAM) and continued with a revised design. Finally, the revised design was analyzed with financial perspective to obtain the cost structure of investment, operational, maintenance, and workers. The machine that performs manufacturing process, as the result of revised design, was prototyped and tested to determined initial production process. The designed manufacturing process offers IDR 337,897, 651 of Net Present Value (NPV) in comparison with the existing process value of IDR 9,491,522 based on similar production input.

  14. Fundamental Aspects of Selective Melting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Certain details of the additive manufacturing process known as selective laser melting (SLM) affect the performance of the final metal part. To unleash the full potential of SLM it is crucial that the process engineer in the field receives guidance about how to select values for a multitude of process variables employed in the building process. These include, for example, the type of powder (e.g., size distribution, shape, type of alloy), orientation of the build axis, the beam scan rate, the beam power density, the scan pattern and scan rate. The science-based selection of these settings con- stitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy, reactive, dynamic wetting followed by re-solidification. In addition, inherent to the process is its considerable variability that stems from the powder packing. Each time a limited number of powder particles are placed, the stacking is intrinsically different from the previous, possessing a different geometry, and having a different set of contact areas with the surrounding particles. As a result, even if all other process parameters (scan rate, etc) are exactly the same, the shape and contact geometry and area of the final melt pool will be unique to that particular configuration. This report identifies the most important issues facing SLM, discusses the fundamental physics associated with it and points out how modeling can support the additive manufacturing efforts.

  15. Manufacturing of tailored tubes with a process integrated heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordych, Illia; Boiarkin, Viacheslav; Rodman, Dmytro; Nürnberger, Florian

    2017-10-01

    The usage of work-pieces with tailored properties allows for reducing costs and materials. One example are tailored tubes that can be used as end parts e.g. in the automotive industry or in domestic applications as well as semi-finished products for subsequent controlled deformation processes. An innovative technology to manufacture tubes is roll forming with a subsequent inductive heating and adapted quenching to obtain tailored properties in the longitudinal direction. This processing offers a great potential for the production of tubes with a wide range of properties, although this novel approach still requires a suited process design. Based on experimental data, a process simulation is being developed. The simulation shall be suitable for a virtual design of the tubes and allows for gaining a deeper understanding of the required processing. The model proposed shall predict microstructural and mechanical tube properties by considering process parameters, different geometries, batch-related influences etc. A validation is carried out using experimental data of tubes manufactured from various steel grades.

  16. Recommendations for composite manufacturing pultrusion process and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, R. L.; Cole, J. D.; Strong, A. B.; Todd, R. H.

    1992-10-01

    Pultrusion is an important composite manufacturing process that holds great potential for reducing the cost of composite parts. However, pultrusion machine manufacturers and those using this continuous process have generally worked in relative isolation from each other and have, therefore, repeated many of the same errors. This paper reports the findings of a research program involving input from 15 pultruder manufacturers who have contributed non-proprietary information for the "best" design for the pultrusion machine. Key areas of design difficulty have been identified and some suggested remedies given. The results of this program will be used to construct a "state-of-the-art" pultrusion machine in the authors' laboratory. The initial findings provided input for a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) study which is basis for the functional specification for the pultrusion machine. By using QFD, capabilities of existing machines were determined and design requirements for an improved state-of-the-art machine were established. The QFD exercise provided an in-depth look at the relationship between desired machine capabilities and machine design requirements.

  17. Accessibility analysis in manufacturing processes using visibility cones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹周平; 丁汉; 熊有伦

    2002-01-01

    Accessibility is a kind of important design feature of products,and accessibility analysis has been acknowledged as a powerful tool for solving computational manufacturing problems arising from different manufacturing processes.After exploring the relations among approachability,accessibility and visibility,a general method for accessibility analysis using visibility cones (VC) is proposed.With the definition of VC of a point,three kinds of visibility of a feature,namely complete visibility cone (CVC),partial visibility cone (PVC) and local visibility cone (LVC),are defined.A novel approach to computing VCs is formulated by identifying C-obstacles in the C-space,for which a general and efficient algorithm is proposed and implemented by making use of visibility culling.Lastly,we discuss briefly how to realize accessibility analysis in numerically controlled (NC) machining planning,coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) inspection planning and assembly sequence planning with the proposed methods.

  18. Modelling of just-in-sequence supply of manufacturing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bányai Tamás

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The customer oriented production led to the growth of complexity of manufacturing and connected logistics processes. In many production companies one of the largest asset on balance sheet is inventory. To avoid inventory problems and to be the winners of today’s market situation manufacturing companies try to decrease heavy inventory levels through just-in-time based supply strategies. The aim of this research work is to analyse these supply strategies. The first part of the paper describes the just-in-time based supply and summarises the most important characteristics of them. The second part focuses on the modelling of just-in-sequence based in-plant supply. The models makes it possible to determine different in-plant supply strategies.

  19. Advanced laser processing for industrial solar cell manufacturing (ALPINISM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, N.B.; Fieret, J. [Exitech Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-04

    The study was aimed at improving methods for the manufacture of high efficiency solar cells and thereby increase production rates. The project focused on the laser grooved buried contact solar cell (LGBC) which is produced by high-speed laser machining. The specific objectives were (i) to optimise the laser technology for high speed processing; (ii) to optimise the solar cell process conditions for high speed processing; (iii) to produce a prototype tool and demonstrate high throughput; and (iv) to demonstrate increased cell efficiency using laser processing of rear contact. Essentially, all the objectives were met and Exitech have already sold six production tools and one research tool developed in this study. In addition, it was found that laser processing at the rear cell surface offers the prospect of LGBC solar cells with an efficiency of 20 per cent. BP Solar Limited carried out this work under contract to the DTI.

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Tooling for Refrigeration Cabinet Foaming Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K [ORNL; Nuttall, David [ORNL; Cukier, Michael Z [ORNL; Hile, Michael B [ORNL

    2016-07-29

    The primary objective of this project was to leverage the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) process and materials into a long term, quick change tooling concept to drastically reduce product lead and development timelines and costs. Current refrigeration foam molds are complicated to manufacture involving casting several aluminum parts in an approximate shape, machining components of the molds and post fitting and shimming of the parts in an articulated fixture. The total process timeline can take over 6 months. The foaming process is slower than required for production, therefore multiple fixtures, 10 to 27, are required per refrigerator model. Molds are particular to a specific product configuration making mixed model assembly challenging for sequencing, mold changes or auto changeover features. The initial goal was to create a tool leveraging the ORNL materials and additive process to build a tool in 4 to 6 weeks or less. A secondary goal was to create common fixture cores and provide lightweight fixture sections that could be revised in a very short time to increase equipment flexibility reduce lead times, lower the barriers to first production trials, and reduce tooling costs.

  1. Make-to-order manufacturing - new approach to management of manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniuk, A.; Waszkowski, R.

    2016-08-01

    Strategic management must now be closely linked to the management at the operational level, because only in such a situation the company can be flexible and can quickly respond to emerging opportunities and pursue ever-changing strategic objectives. In these conditions industrial enterprises seek constantly new methods, tools and solutions which help to achieve competitive advantage. They are beginning to pay more attention to cost management, economic effectiveness and performance of business processes. In the article characteristics of make-to-order systems (MTO) and needs associated with managing such systems is identified based on the literature analysis. The main aim of this article is to present the results of research related to the development of a new solution dedicated to small and medium enterprises manufacture products solely on the basis of production orders (make-to- order systems). A set of indicators to enable continuous monitoring and control of key strategic areas this type of company is proposed. A presented solution includes the main assumptions of the following concepts: the Performance Management (PM), the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and a combination of strategic management with the implementation of operational management. The main benefits of proposed solution are to increase effectiveness of MTO manufacturing company management.

  2. Analysis of production flow process with lean manufacturing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Ikhsan; Arif Nasution, Abdillah; Prasetio, Aji; Fadillah, Kharis

    2017-09-01

    This research was conducted on the company engaged in the production of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG). The production process in the company are still exists several activities that cause waste. Non value added activity (NVA) in the implementation is still widely found, so the cycle time generated to make the product will be longer. A form of improvement on the production line is by applying lean manufacturing method to identify waste along the value stream to find non value added activities. Non value added activity can be eliminated and reduced by utilizing value stream mapping and identifying it with activity mapping process. According to the results obtained that there are 26% of value-added activities and 74% non value added activity. The results obtained through the current state map of the production process of process lead time value of 678.11 minutes and processing time of 173.94 minutes. While the results obtained from the research proposal is the percentage of value added time of 41% of production process activities while non value added time of the production process of 59%. While the results obtained through the future state map of the production process of process lead time value of 426.69 minutes and processing time of 173.89 minutes.

  3. CIMOSA process classification for business process mapping in non-manufacturing firms: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latiffianti, Effi; Siswanto, Nurhadi; Wiratno, Stefanus Eko; Saputra, Yudha Andrian

    2017-11-01

    A business process mapping is one important means to enable an enterprise to effectively manage the value chain. One of widely used approaches to classify business process for mapping purpose is Computer Integrated Manufacturing System Open Architecture (CIMOSA). CIMOSA was initially designed for Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) system based enterprises. This paper aims to analyze the use of CIMOSA process classification for business process mapping in the firms that do not fall within the area of CIM. Three firms of different business area that have used CIMOSA process classification were observed: an airline firm, a marketing and trading firm for oil and gas products, and an industrial estate management firm. The result of the research has shown that CIMOSA can be used in non-manufacturing firms with some adjustment. The adjustment includes addition, reduction, or modification of some processes suggested by CIMOSA process classification as evidenced by the case studies.

  4. PM - processing for manufacturing of metals with cellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, S.; Danninger, H.

    2001-01-01

    In this review the major Processes about manufacturing of metals with cellular structure are described - based on powder metallurgy, chemical deposition and some other methods (without melting techniques). It can be shown that during the last decade many interesting innovations led to new production methods to design cellular materials. Some of them are used nowadays in industry. Also characterization and properties become more important and have therefore been carried out carefully, because of their strong influence on the functions and applications of such materials. (author)

  5. Powder wastes confinement block and manufacturing process of this block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagot, L.; Brunel, G.

    1996-01-01

    This invention concerns a powder wastes containment block and a manufacturing process of this block. In this block, the waste powder is encapsulated in a thermo hardening polymer as for example an epoxy resin, the encapsulated resin being spread into cement. This block can contain between 45 and 55% in mass of wastes, between 18 and 36% in mass of polymer and between 14 and 32% in mass of cement. Such a containment block can be used for the radioactive wastes storage. (O.M.). 4 refs

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories' operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment

  7. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  8. 40 CFR 761.80 - Manufacturing, processing and distribution in commerce exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturing, processing and..., PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Exemptions § 761.80 Manufacturing, processing and... any change in the manner of processing and distributing, importing (manufacturing), or exporting of...

  9. Organic photovoltaic cells: from performance improvement to manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hongseok; Park, Hui Joon; Guo, L Jay

    2015-05-20

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been pursued as a next generation power source due to their light weight, thin, flexible, and simple fabrication advantages. Improvements in OPV efficiency have attracted great attention in the past decade. Because the functional layers in OPVs can be dissolved in common solvents, they can be manufactured by eco-friendly and scalable printing or coating technologies. In this review article, the focus is on recent efforts to control nanomorphologies of photoactive layer and discussion of various solution-processed charge transport and extraction materials, to maximize the performance of OPV cells. Next, recent works on printing and coating technologies for OPVs to realize solution processing are reviewed. The review concludes with a discussion of recent advances in the development of non-traditional lamination and transfer method towards highly efficient and fully solution-processed OPV. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Evaluation of polymer micro parts produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro manufacturing scale feature production by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes for the direct production of miniaturized polymer components is analysed in this work. The study characterizes the AM processes for polymer micro parts productions using the vat photopolymerization method...

  11. Biological features produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Mendez Ribo, Macarena; Pedersen, David Bue

    2017-01-01

    of micro biological features by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes. The study characterizes the additive manufacturing processes for polymeric micro part productions using the vat photopolymerization method. A specifically designed vat photopolymerization AM machine suitable for precision printing...

  12. 16 CFR 300.25 - Country where wool products are processed or manufactured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an origin label on the unfinished product, the manufacturing processes as required in paragraph (a)(4... processed or manufactured. Further work or material added to the wool product in another country must effect...

  13. Manufacture of Third-Generation Lentivirus for Preclinical Use, with Process Development Considerations for Translation to Good Manufacturing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Carolina; Affleck, Valerie; Stoll, Elizabeth Ann

    2018-02-01

    Lentiviral vectors are used in laboratories around the world for in vivo and ex vivo delivery of gene therapies, and increasingly clinical investigation as well as preclinical applications. The third-generation lentiviral vector system has many advantages, including high packaging capacity, stable gene expression in both dividing and post-mitotic cells, and low immunogenicity in the recipient organism. Yet, the manufacture of these vectors is challenging, especially at high titers required for direct use in vivo, and further challenges are presented by the process of translating preclinical gene therapies toward manufacture of products for clinical investigation. The goals of this paper are to report the protocol for manufacturing high-titer third-generation lentivirus for preclinical testing and to provide detailed information on considerations for translating preclinical viral vector manufacture toward scaled-up platforms and processes in order to make gene therapies under Good Manufacturing Practice that are suitable for clinical trials.

  14. Manufacturing of aluminum composite material using stir casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, M.H.; Panhwar, M.I.; Unar, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing of aluminum alloy based casting composite materials via stir casting is one of the prominent and economical route for development and processing of metal matrix composites materials. Properties of these materials depend upon many processing parameters and selection of matrix and reinforcements. Literature reveals that most of the researchers are using 2, 6 and 7 xxx aluminum matrix reinforced with SiC particles for high strength properties whereas, insufficient information is available on reinforcement of 'AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/' particles in 7 xxx aluminum matrix. The 7 xxx series aluminum matrix usually contains Cu-Zn-Mg; Therefore, the present research was conducted to investigate the effect of elemental metal such as Cu-Zn-Mg in aluminum matrix on mechanical properties of stir casting of aluminum composite materials reinforced with alpha 'AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/' particles using simple foundry melting alloying and casting route. The age hardening treatments were also applied to study the aging response of the aluminum matrix on strength, ductility and hardness. The experimental results indicate that aluminum matrix cast composite can be manufactured via conventional foundry method giving very good responses to the strength and ductility up to 10% 'AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/' particles reinforced in aluminum matrix. (author)

  15. quality assurance calculation in UO2 pellet manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, S.; Acarkan, S.; Guereli, L. and others

    1997-01-01

    A process qualification plan is prepared for preparation of quality assurance documentation in accordance with ISO-9000 series of standards, for sintered UO 2 pellets manufactured in the Nuclear Fuel Technology Department. The objectives of this plan are to determine quantitatively and statistically process capability of the pellet production, to check product properties (are) in conformance with specifications at the pre-( ) confidence levels, to prepare necessary documents and to assess the results. The product properties taking into account are chemical composition, cracks, density, microstructure and grain size. The statistical parameters used for qualification element of quality assurance are calculated.Statistical values for sintered pellets are: LENGTH/WEIGHT/DIAMETER/DENSITY/%TD: MEAN:13,395/16,808/12,293/10,679/97,400 STD:0,1651/ 0,252/0,0212/0,015/0,140. It was seen that sintered pellets manufactured in the Nuclear Fuel Technology Department meet the criteria within 95% confidence level. In this paper specifications, criteria and calculations will be explained in detail

  16. Manufacturing of Aluminum Composite Material Using Stir Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hayat Jokhio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing of aluminum alloy based casting composite materials via stir casting is one of the prominent and economical route for development and processing of metal matrix composites materials. Properties of these materials depend upon many processing parameters and selection of matrix and reinforcements. Literature reveals that most of the researchers are using 2, 6 and 7xxx aluminum matrix reinforced with SiC particles for high strength properties whereas, insufficient information is available on reinforcement of \\"Al2O3\\" particles in 7xxx aluminum matrix. The 7xxx series aluminum matrix usually contains Cu-Zn-Mg. Therefore, the present research was conducted to investigate the effect of elemental metal such as Cu-Zn-Mg in aluminum matrix on mechanical properties of stir casting of aluminum composite materials reinforced with alpha \\"Al2O3\\" particles using simple foundry melting alloying and casting route. The age hardening treatments were also applied to study the aging response of the aluminum matrix on strength, ductility and hardness. The experimental results indicate that aluminum matrix cast composite can be manufactured via conventional foundry method giving very good responses to the strength and ductility up to 10% \\"Al2O3\\" particles reinforced in aluminum matrix.

  17. Applications Of Laser Processing For Automotive Manufacturing In Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masashi; Ueda, Katsuhiko; Takagi, Soya

    1986-11-01

    Recently in Japan, laser processing is increasingly being employed for production, so that laser cutting, laser welding and other laser material processing have begun to be used in various industries. As a result, the number of lasers sold has been increasing year by year in Japan. In the Japanese automotive industry, a number applications have been introduced in laboratories and production lines. In this paper, several current instances of such laser applications will be introduced. In the case of welding, studies have been conducted on applying laser welding to automatic transmission components, in place of electron beam welding. Another example of application, the combination of lasers and robots to form highly flexible manufacturing systems, has been adopted for trimming steel panel and plastic components.

  18. Manufacturing process for the metal ceramic hybrid fuel cladding tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yang Il; Kim, Sun Han; Park, Jeong Yong

    2012-01-01

    For application in LWRs with suppressed hydrogen release, a metal-ceramic hybrid cladding tube has been proposed. The cladding consists of an inner zirconium tube and outer SiC fiber matrix SiC ceramic composite. The inner zirconium allows the matrix to remain fully sealed even if the ceramic matrix cracks through. The outer SiC composite can increase the safety margin by taking the merits of the SiC itself. However, it is a challenging task to fabricate the metal-ceramic hybrid tube. Processes such as filament winding, matrix impregnation, and surface costing are additionally required for the existing Zr based fuel cladding tubes. In the current paper, the development of the manufacturing process will be introduced

  19. Carbon dioxide capture from a cement manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Gerald C [North Augusta, SC; Falta, Ronald W [Seneca, SC; Siddall, Alvin A [Aiken, SC

    2011-07-12

    A process of manufacturing cement clinker is provided in which a clean supply of CO.sub.2 gas may be captured. The process also involves using an open loop conversion of CaO/MgO from a calciner to capture CO.sub.2 from combustion flue gases thereby forming CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2. The CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2 is then returned to the calciner where CO.sub.2 gas is evolved. The evolved CO.sub.2 gas, along with other evolved CO.sub.2 gases from the calciner are removed from the calciner. The reactants (CaO/MgO) are feed to a high temperature calciner for control of the clinker production composition.

  20. Manufacturing process for the metal ceramic hybrid fuel cladding tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang Il; Kim, Sun Han; Park, Jeong Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    For application in LWRs with suppressed hydrogen release, a metal-ceramic hybrid cladding tube has been proposed. The cladding consists of an inner zirconium tube and outer SiC fiber matrix SiC ceramic composite. The inner zirconium allows the matrix to remain fully sealed even if the ceramic matrix cracks through. The outer SiC composite can increase the safety margin by taking the merits of the SiC itself. However, it is a challenging task to fabricate the metal-ceramic hybrid tube. Processes such as filament winding, matrix impregnation, and surface costing are additionally required for the existing Zr based fuel cladding tubes. In the current paper, the development of the manufacturing process will be introduced.

  1. Silicon Valley's Processing Needs versus San Jose State University's Manufacturing Systems Processing Component: Implications for Industrial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing professionals within universities tend to view manufacturing systems from a global perspective. This perspective tends to assume that manufacturing processes are employed equally in every manufacturing enterprise, irrespective of the geography and the needs of the people in those diverse regions. But in reality local and societal…

  2. 21 CFR 201.122 - Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing... for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A drug in a bulk package, except tablets, capsules, or... manufacturing, processing, or repacking”; and if in substantially all dosage forms in which it may be dispensed...

  3. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS General Records and Reports § 761.187 Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. In addition to... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment...

  4. 15 CFR 400.32 - Procedure for review of request for approval of manufacturing or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... approval of manufacturing or processing. 400.32 Section 400.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.32 Procedure for review of request for approval of manufacturing or processing. (a) Request as part of application...

  5. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented.

  6. Intelligent technologies in process of highly-precise products manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhidova, K. L.; Khakimov, Z. L.; Isaeva, M. R.; Shukhin, V. V.; Labazanov, M. A.; Ignatiev, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    One of the main control methods of the surface layer of bearing parts is the eddy current testing method. Surface layer defects of bearing parts, like burns, cracks and some others, are reflected in the results of the rolling surfaces scan. The previously developed method for detecting defects from the image of the raceway was quite effective, but the processing algorithm is complicated and lasts for about 12 ... 16 s. The real non-stationary signals from an eddy current transducer (ECT) consist of short-time high-frequency and long-time low-frequency components, therefore a transformation is used for their analysis, which provides different windows for different frequencies. The wavelet transform meets these conditions. Based on aforesaid, a methodology for automatically detecting and recognizing local defects in bearing parts surface layer has been developed on the basis of wavelet analysis using integral estimates. Some of the defects are recognized by the amplitude component, otherwise an automatic transition to recognition by the phase component of information signals (IS) is carried out. The use of intelligent technologies in the manufacture of bearing parts will, firstly, significantly improve the quality of bearings, and secondly, significantly improve production efficiency by reducing (eliminating) rejections in the manufacture of products, increasing the period of normal operation of the technological equipment (inter-adjustment period), the implementation of the system of Flexible facilities maintenance, as well as reducing production costs.

  7. An Overview of Cloud Implementation in the Manufacturing Process Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Noordiana; Yusof, Yusri; Hakim Mohamad, Mahmod Abd; Omar, Abdul Halim; Roslan, Rosfuzah; Aryanie Bahrudin, Ida; Ali, Mohd Hatta Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    The advancement of information and communication technology (ICT) has changed the structure and functions of various sectors and it has also started to play a significant role in modern manufacturing in terms of computerized machining and cloud manufacturing. It is important for industries to keep up with the current trend of ICT for them to be able survive and be competitive. Cloud manufacturing is an approach that wanted to realize a real-world manufacturing processes that will apply the basic concept from the field of Cloud computing to the manufacturing domain called Cloud-based manufacturing (CBM) or cloud manufacturing (CM). Cloud manufacturing has been recognized as a new paradigm for manufacturing businesses. In cloud manufacturing, manufacturing companies need to support flexible and scalable business processes in the shop floor as well as the software itself. This paper provides an insight or overview on the implementation of cloud manufacturing in the modern manufacturing processes and at the same times analyses the requirements needed regarding process enactment for Cloud manufacturing and at the same time proposing a STEP-NC concept that can function as a tool to support the cloud manufacturing concept.

  8. Modeling process-structure-property relationships for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Kafka, Orion L.; Yu, Cheng; Liu, Zeliang; Lian, Yanping; Wolff, Sarah; Cao, Jian; Wagner, Gregory J.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents our latest work on comprehensive modeling of process-structure-property relationships for additive manufacturing (AM) materials, including using data-mining techniques to close the cycle of design-predict-optimize. To illustrate the processstructure relationship, the multi-scale multi-physics process modeling starts from the micro-scale to establish a mechanistic heat source model, to the meso-scale models of individual powder particle evolution, and finally to the macro-scale model to simulate the fabrication process of a complex product. To link structure and properties, a highefficiency mechanistic model, self-consistent clustering analyses, is developed to capture a variety of material response. The model incorporates factors such as voids, phase composition, inclusions, and grain structures, which are the differentiating features of AM metals. Furthermore, we propose data-mining as an effective solution for novel rapid design and optimization, which is motivated by the numerous influencing factors in the AM process. We believe this paper will provide a roadmap to advance AM fundamental understanding and guide the monitoring and advanced diagnostics of AM processing.

  9. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W.

    2000-05-01

    In this study, DUPIC fuel fabrication technology and the active fuel laboratory were developed for the study of spent nuclear fuel. A new nuclear fuel using highly radioactive nuclear materials can be studied at the active fuel laboratory. Detailed DUPIC fuel fabrication process flow was developed considering the manufacturing flow, quality control process and material accountability. The equipment layout of about twenty DUPIC equipment at IMEF M6 hot cell was established for the minimization of the contamination during DUPIC processes. The characteristics of the SIMFUEL powder and pellets was studied in terms of milling conditions. The characteristics of DUPIC powder and pellet was studied by using 1 kg of spent PWR fuel at PIEF nr.9405 hot cell. The results were used as reference process conditions for following DUPIC fuel fabrication at IMEF M6. Based on the reference fabrication process conditions, the main DUPIC pellet fabrication campaign has been started at IMEF M6 using 2 kg of spent PWR fuel since 2000 January. As of March 2000, about thirty DUPIC pellets were successfully fabricated

  10. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this study, DUPIC fuel fabrication technology and the active fuel laboratory were developed for the study of spent nuclear fuel. A new nuclear fuel using highly radioactive nuclear materials can be studied at the active fuel laboratory. Detailed DUPIC fuel fabrication process flow was developed considering the manufacturing flow, quality control process and material accountability. The equipment layout of about twenty DUPIC equipment at IMEF M6 hot cell was established for the minimization of the contamination during DUPIC processes. The characteristics of the SIMFUEL powder and pellets was studied in terms of milling conditions. The characteristics of DUPIC powder and pellet was studied by using 1 kg of spent PWR fuel at PIEF nr.9405 hot cell. The results were used as reference process conditions for following DUPIC fuel fabrication at IMEF M6. Based on the reference fabrication process conditions, the main DUPIC pellet fabrication campaign has been started at IMEF M6 using 2 kg of spent PWR fuel since 2000 January. As of March 2000, about thirty DUPIC pellets were successfully fabricated.

  11. The roles of communication process for an effective lean manufacturing implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Puvanasvaran, Perumal; Megat, Hamdan; Hong, Tang Sai; Razali, Muhamad Mohd.

    2009-01-01

    Many companies are implementing lean manufacturing concept in order to remain competitive and sustainable, however, not many of them are successful in the process due to various reasons. Communication is an important aspect of lean process in order to successfully implement lean manufacturing. This paper determines the roles of communication process in ensuring a successful implementation of leanness in manufacturing companies. All the information of lean manufacturing practice...

  12. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  13. Modular Elastomer Photoresins for Digital Light Processing Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Carl J; Schwartz, Johanna J; Boydston, Andrew J

    2017-11-15

    A series of photoresins suitable for the production of elastomeric objects via digital light processing additive manufacturing are reported. Notably, the printing procedure is readily accessible using only entry-level equipment under ambient conditions using visible light projection. The photoresin formulations were found to be modular in nature, and straightforward adjustments to the resin components enabled access to a range of compositions and mechanical properties. Collectively, the series includes silicones, hydrogels, and hybrids thereof. Printed test specimens displayed maximum elongations of up to 472% under tensile load, a tunable swelling behavior in water, and Shore A hardness values from 13.7 to 33.3. A combination of the resins was used to print a functional multimaterial three-armed pneumatic gripper. These photoresins could be transformative to advanced prototyping applications such as simulated human tissues, stimuli-responsive materials, wearable devices, and soft robotics.

  14. Electroacoustics modeling of piezoelectric welders for ultrasonic additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a recent 3D metal printing technology which utilizes ultrasonic vibrations from high power piezoelectric transducers to additively weld similar and dissimilar metal foils. CNC machining is used intermittent of welding to create internal channels, embed temperature sensitive components, sensors, and materials, and for net shaping parts. Structural dynamics of the welder and work piece influence the performance of the welder and part quality. To understand the impact of structural dynamics on UAM, a linear time-invariant model is used to relate system shear force and electric current inputs to the system outputs of welder velocity and voltage. Frequency response measurements are combined with in-situ operating measurements of the welder to identify model parameters and to verify model assumptions. The proposed LTI model can enhance process consistency, performance, and guide the development of improved quality monitoring and control strategies.

  15. Process monitoring of additive manufacturing by using optical tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenzinger, Guenter, E-mail: guenter.zenzinger@mtu.de, E-mail: alexander.ladewig@mtu.de; Bamberg, Joachim, E-mail: guenter.zenzinger@mtu.de, E-mail: alexander.ladewig@mtu.de; Ladewig, Alexander, E-mail: guenter.zenzinger@mtu.de, E-mail: alexander.ladewig@mtu.de; Hess, Thomas, E-mail: guenter.zenzinger@mtu.de, E-mail: alexander.ladewig@mtu.de; Henkel, Benjamin, E-mail: guenter.zenzinger@mtu.de, E-mail: alexander.ladewig@mtu.de; Satzger, Wilhelm, E-mail: guenter.zenzinger@mtu.de, E-mail: alexander.ladewig@mtu.de [MTU Aero Engines AG, Dachauerstrasse 665, 80995 Munich (Germany)

    2015-03-31

    Parts fabricated by means of additive manufacturing are usually of complex shape and owing to the fabrication procedure by using selective laser melting (SLM), potential defects and inaccuracies are often very small in lateral size. Therefore, an adequate quality inspection of such parts is rather challenging, while non-destructive-techniques (NDT) are difficult to realize, but considerable efforts are necessary in order to ensure the quality of SLM-parts especially used for aerospace components. Thus, MTU Aero Engines is currently focusing on the development of an Online Process Control system which monitors and documents the complete welding process during the SLM fabrication procedure. A high-resolution camera system is used to obtain images, from which tomographic data for a 3dim analysis of SLM-parts are processed. From the analysis, structural irregularities and structural disorder resulting from any possible erroneous melting process become visible and may be allocated anywhere within the 3dim structure. Results of our optical tomography (OT) method as obtained on real defects are presented.

  16. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part contains...

  17. Advanced Manufacturing Technology Implementation Process in SME: Critical Success Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Rahardjo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present critical factors that constitute a successful implementation of the Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT in Small Medium Enterprise (SME. Many large companies have applied AMT and the applications have shown significant results in this global market era. Conveniently, these phenomenons are also engaged to Small Medium Enterprises (SME that of high demands on performing high quality product, fast delivery, reliable and more flexible. The implementation of AMT follow several processes namely pre installation, installation, improvement and mature. In order to guarantee the succesfull of running these processes, one should consider the Critical Success Factors (CSF. We conducted a survey to 125 SMEs that have implemented AMT, and found that the CSF for each process are moderately different. Good leadership is the main critical success factor for preparing and installation of the AMT. Once the AMT started or installed and arrived at growth stage, the financial availability factor turns into a critical success factor in the AMT implementation. In, mature stage, the support and commitment of top management becomes an important factor for gaining successful implementation. By means of factor analysis, we could point out that strategic factors are the main factors in pre-installation and installation stage. Finally, in the growth stage and mature stage, both tactical and strategic factors are the important factors in the successful of AMT implementation

  18. Data quality and processing for decision making: divergence between corporate strategy and manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ronald D.; Miele, Renato; Shaul, Dennis

    2000-10-01

    Information technology is driving improvements in manufacturing systems. Results are higher productivity and quality. However, corporate strategy is driven by a number of factors and includes data and pressure from multiple stakeholders, which includes employees, managers, executives, stockholders, boards, suppliers and customers. It is also driven by information about competitors and emerging technology. Much information is based on processing of data and the resulting biases of the processors. Thus, stakeholders can base inputs on faulty perceptions, which are not reality based. Prior to processing, data used may be inaccurate. Sources of data and information may include demographic reports, statistical analyses, intelligence reports (e.g., marketing data), technology and primary data collection. The reliability and validity of data as well as the management of sources and information is critical element to strategy formulation. The paper explores data collection, processing and analyses from secondary and primary sources, information generation and report presentation for strategy formulation and contrast this with data and information utilized to drive internal process such as manufacturing. The hypothesis is that internal process, such as manufacturing, are subordinate to corporate strategies. The impact of possible divergence in quality of decisions at the corporate level on IT driven, quality-manufacturing processes based on measurable outcomes is significant. Recommendations for IT improvements at the corporate strategy level are given.

  19. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  20. Evaluation of Injection Molding Process Parameters for Manufacturing Polyethylene Terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah O.M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality control is an important aspect in manufacturing process. The quality of product in injection moulding is influenced by injection moulding process parameter. In this study, the effect of injection moulding parameter on defects quantity of PET preform was investigated. Optimizing the parameter of injection moulding process is critical to enhance productivity where parameters must operate at an optimum level for an acceptable performance. Design of Experiment (DOE by factorial design approach was used to find an optimum parameter setting and reduce the defects. In this case study, Minitab 17 software was used to analyses the data. The selected input parameters were mould hot runner temperature, water cooling chiller temperature 1 and water cooling chiller temperature 2. Meanwhile, the output for the process was defects quantity of the preform. The relationship between input and output of the process was analyzed using regression method and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. In order to interpolate the experiment data, mathematical modeling was used which consists of different types of regression equation. Next, from the model, 95% confidence level (p-value was considered and the significant parameter was figured out. This study involved a collaboration with a preform injection moulding company which was Nilai Legasi Plastik Sdn Bhd. The collaboration enabled the researchers to collect the data and also help the company to improve the quality of its production. The results of the study showed that the optimum parameter setting that could reduce the defect quantity of preform was MHR= 88°C, CT1= 24°C and CT2= 27°C. The comparison defect quantity analysis between current companies setting with the optimum setting showed improvement by 21% reduction of defect quantity at the optimum setting. Finally, from the optimization plot, the validation error between the prediction value and experiment was 1.72%. The result proved that quality of products

  1. Thermal comfort study of plastics manufacturing industry in converting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiono Sugiono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is one of ergonomics factors that can create a significant impact to workers performance. For a better thermal comfort, several environment factors (air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity should be considered in this research. The object of the study is a building for converting process of plastics manufacturing industry located in Malang, Indonesia. The maximum air temperature inside the building can reach as high as 36°C. The result of this study shows that heat stress is dominantly caused by heat source from machine and wall building. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation is used to show the air characteristic through inside the building. By using the CFD simulation, some scenarios of solution are successfully presented. Employees thermal comfort was investigated based on predicted mean vote model (PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied model (PPD. Existing condition gives PMV in range from 1.83 to 2.82 and PPD in range from 68.9 to 98%. Meanwhile, modification of ventilation and replacing ceiling material from clear glass into reflective clear glass gave significant impact to reduce PMV into range from 1.63 to 2.18 and PPD into range from 58.2 to 84.2%. In sort, new design converting building process has more comfortable for workers.

  2. The Enterprise Derivative Application: Flexible Software for Optimizing Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Knox, John R [ORNL

    2008-11-01

    The Enterprise Derivative Application (EDA) implements the enterprise-derivative analysis for optimization of an industrial process (Allgood and Manges, 2001). It is a tool to help industry planners choose the most productive way of manufacturing their products while minimizing their cost. Developed in MS Access, the application allows users to input initial data ranging from raw material to variable costs and enables the tracking of specific information as material is passed from one process to another. Energy-derivative analysis is based on calculation of sensitivity parameters. For the specific application to a steel production process these include: the cost to product sensitivity, the product to energy sensitivity, the energy to efficiency sensitivity, and the efficiency to cost sensitivity. Using the EDA, for all processes the user can display a particular sensitivity or all sensitivities can be compared for all processes. Although energy-derivative analysis was originally designed for use by the steel industry, it is flexible enough to be applied to many other industrial processes. Examples of processes where energy-derivative analysis would prove useful are wireless monitoring of processes in the petroleum cracking industry and wireless monitoring of motor failure for determining the optimum time to replace motor parts. One advantage of the MS Access-based application is its flexibility in defining the process flow and establishing the relationships between parent and child process and products resulting from a process. Due to the general design of the program, a process can be anything that occurs over time with resulting output (products). So the application can be easily modified to many different industrial and organizational environments. Another advantage is the flexibility of defining sensitivity parameters. Sensitivities can be determined between all possible variables in the process flow as a function of time. Thus the dynamic development of the

  3. A product-process approach for development of the manufacturing footprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Sami; Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John

    2009-01-01

    to ever changing global business environment there are certain other external factors that act as drivers for the manufacturing facility development process and therefore should be given considerable importance as they play a major role in defining the future footprint of a manufacturing organisation....... elaborating the development and establishment of various manufacturing facilities of a Danish pump manufacturer is then described. The discussion from the case leads to the conclusion that developing new manufacturing facilities can be explained using existing theories of manufacturing strategy. However due...

  4. Composite materials pipings: selection of basic materials and manufacturing process, quality control during manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pays, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present a summary of the knowledge acquired at the R and D on resins used as composite matrix, the resistance to hydrolysis and mechanical strength of pipings made from these materials, and on quality control during manufacture. The initial targets concerning the material selection, industrial manufacturing and quality control procedures are presented. The paper describes the results obtained concerning the investigation of the damage produced by hydrolysis in polyesters, vinyl esters and epoxides, the influence of temperature, reinforcement and the mechanical characterization of the tubing manufacturing. The performances of the nondestructive testings (radiography, ultrasonic controls, differential interferometry and infrared thermography) used are also reported. The paper ends with a further research and testings programme. (author)

  5. 21 CFR 801.122 - Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....122 Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A device intended for processing... act if its label bears the statement “Caution: For manufacturing, processing, or repacking”. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices for processing, repacking, or...

  6. Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States); Zhang, Pu [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2016-11-30

    For this Vehicle Technologies Incubator/Energy Storage R&D topic, Lambda Technologies teamed with Navitas Systems and proposed a new advanced drying process that promised a 5X reduction in electrode drying time and significant reduction in the cost of large format lithium batteries used in PEV's. The operating principle of the proposed process was to use penetrating radiant energy source Variable Frequency Microwaves (VFM), that are selectively absorbed by the polar water or solvent molecules instantly in the entire volume of the electrode. The solvent molecules are thus driven out of the electrode thickness making the process more efficient and much faster than convective drying method. To evaluate the Advanced Drying Process (ADP) a hybrid prototype system utilizing VFM and hot air flow was designed and fabricated. While VFM drives the solvent out of the electrode thickness, the hot air flow exhausts the solvent vapors out of the chamber. The drying results from this prototype were very encouraging. For water based anodes there is a 5X drying advantage (time & length of oven) in using ADP over standard drying system and for the NMP based cathodes the reduction in drying time has 3X benefit. For energy savings the power consumption measurements were performed to ADP prototype and compared with the convection standard drying oven. The data collected demonstrated over 40% saving in power consumption with ADP as compared to the convection drying systems. The energy savings are one of the operational cost benefits possible with ADP. To further speed up the drying process, the ADP prototype was explored as a booster module before the convection oven and for the electrode material being evaluated it was possible to increase the drying speed by a factor of 4, which could not be accomplished with the standard dryer without surface defects and cracks. The instantaneous penetration of microwave in the entire slurry thickness showed a major advantage in rapid drying of

  7. Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Iaroslav

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method of in-situ process monitoring in the digital light processing (DLP 3D printer. It is based on the continuous measurement of the adhesion force between printing surface and bottom of a liquid resin bath. This method is suitable only for the bottom-up DPL printers. Control system compares the force at the moment of unsticking of printed layer from the bottom of the tank, when it has the largest value in printing cycle, with theoretical value. Implementation of suggested algorithm can make detection of faults during the printing process possible.

  8. Assessment of low-cost manufacturing process sequences. [photovoltaic solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive research and development activity to reduce the cost of manufacturing photovoltaic solar arrays by a factor of approximately one hundred is discussed. Proposed and actual manufacturing process descriptions were compared to manufacturing costs. An overview of this methodology is presented.

  9. Reduction of environmental pollution from fuel and target manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, H.A.

    1976-10-01

    Nuclear fuel and target manufacturing processes in the 300 Area generate potential environmental pollutants. Efforts to eliminate or reduce their harmful effects have been pursued for many years by the Raw Materials and Raw Materials Technology departments with assistance from other groups, primarily the Project and Health Physics departments. This report documents: methods adopted to reduce pollution; cost of these methods; amount of pollution reduction achieved; and other benefits in cost savings or quality improvement for January 1968 through December 1975. Capital funds totaling $915,000 were spent on these programs. Annual cost savings of $65,000 were realized, and incidental but significant improvements in product quality were obtained. In no case was product quality degraded. Reductions in releases of pollutants are summarized for water pollution, air pollution, and land pollution. In addition to these reductions, intangible benefits were realized including reduced corrosion of structures and equipment; improved working conditions for personnel; energy savings, both on and offplant; improved utilization of natural resources; and reduced impact to environment, both on and offplant

  10. Progress and improvement of the manufacturing process of snake antivenom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolfagharian H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Antivenoms have been used successfully for more than a century and up to now constitute the only effectivetreatment for snakebites .The production of antivenin started long time ago when the calmette was preparedthe antivenom in 1894.The method currently used to prepare antivenom by most of the manufacturers areoriginated from the method of Pope which was develop in 1938. Several new approaches in the production ofantivenom have been proposed to produce IgG, F(ab2, F(ab antivenin to improve their quality .Theseimprovement include complete or partial modification in the antivenom production regarding animal,immunization protocols , new adjuvants in hyperimmunization of animals , purification processes ( caprylicacid ,chromatography , diafiltration and ulterafiltration ,enzymatic digestion of IgG (pepsin, papain andfractionation of venom .When the IgG is digested enzymatically, different fragments are obtained depending on the enzyme used, that is, if papain is used, three fragments are obtained, the crystallizing fragment (Fc and two antigen-binding fragments F(ab and, if pepsin is used, one F(ab'2 fragment is obtained, while thecrystallizing fragment is digested. Fab and F(ab2 fragments conserve their capacity to specifically bind to the antigen that gave rise to them.

  11. Understanding evolutionary processes in non-manufacturing industries: Empirical insights from the shakeout in pharmaceutical wholesaling

    OpenAIRE

    Adam J. Fein

    1998-01-01

    Although the empirical pattern of industry shakeout has been documented for many manufacturing industries, we know little about the processes by which market structure evolves in non-manufacturing service industries. This paper establishes detailed empirical observations about the consolidation of a single non-manufacturing industry, the wholesale distribution of pharmaceuticals. These observations are used to explore differences between manufacturing and wholesaling in both the patterns and ...

  12. Intelligent Processing Equipment Developments Within the Navy's Manufacturing Technology Centers of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanzetta, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Navy has had an active Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program aimed at developing advanced production processes and equipment since the late-1960's. During the past decade, however, the resources of the MANTECH program were concentrated in Centers of Excellence. Today, the Navy sponsors four manufacturing technology Centers of Excellence: the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility (AMRF); the Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF); the National Center for Excellence in Metalworking Technology (NCEMT); and the Center of Excellence for Composites Manufacturing Technology (CECMT). This paper briefly describes each of the centers and summarizes typical Intelligent Equipment Processing (IEP) projects that were undertaken.

  13. Process Machine Interactions Predicition and Manipulation of Interactions between Manufacturing Processes and Machine Tool Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Hollmann, Ferdinand

    2013-01-01

    This contributed volume collects the scientific results of the DFG Priority Program 1180 Prediction and Manipulation of Interactions between Structure and Process. The research program has been conducted during the years 2005 and 2012, whereas the primary goal was the analysis of the interactions between processes and structures in modern production facilities. This book presents the findings of the 20 interdisciplinary subprojects, focusing on different manufacturing processes such as high performance milling, tool grinding or metal forming. It contains experimental investigations as well as mathematical modeling of production processes and machine interactions. New experimental advancements and novel simulation approaches are also included.

  14. Characterization of additive manufacturing processes for polymer micro parts productions using direct light processing (DLP) method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    The process capability of additive manufacturing (AM) for direct production of miniaturized polymer components with micro features is analyzed in this work. The consideration of the minimum printable feature size and obtainable tolerances of AM process is a critical step to establish a process...... chains for the production of parts with micro scale features. A specifically designed direct light processing (DLP) AM machine suitable for precision printing has been used. A test part is designed having features with different sizes and aspect ratios in order to evaluate the DLP AM machine capability...

  15. Comparison of Composites Properties Manufactured by Vacuum Process and Autoclave Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Rufei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of prepregs ZT7G/LT-03A(unidirectional carbon fiber prepreg and ZT7G3198P/LT-03A(plain carbon fabric prepreg were used to manufacture three Bateches of composites by vacuum process and autoclave process respectively. The physical properties of the prepregs and mechanical properties of composite were tested. The performance, fiber volume content and porosity of composites manufactured by vacuum cure and autoclave process show that the physical property retention rates of vacuum cured composites are all over 75%, some even more than 100%. Interlaminar shear strength keeps the lowest retention rate and warp tensile strength keeps the highest retention in unidirectional carbon fiber composites. For fabric composite material, compression strength keeps the lowest and warp tensile strength keeps the highest retention. Vacuum cured composites perform lower fiber volume content and higher porosity, which are the main reasons of the lower performance.

  16. INTEGRATION OF COST MODELS AND PROCESS SIMULATION TOOLS FOR OPTIMUM COMPOSITE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Seongchan [General Motors; Wilson, Daniel [General Motors; Aitharaju, Venkat [General Motors; Kia, Hamid [General Motors; Yu, Hang [ESI, Group.; Doroudian, Mark [ESI Group

    2017-09-05

    Manufacturing cost of resin transfer molded composite parts is significantly influenced by the cycle time, which is strongly related to the time for both filling and curing of the resin in the mold. The time for filling can be optimized by various injection strategies, and by suitably reducing the length of the resin flow distance during the injection. The curing time can be reduced by the usage of faster curing resins, but it requires a high pressure injection equipment, which is capital intensive. Predictive manufacturing simulation tools that are being developed recently for composite materials are able to provide various scenarios of processing conditions virtually well in advance of manufacturing the parts. In the present study, we integrate the cost models with process simulation tools to study the influence of various parameters such as injection strategies, injection pressure, compression control to minimize high pressure injection, resin curing rate, and demold time on the manufacturing cost as affected by the annual part volume. A representative automotive component was selected for the study and the results are presented in this paper

  17. Multiple High-Fidelity Modeling Tools for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Despite the rapid commercialization of additive manufacturing technology such as selective laser melting, SLM, there are gaps in process modeling and material...

  18. Multiple High-Fidelity Modeling Tools for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Development, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Despite the rapid commercialization of additive manufacturing technology such as selective laser melting, SLM, there are gaps in process modeling and material...

  19. Automation in Siemens fuel manufacturing - the basis for quality improvement by statistical process control (SPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drecker, St.; Hoff, A.; Dietrich, M.; Guldner, R.

    1999-01-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) is one of the systematic tools to perform a valuable contribution to the control and planning activities for manufacturing processes and product quality. Advanced Nuclear Fuels GmbH (ANF) started a program to introduce SPC in all sections of the manufacturing process of fuel assemblies. The concept phase is based on a realization of SPC in 3 pilot projects. The existing manufacturing devices are reviewed for the utilization of SPC. Subsequent modifications were made to provide the necessary interfaces. The processes 'powder/pellet manufacturing'. 'cladding tube manufacturing' and 'laser-welding of spacers' are located at the different locations of ANF. Due to the completion of the first steps and the experience obtained by the pilot projects, the introduction program for SPC has already been extended to other manufacturing processes. (authors)

  20. MANAGING TRANSITION PROCESSES OF MANUFACTURING NETWORKS OF GLOBAL OPERATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2012-01-01

    rather than the pure product. Incidentally, products and services are often inseparable and the sale of a product would lead to a relationship where services could be sold over an extended period of time (Levitt, 1983). Thereby, many manufacturers have sought growth through the increased sale of products......Western companies have now started to compete on the basis of value delivered by shifting their market focus from manufacturing to more product-service oriented systems. This is linked to the view that manufacturing companies are becoming more oriented to the use of the product-service offering......-services offerings. Localizing and globalizing these products-services offerings have inherent complexities which have been under researched. Facing the intense global competition, companies are seeking higher levels of efficiency and effectiveness by configuring their discrete value-added activities on a global...

  1. MANAGING TRANSITION PROCESSES OF MANUFACTURING CONFIGURATIONS OF GLOBAL OPERATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2012-01-01

    was reduced as a result of the possibility to exploit the opportunity of low cost of production and to harness cheap resources related benefits by offshoring activities. As a result of offshoring and outsourcing, manufacturing activities kept in-house in western companies have reduced and has led......Exploration and exploitation excellence is one of the ways of satisfying today’s, tomorrow’s and future customers. Bolwijn and Kumpe (1998) explained that efficiency, quality, flexibility, speed and innovativeness are necessary in order to achieve exploration and exploitation excellence. Western...... companies have now started to compete on the basis of value delivered by shifting their market focus from manufacturing to more product-service oriented systems. This is linked to the view that manufacturing companies are becoming more oriented to the use of the product-service offering rather than the pure...

  2. Design of production process main shaft process with lean manufacturing to improve productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Nasution, A. A.; Andayani, U.; Anizar; Syahputri, K.

    2018-02-01

    This object research is one of manufacturing companies that produce oil palm machinery parts. In the production process there is delay in the completion of the Main shaft order. Delays in the completion of the order indicate the low productivity of the company in terms of resource utilization. This study aimed to obtain a draft improvement of production processes that can improve productivity by identifying and eliminating activities that do not add value (non-value added activity). One approach that can be used to reduce and eliminate non-value added activity is Lean Manufacturing. This study focuses on the identification of non-value added activity with value stream mapping analysis tools, while the elimination of non-value added activity is done with tools 5 whys and implementation of pull demand system. Based on the research known that non-value added activity on the production process of the main shaft is 9,509.51 minutes of total lead time 10,804.59 minutes. This shows the level of efficiency (Process Cycle Efficiency) in the production process of the main shaft is still very low by 11.89%. Estimation results of improvement showed a decrease in total lead time became 4,355.08 minutes and greater process cycle efficiency that is equal to 29.73%, which indicates that the process was nearing the concept of lean production.

  3. A DMAIC approach for process capability improvement an engine crankshaft manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, P. Srinivasa

    2014-05-01

    The define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) approach is a five-strata approach, namely DMAIC. This approach is the scientific approach for reducing the deviations and improving the capability levels of the manufacturing processes. The present work elaborates on DMAIC approach applied in reducing the process variations of the stub-end-hole boring operation of the manufacture of crankshaft. This statistical process control study starts with selection of the critical-to-quality (CTQ) characteristic in the define stratum. The next stratum constitutes the collection of dimensional measurement data of the CTQ characteristic identified. This is followed by the analysis and improvement strata where the various quality control tools like Ishikawa diagram, physical mechanism analysis, failure modes effects analysis and analysis of variance are applied. Finally, the process monitoring charts are deployed at the workplace for regular monitoring and control of the concerned CTQ characteristic. By adopting DMAIC approach, standard deviation is reduced from 0.003 to 0.002. The process potential capability index ( C P) values improved from 1.29 to 2.02 and the process performance capability index ( C PK) values improved from 0.32 to 1.45, respectively.

  4. 24 CFR 3282.53 - Service of process on foreign manufacturers and importers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of process on foreign manufacturers and importers. 3282.53 Section 3282.53 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS Formal Procedures § 3282.53 Service of process on foreign manufacturers and importers. The...

  5. Development of iFab (Instant Foundry Adaptive Through Bits) Manufacturing Process and Machine Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    input shaft , pump, gearbox, rack & pinion… Wheel assy wheel, tire, drive hub, lug, spindle , bearing… Braking brake disc/drum, caliper, friction...processes and associated machines is provided. Progress with respect to Task 3 (to design and develop the Manufacturing Capability Modeling Environment...of Military Ground Vehicle Design , Materials, and Processes ............... 4 4.2 Task 2 Manufacturing Knowledge Characterization

  6. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture and processing in the special production area. All manufacturing, processing, and use operations... shape or design during manufacture, (ii) which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part... production area, the ambient air concentration of the new chemical substance during manufacture, processing...

  7. Manufacturing process optimization of nuclear fuel guide tube using HANA alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, S. Y.; Choi, B. K.; Park, J. Y.; Kim, H. G.; Jeong, Y. I.; Park, D. J.; Lim, J. K.

    2010-08-01

    From this project, the advanced manufacturing parameters which were contained of heat-treatment, reduction rate, and new process (2 step) were considered to increase the guide tube performance of HANA material. It was obtained that the strength and corrosion resistance of HANA material were improved by applying the improve manufacturing parameters when compared to the commercial guide tube material. · Manufacturing parameter study to increase mechanical property -Tensile strength increase of 30% by manufacturing parameter setup when compared to the guide tube specification · Manufacturing parameter study to decrease irradiation growth -Theoretical study of the texture effect on sample specimens related to the irradiation growth · Manufacturing parameter study to increase corrosion resistance -Corrosion resistance increase of 30% by manufacturing parameter setup when compared to the commercial guide tube

  8. Microstructure and corrosion characteristics of HANA 6 alloy with various manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Gil; Choi, Byung Kwan; Jeong, Yong Hwan

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain the best manufacturing process for the HANA 6 alloy, the various evaluations such as a corrosion test at 400 .deg. C steam condition, a microstructural analysis by using TEM, and texture analysis by using XRD were performed for the HANA 6 alloy with various manufacturing processes. This alloy was manufactured as sheets by applying 4 types of manufacturing processes which were controlled by a combination of the intermediate annealing temperature and reduction ratio, as well as two types of final annealing conditions which were applied to the HANA 6 alloy from TREX samples. The corrosion resistance of the HANA 6 alloy with various manufacturing processes was increased with a decreasing intermediate annealing temperature and the corrosion resistance of that alloy was decreased by increasing the final annealing temperature after a corrosion test up to 240 days. The precipitate of the HANA 6 alloy mainly consisted of Nb-containing precipitates in all the samples, but the size, distribution and Nb concentration of the precipitates was affected by the applied manufacturing processes. The Nb concentration in the precipitates was increased when the samples were annealed at 570.deg.C during the intermediate annealing processes. So, the corrosion rate of the HANA 6 alloy is affected considerably by a control of the intermediate and final annealing conditions which affect the precipitate characteristics in the matrix. The crystallographic texture of the HANA 6 alloy with various manufacturing processes is similar since the total reduction ratio was the same in all the manufactured sheet samples

  9. Quality assurance of manufactures by means of intelligent tomographic processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, A.; Paggi, P.; Barbuzza, R.; Venere, Marcelo J.; Clausse, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Quality standards in industry require inspection tools to optimize the production. In this paper we present a non destructive test method that allows the inspection of defects as well as the 3D visualization of the piece. Previous knowledge of the material and geometry of the components are applied to improve the inspection system, classifying by position, dimension and orientation of defects, to verify manufacture quality standards. (author)

  10. Backshoring of Danish manufacturing companies: A learning process perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafson, Lasse; Pesoutova, Katerina; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2017-01-01

    The article summarizes a Master Thesis undertook in 2017 by Lasse Gustafson and Katerina Pesoutova, MSc students at International Business Centre at Aalborg University, supervised by Romeo V. Turcan. Rethinking previous Offshoring strategies and bringing production back home is a trend that more...... with the focus on Danish manufacturing companies in Northern Jutland. The findings are based on interviews conducted with companies in the region....

  11. Progress and improvement of the manufacturing process of snake antivenom

    OpenAIRE

    Zolfagharian H.; Mohammadpour Dounighi, N.

    2013-01-01

    Antivenoms have been used successfully for more than a century and up to now constitute the only effectivetreatment for snakebites .The production of antivenin started long time ago when the calmette was preparedthe antivenom in 1894.The method currently used to prepare antivenom by most of the manufacturers areoriginated from the method of Pope which was develop in 1938. Several new approaches in the production ofantivenom have been proposed to produce IgG, F(ab)2, F(ab) antivenin to improve...

  12. Manufacturing process for electrodes for ionizing radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirelli, M.G.; Hecquet, R.

    1987-01-01

    A manufacturing proces for electrodes for ionizing radiation detectors, particularly electrodes for X-ray multidetectors, is proposed. It consists of electrodepositing at least one layer of an electrically conducting material on at least one side of a relatively flat plate. A ductile material is used to form the conducting layer. The assembly formed by the plate covered by the ductile conducting material is subjected to pressing to crush the ductile conducting material at least in the zones where the assembly formed by the plate and the covering material has a total thickness superior to a constant thickness desired for the electrode [fr

  13. Manufacturing of a graphite calorimeter at Yazd Radiation Processing Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaie, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a few quasi-adiabatic graphite calorimeters of different dimensions are described. The calorimeters have been manufactured by ourselves and studied for accurate absorbed dose measurements in 10 MeV electron beam. In order to prove the accuracy and reliability of dose measurements with the use of self designed graphite calorimeters (SCD), an inter comparison study was performed on these calorimeters and Risoe graphite calorimeters (SC,standard calorimeter) at different doses by using Rhodothron accelerator. The comparison shows conclusively of the optimal size, the results agreeing with those obtained with the Sc within 1%. (author)

  14. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  15. An Introduction to Intelligent Processing Programs Developed by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Paul G.; Sny, Linda C.

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force has numerous on-going manufacturing and integration development programs (machine tools, composites, metals, assembly, and electronics) which are instrumental in improving productivity in the aerospace industry, but more importantly, have identified strategies and technologies required for the integration of advanced processing equipment. An introduction to four current Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate (ManTech) manufacturing areas is provided. Research is being carried out in the following areas: (1) machining initiatives for aerospace subcontractors which provide for advanced technology and innovative manufacturing strategies to increase the capabilities of small shops; (2) innovative approaches to advance machine tool products and manufacturing processes; (3) innovative approaches to advance sensors for process control in machine tools; and (4) efforts currently underway to develop, with the support of industry, the Next Generation Workstation/Machine Controller (Low-End Controller Task).

  16. The roles of communication process for an effective lean manufacturing implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Puvanasvaran

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Many companies are implementing lean manufacturing concept in order to remain competitive and sustainable, however, not many of them are successful in the process due to various reasons. Communication is an important aspect of lean process in order to successfully implement lean manufacturing.  This paper determines the roles of communication process in ensuring a successful implementation of leanness in manufacturing companies. All the information of lean manufacturing practices and roles of communication in the implementation were compiled from related journals, books and websites. A study was conducted in an aerospace manufacturing in Malaysia. A five-point scale questionnaire is used as the study instrument. These questionnaires were distributed to 45 employees working in a kitting department and to 8 top management people. The results indicate that the degree of leanness were moderate.

  17. PURPOSE – PROCESS – PEOPLE A LEAN APPROACH TO BIOMEDICAL MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Kahlen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Opportunities to improve production processes and access to markets through the implementation of lean manufacturing in biomedical manufacturing are presented. The importance of a unified definition of manufacturing, to which biomedical manufacturing is party, is emphasized, and the theory of “lean”, summarized as “purpose, process, people”, is elaborated. The requirements for the creation of value through the creation of flow and the elimination of wastes are highlighted in the context of biomedical manufacturing. Finally, case studies are presented to illustrate the approaches to “purpose, process, people”.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Geleenthede vir die verbetering van produksieprosesse en marktoegang via die implementering van skraalvervaardiging in die biomediese vervaardigingsbedryf word voorgehou. Aandag word geskenk aan die betekenis van terme soos “skraal, doel, proses, menes” in die konteks van biomediese vervaardiging. Waardeskepping, vloei en vermorsing word onder die loep geneem. Gevallestudies word ter illustrasie van begrippe aangebied.

  18. Research on Marketing Channel of Mobile Manufacturer Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Hui; LI Shi-ming; LAN Yong

    2006-01-01

    Research on "marketing channel" of mobile attracts much attention in these years,but there're only few articles referring to how to optimize the disposition of channel resources for mobile manufacturers. Based on a typically multiplex marketing channel system of mobile manufacturer, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) structure model is established. Through the judgment matrix, simple and total hierarchy arrangement, consistent test, this paper gets the weight of each kind of marketing channel of mobile manufacturer. It provides the practical reference value for mobile manufacturers to distribute resources of marketing channels.

  19. Current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of drugs; revision of certain labeling controls. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the packaging and labeling control provisions of the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for human and veterinary drug products by limiting the application of special control procedures for the use of cut labeling to immediate container labels, individual unit cartons, or multiunit cartons containing immediate containers that are not packaged in individual unit cartons. FDA is also permitting the use of any automated technique, including differentiation by labeling size and shape, that physically prevents incorrect labeling from being processed by labeling and packaging equipment when cut labeling is used. This action is intended to protect consumers from labeling errors more likely to cause adverse health consequences, while eliminating the regulatory burden of applying the rule to labeling unlikely to reach or adversely affect consumers. This action is also intended to permit manufacturers to use a broader range of error prevention and labeling control techniques than permitted by current CGMPs.

  20. Analytic network process model for sustainable lean and green manufacturing performance indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminuddin, Adam Shariff Adli; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Mohamed, Nik Mohd Zuki Nik

    2014-09-01

    Sustainable manufacturing is regarded as the most complex manufacturing paradigm to date as it holds the widest scope of requirements. In addition, its three major pillars of economic, environment and society though distinct, have some overlapping among each of its elements. Even though the concept of sustainability is not new, the development of the performance indicator still needs a lot of improvement due to its multifaceted nature, which requires integrated approach to solve the problem. This paper proposed the best combination of criteria en route a robust sustainable manufacturing performance indicator formation via Analytic Network Process (ANP). The integrated lean, green and sustainable ANP model can be used to comprehend the complex decision system of the sustainability assessment. The finding shows that green manufacturing is more sustainable than lean manufacturing. It also illustrates that procurement practice is the most important criteria in the sustainable manufacturing performance indicator.

  1. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems. Volume 3: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Facilities and equipment are defined for refining processes to commercial grade of lunar material that is delivered to a 'space manufacturing facility' in beneficiated, primary processed quality. The manufacturing facilities and the equipment for producing elements of large space systems from these materials and providing programmatic assessments of the concepts are also defined. In-space production processes of solar cells (by vapor deposition) and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, converters, and others are described.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Technologies Used for Processing Polymers: Current Status and Potential Application in Prosthetic Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-León, Marta; Özcan, Mutlu

    2018-04-22

    There are 7 categories of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, and a wide variety of materials can be used to build a CAD 3D object. The present article reviews the main AM processes for polymers for dental applications: stereolithography (SLA), digital light processing (DLP), material jetting (MJ), and material extrusion (ME). The manufacturing process, accuracy, and precision of these methods will be reviewed, as well as their prosthodontic applications. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Microeconomics of yield learning and process control in semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.

    2003-06-01

    Simple microeconomic models that directly link yield learning to profitability in semiconductor manufacturing have been rare or non-existent. In this work, we review such a model and provide links to inspection capability and cost. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300mm factories, including the impact of technology transitions to 130nm design rules and below. We show that the dramatic increase in value per wafer at the 300mm transition becomes a driver for increasing metrology and inspection capability and sampling. These analyses correlate well wtih actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential cost savings. We demonstrate this using the example of grating-based overlay metrology for the 65nm node.

  4. Economic trade-offs of additive manufacturing integration in injection moulding process chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalambis, Alessandro; Kerbache, Laoucine; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing has emerged as an innovative set of novel technologies capable of replacing established manufacturing processes due to fabrication of highly complex parts and its continuous improvements of efficiency and cost effectiveness. This study is based on the idea that through...... the creation of synergies between additive and conventional manufacturing technologies it is possible to achieve greater cost advantages and operational benefits than by substituting injection moulding with additive manufacturing. The analysis presented explores the cost advantages that can be secured when...... additive manufacturing is used to support the fabrication of mould inserts for the product development phase of the injection moulding process chain. This study shows that fabrication of soft tooling by mean of AM is economically convenient with a cost reduction between 80% and 90%. Break-even points...

  5. U.S. Department of Energy integrated manufacturing & processing predoctoral fellowships. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrochenkov, Margaret

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design. This is the final report to close out the contract.

  6. United States Department of Energy Integrated Manufacturing & Processing Predoctoral Fellowships. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrochenkov, M.

    2003-03-31

    The objective of the program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design.

  7. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, Ismet P

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  8. Cost estimation of a specifically designed direct light processing (DLP) additive manufacturing machine for precision printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalambis, Alessandro; Davoudinejad, Ali; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    creating new opportunities for manufacturers in a variety of industrial sectors. AM is an essentialprototyping technique for product design and development that is used in many different fields. However, the suitability of AMapplications in actual production in an industrial context needs to be determined......Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a portfolio of novel manufacturing technologies based on a layer-by-layer fabrication method.The market and industrial application of additive manufacturing technologies as an established manufacturing process have increasedexponentially in the last years....... This study, presents a cost estimation model forprecision printing with a specifically designed Digital Light Processing (DLP) AM machine built and validated at the Technical Universityof Denmark. The model presented in this study can be easily adapted and applied to estimate within a high level...

  9. Lean Manufacturing - A Powerfull Tool for Reducing Waste During the Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Apreutesei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing provides a new management approach for many small and medium size manufacturers, especially older firms organized and managed under traditional push systems. Improvement results can be dramatic in terms of quality, cycle times, and customer responsiveness. Lean manufacturing is more than a set of tools and techniques and has been widely adopted by many production companies. Lean manufacturing is a culture in which all employees continuously look for ways to improve processes. In the present article are presented the Lean Manufacturing tools, like kaizen, Kanban, poka-yoke witch a company can use to reduce the waste(muda during a production process. The paper contains also, the most common seven types of waste from production and some examples from our daily activity.

  10. Fuzzy linguistic hedges for the selection of manufacturing process for prosthetic sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Pandey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparison is presented between two prime methods of producing prosthetic sockets by using the fuzzy linguistic hedges approach on the qualitative feedback of Indian prosthetic users. Recent trends indicate that the Indian manufacturers have tried to adopt the newer technologies like reverse engineering (RE approach to achieve the desired goals. However, the satisfaction of the user is of utmost importance for the unique and customized products for rehabilitation. In order to analyze the effectiveness of the manufacturing approaches, user case studies are taken, based on the linguistic feedbacks, and a comparative study is conducted. Thirteen users from four different manufacturing units are taken for study and sockets made by conventional as well as RE are experimented. Fuzzy membership functions are constructed using the linguistic hedges based on the user feedbacks. An analytical hierarchy process (AHP is applied to arrive at a decision to select the manufacturing process for user satisfaction and manufacturing excellence.

  11. Fault tree analysis of the manufacturing process of nuclear fuel containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Weixian; Men Dechun; Sui Yuxue

    1998-08-01

    The nuclear fuel container consists of barrel body, bottom, cover, locking ring, rubber seal ring, and so on. It should be kept sealed in transportation and storage, so keeps the fuel contained from leakage. Its manufacturing process includes blanking, forming, seam welding, assembling, derusting and painting. The seam welding and assembling of barrel body and bottom are two key procedures, and the slope grinding, barrel body flaring and deep drawing of the bottom are important procedures. Faults in the manufacturing process of the nuclear fuel containers are investigated in details as for its quality requirements. A fault tree is established with products being unqualified as the top event. Five causes resulting in process faults are classified and analysed, and some measures are suggested for controlling different failures in manufacturing. More research work should be conducted in rules how to set up fault trees for manufacturing process

  12. Numerical simulation of complex part manufactured by selective laser melting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belle, Laurent

    2017-10-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process belonging to the family of the Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies, enable to build parts layer by layer, from metallic powder and a CAD model. Physical phenomena that occur in the process have the same issues as conventional welding. Thermal gradients generate significant residual stresses and distortions in the parts. Moreover, the large and complex parts to manufacturing, accentuate the undesirable effects. Therefore, it is essential for manufacturers to offer a better understanding of the process and to ensure production reliability of parts with high added value. This paper focuses on the simulation of manufacturing turbine by SLM process in order to calculate residual stresses and distortions. Numerical results will be presented.

  13. Development of a virtual metrology for high-mix TFT-LCD manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shan; Pan Tianhong; Jang Shishang

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, TFT-LCD manufacturing has become a very complex process, in which many different products being manufactured with many different tools. The ability to predict the quality of product in such a high-mix system is critical to developing and maintaining a high yield. In this paper, a statistical method is proposed for building a virtual metrology model from a number of products using a high-mix manufacturing process. Stepwise regression is used to select 'key variables' that really affect the quality of the products. Multivariate analysis of covariance is also proposed for simultaneously applying the selected variables and product effect. This framework provides a systematic method of building a processing quality prediction system for a high-mix manufacturing process. The experimental results show that the proposed quality prognostic system can not only estimate the critical dimension accurately but also detect potentially faulty glasses.

  14. Novel Manufacturing Process for Unique Mixed Carbide Refractory Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I project will establish the feasibility of an innovative manufacturing process to fabricate a range of unique hafnium/silicon based carbide...

  15. Metal Advanced Manufacturing Bot-Assisted Assembly (MAMBA) Process, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tethers Unlimited, Inc. (TUI) proposes to develop the Metal Advanced Manufacturing Bot-Assisted Assembly (MAMBA) Process, a robotically managed metal press and...

  16. A method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, a nano-imprint process, or an extrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, nano-imprint process or an extrusion process. First, there is provided a master structure (10) with a surface area comprising nanometre-sized protrusions (11...

  17. Resin infusion of large composite structures modeling and manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, A.C. [Michigan State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The resin infusion processes resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI) and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are cost effective techniques for the fabrication of complex shaped composite structures. The dry fibrous preform is placed in the mold, consolidated, resin impregnated and cured in a single step process. The fibrous performs are often constructed near net shape using highly automated textile processes such as knitting, weaving and braiding. In this paper, the infusion processes RTM, RFI and VARTM are discussed along with the advantages of each technique compared with traditional composite fabrication methods such as prepreg tape lay up and autoclave cure. The large number of processing variables and the complex material behavior during infiltration and cure make experimental optimization of the infusion processes costly and inefficient. Numerical models have been developed which can be used to simulate the resin infusion processes. The model formulation and solution procedures for the VARTM process are presented. A VARTM process simulation of a carbon fiber preform was presented to demonstrate the type of information that can be generated by the model and to compare the model predictions with experimental measurements. Overall, the predicted flow front positions, resin pressures and preform thicknesses agree well with the measured values. The results of the simulation show the potential cost and performance benefits that can be realized by using a simulation model as part of the development process. (au)

  18. Manufacturing and process optimization of porous rice straw board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejun; Dong, Bing; Bai, Xuewei; Gao, Wei; Gong, Yuanjuan

    2018-03-01

    Development and utilization of straw resources and the production of straw board can dramatically reduce straw waste and environmental pollution associated with straw burning in China. However, the straw board production faces several challenges, such as improving the physical and mechanical properties, as well as eliminating its formaldehyde content. The recent research was to develop a new straw board compound adhesive containing both inorganic (MgSO4, MgCO3, active silicon and ALSiO4) and organic (bean gum and modified Methyl DiphenylDiisocyanate, MDI) gelling materials, to devise a new high frequency straw board hot pressing technique and to optimize the straw board production parameters. The results indicated that the key hot pressing parameters leading to porous straw board with optimal physical and mechanical properties. These parameters are as follows: an adhesive containing a 4:1 ratio of inorganic-to-organic gelled material, the percentage of adhesive in the total mass of preload straw materials is 40%, a hot-pressing temperature in the range of 120 °C to 140 °C, and a high frequency hot pressing for 10 times at a pressure of 30 MPa. Finally, the present work demonstrated that porous straw board fabricated under optimal manufacturing condition is an environmentally friendly and renewable materials, thereby meeting national standard of medium density fiberboard (MDF) with potential applications in the building industry.

  19. A framework of manufacturer-retailer coordination process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Triggered by perceived inefficiency and inequality, buyers and suppliers coordinate with each other. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework of coordination process based on theoretical review and verifications from three case studies. Design/methodology/approach - The appro......Purpose - Triggered by perceived inefficiency and inequality, buyers and suppliers coordinate with each other. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework of coordination process based on theoretical review and verifications from three case studies. Design...... there was disagreement. Third, closer mode of coordination, which involved joint evaluation and derivation of coordination solutions, reduced the numbers of iterative coordination cycles. These empirical findings verified the presupposed framework of coordination process. Research limitations/implications - Three...... qualitative case studies may not be highly generalisable and multiple dyadic coordination processes may occur. However, the findings form a foundation for further understanding of the coordination process. Originality/value - The proposed framework of the coordination process further expands the theories...

  20. Supply chain risk management processes for resilience: A study of South African grocery manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Simba; Wesley Niemann; Theuns Kotzé; Assilah Agigi

    2017-01-01

    Background: The supply chain risk management (SCRM) process is aimed at the implementation of strategies that assist in managing both daily and exceptional risks facing the supply chain through continuous risk assessment to reduce vulnerability and ensure continuity. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the SCRM process enables supply chain resilience among grocery manufacturers in South Africa. The fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG)-manufacturing industry faces incre...

  1. Cutting prepregs, cutting and processing polymer plastics in the manufacture of airсraft panels

    OpenAIRE

    MELUKHOV NIKITA; GRISHCHENKO TATIANA; LYUBUSHKIN VADIM

    2017-01-01

    The article presents an alternative to the solution of the problem of reduction of manual operations in manufacture. It may be achieved if cutting out prepregs and processing polymeric materials (PMP) be changed for sharp ultrasonic cutting when manufacturing components from polymeric composite materials (PCM). Described are the lines of investigations on new techniques of cutting out prepreg and processings polymeric material of the Nomex type with the use of the energy of ultrasonic waves. ...

  2. Method and Tool for Design Process Navigation and Automatic Generation of Simulation Models for Manufacturing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masaru; Kubota, Fumiko; Inamori, Yutaka; Mitsuyuki, Keiji

    Manufacturing system designers should concentrate on designing and planning manufacturing systems instead of spending their efforts on creating the simulation models to verify the design. This paper proposes a method and its tool to navigate the designers through the engineering process and generate the simulation model automatically from the design results. The design agent also supports collaborative design projects among different companies or divisions with distributed engineering and distributed simulation techniques. The idea was implemented and applied to a factory planning process.

  3. An Open Source-Based Real-Time Data Processing Architecture Framework for Manufacturing Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syafrudin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the manufacturing industry is experiencing a data-driven revolution. There are multiple processes in the manufacturing industry and will eventually generate a large amount of data. Collecting, analyzing and storing a large amount of data are one of key elements of the smart manufacturing industry. To ensure that all processes within the manufacturing industry are functioning smoothly, the big data processing is needed. Thus, in this study an open source-based real-time data processing (OSRDP architecture framework was proposed. OSRDP architecture framework consists of several open sources technologies, including Apache Kafka, Apache Storm and NoSQL MongoDB that are effective and cost efficient for real-time data processing. Several experiments and impact analysis for manufacturing sustainability are provided. The results showed that the proposed system is capable of processing a massive sensor data efficiently when the number of sensors data and devices increases. In addition, the data mining based on Random Forest is presented to predict the quality of products given the sensor data as the input. The Random Forest successfully classifies the defect and non-defect products, and generates high accuracy compared to other data mining algorithms. This study is expected to support the management in their decision-making for product quality inspection and support manufacturing sustainability.

  4. Low energy production processes in manufacturing of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Ion implantation and pulsed energy techniques are being combined for fabrication of silicon solar cells totally under vacuum and at room temperature. Simplified sequences allow very short processing times with small process energy consumption. Economic projections for fully automated production are excellent.

  5. Evaluating the Sustainability of Manufacturing: Process and Life Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Circular Economy is a popular term in environmental studies, but methods are needed to quickly and accurately evaluate recycling opportunities rather than assuming that recycling is appropriate. Through the study of recycling processes (i.e., processes that turn wastes into ...

  6. Choices of capture chromatography technology in antibody manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLeo, Michael; Ley, Arthur; Nixon, Andrew E; Chen, Jie

    2017-11-15

    The capture process employed in monoclonal antibody downstream purification is not only the most critically impacted process by increased antibody titer resulting from optimized mammalian cell culture expression systems, but also the most important purification step in determining overall process throughput, product quality, and economics. Advances in separation technology for capturing antibodies from complex feedstocks have been one focus of downstream purification process innovation for past 10 years. In this study, we evaluated new generation chromatography resins used in the antibody capture process including Protein A, cation exchange, and mixed mode chromatography to address the benefits and unique challenges posed by each chromatography approach. Our results demonstrate the benefit of improved binding capacity of new generation Protein A resins, address the concern of high concentration surge caused aggregation when using new generation cation exchange resins with over 100mg/mL binding capacity, and highlight the potential of multimodal cation exchange resins for capture process design. The new landscape of capture chromatography technologies provides options to achieve overall downstream purification outcome with high product quality and process efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and Optimization of Sheet Hydroforming Process for Manufacturing Oil tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, C.; Narasimhan, K.

    2005-01-01

    The need for reduction of weight is an important issue in sheet metal forming industry. The hydroforming process has become an effective manufacturing process, as it can be adapted for the manufacturing of complex structural components with high structural stiffness. The process parameters and material properties are important factors that influence the quality of final product. In this paper, an optimized window of process parameters is obtained for successful sheet hydroforming of Oil tank. The simulation of hydroforming process is performed by using a Finite Element Method based Commercial code

  8. The impact of the manufacturing process on the hardness and sensory properties of milk chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of the manufacturing process on the textural characteristics and sensory properties of milk chocolate. The research was conducted on the samples of chocolate produced in a ball mill during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of refining, each of them being pre-crystallized at 26, 28 and 30°C. A chocolate mass of identical ingredient composition was also produced using a standard manufacturing process at the same pre-crystallization temperatures. Chocolate hardness was examined using a piece of equipment called Texture Analyser, measuring the stress intensity which leads to chocolate crushing. Sensory analysis was performed using the point scoring method. The new manufacturing process, i.e. the manufacturing of chocolate in a ball mill improves sensory properties and hardness of milk chocolate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  9. Business process integration between European manufacturers and transport and logistics service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole; Lemoine, W

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the Supply Chain Management process is to create value for customers, stakeholders and all supply chain members, through the integration of disparate processes like manufacturing flow management, customer service and order fulfillment. However, many firms fail in the path of achieving...... a total integration. This study illustrates, from an empirical point of view, the problems associated to SC integration among European firms operating in global/international markets. The focus is on the relationship between two echelons in the supply chain: manufacturers and their transport and logistics...... service providers (TLSPs). The paper examines (1) the characteristics of the collaborative partnerships established between manufacturers and their TLSPs; (2) to what extent manufacturers and their TLSPs have integrated SC business processes; (3) the IT used to support the SC cooperation and integration...

  10. Pellet manufacturing by extrusion-spheronization using process analytical technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Heinämäki, Jyrki

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phase transitions occurring in nitrofurantoin and theophylline formulations during pelletization by extrusion-spheronization. An at-line process analytical technology (PAT) approach was used to increase the understanding of the solid-state behavior...... of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) during pelletization. Raman spectroscopy, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used in the characterization of polymorphic changes during the process. Samples were collected at the end of each processing stage (blending......, granulation, extrusion, spheronization, and drying). Batches were dried at 3 temperature levels (60 degrees C, 100 degrees C, and 135 degrees C). Water induced a hydrate formation in both model formulations during processing. NIR spectroscopy gave valuable real-time data about the state of water in the system...

  11. A manufacturable process integration approach for graphene devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Sam; Lupina, Grzegorz; Paussa, Alan; Smith, Anderson D.; Henkel, Christoph; Lippert, Gunther; Dabrowski, Jarek; Mehr, Wolfgang; Östling, Mikael; Lemme, Max C.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we propose an integration approach for double gate graphene field effect transistors. The approach includes a number of process steps that are key for future integration of graphene in microelectronics: bottom gates with ultra-thin (2 nm) high-quality thermally grown SiO2 dielectrics, shallow trench isolation between devices and atomic layer deposited Al2O3 top gate dielectrics. The complete process flow is demonstrated with fully functional GFET transistors and can be extended to wafer scale processing. We assess, through simulation, the effects of the quantum capacitance and band bending in the silicon substrate on the effective electric fields in the top and bottom gate oxide. The proposed process technology is suitable for other graphene-based devices such as graphene-based hot electron transistors and photodetectors.

  12. Manufacturing process of rewritable CD and DVD; Kakikae gata CD, DVD no seizo process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, M. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-05

    Development of rewritable DVD is desired which has feedback compatibility with the existing players and ROM drives. The DVD is formed on a substrate with a thickness of 0.6 mm (dummy plate), and is composed of the multilayer film, i.e., protective coating made of UV hardening resin, reflective layer, dielectric protective layer, phase change type recording layer, and polycarbonate layer from the lower in order. A pair of dummy plates are pasted to enhance the mechanical strength, which has the same thickness of 1.2 mm as CD. Since the grooves and prepits are very fine, injection molding is more difficult compared with CD. Since a great stress change occurs during the formation and initialization processes of multilayer of phase change recording medium layer which is particular to DVD manufacturing process, control of warping is significant. Control of warping of the substrate is also significant, which affects the pasting and the whole process. The recording layer, dielectric protective layer and reflective layer are formed by the discharge spattering. The initialization is a particular process to the phase change medium. Complete non-recording state can be obtained by crystallizing the amorphous recording layer after the film formation. 3 figs.

  13. Automated defect spatial signature analysis for semiconductor manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Gleason, Shaun S.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for performing automated defect spatial signature alysis on a data set representing defect coordinates and wafer processing information includes categorizing data from the data set into a plurality of high level categories, classifying the categorized data contained in each high level category into user-labeled signature events, and correlating the categorized, classified signature events to a present or incipient anomalous process condition.

  14. Proposal of a Modelling of the Innovation Process in an International Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Lacom

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, to cope with the competition, and to ensure the durability of their activities, companies have to be able to innovate. Manufacturing companies operating in a B2B market often perceive innovation as a technological result. However, innovation is often more characterized as a process. The needs of the users, and not only the technology, can achieve innovation. In this context, our paper intends to determine how to involve better the users in the innovation process of an international manufacturing company, which is, according to us, representative of the current manufacturing companies. The aim of our research paper is to help manufacturing companies to manage innovation led by users, and to implement their innovation process so that they will be able to set up specific tools for each action of the process. The study proposes a diagram-based language Structured Analysis and Design Technique (SADT that is based on the normative guide FD X50-271 of the French national organization for standardization (AFNOR. The SADT model we propose usefully complements this guide, to make the innovation process more understandable, practical and operational, for manufacturing companies, which are often helpless when faced with the subject. A critical analysis of the model we propose completed in a manufacturing company through semi-structured interviews of the innovation team and questionnaire for all the employees shows the application of the model in the company.

  15. Defect recognition in CFRP components using various NDT methods within a smart manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, David; Meyendorf, Norbert; Hakim, Issa; Ewert, Uwe

    2018-04-01

    The manufacturing process of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) components is gaining a more and more significant role when looking at the increasing amount of CFRPs used in industries today. The monitoring of the manufacturing process and hence the reliability of the manufactured products, is one of the major challenges we need to face in the near future. Common defects which arise during manufacturing process are e.g. porosity and voids which may lead to delaminations during operation and under load. To find irregularities and classify them as possible defects in an early stage of the manufacturing process is of high importance for the safety and reliability of the finished products, as well as of significant impact from an economical point of view. In this study we compare various NDT methods which were applied to similar CFRP laminate samples in order to detect and characterize regions of defective volume. Besides ultrasound, thermography and eddy current, different X-ray methods like radiography, laminography and computed tomography are used to investigate the samples. These methods are compared with the intention to evaluate their capability to reliably detect and characterize defective volume. Beyond the detection and evaluation of defects, we also investigate possibilities to combine various NDT methods within a smart manufacturing process in which the decision which method shall be applied is inherent within the process. Is it possible to design an in-line or at-line testing process which can recognize defects reliably and reduce testing time and costs? This study aims to show up opportunities of designing a smart NDT process synchronized to the production based on the concepts of smart production (Industry 4.0). A set of defective CFRP laminate samples and different NDT methods were used to demonstrate how effective defects are recognized and how communication between interconnected NDT sensors and the manufacturing process could be organized.

  16. CFD model of laser additive manufacturing process of cylinders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tamsaout, T

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available of the molten pool. An important accumulation of heat in the already deposited part during the filling stage was observed, which can be attributed to the continuous nature of the process. Finally, the calculations of thermal cycles and heating/cooling rates...-axial powder supply are the controlled heating of the powder before it enters the melt pool, and higher powder efficiency [1], [2], [3]. In this process, a laser beam is directed on to a metallic substrate surface to create a moving melt pool and, using a co...

  17. Statistics to the Rescue!: Using Data to Evaluate a Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keithley, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    The use of statistics and process controls is too often overlooked in educating students. This article describes an activity appropriate for high school students who have a background in material processing. It gives them a chance to advance their knowledge by determining whether or not a manufacturing process works well. The activity follows a…

  18. PLYMAP : a computer simulation model of the rotary peeled softwood plywood manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Spelter

    1990-01-01

    This report documents a simulation model of the plywood manufacturing process. Its purpose is to enable a user to make quick estimates of the economic impact of a particular process change within a mill. The program was designed to simulate the processing of plywood within a relatively simplified mill design. Within that limitation, however, it allows a wide range of...

  19. 78 FR 5496 - Certain Paper Shredders, Certain Processes for Manufacturing or Relating to Same and Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-863] Certain Paper Shredders, Certain Processes... importation of certain paper shredders, certain processes for manufacturing or relating to same and certain... the sale within the United States after importation of certain paper shredders, certain processes for...

  20. An Integrated Environment for Batch Process Development - From Recipe to Manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batch process development involves the process of converting a chemical synthesis into an optimum, safe, robust, and economical process for manufacturing the chemical of desired quality at the ultimate desired scale. In this paper we describe a strategy for developing a set of integrated decision...

  1. Organic Foods manufacturing and Processing: The New Way of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Jalan, Vishal

    2007-01-01

    Organic is the fastest growing sector of the food industry with global sales approaching US $40 billion in 2006. Growing health-consciousness among consumers globally has resulted in high demand for Fresh and more importantly Processed Organic Food. This value-addition can generate large number of jobs in rural areas in India and Africa.

  2. A Perspective on Smart Process Manufacturing Research Challenges for Process Systems Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian David Lockhart Bogle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenges posed by smart manufacturing for the process industries and for process systems engineering (PSE researchers are discussed in this article. Much progress has been made in achieving plant- and site-wide optimization, but benchmarking would give greater confidence. Technical challenges confronting process systems engineers in developing enabling tools and techniques are discussed regarding flexibility and uncertainty, responsiveness and agility, robustness and security, the prediction of mixture properties and function, and new modeling and mathematics paradigms. Exploiting intelligence from big data to drive agility will require tackling new challenges, such as how to ensure the consistency and confidentiality of data through long and complex supply chains. Modeling challenges also exist, and involve ensuring that all key aspects are properly modeled, particularly where health, safety, and environmental concerns require accurate predictions of small but critical amounts at specific locations. Environmental concerns will require us to keep a closer track on all molecular species so that they are optimally used to create sustainable solutions. Disruptive business models may result, particularly from new personalized products, but that is difficult to predict.

  3. Global Production Planning Process considering the Supply Risk of Overseas Manufacturing Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosang Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although global manufacturers can produce most of their final products in local plants, they need to source components or parts from desirable overseas manufacturing partners at low cost in order to fulfill customer orders. In this global manufacturing environment, capacity information for planning is usually imprecise owing to the various risks of overseas plants (e.g., foreign governments’ policies and labor stability. It is therefore not easy for decision-makers to generate a global production plan showing the production amounts at local plants and overseas manufacturing facilities operated by manufacturing partners. In this paper, we present a new global production planning process considering the supply risk of overseas manufacturing sites. First, local experts estimate the supply capacity of an overseas plant using their judgment to determine when the risk could occur and how large the risk impact would be. Next, we run a global production planning model with the estimated supply capacities. The proposed process systematically adopts the qualitative judgments of local experts in the global production planning process and thus can provide companies with a realistic global production plan. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed process with a real world case.

  4. Manufacturing process and electrode properties of palladium-electroded ionic polymer–metal composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Longfei; Chen, Hualing; Zhu, Zicai; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper primarily focuses on the manufacturing process of palladium-electroded ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC). First, according to the special properties of Pd, many experiments were done to determine several specific procedures, including the addition of a reducing agent and the time consumed. Subsequently, the effects of the core manufacturing steps on the electrode morphology were revealed by scanning electron microscopy studies of 22 IPMC samples treated with different combinations of manufacturing steps. Finally, the effects of electrode characteristics on the electromechanical properties, including the sheet resistivity, the elastic modulus and the electro-active performance, of IPMCs were evaluated experimentally and analyzed according to the electrode morphology. (paper)

  5. Multivariate modelling of the tablet manufacturing process with wet granulation for tablet optimization and in-process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A; Coenegracht, P.M J; Lerk, C.F

    1997-01-01

    The process of tablet manufacturing with granulation is described as a two-step process. The first step comprises wet granulation of the powder mixture, and in the second step the granules are compressed into tablets. For the modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting,

  6. Patterns of order processing : a study of the formalization of the ordering process in order-driven manufacturing companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Geertruida Annigje

    2004-01-01

    It is essential for many order-driven manufacturing companies to be able to respond quickly to changing customer demand. In this respect, the ordering process plays a central role, as coordination between demand and production takes places within this process. The ordering process must contribute to

  7. Dimensional metrology for process and part quality control in micro manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido; Gasparin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available measurement technologies appear not sufficient. New solutions for measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration are necessary if micro......Micro manufacturing has gained interest over the last decade as the demand for micro mechanical components has increased. The need for dimensional metrology at micro scale is evident both in terms of quality assurance of components and products and in terms of process control. As critical...... manufacturing is to develop into industrial manufacturing solutions. In this paper the application of dimensional precision metrology to both component and process quality control will be demonstrated. The parts investigated are micro injection moulded polymer parts, typical for the field of micro manufacturing....

  8. Electrochemical process for the manufacturing of titanium alloy matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Soare

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for precursors’ synthesis of titanium alloys matrix composites through an electrochemical process in molten calcium chloride. The cathode of the cell was made from metallic oxides powders and reinforcement ceramic particles, which were pressed and sintered into disk form and the anode from graphite. The process occurred at 850 °C, in two stages, at 2,7 / 3,2 V: the ionization of the oxygen in oxides and the reduction with calcium formed by electrolysis of calcium oxide fed in the electrolyte. The obtained composite precursors, in a form of metallic sponge, were consolidated by pressing and sintering. Chemical and structural analyses on composites samples were performed.

  9. High-volume manufacturing device overlay process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Woo, Jaeson; Lee, DongYoung; Song, ChangRock; Heo, Hoyoung; Brinster, Irina; Choi, DongSub; Robinson, John C.

    2017-03-01

    Overlay control based on DI metrology of optical targets has been the primary basis for run-to-run process control for many years. In previous work we described a scenario where optical overlay metrology is performed on metrology targets on a high frequency basis including every lot (or most lots) at DI. SEM based FI metrology is performed ondevice in-die as-etched on an infrequent basis. Hybrid control schemes of this type have been in use for many process nodes. What is new is the relative size of the NZO as compared to the overlay spec, and the need to find more comprehensive solutions to characterize and control the size and variability of NZO at the 1x nm node: sampling, modeling, temporal frequency and control aspects, as well as trade-offs between SEM throughput and accuracy.

  10. New model of enterprises resource planning implementation planning process in manufacturing enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Misita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents new model of enterprises resource planning implementation planning process in manufacturing enterprises based on assessment of risk sources. This assessment was performed by applying analytic hierarchy process. Analytic hierarchy process method allows variation of relative importance of specific risk sources dependent on the section from which the risk source originates (organizational environment, technical issues, people issues, adoption process management, and external support. Survey was conducted on 85 manufacturing enterprises involved with an enterprises resource planning solution. Ranking of risk sources assessments returns most frequent risks of enterprises resource planning implementation success in manufacturing enterprises, and representative factors were isolated through factor analysis by risk source origin. Finally, results indicate that there are hidden causes of failed implementation, for example, risk source “top management training and education,” from risk origin “adoption process management.”

  11. Readiness Assessment Towards Smart Manufacturing System for Tuna Processing Industry in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggrahini, D.; Kurniati, N.; Karningsih, P. D.; Parenreng, S. M.; Syahroni, N.

    2018-04-01

    Marine product processing is one of the top priority clusters in the national development. Tuna, as a kind of deep ocean fishes, has the highest number of production that significantly increased throughout the years. Indonesia government encourages tuna processing industry, which are mostly dominated by small to medium enterprises, to grow continuously. Nowadays, manufacturers are facing substantial challenges in adopting modern system and technology that will lead a significant improvement through the internet of things (IoT). A smart factory transform integrated manufacturing process, in a high speed processing to respond customer needs. It has some positive impacts, such as increasing productivity, reducing set up time, shortening marketing and other support activities, hence the process is being more flexible and efficient. To implement smart manufacturing system, factories should know the readiness at any level of them, technology capability and strategy appropriateness. This exploratory study aims to identify the criterias, and develop an assessment tools to measure the level towards smart factory.

  12. Moulded Pulp Manufacturing: Overview and Prospects for the Process Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Saxena, Prateek; Meijer, Ellen Brilhuis

    2017-01-01

    Eco-friendly packaging such as moulded pulp products have gained commercial importance in the recent years. However, it remains a greatly under-researched area, and there is an arising need to consolidate the best practices from research and industry in order to increase its implementation....... Moreover, based on the latest research in the field, an innovative drying technique that utilizes concepts derived from impulse drying is presented, and the implementation of this process technology is discussed....

  13. Tracking the course of the manufacturing process in selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombansen, U.; Gatej, A.; Pereira, M.

    2014-02-01

    An innovative optical train for a selective laser melting based manufacturing system (SLM) has been designed under the objective to track the course of the SLM process. In this, the thermal emission from the melt pool and the geometric properties of the interaction zone are addressed by applying a pyrometer and a camera system respectively. The optical system is designed such that all three radiations from processing laser, thermal emission and camera image are coupled coaxially and that they propagate on the same optical axis. As standard f-theta lenses for high power applications inevitably lead to aberrations and divergent optical axes for increasing deflection angles in combination with multiple wavelengths, a pre-focus system is used to implement a focusing unit which shapes the beam prior to passing the scanner. The sensor system records synchronously the current position of the laser beam, the current emission from the melt pool and an image of the interaction zone. Acquired data of the thermal emission is being visualized after processing which allows an instant evaluation of the course of the process at any position of each layer. As such, it provides a fully detailed history of the product This basic work realizes a first step towards self-optimization of the manufacturing process by providing information about quality relevant events during manufacture. The deviation from the planned course of the manufacturing process to the actual course of the manufacturing process can be used to adapt the manufacturing strategy from one layer to the next. In the current state, the system can be used to facilitate the setup of the manufacturing system as it allows identification of false machine settings without having to analyze the work piece.

  14. Downstream process development in biotechnological itaconic acid manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Antonio Irineudo; de Carvalho, Júlio Cesar; Medina, Jesus David Coral; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Itaconic acid is a promising chemical that has a wide range of applications and can be obtained in large scale using fermentation processes. One of the most important uses of this biomonomer is the environmentally sustainable production of biopolymers. Separation of itaconic acid from the fermented broth has a considerable impact in the total production cost. Therefore, optimization and high efficiency downstream processes are technological challenges to make biorefineries sustainable and economically viable. This review describes the current state of the art in recovery and purification for itaconic acid production via bioprocesses. Previous studies on the separation of itaconic acid relying on operations such as crystallization, precipitation, extraction, electrodialysis, diafiltration, pertraction, and adsorption. Although crystallization is a typical method of itaconic acid separation from fermented broth, other methods such as membrane separation and reactive extraction are promising as a recovery steps coupled to the fermentation, potentially enhancing the overall process yield. Another approach is adsorption in fixed bed columns, which efficiently separates itaconic acid. Despite recent advances in separation and recovery methods, there is still space for improvement in IA recovery and purification.

  15. Thermographic process monitoring in powderbed based additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Harald, E-mail: harald.krauss@iwb.tum.de; Zaeh, Michael F. [AMLab, iwb Application Center Augsburg, Technische Universität München (Germany); Zeugner, Thomas [Augsburg University (Germany)

    2015-03-31

    Selective Laser Melting is utilized to build metallic parts directly from CAD-Data by solidification of thin powder layers through application of a fast scanning laser beam. In this study layerwise monitoring of the temperature distribution is used to gather information about the process stability and the resulting part quality. The heat distribution varies with different kinds of parameters including scan vector length, laser power, layer thickness and inter-part distance in the job layout which in turn influence the resulting part quality. By integration of an off-axis mounted uncooled thermal detector the solidification as well as the layer deposition are monitored and evaluated. Errors in the generation of new powder layers usually result in a locally varying layer thickness that may cause poor part quality. For effect quantification, the locally applied layer thickness is determined by evaluating the heat-up of the newly deposited powder. During the solidification process space and time-resolved data is used to characterize the zone of elevated temperatures and to derive locally varying heat dissipation properties. Potential quality indicators are evaluated and correlated to the resulting part quality: Thermal diffusivity is derived from a simplified heat dissipation model and evaluated for every pixel and cool-down phase of a layer. This allows the quantification of expected material homogeneity properties. Maximum temperature and time above certain temperatures are measured in order to detect hot spots or delamination issues that may cause a process breakdown. Furthermore, a method for quantification of sputter activity is presented. Since high sputter activity indicates unstable melt dynamics this can be used to identify parameter drifts, improper atmospheric conditions or material binding errors. The resulting surface structure after solidification complicates temperature determination on the one hand but enables the detection of potential surface defects

  16. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 1, chapters 1-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Space program scenarios for production of large space structures from lunar materials are defined. The concept of the space manufacturing facility (SMF) is presented. The manufacturing processes and equipment for the SMF are defined and the conceptual layouts are described for the production of solar cells and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, and converters. A 'reference' SMF was designed and its operation requirements are described.

  17. 2nd International Conference on Mechanical, Manufacturing and Process Plant Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents selected papers from the 2nd International Conference on Mechanical, Manufacturing and Process Plant Engineering (ICMMPE 2016) which was held from 23rd to 24th November, 2016 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The proceedings discuss genuine problems of joining technologies that are heart of manufacturing sectors. It discusses the findings of experimental and numerical works from soldering, arc welding to solid state joining technology that faced by current industry. .

  18. Technological and economical assessment of alternative process chains for blisk manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Klocke, Fritz; Schmitt, Robert; Zeis, Markus; Heidemanns, Lukas; Kerkhoff, Johannes; Heinen, Daniel; Klink, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase of blisk (blade integrated disk) demands instead of the conventional fir-tree design in current aero-engine concepts there is a high resource-driven need for a comprehensive evaluation of different process chain alternatives for blisk manufacture. Therefore, in this paper different manufacturing chains consisting of roughing, pre-finishing and finishing/polishing are compared to each other by the example of a HPC-blisk out of Inconel 718. Beside conventional milling and el...

  19. Microstructure devices for process intensification: Influence of manufacturing tolerances and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandner, Juergen J.

    2013-01-01

    Process intensification by miniaturization is a common task for several fields of technology. Starting from manufacturing of electronic devices, miniaturization with the accompanying opportunities and problems gained also interest in chemistry and chemical process engineering. While the integration of enhanced functions, e.g. integrated sensors and actuators, is still under consideration, miniaturization itself has been realized in all material classes, namely metals, ceramics and polymers. First devices have been manufactured by scaling down macro-scale devices. However, manufacturing tolerances, material properties and design show much larger influence to the process than in macro scale. Many of the devices generated alike the macro ones work properly, but possibly could be optimized to a certain extend by adjusting the design and manufacturing tolerances to the special demands of miniaturization. Thus, some considerations on the design and production of devices for micro process engineering should be made to provide devices which show reproducible and controllable process behavior. The aim of the following publication is to show the importance of considerations in manufacturing tolerances and dimensions as well as design of microstructures to avoid negative influences and optimize the process characteristics of miniaturized devices. Some examples will be shown to explain the considerations presented here

  20. Development of a novel cold forging process to manufacture eccentric shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasler, Lukas; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    Since the commercial usage of compact combustion engines, eccentric shafts have been used to transform translational into rotational motion. Over the years, several processes to manufacture these eccentric shafts or crankshafts have been developed. Especially for single-cylinder engines manufactured in small quantities, built crankshafts disclose advantages regarding tooling costs and performance. Those manufacturing processes do have one thing in common: They are all executed at elevated temperatures to enable the material to be formed to high forming degree. In this paper, a newly developed cold forging process is presented, which combines lateral extrusion and shifting for manufacturing a crank in one forming operation at room temperature. In comparison to the established upsetting and shifting methods to manufacture such components, the tool cavity or crank web thickness remains constant. Therefore, the developed new process presented in this paper consists of a combination of shifting and extrusion of the billet, which allows pushing material into the forming zone during shifting. In order to reduce the tensile stresses induced by the shifting process, compressive stresses are superimposed. It is expected that the process limits will be expanded regarding the horizontal displacement and form filling. In the following report, the simulation and design of the tooling concept are presented. Experiments were conducted and compared with corresponding simulation results afterwards.

  1. Statistical process control applied to the manufacturing of beryllia ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, G.P.; Jech, D.E.; Sepulveda, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    To compete effectively in an international market, scrap and re-work costs must be minimized. Statistical Process Control (SPC) provides powerful tools to optimize production performance. These techniques are currently being applied to the forming, metallizing, and brazing of beryllia ceramic components. This paper describes specific examples of applications of SPC to dry-pressing of beryllium oxide 2x2 substrates, to Mo-Mn refractory metallization, and to metallization and brazing of plasma tubes used in lasers where adhesion strength is critical

  2. Manufacturing process modeling for composite materials and structures, Sandia blade reliability collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, Daniel A.; Cairns, Douglas S.

    2014-02-01

    The increased use and interest in wind energy over the last few years has necessitated an increase in the manufacturing of wind turbine blades. This increase in manufacturing has in many ways out stepped the current understanding of not only the materials used but also the manufacturing methods used to construct composite laminates. The goal of this study is to develop a list of process parameters which influence the quality of composite laminates manufactured using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding and to evaluate how they influence laminate quality. Known to be primary factors for the manufacturing process are resin flow rate and vacuum pressure. An incorrect balance of these parameters will often cause porosity or voids in laminates that ultimately degrade the strength of the composite. Fiber waviness has also been seen as a major contributor to failures in wind turbine blades and is often the effect of mishandling during the lay-up process. Based on laboratory tests conducted, a relationship between these parameters and laminate quality has been established which will be a valuable tool in developing best practices and standard procedures for the manufacture of wind turbine blade composites.

  3. The strategic value of industrial radiation manufacturing and processing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappas, W.J.; Silverman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Planned and projected budget cuts over the next many years will reduce the number of Department of Defense (DoD) personnel and the diversity and quantity of their armaments and systems. Consequently, there is a requirement for the deployment of more effective defense equipment and their more efficient operation. Concomitant with this challenge is an opportunity for innovative technologies that can, at a lower cost, produce new, stronger, more durable materials-and do so with less environmental impact. Radiation processing offers this potential for (a) creating significant cost savings and performance advantages in a broad range of defense materials; (b) destroying and detoxifying dangerous chemicals, ordnance, and rocket propellants; (c) cleaning noxious gaseous effluents; and (d) purifying contaminated water. Radiation technology has the potential to immediately affect defense materials and, in the short and long terms, US industrial international competitiveness

  4. A comparison of BPMN 2.0 with other notations for manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Domínguez, A.; Marcos, Mariano; Medina, I.

    2012-04-01

    In order to study their current practices and improve on them, manufacturing firms need to view their processes from several viewpoints at various abstraction levels. Several notations have been developed for this purpose, such as Value Stream Mappings or IDEF models. More recently, the BPMN 2.0 standard from the Object Management Group has been proposed for modeling business processes. A process organizes several activities (manual or automatic) into a single higher-level entity, which can be reused elsewhere in the organization. Its potential for standardizing business interactions is well-known, but there is little work on using BPMN 2.0 to model manufacturing processes. In this work some of the previous notations are outlined and BPMN 2.0 is positioned among them after discussing it in more depth. Some guidelines on using BPMN 2.0 for manufacturing are offered, and its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with the other notations are presented.

  5. Adaptive Process Controls and Ultrasonics for High Temperature PEM MEA Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczyk, Daniel F. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-08-26

    The purpose of this 5-year DOE-sponsored project was to address major process bottlenecks associated with fuel cell manufacturing. New technologies were developed to significantly reduce pressing cycle time for high temperature PEM membrane electrode assembly (MEA) through the use of novel, robust ultrasonic (U/S) bonding processes along with low temperature (<100°C) PEM MEAs. In addition, greater manufacturing uniformity and performance was achieved through (a) an investigation into the causes of excessive variation in ultrasonically and thermally bonded MEAs using more diagnostics applied during the entire fabrication and cell build process, and (b) development of rapid, yet simple quality control measurement techniques for use by industry.

  6. The manufacture process and properties of (U, Gd)O2 burnable poisonous fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Wei; Tang Yueming; Dai Shengping; Yang Youqing; Zuo Guoping; Wu Shihong; Gu Xiaofei; Gu Mingfei

    2006-03-01

    The main properties of important raw powder materials used in the (U, Gd)O 2 burnable poisonous fuel pellets production line of NPIC are presented. The powders included UO 2 , Gd 2 O 3 , (U, Gd) 3 O 8 and necessary additives, such as ammonium oxalate and zinc stearate. And the main properties of (U, Gd)O 2 burnable poisonous fuel pellets and the manufacture processes, such as ball-milling blending, granulation, pressing, sintering and grinding are also described. Moreover, the main effect of the process parameters controlled in the manufacture process have been discussed. (authors)

  7. Development strategy and process models for phased automation of design and digital manufacturing electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Petrushevskaya, A. A.; Lipatnikov, V. A.; Smirnova, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The strategy of quality of electronics insurance is represented as most important. To provide quality, the processes sequence is considered and modeled by Markov chain. The improvement is distinguished by simple database means of design for manufacturing for future step-by-step development. Phased automation of design and digital manufacturing electronics is supposed. The MatLab modelling results showed effectiveness increase. New tools and software should be more effective. The primary digital model is proposed to represent product in the processes sequence from several processes till the whole life circle.

  8. Supply chain risk management processes for resilience: A study of South African grocery manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Simba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The supply chain risk management (SCRM process is aimed at the implementation of strategies that assist in managing both daily and exceptional risks facing the supply chain through continuous risk assessment to reduce vulnerability and ensure continuity. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the SCRM process enables supply chain resilience among grocery manufacturers in South Africa. The fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG-manufacturing industry faces increased risk because of the nature of their products being perishable with a limited shelf life. Method: This study was conducted using a descriptive qualitative research design. Data were collected by means of 12 semi-structured interviews with senior supply chain practitioners within the South African grocery manufacturing industry. Findings: The study found that most firms informally implement SCRM processes of risk identification, assessment, mitigation and monitoring to mitigate disruptions. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the SCRM processes facilitate resilience among grocery manufacturers in South Africa. Conclusion: The managerial implications show that supply chain managers of grocery manufacturers should formalise the SCRM process and develop risk assessment scales to better prioritise risks in order to run a resilient supply chain. The research contributes to the supply chain management field by adding to the scarce literature relating to SCRM as an enabler of supply chain resilience in a South African context.

  9. Novel fermentation processes for manufacturing plant natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Microbial production of plant natural products (PNPs), such as terpenoids, flavonoids from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. Rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of microorganisms shows many advantages to replace the current extraction of these useful high price chemicals from plants. Although few of them were actually applied on a large scale for PNPs production, continuous research on these high-price chemicals and the rapid growing global market of them, show the promising future for the production of these PNPs by microorganisms with a more economic and environmental friendly way. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of the native cellular processes by metabolic engineering of microorganisms for PNPs production are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of PNPs. Besides, factors restricting the yield improvement and application of lab-scale achievements to industrial applications have also been discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  11. Good manufacturing practices (GMP utilized on human blood irradiation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Boghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation of human blood is used to avoid the TA-GVHD (transfusion-associated graft-versus-host-disease, a rare but devastating adverse effect of leukocytes present in blood components for immunocompetent transfusion recipients. Usually this irradiation practice is performed to a physical elimination of lymphocytes. The implementation of the GMP will assure that the properly dose in a range of 25Gy to 50Gy will be delivered to the blood in the bag collected in a blood tissue bank. The studies to establish the GMP were developed under the guidelines of the standard ISO 11137 - Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. In this work, two dosimetric systems were used for dose mapping during the studies of irradiator qualification, loading pattern, irradiation process validation and auditing. The CaSO4: Dy dosimeter presented difficulties concerning to uncertainty on dose measurement, stability, trace ability and calibration system. The PMMA and gafchromic dosimetric systems have shown a better performance and were adopted on establishment of GMP procedures. The irradiation tests have been done using a Gammacell 220 Irradiator. The developed GMP can be adapted for different types of gamma irradiators, allowing to set up a quality assurance program for blood irradiation.

  12. Manufacturing work and organizational stresses in export processing zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2009-10-01

    In the light of global industrialization, much attention has been focused on occupational factors and their influence on the health and welfare of workers. This was a cross sectional study using stratified sampling technique based on industry sizes. The study sampled 24 industries, 6 were small scale industries and 9 each for medium and large scale industries. From the 24 industries, a total of 500 respondents for the questionnaire was taken. For occupational health and safety standards that industries have to comply with, there was low compliance among small-scale industries relative to the medium and large scale industries. Only one industry had an air cleaning device for cleaning contaminated air prior to emission into the external community. Among the 500 respondents, majority were female (88.8%), single (69.6%) and worked in the production or assembly-line station (87.4%). Sickness absenteeism was relative high among the workers in this study accounting for almost 54% among females and 48% among males. Many of the workers also reported of poor performance at work, boredom, tardiness and absenteeism. For association between work factors and personal factors, the following were found to be statistically significant at p=0.05. Boredom was associated with lack of skills training, lack of promotion, disincentives for sick leaves, poor relationship with boss and poor relationships with employers. On the other hand, poor performance was also associated with lack of skills training, lack of promotions, job insecurity, and poor relationship with employers. From the data generated, important issues that must be dealt with in work organizations include the quality of work life, and health and safety issues. Based on these findings, we can conclude that there are still issues on occupational health and safety (OHS) in the target site of export processing zones in the Philippines. There must be an active campaign for OHS in industries that are produce for the global market

  13. The transformation factor: a measure for the productive behaviour of a manufacturing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ron, de A.J.

    1993-01-01

    By using advanced manufacturing processes, production results should increase. Nevertheless managers have their doubts to invest in such processes because of the financial risks and the absence of adequate technical and economical measures which should support their decisions. Measures which contain

  14. Process Development for the Design and Manufacturing of Personalizable Mouth Sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Veronika M; Pölzer, Stephan; Nussbaum, Gerhard; Ernst, Waltraud; Major, Zoltan

    2017-01-01

    To increase the independence of people with reduced hand/arm functionality, a process to generate personalizable mouth sticks was developed based on the participatory design principle. In a web tool, anybody can choose the geometry and the materials of their mouth piece, stick and tip. Manufacturing techniques (e.g. 3D printing) and materials used in the process are discussed and evaluated.

  15. High performance poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) composite parts fabricated using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Kishore, Vidya [ORNL; Chen, Xun [ORNL; Ajinjeru, Christine [ORNL; Duty, Chad [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hassen, Ahmed A [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.

  16. Novel Complexity Indicator of Manufacturing Process Chains and Its Relations to Indirect Complexity Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Modrak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing systems can be considered as a network of machines/workstations, where parts are produced in flow shop or job shop environment, respectively. Such network of machines/workstations can be depicted as a graph, with machines as nodes and material flow between the nodes as links. The aim of this paper is to use sequences of operations and machine network to measure static complexity of manufacturing processes. In this order existing approaches to measure the static complexity of manufacturing systems are analyzed and subsequently compared. For this purpose, analyzed competitive complexity indicators were tested on two different manufacturing layout examples. A subsequent analysis showed relevant potential of the proposed method.

  17. Raman spectroscopy as a process analytical technology for pharmaceutical manufacturing and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A; Cuellar, Maryann; Uerpmann, Carsten; Lenain, Bruno; Lewis, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    Adoption of Quality by Design (QbD) principles, regulatory support of QbD, process analytical technology (PAT), and continuous manufacturing are major factors effecting new approaches to pharmaceutical manufacturing and bioprocessing. In this review, we highlight new technology developments, data analysis models, and applications of Raman spectroscopy, which have expanded the scope of Raman spectroscopy as a process analytical technology. Emerging technologies such as transmission and enhanced reflection Raman, and new approaches to using available technologies, expand the scope of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical manufacturing, and now Raman spectroscopy is successfully integrated into real-time release testing, continuous manufacturing, and statistical process control. Since the last major review of Raman as a pharmaceutical PAT in 2010, many new Raman applications in bioprocessing have emerged. Exciting reports of in situ Raman spectroscopy in bioprocesses complement a growing scientific field of biological and biomedical Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy has made a positive impact as a process analytical and control tool for pharmaceutical manufacturing and bioprocessing, with demonstrated scientific and financial benefits throughout a product's lifecycle.

  18. Development of manufacturing process for production of 500 MWe calandria sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariharan, R.; Ramesh, P.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Bhaskara Rao, C.V.; Pande, P.; Agarwala, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    Calandria tubes made of zircaloy-2 are being used as structural components in pressurised heavy water power reactors. The sheets required for producing calandria tube for 235 MWe reactors are being manufactured at Zircaloy Fabrication Plant (ZFP), NFC utilizing a 2 Hi/4 Hi rolling mill procured for the purpose, by carrying out cold rolling process to achieve the required size after hot rolling suitable extruded slabs. Due to limitation of width of the sheet that can be rolled with the mill as well as the size of the slab that can be extruded with the existing press, difficulties arose in producing acceptable full length sheets of size 6600 mm long x 435 mm wide x 1.6 mm thick for manufacturing 500 MWe calandria tube. This paper deals with the details of the process problem resolved. They are: (a)designing of suitable hot and cold rolling pass schedules, (b)selection and standardization of process parameters such as beta quenching, hot rolling and cold rolling, and (c)details of the overall manufacturing process. Due to implementation of above, sheets required for manufacturing 500 MWe calandria tube sheets were successfully rolled. About 40 nos. of acceptable full length sheets have already been manufactured. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Fit of single tooth zirconia copings: comparison between various manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenade, Charlotte; Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2011-04-01

    Various CAD/CAM processes are commercially available to manufacture zirconia copings. Comparative data on their performance in terms of fit are needed. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the internal and marginal fit of single tooth zirconia copings manufactured with a CAD/CAM process (Procera; Nobel Biocare) and a mechanized manufacturing process (Ceramill; Amann Girrbach). Abutments (n=20) prepared in vivo for ceramic crowns served as a template for manufacturing both Procera and Ceramill zirconia copings. Copings were manufactured and cemented (Clearfil Esthetic Cement; Kuraray) on epoxy replicas of stone cast abutments. Specimens were sectioned. Nine measurements were performed for each coping. Over- and under-extended margins were evaluated. Comparisons between the 2 processes were performed with a generalized linear mixed model (α=.05). Internal gap values between Procera and Ceramill groups were not significantly different (P=.13). The mean marginal gap (SD) for Procera copings (51(50) μm) was significantly smaller than for Ceramill (81(66) μm) (P<.005). The percentages of over- and under-extended margins were 43% and 57% for Procera respectively, and 71% and 29% for Ceramill. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the marginal fit of Procera copings was significantly better than that of Ceramill copings. Furthermore, Procera copings showed a smaller percentage of over-extended margins than did Ceramill copings. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of LCA for modelling sustainability and environmental impact of manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culaba, A; Purvis, M [Portsmouth Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Most industries rely significantly on natural resources for raw materials and energy requirements. As a consequence of manufacturing activities, various pollutants are generated in the process. While effects on the environment can be detrimental, wastes and emissions account for a high percentage loss in the overall material balance. Unless these unnecessary losses are minimized and recovered, the environment would continue to be disadvantaged and long-term supply of raw materials and energy would likewise be affected. The key to the analysis of such problems concerns generalised procedures for the modelling of the sustainable use of resources in manufacturing processes and the development of associated sustainability criteria. This requires identifying the various aspects of manufacturing from the time the raw materials are extracted until they have been processed into products and then used or consumed and finally disposed of. The use of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology encompasses these analyses and that of the identification of environmental effects associated with every stage of the manufacturing process. The presentation concludes that LCA is a very useful and effective tool in providing planners, legislator and decision-makers with the necessary information on the probable impacts of manufacture on the environment as well as underlying legislation, ecological, health standards and emission limits. (author)

  1. The use of LCA for modelling sustainability and environmental impact of manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culaba, A.; Purvis, M. [Portsmouth Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Most industries rely significantly on natural resources for raw materials and energy requirements. As a consequence of manufacturing activities, various pollutants are generated in the process. While effects on the environment can be detrimental, wastes and emissions account for a high percentage loss in the overall material balance. Unless these unnecessary losses are minimized and recovered, the environment would continue to be disadvantaged and long-term supply of raw materials and energy would likewise be affected. The key to the analysis of such problems concerns generalised procedures for the modelling of the sustainable use of resources in manufacturing processes and the development of associated sustainability criteria. This requires identifying the various aspects of manufacturing from the time the raw materials are extracted until they have been processed into products and then used or consumed and finally disposed of. The use of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology encompasses these analyses and that of the identification of environmental effects associated with every stage of the manufacturing process. The presentation concludes that LCA is a very useful and effective tool in providing planners, legislator and decision-makers with the necessary information on the probable impacts of manufacture on the environment as well as underlying legislation, ecological, health standards and emission limits. (author)

  2. Process Intensification Tools in the Small‐Scale Pharmaceutical Manufacturing of Small Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2015-01-01

    of processes are in a state of change. However, it is important to note that not all processes can be intensified easily, such as slow chemical reactions, processes with solids, slurries, and on the like. This review summarizes applications of promising tools for achieving process intensification in the small......‐scale pharmaceutical manufacturing of so‐called small molecules. The focus is on microwave radiation, microreactors, ultrasounds, and meso‐scale tubular reactors....

  3. Method for distributed agent-based non-expert simulation of manufacturing process behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2004-11-30

    A method for distributed agent based non-expert simulation of manufacturing process behavior on a single-processor computer comprises the steps of: object modeling a manufacturing technique having a plurality of processes; associating a distributed agent with each the process; and, programming each the agent to respond to discrete events corresponding to the manufacturing technique, wherein each discrete event triggers a programmed response. The method can further comprise the step of transmitting the discrete events to each agent in a message loop. In addition, the programming step comprises the step of conditioning each agent to respond to a discrete event selected from the group consisting of a clock tick message, a resources received message, and a request for output production message.

  4. Quantifying the robustness of process manufacturing concept – A medical product case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Troldtoft, M.E.; Eifler, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Product robustness refers to the consistency of performance of all of the units produced. It is often the case that process manufactured products are not designed concurrently, so by the end of the product design phase the Process Manufacturing Concept (PMC) has yet to be decided. Allocating...... the unit-to-unit robustness of an early-stage for a PMC is proposed. The method uses variability and adjustability information from the manufacturing concept in combination with sensitivity information from products' design to predict its functional performance variation. A Technology maturation factor...... process capable tolerances to the product during the design phase is therefore not possible. The robustness of the concept (how capable it is to achieve the product specification), only becomes clear at this late stage and thus after testing and iteration. In this article, a method for calculating...

  5. Introduction to powder metallurgy processes for titanium manufacturing; Introduccion al procesado pulvimetalurgico del titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, P. G.; Bolzoni, L.; Ruiz-Navas, E. M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-07-01

    The development of new extraction processes to produce titanium in powder form leads Powder Metallurgy to an advantage position among the manufacturing processes for titanium. The cost reduction of base material, coupled with the economy of the powder metallurgy processes, give titanium industry the chance to diversify its products, which could lead to production volumes able to stabilise the price of the metal. This work reviews some of the Powder Metallurgy techniques for the manufacturing of titanium parts, and describes the two typical approaches for titanium manufacturing: Blending Elemental and Prealloyed Powders. Among others, conventional pressing and sintering are described, which are compared with cold and hot isostatic pressing techniques. Real and potential applications are described. (Author) 71 refs.

  6. Advanced Bio-Based Nanocomposites and Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Stephen Matthew

    The aim of the PhD thesis concerns with the modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via esterification or a radical grafting "from" approach to achieve polymeric nanocomposites of exceptional properties (Chapters 1 to 4). In addition to CNCs modification, other green routes have been introduced in this thesis in order to environmentally friendly polyester-based materials, i.e. Chapters five and six. The second chapter focuses on expanding on a one-pot cellulose acid hydrolysis/Fischer esterification to produce highly compatible CNCs without any organic solvent. It consists of modifying CNCs with acetic- and lactic- acid and exploring how such surface chemistry has an effect of dispersion in the case of polylactide (PLA)-based nanocomposites. The degree of substitution for AA-CNCs and LA-CNCs, determined by FTIR, are 0.12 and 0.13, respectively. PLA-based materials represent the best bioplastics relating to its high stiffness and biodegradability, but suffer from its poor thermal performances, namely its Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT). To improve the HDT of PLA, nanocomposites have been therefore prepared with modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by melt blending. After blending at 5 wt-% loading of CNCs, LA-CNCs gives superior reinforcement below and above the glass temperature of PLA. An increase in PLA's heat deflection temperature by 10°C and 20°C is achieved by melt-blending PLA with 5 and 20 wt-% LA-CNCs, respectively. Chapter three concerns with expanding this process to a series of hydrophilic and hydrophobic acids yielding functional CNCs for electronic and biomedical applications. Hydrophilic acids include citric-, malonic- and malic acid. Modification with the abovementioned organic acids allows for the introduction of free acids onto the surface of CNCs. Modification with citric-, malonic- and malic- acid is verified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 13C solid state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments. The degree of

  7. Manufacturing process for cylindrical ceramic tubes with localized imprints and device for application of this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This invention involves a process for manufacturing permeable cylindrical ceramic tubes with localized relief such as annular, spiral or simple coiled or double crossed coils or even stipple imprints on their internal face. It is known that one of the techniques for the separation of the mixture of gases with close molecular masses is gaseous diffusion. According to this technique, the gas mixture is circulated under pressure inside tubes constituted by a microporous wall. These tubes, according to a known technique, are constituted by a macroporous ceramic tube, generally called a support, covered on the inside with a microporous layer deposited on this interior wall. The unit constituted by the tube itself or the ''support'' and the microporous layer makes it possible to adapt the total porosity of the covered tube or ''barrier'' in order to obtain an optimal coefficient of gas separation. This technique is used specifically for separation of two gases corresponding to various isotopes of the same simple body. 6 figs

  8. Study on Manufacturing Process of Hollow Main Shaft by Open Die Forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Chul; Kang, Jong Hun; Kim, Sang Sik

    2016-01-01

    The main shaft is one of the key components connecting the rotor hub and gear box of a wind power generator. Typically, main shafts are manufactured by open die forging method. However, the main shaft for large MW class wind generators is designed to be hollow in order to reduce the weight. Additionally, the main shafts are manufactured by a casting process. This study aims to develop a manufacturing process for hollow main shafts by the open die forging method. The design of a forging process for a solid main shaft and hollow shaft was prepared by an open die forging process design scheme. Finite element analyses were performed to obtain the flow stress by a hot compression test at different temperature and strain rates. The control parameters of each forging process, such as temperature and effective strain, were obtained and compared to predict the suitability of the hollow main shaft forging process. Finally, high productivity reflecting material utilization ratio, internal quality, shape, and dimension was verified by the prototypes manufactured by the proposed forging process for hollow main shafts

  9. Study on Manufacturing Process of Hollow Main Shaft by Open Die Forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yong Chul [Gyeongnam Technopark, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong Hun [Jungwon Univ., Goisan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Sik [Gyeongsang Natiional Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The main shaft is one of the key components connecting the rotor hub and gear box of a wind power generator. Typically, main shafts are manufactured by open die forging method. However, the main shaft for large MW class wind generators is designed to be hollow in order to reduce the weight. Additionally, the main shafts are manufactured by a casting process. This study aims to develop a manufacturing process for hollow main shafts by the open die forging method. The design of a forging process for a solid main shaft and hollow shaft was prepared by an open die forging process design scheme. Finite element analyses were performed to obtain the flow stress by a hot compression test at different temperature and strain rates. The control parameters of each forging process, such as temperature and effective strain, were obtained and compared to predict the suitability of the hollow main shaft forging process. Finally, high productivity reflecting material utilization ratio, internal quality, shape, and dimension was verified by the prototypes manufactured by the proposed forging process for hollow main shafts.

  10. Simulation of textile manufacturing processes for planning, scheduling, and quality control purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, A. E.; Wang, Z.

    1995-08-01

    Simulation, as a management information tool, has been applied to engineering manufacture and assembly operations. The application of the principles to textile manufacturing (fiber to fabric) is discussed. The particular problems and solutions in applying the simulation software package to the yarn production processes are discussed with an indication of how the software achieves the production schedule. The system appears to have application in planning, scheduling, and quality assurance. The latter being a result of the traceability possibilities through a process involving mixing and splitting of material.

  11. Drug-printing by flexographic printing technology--a new manufacturing process for orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva Maria; Schliephacke, Ralf; Breitenbach, Armin; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2013-01-30

    Orodispersible films (ODFs) are intended to disintegrate within seconds when placed onto the tongue. The common way of manufacturing is the solvent casting method. Flexographic printing on drug-free ODFs is introduced as a highly flexible and cost-effective alternative manufacturing method in this study. Rasagiline mesylate and tadalafil were used as model drugs. Printing of rasagiline solutions and tadalafil suspensions was feasible. Up to four printing cycles were performed. The possibility to employ several printing cycles enables a continuous, highly flexible manufacturing process, for example for individualised medicine. The obtained ODFs were characterised regarding their mechanical properties, their disintegration time, API crystallinity and homogeneity. Rasagiline mesylate did not recrystallise after the printing process. Relevant film properties were not affected by printing. Results were comparable to the results of ODFs manufactured with the common solvent casting technique, but the APIs are less stressed through mixing, solvent evaporation and heat. Further, loss of material due to cutting jumbo and daughter rolls can be reduced. Therefore, a versatile new manufacturing technology particularly for processing high-potent low-dose or heat sensitive drugs is introduced in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Additive Manufacturing Processes: Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Binder Jetting—Selection Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda Gokuldoss, Prashanth; Kolla, Sri; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing or rapid prototyping, is gaining increasing attention due to its ability to produce parts with added functionality and increased complexities in geometrical design, on top of the fact that it is theoretically possible to produce any shape without limitations. However, most of the research on additive manufacturing techniques are focused on the development of materials/process parameters/products design with different additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser melting, electron beam melting, or binder jetting. However, we do not have any guidelines that discuss the selection of the most suitable additive manufacturing process, depending on the material to be processed, the complexity of the parts to be produced, or the design considerations. Considering the very fact that no reports deal with this process selection, the present manuscript aims to discuss the different selection criteria that are to be considered, in order to select the best AM process (binder jetting/selective laser melting/electron beam melting) for fabricating a specific component with a defined set of material properties. PMID:28773031

  13. Additive Manufacturing Processes: Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Binder Jetting-Selection Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokuldoss, Prashanth Konda; Kolla, Sri; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-06-19

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing or rapid prototyping, is gaining increasing attention due to its ability to produce parts with added functionality and increased complexities in geometrical design, on top of the fact that it is theoretically possible to produce any shape without limitations. However, most of the research on additive manufacturing techniques are focused on the development of materials/process parameters/products design with different additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser melting, electron beam melting, or binder jetting. However, we do not have any guidelines that discuss the selection of the most suitable additive manufacturing process, depending on the material to be processed, the complexity of the parts to be produced, or the design considerations. Considering the very fact that no reports deal with this process selection, the present manuscript aims to discuss the different selection criteria that are to be considered, in order to select the best AM process (binder jetting/selective laser melting/electron beam melting) for fabricating a specific component with a defined set of material properties.

  14. Process development for green part printing using binder jetting additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Orth, Morgan; Akbar, Junaid Muhammad; Yang, Li

    2018-05-01

    Originally developed decades ago, the binder jetting additive manufacturing (BJ-AM) process possesses various advantages compared to other additive manufacturing (AM) technologies such as broad material compatibility and technological expandability. However, the adoption of BJ-AM has been limited by the lack of knowledge with the fundamental understanding of the process principles and characteristics, as well as the relatively few systematic design guideline that are available. In this work, the process design considerations for BJ-AM in green part fabrication were discussed in detail in order to provide a comprehensive perspective of the design for additive manufacturing for the process. Various process factors, including binder saturation, in-process drying, powder spreading, powder feedstock characteristics, binder characteristics and post-process curing, could significantly affect the printing quality of the green parts such as geometrical accuracy and part integrity. For powder feedstock with low flowability, even though process parameters could be optimized to partially offset the printing feasibility issue, the qualities of the green parts will be intrinsically limited due to the existence of large internal voids that are inaccessible to the binder. In addition, during the process development, the balanced combination between the saturation level and in-process drying is of critical importance in the quality control of the green parts.

  15. Fundamental Theories and Key Technologies for Smart and Optimal Manufacturing in the Process Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the significant requirements for transforming and promoting the process industry, we present the major limitations of current petrochemical enterprises, including limitations in decision-making, production operation, efficiency and security, information integration, and so forth. To promote a vision of the process industry with efficient, green, and smart production, modern information technology should be utilized throughout the entire optimization process for production, management, and marketing. To focus on smart equipment in manufacturing processes, as well as on the adaptive intelligent optimization of the manufacturing process, operating mode, and supply chain management, we put forward several key scientific problems in engineering in a demand-driven and application-oriented manner, namely: ① intelligent sensing and integration of all process information, including production and management information; ② collaborative decision-making in the supply chain, industry chain, and value chain, driven by knowledge; ③ cooperative control and optimization of plant-wide production processes via human-cyber-physical interaction; and ④ life-cycle assessments for safety and environmental footprint monitoring, in addition to tracing analysis and risk control. In order to solve these limitations and core scientific problems, we further present fundamental theories and key technologies for smart and optimal manufacturing in the process industry. Although this paper discusses the process industry in China, the conclusions in this paper can be extended to the process industry around the world.

  16. Structural and morphological approach of Co-Cr dental alloys processed by alternative manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porojan, Sorin; Bîrdeanu, Mihaela; Savencu, Cristina; Porojan, Liliana

    2017-08-01

    The integration of digitalized processing technologies in traditional dental restorations manufacturing is an emerging application. The objective of this study was to identify the different structural and morphological characteristics of Co-Cr dental alloys processed by alternative manufacturing techniques in order to understand the influence of microstructure on restorations properties and their clinical behavior. Metallic specimens made of Co-Cr dental alloys were prepared using traditional casting (CST), and computerized milling (MIL), selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM). The structural information of the samples was obtained by X-ray diffraction, the morphology and the topography of the samples were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscope. Given that the microstructure was significantly different, further differences in the clinical behavior of prosthetic restorations manufactured using additive techniques are anticipated.

  17. Flow Characteristics of a Thermoset Fiber Composite Photopolymer Resin in a Vat Polymerization Additive Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Spangenberg, Jon; Pedersen, David B.

    Additive manufacturing vat polymerization has become a leading technology and gained a massive amount of attention in industrial applications such as injection molding inserts. By the use of the thermoset polymerization process inserts have increased their market share. For most industrial...... understood. Research indicates an orientation within the manufacturing layer and efforts have been made to achieve a more uniform orientation within the part. A vat polymerization machine consisting of a resin vat and a moving build plate has been simulated using the fluid flow module of Comsol Multiphysics...... photopolymer resin. The prediction can be used to identify potential clusters or misalignment of fibers and in the future allow for optimization of the machine design and manufacturing process....

  18. Toward industrialization: Supporting the manufacturing processes of superconducting cavities at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Dammann, J.A.; Hagge, L.; Iversen, J.; Matheisen, A.; Singer, W.

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing high-gradient superconducting cavities for future accelerators requires detailed knowledge of the entire production process. This knowledge has to be transferred from the laboratories, which are developing the process, to industry in order to achieve reproducible results in the industrial production of large numbers of cavities. The paper introduces DESY's approach to process industrialization based on the use of an engineering data management system (EDMS)

  19. Physical evaluations of Co-Cr-Mo parts processed using different additive manufacturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Saiful Anwar Che; Mohamed, Siti Rohaida; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan; Noar, Nor Aida Zuraimi Md

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, additive manufacturing with highly design customization has gained an important technique for fabrication in aerospace and medical fields. Despite the ability of the process to produce complex components with highly controlled architecture geometrical features, maintaining the part's accuracy, ability to fabricate fully functional high density components and inferior surfaces quality are the major obstacles in producing final parts using additive manufacturing for any selected application. This study aims to evaluate the physical properties of cobalt chrome molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloys parts fabricated by different additive manufacturing techniques. The full dense Co-Cr-Mo parts were produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) with default process parameters. The density and relative density of samples were calculated using Archimedes' principle while the surface roughness on the top and side surface was measured using surface profiler. The roughness average (Ra) for top surface for SLM produced parts is 3.4 µm while 2.83 µm for DMLS produced parts. The Ra for side surfaces for SLM produced parts is 4.57 µm while 9.0 µm for DMLS produced parts. The higher Ra values on side surfaces compared to the top faces for both manufacturing techniques was due to the balling effect phenomenon. The yield relative density for both Co-Cr-Mo parts produced by SLM and DMLS are 99.3%. Higher energy density has influence the higher density of produced samples by SLM and DMLS processes. The findings of this work demonstrated that SLM and DMLS process with default process parameters have effectively produced full dense parts of Co-Cr-Mo with high density, good agreement of geometrical accuracy and better surface finish. Despite of both manufacturing process yield that produced components with higher density, the current finding shows that SLM technique could produce components with smoother surface quality compared to DMLS

  20. Simulation based energy-resource efficient manufacturing integrated with in-process virtual management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchasuwanmanee, Kanet; Cheng, Kai; Bateman, Richard

    2016-09-01

    As energy efficiency is one of the key essentials towards sustainability, the development of an energy-resource efficient manufacturing system is among the great challenges facing the current industry. Meanwhile, the availability of advanced technological innovation has created more complex manufacturing systems that involve a large variety of processes and machines serving different functions. To extend the limited knowledge on energy-efficient scheduling, the research presented in this paper attempts to model the production schedule at an operation process by considering the balance of energy consumption reduction in production, production work flow (productivity) and quality. An innovative systematic approach to manufacturing energy-resource efficiency is proposed with the virtual simulation as a predictive modelling enabler, which provides real-time manufacturing monitoring, virtual displays and decision-makings and consequentially an analytical and multidimensional correlation analysis on interdependent relationships among energy consumption, work flow and quality errors. The regression analysis results demonstrate positive relationships between the work flow and quality errors and the work flow and energy consumption. When production scheduling is controlled through optimization of work flow, quality errors and overall energy consumption, the energy-resource efficiency can be achieved in the production. Together, this proposed multidimensional modelling and analysis approach provides optimal conditions for the production scheduling at the manufacturing system by taking account of production quality, energy consumption and resource efficiency, which can lead to the key competitive advantages and sustainability of the system operations in the industry.

  1. Tolerance analysis in manufacturing using process capability ratio with measurement uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Mansourvar, Zahra; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    . In this paper, a new statistical analysis was applied to manufactured products to assess achieved tolerances when the process is known while using capability ratio and expanded uncertainty. The analysis has benefits for process planning, determining actual precision limits, process optimization, troubleshoot......Tolerance analysis provides valuable information regarding performance of manufacturing process. It allows determining the maximum possible variation of a quality feature in production. Previous researches have focused on application of tolerance analysis to the design of mechanical assemblies...... malfunctioning existing part. The capability measure is based on a number of measurements performed on part’s quality variable. Since the ratio relies on measurements, elimination of any possible error has notable negative impact on results. Therefore, measurement uncertainty was used in combination with process...

  2. Technological review of the HRP manufacturing process R and D activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visca, Eliseo; Pizzuto, A.; Gavila, P.; Riccardi, B.; Roccella, S.; Candura, D.; Sanguinetti, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • R and D activities for the manufacturing of ITER divertor high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC). • ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components. • Successful manufacturing by HRP (hot radial pressing) and PBC (pre-brazed casting) of both W and CFC armoured small and medium scale mockups. • ENEA-ANSALDO participate to the European programme for the qualification of the manufacturing technology for the ITER divertor IVT. • A qualification divertor inner vertical target prototype successfully tested at ITER relevant thermal heat fluxes. -- Abstract: ENEA and Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. have been deeply involved in the European International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) R and D activities for the manufacturing of high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC), and in particular for the inner vertical target (IVT) of the ITER divertor. This component has to be manufactured by using both armour and structural materials whose properties are defined by ITER. Their physical properties prevent the use of standard joining techniques. The reference armour materials are tungsten and carbon/carbon fibre composite (CFC). The cooling pipe is made of copper alloy (CuCrZr-IG). During the last years ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components of different length, geometry and materials, by using innovative processes: HRP (hot radial pressing) and PBC (pre-brazed casting). The history of the technical issues solved during the R and D phase and the improvements implemented to the assembling tools and equipments are reviewed in the paper together with the testing results. The optimization of the processes started from the successful manufacturing of both W and CFC armoured small scale mockups thermal fatigue tested in the worst ITER operating condition (20 MW/m 2 ) through the achievement of record

  3. Technological review of the HRP manufacturing process R and D activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visca, Eliseo, E-mail: eliseo.visca@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Italy); Pizzuto, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Italy); Gavila, P.; Riccardi, B. [Fusion For Energy, C. Josep Pla 2, ES-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Roccella, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Italy); Candura, D.; Sanguinetti, G.P. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16121 Genova (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • R and D activities for the manufacturing of ITER divertor high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC). • ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components. • Successful manufacturing by HRP (hot radial pressing) and PBC (pre-brazed casting) of both W and CFC armoured small and medium scale mockups. • ENEA-ANSALDO participate to the European programme for the qualification of the manufacturing technology for the ITER divertor IVT. • A qualification divertor inner vertical target prototype successfully tested at ITER relevant thermal heat fluxes. -- Abstract: ENEA and Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. have been deeply involved in the European International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) R and D activities for the manufacturing of high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC), and in particular for the inner vertical target (IVT) of the ITER divertor. This component has to be manufactured by using both armour and structural materials whose properties are defined by ITER. Their physical properties prevent the use of standard joining techniques. The reference armour materials are tungsten and carbon/carbon fibre composite (CFC). The cooling pipe is made of copper alloy (CuCrZr-IG). During the last years ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components of different length, geometry and materials, by using innovative processes: HRP (hot radial pressing) and PBC (pre-brazed casting). The history of the technical issues solved during the R and D phase and the improvements implemented to the assembling tools and equipments are reviewed in the paper together with the testing results. The optimization of the processes started from the successful manufacturing of both W and CFC armoured small scale mockups thermal fatigue tested in the worst ITER operating condition (20 MW/m{sup 2}) through the achievement of record

  4. Corrosion and Creep Characteristics of the HANA-4 Alloy with the various Manufacturing Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Gil; Choi, Byung-Kwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Jeong, Yong-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium alloys have been used as a fuel cladding material for several decades, since these alloys have revealed a good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties in reactor operating conditions. The development of an advanced Zr-based alloy with an improved corrosion and creep resistance is necessary for the high burn-up operating conditions in PWRs. The alloying element effects of the Nb, Sn, Fe, Cr, Cu etc as well as an optimization of the manufacturing processes such as the reduction ratio and annealing temperatures have been studied to improve the corrosion and creep properties. A high Nb-containing Zr-based alloy named HANA-4 was designed at KAERI and its nominal composition is Zr-1.5Nb-0.4Sn-0.2Fe-0.1Cr in wt.%. For high Nb-containing Zr alloys, their corrosion resistance is very sensitive to their microstructural characteristics which are determined by a manufacturing process. In order to obtain the best manufacturing process for the HANA-4 alloy, various evaluations such as corrosion and creep tests, a microstructural analysis, and a texture analysis were performed on the HANA-4 alloy with various manufacturing processes

  5. Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Industrial Technologies Program

    2011-01-05

    This brochure describes the 31 R&D projects that AMO supports to accelerate the commercial manufacture and use of nanomaterials for enhanced energy efficiency. These cost-shared projects seek to exploit the unique properties of nanomaterials to improve the functionality of industrial processes and products.

  6. Decision-making of selectable process plans based on petri net with manufacturing constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Weiyue; Jones, Richard William; Yu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Computer-Aided process planning and decision making for manufacturing systems is a critical subject, that some might argue, has not received the attention it should have from the research community. Despite the progress made in the area of artificial intelligence, there has not been a...

  7. Biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite scaffolds processed by lithography-based additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesavibul, Passakorn; Chantaweroad, Surapol; Laohaprapanon, Apinya; Channasanon, Somruethai; Uppanan, Paweena; Tanodekaew, Siriporn; Chalermkarnnon, Prasert; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications by using lithography-based additive manufacturing techniques has been introduced due to the abilities to control porous structures with suitable resolutions. In this research, the use of hydroxyapatite cellular structures, which are processed by lithography-based additive manufacturing machine, as a bone tissue engineering scaffold was investigated. The utilization of digital light processing system for additive manufacturing machine in laboratory scale was performed in order to fabricate the hydroxyapatite scaffold, of which biocompatibilities were eventually evaluated by direct contact and cell-culturing tests. In addition, the density and compressive strength of the scaffolds were also characterized. The results show that the hydroxyapatite scaffold at 77% of porosity with 91% of theoretical density and 0.36 MPa of the compressive strength are able to be processed. In comparison with a conventionally sintered hydroxyapatite, the scaffold did not present any cytotoxic signs while the viability of cells at 95.1% was reported. After 14 days of cell-culturing tests, the scaffold was able to be attached by pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) leading to cell proliferation and differentiation. The hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone tissue engineering was able to be processed by the lithography-based additive manufacturing machine while the biocompatibilities were also confirmed.

  8. Unveiling the fungal mycobiota present throughout the cork stopper manufacturing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barreto, M.C.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.; Brito, D.; Gadanho, M.; San Romão, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    A particular fungal population is present in the main stages of the manufacturing process of cork discs. Its diversity was studied using both dependent (isolation) and independent culture methods (denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and cloning of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region). The mycobiota in the

  9. Primary Manufacturing Processes for Fiber Reinforced Composites: History, Development & Future Research Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapan Bhatt, Alpa; Gohil, Piyush P.; Chaudhary, Vijaykumar

    2018-03-01

    Composite Materials are becoming more popular gradually replacing traditional material with extra strength, lighter weight and superior property. The world is exploring use of fiber reinforced composites in all application which includes air, land and water transport, construction industry, toys, instrumentation, medicine and the list is endless. Based on application and reinforcement used, there are many ways to manufactures parts with fiber reinforced composites. In this paper various manufacturing processes have been discussed at length, to make fiber reinforced composites components. The authors have endeavored to include all the processes available recently in composite industry. Paper first highlights history of fiber reinforced composites manufacturing, and then the comparison of different manufacturing process to build composites have been discussed, to give clear understanding on, which process should be selected, based on reinforcement, matrix and application. All though, there are several advantages to use such fiber reinforcement composites, still industries have not grown at par and there is a lot of scope to improve these industries. At last, where India stands today, what are the challenges in market has been highlighted and future market and research trend of exploring such composite industries have been discussed. This work is carried out as a part of research project sanctioned by GUJCOST, Gandhinagar.

  10. Selection of Prediction Methods for Thermophysical Properties for Process Modeling and Product Design of Biodiesel Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Yung-Chieh; Liu, Y. A.; Díaz Tovar, Carlos Axel

    2011-01-01

    To optimize biodiesel manufacturing, many reported studies have built simulation models to quantify the relationship between operating conditions and process performance. For mass and energy balance simulations, it is essential to know the four fundamental thermophysical properties of the feed oil...... prediction methods on our group Web site (www.design.che.vt.edu) for the reader to download without charge....

  11. Towards an integration of process planning and production planning and control for flexible manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalman, GJC; Slomp, J; Suresh, NC

    This introduction article attempts to present some major issues relating to the integration of process planning and production planning and control (PPC) for flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs). It shows that the performance of an FMS can be significantly improved and FMS capabilities more

  12. Interrelation of chemistry and process design in biodiesel manufacturing by heterogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimian, A.C.; Srokol, Z.W.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M.C.; Rothenberg, G.

    2010-01-01

    The pros and cons of using heterogeneous catalysis for biodiesel manufacturing are introduced, and explained from a chemistry and engineering viewpoint. Transesterification reactions of various feed types are then compared in batch and continuous process operation modes. The results show that the

  13. Process validation for the manufacturing of Tc-99m generator at Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Rehir Dahlan; Wan Anuar Wan Awang; Zakaria Ibrahim; Shaaban Kassim; Wan Firdaus Wan Ishak; Nelly Bo Nai Lee; Noraisyah Yusof; Siti Selina Abdul Hamid; Ng Yen; Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Muhammad Hanafi Mohamad Mokhtar; Azahari Kasbollah; Abd Jalil Abd Hamid; Yahya Talib; Shafii Khamis; Zulkifli Mohamed Hashim

    2007-01-01

    Process validation provides the best platform in identifying potential problems in the actual radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing work. The purpose of this paper is to present experience in performing process validation for the manufacturing of Tc-99m generator at Nuclear Malaysia. Process validation for the manufacturing of Tc-99m generator was done by performing four try runs, between October 2006 to April 2007. It was done using saline instead of the actual product. Each try run took four days to complete. On day 1, clean room was cleaned and disinfected. On day 2, activity of washing and sterilization of utensils, columns, rubber stoppers and aluminium caps was carried out. On day 3, preparation of white top, alumina packed column and mixing solutions was performed. Apparatus was also sent for sterilizing test. On day 4, the actual production day of the try run by impregnating column with sterile saline was performed. Prior to the manufacturing activities, particle counts measurement and area clearance were performed to ensure that the temperature and humidity of the clean room are suitable for the production work. Settle plates were placed at the identified positions including in the Hot Cell. Personnel's finger print was performed before and after production work by using touch plates. After completion of try run, elution from the generators that been manufactured, settle and touch plates were sent to quality control unit for the microbiological test. It took fourteen days to get the test results. The first try run was failed, which may be due to insufficient of proper arrangement/preparation of work. It may also due to problem of cleaning/disinfection of clean room, which may not be done properly. The further three consecutive try runs meet all the specifications including the sterility test, endotoxin test and finger prints. It shows that the manufacturing of Tc-99m generator at Nuclear Malaysia is validated and ready for the active run. (Author)

  14. Process for the manufacture of a stabilized filament superconductor with a high proportion of stabilising material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, R.; Hillmann, H.; Breuer, W.

    1987-01-01

    In order to manufacture superconductors with a high proportion of stabilising material, a compound body is first formed and is formed by extrusion and drawing to reduce its crossection. This compound body is then introduced into a sheath tube to increase the proportion of stabilising material and is formed to its final dimensions by further drawing processes. Tearing of the superconducting filaments is prevented by sufficient stabilising material (e.g. copper here) being introduced in the central area of the compound body. The filament superconductors can be manufactured at a reasonable price with a high proportion of stabilising material. (orig.) [de

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  16. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing.

  17. Conventional and Innovative Processing of Milk for Yogurt Manufacture; Development of Texture and Flavor: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Sfakianakis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk and yogurt are important elements of the human diet, due to their high nutritional value and their appealing sensory properties. During milk processing (homogenization, pasteurization and further yogurt manufacture (fermentation physicochemical changes occur that affect the flavor and texture of these products while the development of standardized processes contributes to the development of desirable textural and flavor characteristics. The processes that take place during milk processing and yogurt manufacture with conventional industrial methods, as well as with innovative methods currently proposed (ultra-high pressure, ultrasound, microfluidization, pulsed electric fields, and their effect on the texture and flavor of the final conventional or probiotic/prebiotic products will be presented in this review.

  18. Conventional and Innovative Processing of Milk for Yogurt Manufacture; Development of Texture and Flavor: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakianakis, Panagiotis; Tzia, Constatnina

    2014-01-01

    Milk and yogurt are important elements of the human diet, due to their high nutritional value and their appealing sensory properties. During milk processing (homogenization, pasteurization) and further yogurt manufacture (fermentation) physicochemical changes occur that affect the flavor and texture of these products while the development of standardized processes contributes to the development of desirable textural and flavor characteristics. The processes that take place during milk processing and yogurt manufacture with conventional industrial methods, as well as with innovative methods currently proposed (ultra-high pressure, ultrasound, microfluidization, pulsed electric fields), and their effect on the texture and flavor of the final conventional or probiotic/prebiotic products will be presented in this review. PMID:28234312

  19. Process and quality control in manufacturing of nuclear fuel assemblies of LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, M.; Hoff, A.; Reimann, P.

    2000-01-01

    Manufacturing of nuclear fuel assemblies requires a multitude of different process and quality methods to assure and maintain a high quality level. In recent years methods have been applied which prevent deviations rather than detect deviant products. This paper gives an example on how to control a complex manufacturing process by using a small number of key parameters and second, it demonstrates the importance of graphical data evaluation and presentation methods. In the past many product and product characteristics were inspected m comparison with specification limits only. However, todays methods allow the early identification of trends, increase of variation, shifts disturbances etc. before the product characteristics exceed the specification limits. These methods are process control charts, x-y-plots, boxplots, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), process capability numbers and others. This paper demonstrates the beneficial use of some of the methods by presenting selected examples applied at Advanced Nuclear Fuels GmbH (ANF). (author)

  20. Radiation technology in finishing process improves health, safety and environment (HSE) in the furniture manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Shakri Mat Seman

    1999-01-01

    In furniture manufacturing, processes like cross cutting, molding, planning, shaping, turning, assembling and finishing are involved. The most significant types of negative impact of these processes are such as dust emission, noise, hazardous work, health risk, emission of organic solvent, toxic chemicals emission and chemical waste. In the finishing process, a number of negative effects that will cause health, safety and environmental (HSE) performance. This article highlights the environmental problems in the furniture finishing processes and how the radiation technology can reduce these negative impacts. The drawbacks that hamper the manufacturers from adopting this technology are also discussed. The objective of the paper is to create the awareness among the industrialist and consumers on the HSE hazardous in furniture finishing and steps can be taken to improve

  1. Application of a B ampersand W developed computer aided pictorial process planning system to CQMS for manufacturing process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, D.C.; VandeBogart, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W) will utilize its internally developed Computer Aided Pictorial Process Planning or CAPPP (pronounced open-quotes cap cubedclose quotes) system to create a paperless manufacturing environment for the Collider Quadruple Magnets (CQM). The CAPPP system consists of networked personal computer hardware and software used to: (1) generate and maintain the documents necessary for product fabrication, (2) communicate the information contained in these documents to the production floor, and (3) obtain quality assurance and manufacturing feedback information from the production floor. The purpose of this paper is to describe the various components of the CAPPP system and explain their applicability to product fabrication, specifically quality assurance functions

  2. DETERMINING THE NEED FOR ZERO SERIES EXECUTION IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN THE TEXTILE GARMENT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Ioan Pave

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the industrial production requires the application of some transformation procedures on the material resources, so that a clothing product comes out with optimal use value in terms of maximum economic efficiency, one of the main influencial factors is the quality of the products. To make manufacturing processes more efficient, it is necessary to carry out the zero series in order to ensure the quality of the technological processes, as well as to prevent some design deficiencies. Among the main operations undertaken to ensure the quality of the zero series, we mention: creating the conditions for launch, tracking and finalizing the accompanying production documents under similar series production conditions; zero-series producers are usually the same workers who make up the series production line; equipping with the appropriate equipment and providing with necessary devices in order to create the technical conditions for the execution of the zero series; providing technical assistance in relation to manufacturing and control documentation for eliminating the design deficiencies. This paper presents the architecture of the zero series execution in manufacturing processes in the textile garment industry. The information obtained from the zero-series analysis is directed to the technical support, for possible corrections of the patterns according to which the products were manufactured.

  3. Delivering Value In A Global Aerospace Manufacturer Through The Effective Use Of Numerical Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. J.; Walløe, S. J.

    2004-06-01

    Numerical models are used extensively in the aerospace sector to identify appropriate manufacturing parameters, and to minimize the risk associated with new product introduction and manufacturing change. This usage is equally prevalent in original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and in their supply chains. The wide range of manufacturing processes and production environments involved, coupled with the varying degrees of technology maturity associated with numerical models of different processes leads to a situation of significant complexity from the OEM perspective. In addition, the intended use of simulation technology can vary considerably between applications, from simple geometric assessment of die shape at one extreme, to full process design or development at the other. Consequently there is an increasing trend towards multi-scale modelling, i.e. the use of several different model types, with differing attributes in terms of accuracy and speed to support a range of different new product introduction decisions. This makes the allocation of appropriate levels of activity to the research and implementation of new capabilities a difficult problem. This paper uses a number of industrial cases studies to illustrate a framework for making such allocation decisions such that value to the OEM is maximized, and investigates how such a framework is likely to shift over the next few years based on technological developments.

  4. Effect of manufacturing process sequence on the corrosion resistance characteristics of coated metallic bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, Ender; Cora, Ömer Necati; Koç, Muammer

    2014-01-01

    Metallic bipolar plate (BPP) with high corrosion and low contact resistance, durability, strength, low cost, volume, and weight requirements is one of the critical parts of the PEMFC. This study is dedicated to understand the effect of the process sequence (manufacturing then coating vs. coating then manufacturing) on the corrosion resistance of coated metallic bipolar plates. To this goal, three different PVD coatings (titanium nitride (TiN), chromium nitride (CrN), zirconium nitride (ZrN)), with three thicknesses, (0.1, 0.5, 1 μm) were applied on BPPs made of 316L stainless steel alloy before and after two types of manufacturing (i.e., stamping or hydroforming). Corrosion test results indicated that ZrN coating exhibited the best corrosion protection while the performance of TiN coating was the lowest among the tested coatings and thicknesses. For most of the cases tested, in which coating was applied before manufacturing, occurrence of corrosion was found to be more profound than the case where coating was applied after manufacturing. Increasing the coating thickness was found to improve the corrosion resistance. It was also revealed that hydroformed BPPs performed slightly better than stamped BPPs in terms of the corrosion behavior.

  5. Flow Characteristics of a Thermoset Fiber Composite Photopolymer Resin in a Vat Polymerization Additive Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Spangenberg, Jon; Pedersen, David B.

    Additive manufacturing vat polymerization has become a leading technology and gained a massive amount of attention in industrial applications such as injection molding inserts. By the use of the thermoset polymerization process inserts have increased their market share. For most industrial...... applications, strength and stiffness are crucial factors to a successful implementation of cured photopolymer thermosets. Hence, fiber-reinforced polymers have recently been introduced. The behavior and especially orientation of fibers during the vat photopolymerization process has yet not been fully...

  6. Application of Lean Focus onManufacturing Process : A Case Study of an American Furniture Company

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, QIAN; ZHOU, BOWEN

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: To improvement the target company’s manufacturing process by applyinglean principles, including using and analyzing the internal value stream mapping. Asmore and more companies have paid attention to implement lean thinking in theirmanufacturing process, the value stream mapping played an important role for manycompanies to make a transition from their traditional production systems to lean systems.The content and resources of this master thesis come from an American furnitureco...

  7. Manufacturing process used to produce long-acting recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Justin; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Selvitelli, Keith; Lu, Qi; Zhang, Mingxuan; Mei, Baisong; Peters, Robert; Pierce, Glenn F; Dumont, Jennifer; Raso, Stephen; Reichert, Heidi

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) is a long-acting coagulation factor approved for the treatment of hemophilia A. Here, the rFVIIIFc manufacturing process and results of studies evaluating product quality and the capacity of the process to remove potential impurities and viruses are described. This manufacturing process utilized readily transferable and scalable unit operations and employed multi-step purification and viral clearance processing, including a novel affinity chromatography adsorbent and a 15 nm pore size virus removal nanofilter. A cell line derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293H cells was used to produce rFVIIIFc. Validation studies evaluated identity, purity, activity, and safety. Process-related impurity clearance and viral clearance spiking studies demonstrate robust and reproducible removal of impurities and viruses, with total viral clearance >8-15 log10 for four model viruses (xenotropic murine leukemia virus, mice minute virus, reovirus type 3, and suid herpes virus 1). Terminal galactose-α-1,3-galactose and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, two non-human glycans, were undetectable in rFVIIIFc. Biochemical and in vitro biological analyses confirmed the purity, activity, and consistency of rFVIIIFc. In conclusion, this manufacturing process produces a highly pure product free of viruses, impurities, and non-human glycan structures, with scale capabilities to ensure a consistent and adequate supply of rFVIIIFc. Copyright © 2015 Biogen. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. PROCESS PERFORMANCE EVALUATION USING HISTOGRAM AND TAGUCHI TECHNIQUE IN LOCK MANUFACTURING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Berhane

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Process capability analysis is a vital part of an overall quality improvement program. It is a technique that has application in many segments of the product cycle, including product and process design, vendor sourcing, production or manufacturing planning, and manufacturing. Frequently, a process capability study involves observing a quality characteristic of the product. Since this information usually pertains to the product rather than the process, this analysis should strictly speaking be called a product analysis study. A true process capability study in this context would involve collecting data that relates to process parameters so that remedial actions can be identified on a timely basis. The present study attempts to analyze performance of drilling, pressing, and reaming operations carried out for the manufacturing of two major lock components viz. handle and lever plate, at Gaurav International, Aligarh (India. The data collected for depth of hole on handle, central hole diameter, and key hole diameter are used to construct histogram. Next, the information available in frequency distribution table, the process mean, process capability from calculations and specification limits provided by the manufacturing concern are used with Taguchi technique. The data obtained from histogram and Taguchi technique combined are used to evaluate the performance of the manufacturing process. Results of this study indicated that the performance of all the processes used to produce depth of hole on handle, key hole diameter, and central hole diameter are potentially incapable as the process capability indices are found to be 0.54, 0.54 and 0.76 respectively. The number of nonconforming parts expressed in terms of parts per million (ppm that have fallen out of the specification limits are found to be 140000, 26666.66, and 146666.66 for depth of hole on handle, central hole diameter, and key hole diameter respectively. As a result, the total loss incurred

  9. Effects of Processing Conditions During Manufacture on Retronasal-Aroma Compounds from a Milk Coffee Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Michio; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hirano, Yuta; Miyazi, Kazuhiro; Kono, Masaya; Imayoshi, Yuriko; Iwabuchi, Hisakatsu; Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    To develop a ready-to-drink (RTD) milk coffee retaining the original coffee flavor, the effects of processing conditions during manufacture on retronasal-arma (RA) compounds from the milk coffee were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an RA simulator (RAS). Thirteen of 46 detected compounds in the RAS effluent (RAS compounds) decreased significantly following pH adjustment of coffee (from pH 5.1 to 6.8) and 5 compounds increased. RAS compounds from coffee tended to decrease through the pH adjustment and subsequent sterilization. Significantly higher amounts of 13 RAS compounds were released from the milk coffee produced using a blending-after-sterilization (BAS) process without the pH adjustment than from that using a blending-before-sterilization (BBS) process with the pH adjustment. In BAS-processed milk coffee, significantly lower amounts of 8 high-volatility compounds and 1H-pyrrole were released from coffee containing infusion-sterilized (INF) milk than from coffee containing plate-sterilized (PLT) milk, whereas 3 low-volatility compounds were released significantly more from coffee using PLT milk. Principal component analysis revealed that the effect of the manufacturing process (BAS, BBS, or homemade (blending unsterilized coffee without pH adjustment with sterilized milk)) on milk coffee volatiles was larger than that of the sterilization method (INF or PLT) for milk, and that the sterilization method could result in different RAS volatile characteristics in BAS and homemade processes. In conclusion, a BAS process was found to be superior to a BBS process for the manufacture of an RTD milk coffee that retains volatile characteristics similar to that of a homemade milk coffee. Ready-to-drink (RTD) milk coffee manufactured using the conventional blending-before-sterilization process does not retain its original coffee flavor due to pH adjustment of the coffee during the process. The new blending-after-sterilization (BAS) process

  10. Risks and reliability of manufacturing processes as related to composite materials for spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.

    1995-01-01

    Fabricating primary aircraft and spacecraft structures using advanced composite materials entail both benefits and risks. The benefits come from much improved strength-to-weight ratios and stiffness-to-weight ratios, potential for less part count, ability to tailor properties, chemical and solvent resistance, and superior thermal properties. On the other hand, the risks involved include high material costs, lack of processing experience, expensive labor, poor reproducibility, high toxicity for some composites, and a variety of space induced risks. The purpose of this project is to generate a manufacturing database for a selected number of materials with potential for space applications, and to rely on this database to develop quantitative approaches to screen candidate materials and processes for space applications on the basis of their manufacturing risks including costs. So far, the following materials have been included in the database: epoxies, polycyanates, bismalemides, PMR-15, polyphenylene sulfides, polyetherimides, polyetheretherketone, and aluminum lithium. The first four materials are thermoset composites; the next three are thermoplastic composites, and the last one is is a metal. The emphasis of this database is on factors affecting manufacturing such as cost of raw material, handling aspects which include working life and shelf life of resins, process temperature, chemical/solvent resistance, moisture resistance, damage tolerance, toxicity, outgassing, thermal cycling, and void content, nature or type of process, associate tooling, and in-process quality assurance. Based on industry experience and published literature, a relative ranking was established for each of the factors affecting manufacturing as listed above. Potential applications of this database include the determination of a delta cost factor for specific structures with a given process plan and a general methodology to screen materials and processes for incorporation into the current

  11. Knowledge Assisted Integrated Design of a Component and Its Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautham, B. P.; Kulkarni, Nagesh; Khan, Danish; Zagade, Pramod; Reddy, Sreedhar; Uppaluri, Rohith

    Integrated design of a product and its manufacturing processes would significantly reduce the total cost of the products as well as the cost of its development. However this would only be possible if we have a platform that allows us to link together simulations tools used for product design, performance evaluation and its manufacturing processes in a closed loop. In addition to that having a comprehensive knowledgebase that provides systematic knowledge guided assistance to product or process designers who may not possess in-depth design knowledge or in-depth knowledge of the simulation tools, would significantly speed up the end-to-end design process. In this paper, we propose a process and illustrate a case for achieving an integrated product and manufacturing process design assisted by knowledge support for the user to make decisions at various stages. We take transmission component design as an example. The example illustrates the design of a gear for its geometry, material selection and its manufacturing processes, particularly, carburizing-quenching and tempering, and feeding the material properties predicted during heat treatment into performance estimation in a closed loop. It also identifies and illustrates various decision stages in the integrated life cycle and discusses the use of knowledge engineering tools such as rule-based guidance, to assist the designer make informed decisions. Simulation tools developed on various commercial, open-source platforms as well as in-house tools along with knowledge engineering tools are linked to build a framework with appropriate navigation through user-friendly interfaces. This is illustrated through examples in this paper.

  12. Integration of process-oriented control with systematic inspection in FRAMATOME-FBFC fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopff, G.

    2000-01-01

    The classical approach to quality control is essentially based on final inspection of the product conducted through a qualified process. The main drawback of this approach lies in the separation and , therefore, in the low feedback between manufacturing and quality control, leading to a very static quality system. As a remedy, the modern approach to quality management focuses on the need for continuous improvement through process-oriented quality control. In the classical approach, high reliability of nuclear fuel and high quality level of the main characteristics are assumed to be attained, at the manufacturing step, through 100% inspection of the product, generally with automated inspection equipment. Such a 100% final inspection is not appropriate to obtain a homogeneous product with minimum variability, and cannot be a substitute for the SPC tools (Statistical Process Control) which are rightly designed with this aim. On the other hand, SPC methods, which detect process changes and are used to keep the process u nder control , leading to the optimal distribution of the quality characteristics, do not protect against non systematic or local disturbances, at low frequency. Only systematic control is capable of detecting local quality troubles. In fact, both approaches, SPC and systematic inspection, are complementary , because they are remedies for distinct causes of process and product changes. The term 'statistical' in the expression 'SPC' refers less to the sampling techniques than to the control of global distribution parameters of product or process variables (generally location and dispersion parameters). The successive integration levels of process control methods with systematic inspection are described and illustrated by examples from FRAMATOME-FBFC fuel manufacturing, from the simple control chart for checking the performance stability of automated inspection equipment to the global process control system including systematic inspection. This kind of

  13. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Volume 9: Materials processing and space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat and mass transport in fluids are considered for investigation. The research and development projects include: (1) metallurgical processes, (2) electronic materials, (3) biological applications, and (4)nonmetallic materials and processes. Additional recommendations are provided concerning the allocation of payload space, acceptance of experiments for flight, flight qualification, and private use of the space shuttle.

  14. An assessment of processes for the manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, P J; Gartner, E M

    1980-09-01

    Following the laboratory development of a process for the manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil for use in structural concrete, a technical and economic assessment of possible processing routes is reported. Rotary kilns, multi-hearth furnaces, sinter-strands, shaft kilns and fluidised bed furnaces are considered and capital and running costs for the various processes are estimated. It is concluded that the initial capital costs of plant are the main barrier to successful exploitation. The cost of fuel for sintering is over-shadowed by the costs of capital investment and electric power, so efforts to reduce fuel consumption are unlikely to make a process economic in themselves.

  15. Manufacturability of Wood Plastic Composite Sheets on the Basis of the Post-Processing Cooling Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Matthews

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Extruded wood-plastic composites (WPCs are increasingly regarded as promising materials for future manufacturing industries. It is necessary to select and tune the post-processing methods to be able to utilize these materials fully. In this development, temperature-related material properties and the cooling rate are important indicators. This paper presents the results of natural cooling in a factory environment fit into a cooling curve function with temperature zones for forming, cutting, and packaging overlaid using a WPC material. This information is then used in the evaluation of manufacturability and productivity in terms of cost effectiveness and technical quality by comparing the curve to actual production time data derived from a prototype post-process forming line. Based on this information, speed limits for extrusion are presented. This paper also briefly analyzes techniques for controlling material cooling to counter the heat loss before post-processing.

  16. RIs used in diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine and new manufacturing process of RIs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Although various types of RIs are utilized in the field of nuclear medicine, their stable supply in the future poses anxiety worldwide. Taking up Tc-99m, which is most widely used in diagnosis in nuclear medicine, as an example, this paper introduces the condition to make RIs available in nuclear medicine as well as the worldwide challenge to their stable supply. In the following step, this paper introduces the innovative manufacturing process of RIs that is under development in Japan, in which undermentioned various types of RIs are manufactured in an identical facility (accelerator), although both nuclear reactor and accelerator have been used for manufacturing/supplying various types of RIs up to now: (1) Mo-99 as the parent nuclide of Tc-99m, (2) Cu-67, whose manufacturing process is urgently desired as the RI to enable simultaneous diagnosis and therapy, and (3) Y-90, Cu-64, and Sc-47, which are expected for use in new nuclear medicine based on the creation of new medicines. It also describes the future challenge in Japan to the construction of a prototype accelerator. (A.O.)

  17. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers.

  18. Biomedical Titanium alloy prostheses manufacturing by means of Superplastic and Incremental Forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccininni Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work collects some results of the three-years Research Program “BioForming“, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education (MIUR and aimed to investigate the possibility of using flexible sheet forming processes, i.e. Super Plastic Forming (SPF and Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF, for the manufacturing of patient-oriented titanium prostheses. The prosthetic implants used as case studies were from the skull; in particular, two different Ti alloys and geometries were considered: one to be produced in Ti-Gr23 by SPF and one to be produced in Ti-Gr2 by SPIF. Numerical simulations implementing material behaviours evaluated by characterization tests were conducted in order to design both the manufacturing processes. Subsequently, experimental tests were carried out implementing numerical results in terms of: (i gas pressure profile able to determine a constant (and optimal strain rate during the SPF process; (ii tool path able to avoid rupture during the SPIF process. Post forming characteristics of the prostheses in terms of thickness distributions were measured and compared to data from simulations for validation purposes. A good correlation between numerical and experimental thickness distributions has been obtained; in addition, the possibility of successfully adopting both the SPF and the SPIF processes for the manufacturing of prostheses has been demonstrated.

  19. Manufacturing process scale-up of optical grade transparent spinel ceramic at ArmorLine Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilman, Joseph; Voyles, John; Nick, Joseph; Shaffer, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    While transparent Spinel ceramic's mechanical and optical characteristics are ideal for many Ultraviolet (UV), visible, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR), and multispectral sensor window applications, commercial adoption of the material has been hampered because the material has historically been available in relatively small sizes (one square foot per window or less), low volumes, unreliable supply, and with unreliable quality. Recent efforts, most notably by Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA and T), have scaled-up manufacturing processes and demonstrated the capability to produce larger windows on the order of two square feet, but with limited output not suitable for production type programs. ArmorLine Corporation licensed the hot-pressed Spinel manufacturing know-how of TA and T in 2009 with the goal of building the world's first dedicated full-scale Spinel production facility, enabling the supply of a reliable and sufficient volume of large Transparent Armor and Optical Grade Spinel plates. With over $20 million of private investment by J.F. Lehman and Company, ArmorLine has installed and commissioned the largest vacuum hot press in the world, the largest high-temperature/high-pressure hot isostatic press in the world, and supporting manufacturing processes within 75,000 square feet of manufacturing space. ArmorLine's equipment is capable of producing window blanks as large as 50" x 30" and the facility is capable of producing substantial volumes of material with its Lean configuration and 24/7 operation. Initial production capability was achieved in 2012. ArmorLine will discuss the challenges that were encountered during scale-up of the manufacturing processes, ArmorLine Optical Grade Spinel optical performance, and provide an overview of the facility and its capabilities.

  20. Nonclinical comparability studies of recombinant human arylsulfatase A addressing manufacturing process changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Teresa; Li, Aiqun; Lotterhand, Jason; Graham, Anne-Renee; Huang, Yan; Avila, Nancy; Pan, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Recombinant human arylsulfatase A (rhASA) is in clinical development for the treatment of patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). Manufacturing process changes were introduced to improve robustness and efficiency, resulting in higher levels of mannose-6-phosphate and sialic acid in post-change (process B) compared with pre-change (process A) rhASA. A nonclinical comparability program was conducted to compare process A and process B rhASA. All doses were administered intrathecally. Pharmacodynamic comparability was evaluated in immunotolerant MLD mice, using immunohistochemical staining of lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1). Pharmacokinetic comparability was assessed in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys dosed once with 6.0 mg (equivalent to 100 mg/kg of brain weight) process A or process B rhASA. Biodistribution was compared by quantitative whole-body autoradiography in rats. Potential toxicity of process B rhASA was evaluated by repeated rhASA administration at doses of 18.6 mg in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys. The specific activities for process A and process B rhASA were 89 U/mg and 106 U/mg, respectively, which were both well within the target range for the assay. Pharmacodynamic assessments showed no statistically significant differences in LAMP-1 immunohistochemical staining in the spinal cord and in most of the brain areas assessed between process A and B rhASA-dosed mice. LAMP-1 staining was reduced with both process A and B rhASA compared with vehicle, supporting its activity. Concentration-time curves in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of cynomolgus monkeys were similar with process A and B rhASA. Process A and B rhASA were similar in terms of their pharmacokinetic parameters and biodistribution data. No process B rhASA-related toxicity was detected. In conclusion, manufacturing process changes did not affect the pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic or safety profiles of process B rhASA relative to process A rhASA.

  1. Survey of the US materials processing and manufacturing in space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckannan, E. C.

    1981-01-01

    To promote potential commercial applications of low-g technology, the materials processing and manufacturing in space program is structured to: (1) analyze the scientific principles of gravitational effects on processes used in producing materials; (2) apply the research toward the technology used to control production process (on Earth or in space, as appropriate); and (3) establish the legal and managerial framework for commercial ventures. Presently federally funded NASA research is described as well as agreements for privately funded commercial activity, and a proposed academic participation process. The future scope of the program and related capabilities using ground based facilities, aircraft, sounding rockets, and space shuttles are discussed. Areas of interest described include crystal growth; solidification of metals and alloys; containerless processing; fluids and chemical processes (including biological separation processes); and processing extraterrestrial materials.

  2. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  3. Model Development and Process Analysis for Lean Cellular Design Planning in Aerospace Assembly and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Monty D.

    Successful lean manufacturing and cellular manufacturing execution relies upon a foundation of leadership commitment and strategic planning built upon solid data and robust analysis. The problem for this study was to create and employ a simple lean transformation planning model and review process that could be used to identify functional support staff resources required to plan and execute lean manufacturing cells within aerospace assembly and manufacturing sites. The lean planning model was developed using available literature for lean manufacturing kaizen best practices and validated through a Delphi panel of lean experts. The resulting model and a standardized review process were used to assess the state of lean transformation planning at five sites of an international aerospace manufacturing and assembly company. The results of the three day, on-site review were compared with baseline plans collected from each of the five sites to determine if there analyzed, with focus on three critical areas of lean planning: the number and type of manufacturing cells identified, the number, type, and duration of planned lean and continuous kaizen events, and the quantity and type of functional staffing resources planned to support the kaizen schedule. Summarized data of the baseline and on-site reviews was analyzed with descriptive statistics. ANOVAs and paired-t tests at 95% significance level were conducted on the means of data sets to determine if null hypotheses related to cell, kaizen event, and support resources could be rejected. The results of the research found significant differences between lean transformation plans developed by site leadership and plans developed utilizing the structured, on-site review process and lean transformation planning model. The null hypothesis that there was no difference between the means of pre-review and on-site cell counts was rejected, as was the null hypothesis that there was no significant difference in kaizen event plans. These

  4. Variation behavior of residual stress distribution by manufacturing processes in welded pipes of austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2012-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near heat affected zone (HAZ) of primary loop recirculation pipes made of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L in the nuclear power plants. For the non-sensitization material, residual stress is the important factor of SCC, and it is generated by machining and welding. In the actual plants, welding is conducted after machining as manufacturing processes of welded pipes. It could be considered that residual stress generated by machining is varied by welding as a posterior process. This paper presents residual stress variation due to manufacturing processes of pipes using X-ray diffraction method. Residual stress distribution due to welding after machining had a local maximum stress in HAZ. Moreover, this value was higher than residual stress generated by welding or machining. Vickers hardness also had a local maximum hardness in HAZ. In order to clarify hardness variation, crystal orientation analysis with EBSD method was performed. Recovery and recrystallization were occurred by welding heat near the weld metal. These lead hardness decrease. The local maximum region showed no microstructure evolution. In this region, machined layer was remained. Therefore, the local maximum hardness was generated at machined layer. The local maximum stress was caused by the superposition effect of residual stress distributions due to machining and welding. Moreover, these local maximum residual stress and hardness are exceeded critical value of SCC initiation. In order to clarify the effect of residual stress on SCC initiation, evaluation including manufacturing processes is important. (author)

  5. Materials Selection And Fabrication Practices For Food Processing Equipment Manufacturers In Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Baptist Kirabira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The food processing industry is one of the fast-growing sub-sectors in Uganda. The industry which is majorly composed of medium and small scale firms depends on the locally developed food processing equipment. Due to lack of effective materials selection practices employed by the equipment manufacturers the materials normally selected for most designs are not the most appropriate ones hence compromising the quality of the equipment produced. This has not only led to poor quality food products due to contamination but could also turn out health hazardous to the consumers of the food products. This study involved the assessment of the current materials selection and fabrication procedures used by the food processing equipment manufacturers with a view of devising best practices that can be used to improve the quality of the food products processed by the locally fabricated equipment. Results of the study show that designers experience biasness and desire to minimize cost compromise the materials selection procedure. In addition to failing to choose the best material for a given application most equipment manufacturers are commonly fabricating equipment with inadequate surface finish and improper weldments. This hinders the equipments ability to meet food hygiene standards.

  6. TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh; Kurt Montgomery

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.

  7. Manufacturing of Nanostructured Rings from Previously ECAE-Processed AA5083 Alloy by Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of a functional hollow mechanical element or ring of the AA5083 alloy previously equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE processed, which presents a submicrometric microstructure, is dealt with. For this purpose, the design of two isothermal forging dies (preform and final shape is carried out using the design of experiments (DOE methodology. Moreover, after manufacturing the dies and carrying out tests so as to achieve real rings, the mechanical properties of these rings are analysed as well as their microstructure. Furthermore, a comparison between the different forged rings is made from ECAE-processed material subjected to different heat treatments, previous to the forging stage. On the other hand, the ring forging process is modelled through the use of finite element simulation in order to improve the die design and to study the force required for the isothermal forging, the damage value, and the strain the material predeformed by ECAE has undergone. With this present research work, it is intended to improve the knowledge about the mechanical properties of nanostructured material and the applicability of this material to industrial processes that allow the manufacturing of functional parts.

  8. 21 CFR 108.12 - Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit. 108.12 Section 108.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... General Provisions § 108.12 Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a...

  9. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available to predict the cost structure of a newly developed manufacturing process if it is to be considered by manufacturing enterprises for development to substitute a process that is in use. The costs of the new SSM technologies was established by technical cost...

  10. Plasma monitoring and PECVD process control in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Onno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A key process in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD of the active layers. The deposition process can be monitored in situ by plasma diagnostics. Three types of complementary diagnostics, namely optical emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and non-linear extended electron dynamics are applied to an industrial-type PECVD reactor. We investigated the influence of substrate and chamber wall temperature and chamber history on the PECVD process. The impact of chamber wall conditioning on the solar cell performance is demonstrated.

  11. Performance evaluation and characterisation of EIGA produced titanium alloy powder for additive manufacturing processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arthur, Nana KK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available affect powder quality, and hinder processing. In an investigation by Goso and Kale [3], Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder was produced by the hydride-dehydride (HDH) process in order to make titanium components by blended elemental approach. Chemical analysis.... 2016. Additive manufacturing of metals, Acta Materialia, 117, pp 371-392. 3 [3] Goso, X. and Kale, A. 2010. Production of titanium metal powder by the HDH process, (Paper presented at the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Light...

  12. Quality changes in krill and krill products during their manufacturing process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Bruheim, Inge

    The main objective of this study is to a) investigate the effect of temperature towards the non-enzymatic browning reactions and lipid oxidation in krill products sampled at different stages during their manufacturing process. In order to further investigate this, a simple model system comprising...... amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine and lysine) was prepared with addition of lipid (saturated and α, β-unsaturated aldehydes) or non-enzymatic (Strecker aldehydes and pyrazine) derived volatiles. Therefore, the secondary objective is to investigate if the occurrence of non......-enzymatic browning reactions and lipid oxidation in krill products during their manufacturing process. The occurrence of these reactions could be observed in krill meal and this was ascribed to the presence of carbonyl compounds derived lipid oxidation products. The presence of a high level of non...

  13. Morphology Analysis and Process Research on Novel Metal Fused-coating Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Zheng ying; Du, Jun; Ren, Chuan qi; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Zhitong; Bai, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Existing metal additive manufacturing equipment has high capital costs and slow throughput printing. In this paper, a new metal fused-coating additive manufacturing (MFCAM) was proposed. Experiments of single-track formation were conducted using MFCAM to validate the feasibility. The low melting alloy was selected as the forming material. Then, the effect of process parameters such as the flow rate, deposition velocity and initial distance on the forming morphology. There is a strong coupling effect between the single track forming morphology. Through the analysis of influencing factors to improve the forming quality of specimens. The experimental results show that the twice as forming efficiency as the metal droplet deposition. Additionally, the forming morphology and quality were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope and X-ray. The results show that the metal fused-coating process can achieve good surface morphology and without internal tissue defect.

  14. Media milling process optimization for manufacture of drug nanoparticles using design of experiments (DOE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekkanti, Vijaykumar; Marwah, Ashwani; Pillai, Raviraj

    2015-01-01

    Design of experiments (DOE), a component of Quality by Design (QbD), is systematic and simultaneous evaluation of process variables to develop a product with predetermined quality attributes. This article presents a case study to understand the effects of process variables in a bead milling process used for manufacture of drug nanoparticles. Experiments were designed and results were computed according to a 3-factor, 3-level face-centered central composite design (CCD). The factors investigated were motor speed, pump speed and bead volume. Responses analyzed for evaluating these effects and interactions were milling time, particle size and process yield. Process validation batches were executed using the optimum process conditions obtained from software Design-Expert® to evaluate both the repeatability and reproducibility of bead milling technique. Milling time was optimized to process variables by applying DOE resulted in considerable decrease in milling time to achieve the desired particle size. The study indicates the applicability of DOE approach to optimize critical process parameters in the manufacture of drug nanoparticles.

  15. Optimisation of the manufacturing process of tritide and deuteride targets used for neutron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, Carole; Bach, Pierre; Tulle, Pierre Alain; Rompay, Marc van; Ballanger, Anne

    2002-01-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium targets on copper substrates, and going to more sophisticated devices. The range of possible uses is wide, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets or large size rotating targets for higher lifetimes. The activity of the targets ranges from 3.7x10 10 to 3.7x10 13 Bq (1-1000 Ci), the diameter being up to 30 cm. Sodern and the CEA/Valduc centre have developed different technologies for tritium target manufacture, allowing the selection of the best configuration for each kind of use. In order to optimize the production of high energy neutrons, the performance of tritide and deuteride titanium targets made by different processes has been studied experimentally by bombardment with 120 and 350 kV deuterons provided by electrostatic accelerators. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output or lifetime and stability or thermal behaviour. The importance of the deposit evaporation conditions on the efficiency of neutron emission is clearly demonstrated, as well as the thermomechanical stability of the Ti thin film under deuteron bombardment. The main parameters involved in the target performance are discussed from a thermodynamical approach

  16. New possibilities using additive manufacturing with materials that are difficult to process and with complex structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Anders; Hellsing, Maja S.; Rennie, Adrian R.

    2017-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) opens the possibility of creating new designs and manufacturing objects with new materials rapidly and economically. Particularly for use with polymers and polymer composites, simple printers can make high quality products, and these can be produced easily in offices, schools and in workshops and laboratories. This technology has opened a route for many to test ideas or to make custom devices. It is possible to easily manufacture complex geometries that would be difficult or even impossible to create with traditional methods. Naturally this technology has attracted attention in many fields that include the production of medical devices and prostheses, mechanical engineering as well as basic sciences. Materials that are highly problematic to machine can be used. We illustrate process developments with an account of the production of printer parts to cope with polymer fillers that are hard and abrasive; new nozzles with ruby inserts designed for such materials are durable and can be used to print boron carbide composites. As with other materials, complex parts can be printed using boron carbide composites with fine structures, such as screw threads and labels to identify materials. General ideas about design for this new era of manufacturing customised parts are presented.

  17. New possibilities using additive manufacturing with materials that are difficult to process and with complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Anders; Hellsing, Maja S; Rennie, Adrian R

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) opens the possibility of creating new designs and manufacturing objects with new materials rapidly and economically. Particularly for use with polymers and polymer composites, simple printers can make high quality products, and these can be produced easily in offices, schools and in workshops and laboratories. This technology has opened a route for many to test ideas or to make custom devices. It is possible to easily manufacture complex geometries that would be difficult or even impossible to create with traditional methods. Naturally this technology has attracted attention in many fields that include the production of medical devices and prostheses, mechanical engineering as well as basic sciences. Materials that are highly problematic to machine can be used. We illustrate process developments with an account of the production of printer parts to cope with polymer fillers that are hard and abrasive; new nozzles with ruby inserts designed for such materials are durable and can be used to print boron carbide composites. As with other materials, complex parts can be printed using boron carbide composites with fine structures, such as screw threads and labels to identify materials. General ideas about design for this new era of manufacturing customised parts are presented. (invited comment)

  18. Optimisation of the manufacturing process of tritide and deuteride targets used for neutron production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnin, Carole; Bach, Pierre; Tulle, Pierre Alain; van Rompay, Marc; Ballanger, Anne

    2002-03-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium targets on copper substrates, and going to more sophisticated devices. The range of possible uses is wide, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets or large size rotating targets for higher lifetimes. The activity of the targets ranges from 3.7×10 10 to 3.7×10 13 Bq (1-1000 Ci), the diameter being up to 30 cm. Sodern and the CEA/Valduc centre have developed different technologies for tritium target manufacture, allowing the selection of the best configuration for each kind of use. In order to optimize the production of high energy neutrons, the performance of tritide and deuteride titanium targets made by different processes has been studied experimentally by bombardment with 120 and 350 kV deuterons provided by electrostatic accelerators. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output or lifetime and stability or thermal behaviour. The importance of the deposit evaporation conditions on the efficiency of neutron emission is clearly demonstrated, as well as the thermomechanical stability of the Ti thin film under deuteron bombardment. The main parameters involved in the target performance are discussed from a thermodynamical approach.

  19. Modular industrial robots as the tool of process automation in robotized manufacturing cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, A.; Banas, W.; Sekala, A.; Foit, K.; Hryniewicz, P.; Kost, G.

    2015-11-01

    Recently the number of designed modular machine was increased. The term modular machine is used to denote different types of machinery, equipment and production lines, which are created using modular elements. Modular could be both mechanic elements, and drives, as well as control systems. This method of machine design is more and more popular because it allows obtaining flexible and relatively cheap solutions. So it is worth to develop the concept of modularity in next areas of application. The advantages of modular solutions are: simplification of the structure, standardization of components, and faster assembly process of the complete machine Additional advantages, which is particularly important for manufacturers, are shorter manufacturing times, longer production series and reduced manufacturing costs. Modular designing is also the challenge for designers and the need for a new approach to the design process, to the starting process and to the exploitation process. The purpose for many manufacturers is the standardization of the components used for creating the finished products. This purpose could be realized by the application of standard modules which could be combined together in different ways to create the desired particular construction as much as possible in accordance with the order. This solution is for the producer more favorable than the construction of a large machine whose configuration must be matched to each individual order. In the ideal case each module has its own control system and the full functionality of the modular machine is obtained due to the mutual cooperation of all modules. Such a solution also requires the modular components which create the modular machine are equipped with interfaces compatible one with another to facilitate their communication. The individual components of the machine could be designed, manufactured and used independently and production management task could be divided into subtasks. They could be also

  20. Tube with helical grooving for a heat exchanger and its manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolsky, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    This claim broadly concerns heat transfer tubes for heat exchangers of the kind described in the main patent specification and, in particular, a heat transfer tube and a process for manufacturing it. This tube includes a strip of metal, the opposite sides of which extend to form a certain number of longitudinal grooves of specific profile and height. This strip is helically wound and the lateral edges are joined butt to butt so as to be leak tight to fluids [fr

  1. Manufacturing history of etanercept (Enbrel®): Consistency of product quality through major process revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Brian; Singh, Ena; Mahgoub, Ehab; O'Brien, Julie; Vicik, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Etanercept (ETN) (Enbrel®) is a soluble protein that binds to, and specifically inhibits, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a proinflammatory cytokine. ETN is synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells by recombinant DNA technology as a fusion protein, with a fully human TNFRII ectodomain linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1. Successful manufacture of biologics, such as ETN, requires sophisticated process and product understanding, as well as meticulous control of operations to maintain product consistency. The objective of this evaluation was to show that the product profile of ETN drug substance (DS) has been consistent over the course of production. Multiple orthogonal biochemical analyses, which included evaluation of attributes indicative of product purity, potency, and quality, were assessed on >2,000 batches of ETN from three sites of DS manufacture, during the period 1998-2015. Based on the key quality attributes of product purity (assessed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography HPLC), binding activity (to TNF by ELISA), potency (inhibition of TNF-induced apoptosis by cell-based bioassay) and quality (N-linked oligosaccharide map), we show that the integrity of ETN DS has remained consistent over time. This consistency was maintained through three major enhancements to the initial process of manufacturing that were supported by detailed comparability assessments, and approved by the European Medicines Agency. Examination of results for all major quality attributes for ETN DS indicates a highly consistent process for over 18 years and throughout changes to the manufacturing process, without affecting safety and efficacy, as demonstrated across a wide range of clinical trials of ETN in multiple inflammatory diseases.

  2. 3D-Printing: How Additive Manufacturing impacts Supply Chain Business Processes and Management Components

    OpenAIRE

    Oettmeier, Katrin; Hofmann, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The business implications of additive manufacturing (AM) are explored; specific focus thereby lies on the impact of AM technology adoption in customized parts production. Design/methodology/approach Based on two explorative case studies from the hearing aid industry, the impact of AM technology adoption on supply chain business processes and management components is analyzed. General systems theory and a supply chain management framework serve as theoretical underpinning....

  3. Integrate Product Planning Process of OKP Companies in the Cloud Manufacturing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng , Pai; Xu , Xun; Xie , Sheng ,

    2015-01-01

    Part 8: Cloud-Based Manufacturing; International audience; In today’s competitive market, OKP companies operate in the “engineer-to-order” business mode, whereby analysing the “voice of customer” promptly and accurately in the early design stage determines the success of product development. However, OKP companies have limited resources. They may not be able to afford the cost of the complicated Quality Function Deployment (QFD) product planning process, nor can they obtain abundant CRs infor...

  4. Numerical simulation of residual stress in laser based additive manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyan Panda, Bibhu; Sahoo, Seshadev

    2018-03-01

    Minimizing the residual stress build-up in metal-based additive manufacturing plays a pivotal role in selecting a particular material and technique for making an industrial part. In beam-based additive manufacturing, although a great deal of effort has been made to minimize the residual stresses, it is still elusive how to do so by simply optimizing the processing parameters, such as beam size, beam power, and scan speed. Amid different types of additive manufacturing processes, Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) process uses a high-power laser to melt and sinter layers of metal powder. The rapid solidification and heat transfer on powder bed endows a high cooling rate which leads to the build-up of residual stresses, that will affect the mechanical properties of the build parts. In the present work, the authors develop a numerical thermo-mechanical model for the measurement of residual stress in the AlSi10Mg build samples by using finite element method. Transient temperature distribution in the powder bed was assessed using the coupled thermal to structural model. Subsequently, the residual stresses were estimated with varying laser power. From the simulation result, it found that the melt pool dimensions increase with increasing the laser power and the magnitude of residual stresses in the built part increases.

  5. The Selection of Materials for Roller Chains From The Perspective Of Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Saptono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of materials for an engineering component is not only requested by its design function and shape, but also the sequence through which it is manufactured. The manufacturing operation of roller chains involves drawing and trimming processes aimed at producing semi-finished chain drives component with a well-standardized dimension. In addition to final combination of properties required by design constraints, the ability of materials to be formed into a desired shape and geometry without failure is also critical. The objective of materials selection should therefore involve additional attributes that are not typically  accommodated by the standard procedure of materials selection. The present paper deals with the selection of materials for roller chains from the perspective of manufacturing process. Ears and un-uniform wall thickness have been identified as a key problem in the mass production of component. Provided all process parameters were established, the  anisotropy factor of materials is critical. Simulative test can be reasonably used to obtain material performance indices that can be added up to the standard procedure of material selection. Of three commercially available steel grades evaluated with regard to the criteria defined, one grade is more suitable for the present objective.

  6. Process development for the manufacturing of state-of-the-art spacer grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schebitz, Florian; Dietrich, Matthias [Advanced Nuclear Fuels GmbH, Karlstein (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    At the beginning it was questioned if 'time to market' is really important for the nuclear industry. The clear answer is YES. Even if the development times might be longer compared to projects in other industries it is still beneficial to use concurrent engineering. In the world wide network of manufacturing sites, Advanced Nuclear Fuels GmbH in Karlstein is quite often involved when the development of new processes is necessary. As ANF Karlstein is delivering products around the world the experience with different customer requirements supports an optimized solution in order to fulfill these principle requirements and to deliver state-of-the-art products like spacer grids. Continues feedback from process development already improves the first prototypes. In the meantime ANF Karlstein manufactured the components for both new fuel assembly designs which are introduced as a first set of Lead Fuel Assemblies. For the manufacturing of the next sets of spacer grids (for tests and next series of Lead Fuel Assemblies) the described processes will be used and further improved, so that an industrialized solution is available. (orig.)

  7. Methodology for systematic analysis and improvement of manufacturing unit process life-cycle inventory (UPLCI)—CO2PE! initiative (cooperative effort on process emissions in manufacturing). Part 1: Methodology description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellens, Karel; Dewulf, Wim; Overcash, Michael

    2012-01-01

    the provision of high-quality data for LCA studies of products using these unit process datasets for the manufacturing processes, as well as the in-depth analysis of individual manufacturing unit processes.In addition, the accruing availability of data for a range of similar machines (same process, different......This report proposes a life-cycle analysis (LCA)-oriented methodology for systematic inventory analysis of the use phase of manufacturing unit processes providing unit process datasets to be used in life-cycle inventory (LCI) databases and libraries. The methodology has been developed...... and resource efficiency improvements of the manufacturing unit process. To ensure optimal reproducibility and applicability, documentation guidelines for data and metadata are included in both approaches. Guidance on definition of functional unit and reference flow as well as on determination of system...

  8. Cost model relationships between textile manufacturing processes and design details for transport fuselage elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metschan, Stephen L.; Wilden, Kurtis S.; Sharpless, Garrett C.; Andelman, Rich M.

    1993-01-01

    Textile manufacturing processes offer potential cost and weight advantages over traditional composite materials and processes for transport fuselage elements. In the current study, design cost modeling relationships between textile processes and element design details were developed. Such relationships are expected to help future aircraft designers to make timely decisions on the effect of design details and overall configurations on textile fabrication costs. The fundamental advantage of a design cost model is to insure that the element design is cost effective for the intended process. Trade studies on the effects of processing parameters also help to optimize the manufacturing steps for a particular structural element. Two methods of analyzing design detail/process cost relationships developed for the design cost model were pursued in the current study. The first makes use of existing databases and alternative cost modeling methods (e.g. detailed estimating). The second compares design cost model predictions with data collected during the fabrication of seven foot circumferential frames for ATCAS crown test panels. The process used in this case involves 2D dry braiding and resin transfer molding of curved 'J' cross section frame members having design details characteristic of the baseline ATCAS crown design.

  9. Rheo-processing of semi-solid metal alloys: a new technology for manufacturing Automotive and aerospace components - Conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ivanchev, L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available -solid forming processes. The CSIR in SA, developed and patented a rheocasting process and equipment for semi solid casting, which is in the commercialization stage and an automotive component will be manufactured soon....

  10. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  11. Reduction of Surface Roughness by Means of Laser Processing over Additive Manufacturing Metal Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Vittorio; Argenio, Paolo; Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Sergi, Vincenzo

    2016-12-31

    Optimization of processing parameters and exposure strategies is usually performed in additive manufacturing to set up the process; nevertheless, standards for roughness may not be evenly matched on a single complex part, since surface features depend on the building direction of the part. This paper aims to evaluate post processing treating via laser surface modification by means of scanning optics and beam wobbling to process metal parts resulting from selective laser melting of stainless steel in order to improve surface topography. The results are discussed in terms of roughness, geometry of the fusion zone in the cross-section, microstructural modification, and microhardness so as to assess the effects of laser post processing. The benefits of beam wobbling over linear scanning processing are shown, as heat effects in the base metal are proven to be lower.

  12. Laser materials processing as manufacturing technology; Seisan gijutsu to shite no laser kako

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, I. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes the laser material processing. Laser is artificial light that uses the amplification based on the induced emission of light. It is very excellent in directivity and monochromaticity. The high power density and concentration characteristics of laser enable a variety of high-performance processing such as junction, removal, reforming, and addition. Excellent controllability (that facilitates the automated processing), transmission performance (the processing by energy transmission in long range space is most suitable for laser), and non-contact processing (that contains no wearing, noise, and contamination) are great advantages that the existing processing method does not have. In the wide wavelength area between ultraviolet and infrared areas, the laser that can be used for material processing is very wide over the range of the continuous oscillation to the ultra short pulse of a nanosecond order. The thermal processing accompanied by melting and evaporation as well as the non-thermal processing (quantum processing) by a photochemical reaction is also available as the type of processing. The processing used for manufacturing technology is almost thermal processing including removal, junction, reforming, and addition. The thermal processing covers the range of electronics to heavy industry. 29 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Energy efficiency solutions for driers used in the glass manufacturing and processing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pătrașcu Roxana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation is relevant to increasing efficiency in energy projects, by saving energy, by its’ rational use or by switching to other forms of energy. The goal is to secure energy supply on short and long term, while increasing efficiency. These are enforced by evaluating the companies’ energy status, by monitoring and adjusting energy consumption and organising a coherent energy management. The manufacturing process is described, starting from the state and properties of the raw material and ending with the glass drying technological processes involved. Raw materials are selected considering technological and economic criteria. Manufacturing is treated as a two-stage process, consisting of the logistic, preparation aspect of unloading, transporting, storing materials and the manufacturing process itself, by which the glass is sifted, shredded, deferrized and dried. The interest of analyzing the latter is justified by the fact that it has a big impact on the final energy consumption values, hence, in order to improve the general performance, the driers’ energy losses are to be reduced. Technological, energy and management solutions are stated to meet this problem. In the present paper, the emphasis is on the energy perspective of enhancing the overall efficiency. The case study stresses the effects of heat recovery over the efficiency of a glass drier. Audits are conducted, both before and after its’ implementation, to punctually observe the balance between the entering and exiting heat in the drying process. The reduction in fuel consumption and the increase in thermal performance and fuel usage performances reveal the importance of using all available exiting heat from processes. Technical faults, either in exploitation or in management, lead to additional expenses. Improving them is in congruence with the energy conservation concept and is in accordance with the Energy Efficiency Improvement Program for industrial facilities.

  14. Implementation of Lean System on Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier Manufacturing Process to Reduce Production Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneechote, T.; Luangpaiboon, P.

    2010-10-01

    A manufacturing process of erbium doped fibre amplifiers is complicated. It needs to meet the customers' requirements under a present economic status that products need to be shipped to customers as soon as possible after purchasing orders. This research aims to study and improve processes and production lines of erbium doped fibre amplifiers using lean manufacturing systems via an application of computer simulation. Three scenarios of lean tooled box systems are selected via the expert system. Firstly, the production schedule based on shipment date is combined with a first in first out control system. The second scenario focuses on a designed flow process plant layout. Finally, the previous flow process plant layout combines with production schedule based on shipment date including the first in first out control systems. The computer simulation with the limited data via an expected value is used to observe the performance of all scenarios. The most preferable resulted lean tooled box systems from a computer simulation are selected to implement in the real process of a production of erbium doped fibre amplifiers. A comparison is carried out to determine the actual performance measures via an analysis of variance of the response or the production time per unit achieved in each scenario. The goodness of an adequacy of the linear statistical model via experimental errors or residuals is also performed to check the normality, constant variance and independence of the residuals. The results show that a hybrid scenario of lean manufacturing system with the first in first out control and flow process plant lay out statistically leads to better performance in terms of the mean and variance of production times.

  15. Process-Structure Linkages Using a Data Science Approach: Application to Simulated Additive Manufacturing Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, Evdokia; Rodgers, Theron M.; Gong, Xinyi; Cecen, Ahmet; Madison, Jonathan D.; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2017-01-01

    A novel data science workflow is developed and demonstrated to extract process-structure linkages (i.e., reduced-order model) for microstructure evolution problems when the final microstructure depends on (simulation or experimental) processing parameters. Our workflow consists of four main steps: data pre-processing, microstructure quantification, dimensionality reduction, and extraction/validation of process-structure linkages. These methods that can be employed within each step vary based on the type and amount of available data. In this paper, this data-driven workflow is applied to a set of synthetic additive manufacturing microstructures obtained using the Potts-kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) approach. Additive manufacturing techniques inherently produce complex microstructures that can vary significantly with processing conditions. Using the developed workflow, a low-dimensional data-driven model was established to correlate process parameters with the predicted final microstructure. In addition, the modular workflows developed and presented in this work facilitate easy dissemination and curation by the broader community.

  16. Catalyst layers for PEMFC manufactured by flexography printing process: performances and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, C.; Blayo, A.; Chaussy, D. [Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Science and Graphic Arts (LGP2) (UMR 5518 CNRS-CTP-INPG), Grenoble Institute of Technology (INP Grenoble - PAGORA), St Martin d' Heres (France); Vincent, R.; Mercier, A.G.; Nayoze, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA)/DRT/LITEN, Laboratoire des Composants Piles a Combustible, Electrolyse et Modelisation (LCPEM), Grenoble (France)

    2012-04-15

    This article focuses on the potential of a classic printing process, flexography, for manufacturing proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) are produced by deposition of a water-based catalyst ink on a gas diffusion layer (GDL). The affinity between the ink and the GDL is quantified. Thus, the strong hydrophobic character of the GDL and the poor printability of the ink are demonstrated. However, the permeability of the GDL allows developing a multilayer protocol. The deposition by superimposition of ink layers allows control of the platinum amount and to obtain catalyst layers with a similar density of platinum nanoparticles to coated samples. At similar platinum loading, flexography and coating made catalyst layers offer similar performances, which confirm the relevance of flexography in catalyst layer manufacturing. Structural characterization shows that manufacturing protocol and process has an influence on catalyst layer microstructure. However, catalyst layer cracking and aggregation are increased with the catalyst layer thickness, diminishing the charge and gas diffusion into the catalyst layer resulting in performance degradation. Consequently, a catalyst layer with 0.46 mgPt cm{sup -2} reaches similar performances to catalyst layers with 1.77 and 2.01 times less platinum loading. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Modification Of The Manufacturing Process Of A Composite Structure- From System Needs To Elementary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzard, Jerome; Veilleraud, Frederic; Collias, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The SYLDA5 structure (SYstème de Lancement Double Ariane 5 - Ariane 5 dual launch system) is a lightweight carbon composite structure designed and manufactured by Astrium Space Transportation at Les Mureaux premises. In order to improve the manufacturing process of t he SYLDA5, a proposal was made by SYLDA5 technical team to change the manufacturing process of the composite sandwich parts. The SYLDA5 is however one of the main contributors in the dynamic behaviour of the upper part of Ariane 5 launcher and plays an important role in the qualification of the launcher. The present paper describes the overall qualification logic retained, from System requirements to material tests and to global System qualification, in a classical V- type design cycle. It demonstrates the necessity to take into account System needs when modifying a part of it, especially when the System is qualified with actual characteristics of t he parts that may not be defined in product’s initial requirements.

  18. Neural manufacturing: a novel concept for processing modeling, monitoring, and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi Y.; Petrich, Loren; Law, Benjamin

    1995-09-01

    Semiconductor fabrication lines have become extremely costly, and achieving a good return from such a high capital investment requires efficient utilization of these expensive facilities. It is highly desirable to shorten processing development time, increase fabrication yield, enhance flexibility, improve quality, and minimize downtime. We propose that these ends can be achieved by applying recent advances in the areas of artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, machine learning, and genetic algorithms. We use the term neural manufacturing to describe such applications. This paper describes our use of artificial neural networks to improve the monitoring and control of semiconductor process.

  19. Additive manufacturing of titanium alloys in the biomedical field: processes, properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Francesco; Calignano, Flaviana; Aversa, Alberta; Marchese, Giulio; Lombardi, Mariangela; Biamino, Sara; Ugues, Daniele; Manfredi, Diego

    2018-04-01

    The mechanical properties and biocompatibility of titanium alloy medical devices and implants produced by additive manufacturing (AM) technologies - in particular, selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) and laser metal deposition (LMD) - have been investigated by several researchers demonstrating how these innovative processes are able to fulfil medical requirements for clinical applications. This work reviews the advantages given by these technologies, which include the possibility to create porous complex structures to improve osseointegration and mechanical properties (best match with the modulus of elasticity of local bone), to lower processing costs, to produce custom-made implants according to the data for the patient acquired via computed tomography and to reduce waste.

  20. A practical and scalable manufacturing process for an anti-fungal agent, Nikkomycin Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenland, Christopher J; Lis, Lev G; Schendel, Frederick J; Hahn, Nicholas J; Smart, Mary A; Miller, Amy L; von Keitz, Marc G; Gurvich, Vadim J

    2013-02-15

    A scalable and reliable manufacturing process for Nikkomycin Z HCl on a 170 g scale has been developed and optimized. The process is characterized by a 2.3 g/L fermentation yield, 79% purification yield, and >98% relative purity of the final product. This method is suitable for further scale up and cGMP production. The Streptomyces tendae ΔNikQ strain developed during the course of this study is superior to any previously reported strain in terms of higher yield and purity of Nikkomycin Z.

  1. Stereolithography: A new method for processing dental ceramics by additive computer-aided manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehurtevent, Marion; Robberecht, Lieven; Hornez, Jean-Christophe; Thuault, Anthony; Deveaux, Etienne; Béhin, Pascal

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physical and mechanical properties of stereolithography (SLA)- manufactured alumina ceramics of different composition to those of subtractive- manufactured ceramics and to produce suitable dental crown frameworks. The physical and mechanical properties of a control and six experimental SLA ceramics prepared from slurries with small (S) and large (L) particles (0.46±0.03 and 1.56±0.04μm, respectively) and three dry matter contents (70%, 75%, 80%) were evaluated by dynamic rheometry, hydrostatic weighing, three3-point flexural strength measurements, and Weibull analyses, and by the micrometrics measurement of shrinkage ratio before and after the heat treatments. S75 was the only small particle slurry with a significantly higher viscosity than L70. The viscosity of the S80 slurry made it impossible to take rheological measurements. The viscosities of the S75 and S80 slurries caused deformations in the printed layers during SLA manufacturing and were excluded from further consideration. SLA samples with low dry matter content had significantly lower and densityflexural strengths. Only SLA samples with a large particle size and high dry matter content (L75 and L80) were similar in density and flexural strength to the subtractive- manufactured samples. The 95% confidence intervals of the Weibull modulus of the L80 ceramic were higher (no overlap fraction) than those of the L75 ceramic and were similar to the control (overlap fraction). The Weibull characteristics of L80 ceramic were higher than those of L75 ceramic and the control. SLA can be used to process suitable crown frameworks but shows results in anisotropic shrinkage. The hH High particle size and dry matter content of the L80 slurry allowed made it possible to produce a reliable ceramic by SLA manufacturing with an anisotropic shrinkage, and a density, and flexural strength similar to those of a subtractive-manufactured ceramic. SLA allowed made it possible to build

  2. The improvement of the manufacturing process of a company by the Sigma level: the case of the company BAG (Batna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athmane MECHENENE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This modest work aims to evaluate the performance of the manufacturing process of the company by a new measurement tool, namely the sigma level whose purpose is to quantify the costs inherent in each production process, measure the levels of six Sigma in adjacent processes, to achieve weight calculate DPMO (Defects Per Million Opportunity and thus assess the overall competitiveness of the company. This new tool for measuring the performance of the manufacturing process (sigma level is applied to manufacturing gas cylinders (BAG - Batna.

  3. Electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing process for PVDF polymer-based piezoelectric device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new additive manufacturing (AM) process to directly and continuously print piezoelectric devices from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymeric filament rods under a strong electric field. This process, called ‘electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing or EPAM, combines AM and electric poling processes and is able to fabricate free-form shape piezoelectric devices continuously. In this process, the PVDF polymer dipoles remain well-aligned and uniform over a large area in a single design, production and fabrication step. During EPAM process, molten PVDF polymer is simultaneously mechanically stresses in-situ by the leading nozzle and electrically poled by applying high electric field under high temperature. The EPAM system was constructed to directly print piezoelectric structures from PVDF polymeric filament while applying high electric field between nozzle tip and printing bed in AM machine. Piezoelectric devices were successfully fabricated using the EPAM process. The crystalline phase transitions that occurred from the process were identified by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The results indicate that devices printed under a strong electric field become piezoelectric during the EPAM process and that stronger electric fields result in greater piezoelectricity as marked by the electrical response and the formation of sharper peaks at the polar β crystalline wavenumber of the PVDF polymer. Performing this process in the absence of an electric field does not result in dipole alignment of PVDF polymer. The EPAM process is expected to lead to the widespread use of AM to fabricate a variety of piezoelectric PVDF polymer-based devices for sensing, actuation and energy harvesting applications with simple, low cost, single processing and fabrication step. (paper)

  4. Consolidation & Factors Influencing Sintering Process in Polymer Powder Based Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, M. B.; Elangovan, K.

    2017-08-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is two decade old technology; where parts are build layer manufacturing method directly from a CAD template. Over the years, AM techniques changes the future way of part fabrication with enhanced intricacy and custom-made features are aimed. Commercially polymers, metals, ceramic and metal-polymer composites are in practice where polymers enhanced the expectations in AM and are considered as a kind of next industrial revolution. Growing trend in polymer application motivated to study their feasibility and properties. Laser sintering, Heat sintering and Inhibition sintering are the most successful AM techniques for polymers but having least application. The presentation gives up selective sintering of powder polymers and listed commercially available polymer materials. Important significant factors for effective processing and analytical approaches to access them are discussed.

  5. A social-level macro-governance mode for collaborative manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ji; Lv, Hexin; Jin, Zhiyong; Xu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes the social-level macro-governance mode for innovating the popular centralized control for CoM (Collaborative Manufacturing) processes, and makes this mode depend on the support from three aspects of technologies standalone and complementary: social-level CoM process norms, CoM process supervision system, and rational agents as the brokers of enterprises. It is the close coupling of those technologies that redounds to removing effectively the uncontrollability obstacle confronted with by cross-management-domain CoM processes. As a result, this mode enables CoM applications to be implemented by uniting the centralized control of CoM partners for respective CoM activities, and therefore provides a new distributed CoM process control mode to push forward the convenient development and large-scale deployment of SME-oriented CoM applications.

  6. Process analytical technology in continuous manufacturing of a commercial pharmaceutical product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Jenny M; Nielsen, Sarah; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Gonzalez, Anthony; Aymat, Efrain Y; Almodovar, Elvin; Classe, Gustavo; Colón, Yleana; Sanchez, Eric; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2018-03-01

    The implementation of process analytical technology and continuous manufacturing at an FDA approved commercial manufacturing site is described. In this direct compaction process the blends produced were monitored with a Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopic calibration model developed with partial least squares (PLS) regression. The authors understand that this is the first study where the continuous manufacturing (CM) equipment was used as a gravimetric reference method for the calibration model. A principal component analysis (PCA) model was also developed to identify the powder blend, and determine whether it was similar to the calibration blends. An air diagnostic test was developed to assure that powder was present within the interface when the NIR spectra were obtained. The air diagnostic test as well the PCA and PLS calibration model were integrated into an industrial software platform that collects the real time NIR spectra and applies the calibration models. The PCA test successfully detected an equipment malfunction. Variographic analysis was also performed to estimate the sampling analytical errors that affect the results from the NIR spectroscopic method during commercial production. The system was used to monitor and control a 28 h continuous manufacturing run, where the average drug concentration determined by the NIR method was 101.17% of label claim with a standard deviation of 2.17%, based on 12,633 spectra collected. The average drug concentration for the tablets produced from these blends was 100.86% of label claim with a standard deviation of 0.4%, for 500 tablets analyzed by Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) transmission spectroscopy. The excellent agreement between the mean drug concentration values in the blends and tablets produced provides further evidence of the suitability of the validation strategy that was followed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

  8. 75 FR 8114 - In the Matter of Certain Cast Steel Railway Wheels, Processes for Manufacturing or Relating to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-655] In the Matter of Certain Cast Steel Railway Wheels, Processes for Manufacturing or Relating to Same and Certain Products Containing Same ; Issuance... to cast steel railway wheels and products containing same manufactured by or for Respondents using...

  9. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process for Exploring Prioritization of Functional Strategies in Auto Parts Manufacturing SMEs of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Yasir Ahmad; Danial Saeed Pirzada

    2014-01-01

    This article uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to find prioritization of functional strategies (manufacturing, marketing, human resource, and financial management) by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) operating in auto parts manufacturing sector of Pakistan. SMEs are major part of the industrial structure and have significant contribution toward generating jobs in Pakistan. These enterprises are generally famil...

  10. Quality Control in Automated Manufacturing Processes – Combined Features for Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kuhlenkötter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In production processes the use of image processing systems is widespread. Hardware solutions and cameras respectively are available for nearly every application. One important challenge of image processing systems is the development and selection of appropriate algorithms and software solutions in order to realise ambitious quality control for production processes. This article characterises the development of innovative software by combining features for an automatic defect classification on product surfaces. The artificial intelligent method Support Vector Machine (SVM is used to execute the classification task according to the combined features. This software is one crucial element for the automation of a manually operated production process

  11. Polyoxylglycerides and glycerides: effects of manufacturing parameters on API stability, excipient functionality and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannin, Vincent; Rodier, Jean-David; Musakhanian, Jasmine

    2014-05-15

    Lipid-based formulations are a viable option to address modern drug delivery challenges such as increasing the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), or sustaining the drug release of molecules intended for chronic diseases. Esters of fatty acids and glycerol (glycerides) and polyethylene-glycols (polyoxylglycerides) are two main classes of lipid-based excipients used by oral, dermal, rectal, vaginal or parenteral routes. These lipid-based materials are more and more commonly used in pharmaceutical drug products but there is still a lack of understanding of how the manufacturing processes, processing aids, or additives can impact the chemical stability of APIs within the drug product. In that regard, this review summarizes the key parameters to look at when formulating with lipid-based excipients in order to anticipate a possible impact on drug stability or variation of excipient functionality. The introduction presents the chemistry of natural lipids, fatty acids and their properties in relation to the extraction and refinement processes. Then, the key parameters during the manufacturing process influencing the quality of lipid-based excipients are provided. Finally, their critical characteristics are discussed in relation with their intended functionality and ability to interact with APIs and others excipients within the formulation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Control of three different continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes: Use of soft sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrl, Jakob; Karttunen, Anssi-Pekka; Nicolaï, Niels; Hörmann, Theresa; Horn, Martin; Korhonen, Ossi; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas; Khinast, Johannes G

    2018-05-30

    One major advantage of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing over traditional batch manufacturing is the possibility of enhanced in-process control, reducing out-of-specification and waste material by appropriate discharge strategies. The decision on material discharge can be based on the measurement of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentration at specific locations in the production line via process analytic technology (PAT), e.g. near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. The implementation of the PAT instruments is associated with monetary investment and the long term operation requires techniques avoiding sensor drifts. Therefore, our paper proposes a soft sensor approach for predicting the API concentration from the feeder data. In addition, this information can be used to detect sensor drift, or serve as a replacement/supplement of specific PAT equipment. The paper presents the experimental determination of the residence time distribution of selected unit operations in three different continuous processing lines (hot melt extrusion, direct compaction, wet granulation). The mathematical models describing the soft sensor are developed and parameterized. Finally, the suggested soft sensor approach is validated on the three mentioned, different continuous processing lines, demonstrating its versatility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hot forming and quenching pilot process development for low cost and low environmental impact manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Roger W.; Foster, Alistair; Herrmann Praturlon, Anja

    2017-09-01

    The Hot Forming and in-tool Quenching (HFQ®) process is a proven technique to enable complex shaped stampings to be manufactured from high strength aluminium. Its widespread uptake for high volume production will be maximised if it is able to wholly amortise the additional investment cost of this process compared to conventional deep drawing techniques. This paper discusses the use of three techniques to guide some of the development decisions taken during upscaling of the HFQ® process. Modelling of Process timing, Cost and Life-cycle impact were found to be effective tools to identify where development budget could be focused in order to be able to manufacture low cost panels of different sizes from many different alloys in a sustainable way. The results confirm that raw material cost, panel trimming, and artificial ageing were some of the highest contributing factors to final component cost. Additionally, heat treatment and lubricant removal stages played a significant role in the overall life-cycle assessment of the final products. These findings confirmed development priorities as novel furnace design, fast artificial ageing and low-cost alloy development.

  14. Implementation of a configurable laboratory information management system for use in cellular process development and manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russom, Diana; Ahmed, Amira; Gonzalez, Nancy; Alvarnas, Joseph; DiGiusto, David

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory requirements for the manufacturing of cell products for clinical investigation require a significant level of record-keeping, starting early in process development and continuing through to the execution and requisite follow-up of patients on clinical trials. Central to record-keeping is the management of documentation related to patients, raw materials, processes, assays and facilities. To support these requirements, we evaluated several laboratory information management systems (LIMS), including their cost, flexibility, regulatory compliance, ongoing programming requirements and ability to integrate with laboratory equipment. After selecting a system, we performed a pilot study to develop a user-configurable LIMS for our laboratory in support of our pre-clinical and clinical cell-production activities. We report here on the design and utilization of this system to manage accrual with a healthy blood-donor protocol, as well as manufacturing operations for the production of a master cell bank and several patient-specific stem cell products. The system was used successfully to manage blood donor eligibility, recruiting, appointments, billing and serology, and to provide annual accrual reports. Quality management reporting features of the system were used to capture, report and investigate process and equipment deviations that occurred during the production of a master cell bank and patient products. Overall the system has served to support the compliance requirements of process development and phase I/II clinical trial activities for our laboratory and can be easily modified to meet the needs of similar laboratories.

  15. A Systematic Framework for Data Management and Integration in a Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processing Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyi Cao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As the pharmaceutical industry seeks more efficient methods for the production of higher value therapeutics, the associated data analysis, data visualization, and predictive modeling require dependable data origination, management, transfer, and integration. As a result, the management and integration of data in a consistent, organized, and reliable manner is a big challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. In this work, an ontological information infrastructure is developed to integrate data within manufacturing plants and analytical laboratories. The ANSI/ISA-88.01 batch control standard has been adapted in this study to deliver a well-defined data structure that will improve the data communication inside the system architecture for continuous processing. All the detailed information of the lab-based experiment and process manufacturing, including equipment, samples and parameters, are documented in the recipe. This recipe model is implemented into a process control system (PCS, data historian, as well as Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN system. Data existing in the recipe can be eventually exported from this system to cloud storage, which could provide a reliable and consistent data source for data visualization, data analysis, or process modeling.

  16. Non-Photolithographic Manufacturing Processes for Micro-Channels Functioned by Micro-Contact-Printed SAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigusa, Hiroki; Suga, Yasuo; Miki, Norihisa

    In this paper we propose non-photolithographic fabrication processes of micro-fluid channels with patterned SAMs (Self-Assembled-Monolayers). SAMs with a thiol group are micro-contact printed on a patterned Au/Ti layer, which is vapor-deposited through a shadow mask. Ti is an adhesion layer. Subsequently, the micro-channels are formed by bonding surface-activated PDMS onto the silicon substrate via a silanol group, producing a SAMs-functioned bottom wall of the micro-channel. No photolithographic processes are necessary and thus, the proposed processes are very simple, quick and low cost. The micro-reactors can have various functions associated with the micro-contact-printed SAMs. We demonstrate successful manufacturing of micro-reactors with two types of SAMs. The micro-reactor with patterned AUT (11-amino-1-undecanethiol) successfully trapped nano-particles with a carboxylic acid group, indicating that micro-contact-printed SAMs remain active after the manufacturing processes of the micro-reactor. AUT -functioned micro-channels are applicable to bioassay and to immobilize proteins for DNA arrays. ODT (1-octadecanethiol) makes surfaces hydrophobic with the methyl terminal group. When water was introduced into the micro-reactor with ODT-patterned surfaces, water droplets remained only in the hydrophilic areas where ODT was not patterned. ODT -functioned micro-channels are applicable to fluid handling.

  17. An economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics process in an auto parts manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Dolinschi, Roman; Laing, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We assess the costs and consequences of a participatory ergonomics process at a Canadian car parts manufacturer from the perspective of the firm. Regression modeling was used with interrupted time series data to assess the impact of the process on several health measures. Consequences were kept in natural units for cost-effectiveness analysis, and translated into monetary units for cost-benefit analysis. The duration of disability insurance claims and the number of denied workers' compensation claims was significantly reduced. The cost-effectiveness ratio is $12.06 per disability day averted. The net present value is $244,416 for a 23-month period with a benefit-to-cost ratio of 10.6, suggesting that the process was worth undertaking (monetary units in 2001 Canadian dollars). Our findings emphasize the importance of considering a range of outcomes when evaluating an occupational health and safety intervention. Participatory ergonomics process can be cost-effective for a firm.

  18. Manufacturing polymer light emitting diode with high luminance efficiency by solution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyoung; Jo, SongJin; Yang, Ho Chang; Yoon, Dang Mo; Kwon, Jae-Taek; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Ju Hwan; Lee, Bum-Joo; Shin, Jin-Koog

    2012-06-01

    While investigating polymer light emitting diodes (polymer-LEDs) fabricated by solution process, surface roughness influences electro-optical (E-O) characteristics. We expect that E-O characteristics such as luminance and power efficiency related to surface roughness and layer thickness of emitting layer with poly-9-Vinylcarbazole. In this study, we fabricated polymer organic light emitting diodes by solution process which guarantees easy, eco-friendly and low cost manufacturing for flexible display applications. In order to obtain high luminescence efficiency, E-O characteristics of these devices by varying parameters for printing process have been investigated. Therefore, we optimized process condition for polymer-LEDs by adjusting annealing temperatures of emission, thickness of emission layer showing efficiency (10.8 cd/A) at 10 mA/cm2. We also checked wavelength dependent electroluminescence spectrum in order to find the correlation between the variation of efficiency and the thickness of the layer.

  19. Controlled Thermal-Mechanical Processing of Tubes and Pipes for Enhanced Manufacturing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Robert V.

    2005-11-11

    The Alloy Steel Business of The Timken Company won an award for the controlled thermo-mechanical processing (CTMP) project and assembled a strong international public/private partnership to execute the project. The premise of the CTMP work was to combine Timken's product understanding with its process expertise and knowledge of metallurgical and deformation fundamentals developed during the project to build a predictive process design capability. The CTMP effort succeeded in delivering a pc-based capability in the tube optimization model, with a virtual pilot plant (VPP) feature to represent the desired tube making process to predict the resultant microstructure tailored for the desired application. Additional tasks included a system for direct, online measurement of grain size and demonstration of application of CTMP via robotically enhanced manufacturing.

  20. Artificial neural networks in variable process control: application in particleboard manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, L. G.; Garcia Fernandez, F.; Palacios, P. de; Conde, M.

    2009-07-01

    Artificial neural networks are an efficient tool for modelling production control processes using data from the actual production as well as simulated or design of experiments data. In this study two artificial neural networks were combined with the control process charts and it was checked whether the data obtained by the networks were valid for variable process control in particleboard manufacture. The networks made it possible to obtain the mean and standard deviation of the internal bond strength of the particleboard within acceptable margins using known data of thickness, density, moisture content, swelling and absorption. The networks obtained met the acceptance criteria for test values from non-standard test methods, as well as the criteria for using these values in statistical process control. (Author) 47 refs.

  1. Cold pressure welding of aluminium-steel blanks: Manufacturing process and electrochemical surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans Christian; Homberg, Werner; Orive, Alejandro Gonzalez; Grundmeier, Guido; Hordych, Illia; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    In this study the manufacture of aluminium-steel blanks by cold pressure welding and their preparation for a welding process through electrochemical surface treatment are investigated and discussed. The cold pressure welding process was done with an incremental rolling tool that allows for the partial pressure welding of two blanks along a prepared path. The influence of the surface preparation by electrochemical deposition of bond promoting organosilane-based agents and roughening on a nano-scale is investigated and compared to conventional surface treatments. Coating the surfaces with a thin organosilane-based film incorporating specific functional groups should promote additional bonding between the mating oxide layers; its influence on the total weld strength is studied. Pressure welding requires suitable process strategies, and the current advances in the proposed incremental rolling process for the combination of mild steel and aluminium are presented.

  2. Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with R-134a and polyolester lubricant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schooley, D.L. [Imagination Resources, Inc., Dublin, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This report includes a broad list of processing fluids that are known to be used to manufacture air conditioning and refrigeration products. Sixty-four process fluids from this list were selected for compatibility studies with R-134a and ICI EMKARATE RL32H (32 ISO) polyolester lubricant. Solutions or suspensions of the process fluid residues in polyolester lubricant were heated for 14 days at 175{degrees}C (347{degrees}F) in evacuated sealed glass tubes containing only valve steel coupons. Miscibility tests were performed at 90 wt.% R-134a, 10 wt.% polyolester lubricant with process fluid residue contaminate and were scanned in 10{degrees}C (18{degrees}F) increments over a temperature range of ambient to -40{degrees}C (-40{degrees}F). Any sign of turbidity, haze formation or oil separation was considered the immiscibility point.

  3. Manufacturing Process Developments for Regeneratively-Cooled Channel Wall Rocket Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Brandsmeier, Will

    2016-01-01

    Regeneratively cooled channel wall nozzles incorporate a series of integral coolant channels to contain the coolant to maintain adequate wall temperatures and expand hot gas providing engine thrust and specific impulse. NASA has been evaluating manufacturing techniques targeting large scale channel wall nozzles to support affordability of current and future liquid rocket engine nozzles and thrust chamber assemblies. The development of these large scale manufacturing techniques focus on the liner formation, channel slotting with advanced abrasive water-jet milling techniques and closeout of the coolant channels to replace or augment other cost reduction techniques being evaluated for nozzles. NASA is developing a series of channel closeout techniques including large scale additive manufacturing laser deposition and explosively bonded closeouts. A series of subscale nozzles were completed evaluating these processes. Fabrication of mechanical test and metallography samples, in addition to subscale hardware has focused on Inconel 625, 300 series stainless, aluminum alloys as well as other candidate materials. Evaluations of these techniques are demonstrating potential for significant cost reductions for large scale nozzles and chambers. Hot fire testing is planned using these techniques in the future.

  4. Design process optimization, virtual prototyping of manufacturing, and foundry-portable DFM (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, James; Progler, Christopher; Chatila, Ahmad; Bruggeman, Bert; Heins, Mitchell; Pack, Robert; Boksha, Victor

    2005-05-01

    We consider modern design for manufacturing (DFM) as a manifestation of IC industry re-integration and intensive cost management dynamics. In that regard DFM is somewhat different from so-called design for yield (DFY) which essentially focuses on productivity (yield) management (that is not to say that DFM and DFY do not have significant overlaps and interactions). We clearly see the shaping of a new "full-chip DFM" infrastructure on the background of the "back to basics" design-manufacturing re-integration dynamics. In the presented work we are focusing on required DFM-efficiencies in a "foundry-fabless" link. Concepts of "virtual prototyping of manufacturing", "design process optimization", and "foundry-portable DFM" models are explored. Both senior management of the industry and leading design groups finally realize the need for a radical change of design styles. Some of the DFM super-goals are to isolate designers from process details and to make designs foundry portable. It requires qualification of designs at different foundries. In their turn, foundries specified and are implementing a set of DFM rules: "action-required", "recommended", and "guidelines" while asking designers to provide netlist and testing information. Also, we observe strong signs of innovation coming back to the mask industry. Powerful solutions are emerging and shaping up toward mask-centered IP as a business. While it seems that pure-play foundries have found their place for now in the "IDM+" model (supporting manufacturing capacity of IDMs) it is not obvious how sustainable the model is. Wafer as a production unit is not sufficient anymore; foundries are being asked by large customers to price products in terms of good die. It brings back the notion of the old ASIC business model where the foundry is responsible for dealing with both random and systematic yield issues for a given design. One scenario of future development would be that some of the leading foundries might eventually

  5. Sensor-based atomic layer deposition for rapid process learning and enhanced manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei

    In the search for sensor based atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to accelerate process learning and enhance manufacturability, we have explored new reactor designs and applied in-situ process sensing to W and HfO 2 ALD processes. A novel wafer scale ALD reactor, which features fast gas switching, good process sensing compatibility and significant similarity to the real manufacturing environment, is constructed. The reactor has a unique movable reactor cap design that allows two possible operation modes: (1) steady-state flow with alternating gas species; or (2) fill-and-pump-out cycling of each gas, accelerating the pump-out by lifting the cap to employ the large chamber volume as ballast. Downstream quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) sampling is applied for in-situ process sensing of tungsten ALD process. The QMS reveals essential surface reaction dynamics through real-time signals associated with byproduct generation as well as precursor introduction and depletion for each ALD half cycle, which are then used for process learning and optimization. More subtle interactions such as imperfect surface saturation and reactant dose interaction are also directly observed by QMS, indicating that ALD process is more complicated than the suggested layer-by-layer growth. By integrating in real-time the byproduct QMS signals over each exposure and plotting it against process cycle number, the deposition kinetics on the wafer is directly measured. For continuous ALD runs, the total integrated byproduct QMS signal in each ALD run is also linear to ALD film thickness, and therefore can be used for ALD film thickness metrology. The in-situ process sensing is also applied to HfO2 ALD process that is carried out in a furnace type ALD reactor. Precursor dose end-point control is applied to precisely control the precursor dose in each half cycle. Multiple process sensors, including quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and QMS are used to provide real time process information. The

  6. The Colloidal Stabilization of Quantum Dots: Towards Manufacturable, Efficient Solution-Processed Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollny, Lisa

    Understanding colloidal stabilization can influence the design of optoelectronic devices and enable improvements to their performance and stability. For photovoltaics, important characteristics of the active layer material are high conductivity along with a minimum of recombination centers. In order to capitalize on the benefits of solution-processed materials, it is important to minimize the number of processing steps: ideally, to achieve a low-cost solution, materials would be deposited using a single process step compatible with roll-to-roll manufacturing. Prior to this work, the highest-performing colloidal quantum dots (CQD) solar cells have relied on several deposition steps that are repeated in a layer-by-layer (LBL) fashion. The purpose of these process steps has been to remove the long insulating ligands used in synthesis and replace them with short ligands that allow electrical conduction. The large number of steps combined, typically implemented via spin coating, leads to inefficient materials utilization and fails to show a path to a manufacturable solution. In this work, the first CQD solar cells were designed, built, and characterized combining state-of-art performance with scalable manufacture. Firstly, I report the first automated CQD synthesis to result in CQDs that form high-performance CQD solar cells. I analyze the CQD synthesis and by separating it into two phases---nucleation and growth phase---my insights are used to create higher-quality CQDs exhibiting enhanced monodispersity. I then proceed to develop a CQD ink: a CQD solution ready for direct deposition to form a semiconducting film exhibiting low trap state density. In early trials the CQD ink showed only limited power conversion efficiencies of 2%. I designed a new ink strategy, which I term cleavable hemiketal ligands. This novel two-component ligand strategy enables the combination of colloidal stabilization (via this longer two-component ligand) and cleavability (enabling excellent

  7. Technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) influenza vaccine manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Barry; Boulanger, Robert; Fino, Mireli; Srivastava, Indresh; Holtz, Kathy; Khramtsov, Nikolai; McPherson, Clifton; Meghrous, Jamal; Kubera, Paul; Cox, Manon M J

    2014-09-22

    Multiple different hemagglutinin (HA) protein antigens have been reproducibly manufactured at the 650L scale by Protein Sciences Corporation (PSC) based on an insect cell culture with baculovirus infection. Significantly, these HA protein antigens were produced by the same Universal Manufacturing process as described in the biological license application (BLA) for the first recombinant influenza vaccine approved by the FDA (Flublok). The technology is uniquely designed so that a change in vaccine composition can be readily accommodated from one HA protein antigen to another one. Here we present a vaccine candidate to combat the recently emerged H7N9 virus as an example starting with the genetic sequence for the required HA, creation of the baculovirus and ending with purified protein antigen (or vaccine component) at the 10L scale accomplished within 38 days under GMP conditions. The same process performance is being achieved at the 2L, 10L, 100L, 650L and 2500L scale. An illustration is given of how the technology was transferred from the benchmark 650L scale facility to a retrofitted microbial facility at the 2500L scale within 100 days which includes the time for facility engineering changes. The successful development, technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok process has major implications for being ready to make vaccine rapidly on a worldwide scale as a defense against pandemic influenza. The technology described does not have the same vulnerability to mutations in the egg adapted strain, and resulting loss in vaccine efficacy, faced by egg based manufacture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards energy and resource efficient manufacturing: A processes and systems approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duflou, Joost R.; Sutherland, John W.; Dornfeld, David

    2012-01-01

    , distinguishing different system scale levels, is applied: starting from a unit process focus, respectively the multi-machine, factory, multi-facility and supply chain levels are covered. Determined by the research contributions reported in literature, the de facto focus of the paper is mainly on energy related......This paper aims to provide a systematic overview of the state of the art in energy and resource efficiency increasing methods and techniques in the domain of discrete part manufacturing, with attention for the effectiveness of the available options. For this purpose a structured approach...

  9. Investigation of the influence of the manufacturing process on the mechanical and microstructural properties of alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madruga, T.P.; Costa, C.R.C. da

    1986-01-01

    High-purity samples of alumina, without any sintering additives, were prepared using the techniques of slip casting and cold unidirectional pressing. The same sintering parameters (temperature, time and heating and cooling rates) were used for all samples. The mechanical strenght, critical flow strenght (mode I), average grain size and porosity were measured on samples manufactured using both methods. The influence of the manufaturing process on the quality of the finished pieces was inferred from the comparison and evaluation of the results for the two sets of samples. (Author) [pt

  10. Preliminary reduction of chromium ore using Si sludge generated in silicon wafer manufacturing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung W.-G.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote the recycling of by-product from Si wafer manufacturing process and to develop environment-friend and low cost process for ferrochrome alloy production, a basic study was performed on the preliminary reduction reaction between chromium ore and the Si sludge, comprised of SiC and Si particles, which is recovered from the Si wafer manufacturing process for the semiconductor and solar cell industries. Pellets were first made by mixing chromium ore, Si sludge, and some binders in the designed mixing ratios and were then treated at different temperatures in the 1116°C–1388°C range in an ambient atmosphere. Cordierite and SiO2 were confirmed to be formed in the products after the reduction. Additionally, metal particles were observed in the product with Fe, Cr, and Si components. It is found that temperatures above 1300°C are necessary for the reduction of the chromium ore by the Si sludge. The reduction ratio for Fe was evaluated quantitatively for our experimental conditions, and the proper mixing ratio was suggested for the pre-reduction of the chromium ore by the Si sludge. This study provides basic information for the production of ferrochrome alloys on the pre-reduction of chromium ore using Si sludge.

  11. Leveraging Lean in construction: A case study of a BIM-based HVAC manufacturing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Conway

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impetus towards efficiency in the AECO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction & Operations sector is driving the implementation of Lean practices. BIM technologies and BIM processes provide methods by which this can be achieved. Major clients of building services contractors have begun to mandate the use of BIM and some are using BIM preparedness/experience as pre-tender qualification criteria. In this case study, an initial review has been conducted of the achievements of a major Irish M&E contractor in implementing BIM. The firm purpose-built a facility for the off-site manufacture of building services components. The operations of the plant are efficient and quality assured through the use of an appropriately skilled workforce at all stages of manufacture, and tracking software that has developed as the knowledge of the contractor grew. Standardised processes have been developed which have resulted in greater efficiencies and lower costs for the contractor as a result of fewer requirements for onsite modifications (such as those caused by clashes, less waste, and greater flexibility. Despite some initial objections, the employees of the company are now more satisfied with their working conditions and are, as a result, more productive. Through investment in BIM-based, Lean processes, the contractor can now better compete when tendering for large-scale projects in Ireland and worldwide, including the rapidly-increasing number where BIM experience and preparedness is mandated.

  12. Advanced treatment of acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater with a combined microbubble-ozonation/ultraviolet irradiation process

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Tianlong; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Qunhui; Tian, Yanli; Shi, Zhining; Smale, Nicholas; Xu, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the effectiveness of a combination of microbubble-ozonation and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for the treatment of secondary wastewater effluent of a wet-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing plant. Under reactor condition (ozone dosage of 48 mg L-1, UV fluence rate of 90 mW cm-2, initial pH of 8.0, and reaction time of 120 min), the biodegradability (represented as BOD5/CODcr) of the wastewater improved from 0.18 to 0.47. This improvement in biodegradability is related to the degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and other bio-refractory organic compounds. The combination of microbubble-ozonation and UV irradiation synergistically improved treatment efficiencies by 228%, 29%, and 142% for CODcr, UV254 removal and BOD5/CODcr respectively after 120 min reaction time, as compared with the sum efficiency of microbubble-ozonation alone and UV irradiation alone. Hydroxyl radical production in the microbubble-ozonation/UV process was about 1.8 times higher than the sum production in microbubble-ozonation alone and UV irradiation alone. The ozone decomposition rate in the combined process was about 4.1 times higher than that in microbubble-ozonation alone. The microbubble-ozonation/UV process could be a promising technique for the treatment of bio-refractory organics in the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry. © 2015 Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Characterizing performances of solder paste printing process at flexible manufacturing lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siew, Jit Ping; Low, Heng Chin; Teoh, Ping Chow

    2015-01-01

    Solder paste printing (SPP) has been a challenge on printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing, evident by the proliferation of solder paste inspection equipment, or substituted by rigorous non-value added activity of manual inspections. The objective of this study is to characterize the SPP performance of various products manufactured in flexible production lines with different equipment configurations, and determine areas for process improvement. The study began by collecting information on SPP performance relative to component placement (CP) process, and to the proportion of mixed products. Using a clustering algorithm to group similar elements together, SPP performance across all product-production line pairs are statistically modeled to discover the trend and the influential factors. The main findings are: (a) Ratio of overall dpku for CP and SPP processes are 2:1; (b) logistic regression models of SPP performance indicated that only effects of product-production line and solder paste printer configuration are significant; (c) PCB circuitry design with BGA components and single solder paste printer line configurations generated the highest monthly defects, with the highest variation in the latter

  14. Characterizing performances of solder paste printing process at flexible manufacturing lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siew, Jit Ping; Low, Heng Chin [University of Science Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Teoh, Ping Chow [Wawasan Open University, 54 Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 10050 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Solder paste printing (SPP) has been a challenge on printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing, evident by the proliferation of solder paste inspection equipment, or substituted by rigorous non-value added activity of manual inspections. The objective of this study is to characterize the SPP performance of various products manufactured in flexible production lines with different equipment configurations, and determine areas for process improvement. The study began by collecting information on SPP performance relative to component placement (CP) process, and to the proportion of mixed products. Using a clustering algorithm to group similar elements together, SPP performance across all product-production line pairs are statistically modeled to discover the trend and the influential factors. The main findings are: (a) Ratio of overall dpku for CP and SPP processes are 2:1; (b) logistic regression models of SPP performance indicated that only effects of product-production line and solder paste printer configuration are significant; (c) PCB circuitry design with BGA components and single solder paste printer line configurations generated the highest monthly defects, with the highest variation in the latter.

  15. ASPIE: A Framework for Active Sensing and Processing of Complex Events in the Internet of Manufacturing Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid perception and processing of critical monitoring events are essential to ensure healthy operation of Internet of Manufacturing Things (IoMT-based manufacturing processes. In this paper, we proposed a framework (active sensing and processing architecture (ASPIE for active sensing and processing of critical events in IoMT-based manufacturing based on the characteristics of IoMT architecture as well as its perception model. A relation model of complex events in manufacturing processes, together with related operators and unified XML-based semantic definitions, are developed to effectively process the complex event big data. A template based processing method for complex events is further introduced to conduct complex event matching using the Apriori frequent item mining algorithm. To evaluate the proposed models and methods, we developed a software platform based on ASPIE for a local chili sauce manufacturing company, which demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods for active perception and processing of complex events in IoMT-based manufacturing.

  16. An artificial vision solution for reusing discarded parts resulted after a manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.; Cohal, A.

    2016-08-01

    The profit of a factory can be improved by reusing the discarded components produced. This paper is based on the case of a manufacturing process where rectangular metallic sheets of different sizes are produced. Using an artificial vision system, the shapes and the sizes of the produced parts can be determined. Those sheets which do not respect the requirements imposed are labeled as discarded. Instead of throwing these parts, a decision algorithm can analyze if another metallic sheet with smaller dimensions can be obtained from these. Two methods of decision are presented in this paper, considering the restriction that the sides of the new sheet has to be parallel with the axis of the coordinate system. The coordinates of each new part obtained from a discarded sheet are computed in order to be delivered to a milling machine. Details about implementing these algorithms (image processing and decision respectively) in the MATLAB environment using Image Processing Toolbox are given.

  17. Fuzzy methods in decision making process - A particular approach in manufacturing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroiu, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    We are living in a competitive environment, so we can see and understand that the most of manufacturing firms do the best in order to accomplish meeting demand, increasing quality, decreasing costs, and delivery rate. In present a stake point of interest is represented by the development of fuzzy technology. A particular approach for this is represented through the development of methodologies to enhance the ability to managed complicated optimization and decision making aspects involving non-probabilistic uncertainty with the reason to understand, development, and practice the fuzzy technologies to be used in fields such as economic, engineering, management, and societal problems. Fuzzy analysis represents a method for solving problems which are related to uncertainty and vagueness; it is used in multiple areas, such as engineering and has applications in decision making problems, planning and production. As a definition for decision making process we can use the next one: result of mental processes based upon cognitive process with a main role in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every process of decision making can be represented as a result of a final choice and the output can be represented as an action or as an opinion of choice. Different types of uncertainty can be discovered in a wide variety of optimization and decision making problems related to planning and operation of power systems and subsystems. The mixture of the uncertainty factor in the construction of different models serves for increasing their adequacy and, as a result, the reliability and factual efficiency of decisions based on their analysis. Another definition of decision making process which came to illustrate and sustain the necessity of using fuzzy method: the decision making is an approach of choosing a strategy among many different projects in order to achieve some purposes and is formulated as three different models: high risk decision, usual risk

  18. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  19. A Soft Tooling process chain employing Additive Manufacturing for injection molding of a 3D component with micro pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Pedersen, David Bue; Segebrecht Gøtje, Asger

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is to investigate the capability of a soft tooling process chain employing Additive Manufacturing (AM) for preproduction of an insert with micro features by injection molding. The Soft Tooling insert was manufactured in a high temperature...... photopolymer by Digital Light Processing (vat photopolymerization). The mold cavity was formed by two insert halves, by design; both inserts have four angled tines, with micro holes (Ø200 μm, 200 μm deep) on the surface. Injection molding with polyethylene was used with the soft tool inserts to manufacture...

  20. Pretreatment of Real Wastewater from the Chocolate Manufacturing Industry through an Integrated Process of Electrocoagulation and Sand Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    García-Morales, Marco A.; Juárez, Julio César González; Martínez-Gallegos, Sonia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Peralta, Ever; del Campo López, Eduardo Martin; Barrera-Díaz, Carlos; Miranda, Verónica Martínez; Blancas, Teresa Torres

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of suspended solids in terms of turbidity, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) when integrating the electrocoagulation process using aluminum sacrificial anodes and the sand filtration process as a pretreatment of wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing plant in Toluca, México. Wastewater from the chocolate manufacturing industry used in this study is classified as nontoxic, but is characterized as having a high conte...

  1. Quick Green Scan: A Methodology for Improving Green Performance in Terms of Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Kluczek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The heating sector has begun implementing technologies and practices to tackle the environmental and social–economic problems caused by their production process. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology, “the Quick-Green-Scan”, that caters for the need of quick assessment decision-makers to improve green manufacturing performance in companies that produce heating devices. The study uses a structured approach that integrates Life Cycle Assessment-based indicators, framework and linguistic scales (fuzzy numbers to evaluate the extent of greening of the enterprise. The evaluation criteria and indicators are closely related to the current state of technology, which can be improved. The proposed methodology has been created to answer the question whether a company acts on the opportunity to be green and whether these actions are contributing towards greening, maintaining the status quo or moving away from a green outcome. Results show that applying the proposed improvements in processes helps move the facility towards being a green enterprise. Moreover, the methodology, being particularly quick and simple, is a practical tool for benchmarking, not only in the heating industry, but also proves useful in providing comparisons for facility performance in other manufacturing sectors.

  2. Effects of manufacturing process on impact properties and microstructures of ODS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanno, Takashi, E-mail: tanno.takashi@jaea.go.jp; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Kaito, Takeji; Tanaka, Kenya

    2014-12-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are notable advanced alloys with durability to a high-temperature and high-dose neutron irradiation environment because of their good swelling resistance and mechanical properties under neutron irradiation. 9–12Cr-ODS martensite steels have been developed in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency as the primary candidate material for the fast reactor fuel cladding tubes. They would also be good candidates for the fusion reactor blanket material which is exposed to high-dose neutron irradiation. In this work, modification of the manufacturing process of 11Cr-ODS steel was carried out to improve its impact property. Two types of 11Cr-ODS steels were manufactured: pre-mix and full pre-alloy ODS steels. Miniature Charpy impact tests and metallurgical observations were carried out on these steels. The impact properties of full pre-alloy ODS steels were shown to be superior to those of pre-mix ODS steels. It was demonstrated that the full pre-alloy process noticeably improved the microstructure homogeneity (i.e. reduction of inclusions and pores)

  3. Development of an Improved Process for Installation Projects of High Technology Manufacturing Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, Sarah V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-30

    High technology manufacturing equipment is utilized at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support nuclear missions. This is undertaken from concept initiation where equipment is designed and then taken through several review phases, working closely with system engineers (SEs) responsible for each of the affected systems or involved disciplines (from gasses to HVAC to structural, etc.). After the design is finalized it moves to procurement and custom fabrication of the equipment and equipment installation, including all of the paperwork involved. Not only are the engineering and manufacturing aspects important, but also the scheduling, financial forecasting, and planning portions that take place initially and are sometimes modified as the project progresses should requirements, changes or additions become necessary. The process required to complete a project of this type, including equipment installation, is unique and involves numerous steps to complete. These processes can be improved and recent work on the Direct Current Arc (DC Arc) Glovebox Design, Fabrication and Installation Project provides an opportunity to identify some important lessons learned (LL) that can be implemented in the future for continued project improvement and success.

  4. Investigation into the use of microwave sensors to monitor particulate manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, John Samuel, III

    Knowledge of a material's properties in-line during manufacture is of critical importance to many industries, including the pharmaceutical industry, and can be used for either process or quality control. Different microwave sensor configurations were tested to determine both the moisture content and the bulk density in pharmaceutical powders during processing on-line. Although these parameters can significantly affect a material's flowability, compressibility, and cohesivity, in the presence of blends, the picture is incomplete. Due to the ease with which particulate blends tend to segregate, blend uniformity and chemical composition are two critical parameters in nearly all solids manufacturing industries. The prevailing wisdom has been that microwave sensors are not capable of or sensitive enough to measure the relative concentrations of components in a blend. Consequently, it is common to turn to near infrared sensing to determine material composition on-line. In this study, a novel microwave sensor was designed and utilized to determine, separately, the concentrations of different components in a blend of pharmaceutical powders. This custom microwave sensor was shown to have comparable accuracy to the state-of-the-art for both chemical composition and moisture content determination.

  5. Microwave processing of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendola, Martin; Saha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Because of their favorable mechanical properties and natural esthetics, ceramics are widely used in restorative dentistry. The conventional ceramic sintering process required for their use is usually slow, however, and the equipment has an elevated energy consumption. Sintering processes that use microwaves have several advantages compared to regular sintering: shorter processing times, lower energy consumption, and the capacity for volumetric heating. The objective of this study was to test the mechanical properties of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) after the specimens were processed with microwave hybrid sintering. Density, hardness, and bending strength were measured. When ceramic specimens were sintered with microwaves, the processing times were reduced and protocols were simplified. Hardness was improved almost 20% compared to regular sintering, and flexural strength measurements suggested that specimens were approximately 50% stronger than specimens sintered in a conventional system. Microwave hybrid sintering may preserve or improve the mechanical properties of dental ceramics designed for CAD/CAM processing systems, reducing processing and waiting times.

  6. Lean manufacturing analysis to reduce waste on production process of fan products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Nasution, A. A.; Andayani, U.; Sari, R. M.; Syahputri, K.; Anizar

    2018-02-01

    This research is based on case study that being on electrical company. One of the products that will be researched is the fan, which when running the production process there is a time that is not value-added, among others, the removal of material which is not efficient in the raw materials and component molding fan. This study aims to reduce waste or non-value added activities and shorten the total lead time by using the tools Value Stream Mapping. Lean manufacturing methods used to analyze and reduce the non-value added activities, namely the value stream mapping analysis tools, process mapping activity with 5W1H, and tools 5 whys. Based on the research note that no value-added activities in the production process of a fan of 647.94 minutes of total lead time of 725.68 minutes. Process cycle efficiency in the production process indicates that the fan is still very low at 11%. While estimates of the repair showed a decrease in total lead time became 340.9 minutes and the process cycle efficiency is greater by 24%, which indicates that the production process has been better.

  7. The ergonomics approach for thin film transistor-liquid crystal display manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Wei; Yao, Chia-Chun; Kuo, Chein-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) has been used all over the world. Although the manufacture process of TFT-LCD was highly automated, employees are hired to do manual job in module assembly process. The operators may have high risk of musculoskeletal disorders because of the long work hours and the repetitive activities in an unfitted work station. The tools of this study were questionnaire, checklist and to evaluate the work place design. The result shows that the participants reported high musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in shoulder (59.8%), neck (49.5%), wrist (39.5%), and upper back (30.6%). And, to reduce the ergonomic risk factors, revising the height of the work benches, chairs and redesigning the truck to decrease the chance of unsuitable positions were recommended and to reduce other ergonomics hazards and seta good human machine interface and appropriate job design.

  8. A Case Study of Analysis of Natural Frequency Variability Related to Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Uhl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important challenges present nowadays in the automotive industry is minimizing of a car components design time. Traditional manufacturing of a prototype is usually a time and a cost consuming process. Alternatively, rapid prototyping techniques can be used in such a case. In the reported research a brake caliper was investigated, since it is an example of an element, which should have very strictly defined structural dynamic properties. As a technique of rapid prototyping of the considered caliper the 3D printing of a mould was selected. A process of the caliper casting with the use of the "prototype" mould is different than the one with the use of the metal form. Thus it is very likely that the both considered types of the caliper would possess different properties from the point of view of structural dynamics.

  9. A novel scalable manufacturing process for the production of hydrogel-forming microneedle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Rebecca E M; Larrañeta, Eneko; Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Boyd, Peter; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2015-10-15

    A novel manufacturing process for fabricating microneedle arrays (MN) has been designed and evaluated. The prototype is able to successfully produce 14×14 MN arrays and is easily capable of scale-up, enabling the transition from laboratory to industry and subsequent commercialisation. The method requires the custom design of metal MN master templates to produce silicone MN moulds using an injection moulding process. The MN arrays produced using this novel method was compared with centrifugation, the traditional method of producing aqueous hydrogel-forming MN arrays. The results proved that there was negligible difference between either methods, with each producing MN arrays with comparable quality. Both types of MN arrays can be successfully inserted in a skin simulant. In both cases the insertion depth was approximately 60% of the needle length and the height reduction after insertion was in both cases approximately 3%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Micro injection moulding process validation for high precision manufacture of thermoplastic elastomer micro suspension rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, M.; Tosello, G.; Elsborg Hansen, R.

    Micro injection moulding (μIM) is one of the most suitable micro manufacturing processes for flexible mass-production of multi-material functional micro components. The technology was employed in this research used to produce thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) micro suspension rings identified...... main μIM process parameters (melt temperature, injection speed, packing pressure) using the Design of Experiment statistical technique. Measurements results demonstrated the importance of calibrating mould´s master geometries to ensure correct part production and effective quality conformance...... on the frequency in order to improve the signal quality and assure acoustic reproduction fidelity. Production quality of the TPE rings drastically influence the product functionality. In the present study, a procedure for μIM TPE micro rings production optimization has been established. The procedure entail using...

  11. Analysis of microstructure and microtexture in grain-oriented electrical steel (GOES during manufacturing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Volodarskaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The final Goss texture in grain-oriented electrical steels (GOES is affected by microstructure evolution and inheritance during the whole production process. This paper presents the results of detailed microtexture and microstructure investigations on GOES after the basic steps of the industrial AlN + Cu manufacturing process: hot rolling, first cold rolling + decarburization annealing, second cold rolling and final high temperature annealing. Microstructure studies showed that a copper addition to GOES affected solubility of sulphides. Copper rich sulphides dissolved during hot rolling and re-precipitated during decarburization annealing. An intensive precipitation of AlN and Si3N4 took place during decarburization annealing. No ε - Cu precipitation was detected. After high temperature annealing the misorientation of individual grains reached up to 8°.

  12. Implementation of lean manufacturing for frozen fish process at PT. XYZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyawan, D. T.; Pertiwijaya, H. R.; Effendi, U.

    2018-03-01

    PT. XYZ is a company specialized in the processing of fishery products particularly in frozen fish fillet. The purpose of this research was to identify the type of waste and determine the recommendations of minimizing waste Lean manufacturing approach was used in the identification of waste by describing the Value Stream Mapping (VSM) and selecting tools in the Value Stream Analysis Tools (VALSAT). The results of this research showed that the highest waste that generated was the defect of leak packaging on fillet products with an average of 1.21%. In addition to defect, other insufficiencies were found such as: unnecessary motion, unnecessary overhead, and waiting time. Recommendations for improvements that given include reduction of time at several stages of the process, making production schedules, and conducting regular machine maintenance. VSM analysis shows reduced lead time of 582.04 minutes to 572.01 minutes.

  13. State-of-the-Art Multi-Objective Optimisation of Manufacturing Processes Based on Thermo-Mechanical Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2011-01-01

    During the last couple of decades the possibility of modelling multi-physics phenomena has increased dramatically, thus making simulation of very complex manufacturing processes possible and in some fields even an everyday event. A consequence of this has been improved products with respect...... competition between manufacturers of products in combination with the possibility of doing these highly complex simulations. Thus, there is a crucial need for combining advanced simulation tools for manufacturing processes with systematic optimisation algorithms which are capable of searching for single....... These limitations eventually determine what is in fact possible today and hence define what the “state-of-the-art” is. So, seen from that perspective the very definition of the state-of-the-art itself in the field of optimisation of manufacturing processes constitutes an important discussion. Moreover, in the major...

  14. Equipment characterization to mitigate risks during transfers of cell culture manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieblist, Christian; Jenzsch, Marco; Pohlscheidt, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The production of monoclonal antibodies by mammalian cell culture in bioreactors up to 25,000 L is state of the art technology in the biotech industry. During the lifecycle of a product, several scale up activities and technology transfers are typically executed to enable the supply chain strategy of a global pharmaceutical company. Given the sensitivity of mammalian cells to physicochemical culture conditions, process and equipment knowledge are critical to avoid impacts on timelines, product quantity and quality. Especially, the fluid dynamics of large scale bioreactors versus small scale models need to be described, and similarity demonstrated, in light of the Quality by Design approach promoted by the FDA. This approach comprises an associated design space which is established during process characterization and validation in bench scale bioreactors. Therefore the establishment of predictive models and simulation tools for major operating conditions of stirred vessels (mixing, mass transfer, and shear force.), based on fundamental engineering principles, have experienced a renaissance in the recent years. This work illustrates the systematic characterization of a large variety of bioreactor designs deployed in a global manufacturing network ranging from small bench scale equipment to large scale production equipment (25,000 L). Several traditional methods to determine power input, mixing, mass transfer and shear force have been used to create a data base and identify differences for various impeller types and configurations in operating ranges typically applied in cell culture processes at manufacturing scale. In addition, extrapolation of different empirical models, e.g. Cooke et al. (Paper presented at the proceedings of the 2nd international conference of bioreactor fluid dynamics, Cranfield, UK, 1988), have been assessed for their validity in these operational ranges. Results for selected designs are shown and serve as examples of structured

  15. Detection of Prion Proteins and TSE Infectivity in the Rendering and Biodiesel Manufacture Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.; Keller, B.; Oleschuk, R. [Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-03-15

    This paper addresses emerging issues related to monitoring prion proteins and TSE infectivity in the products and waste streams of rendering and biodiesel manufacture processes. Monitoring is critical to addressing the knowledge gaps identified in 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction' (IEA's AMF Annex XXX, 2006) that prevent comprehensive risk assessment of TSE infectivity in products and waste. The most important challenge for monitoring TSE risk is the wide variety of sample types, which are generated at different points in the rendering/biodiesel production continuum. Conventional transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) assays were developed for specified risk material (SRM) and other biological tissues. These, however, are insufficient to address the diverse sample matrices produced in rendering and biodiesel manufacture. This paper examines the sample types expected in rendering and biodiesel manufacture and the implications of applying TSE assay methods to them. The authors then discuss a sample preparation filtration, which has not yet been applied to these sample types, but which has the potential to provide or significantly improve TSE monitoring. The main improvement will come from transfer of the prion proteins from the sample matrix to a matrix compatible with conventional and emerging bioassays. A second improvement will come from preconcentrating the prion proteins, which means transferring proteins from a larger sample volume into a smaller volume for analysis to provide greater detection sensitivity. This filtration method may also be useful for monitoring other samples, including wash waters and other waste streams, which may contain SRM, including those from abattoirs and on-farm operations. Finally, there is a discussion of emerging mass spectrometric methods, which Prusiner and others have shown to be suitable for detection and characterisation of prion proteins (Stahl

  16. An Integrated Open Approach to Capturing Systematic Knowledge for Manufacturing Process Innovation Based on Collective Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Process innovation plays a vital role in the manufacture realization of increasingly complex new products, especially in the context of sustainable development and cleaner production. Knowledge-based innovation design can inspire designers’ creative thinking; however, the existing scattered knowledge has not yet been properly captured and organized according to Computer-Aided Process Innovation (CAPI. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated approach to tackle this non-trivial issue. By analyzing the design process of CAPI and technical features of open innovation, a novel holistic paradigm of process innovation knowledge capture based on collective intelligence (PIKC-CI is constructed from the perspective of the knowledge life cycle. Then, a multi-source innovation knowledge fusion algorithm based on semantic elements reconfiguration is applied to form new public knowledge. To ensure the credibility and orderliness of innovation knowledge refinement, a collaborative editing strategy based on knowledge lock and knowledge–social trust degree is explored. Finally, a knowledge management system MPI-OKCS integrating the proposed techniques is implemented into the pre-built CAPI general platform, and a welding process innovation example is provided to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. It is expected that our work would lay the foundation for the future knowledge-inspired CAPI and smart process planning.

  17. Characterization of Ti and Co based biomaterials processed via laser based additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu

    Titanium and Cobalt based metallic materials are currently the most ideal materials for load-bearing metallic bio medical applications. However, the long term tribological degradation of these materials still remains a problem that needs a solution. To improve the tribological performance of these two metallic systems, three different research approaches were adapted, stemming out four different research projects. First, the simplicity of laser gas nitriding was utilized with a modern LENS(TM) technology to form an in situ nitride rich later in titanium substrate material. This nitride rich composite coating improved the hardness by as much as fifteen times and reduced the wear rate by more than a magnitude. The leaching of metallic ions during wear was also reduced by four times. In the second research project, a mixture of titanium and silicon were processed on a titanium substrate in a nitrogen rich environment. The results of this reactive, in situ additive manufacturing process were Ti-Si-Nitride coatings that were harder than the titanium substrate by more than twenty times. These coatings also reduced the wear rate by more than two magnitudes. In the third research approach, composites of CoCrMo alloy and Calcium phosphate (CaP) bio ceramic were processed using LENS(TM) based additive manufacturing. These composites were effective in reducing the wear in the CoCrMo alloy by more than three times as well as reduce the leaching of cobalt and chromium ions during wear. The novel composite materials were found to develop a tribofilm during wear. In the final project, a combination of hard nitride coating and addition of CaP bioceramic was investigated by processing a mixture of Ti6Al4V alloy and CaP in a nitrogen rich environment using the LENS(TM) technology. The resultant Ti64-CaP-Nitride coatings significantly reduced the wear damage on the substrate. There was also a drastic reduction in the metal ions leached during wear. The results indicate that the three

  18. Implementing high-temperature short-time media treatment in commercial-scale cell culture manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlscheidt, Michael; Charaniya, Salim; Kulenovic, Fikret; Corrales, Mahalia; Shiratori, Masaru; Bourret, Justin; Meier, Steven; Fallon, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The production of therapeutic proteins by mammalian cell culture is complex and sets high requirements for process, facility, and equipment design, as well as rigorous regulatory and quality standards. One particular point of concern and significant risk to supply chain is the susceptibility to contamination such as bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and viruses. Several technologies have been developed to create barriers for these agents to enter the process, e.g. filtration, UV inactivation, and temperature inactivation. However, if not implemented during development of the manufacturing process, these types of process changes can have significant impact on process performance if not managed appropriately. This article describes the implementation of the high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment of cell culture media as an additional safety barrier against adventitious agents during the transfer of a large-scale commercial cell culture manufacturing process. The necessary steps and experiments, as well as subsequent results during qualification runs and routine manufacturing, are shown.

  19. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

    2006-12-31

    Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant

  20. A CRITICAL STUDY AND COMPARISON OF MANUFACTURING SIMULATION SOFTWARES USING ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHU GUPTA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In a period of continuous change in global business environment, organizations, large and small, are finding it increasingly difficult to deal with, and adjust to the demands for such change. Simulation is a powerful tool for allowing designers imagines new systems and enabling them to both quantify and observe behavior. Currently the market offers a variety of simulation software packages. Some are less expensive than others. Some are generic and can be used in a wide variety of application areas while others are more specific. Some have powerful features for modeling while others provide only basic features. Modeling approaches and strategies are different for different packages. Companies are seeking advice about the desirable features of software for manufacturing simulation, depending on the purpose of its use. Because of this, the importance of an adequate approach to simulation software evaluation and comparison is apparent. This paper presents a critical evaluation of four widely used manufacturing simulators: NX-IDEAS, Star-CD, Micro Saint Sharp and ProModel. Following a review of research into simulation software evaluation, an evaluation and comparison of the above simulators is performed. This paper illustrates and assesses the role the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP played in simulation software evaluation and selection. The main purpose of this evaluation and comparison is to discover the suitability of certain types of simulators for particular purposes.

  1. Mechanics-driven patterning of CVD graphene for roll-based manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Jang, Bongkyun; Jo, Kyungmin; Kim, Donghyuk; Lee, Jihye; Kim, Kyung-Shik; Lee, Seung-Mo; Lee, Hak-Joo; Han, Seung Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Graphene is considered as a promising material for flexible and transparent electrodes due to its outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Efforts to mass-produce graphene electrodes led to the development of roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene growth and transfer, and the only remaining obstacle to the mass-production of CVD graphene electrodes is a cost-effective patterning technique that is compatible with the roll-to-roll manufacturing. Herein, we propose a mechanics-driven technique for patterning graphene synthesized on copper foil (commonly used in roll-to-roll manufacturing). The copper foil is exposed to high temperature for a prolonged period during the CVD growth of graphene, and thus can result in recrystallization and grain growth of the copper foil and thereby reducing to the yield strength. This softening behavior of the copper was carefully controlled to allow simple stamp patterning of the graphene. The strength of the underlying substrate was controlled for the accuracy of the residual patterns. The proposed stamp patterning technique is mask-less and photoresist-free, and can be performed at room temperature without high-energy sources such as lasers or plasma. To demonstrate the capability of this process to produce a continuous electrode, a transparent in-plane supercapacitor was fabricated using the proposed patterning technique.

  2. Development Algorithm of the Technological Process of Manufacturing Gas Turbine Parts by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Smelov, V. G.; Kyarimov, R. R.

    2018-01-01

    The technology of the selective laser melting (SLM) allows making products from powders of aluminum, titanium, heat-resistant alloys and stainless steels. Today the use of SLM technology develops at manufacture of the functional parts. This in turn requires development of a methodology projection of technological processes (TP) for manufacturing parts including databases of standard TP. Use of a technique will allow to exclude influence of technologist’s qualification on made products quality, and also to reduce labor input and energy consumption by development of TP due to use of the databases of standard TP integrated into a methodology. As approbation of the developed methodology the research of influence of the modes of a laser emission on a roughness of a surface of synthesized material was presented. It is established that the best values of a roughness of exemplars in the longitudinal and transversal directions make 1.98 μm and 3.59 μm respectively. These values of a roughness were received at specific density of energy 6.25 J/mm2 that corresponds to power and the speed of scanning of 200 W and 400 mm/s, respectively, and a hatch distance of 0.08 mm.

  3. Application of the flotation process in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak; A. Blacha-Grzechnik; G. Siwiec

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the results of the flotation process application in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing, are shown. The flotation process parameters, i.e. time of process, rotation frequency, gas flow rate and flotation reagents, were optimized.

  4. Application of the flotation process in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the results of the flotation process application in the silver recovery from the wastes generated during the silvery semi-products manufacturing, are shown. The flotation process parameters, i.e. time of process, rotation frequency, gas flow rate and flotation reagents, were optimized.

  5. Printing Outside the Box: Additive Manufacturing Processes for Fabrication of Large Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Majid; Peters, Warren

    2015-01-01

    To achieve NASA's mission of space exploration, innovative manufacturing processes are being applied to the fabrication of propulsion elements. Liquid rocket engines (LREs) are comprised of a thrust chamber and nozzle extension as illustrated in figure 1 for the J2X upper stage engine. Development of the J2X engine, designed for the Ares I launch vehicle, is currently being incorporated on the Space Launch System. A nozzle extension is attached to the combustion chamber to obtain the expansion ratio needed to increase specific impulse. If the nozzle extension could be printed as one piece using free-form additive manufacturing (AM) processes, rather than the current method of forming welded parts, a considerable time savings could be realized. Not only would this provide a more homogenous microstructure than a welded structure, but could also greatly shorten the overall fabrication time. The main objective of this study is to fabricate test specimens using a pulsed arc source and solid wire as shown in figure 2. The mechanical properties of these specimens will be compared with those fabricated using the powder bed, selective laser melting technology at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. As printed components become larger, maintaining a constant temperature during the build process becomes critical. This predictive capability will require modeling of the moving heat source as illustrated in figure 3. Predictive understanding of the heat profile will allow a constant temperature to be maintained as a function of height from substrate while printing complex shapes. In addition, to avoid slumping, this will also allow better control of the microstructural development and hence the properties. Figure 4 shows a preliminary comparison of the mechanical properties obtained.

  6. Certification of Additive Manufacturing Processing Parameters through Physics-Based Predictive Simulation of Process-Defects-Microstructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is a next generation technology for cost-effective and accelerated way of manufacturing complex-shaped...

  7. Ionizing radiation processing and its potential in advancing biorefining and nanocellulose composite materials manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Poster, Dianne L; Vládar, András E; Driscoll, Mark S; LaVerne, Jay A; Tsinas, Zois; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad I

    2018-02-01

    Nanocellulose is a high value material that has gained increasing attention because of its high strength, stiffness, unique photonic and piezoelectric properties, high stability and uniform structure. Through utilization of a biorefinery concept, nanocellulose can be produced in large volumes from wood at relatively low cost via ionizing radiation processing. Ionizing radiation causes significant break down of the polysaccharide and leads to the production of potentially useful gaseous products such as H 2 and CO. The application of radiation processing to the production of nanocellulose from woody and non-wood sources, such as field grasses, bio-refining byproducts, industrial pulp waste, and agricultural surplus materials remains an open field, ripe for innovation and application. Elucidating the mechanisms of the radiolytic decomposition of cellulose and the mass generation of nanocellulose by radiation processing is key to tapping into this source of nanocelluose for the growth of nanocellulostic-product development. More importantly, understanding the structural break-up of the cell walls as a function of radiation exposure is a key goal and only through careful, detailed characterization and dimensional metrology can this be achieved at the level of detail that is needed to further the growth of large scale radiation processing of plant materials. This work is resulting from strong collaborations between NIST and its academic partners who are pursuing the unique demonstration of applied ionizing radiation processing to plant materials as well as the development of manufacturing metrology for novel nanomaterials.

  8. Product quality considerations for mammalian cell culture process development and manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing of a biologic drug from mammalian cells results in not a single substance, but an array of product isoforms, also known as variants. These isoforms arise due to intracellular or extracellular events as a result of biological or chemical modification. The most common examples related to biomanufacturing include amino acid modifications (glycosylation, isomerization, oxidation, adduct formation, pyroglutamate formation, phosphorylation, sulfation, amidation), amino acid sequence variants (genetic mutations, amino acid misincorporation, N- and C-terminal heterogeneity, clipping), and higher-order structure modifications (misfolding, aggregation, disulfide pairing). Process-related impurities (HCP, DNA, media components, viral particles) are also important quality attributes related to product safety. The observed ranges associated with each quality attribute define the product quality profile. A biologic drug must have a correct and consistent quality profile throughout clinical development and scale-up to commercial production to ensure product safety and efficacy. In general, the upstream process (cell culture) defines the quality of product-related substances, whereas the downstream process (purification) defines the residual level of process- and product-related impurities. The purpose of this chapter is to review the impact of the cell culture process on product quality. Emphasis is placed on studies with industrial significance and where the direct mechanism of product quality impact was determined. Where possible, recommendations for maintaining consistent or improved quality are provided.

  9. The quest for process operations variability reduction in manufacturing firms in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madi Katombe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an era characterised by a volatile economy, intense competition, and rising energy and material costs, improving operational efficiency has become a necessity for margin purposes and long-term business success. This research study attempts to develop a model for process operations variability reduction that integrates the fundamental drivers, the intermediate measures and the four traditional competitive capabilities: quality, cost, delivery reliability and speed of delivery. In addition, it highlights the precise mechanisms in plants that lead to multiple competitive capabilities development. The concept of a routine-based approach to capabilities development provides a nexus between the earlier actions by the organisation and competitive advantage. Using longitudinal data from the Manufacturing Circle of South Africa, a statistical analysis was conducted to support the model, and path analysis models were developed which confirmed that the performance frontier is really a surface that spans many different dimensions. It is observed that the model clearly outlines pathways to process operations variability reduction through better execution of the routines concerned with maintaining the performance by current processes, improving existing processes, and transforming or changing to new processes.

  10. Ionizing radiation processing and its potential in advancing biorefining and nanocellulose composite materials manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Poster, Dianne L.; Vládar, András E.; Driscoll, Mark S.; LaVerne, Jay A.; Tsinas, Zois; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad I.

    2018-02-01

    Nanocellulose is a high value material that has gained increasing attention because of its high strength, stiffness, unique photonic and piezoelectric properties, high stability and uniform structure. Through utilization of a biorefinery concept, nanocellulose can be produced in large volumes from wood at relatively low cost via ionizing radiation processing. Ionizing radiation causes significant break down of the polysaccharide and leads to the production of potentially useful gaseous products such as H2 and CO. The application of radiation processing to the production of nanocellulose from woody and non-wood sources, such as field grasses, bio-refining by-products, industrial pulp waste, and agricultural surplus materials remains an open field, ripe for innovation and application. Elucidating the mechanisms of the radiolytic decomposition of cellulose and the mass generation of nanocellulose by radiation processing is key to tapping into this source of nanocelluose for the growth of nanocellulostic-product development. More importantly, understanding the structural break-up of the cell walls as a function of radiation exposure is a key goal and only through careful, detailed characterization and dimensional metrology can this be achieved at the level of detail that is needed to further the growth of large scale radiation processing of plant materials. This work is resulting from strong collaborations between NIST and its academic partners who are pursuing the unique demonstration of applied ionizing radiation processing to plant materials as well as the development of manufacturing metrology for novel nanomaterials.

  11. Exposure Characteristics of Nanoparticles as Process By-products for the Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Min; Kim, Jin-Ho; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Kwan-Sick; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the exposure properties of nanoparticles (NPs; semiconductor manufacturing processes. The measurements of airborne NPs were mainly performed around process equipment during fabrication processes and during maintenance. The number concentrations of NPs were measured using a water-based condensation particle counter having a size range of 10-3,000 nm. The chemical composition, size, and shape of NPs were determined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The resulting concentrations of NPs ranged from 0.00-11.47 particles/cm(3). The concentration of NPs measured during maintenance showed a tendency to increase, albeit incrementally, compared to that measured during normal conditions (under typical process conditions without maintenance). However, the increment was small. When comparing the mean number concentration and standard deviation (n ± σ) of NPs, the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process was the highest (3.45 ± 3.65 particles/cm(3)), and the dry etch (ETCH) process was the lowest (0.11 ± 0.22 particles/cm(3)). The major NPs observed were silica (SiO2) and titania (TiO2) particles, which were mainly spherical agglomerates ranging in size from 25-280 nm. Sampling of semiconductor processes in CMP, chemical vapor deposition, and ETCH reveled NPs were particle size exceeded 100 nm in diffusion, metallization, ion implantation, and wet cleaning/etching process. The results show that the SiO2 and TiO2 are the major NPs present in semiconductor cleanroom environments.

  12. Make or buy decision model with multi-stage manufacturing process and supplier imperfect quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Mega Aria; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2017-11-01

    This research develops an make or buy decision model considering supplier imperfect quality. This model can be used to help companies make the right decision in case of make or buy component with the best quality and the least cost in multistage manufacturing process. The imperfect quality is one of the cost component that must be minimizing in this model. Component with imperfect quality, not necessarily defective. It still can be rework and used for assembly. This research also provide a numerical example and sensitivity analysis to show how the model work. We use simulation and help by crystal ball to solve the numerical problem. The sensitivity analysis result show that percentage of imperfect generally not affect to the model significantly, and the model is not sensitive to changes in these parameters. This is because the imperfect cost are smaller than overall total cost components.

  13. Process for the manufacture of a superconductor with an intermetallic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, M.

    1980-01-01

    A superconductor with a superconducting intermetallic compound consisting of at least two elements can be manufactured by producing a conductor preproduct with a first component containing one element of the compound and a second component consisting of a carrier metal and the remaining element or elements of the alloy containing the compound, and by heat treating the conductor preproduct, so that the compound is formed by the reaction of the element of the first compound with the remaining element or elements of the second compound. In such a superconductor, one tries to increase the effective current density and critical current. The invention states that the heat treatment should be carried out in a hydrogen atmosphere. Superconductors produced by this process can be used for superconductor devices whose magnetic fields have a flux density above 10 Tesla. (orig.) [de

  14. Process combinations for the manufacturing of metal-plastic hybrid parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drossel, W-G; Lies, C; Albert, A; Haase, R; Müller, R; Scholz, P

    2016-01-01

    The usage of innovative lightweight materials and processing technologies gains importance in manifold industrial scopes. Especially for moving parts and mobility products the weight is decisively. The aerospace and automotive industries use light and high-strength materials to reduce weight and energy consumption and thereby improve the performance of their products. Composites with reinforced plastics are of particular importance. They offer a low density in combination with high specific stiffness and strength. A pure material substitution through reinforced plastics is still not economical. The approach of using hybrid metal-plastic structures with the principle of “using the right material at the right place” is a promising solution for the economical realization of lightweight structures with a high achievement potential. The article shows four innovative manufacturing possibilities for the realization of metal-plastic-hybrid parts. (paper)

  15. Fuzzy process control and knowledge engineering in petrochemical and robotic manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, R. (Azerbaijan Industrial Univ., Dept. of Automatic Control Systems, Baku (Russia)); Aliev, F. (Azerbaijan Polytechnique Institute, Dept. of Automation and Computer Science, Baku (Russia)); Babaev, M. (Azerbaijan Industrial Univ., Laboratory of Intelligent Control Systems, Baku (Russia))

    1991-01-01

    This book presents the methodology, the functionality and the pragmatics of implementing and applying AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques enhanced by the new mathematical discipline of fuzzy sets. Emphasis is put on the design and modelling of fuzzy controllers and intelligent control equipment for the oil processing and chemical industries, as well as on robotics and CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing), including the development of appropriate algorithms and computer programs. The content is strongly application-oriented in order to explain the main features of the theory of fuzzy systems using different real examples from concrete engineering projects. It excels over the present literature available on this subject by its descriptions new classes of industrial systems to be controlled with fuzzy logic, as well as by its descriptive introduction to intelligent control systems and fuzzy controllers developed and successfully implemented by the authors in working industrial plants. (orig.).

  16. A Qualitative Study into the Supplier Selection Decision-Making Process in the Malaysian SME Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaman, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    In manufacturing, supplier selection is viewed as the foundation of supply chain management, as the choice of the supplier will inherently affect all other aspects of business. This study explores the supplier selection decision-making process within Malaysian manufacturing firms. Previous studies in supplier selection have focused on company performance and quality management. Preceding research in this field, offers evidence that the application of information technology tools, business int...

  17. Design Process Control for Improved Surface Finish of Metal Additive Manufactured Parts of Complex Build Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikdam Jamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such as grinding and linishing often meet with major challenges in finishing parts of complex shape. This paper reports on research that demonstrated that mass finishing (MF processes are able to deliver high-quality surface finishes (Ra and Sa on AM-generated parts of a relatively complex geometry (both internal features and external facets under select conditions. Four processes were studied in this work: stream finishing, high-energy (HE centrifuge, drag finishing and disc finishing. Optimisation of the drag finishing process was then studied using a structured design of experiments (DOE. The effects of a range of finishing parameters were evaluated and optimal parameters and conditions were determined. The study established that the proposed method can be successfully applied in drag finishing to optimise the surface roughness in an industrial application and that it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time with a small number of tests. The study has also provided an important step in helping understand the requirements of MF to deliver AM-generated parts to a target quality finish and cycle time.

  18. Clarification technologies for monoclonal antibody manufacturing processes: Current state and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nripen; Arunkumar, Abhiram; Chollangi, Srinivas; Tan, Zhijun George; Borys, Michael; Li, Zheng Jian

    2016-04-01

    Considerable progress has been made increasing productivity of cell cultures to meet the rapidly growing demand for antibody biopharmaceuticals through increased cell densities and longer culture times. This in turn has dramatically increased the burden of process and product related impurities on the purification processes. In addition, current trends in the biopharmaceutical industry point toward both increased productivity and targeting smaller patient populations for new indications. Taken together, these developments are driving the industry to explore alternative separation technologies as a future manufacturing strategy. Clarification technologies well established in other industries, such as flocculation and precipitation are increasingly considered as a viable solution to address this bottleneck in antibody processes. However, several technical issues need to be fully addressed including suitability as a platform application, robustness, process cost, toxicity, and clearance. This review will focus on recent efforts to incorporate new generation clarification technologies for mammalian cell cultures producing monoclonal antibodies as well as challenges to their implementation supported by a case study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Process Optimization and Microstructure Characterization of Ti6Al4V Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    junfeng, Li; zhengying, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Process optimization and microstructure characterization of Ti6Al4V manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) were investigated in this article. The relative density of sampled fabricated by SLM is influenced by the main process parameters, including laser power, scan speed and hatch distance. The volume energy density (VED) was defined to account for the combined effect of the main process parameters on the relative density. The results shown that the relative density changed with the change of VED and the optimized process interval is 55˜60J/mm3. Furthermore, compared with laser power, scan speed and hatch distance by taguchi method, it was found that the scan speed had the greatest effect on the relative density. Compared with the microstructure of the cross-section of the specimen at different scanning speeds, it was found that the microstructures at different speeds had similar characteristics, all of them were needle-like martensite distributed in the β matrix, but with the increase of scanning speed, the microstructure is finer and the lower scan speed leads to coarsening of the microstructure.

  20. Optimized manufacture of nuclear fuel cladding tubes by FEA of hot extrusion and cold pilgering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillac, Alexis; Ly, Céline

    2018-05-01

    Within the forming route of Zirconium alloy cladding tubes, hot extrusion is used to deform the forged billets into tube hollows, which are then cold rolled to produce the final tubes with the suitable properties for in-reactor use. The hot extrusion goals are to give the appropriate geometry for cold pilgering, without creating surface defects and microstructural heterogeneities which are detrimental for subsequent rolling. In order to ensure a good quality of the tube hollows, hot extrusion parameters have to be carefully chosen. For this purpose, finite element models are used in addition to experimental tests. These models can take into account the thermo-mechanical coupling conditions obtained in the tube and the tools during extrusion, and provide a good prediction of the extrusion load and the thermo-mechanical history of the extruded product. This last result can be used to calculate the fragmentation of the microstructure in the die and the meta-dynamic recrystallization after extrusion. To further optimize the manufacturing route, a numerical model of the cold pilgering process is also applied, taking into account the complex geometry of the tools and the pseudo-steady state rolling sequence of this incremental forming process. The strain and stress history of the tube during rolling can then be used to assess the damage risk thanks to the use of ductile damage models. Once validated vs. experimental data, both numerical models were used to optimize the manufacturing route and the quality of zirconium cladding tubes. This goal was achieved by selecting hot extrusion parameters giving better recrystallized microstructure that improves the subsequent formability. Cold pilgering parameters were also optimized in order to reduce the potential ductile damage in the cold rolled tubes.

  1. Changes in the Microbial Composition of Microbrewed Beer during the Process in the Actual Manufacturing Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Jeon, S H; Kim, N H; Kim, H W; Lee, N Y; Cho, T J; Jung, Y M; Lee, S H; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated changes in the microbial composition of microbrewed beer during the manufacturing processes and identified potential microbial hazards, effective critical quality control points, and potential contamination routes. Comprehensive quantitative (aerobic plate count, lactic acid bacteria, fungi, acetic acid bacteria, coliforms, and Bacillus cereus) and qualitative (Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens) microbiological analyses were performed using samples of raw materials (malt and manufacturing water), semiprocessed products (saccharified wort, boiled wort, and samples taken during the fermentation and maturation process), and the final product obtained from three plants. The initial aerobic plate count and lactic acid bacteria counts in malt were 5.2 and 4.3 log CFU/g, respectively. These counts were reduced to undetectable levels by boiling but were present at 2.9 and 0.9 log CFU/ml in the final product. Fungi were initially present at 3.6 log CFU/g, although again, the microbes were eliminated by boiling; however, the level in the final product was 4.6 log CFU/ml. No E. coli or foodborne pathogens (except B. cereus) were detected. B. cereus was detected at all stages, although it was not present in the water or boiled wort (total detection rate ¼ 16.4%). Results suggest that boiling of the wort is an effective microbial control measure, but careful management of raw materials and implementation of effective control measures after boiling are needed to prevent contamination of the product after the boiling step. The results of this study may constitute useful and comprehensive information regarding the microbiological quality of microbrewed beer.

  2. Effects of plasma electrolytic oxidation process on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured porous biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgin Karaji, Zahra; Hedayati, Reza; Pouran, Behdad; Apachitei, Iulian; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2017-07-01

    Metallic porous biomaterials are recently attracting more attention thanks to the additive manufacturing techniques which help produce more complex structures as compared to conventional techniques. On the other hand, bio-functional surfaces on metallic biomaterials such as titanium and its alloys are necessary to enhance the biological interactions with the host tissue. This study discusses the effect of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), as a surface modification technique to produce bio-functional layers, on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds based on the cubic unit cell. For this purpose, the PEO process with two different oxidation times was applied on scaffolds with four different values of relative density. The effects of the PEO process were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), optical microscopy as well as static and dynamic (fatigue) mechanical testing under compression. SEM results indicated pore formation on the surface of the scaffolds after oxidation with a thickness of 4.85±0.36μm of the oxide layer after 2min and 9.04±2.27μm after 5min oxidation (based on optical images). The static test results showed the high effect of relative density of porous structure on its mechanical properties. However, oxidation did not influence most of the mechanical properties such as maximum stress, yield stress, plateau stress, and energy absorption, although its effect on the elastic modulus was considerable. Under fatigue loading, none of the scaffolds failed even after 10 6 loading cycles at 70% of their yield stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Muscle Contraction on Pottery Manufacturing Process Using Electromyography (EMG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewardi, Hartomo; Azka Rahmayani, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common problems in pottery manufacturing process is musculoskeletal disorders on workers. This disorder was caused by uncomfortable posture where the workers sit on the floor with one leg was folded and another was twisted for long duration. Back, waist, buttock, and right knee frequently experience the disorders. The objective of this research is to investigate the muscle contraction at such body part of workers in manufacturing process of pottery. Electromyography is used to investigate the muscle contraction based on the median frequency signal. Focus measurements is conducted on four muscles types. They are lower interscapular muscle on the right and left side, dorsal lumbar muscle, and lateral hamstring muscle. Statistical analysis is conducted to test differences of muscle contraction between female and male. The result of this research showed that the muscle which reached the highest contraction is dorsal lumbar muscle with the average of median frequency is 51,84 Hz. Then followed by lower interscapular muscle on the left side with the average of median frequency is 31,30 hz, lower interscapular muscle on the right side average of median frequency is 31,24 Hz, and lateral hamstring muscle average of median frequency is 21,77 Hz. Based on the statistic analysis result, there were no differences between male and female on left and right lower interscapular muscle and dorsal lumbar muscle but there were differences on lateral hamstring muscle with the significance level is 5%. Besides that, there were differences for all combination muscle types with the level of significance is 5%.

  4. Research on reliability measures of the main transformer and GIS equipment manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Honglong

    2014-01-01

    Based on the accidents of the main transformer GIS equipment and the accidents of the high voltage switch equipment, combined with the main transformer switch equipment maintenance experience and electrical theory, the reliability measures of the main transformer GIS equipment during manufacturing stage are studied and improved. Six successful reliability measures are identified: 1) design properly and check the ability of transformer for anti short circuit; 2) choose mature and reliable main transformer HV bushing; 3) choose GIS switch operation mechanism of high quality and reliability; 4) ensure that the insulation margin through tests piece by piece on withstand voltage and partial discharge of the GIS equipment insulation; 5) take test measures such as GIS conductor, shell polishing witness process and full form lightning impulse, to find out and eliminate the defects of abnormal electric field distribution; 6) Anti VFTO design for the main transformer connected with GIS with the voltage of 500 kV should be considered, and its anti VFTO ability to meet the safe operation under VFTO requirements should be checked. This paper proposed 2 new measures: 1) the main transformer insulation material quality standard is determined not only by its high dielectric strength, but more importantly by the homogeneous dielectric electric strength. Insulating Materials with a high and also uniform dielectric strength should be chosen. 2) During the silver-coating stage of the GIS equipment conductor, QC group activities should be organized to ensure that the plating layer quality, and the current lap surface DC resistance measurements should be supervised and witnessed to ensure the quality of the conductor contact surface. These measures are verified in Fuqing project of GIS main transformer equipment manufacturing process, and their effectiveness is proven. (author)

  5. Unit operation in food manufacturing and processing. Shokuhin seizo/kako ni okeru tan'i sosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, R. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Aguriculture)

    1993-09-05

    Processed foods must be produced in mass, cheap and safe and should be suitable for the delicate taste of human being. Food tastes are effected by an outlook on human attitude, and the surrounding environment. And these factors are reflected to unit operation in food manufacturing and processing and it is clarified that there are many technical difficulties. The characteristics of unit operation for food manufacturing and processing are that the food materials are a multicomponent system, moreover, a very small amount of aroma components, taste components, vitamin, physiologically activation materials and so on are more important than the main components, and also inapplicable of the model centering to the most quantitative component. The purpose of unit operation in food manufacturing and processing is to produce the properties of matter matching to human sense, and therefore there are many problems left unsolved. The development of analytical technology also has an influence on manufacturing and processing technology. Consequently, food manufacturing and processing technology must be based on general science. It is necessary to develop unit operation with an understanding of mutual effect between food and human body.

  6. Solution-Processing of Organic Solar Cells: From In Situ Investigation to Scalable Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelsamie, Maged

    2016-12-05

    Photovoltaics provide a feasible route to fulfilling the substantial increase in demand for energy worldwide. Solution processable organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted attention in the last decade because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing of sufficiently efficient devices at high throughput on large-area rigid or flexible substrates with potentially low energy and carbon footprints. In OPVs, the photoactive layer is made of a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer and is typically composed of a blend of an electron-donating (D) and an electron-accepting (A) materials which phase separate at the nanoscale and form a heterojunction at the D-A interface that plays a crucial role in the generation of charges. Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in increasing the efficiency of organic photovoltaics over the last few years, with power conversion efficiency increasing from 8% to 13% over the duration of this PhD dissertation, there have been numerous debates on the mechanisms of formation of the crucial BHJ layer and few clues about how to successfully transfer these lessons to scalable processes. This stems in large part from a lack of understanding of how BHJ layers form from solution. This lack of understanding makes it challenging to design BHJs and to control their formation in laboratory-based processes, such as spin-coating, let alone their successful transfer to scalable processes required for the manufacturing of organic solar cells. Consequently, the OPV community has in recent years sought out to better understand the key characteristics of state of the art lab-based organic solar cells and made efforts to shed light on how the BHJ forms in laboratory-based processes as well as in scalable processes. We take the view that understanding the formation of the solution-processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layer, where crucial photovoltaic processes take place, is the one of the most crucial steps to developing strategies towards the

  7. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  8. New manufacturing routes for micro polymer manufacturing for the next decades – Process chains to strengthen EC economic power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolt, Pieter; Azcarate, Sabino; Khan Malek, Chantal

    Miniaturised products have numerous applications in different areas, such as in the automotive industry, telecommunications and medical engineering. In biotechnological applications, for example, miniaturised systems have gained considerable acceptance for analytical and measurement applications......, as they improve conventional systems in terms of sample size, response times, analytical performance, process control and throughput. MEMS and MOEMS are other examples of technologies that relies heavily on miniaturised integrated mechanical, optical and electrical components. These products often include either...... both functional and economical demands. In high-volume production, mould (pattern) based replication is often most suited, while in small-volume production environment, processes that don’t need product specific tooling are often more economical. A trend is to integrate functionalities...

  9. R and D activities for the design of the MITICA Plasma Driver Plate manufacturing process via explosion bonding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavei, M.; Dal Bello, S.; Groeneveld, H.; Rizzolo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The work is focused on the manufacturing process of the Plasma Driver Plate of MITICA. ► A clad plate of molybdenum and copper has been manufactured. ► Simulations have been carried out to improve the design geometry of the component. ► The driver-hole rim have been machined and hot formed. ► No delamination were found in the molybdenum. -- Abstract: The back plate of the MITICA plasma source, named Plasma Driver Plate (PDP), will be protected from the impact of the highly energetic back-streaming positive ions (BSI+), generated inside the accelerator, by a 1.0 mm thick molybdenum layer that will be joined by Explosion Bonding (EB) technique to the copper heat sink. This technology has been investigated and used for manufacturing prototypes, demonstrating very high strength of the obtained molybdenum–copper interface. The production of the shaped edge profile of the driver-hole, after the EB, is an open point. In order to demonstrate the possibility to produce the PDP by explosion bonding, the manufacturing of a full scale prototype of the area just around one of the PDP driver-holes was identified as the road to address most of the manufacturing issues. Elasto-plastic finite element analyses have been carried out to improve the hole rim geometry and the process parameters of all the manufacturing steps. A full scale prototype of the PDP driver-hole has been manufactured and tested. This contribution gives an overview of the R and D activities carried out to address the main open issues, to define the PDP component detailed geometry and its manufacturing processes, via EB technique

  10. Determination of Process Parameters for High-Density, Ti-6Al-4V Parts Using Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-10

    In our earlier work, we described an approach for determining the process parameters that re- sult in high-density parts manufactured using the additive-manufacturing process of selective laser melting (SLM). Our approach, which combines simple simulations and experiments, was demon- strated using 316L stainless steel. We have also used the approach successfully for several other materials. This short note summarizes the results of our work in determining process parameters for Ti-6Al-4V using a Concept Laser M2 system.

  11. Current problems of raw fish material processing while manufacturing dried products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashonkov A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The substantiation for using techniques of fish raw material canning has been presented, raw fish being caught or farmed in aquaculture. The main problems in raw fish canning have been reviewed, including significant reduction in thermolabile vitamins in the ultimate product as compared with the raw material due to the thermal processing. Promising canning technique – vacuum drying – has been proposed. This technique makes possible to reduce the temperature of thermal processing down to 50…55 °С and significantly enlarge preservation of thermolabile vitamins from the raw fish. Sampling of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, including preparation for analysis has been conducted by standard methods. Disadvantages of this way have been found, it is low energy efficiency of the process. The way to intensify the vacuum drying of aquatic organisms has been proposed based on the method of preliminary pore-forming due to augmenting the area of moisture evaporation. The design of the pilot plant has been proposed in order to research the process of pore forming and vacuum drying. Target species for processing have been suggested. They are as follows: Azov goby (fillet for food products and Black Sea sprat for feeds. The recipes of the feed mixture for granulated floating food for trout have been developed. The results of the first series of the pilot research have been provided. The experiments have proved that preliminary pore forming immediately before vacuum drying makes possible to enlarge the surface area of moisture evaporation by 15…25 %. By processing photomicrographs of sections by means of a special software the authors have got the results demonstrating that when manufacturing dried products by pore forming and drying under pressure 10 kPa the pore take 35...38 % of the inner volume of the product and with drying under pressure 10 kPa – only 18...21 %, and when drying under the atmospheric pressure – 11...13 %.

  12. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raguvarun, K.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength

  13. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raguvarun, K., E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Rajagopal, Prabhu, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in [Centre for NDE, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamilnadu (India); Palanisamy, Suresh [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 Australia and Defence Materials Technology Centre, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Science and Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic [University of Wollongong, Faculty of Engineering, New South Wales 2522, Australia and Defence Materials Technology Centre, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of thin metallic silver flakes, waste products of a manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Manuela; Tosti, Alessandra; Lasagni, Marina; Campiglio, Alfredo; Pitea, Demetrio; Collina, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop new products and processes from a manufacturing waste from an Italian metallurgic company. The company produced thin silver metallic films and the production scraps were silver flakes. The possibility to use the silver flakes in water disinfection processes was studied. The antimicrobial activity of the flakes was investigated in batch using Escherichia coli as Gram-negative microorganism model. The flakes did not show any antimicrobial activity, so they were activated with two different processes: thermal activation in reducing atmosphere and chemical activation, obtaining, respectively, reduced flakes (RF) and chemical flakes (CF). The flakes, activated with either treatment, showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli. The kill rate was dependent on the type of activated flakes. The chemical flakes were more efficient than reduced flakes. The kill rate determined for 1 g of CF, 1.0 +/- 0.2 min(-1), was greater than the kill rate determined for 1 g of RF, 0.069 +/- 0.004 min(-1). This was confirmed also by the minimum inhibitory concentration values. It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial capability was dependent on flakes amount and on the type of aqueous medium. Furthermore, the flakes maintained their properties also when used a second time. Finally, the antimicrobial activities of flakes were tested in an effluent of a wastewater treatment plant where a variety of heterotrophic bacteria were present.

  15. Post-Lamination Manufacturing Process Automation for Photovoltaic Modules: Final Subcontract Report, April 1998 - April 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Miller, D. C.; Moore, S. B.; Hogan, S. J.

    2002-11-01

    This report describes the automated systems developed for PV module assembly and testing processes after lamination. These processes are applicable to a broad range of module types, including those made with wafer-based and thin-film solar cells. Survey data and input from module manufacturers gathered during site visits were used to define system capabilities and process specifications. Spire completed mechanical, electrical, and software engineering for four automation systems: a module edge trimming system, the SPI-TRIM 350; an edge sealing and framing system, the SPI-FRAMER 350; an integrated module testing system, the SPI-MODULE QA 350; and a module buffer storage system, the SPI-BUFFER 350. A fifth system for junction-box installation, the SPI-BOXER 350, was nearly completed during the program. A new-size solar simulator, the SPI-SUN SIMULATOR 350i, was designed as part of the SPI-MODULE QA 350. This simulator occupies minimal production floor space, and its test area is large enough to handle most production modules. The automated systems developed in this program are designed for integration to create automated production lines.

  16. Characteristic Changes in the Aroma Profile of Patchouli Depending on Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshio; Yoshitome, Kazuma; Fujihara, Takashi; Santoso, Mardi; Aziz, Muhammad Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Patchouli is used as an incense material and essential oil. The characteristic odor of patchouli leaves results from the drying process used in their production; however, there have to date been no reports on the changes in the odor of patchouli leaves during the drying process. We investigated the aroma profile of dried patchouli leaves using the hexane extracts of fresh and dried patchouli leaves. We focused on the presence or absence of the constituents of the fresh and dried extracts, and the differences in the content of the common constituents. Fourteen constituents were identified as characteristic of dried patchouli extract odor by gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis. The structures of seven of the 14 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (α-patchoulene, seychellene, humulene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, caryophyllene oxide, and patchouli alcohol). The aroma profile of the essential oil obtained from the dried patchouli leaves was clearly different from that of dried patchouli. The aroma profile of the essential oil was investigated by a similar method. We identified 12 compounds as important odor constituents. The structures of nine of the 12 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (cis-thujopsene, caryophyllene, α-guaiene, α-patchoulene, seychellene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, patchouli alcohol, and corymbolone). Comparing the odors and constituents demonstrated that the aroma profile of patchouli depends on the manufacturing process.

  17. A new study of the kinetics of curd production in the process of cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Susana Vargas; Torres, Maykel González; Guerrero, Francisco Quintanilla; Talavera, Rogelio Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    We studied the role played by temperature and rennet concentration in the coagulation process for cheese manufacture and the evaluation of their kinetics. We concluded that temperature is the main factor that determines the kinetics. The rennet concentration was unimportant probably due to the fast action of the enzyme chymosin. The Dynamic light scattering technique allowed measuring the aggregate's size and their formation kinetics. The volume fraction of solids was determined from viscosity measurements, showing profiles that are in agreement with the size profiles. The results indicate that the formation of the aggregates for rennet cheese is strongly dependent on temperature and rennet concentration. The results revealed that at 35·5 °C the volume fraction of solids has the maximum slope, indicating that at this temperature the curd is formed rapidly. The optimal temperature throughout the process was established. Second-order kinetics were obtained for the process. We observed a quadratic dependence between the rennet volume and the volume fraction of solids (curd), thereby indicating that the kinetics of the curd production should be of order two.

  18. Economic Analysis of Additive Manufacturing Integration in Injection Molding Process Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalambis, Alessandro; Kerbache, Laoucine; Tosello, Guido

    The purpose of this research is to analyze how additive manufacturing can create value when it is utilized as a supportive technology to injection molding by quantifying the cost advantages that can be obtained. Tooling for the product development phase is investigated as pilot integration area...... of additive manufacturing with injection molding. Cost considerations are discussed through the development of a cost estimation model. The study shows that integration of additive manufacturing in the product development phase for fabrication of soft tooling is economically convenient with a cost reduction...... of 79,8% and 89,9%. The cost models on additive manufacturing have been built so far on the idea of substituting injection molding with additive manufacturing. In response to this literature gap, this research addresses the advantages of additive manufacturing utilized in a synergistic rather than...

  19. Hazardous drug residue on exterior vial surfaces: evaluation of a commercial manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Luci A; Sessink, Paul J M; Gesy, Kathy; Charbonneau, Flay

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous drug residue on the exterior surface of drug vials poses a potential risk for exposure of health care workers involved in handling these products. The purpose of this article is to heighten the awareness of this serious issue and to evaluate a commercial manufacturing process for removing and containing hazardous drug (HD) residue on exterior vial surfaces. Additionally, findings from this study are interpreted, incorporated into the current body of evidence, and discussed by experts in this field. This study includes separate evaluations for the presence or absence of surface drug contamination on the vials of 3 HD products: 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and methotrexate. The drug products were packaged in vials using a patented prewashing/decontamination method, application of a polyvinylchloride (PVC) base, and use of clear glass vials. An additional step of encasing the vial in a shrink-wrapped sheath was used for 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. Of all 5-fluorouracil (110 vials), methotrexate (60 vials), and cisplatin (60 vials) tested, only 2 had detectable amounts of surface residue. One 5-fluorouracil vial was found to have approximately 4 mg of 5-fluorouracil on the surface of the vial. The second contaminated vial was cisplatin, which was discovered to have 131 ng of platinum, equal to 200 ng of cisplatin or 0.2 μL of cisplatin solution, on the vial sheath. Using validated extraction and analytic methods, all but 2 of the 230 tested vials were found to be free of surface drug contamination. Pharmacy leaders need to take an active role in promoting the need for clean HD vials. Manufacturers should be required to provide their clients with data derived from externally validated analytic studies, reporting the level of HD contamination on the exterior of their vial products.

  20. Characterization and Processing Behavior of Heated Aluminum-Polycarbonate Composite Build Plates for the FDM Additive Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri L. Messimer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most essential components of the fused deposition modeling (FDM additive manufacturing (AM process is the build plate, the surface upon which the part is constructed. These are typically made from aluminum or glass, but there are clear disadvantages to both and restrictions on which materials can be processed on them successfully. This study examined the suitability of heated aluminum-polycarbonate (AL-PC composite print beds for FDM, looking particularly at the mechanical properties, thermal behavior, deformation behavior, bonding strength with deposited material, printing quality, and range of material usability. Theoretical examination and physical experiments were performed for each of these areas; the results were compared to similar experiments done using heated aluminum and aluminum-glass print beds. Ten distinct materials (ABS, PLA, PET, HIPS, PC, TPU, PVA, nylon, metal PLA, and carbon-fiber PLA were tested for printing performance. The use of a heated AL-PC print bed was found to be a practical option for most of the materials, particularly ABS and TPU, which are often challenging to process using traditional print bed types. Generally, the results were found to be equivalent to or superior to tempered glass and superior to standard aluminum build plates in terms of printing capability.