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Sample records for kalanchoe pinnata crassulaceae

  1. Antihypertensive activities of the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) in high salt-loaded rats.

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    Bopda, Orelien Sylvain Mtopi; Longo, Frida; Bella, Thierry Ndzana; Edzah, Protais Marcellin Ohandja; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Tom, Esther Ngo Lemba; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Theophile

    2014-04-28

    The leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) are used in Cameroon folk medicine to manage many diseases such as cardiovascular dysfunctions. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the activities of aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe pinnata on the blood pressure of normotensive rat (NTR) and salt hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as its antioxidant properties. Hypertension was induced in rats by oral administration of 18% NaCl for 4 weeks. For the preventive study, three groups of rats received 18% NaCl solution and the plant extract at 25 mg/kg/day, 50 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/kg/day by gavage. Two positive control groups received 18% NaCl solution and either spironolactone (0.71 mg/kg/day) or eupressyl (0.86 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 4 weeks. At the end of this experimental period, systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by the invasive method. Some oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric monoxide (NO) were evaluated in heart, aorta, liver and kidney. NO level was indirectly evaluated by measuring nitrite concentration. Kalanchoe pinnata extract prevented significantly the increase of systolic and diastolic arterial pressures in high salt-loaded rats (SHR). In SHR, concomitant administration of Kalanchoe pinnata at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure by 32%, 24% and 47% (for SAP); 35%, 33% and 56% (for DAP), respectively. No significant change was recorded in heart rate of those rats. The plant extract improved antioxidant status in various organs, but more potently in aorta. Thus, antioxidant and modulatory effects of Kalanchoe pinnata at the vasculature might be of preponderant contribution to its overall antihypertensive activity. The work demonstrated that the concomitant administration of high-salt and the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata elicits prevention of salt-induced hypertension in rat. This

  2. Increased antioxidant activity and changes in phenolic profile of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) specimens grown under supplemental blue light.

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    Nascimento, Luana B S; Leal-Costa, Marcos V; Coutinho, Marcela A S; Moreira, Nattacha dos S; Lage, Celso L S; Barbi, Nancy dos S; Costa, Sônia S; Tavares, Eliana S

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant compounds protect plants against oxidative stress caused by environmental conditions. Different light qualities, such as UV-A radiation and blue light, have shown positive effects on the production of phenols in plants. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) is used for treating wounds and inflammations. Some of these beneficial effects are attributed to the antioxidant activity of plant components. We investigated the effects of blue light and UV-A radiation supplementation on the total phenol content, antioxidant activity and chromatographic profile of aqueous extracts from leaves of K. pinnata. Monoclonal plants were grown under white light, white plus blue light and white plus UV-A radiation. Supplemental blue light improved the antioxidant activity and changed the phenolic profile of the extracts. Analysis by HPLC of supplemental blue-light plant extracts revealed a higher proportion of the major flavonoid quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→2) α-L-rhamnopyranoside, as well as the presence of a wide variety of other phenolic substances. These findings may explain the higher antioxidant activity observed for this extract. Blue light is proposed as a supplemental light source in the cultivation of K. pinnata, to improve its antioxidant activity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  3. 1-octen-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 -> 6-beta-glucopyranoside, a minor substance from the leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae

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    Ana P. Almeida

    Full Text Available From the leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae, a medicinal plant widely used against inflammatory processes which exhibit a important immunosuppressive and anti-leishmanial activities, was isolated a minor vinylic aliphatic alcohol diglycoside which structure was proposed as the known 1-octen-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 -> 6-beta-glucopyranoside based on ¹H and 13C mono and bi-dimensional NMR experiments and GC-MS analysis, after successive chromatographic column procedures. This molecule is a water-soluble derivative of the volatile aglicone 1-octen-3-ol that appears to be attractant of pollinators and signalling of defence against herbivores.

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extracts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) against Local Effects Induced by Bothrops jararaca Snake Venom.

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    Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Félix-Silva, Juliana; da Cunha, Lorena Medeiros; Gomes, Jacyra Antunes Dos Santos; Siqueira, Emerson Michell da Silva; Gimenes, Luisa Possamai; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria

    2016-01-01

    The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, both known popularly as "Saião," are used interchangeably in traditional medicine for their antiophidic properties. Studies evaluating the anti-venom activity of these species are scarce. This study aims to characterize the chemical constituents and evaluate the inhibitory effects of hydroethanolic leaf extracts of K. brasiliensis and K. pinnata against local effects induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detection and Electrospray Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) were performed for characterization of chemical markers of the extracts from these species. For antiophidic activity evaluation, B. jararaca venom-induced paw edema and skin hemorrhage in mice were evaluated. In both models, hydroethanolic extracts (125-500 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally in different protocols. Inhibition of phospholipase enzymatic activity of B. jararaca was evaluated. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS chromatographic profile of extracts showed some particularities in the chemical profile of the two species. K. brasileinsis exhibited major peaks that have UV spectra similar to flavonoid glycosides derived from patuletin and eupafolin, while K. pinnata showed UV spectra similar to flavonoids glycosides derived from quercetin and kaempferol. Both extracts significantly reduced the hemorrhagic activity of B. jararaca venom in pre-treatment protocol, reaching about 40% of inhibition, while only K. pinnata was active in post-treatment protocol (about 30% of inhibition). In the antiedematogenic activity, only K. pinnata was active, inhibiting about 66% and 30% in pre and post-treatment protocols, respectively. Both extracts inhibited phospholipase activity; however, K. pinnata was more active. In conclusion, the results indicate the potential antiophidic activity of Kalanchoe species against local effects induced by B. jararaca snake

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extracts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae against Local Effects Induced by Bothrops jararaca Snake Venom.

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    Júlia Morais Fernandes

    Full Text Available The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, both known popularly as "Saião," are used interchangeably in traditional medicine for their antiophidic properties. Studies evaluating the anti-venom activity of these species are scarce. This study aims to characterize the chemical constituents and evaluate the inhibitory effects of hydroethanolic leaf extracts of K. brasiliensis and K. pinnata against local effects induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detection and Electrospray Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were performed for characterization of chemical markers of the extracts from these species. For antiophidic activity evaluation, B. jararaca venom-induced paw edema and skin hemorrhage in mice were evaluated. In both models, hydroethanolic extracts (125-500 mg/kg were administered intraperitoneally in different protocols. Inhibition of phospholipase enzymatic activity of B. jararaca was evaluated. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS chromatographic profile of extracts showed some particularities in the chemical profile of the two species. K. brasileinsis exhibited major peaks that have UV spectra similar to flavonoid glycosides derived from patuletin and eupafolin, while K. pinnata showed UV spectra similar to flavonoids glycosides derived from quercetin and kaempferol. Both extracts significantly reduced the hemorrhagic activity of B. jararaca venom in pre-treatment protocol, reaching about 40% of inhibition, while only K. pinnata was active in post-treatment protocol (about 30% of inhibition. In the antiedematogenic activity, only K. pinnata was active, inhibiting about 66% and 30% in pre and post-treatment protocols, respectively. Both extracts inhibited phospholipase activity; however, K. pinnata was more active. In conclusion, the results indicate the potential antiophidic activity of Kalanchoe species against local effects induced by B

  6. Aecidium kalanchoe sp. nov., a new rust on Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (Crassulaceae).

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    Hernádez, José R; Aime, M Catherine; Newbry, Brad

    2004-07-01

    A rust fungus found on cultivars of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (Crassulaceae) is described as a new species, Aecidium kalanchoe sp. nov., and compared to the other described rusts on members of the Crassulaceae. Only one other rust is known to parasitize Kalanchoe spp. A DNA sequence of A. kalanchoe suggests that the teleomorph is related to Puccinia.

  7. Induction of wound-periderm-like tissue in Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) leaves as a defence response to high UV-B radiation levels.

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    Nascimento, Luana Beatriz dos Santos; Moreira, Nattacha dos Santos; Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinícius; Costa, Sônia Soares; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz

    2015-10-01

    UV-B radiation can be stressful for plants and cause morphological and biochemical changes. Kalanchoe pinnata is a CAM leaf-succulent species distributed in hot and dry regions, and is rich in flavonoids, which are considered to be protective against UV-B radiation. This study aims to verify if K. pinnata has morphological or anatomical responses as a strategy in response to high UV-B levels. Kalanchoe pinnata plants of the same age were grown under white light (control) or white light plus supplemental UV-B radiation (5 h d(-1)). The plants were treated with the same photoperiod, photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and daily watering system. Fragments of the middle third of the leaf blade and petiole were dehydrated and then embedded in historesin and sectioned in a rotary microtome. Sections were stained with toluidine blue O and mounted in Entellan®. Microchemical analyses by optical microscopy were performed on fresh material with Sudan III, Sudan IV and phloroglucinol, and analysed using fluorescence microscopy. Supplemental UV-B radiation caused leaf curling and the formation of brown areas on the leaves. These brown areas developed into a protective tissue on the adaxial side of the leaf, but only in directly exposed regions. Anatomically, this protective tissue was similar to a wound-periderm, with outer layer cell walls impregnated with suberin and lignin. This is the first report of wound-periderm formation in leaves in response to UV-B radiation. This protective tissue could be important for the survival of the species in desert regions under high UV-B stress conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Growth of fluoride treated Kalanchoe pinnata plants

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    Johnson, H N; Applegate, H G

    1962-01-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata plants can absorb fluoride through roots. The absorption is related to the amount of fluoride applied to the soil. There appeared to be a relationship between the amount of fluoride adsorbed and the subsequent growth of the plants. Plants which adsorbed the largest amounts of fluoride had the greatest increase in growth.

  9. Flowers from Kalanchoe pinnata are a rich source of T cell-suppressive flavonoids.

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    Coutinho, Marcela A S; Muzitano, Michelle F; Cruz, Elaine A; Bergonzi, Maria C; Kaiser, Carlos R; Tinoco, Luzineide W; Bilia, Anna R; Vincieric, Franco F; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Costa, Sônia S

    2012-02-01

    The chemical composition and immunosuppressive potential of the flowers from Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) were investigated. We found that the aqueous flower extract was more active than the leaf extract in inhibiting murine T cell mitogenesis in vitro. Flavonoids isolated from the flower extract were identified and quantitated based on NMR and HPLC-DAD-MS analysis, respectively. Along with quercetin, four quercetin glycosyl conjugates were obtained, including quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside and quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, which are described for the first time in K. pinnata. All flavonoids inhibited murine T cell mitogenesis and IL-2 and IL-4 production without cell toxicity. This is the first report on the pharmacological activity of flowers of a Kalanchoe species, which are not used for curative purposes. Our findings show that K. pinnata flowers are a rich source of T-suppressive flavonoids that may be therapeutically useful against inflammatory diseases.

  10. The antileishmanial activity assessment of unusual flavonoids from Kalanchoe pinnata.

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    Muzitano, Michelle F; Tinoco, Luzineide W; Guette, Catherine; Kaiser, Carlos R; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Costa, Sônia S

    2006-09-01

    The importance of flavonoids for the antileishmanial activity of Kalanchoe pinnata was previously demonstrated by the isolation of quercitrin, a potent antileishmanial flavonoid. In the present study, the aqueous leaf extract from the medicinal plant K. pinnata (Crassulaceae) afforded a kaempferol di-glycoside, named kapinnatoside, identified as kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl (1-->2) alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (1). In addition, two unusual flavonol and flavone glycosides already reported, quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl (1-->2) alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) and 4',5-dihydroxy-3',8-dimethoxyflavone 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), have been isolated. Their structures were determined via analyses of mono and bi-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic experiments and HR-MALDI mass spectra. Because of its restricted occurrence and its abundance in K. pinnata, flavonoid (2) may be a chemical marker for this plant species of high therapeutic potential. The three flavonoids were tested separately against Leishmania amazonenis amastigotes in comparison with quercitrin, quercetin and afzelin. The quercetin aglycone - type structure, as well as a rhamnosyl unit linked at C-3, seem to be important for antileishmanial activity.

  11. Senyawa Fenolik dari Daun Tanaman Kalanchoe prolifera (Crassulaceae

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    Yenny Febriani Yun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds such as kaempferol (1, quercetin (2, and methyl caffeate (3 have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Kalanchoe prolifera (Crassulaceae. The chemical structure of isolated compounds 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence (UV, IR, NMR and comparison with those compound previouly reported.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.4057  

  12. Leaf micromorphology of Kalanchoë laciniata (Crassulaceae

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    Emilia Brzezicka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the work was to characterize morphology and anatomy of succulent leaves. Morphological and anatomical studies conducted on succulent leaves of Kalanchoë laciniata. The anatomy of leaves where studied with the use of light microscopy. This species belongs to the family Crassulaceae and it demonstrates the presence of adaptive traits which are necessary to survive and allow them inhabit in dry environment. Family Crassulaceae occur on arid and semiarid areas, among the rocks, on the sandy areas and in the mountains. Anatomical studies show that leaves of K. laciniata possess a water storage tissue and mesophyll does not consist of palisade and spongy parenchyma. K. laciniata like the other species belonging to family Crassulaceae present physiological and morphological adaptations.

  13. Oral metabolism and efficacy of Kalanchoe pinnata flavonoids in a murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Muzitano, Michelle F; Falcão, Camila A B; Cruz, Elaine A; Bergonzi, Maria C; Bilia, Anna R; Vincieri, Franco F; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Costa, Sônia S

    2009-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that threatens 350 million people worldwide. In a search for new antileishmanial drugs, the in vitro activity of flavonoids from Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) was previously demonstrated in infected cells. In order to demonstrate the safety and oral activity of K. pinnata, flavonoids were evaluated in vivo in a murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Daily oral doses of quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl (1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, and free quercetin (16 mg/kg body weight) all were able to control the lesion growth caused by Leishmania amazonensis and to significantly reduce parasite load. These flavonoids were as effective as the crude K. pinnata aqueous extract given at 320 mg/kg body weight. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of the plasma of extract-treated mice suggested that quercetin and quercetin glucuronides are the main metabolites of K. pinnata quercetin glycosides. Our results indicate that K. pinnata quercetin glycosides are important active components of the aqueous extract and that they possess potent oral efficacy against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  14. Quercitrin: an antileishmanial flavonoid glycoside from Kalanchoe pinnata.

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    Muzitano, Michelle F; Cruz, Elaine A; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Da Silva, Silvia A G; Kaiser, Carlos R; Guette, Catherine; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Costa, Sônia S

    2006-01-01

    Quercitrin (quercetin 3- O-alpha- L-rhamnopyranoside), one of the constituents of the biologically active aqueous extract obtained from Kalanchoe pinnata, is demonstrated to be a potent antileishmanial compound (IC50 approximately 1 microg/mL) with a low toxicity profile. This is the first time that antileishmanial activity is demonstrated for a flavonoid glycoside.

  15. Phenolics from Kalanchoe marmorata Baker, Family Crassulaceae

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    Abdel Nasser Badawy Singab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In search of plants rich in phenolics in Egypt, Kalanchoe marmorata Baker was subjected to phytochemical study. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed its richness in phenolics. Fractionation of the lyophilized aqueous extract of the leaves of K. marmorata by different organic solvents successively resulted in the isolation and purification of five compounds from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction. These compounds namely; E1 isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside; E2 quercitin; E3 4′-methoxy-myricetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside; E4 Quercitin-3-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside and E5 protocatechuic-4′-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside, were identified by analysis of their spectral data including 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

  16. Ultraviolet-B radiation effects on phenolic profile and flavonoid content of Kalanchoe pinnata.

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    Nascimento, Luana Beatriz Dos Santos; Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinicius; Menezes, Eloá Aragão; Lopes, Virgínia Rodrigues; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão; Costa, Sônia Soares; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz

    2015-07-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation is an important abiotic factor that can stimulate the production of secondary metabolites, including polyphenolic compounds. Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly used in Brazil for treating wounds and inflammation. This species is rich in phenolic compounds, which could account for some of its biological activities, including antileishmanial, antihypertensive and antibacterial properties. We investigated the effects of supplemental UV-B radiation on the phenolic profile, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content of leaves of K. pinnata. Plants were grown under white light (W - control) and supplemental UV-B radiation (W+UVB). Supplemental UV-B radiation enhanced the total flavonoid content of the leaf extracts, without affecting the antioxidant activity or yield of extracts. Analysis by TLC and HPLC of W and W+UVB leaf extracts revealed quantitative and qualitative differences in their phenolic profiles. W+UVB extracts contained a higher diversity of phenolic compounds and a larger amount of quercitrin, an important bioactive flavonoid of this species. This is the first report of the use of ImageJ® program to analyze a TLC visualized by spraying with NP-PEG reagent. UV-B radiation is proposed as a supplemental light source in K. pinnata cultivation in order to improve its flavonoid composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antidiabetic activity of Kalanchoe pinnata in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by glucose independent insulin secretagogue action.

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    Patil, Swapnil B; Dongare, Vandana R; Kulkarni, Chaitanya R; Joglekar, Madhav M; Arvindekar, Akalpita U

    2013-11-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. (Crassulaceae) is used as a traditional medicine worldwide to treat several ailments, including diabetes. However, the mechanism for the antihyperglycemic action is unknown. The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue potential of Kalanchoe pinnata and assessment of the probable mechanism of action. Steam distillate of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves was subjected to solvent fractionation and antidiabetic activity was detected in dichloromethane (DCM) fraction. In the in vivo studies, rats were treated with 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight of DCM fraction for 45 days orally. Lipid profile and other biochemical parameters were estimated. The probable mechanism for insulin secretagogue action was evaluated through studies using diazoxide and nifedipine. The bioactive component from DCM fraction was studied using HPTLC, GCMS and IR. Fasting blood glucose values were reduced to 116 mg/dl from 228 mg/dl on treatment with 10 mg/kg body weight of DCM fraction, while glycated hemoglobin improved to 8.4% compared with 12.9% in diabetic controls. The insulin level and lipid profile values were close to normal values. In vitro studies demonstrated a dose-dependent insulin secretagogue action. Insulin secretion was 3.29-fold higher at 10 µg/ml as compared to the positive control. The insulin secretagogue activity was glucose independent and K(+)-ATP channel dependent. The bioactive component of the DCM fraction was identified to be a phenyl alkyl ether derivative. The DCM fraction of Kalanchoe pinnata demonstrates excellent insulin secretagogue action and can be useful in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Callogenesis in leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. by 2,4-D and BA action

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    M.R.A. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. is a bush species of the Crassulaceae that is distinguished by its important medicinal properties. Its leaves are used as cataplasm to treat headaches and wounds. There is evidence for a hypotensive and anti-inflammatory effect. Techniques of plant tissue culture have been applied to plant species that produce substances likely to be explored in pharmacology, cell suspension being the main technique. At the industrial level, this method utilizes bioreactors in order to produce secondary metabolites on a large scale. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vitro combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D and benzylaminopurine (BA on callus induction in leaf explants of K. pinnata. Leaf fragments were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 3.0% sucrose, 0.8% agar and factorial combinations of 2,4-D (0.00, 4.52, 9.06, 18.12 µM and BA (0.00, 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 µM. The cultures were kept in the darkness at 24±2ºC for 50 days. The percentage of callus induction and the area of explants covered by callus cells were evaluated. In the absence of growth regulators, callus induction did not occur, with necrosis of all explants. The highest percentage of callus induction was 100%, obtained with the combination of 9.06 µM 2,4-D and 8.88 µM BA, but the calluses covered only 25% of the leaf area. The most efficient combination was 4.52 µM 2,4-D and 8.88 µM BA, resulting in 91% callus induction with 50 to 100% of the explants being covered by callus cells.

  19. Isolation and identification of compounds from Kalanchoe pinnata having human alphaherpesvirus and vaccinia virus antiviral activity.

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    Cryer, Matthew; Lane, Kyle; Greer, Mary; Cates, Rex; Burt, Scott; Andrus, Merritt; Zou, Jiping; Rogers, Paul; Hansen, Marc D H; Burgado, Jillybeth; Panayampalli, Subbian Satheshkumar; Day, Craig W; Smee, Donald F; Johnson, Brent F

    2017-12-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) is a succulent plant that is known for its traditional antivirus and antibacterial usage. This work examines two compounds identified from the K. pinnata plant for their antivirus activity against human alphaherpesvirus (HHV) 1 and 2 and vaccinia virus (VACV). Compounds KPB-100 and KPB-200 were isolated using HPLC and were identified using NMR and MS. Both compounds were tested in plaque reduction assay of HHV-2 wild type (WT) and VACV. Both compounds were then tested in virus spread inhibition and virus yield reduction (VYR) assays of VACV. KPB-100 was further tested in viral cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay of HHV-2 TK-mutant and VYR assay of HHV-1 WT. KPB-100 and KPB-200 inhibited HHV-2 at IC 50 values of 2.5 and 2.9 μg/mL, respectively, and VACV at IC 50 values of 3.1 and 7.4 μg/mL, respectively, in plaque reduction assays. In virus spread inhibition assay of VACV KPB-100 and KPB-200 yielded IC 50 values of 1.63 and 13.2 μg/mL, respectively, and KPB-100 showed a nearly 2-log reduction in virus in VYR assay of VACV at 20 μg/mL. Finally, KPB-100 inhibited HHV-2 TK- at an IC 50 value of 4.5 μg/mL in CPE inhibition assay and HHV-1 at an IC 90 of 3.0 μg/mL in VYR assay. Both compounds are promising targets for synthetic optimization and in vivo study. KPB-100 in particular showed strong inhibition of all viruses tested.

  20. Influence of cultivation conditions, season of collection and extraction method on the content of antileishmanial flavonoids from Kalanchoe pinnata.

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    Muzitano, Michelle F; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; De Melo, Giany O; Lage, Celso L S; Bilia, Anna Rita; Vincieri, Franco F; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Costa, Sônia S

    2011-01-07

    Leaves from Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) are popularly used for healing wounds. Its antileishmanial properties are established in experimental animals, and its active flavonoid components have been identified. In this study, we attempted to standardize the extract from K. pinnata leaves by evaluating the influence of season of harvest, sunlight exposure and method of extraction on antileishmanial flavonoids content. HPLC-DAD-MS was used to identify and quantify the active antileishmanial flavonoids in different extracts. ANOVA test for analyses of variance followed by the Tukey test of multiple comparisons were used in the statistical analysis. The antileishmanial potential was assessed by the activation of nitric oxide production by murine macrophage using the Griess method. We demonstrated that active flavonoids were significantly more abundant when the leaves were collected in the summer, and that aqueous extraction at 50°C allowed the highest flavonoid extraction. The benefit of sunlight exposure was confirmed in plants cultivated under direct sunlight when compared with those that grown under shade. Under sunny conditions the yield of the most active antileishmanial favonoid quercitrin was increased by 7-fold. All aqueous extracts tested were capable to enhance the macrophage nitric oxide production. However, hot aqueous extract from leaves collected in summer exhibited the higher activity, in agreement with HPLC-DAD-MS analysis tendency. In addition, with the aim of reducing the individual chemical variations of the plant constituents and optimizing the production of the active extract, it was obtained in vitro monoclonal KP specimens that were easily adapted to field conditions and were able to produce antileishmanial flavonoids. Our study reports the better conditions of cultivation, harvest and extraction protocol for obtaining a K. pinnata extract exhibiting the highest antileishmanial activity. Additionally, we propose the

  1. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata Pers under light and temperature levels.

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    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2011-12-01

    This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.

  2. Comparative anatomy of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata and K. crenata in sun and shade conditions, as a support for their identification

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    Nattacha S. Moreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Pers. and K. crenata (Andrews Haw., Crassulaceae, are popularly used in the treatment of many diseases. Their biological activities, such as anti-leishmaniasis and analgesic, can be useful in phytotherapy. Both species are often misidentified as the other, because of their similar popular uses and names, and the similar external morphology of the leaves. We investigated the existence of anatomical characters that will permit correct identification of the species grown in shade and in sun conditions. We also contribute with new observations on the leaf anatomy of K. pinnata and K. crenata. Fixed (FAA70 leaves were used, and their sections were embedded in Leica historesin. Hydathodes were observed in both species, and for the first time were anatomically described in K. crenata. The species showed anatomical differences in relation to the presence of epidermal idioblasts only in K. crenata, the different pattern of distribution of subepidermal idioblasts, and the presence of leaf buds only in K. pinnata.

  3. Comparative anatomy of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata and K. crenata in sun and shade conditions, as a support for their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattacha S. Moreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Pers. and K. crenata (Andrews Haw., Crassulaceae, are popularly used in the treatment of many diseases. Their biological activities, such as anti-leishmaniasis and analgesic, can be useful in phytotherapy. Both species are often misidentified as the other, because of their similar popular uses and names, and the similar external morphology of the leaves. We investigated the existence of anatomical characters that will permit correct identification of the species grown in shade and in sun conditions. We also contribute with new observations on the leaf anatomy of K. pinnata and K. crenata. Fixed (FAA70 leaves were used, and their sections were embedded in Leica historesin. Hydathodes were observed in both species, and for the first time were anatomically described in K. crenata. The species showed anatomical differences in relation to the presence of epidermal idioblasts only in K. crenata, the different pattern of distribution of subepidermal idioblasts, and the presence of leaf buds only in K. pinnata.

  4. New Bufadienolides Isolated from the Roots of Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Stochmal, Anna

    2016-02-24

    An aqueous extract from the roots of Kalanchoe daigremontiana turned out to be a rich source of bufadienolides. The existing literature data relate mainly to the aerial parts of Kalanchoe but there is no information about the metabolic profile of the roots, which are also used in traditional medicine. Our investigation concerning the roots of K. daigremontiana led to the isolation and characterization of eight new bufadienolides, namely 1β,3β,5β,14β,19-pentahydroxybufa-20,22-dienolide (1), 19-(acetyloxy)-1β,3β,5β,14β-tetrahydroxybufa-20,22-dienolide (2), 3β-O-α-l-rhamno-pyranosyl-5β,11α,14β,19-tetrahydroxybufa-20,22-dienolide (3), 19-(acetyloxy)-3β,5β,11α,14β-tetrahydroxybufa-20,22-dienolide (4), 3β,5β,11α,14β,19-pentahydroxy-12-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide (5), 19-(acetyloxy)-3β,5β,11α,14β-tetrahydroxy-12-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide (6), 19-(acetyloxy)-1β,3β,5β,11α,14β-pentahydroxy-12-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide (7) and 1β-(acetyloxy)-3β,5β,11α,14β,19-pentahydroxy-12-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide (8), together with seven known compounds: 11α,19-dihydroxytelocinobufagin (9), bersaldegenin-1-acetate (10), daigredorigenin-3-acetate (11), bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate (12), bryotoxin B (13), bryophyllin B (14) and bersaldegenin (15). The structures were established applying extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses.

  5. New Bufadienolides Isolated from the Roots of Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Crassulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Moniuszko-Szajwaj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous extract from the roots of Kalanchoe daigremontiana turned out to be a rich source of bufadienolides. The existing literature data relate mainly to the aerial parts of Kalanchoe but there is no information about the metabolic profile of the roots, which are also used in traditional medicine. Our investigation concerning the roots of K. daigremontiana led to the isolation and characterization of eight new bufadienolides, namely 1β,3β,5β,14β,19-pentahydroxybufa-20,22-dienolide (1, 19-(acetyloxy-1β,3β,5β,14β-tetrahydroxybufa-20,22-dienolide (2, 3β-O-α-l-rhamno-pyranosyl-5β,11α,14β,19-tetrahydroxybufa-20,22-dienolide (3, 19-(acetyloxy-3β,5β,11α,14β-tetrahydroxybufa-20,22-dienolide (4, 3β,5β,11α,14β,19-pentahydroxy-12-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide (5, 19-(acetyloxy-3β,5β,11α,14β-tetrahydroxy-12-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide (6, 19-(acetyloxy-1β,3β,5β,11α,14β-pentahydroxy-12-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide (7 and 1β-(acetyloxy-3β,5β,11α,14β,19-pentahydroxy-12-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide (8, together with seven known compounds: 11α,19-dihydroxytelocinobufagin (9, bersaldegenin-1-acetate (10, daigredorigenin-3-acetate (11, bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate (12, bryotoxin B (13, bryophyllin B (14 and bersaldegenin (15. The structures were established applying extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses.

  6. Antidiabetic Activity of Cocor Bebek Leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. Ethanolic Extract from Various Areas

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    Indah Dwiatmi Dewiyanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic activity of Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor and south of Tangerang city has been studied. The study was conducted in vitro using α glucosidase inhibitor method. The results of the study showed that IC50 of the extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor, and Tangerang Selatan city is 40.94 ppm, 33.58 ppm and 16.12 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, IC50 of quersetin which has antidiabetic activity is 10.22 ppm. The results showed that Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract had antidiabetic activity with IC50 less than 100 ppm. However, the activity is lesser than quercetin.

  7. Toxicological analysis and effectiveness of oral Kalanchoe pinnata on a human case of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Santos, E C; Da Silva, S A G; Costa, S S; Santos, A P P T; Almeida, A P; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2003-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is an extremely difficult disease to treat. Previously, it was shown that oral Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) leaf extract is strongly effective against murine leishmaniasis. Here, it is shown that the serum levels of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), urea and alkaline phosphatase were unchanged in mice orally treated with supraoptimal Kp doses for 30 days, indicating the absence of chronic toxicity to the liver, heart or kidney. Additionally, evidence is presented that human leishmaniasis may also be controlled with oral Kp. A 36-year-old man with an active cutaneous leishmaniasis was orally treated with 30 g wet weight of Kp leaves/day for 14 days. During the Kp treatment, the lesion stopped growing and slightly decreased. No adverse reactions or toxicity was observed. This study reports for the first time that Kalanchoe pinnata contains substances potentially active and safe for the oral treatment of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers under light and temperature levels

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    Bruna P. Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos

  9. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Peixoto, Paulo H P; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.

  10. Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of extracts from the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguelefack, T B; Nana, P; Atsamo, A D; Dimo, T; Watcho, P; Dongmo, A B; Tapondjou, L A; Njamen, D; Wansi, S L; Kamanyi, A

    2006-06-15

    Kalanchoe crenata Andr. (Crassulaceae) is a fleshy herbaceous plant used in the African traditional medicine as remedies against otitis, headache, inflammations, convulsions and general debility. In the present work, the analgesic effects of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) (CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH) extract and its hexane, methylene chloride (CH(2)Cl(2)), ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions and aqueous residue have been evaluated using acetic acid, formalin and pressure test. The anticonvulsant effects of the CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract were also investigated on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 70 mg/kg), strychnine sulphate (STN 2.5 mg/kg) and thiosemicarbazide (TSC 50 mg/kg). CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract and its fractions, administered orally at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, exhibited protective effect of at least 30% on the pain induced by acetic acid. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction at 300 mg/kg showed a maximal effect of 78.49%. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract and its CH(2)Cl(2) fraction at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the first phase of pain induced by formalin while the second phase was completely inhibited. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction produced more than 45% reduction in the sensitivity to pain induced by pressure. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract of Kalanchoe crenata significantly increased the latency period in seizures induced by PTZ and significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by the three convulsant agents. The extract protected 20% of animals against death in seizures induced by TSC and STN. These results suggest a peripheral and central analgesic activities as well as an anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata.

  11. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna P. Cruz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.Este trabalho compara duas espécies medicinais de Kalanchoe utilizadas muitas vezes de forma indiferenciada pela população, quanto à distribuição de antocianinas sob influência de quatro níveis de luminosidade por 6 meses. Para a análise morfoanatômica foi seccionado o 6 º nó do caule de cada planta. Testes histoquímicos clássicos evidenciaram a presença de antocianinas em cortes transversais dos caules, pecíolos e lâminas foliares. Os pecíolos e lâminas foliares foram submetidos à extração com metanol

  12. Stomatal responses to CO2 during a diel Crassulacean acid metabolism cycle in Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Kalanchoe pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Caemmerer, Susanne; Griffiths, Howard

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the diurnal variation of stomatal sensitivity to CO2, stomatal response to a 30 min pulse of low CO2 was measured four times during a 24 h time-course in two Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Kalanchoe pinnata, which vary in the degree of succulence, and hence, expression and commitment to CAM. In both species, stomata opened in response to a reduction in pCO2 in the dark and in the latter half of the light period, and thus in CAM species, chloroplast photosynthesis is not required for the stomatal response to low pCO2. Stomata did not respond to a decreased pCO2 in K. daigremontiana in the light when stomata were closed, even when the supply of internal CO2 was experimentally reduced. We conclude that stomatal closure during phase III is not solely mediated by high internal pCO2, and suggest that in CAM species the diurnal variability in the responsiveness of stomata to pCO2 could be explained by hypothesizing the existence of a single CO2 sensor which interacts with other signalling pathways. When not perturbed by low pCO2, CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance were correlated both in the light and in the dark in both species.

  13. Efeito de substrato artificial no enraizamento de estacas de calanchoe (Kalanchoe x blossfeldiana cv. singapur, crassulaceae) Artificial substract effect on the rooting of calanchoe (Kalanchoe x blossfeldiana cv. singapur, crassulaceae) cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    A.L. Gonçalves; K. Minami

    1994-01-01

    Dez misturas artificiais foram estudadas para avaliar o efeito sobre o enraizamento de estacas apicais de Kalanchoe x blossfeldiana cv. Singapur, da família Crassulaceae. Essas misturas foram as seguintes: vermiculita + casca de arroz tostada nas proporções 1:1, 2:1 e 3:1; vermiculita + torta de filtro Oliver nas proporções 1:1, 2:1 e 3:1; vermiculita + turfa da região de Atibaia-SP, nas proporções 1:l, 2:le3:l; vermiculita + casca de pinheiro (mistura comercial). Os melhores resultados foram...

  14. 35S Promoter Methylation in Kanamycin-Resistant Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe pinnata L.) Plants Expressing the Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin P1 Transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, T V; Zakharchenko, N S; Tarlachkov, S V; Furs, O V; Dyachenko, O V; Buryanov, Y I

    2016-09-01

    Transgenic kalanchoe plants (Kalanchoe pinnata L.) expressing the antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 gene (cecP1) under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter and the selective neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene under the control of the nopaline synthase gene promoter were studied. The 35S promoter methylation and the cecropin P1 biosynthesis levels were compared in plants growing on media with and without kanamycin. The low level of active 35S promoter methylation further decreases upon cultivation on kanamycin-containing medium, while cecropin P1 synthesis increases.

  15. Immunomodulating and Revascularizing Activity of Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Fungicide Activity of Biogenic Peptide Cecropin P1

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    N. S. Zakharchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata plants producing an antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (CecP1 have been reported. Now we report biological testing K. pinnata extracts containing CecP1 as a candidate drug for treatment of wounds infected with Candida albicans. The drug constitutes the whole juice from K. pinnata leaves (not ethanol extract sterilized with nanofiltration. A microbicide activity of CecP1 against an animal fungal pathogen in vivo was demonstrated for the first time. However, a favorable therapeutic effect of the transgenic K. pinnata extract was attributed to a synergism between the fungicide activity of CecP1 and wound healing (antiscar, revascularizing, and immunomodulating effect of natural biologically active components of K. pinnata. A commercial fungicide preparation clotrimazole eliminated C. albicans cells within infected wounds in rats with efficiency comparable to CecP1-enriched K. pinnata extract. But in contrast to K. pinnata extract, clotrimazole did not exhibit neither wound healing activity nor remodeling of the scar matrix. Taken together, our results allow assumption that CecP1-enriched K. pinnata extracts should be considered as a candidate drug for treatment of dermatomycoses, wounds infected with fungi, and bedsores.

  16. Immunomodulating and Revascularizing Activity of Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Fungicide Activity of Biogenic Peptide Cecropin P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, N S; Belous, A S; Biryukova, Y K; Medvedeva, O A; Belyakova, A V; Masgutova, G A; Trubnikova, E V; Buryanov, Y I; Lebedeva, A A

    2017-01-01

    Previously transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata plants producing an antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (CecP1) have been reported. Now we report biological testing K. pinnata extracts containing CecP1 as a candidate drug for treatment of wounds infected with Candida albicans. The drug constitutes the whole juice from K. pinnata leaves (not ethanol extract) sterilized with nanofiltration. A microbicide activity of CecP1 against an animal fungal pathogen in vivo was demonstrated for the first time. However, a favorable therapeutic effect of the transgenic K. pinnata extract was attributed to a synergism between the fungicide activity of CecP1 and wound healing (antiscar), revascularizing, and immunomodulating effect of natural biologically active components of K. pinnata . A commercial fungicide preparation clotrimazole eliminated C. albicans cells within infected wounds in rats with efficiency comparable to CecP1-enriched K. pinnata extract. But in contrast to K. pinnata extract, clotrimazole did not exhibit neither wound healing activity nor remodeling of the scar matrix. Taken together, our results allow assumption that CecP1-enriched K. pinnata extracts should be considered as a candidate drug for treatment of dermatomycoses, wounds infected with fungi, and bedsores.

  17. Kalanchoe pinnata inhibits mast cell activation and prevents allergic airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, E A; Reuter, S; Martin, H; Dehzad, N; Muzitano, M F; Costa, S S; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Buhl, R; Stassen, M; Taube, C

    2012-01-15

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) have been found effective in models to reduce acute anaphylactic reactions. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Kp and the flavonoid quercetin (QE) and quercitrin (QI) on mast cell activation in vitro and in a model of allergic airway disease in vivo. Treatment with Kp and QE in vitro inhibited degranulation and cytokine production of bone marrow-derived mast cells following IgE/FcɛRI crosslinking, whereas treatment with QI had no effect. Similarly, in vivo treatment with Kp and QE decreased development of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia and production of IL-5, IL-13 and TNF. In contrast, treatment with QI had no effect on these parameters. These findings demonstrate that treatment with Kp or QE is effective in treatment of allergic airway disease, providing new insights to the immunomodulatory functions of this plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Gastroprotective activity of the hydroethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Pers.

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    Flávia Sobreira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Peptic ulcers are an important pathology, and the search for safer and more effective treatment methods is of paramount importance. In this study, we assess the gastroprotective effects of the hydroethanolic extract (HE and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF from Kalanchoe pinnata leaves against an ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model in rats. The HE reduced gastric lesions by approximately 47% (400 mg/kg. A significant inhibition of the gastric lesions by 50% was observed after pretreatment with the EAF (200 mg/kg. Quercetrin and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→2-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were isolated and identified in the flavonoid fraction (EAF by HPLC and NMR analyses because this fraction showed the highest gastroprotective effect. This fraction demonstrated high antioxidant activities (CE50=41.91 µg/mL by DPPH in comparison with Trolox(r and 11.33 mmol Trolox(r equivalent by ORAC. In conclusion, the HE and FAE from K. pinnata displayed gastroprotective activity in rats, most likely due to the presence of flavonoids.

  19. Wonder of Life (kalanchoe pinnata) leaves to treat diabetic foot infections in Trinidad & Tobago: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harnarayan, Patrick; Budhooram, Steve; Bobb, Nahmorah J; Islam, Shariful; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2014-10-01

    : Wonder of Life (kalanchoe pinnata) leaves are commonly used to treat diabetic foot infections. These patients are usually non-compliant with conventional medical therapy. We surmised that these patients would have a higher incidence of treatment failures. Patients admitted with diabetic foot infections were separated into two groups: a Study Group comprised patients who used topical kalanchoe pinnata and a Medical Therapy Group contained patients who were compliant with conventional treatment. The patients were observed over the course of their hospitalisation. There were 382 patients in the Medical Therapy Group and 96 in the Study Group, who waited 9.21 ± 5.3 days (Mean ± SD) before seeking medical attention. There were similar rates of all amputations (34.8% vs. 37.5%; P = 0.643) and mortality (0.8% vs. 1.0%; P = 1.000) in the Study and Medical Therapy groups. There may be value in the use of topical kalanchoe pinnata to treat diabetic foot infections. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Effectiveness of the immunomodulatory extract of Kalanchoe pinnata against murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, D C O; Muzitano, M F; Costa, S S; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2010-04-01

    Previously, we described the protective action of the immunomodulatory extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) in murine and human cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of Kp against visceral leishmaniasis, using the BALB/c mouse model of infection with Leishmania chagasi. Mice receiving oral daily doses of Kp (400 mg/kg) for 30 days displayed significantly reduced hepatic and splenic parasite burden, when compared with untreated animals. Protectiveness was accompanied by a reduction in parasite-specific IgG serum levels, and impaired capacity of spleen cells to produce IL-4, but not IFN-gamma and nitric oxide upon antigen recall in vitro. The reference drug Pentostam (72 mg/kg) given by the intra-peritoneal route on alternate days produced an anti-leishmanial effect similar to oral Kp. Our findings show that the oral efficacy of Kp, seen previously in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis, extends also to visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. chagasi, a difficult to treat and lethal disease of man.

  1. Gastroprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf Juices against Indomethacin and Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats

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    Edilane Rodrigues Dantas de Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata are used interchangeably in traditional medicine for treating peptic ulcers and inflammatory problems. In this context, this study aims to characterize the chemical constituents and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of the leaf juices of the two species in acute gastric lesions models. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-MS were performed for chemical characterization. Wistar rats were pre-treated orally with leaf juices (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg or ranitidine (50 mg/kg. The peaks observed in the chromatogram of K. brasiliensis showed similar mass spectra to flavonoid glycosides derived from patuletin and eupafolin, while K. pinnata showed mass spectra similar to compounds derived from quercetin, patuletin, eupafolin and kaempferol. K. brasiliensis at all doses and K. pinnata at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the lesions in the ethanol induction model. In the indomethacin induction model, both species showed significant results at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. Also, the pre-treatment with leaf juices increased the antioxidant defense system, glutathione (GSH, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels were significantly decreased. Treatment with leaf juices led to the upregulation of zone occludes-1 (ZO-1 and the downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and factor nuclear-κβ transcription (NF-κB-p65, while also showing a cytoprotective effect and maintaining mucus production. These findings show that the leaf juices of the two species showed gastroprotective effects on ethanol and gastric indomethacin injury which were a consequence of gastric inflammation suppression, antioxidant activity and the maintenance of cytoprotective defenses and mucosal structure architecture.

  2. [The obtainment and characteristics of Kalanchoe pinnata L. plants expressing the artificial gene of the cecropin P1 antimicrobial peptide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, N S; Rukavtsova, E B; Shevchuk, T V; Furs, O V; Pigoleva, S V; Lebedeva, A A; Chulina, I A; Baidakova, L K; Bur'yanov, Ya I

    2016-01-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata L. plants bearing an artificial CP1 gene encoding the cecropin P1 antimicrobial peptide have been obtained. The presence of the CP1 gene in the plant genome has been confirmed by PCR. Cecropin P1 synthesis in transgenic plants has been shown by MALDI mass spectrometry and Western blotting. The obtained plants have been highly resistant to bacterial and fungal phytopathogens, and their extracts have demonstrated antimicrobial activity towards human and animal pathogens. It has been shown that transgenic plants bearing the CP1 gene can be colonized by the beneficial associative microorganisms Methylovorus mays.

  3. Efeito de substrato artificial no enraizamento de estacas de calanchoe (Kalanchoe x blossfeldiana cv. singapur, crassulaceae Artificial substract effect on the rooting of calanchoe (Kalanchoe x blossfeldiana cv. singapur, crassulaceae cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Gonçalves

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Dez misturas artificiais foram estudadas para avaliar o efeito sobre o enraizamento de estacas apicais de Kalanchoe x blossfeldiana cv. Singapur, da família Crassulaceae. Essas misturas foram as seguintes: vermiculita + casca de arroz tostada nas proporções 1:1, 2:1 e 3:1; vermiculita + torta de filtro Oliver nas proporções 1:1, 2:1 e 3:1; vermiculita + turfa da região de Atibaia-SP, nas proporções 1:l, 2:le3:l; vermiculita + casca de pinheiro (mistura comercial. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a mistura vermiculita + torta de filtro Oliver em todas as proporções, vermiculita + casca de arroz tostada 3:1 e vermiculita + turfa 3:1. Os piores desempenhos foram os das misturas vermiculita + casca de pinheiro e vermiculita + turfa 1:1.Ten different artificial mixtures were studied as rooting media for Kalanchoe x blossfeldiana cv. Singapur cuttings. They were: vermiculite + toasted rice hulls (1:1, 2:1, 3:1; vermiculite + Oliver filter cake (1:1, 2:1, 3:1; vermiculite + peat (1:1, 2:1, 3:1; and vermiculite + pine bark (commercial mixture. The best results were observed for vermiculite + Oliver filter cake (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, vermiculite + toasted rice hulls (3:1 and vermiculite + peat (3:1. The worst results were observed with vermiculite + pine bark and vermiculite + peat (1:1.

  4. Kalanchoe hypseloleuce (Crassulaceae), a new species from eastern Ethiopia, with notes on its habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Gilbert, Michael G.; van Breugel, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    A new species of Kalanchoe, K. hypseloleuce Friis & M. G. Gilbert, was found during field work in Ethiopia in 2015, and is established here. It is characterised by its tall stature (2 – 3 m), entire, sessile, lanceolate leaves and pure white flowers with abaxially minutely papillose corolla lobes...

  5. Durability postproduction of three species of Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae in vessels with different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Anderson de Jesus Rodrigues

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Potted plants have wide appeal among ornamental plants and one of the most produced for the market belong to the genus Kalanchoe. One aspect to be observed in potted plants is their durability post-production when maintained in indoors conditions as offices and homes. This study aimed to evaluate the durability of the pot post-production life of three species of Kalanchoe (K. marmorata, K. thyrsiflora and K. tubiflora on different substrates. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 40 replicates per treatment in factorial 3 x 2 (three species of Kalanchoe x two substrates - washed sand and coconut fiber. After 30 days, it was evaluated the general aspects as changes in color, leaf abscission and shading of the stem apex. It was found significant differences between species and also between the substrates tested, but only in relation to the general aspects. The species Kalanchoe marmorata and K. tubiflora stood out by receiving top grades in most of the evaluated characteristics. The best substrate that provided plants the maintenance of the most of their ornamental characteristics over the 30 days was the coconut fiber.

  6. INTOXICAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL POR Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana (CRASSULACEAE) EM CÃES

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Bertoni Cavalcanti Teixeira; Raimundo Alblberto Tostes; Silvia Franco Andrade; Michiko Sakate; Raquel Ferraz Laurenti

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratorial aspects of the oral administration of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in dogs. Twelve dogs, from two to five years of age, without breed or sex preferences, were used. The animals were inoculated with the K. blossfeldiana extract and monitored by complete blood count (CBC), serum biochemical analysis of creatinokinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosfatase (FA) and electrocardiographic exam for any cardio-toxic...

  7. ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS, HEXANE AND METHANOLIC FROM THE LEAVES OF Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. PERS (Malva corama AGAINST MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT STRAINS

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    Paloma de Souza Santana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The infections caused by bacteria and fungi, as well as the subsequent resistance of these microorganisms continue with high incidencesthus studies of medicinal plants and their combination with conventional therapy, are becoming essential. This study examined the antibacterial, antifungal and modifier of resistance to antibiotics and antifungal extracts of ethanol, hexane and methanol from the leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata, used in folk medicine. The phytochemical was performed qualitatively by visual observation of color changes and formation of precipitates after addition of specific reagents, such as ferric chloride (Fecl310% sodium hydroxide (NaOH10%, hydrochloric acid (HCl 1%, acid  acetic acid 5%, ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH 10%, chloroform and  reagent Draggendorff 10%. The analysis for antimicrobial activity was through the microdilution test for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and modifying the action of antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin and antifungals (ketoconazole and fluconazole in association with the extracts. The phytochemicals assays indicated the presence of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids and flabobênicos tannins. In assessing the MIC results were obtained <1024μg/ mL for Candida albicans and Candida krusei. There was synergism between extracts of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves with aminoglycosides and antifungal, reducing the concentration of CIM of multidrug-resistant strains. Our results demonstrate that the extracts of Kalanchoe pinnata have bioactive constituents with antimicrobial activity in vitro. Keywords: Kalcinchoe pinnata, Microorganisms, Synergistic effect, Antifungal, Antibacterial.

  8. Mating system, population growth, and management scenario for Kalanchoe pinnata in an invaded seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de León, Salvador; Herrera, Ileana; Guevara, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Ecological invasions are a major issue worldwide, where successful invasion depends on traits that facilitate dispersion, establishment, and population growth. The nonnative succulent plant Kalanchoe pinnata, reported as invasive in some countries, is widespread in remnants of seasonally dry tropical forest on a volcanic outcrop with high conservation value in east-central Mexico where we assessed its mating system and demographic growth and identified management strategies. To understand its local mating system, we conducted hand-pollination treatments, germination, and survival experiments. Based on the experimental data, we constructed a life-stage population matrix, identified the key traits for population growth, weighted the contributions of vegetative and sexual reproduction, and evaluated management scenarios. Hand-pollination treatments had slight effects on fruit and seed setting, as well as on germination. With natural pollination treatment, the successful germination of seeds from only 2/39 fruit suggests occasional effective natural cross-pollination. The ratios of the metrics for self- and cross-pollinated flowers suggest that K. pinnata is partially self-compatible. Most of the pollinated flowers developed into fruit, but the seed germination and seedling survival rates were low. Thus, vegetative propagation and juvenile survival are the main drivers of population growth. Simulations of a virtual K. pinnata population suggest that an intense and sustained weeding campaign will reduce the population within at least 10 years. Synthesis and applications. The study population is partially self-compatible, but sexual reproduction by K. pinnata is limited at the study site, and population growth is supported by vegetative propagation and juvenile survival. Demographic modeling provides key insights and realistic forecasts on invasion process and therefore is useful to design management strategies.

  9. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract from Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. stems and roots in mice: A comparison to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Pérez, A; Hernández-Medel, M del R

    2016-04-01

    In ancient and current traditional medicine in México, extracts from the leaves or whole plant of 'life leaf' (Kalanchoe pinnata [K. pinnata]Lam) have been used to treat an entity known locally as 'yellow epilepsy' (alferecía amarilla) when it is accompanied by seizures. However, the anticonvulsive activity of its stems and roots remains unexplored The anticonvulsant activity of the methanolic root extract (MER) or stem (MES) of K. pinnata Lam. was evaluated in a pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure model in Balb/C mice, and effects were compared to those of diazepam. The stem extract fractions that produced anticonvulsant activity were subsequently evaluated using the pentylenetetrazol -induced seizure model. We observed increased latency of tonic-clonic seizures that was inversely proportional to the dose of MRE, with a similar impact on the lethal effects of pentylenetetrazol. Different doses of the MSE showed a dose-dependent increase in latency to myoclonus, clonus, and tonic-clonic seizures, acting similarly to diazepam and offering 100% protection against the lethal effects of pentylenetetrazol. Fractioning MSE decreased its effectiveness, but when fractions were mixed with fractions of chloroform and ethyl acetate, anticonvulsive activity was restored. The preliminary phytochemical analysis identified alkaloids and sterols in MRE, and sterols and terpenes in MSE CONCLUSIONS: The anticonvulsant activity of K. pinnata Lam. decreases with increased doses of MRE, whereas the effect of MSE is dose-dependent and preserved in the mixture chloroform and ethyl acetate. We suggest that the metabolites responsible for these effects are sterols in MRE, and sterols and terpenes in MSE. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. In Situ Nondestructive Analysis of Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf Surface Structure by Polarization-Modulation Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki; Enami, Shinichi; Shimoaka, Takafumi; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-14

    The outermost surface of the leaves of land plants is covered with a lipid membrane called the cuticle that protects against various stress factors. Probing the molecular-level structure of the intact cuticle is highly desirable for understanding its multifunctional properties. We report the in situ characterization of the surface structure of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves using polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Without sample pretreatment, PM-IRRAS measures the IR spectra of the leaf cuticle of a potted K. pinnata plant. The peak position of the CH 2 -related modes shows that the cuticular waxes on the leaf surface are mainly crystalline, and the alkyl chains are highly packed in an all-trans zigzag conformation. The surface selection rule of PM-IRRAS revealed the average orientation of the cuticular molecules, as indicated by the positive and negative signals of the IR peaks. This unique property of PM-IRRAS revealed that the alkyl chains of the waxes and the main chains of polysaccharides are oriented almost perpendicular to the leaf surface. The nondestructive, background-free, and environmental gas-free nature of PM-IRRAS allows the structure and chemistry of the leaf cuticle to be studied directly in its native environment.

  11. Production of recombinant single chain antibodies (scFv) in vegetatively reproductive Kalanchoe pinnata by in planta transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuchul; Rhee, Yong; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Shim, Hyekyung; Choi, Jung-Jin; Kwon, Suk-Tae; Yang, Joo-Sung; Kim, Donggiun; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Sukchan

    2009-10-01

    We developed an asexual reproductive plant, Kalanchoe pinnata, as a new bioreactor for plant-based molecular farming using a newly developed transformation method. Leaf crenate margins were pin-pricked to infect the plant with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 and vacuum infiltration was also applied to introduce the target gene into the plants. Subsequently, the young mother leaf produced new clones at the leaf crenate margins without the need for time- and labor-consuming tissue culture procedures. The average transformation rates were approximately 77 and 84% for pin-prickling and vacuum-infiltration methods, respectively. To functionally characterize an introduced target protein, a nucleic acid hydrolyzing recombinant 3D8 scFv was selected and the plant based 3D8 scFv proteins were purified and analyzed. Based on abzyme analysis, the purified protein expressed with this system had catalytic activity and exhibited all of properties of the protein produced in an E. coli system. This result suggested that vegetatively reproductive K. pinnata can be a novel and potent bioreactor for bio-pharmaceutical proteins.

  12. INTOXICAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL POR Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana (CRASSULACEAE EM CÃES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bertoni Cavalcanti Teixeira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratorial aspects of the oral administration of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in dogs. Twelve dogs, from two to five years of age, without breed or sex preferences, were used. The animals were inoculated with the K. blossfeldiana extract and monitored by complete blood count (CBC, serum biochemical analysis of creatinokinase (CK, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosfatase (FA and electrocardiographic exam for any cardio-toxic effect from the extract. No significant changes were identified by clinical examination, CBC, blood chemistry or EKG exams, with all results within standard values. The electrocardiographic exam of all the animals presented normal rhythm (sinus arrhythmia, cardiac axle and wave measures, without necrose or cardiac ischemia indication. These results suggested that K. blossfeldiana extract do not cause acute intoxication in dogs within the scope of this experiment.

  13. Analgesic properties of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguelefack, T B; Fotio, A L; Watcho, P; Wansi, S L; Dimo, T; Kamanyi, A

    2004-05-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the dry leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (300 and 600 mg/kg) were evaluated for their analgesic properties on the pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and heat in mice and by pressure on rats. The ethanol extract of K. crenata at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced an inhibition of 61.13% on pain induced by acetic acid and 50.13% for that induced by formalin. An inhibition of 67.18% was observed on pain induced by heat 45 min after the administration of the extract. The aqueous extract administered at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced a maximum effect of 25% on pain induced by pressure. These activities were similar to those produced by a paracetamol-codeine association, while indomethacin exhibited a protective effect only against the writhing test. Our results suggest that the leaves of K. crenata could be a source of analgesic compounds. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Hydroethanolic Extract of Kalanchoe brasiliensis (Crassulaceae) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Aldilane Gonçalves; Ribeiro Dantas, Luzia Leiros Sena Fernandes; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Lima, Adley Antoninni Neves; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura

    2018-01-01

    The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis , known as "Saião , " has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis . The action of the extract (concentrations from 0.1 to 1000 uL/100 uL) in normal and tumor cells was evaluated using the MTT method. Acute toxicity and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in mice with doses of 250 to 1000 mg/kg orally, following recognized protocols. The in vitro results indicated cytotoxic activity for 3T3 cell line (normal) and 786-0 (kidney carcinoma), showing the activity to be concentration-dependent, reaching 92.23% cell inhibition. In vivo , the extract showed no significant toxicity; only liver changes related to acute toxicity and some signs of liver damage, combining biochemical and histological data. In general, the extract showed low or no toxicity, introducing itself as safe for use with promising therapeutic potential.

  15. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Hydroethanolic Extract of Kalanchoe brasiliensis (Crassulaceae Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldilane Gonçalves Fonseca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis, known as “Saião,” has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis. The action of the extract (concentrations from 0.1 to 1000 uL/100 uL in normal and tumor cells was evaluated using the MTT method. Acute toxicity and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in mice with doses of 250 to 1000 mg/kg orally, following recognized protocols. The in vitro results indicated cytotoxic activity for 3T3 cell line (normal and 786-0 (kidney carcinoma, showing the activity to be concentration-dependent, reaching 92.23% cell inhibition. In vivo, the extract showed no significant toxicity; only liver changes related to acute toxicity and some signs of liver damage, combining biochemical and histological data. In general, the extract showed low or no toxicity, introducing itself as safe for use with promising therapeutic potential.

  16. Antihyperglycaemic potential of the water-ethanol extract of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, René; Mboumi, Rostand Youmbi; Fondjo, Angèle Foyet; Tagne, Michel Archange Fokam; N'dillé, Gabriel Patrice Roland Mengue; Yonkeu, Jeanne Ngogang

    2008-01-01

    Kalanchoe crenata is a vegetable widely used in Cameroon and largely efficient in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of the water-ethanol extract of this plant (WEKC) on blood glucose levels was investigated in fasting normal and diet-induced diabetic rats (MACAPOS 1) after a short- and medium-term treatment. Diabetes was induced by submitting Wistar rats to a hypercaloric sucrose diet over 4 months. Six hours after a single oral administration of WEKC, 135 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight extracts significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the blood glucose levels both in normal and diabetic rats without real dose-dependent effect. During the medium-term treatment, 200 mg kg(-1) WEKC administered daily for 4 weeks significantly reduced blood glucose levels within week 1 (P < 0.05), with a maximum effect at week 4 (-52%, P < 0.01), while maintaining glycaemia within the normal range. All the WEKC-treated diabetic rats exhibited significant (P < 0.01) increase in insulin sensitivity index (K (ITT)) compared with the initial time and to the untreated diabetic animals. Animals treated for 4 weeks exhibited a slight resistance in body-weight gain and decrease in food and water intake. The WEKC activities on all parameters assessed were comparable with the glibenclamide effects. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that K. crenata contains terpenoids, tannins, polysaccharids, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. The data suggest that K. crenata might contain important chemical components that could induce significant improvement in glucose clearance and/or uptake and resistance to body-weight gain and insulin sensitivity, and could be a potent alternative or complementary therapeutic substance in the control of type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant conditions.

  17. The Phenolic Compound from Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (Crassulaceae) Leaf and Its Antiplasmodial Activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Yenny Febriani; Hermanto, Faizal; Aisyah, Lilis Siti; Saputra, Tri Reksa; Hakim, Arif Rahman; Ningsih, Ade Kania; Herlina, Tati; Julaeha, Euis; Zainuddin, Achmad; Supratman, Unang

    2018-01-01

    Various species of Kalanchoe plants have been widely used as raw materials in traditional medicines. This study was the continuation of the researches on secondary metabolites from Indonesia Kalanchoe plants, focused on Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. Fresh K. blossfeldiana leaf was extracted with methanol at room temperature to obtain the concentrated extract. The concentrated methanol extract was dissolved in water and then partitioned successively with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The methanol, n-...

  18. Wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. leaf--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin

    2010-06-01

    The extract of K. pinnata was evaluated for its wound healing activity by using excision wound model in rats. On day 11, animals treated with the ethanolic leaf extract exhibited 86.33% reduction in the wound area, compared to petroleum jelly treated control (69.36%) and the mupirocin treated standard (85.49%). The hydroxyproline content of extract treated animals was higher, as compared to control and the standard groups. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that K. pinnata leaf extract exhibits significant wound healing potential. The increased rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the extract treated animals supports the claims made by traditional healers of the benefits obtained from the medicinal use of K. pinnata.

  19. Correlation of epiphyllous bud differentiation with foliar senescence in crassulacean succulent Kalanchoe pinnata as revealed by thidiazuron and ethrel application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Sawhney, Sudhir

    2006-05-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata have crenate margins with each notch bearing a dormant bud competent to develop into a healthy plantlet. Leaf detachment is a common signal for inducing two contrastingly different leaf-based processes, i.e. epiphyllous bud development into plantlet and foliar senescence. To investigate differentiation of bud and its correlation, if any, with foliar senescence, thidiazuron (TDZ), having cytokinin activity and ethrel (ETH), an ethylene releasing compound, were employed. The experimental system was comprised of marginal leaf discs, each harbouring an epiphyllous bud. Most of the growth characteristics of plantlet developing from the epiphyllous bud were significantly inhibited by TDZ but promoted by ETH. The two regulators modulated senescence in a manner different for leaf discs and plantlet leaves. Thus, TDZ caused a complete retention whereas ETH a complete loss of chlorophyll in the leaf discs. In contrast, the former resulted in a complete depletion of chlorophyll from the plantlet leaves producing an albino effect, while the latter reduced it by 50% only. In combined dispensation of the two regulators, the effect of TDZ was expressed in majority of responses studied. The results presented in this investigation clearly show that the foliar processes of epiphyllous bud differentiation and senescence are interlinked as TDZ that delayed senescence inhibited epiphyllous bud differentiation and ETH that hastened senescence promoted it. A working hypothesis to interpret responsiveness of the disc-bud composite on lines of a source-sink duo, has been proposed.

  20. Evaluation of the analgesic, sedative-anxiolytic, cytotoxic and thrombolytic potentials of the different extracts of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Razibul Habib

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, neuropharmacological, cytotoxic and thrombolytic potentials of the aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves. Methods: At the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, the analgesic activity of the extracts were evaluated by the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced persistent pain tests while neuropharmacological activity was evaluated by the open field, hole cross and elevated plus maze tests. The cytotoxic potential was observed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay and the thrombolytic potential was investigated by clot lysis test. Results: The aqueous extract significantly suppressed the number of writhing (96.78% as well as the formalin-induced persistent pain on the early phase (46.92% and on the late phase (40.98%. Again in case of hole cross and open field tests, the locomotor activity was decreased significantly (P < 0.001 mostly by the ethyl acetate extract. Furthermore, the sedative-anxiolytic activity was supported by the increased percent (P < 0.01 of frequency into the open arm on elevated plus maze test. Besides, the extracts showed moderate lethality and thrombolytic activity. Conclusions: The findings showed that activities are comparable to the standards and in some cases are stronger than the standards. Therefore, based on the results, it is evident that it has great analgesic and sedative-anxiolytic activity with moderate cytotoxic and thrombolytic potential.

  1. Immunomodulatory pretreatment with Kalanchoe pinnata extract and its quercitrin flavonoid effectively protects mice against fatal anaphylactic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, E A; Da-Silva, S A G; Muzitano, M F; Silva, P M R; Costa, S S; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2008-12-10

    Previously, we reported the immunosuppressive action of the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) in mice. In the present study, we report on the protective effect of Kp in fatal anaphylactic shock, likewise a Th2-driven immunopathology, and the identification of its active component. Mice daily treated with oral Kp during hypersensitization with ovalbumin were all protected against death when challenged with the allergen, as compared with the 100% mortality in the untreated group. A single intraperitoneal dose 3 h prior to challenge was partially effective. Oral protection was accompanied by a reduced production of OVA-specific IgE antibodies, reduced eosinophilia, and impaired production of the IL-5, IL-10 and TNF-alpha cytokines. In vitro, Kp prevented antigen-induced mast cell degranulation and histamine release. Oral treatment with the quercitrin flavonoid isolated from Kp prevented fatal anaphylaxis in 75% of the animals. These findings indicate that oral treatment with Kp effectively downmodulates pro-anaphylactic inducing immune responses. Protection achieved with quercitrin, although not maximal, suggests that this flavonoid is a critical component of Kp extract against this extreme allergic reaction.

  2. A comparative study on diurnal changes in metabolite levels in the leaves of three crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species, Ananas comosus, Kalanchoë daigremontiana and K. pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Song; Lin, Qin; Nose, Akihiro

    2002-02-01

    A comparative study on diurnal changes in metabolite levels associated with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in the leaves of three CAM species, Ananas comosus (pineapple), a hexose-utilizing species, and Kalanchoë daigremontiana and K. pinnata, two starch-utilizing species, were made. All three CAM species showed a typical feature of CAM with nocturnal malate increase. In the two Kalanchoë species, isocitrate levels were higher than citrate levels; the reverse was the case in pineapple. In the two Kalanchoë species, a small nocturnal citrate increase was found and K. daigremontiana showed a small nocturnal isocitrate increase. Glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P), fructose 6-phosphate (F-6-P) and glucose 1-phosphate (G-1-P) levels in the three CAM species rose rapidly during the first part of the dark period and decreased during the latter part of the dark period. The levels of the metabolites also decreased during the first 3 h of the light period, then, remained little changed through the rest of the light period. Absolute levels of G-6-P, F-6-P and G-1-P were higher in pineapple than in the two Kalanchoë species. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P(2)) levels in the three CAM species increased during the dark period, then dramatically decreased during the first 3 h of the light period and remained unchanged through the rest of the light period. The extent of nocturnal F-1,6-P(2) increase was far greater in the two Kalanchoë species than in pineapple. Absolute levels of F-1,6-P(2) were higher in the two Kalanchoë species than in pineapple, especially during dark period. Diurnal changes in oxaloacetate (OAA), pyruvate (Pyr) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) levels in the three CAM species were similar.

  3. Mechanisms Underlying the Antinociceptive, Antiedematogenic, and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Main Flavonoid from Kalanchoe pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Teixeira Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe pinnata (KP is popularly used for treating inflammatory diseases. This study investigated the antinociceptive, antiedematogenic, and anti-inflammatory potential of the subcutaneous administration of KP flower aqueous extract (KPFE, its ethyl acetate (EtOAcF and butanol (BuOHF fractions, and the main KP flavonoid [quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→2 α-L-rhamnopyranoside] (KPFV in mice, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. KPFE (30–300 mg/kg and KPFV (1–10 mg/kg inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing (ID50 = 164.8 and 9.4 mg/kg, resp.. KPFE (300 mg/kg, EtOAcF (12 mg/kg, BuOHF (15 mg/kg, or KPFV (0.3–3.0 mg/kg reduced leukocyte migration on carrageenan-induced pleurisy (ID50 = 2.0 mg/kg for KPFV. KPFE (3–30 mg/kg and KPFV (0.3–3.0 mg/kg reduced the croton oil-induced ear edema (ID50 = 4.3 and 0.76 mg/kg, resp.. KPFE and KPFV reduced the TNF-α concentration in the pleural exudates on carrageenan-induced pleurisy test. Moreover, KPFV inhibited COX-1 (IC50 = 22.1 μg/mL and COX-2 (IC50 > 50 μg/mL. The selectivity index (COX-1IC50/COX-2IC50 was <0.44. These results indicate that KPFE and KPFV produced antinociceptive, antiedematogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities through COX inhibition and TNF-α reduction, revealing that the main flavonoid in KP flowers and leaves plays an important role in the ethnomedicinal use of the plant.

  4. Mechanisms Underlying the Antinociceptive, Antiedematogenic, and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Main Flavonoid from Kalanchoe pinnata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Raquel Teixeira; Coutinho, Marcela Araújo Soares; Malvar, David do Carmo; Costa, Elson Alves; Florentino, Iziara Ferreira; Costa, Sônia Soares; Vanderlinde, Frederico Argollo

    2014-01-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata (KP) is popularly used for treating inflammatory diseases. This study investigated the antinociceptive, antiedematogenic, and anti-inflammatory potential of the subcutaneous administration of KP flower aqueous extract (KPFE), its ethyl acetate (EtOAcF) and butanol (BuOHF) fractions, and the main KP flavonoid [quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1 → 2) α-L-rhamnopyranoside] (KPFV) in mice, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. KPFE (30–300 mg/kg) and KPFV (1–10 mg/kg) inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing (ID50 = 164.8 and 9.4 mg/kg, resp.). KPFE (300 mg/kg), EtOAcF (12 mg/kg), BuOHF (15 mg/kg), or KPFV (0.3–3.0 mg/kg) reduced leukocyte migration on carrageenan-induced pleurisy (ID50 = 2.0 mg/kg for KPFV). KPFE (3–30 mg/kg) and KPFV (0.3–3.0 mg/kg) reduced the croton oil-induced ear edema (ID50 = 4.3 and 0.76 mg/kg, resp.). KPFE and KPFV reduced the TNF-α concentration in the pleural exudates on carrageenan-induced pleurisy test. Moreover, KPFV inhibited COX-1 (IC50 = 22.1 μg/mL) and COX-2 (IC50 > 50 μg/mL). The selectivity index (COX-1IC50/COX-2IC50) was <0.44. These results indicate that KPFE and KPFV produced antinociceptive, antiedematogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities through COX inhibition and TNF-α reduction, revealing that the main flavonoid in KP flowers and leaves plays an important role in the ethnomedicinal use of the plant. PMID:25580151

  5. Oxidative Stress Parameters and Erythrocyte Membrane Adenosine Triphosphatase Activities in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats Administered Aqueous Preparation of Kalanchoe Pinnata Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Nikhil; Sparks, Jean; Omoruyi, Felix O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that according to the World Health Organization affects more than 382 million people. The rise in diabetes mellitus coupled with the lack of an effective treatment has led many to investigate medicinal plants to identify a viable alternative. To evaluate red blood cell (RBC) membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities and antioxidant levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Diabetic rats were then treated with aqueous K. pinnata preparation (three mature leaves ~ 9.96 g/70 kg body weight or about 0.14 g/kg body weight/day) for 30 days. Serum glucose, RBC membrane ATPase activities, and antioxidant levels were determined. We noted weight loss and reduced food consumption in the treated diabetic group. Serum glucose levels were reduced in the treated diabetic group compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were not significantly elevated in the treated group compared to the diabetic group. However, serum catalase activity was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the treated diabetic group compared to the other groups. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not significantly altered among the groups. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in Mg(2+) ATPase activity and a nonsignificant increase in Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in the RBC membrane of the treated diabetic group compared to the diabetic group. The consumption of aqueous preparation of K. pinnata may accrue benefits in the management of diabetes by lowering oxidative stress often associated with the disease and improving the availability of cellular magnesium through an increase in the magnesium ATPase pump in the RBC membrane for increased cellular metabolism of glucose through the glycolytic pathway. We noted weight loss and

  6. In vivo wound healing activity and phytochemical screening of the crude extract and various fractions of Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich (Crassulaceae) leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Awol; Sidamo, Temesgen; Asres, Kaleab; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2013-01-30

    The leaves of Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich (Crassulaceae) are used in Ethiopian folk medicine for treatment of evil eye, fractured surface for bone setting and several skin disorders including for the treatment of sores, boils, and malignant wounds. In order to scientifically prove the claimed utilization of the plant, the effects of the extracts and the fractions were investigated using in vivo excision, incision and dead space wound models. Mice were used for wound healing study, while rats and rabbit were used for skin irritation test. For studying healing activity 80% methanolic extract and the fractions were formulated in strength of 5% and 10%, either as ointment (hydroalcoholic extract, aqueous and methanol fractions) or gel (chloroform fraction). Oral administration of the crude extract was used for dead space model. Negative controls were treated either with simple ointment or sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose xerogel, while positive controls with nitrofurazone (0.2 w/v) skin ointment. Negative controls for dead space model were treated with 1% carboxy methyl cellulose. Parameters, including rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelializtion, hydroxyproline contents and skin breaking strength were evaluated. Significant wound healing activity was observed with ointment formulated from the crude extract at both 5% and 10% concentration (pKalanchoe petitiana A. Rich possess remarkable wound healing activities supporting the folkloric assertion of the plant. Fractionation revealed that polar or semi polar compound may play vital role, as both aqueous and methanolic fractions were endowed with wound healing activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlations among attributes of senescence and antioxidative status of leaf discs during epiphyllous bud differentiation in Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. (Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Chawla, Raman; Sawhney, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Leaf detachment is a common signal that triggers both the differentiation of dormant epiphyllous buds as well as the onset of foliar senescence in Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. (Pers.). The present study looked for any probable correlations among selected attributes of foliar senescence, e.g. soluble proteins, chlorophylls a and b (Chl(a+b)), and membrane stability index (MSI), and the antioxidative status, e.g. phenolics, ferric reducing ability in plasma equivalence (FRAP(eq)), and membrane protection index (MPI), during epiphyllous bud differentiation. The experimental system comprised 0.75-cm leaf discs, with or without a dormant epiphyllous bud, cultured in vitro and exposed for ten days to continuous light or dark. A steady depletion of soluble proteins and Chl(a+b), and lowering of MSI in the leaf discs were observed, the decline being relatively faster and of higher magnitude in discs exposed to dark rather than to light. The pigment loss in discs with differentiating epiphyllous buds was greater and faster than in those lacking buds, a somewhat reverse situation was observed in case of soluble proteins. Simultaneously, a time-dependent decrease in the level of phenolics was also observed. Their content was found to be lower in discs exposed to dark as compared to light, pointing to a relationship with a higher rate of senescence-related degradative processes in the dark. The change in the content of Chl(a+b) was found to be significantly correlated with the variation in the level of phenolics. The average FRAP(eq) after ten days was one half that of the initial level, which could be correlated with the decreasing levels of phenolics (intra-correlation) and maximally correlated with variations in Chl(a+b) and protein contents (inter-correlation). Aqueous alcohol foliar extracts significantly (p < 0.05) protected membranes against peroxidative stress, although the pattern was not found to be in line with that of the phenolics content or FRAP(eq). The diminishing

  8. The Phenolic Compound from Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (Crassulaceae Leaf and Its Antiplasmodial Activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7

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    Yenny Febriani Yun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Various species of Kalanchoe plants have been widely used as raw materials in traditional medicines. This study was the continuation of the researches on secondary metabolites from Indonesia Kalanchoe plants, focused on Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. Fresh K. blossfeldiana leaf was extracted with methanol at room temperature to obtain the concentrated extract. The concentrated methanol extract was dissolved in water and then partitioned successively with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The methanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate extracts were tested using antiplasmodial assay against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7. The IC50 of methanol, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate extract were 13.002; 2.807, and 11 nM, respectively. Ethyl acetate extract was separated by the combination of chromatography on silica and ODS. This process produced the yellow solid. The chemical structure of the compound was determined based on UV, IR, MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR analyses and the comparison of data obtained from the literature and identified as phenolic compound, namely 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone or quercetin (1, and displayed antiplasmodial activity with IC50 3.97x10-2 nM.

  9. The Immunosuppressant Effect Comparation Between Ethyl Acetate and n-Butanol Fractions of Kalanchoe Pinnata (Lmk Pers In 2,6,10,14 Tetramethylpentadecane-Treated Mice

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    Niken Indriyanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressant drugs are the main treatment of lupus patient. The ACR and SLICC treatment guidelines are able to increase the quality of life, but the outcome is not satisfying since the off-label therapy of corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs give a lot of side effects. Many breakthrough efforts still develop in order to find the safe and effective drugs for lupus, such as finding immunosuppressant drugs from natural resources. One of the potential resources is Kalanchoe pinnata (Lmk Pers, which have immunosuppressant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant effects. Thus, in the previous study, we found the effect of the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lmk Pers is active to repair the lupus manifestation in 2,6,10,14 tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD-treated mice. Then, this research was focused on the in vivo immunosuppressant effect of a flavonoid-rich fraction of the extract which was consisted of the ethyl acetate (FE and n-butanol (FB fractions. The induction method and the extraction procedure were the same as the previous study and then the fractionation was performed by using liquid-liquid extraction. After 2-week treatment of both fractions, we obtained the differences in the total leukocytes, organ indexes, and also the spleen, kidney, and joint structure parameters. The total leukocyte of the FE group was 3,600±264 cells/mm3, which was lower than that in the FB group. The spleen and kidney indexes increased after the administration of FB fraction, while the FE fraction was not. At last, despite the histology observation of spleen resembled mild structural changes differences, the clear differences between both treatment groups occurred in the kidney and joint histology. The differences led to a conclusion that the FE fraction has the better immunosuppressant effect in TMPD-treated mice.

  10. Bactericide, Immunomodulating, and Wound Healing Properties of Transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin P1 In Vivo

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    A. A. Lebedeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedure of manufacturing K. pinnata water extracts containing cecropin P1 (CecP1 from the formerly described transgenic plants is established. It included incubation of leaves at +4°C for 7 days, mechanical homogenization of leaves using water as extraction solvent, and heating at +70°C for inactivating plant enzymes. Yield of CecP1 (after heating and sterilizing filtration was 0.3% of total protein in the extract. The water extract of K. pinnata + CecP1 exhibits favorable effect on healing of wounds infected with S. aureus (equal to Cefazolin and with a combination of S. aureus with P. aeruginosa (better than Cefazolin. Wild-type K. pinnata extract exhibited evident microbicide activity against S. aureus with P. aeruginosa but it was substantially strengthened in K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. K. pinnata extracts (both wild-type and transgenic did not exhibit general toxicity and accelerated wound recovery. Due to immunomodulating activity, wild-type K. pinnata extract accelerated granulation of the wound bed and marginal epithelialization even better than K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. Immunomodulating and microbicide activity of K. pinnata synergizes with microbicide activity of CecP1 accelerating elimination of bacteria.

  11. Bactericide, Immunomodulating, and Wound Healing Properties of Transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin P1 In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, A A; Zakharchenko, N S; Trubnikova, E V; Medvedeva, O A; Kuznetsova, T V; Masgutova, G A; Zylkova, M V; Buryanov, Y I; Belous, A S

    2017-01-01

    Procedure of manufacturing K. pinnata water extracts containing cecropin P1 (CecP1) from the formerly described transgenic plants is established. It included incubation of leaves at +4°C for 7 days, mechanical homogenization of leaves using water as extraction solvent, and heating at +70°C for inactivating plant enzymes. Yield of CecP1 (after heating and sterilizing filtration) was 0.3% of total protein in the extract. The water extract of K. pinnata + CecP1 exhibits favorable effect on healing of wounds infected with S. aureus (equal to Cefazolin) and with a combination of S. aureus with P. aeruginosa (better than Cefazolin). Wild-type K. pinnata extract exhibited evident microbicide activity against S. aureus with P. aeruginosa but it was substantially strengthened in K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. K. pinnata extracts (both wild-type and transgenic) did not exhibit general toxicity and accelerated wound recovery. Due to immunomodulating activity, wild-type K. pinnata extract accelerated granulation of the wound bed and marginal epithelialization even better than K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. Immunomodulating and microbicide activity of K. pinnata synergizes with microbicide activity of CecP1 accelerating elimination of bacteria.

  12. Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Nikhil Menon

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The observed decrease in body weight, blood glucose and cholesterol level suggests that the aqueous K. pinnata preparation consumption may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on alkaline phosphatase activity may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and K. pinnata preparation administration.

  13. Poriferasta-5,22E,25-trien-3β-ol,22-dehidrokolesterol dari daun Kalanchoe serrata (Crassulaceae

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    Fajar Fauzi Abdullah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian berkelanjutan untuk pencarian senyawa metabolit sekunder baru dari tumbuhan Kalanchoe Indonesia, telah dilakukan kajian fitokimia terhadap Kalanchoe serrata. Daun segar K. serrata sebanyak 14,8 kg diekstraksi dengan metanol pada temperatur kamar. Ekstrak metanol (292 g dipartisi berturut-turut dengan n-heksana dan metilenklorida. Ekstrak metilenklorida (0,80 g selanjutnya dipisahkan pada kromatografi cair vakum pada silika gel G60 dengan eluen kloroform-aseton yang meningkat kepolarannya sehingga dihasilkan 10 fraksi yang dikelompokan berdasarkan analisis KLT. Padatan yang diperoleh pada fraksi yang terelusi dengan 20% aseton selanjutnya dipisahkan pada kromatografi kolom pada silika gel (230-400 mesh dengan eluen kloroform dan dimurnikan lebih lanjut dengan kristalisasi pada aseton sehingga dihasilkan isolat berbentuk kristal jarum tak-berwarna sebanyak 23 mg. Isolat menunjukkan titik leleh 115-118oC dan memberikan warna hijau-kebiruan pada uji Liebermann-Burchard menunjukkan adanya kerangka steroid.  Hasil analisis spektroskopi yang meliputi UV, IR, 1D-NMR dan 2D-NMR menunjukan bahwa isolat merupakan turunan sterol dan diidentifikasi sebagai poriferasta-5,22E,25-trien-3β-ol,22-dehidrokolesterol.

  14. EKSTRAK DAUN COCOR BEBEK (Kalanchoe pinnata UNTUK TERAPI PREVENTIF LUPUS PADA MENCIT YANG DIINDUKSI DENGAN 2,6,10,14 TETRAMETHYLPENTADECANE

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    Niken Indriyanti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocor bebek Plants (Kalanchoe pinnata has been observed to have a potent immunosuppressant compounds in BALB/c mice with Delayed Type Hypersensitivity test (DTH. Compounds are efficacious immunosuppression can be used for treatment of autoimmune diseases such as lupus. The purpose of this study was knowing the class of compounds in leaf extracts cocor bebek and test whether the extract can prevent the occurrence of lupus in test animals. Methods: In this study the identification of classes of compounds present in Cocor bebek leaf extracts and testing imunnosupression activities from test animals BALB/c mice induced lupus using 2,6,10,14 tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD. Parameters measured lupus glomerulonephritis which was known by the presence of proteinuria using a test strip supported by data on changes in weight. Results: Extracts of cocor bebek leaves positive contain tannins, flavonoids, saponins and steroid / triterpene. Mice given the extract of Cocor bebek leaves every day until the 3rd month after not having induced proteinuria, while untreated mice had proteinuria up to +2 (proteinuria levels> 30 mg / dL. Key words : Cocor bebek, BALB/c mice, lupus, TMPD, glomerulonefritis   ABSTRAK Tanaman cocor bebek (Kalanchoe pinnata telah diteliti memiliki senyawa yang berkhasiat immunosupresan pada mencit BALB/c dengan uji Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH. Senyawa yang berkhasiat imunosupresan dapat digunakan untuk penanganan penyakit autoimun, misalnya lupus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah Mengetahui golongan senyawa dalam ekstrak daun cocor bebek dan menguji apakah ekstrak tersebut dapat mencegah terjadinya lupus pada hewan uji. Metode : Pada penelitian ini dilakukan identifikasi golongan senyawa yang ada dalam ekstrak daun cocor bebek dan pengujian aktivitas imunosupresannya terhadap hewan uji mencit BALB/c yang diinduksi lupus menggunakan 2,6,10,14 tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD. Parameter lupus yang diukur adalah glomerulonefritis yang

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF ALKALOIDS AND TANNINS IN THE CRASSULACEAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; VANHAM, CHJ; ELEMA, ET; VANDENENT, MMVX; WILDEBOER, M; ZWAVING, JH

    Alkaloid and tannin levels of 36 species of the Crassulaceae were compared. The taxa investigated were Crassula multicava, Echeveria venezuelensis, Pachyphytum compactum, Kalanchoe (two sop.), Bryophyllum daigremontianum, Sedum (23 spp.), Aeonium (four spp.) and Sempervivum (three spp.). Apart from

  16. Optimization of Aqueous Extraction from Kalanchoe pinnata Leaves to Obtain the Highest Content of an Anti-inflammatory Flavonoid using a Response Surface Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Nascimento, Luana Beatriz; de Aguiar, Paula Fernandes; Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinicius; Coutinho, Marcela Araújo Soares; Borsodi, Maria Paula Gonçalves; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2018-05-01

    The medicinal plant Kalanchoe pinnata is a phenolic-rich species used worldwide. The reports on its pharmacological uses have increased by 70% in the last 10 years. The leaves of this plant are the main source of an unusual quercetin-diglycosyl flavonoid (QAR, quercetin arabinopyranosyl rhamnopyranoside), which can be easily extracted using water. QAR possess a strong in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. To optimize the aqueous extraction of QAR from K. pinnata leaves using a three-level full factorial design. After a previous screening design, time (x 1 ) and temperature (x 2 ) were chosen as the two independent variables for optimization. Freeze-dried leaves were extracted with water (20% w/v), at 30°C, 40°C or 50°C for 5, 18 or 30 min. QAR content (determined by HPLC-DAD) and yield of extracts were analyzed. The optimized extracts were also evaluated for cytotoxicity. The optimal heating times for extract yield and QAR content were similar in two-dimensional (2D) surface responses (between 12.8 and 30 min), but their optimal extraction temperatures were ranged between 40°C and 50°C for QAR content and 30°C and 38°C for extract yield. A compromise region for both parameters was at the mean points that were 40°C for the extraction temperature and 18 min for the total time. The optimized process is faster and spends less energy than the previous one (water; 30 min at 55°C); therefore is greener and more attractive for industrial purposes. This is the first report of extraction optimization of this bioactive flavonoid. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. S-nitrosylated proteins of a medicinal CAM plant Kalanchoe pinnata- ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity targeted for inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Jasmeet K; Mattoo, Autar K; Deswal, Renu

    2008-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that affects a myriad of processes in plants. However, the mechanistic details are limited. NO post-translationally modifies proteins by S-nitrosylation of cysteines. The soluble S-nitrosoproteome of a medicinal, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant, Kalanchoe pinnata, was purified using the biotin switch technique. Nineteen targets were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, including proteins associated with carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism, the cytoskeleton, stress and photosynthesis. Some were similar to those previously identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, but kinesin-like protein, glycolate oxidase, putative UDP glucose 4-epimerase and putative DNA topoisomerase II had not been identified as targets previously for any organism. In vitro and in vivo nitrosylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), one of the targets, was confirmed by immunoblotting. Rubisco plays a central role in photosynthesis, and the effect of S-nitrosylation on its enzymatic activity was determined using NaH14CO3. The NO-releasing compound S-nitrosoglutathione inhibited its activity in a dose-dependent manner suggesting Rubisco inactivation by nitrosylation for the first time.

  18. EFEK ANTIPIRETIK KOMBINASI EKSTRAK DAUN COCOR BEBEK (Kalanchoe pinnata L. DAN EKSTRAK DAUN TEMBELEKAN(Lantana camara L. PERS.TERHADAP MARMUT (Cavia porcellus DENGAN DEMAM YANG DIINDUKSI PEPTON

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    Heni Purwitasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocor Bebek (Kalanchoe pinnata L. is a medicinal plant that has been used as traditional medicine for long period, used to fight fever, but it empirically leaves of  Tembelekan (Lantana camara L. are also generally primarily used to treat fever. Research on the effects of the combination of Cocor Bebek’s leaf extract (Kalanchoe pinnata L. and the leaf extract of tembelekan (Lantana camara L. Pers on male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus is induced peptone 5% at a dose of 150 mg / kg body weight. With the aim to determine the effect of the combination and determine the effects of the most effective as an antipyretic. Extracts prepared by maceration method using ethanol 95%. Marmots were divided into 4 groups. Each guinea pig was induced using peptone 5%. The first group was given Na CMC as a negative control group 2nd given a combination of one dose combinations (50 + 720. Group 3 was given a second dose combination (100 + 720. Group-4 were given a 3-dose combination (150 + 720. Temperature measurement is carried out for 2 hours with a 30 minute interval. Data were analyzed temperature measurements were statistically analyzed using ANOVA (Analisys Of Variance. The research result was addressing, that the combination of extracts can reduce fever. The combination is most effective as an antipyretic is cocor duck leaf extract 50 mg and 720 mg tembelekan leaf extract (50 + 720.

  19. A Comparative Study by δ13C-Analysis of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in Kalanchoë (Crassulaceae) Species of Africa and Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, M.; Brulfert, J.; Lipp, J.; Ravelomanana, D.; Ziegler, H.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon isotope ratios (δ 13 C values) of samples of Kalanchoë species collected in Africa were compared with previous data obtained with species from Madagascar. In contrast to the Malagasy species which cover the whole range of δ 13 C values from −10 to − 30%o, indicating high inter- and intraspecific diversity of CAM performance, in the African species nearly all δ 13 C values were less negative than −18%0. Thus, in the African species the CAM behaviour is characterized by CO 2 uptake proceeding mainly during the night. The distribution of δ 13 C values among the species clearly mirrors the taxonomic groups and the three sections of the genus Kalanchoë sensu lato. The Kitchingia section comprises only groups having CAM with a high proportion of carbon acquisition by the C3-pathway of photosynthesis. The same holds true for the first three groups of the Bryophyllum section, whereas in the following groups of the section CAM with CO 2 proceeding mainly during the night is common. The latter CAM mode is typical also for the majority of groups and species in the section Eukalanchoë. The African Kalanchoë species belong to the Eukalanchoë section, whereas in Madagascar all three sections are abundant. The data support the view that the centre of adaptive radiation of the genus is located in Madagascar. They also suggest that high CAM variability is abundant in the more primitive taxa of the genus, whereas the phylogenetically more derived taxa show a stereotype CAM with CO 2 uptake taking place only during the night. (author)

  20. [Antiviral activity of representatives of the family Crassulaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirobokov, V P; Evtushenko, A I; Lapchik, V F; Shirobokova, D N; Suptel', E A

    1981-12-01

    The antiviral properties of the juice of 11 species of the orpine family were studied. 8 of them belonged to the genera Kalanchoe, i. e. Kalanchoe diagremontiona R. Hamet, K. pinnata (Zam.) Persoon, K. Peteri Werd., K. prolifera (Bovie) R. Hamet, K. marnierriana (Mann. et Boit) Jacobs; K. blossfeldiana v. Poelln, K. beharensis Drake del Gastillo, K. waldheimii R. Hamet et Perr and 3 belonged to the Sedum genera, i. e. Sedum telephium L., S. spectabile Boreau, S. acre L. A high virus neutralizing activity of the juice from 4 species of Kalanchoe, i. e. K. blossfeldiana, K. waldheimii, K. pinnata and K. beharensis was shown. Inhibition of the virus infecting activity was observed at the juice dilutions from 1-2 to 1-8000 and higher. The viricidal factor of Kalanchoe is stable. It is not destroyed by ether, alcohol and potassium periodate. It is not absorbed by bentonite at the acid pH values. Addition of cattle serum or purified proteins to the juice resulted in their precipitation which suppressed the viricidal activity of the juice.

  1. Larvicides and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Kalanchoe species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Bezerra, Maria Zeneide Barbosa; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Feitosa, Chistiane Mendes; Verpoorte, Robert; Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden; Braz Filho, Raimundo

    2006-01-01

    Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors are successfully used to treat the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Extracts of three Kalanchoe species (K. brasiliensis, K. pinnata and K. gastonis-bornieri) showed acetylcholine esterase inhibitory effects and a toxic effect on Aedes aegypti larvae. Here we describe the bioassay guided fractionation of extracts of the most active extracts (K. brasiliensis) which resulted in the isolation of an active mixture of three flavonoids: 8-methoxyquercetin, 3,7-di-O-rhamnopyranoside and 8-methoxykaempferol-3,7-di-O-rhamnopyranoside. On TLC these flavonoids showed an acetylcholine esterase inhibitory effect. (author)

  2. The Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compounds Accumulation in Leaves of Various Kinds of Kalanchoe

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    N. N. SAZHINA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of actual problems of modern pharmacology is creation of new medicines on the basis of vegetable raw materials. In this plan some succulents present a great interest in particular some kinds of the genus Kalanchoe, such as Kalanchoe pinnata (K.pinnata and Kalanchoe Daigremontiana (K.daigremontiana. Their leaves contain useful mineral salts, organic acids and the numerous phenolic compounds (PC. Education and accumulation of these PC depends on genetic features of a plant and numerous factors of environment. Besides, these representatives of a secondary metabolism cause biological, including antioxidant activity (AOA of this or that species of a plant, that is ability its component to inhibit oxidizing free radical processes. Use of modern methods of antioxidant properties research for plant extracts or juice of this or that plant allow to study and reveal their medicinal value at higher level.In the present work the comparative analysis of measurement results of the total phenols content and their activity in leave juice of various kinds of Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe L. is carried out by ammetric and chemiluminescence methods for the purpose of identification among them the most active producers of phenol metabolites. Objects of research were juice samples of 34 kinds of the genus Kalanchoe, grown up in a succulent collection in Timiryazev Institute of plant physiology RAS (Moscow, Russia. Among the studied samples two most active from the point of view of their antioxidant properties Kalanchoe kinds: K.scapigera and K.rhombopilosa are revealed. Both methods show considerably higher values of the phenol metabolite content in leave juice of these plants and their AOA in comparison with K.pinnata and K.daigremontiana. For possible expansion for use of specified types of Kalanchoe as sources of biologically active compounds, additional researches of biochemical structure, antibacterial, antimicrobic and other properties of these plant components is

  3. Larvicides and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Kalanchoe species; Atividades larvicida e anticolinesterasica de plantas do genero Kalanchoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Bezerra, Maria Zeneide Barbosa; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Feitosa, Chistiane Mendes [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: trevisan@ufc.br; Verpoorte, Robert [Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden (Netherlands). Div. of Pharmacognosy; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2006-03-15

    Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors are successy used to treat the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Extracts of three Kalanchoe species (K. brasiliensis, K. pinnata and K. gastonis-bornieri) showed acetylcholine esterase inhibitory effects and a toxic effect on Aedes aegypti larvae. Here we describe the bioassay guided fractionation of extracts of the most active extracts (K. brasiliensis) which resulted in the isolation of an active mixture of three flavonoids: 8-methoxyquercetin, 3,7-di-O-rhamnopyranoside and 8-methoxykaempferol-3,7-di-O-rhamnopyranoside. On TLC these flavonoids showed an acetylcholine esterase inhibitory effect. (author)

  4. Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of Crassulaceae inferred from matK sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mort, Mark E.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo

    2001-01-01

    Chloroplast gene matK sequence data were used to estimate the phylogeny of 112 species of Crassulaceae sampled from 33 genera and all six recognized subfamilies. Our analyses suggest that five of six subfamilies recognized in the most recent comprehensive classification of the family are not monophyletic. Instead, we recovered a basal split in Crassulaceae between the southern African CRASSULA: clade (Crassuloideae) and the rest of the family (Sedoideae). These results are compatible with recent studies of cpDNA restriction site analyses. Within Sedoideae, four subclades were also recovered: KALANCHOE:, Leucosedum, Acre, and AEONIUM:; evidence also exists for a TELEPHIUM: clade and SEMPERVIVUM: clade. The genus SEDUM: is highly polyphyletic with representatives spread throughout the large Sedoideae clade. Sympetaly and polymerous flowers have arisen multiple times in Crassulaceae and thus are not appropriate characters upon which to base subfamilial limits, as has been done in the past. One floral character, haplostemy, appears to be confined to the well-supported CRASSULA: clade. Our analyses suggest a southern African origin of the family, with subsequent dispersal northward into the Mediterranean region. From there, the family spread to Asia/eastern Europe and northern Europe; two separate lineages of European Crassulaceae subsequently dispersed to North America and underwent substantial diversification. Our analyses also suggest that the original base chromosome number in Crassulaceae is x = 8 and that polyploidy has played an important role in seven clades. Three of these clades are exclusively polyploid (SEMPERVIVUM: clade and two subclades within the KALANCHOE: and AEONIUM: clades), whereas four (Crassula, Telephium, Leucosedum, and ACRE: clades) comprise both diploid and polyploid taxa. Polyploidy is particularly rampant and cytological evolution especially complex in the ACRE: clade.

  5. Pollen morphology of the family crassulaceae from pakistan and kashmir and its taxonomic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasir, M.; Perveen, A.; Sarwar, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 28 species representing 9 genera viz., Bryophyllum, Kalanchoe, Pseudosedum, Rhodiola, Rosularia, Hylotelephium, Sedum, Tillaea and Orostachys of the family Crassulaceae from Pakistan has been studied by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, sub-oblate to oblate-spheroidal, or prolate-spheroidal to subprolate often prolate and tricolporate. Tectum mostly striate-rugulate or sub-psilate rarely reticulate-rugulate. Significant variation is found in shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis these characters family has been divided into three pollen types' viz., Rhodiola sinuata-type, Rosularia viguieri-type and Sedum hispanicum-type. Numerical analysis of based on pollen characters of 28 species was also carried out to determine the phylogenetic relationships of various genera and the species of the family Crassulaceae. (author)

  6. Bufadienolides of Kalanchoe species: an overview of chemical structure, biological activity and prospects for pharmacological use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Stochmal, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Toad venom is regarded as the main source of bufadienolides; however, synthesis of these substances takes also place in a variety of other animal and plant organisms, including ethnomedicinal plants of the Kalanchoe genus. Chemically, bufadienolides are a group of polyhydroxy C-24 steroids and their glycosides, containing a six-membered lactone (α-pyrone) ring at the C-17β position. From the pharmacological point of view, bufadienolides might be a promising group of steroid hormones with cardioactive properties and anticancer activity. Most of the literature concerns bufadienolides of animal origin; however, the medicinal use of these compounds remains limited by their narrow therapeutic index and the risk of development of cardiotoxic effects. On the other hand, plants such as Kalanchoe are also a source of bufadienolides. Kalanchoe pinnata (life plant, air plant, cathedral bells), Kalanchoe daigremontiana (mother of thousands) and other Kalanchoe species are valuable herbs in traditional medicine of Asia and Africa. The present review focuses on the available data on chemical structures of 31 compounds, biological properties and prospects for therapeutic use of bufadienolides from Kalanchoe species. Furthermore, it presents some new investigational trends in research on curative uses of these substances.

  7. Micro and Macro Element Composition of Kalanchoe integra Leaves: An Adjuvant Treatment for Hypertension in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong-Manso, S.; Asiedu-Gyekye, I. J.; Naadu, J. P.; Magnus-Aryitey, G. T.; Nyarko, A. K.; Boamah, D.; Awan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Two samples, water extract and blended whole leaves, of fresh Kalanchoe integra leaves (Crassulaceae), a traditional antihypertensive medicine used in Ghana, were analyzed with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF). Analysis revealed 12 macro and 26 micro elements in both extracts. Further quantitative assessment of the results for amounts of elements that are pharmacologically significant revealed that the amounts of calcium, potassium, and magnesium present in the extracts could be correlated to its traditional usage in managing hypertension and arrhythmias. However, heavy metals (lead and inorganic arsenic) detected in the extracts may pose a threat at doses normally used traditionally for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:26495138

  8. Micro and Macro Element Composition of Kalanchoe integra Leaves: An Adjuvant Treatment for Hypertension in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Frimpong-Manso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two samples, water extract and blended whole leaves, of fresh Kalanchoe integra leaves (Crassulaceae, a traditional antihypertensive medicine used in Ghana, were analyzed with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF. Analysis revealed 12 macro and 26 micro elements in both extracts. Further quantitative assessment of the results for amounts of elements that are pharmacologically significant revealed that the amounts of calcium, potassium, and magnesium present in the extracts could be correlated to its traditional usage in managing hypertension and arrhythmias. However, heavy metals (lead and inorganic arsenic detected in the extracts may pose a threat at doses normally used traditionally for the treatment of hypertension.

  9. Atividades larvicida e anticolinesterásica de plantas do gênero Kalanchoe Larvicides and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Kalanchoe species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Salles Trevisan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors are successfully used to treat the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Extracts of three Kalanchoe species (K. brasiliensis, K. pinnata and K. gastonis-bornieri showed acetylcholine esterase inhibitory effects and a toxic effect on Aedes aegypti larvae. Here we describe the bioassay guided fractionation of extracts of the most active extracts (K. brasiliensis which resulted in the isolation of an active mixture of three flavonoids: 8-methoxyquercetin, 3,7-di-O-rhamnopyranoside and 8-methoxykaempferol-3,7-di-O-rhamnopyranoside. On TLC these flavonoids showed an acetylcholine esterase inhibitory effect.

  10. Rhizopus in Kalanchoë

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 is door PPO-glastuinbouw onderzoek gedaan aan Rhizopus stolonifer in Kalanchoë ( verslag PPO 533). Naar aanleiding van dit onderzoek en na gesprekken met de begeleidingscommissie en telers van Kalanchoë moerplanten is de conclusie getrokken dat vooral grote schommelingen in watergehalte van

  11. Differential effects of auxin polar transport inhibitors on rooting in some Crassulaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of auxin polar transport inhibitors, 2,3,5-triio-dobenzoic acid (TIBA, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA and methyl 2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylate (morphactin IT 3456, as a lanolin paste, on root formation in cuttings of some species of Crassulaceae, such as Bryophyllum daigremontianum, B. calycinum, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and K. tubiflora, were studied. Cuttings of these plants were easily rooted in water without any treatment. TIBA and morphactin IT 3456 completely inhibited root formation in the cuttings of these plants but NPA did not when these inhibitors were applied around the stem below the leaves. When TIBA and morphactin were applied around the stem near the top, but leaves were present below the treatment, the root formation was observed in B. calycinum and K. blossfeldiana but in a smaller degree than in control cuttings. These results strongly suggest that endogenous auxin is required for root formation in cuttings of Crassulaceae plants. The differential mode of action of NPA is discussed together with its effect on auxin polar transport.

  12. The effect of aqueous extract of Kalanchoe Folium on methylprednisolone pharmacokinetic profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, Niken; Garmana, Afrillia Nuryanti; Setiawan, Finna; Sukandar, Elin Yulinah; Adnyana, I. Ketut

    2016-03-01

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves had immunosupressant effect on lupus nephritis model. When it combined with methylprednisolone, there is a risk of interaction. In this study rats divided into two groups, a group that received methylprednisolone (MP) (0.72 mg/kgBW) and a group that received MP in combination with extract (0.36 mg/kg BW MP and 140 mg/kg BW extract). These treatment were given everyday for 4 weeks. Methylprednisolone concentration in rats serum was measured using HPLC with extraction method according to Lawson method (1985). The column used was Inertsil C-18 using mobile phase KH2PO4 : metanol (15:85) buffer, flow rate 0.6 mL/minutes, UV detector (λ = 230 nm) and pressure 1319 psi. The result showed that there was an interaction occurred. The combination of MP and aqueous extract of K. pinnata leaves showed interaction which causing methylprednisolone level comparable with methylprednisolone level in MP group. Mean of decreasing MP level in serum was 0.285 ppm. It means that aqueous extract of Kalanchoe Folium could elevate methylprednisolone concentration in plasma. Adjustment of the dose must be considered in this combination.

  13. Dihydropyranoflavones from Pongamia pinnata

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Hao; Zhang, Si; Wu, Jun; Nan, Haihan

    2006-01-01

    From the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata, two new compounds, 3-methoxy-(3²,4²-dihydro- 3²-hydroxy-4²-acetoxy)-2²,2²-dimethylpyrano-(7,8:5 ²,6²)-flavone and 3-methoxy-(3²,4²-dihydro-4²- hydroxy-3²-acetoxy)-2²,2²-dimethylpyrano-(7,8:5 ²,6²)-flavone, were isolated, along with six known compounds, caryophyllene oxide, obovatachalcone, 8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-pentyl-1H-isochromen-1-one, 6,7,2,2-dimethylchromono-8,gamma,gamma-dimethylallylflavanon e, isolonchocarpin, ovaliflavanone A. Their structures ...

  14. Crassulaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, C.A.

    1948-01-01

    Herbs or undershrubs, usually succulent, perennial, less often annual or biennial. Leaves spirally arranged, opposite or whorled, exstipulate, simple or compound, entire, dentate, crenate, serrate or deeply incised. Flowers ♀, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic, usually cymose or cymose-paniculate,

  15. Crassulaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1973-01-01

    Herbs or undershrubs, mostly fleshy or succulent. Leaves alternate, opposite or in whorls, simple or compound. Stipules wanting. Inflorescence cymose. Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphrodite. Sepals free or connate, persistent. Petals as many as the sepals, free or more or less united. Stamens as many

  16. Essais préliminaires d'utilisation de Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulacée dans la prophylaxie et le traitement de la coccidiose aviaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbédé, G.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies on the utilization of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulacea in the prophylaxis and treatment of avian coccidiosis. In an experiment aiming at evaluating the efficiency of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulacea leaves in preventing avian coccidiosis as compared to "Amprolsol" (Amprolium, MSD, 90 "Hybro lourd" breed of broiler chickens were divided into 3 equal groups : A (control, B (treated with infusions of K. crenata leaves, and C (treated with "Amprolsol". Based on the number of oocysts per gram of feces (opg noted until the 7th week of the experiment, it was shown that K. crenata limited oocyst excretion (73.9 % reduction compared to the control treatment, but this occured to a lesser extend than "Amprolsol" (95.7 % reduction compared to the control. In a second experiment designed to compare the effects of the plant in reducing oocyst output to those of the commercial drug, 60 "Hybro lourd" chickens were divided into 2 equal groups D (treated with plant infusions and E (treated with "Amprolsol". The commercial drug reduced the opg by 96.3 % against a 73.4 % reduction for the plant. Given the encouraging results this experiment produced, more advanced studies have to be undertaken to more efficiently use and find the active anticoccidial principles in K. crenata leaves.

  17. Report: Antimicrobial activity of Kalanchoe laciniata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Maria; Hussain, Liaqat; Ijaz, Hira; Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to identify antimicrobial potential of Kalanchoe laciniata. The plants were extracted with 30-70% aqueous-methanol and n-hexane. The antimicrobial activities were examined using agar well diffusion method against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli) and fungi (Candidaalbicans). Results showed that E. coli were more sensitive than Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The largest zone of inhibition (52 mm) was recorded against E. coli with the n-hexane extract of Kalanchoe laciniata.

  18. Antioxidant efficacy of Kalanchoe daigremontiana bufadienolide-rich fraction in blood plasma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Nowak, Pawel; Wachowicz, Barbara; Piechocka, Justyna; Głowacki, Rafał; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The main source of bufadienolides is toad venom; however, plants such as members of Kalanchoe Adans. (Crassulaceae) genus may also synthesize these bioactive substances. This is the first study on antioxidant effects and cytotoxicity of bufadienolide-rich fraction isolated from Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier. The methanolic fraction was extracted from the plant roots and contained 0.48 mg bufadienolides/mg of dry mass (11α,19-dihydroksytelocinobufagin, bersaldegenin-1-acetate, bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate, 19-(acetyloxy)-3β,5β,11α,14-tetrahydroxyl-12-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide and 19-(acetyloxy)-1β,3β,5β,14-tetrahydroxyl-bufa-20,22-dienolide, mainly). The cytotoxicity of K. daigremontiana fraction was evaluated in an in vitro experimental model of blood platelets. The viability of blood platelets was determined on the basis of a release of lactate dehydrogenase. The fraction scavenged DPPH • radicals, with EC 50 of 21.80 μg/mL. Studies on an experimental model of blood plasma under peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress revealed that the plant preparation had moderate antioxidant properties. Levels of 3-nitrotyrosine and thiol groups indicated that the protective effect of K. daigremontiana was significant mainly for its concentration of 50 μg/mL. No effect was found in prevention of oxidation of low-molecular plasma thiols (glutathione, cysteine and cysteinylglycine). Simultaneously, measurements of lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) indicated that the examined fraction might be effective antioxidant at broader concentration range, that is 1-5 and 25-50 μg/mL for hydroperoxides and TBARS generation, respectively. No cytotoxicity was observed at the concentration range of 1-50 μg/mL. Based on the obtained results, we suggest that antioxidant activity may additionally contribute to beneficial properties of K. daigremontiana-derived extracts.

  19. CO{sub 2} uptake by the Kalanchoe plant; CO{sub 2}-opname bij Kalanchoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verberkt, H.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a study on the assimilation of the Kalanchoe plant are presented. The aim of the study is to determine the optimal time period of a natural day (24 hours) to supply carbon dioxide to a Kalanchoe plant. A Kalanchoe plant originally is a so-called CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) plant: CO{sub 2} uptake at night and chemical conversion of CO{sub 2} into malic acid. By day the fixed CO{sub 2} is used for photosynthesis. It appears that a Kalanchoe plant also takes up CO{sub 2} by day, which is directly used for photosynthesis. For Dutch horticulture conditions (20C, sufficient moisture) extra CO{sub 2} supply by day in the spring results in an increase of both the fresh weight and the dry weight compared to no extra CO{sub 2} supply. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 19 refs., 4 appendices

  20. Invloed spoorelementen op groei en ontwikkeling kalanchoe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberkt, H.; Berg, van den D.

    1998-01-01

    Het doel van het onderzoek was nagaan wat de invloed van spoorelementen is op de groei en ontwikkeling van Kalanchoe. Hierbij is onderzoek gedaan naar de effecten van gebrek en overmaat van de belangrijkste zes spoorelementen: ijzer, mangaan, zink, molybdeen, koper en borium.

  1. Better insight into the control of Kalanchoe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2005-01-01

    Productie van planten van hoge kwaliteit volgens een vooropgezet schema is niet eenvoudig, zelfs niet voor een ervaren kalanchoe teler. Wageningen UR ontwikkelde een groeimodel voor dit gewas, dat een beter inzicht in de mogelijkheden tot teeltcontrole geeft. De gevolgde systematische aanpak kan een

  2. Atividade inibitória das folhas e caule de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess frente a microrganismos com diferentes perfis de resistência a antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline G. da Silva

    Full Text Available A avaliação antimicrobiana das partes aéreas de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, a qual é comumente utilizada para o tratamento de inflamações da mucosa oral, bronquites e congestão nasal, é relatada. Esta atividade foi avaliada em discos de Petri usando o método de difusão para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (MIC e cinética bactericida. Foram usadas amostras bacterianas gram-positivas, gram-negativas e cepas de fungos leveduriformes do gênero Cândida. Apenas o óleo essencial demonstrou ser efetivo, apresentando atividade frente amostras gram-positivas de Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA meticilina resistente. A ação observada foi considerada bacteriostática por reduzir um log10 UFC/mL a partir da sexta hora de exposição da amostra ao óleo essencial nas concentrações de 4% e 8%. Compostos fenólicos estão presentes em óleo essencial, sugerindo que o efeito foi devido à presença dos mesmos. Por este motivo à planta Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica para infecções provocadas por Staphylococcus aureus.

  3. Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a Newly Naturalized Herb in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mong-Huai Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (Crassulaceae, a newly naturalized fleshy herb in Taiwan, is reported here. The taxonomic description, line drawing, and photographs are provided. The population is colonized on Mt. Tatun, Yangmingshan National Park, north Taiwan. Since this species was reported being invasive, its impacts on the local ecosystem should be concerned.

  4. Crassulaceae endémicas del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca León

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La familia Crassulaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar cinco géneros y 29 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993, mayormente arbustos y hierbas. En este trabajo reconocemos 13 especies y dos variedades como endemismos peruanos en tres géneros. Echeveria es el género con el mayor número de especies endémicas. Los taxones endémicos ocupan principalmente las regiones Mesoandina y Puna Húmeda y Seca, entre los 1700 y 4500 m de altitud. Se aplicaron las categorías y criterios de la UICN a nueve taxones. Dos Crassulaceae endémicas están representados dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado.

  5. Carbon dioxide fixation in isolated Kalanchoe chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, C.; Gibbs, M.

    1975-07-01

    Chloroplasts isolated from Kalanchoe diagremontiana leaves were capable of photosynthesizing at a rate of 5.4 ..mu..moles of CO/sub 2/ per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. The dark rate of fixation was about 1 percent of the light rate. A high photosynthetic rate was associated with low starch content of the leaves. Ribose 5-phosphate, fructose 1, 6-diphosphate, and dithiothreitol stimulated fixation, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate and azide were inhibitors. The products of CO/sub 2/ fixation were primarily those of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. (auth)

  6. Especie nueva de Echeveria (Crassulaceae de Tamaulipas, México New species of Echeveria (Crassulaceae from Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Martínez-Ávalos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y propone Echeveria tamaulipana (Crassulaceae como especie nueva para la ciencia. El nuevo taxón se asemeja a los de la serie Angulatae, especialmente E. bifida, E. walpoleana y E. strictiflora con los cuales se compara por la semejanza en su morfología. Su distribución geográfica se restringe a los cañones cercanos a Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas.Echeveria tamaulipana (Crassulaceae is described and proposed as a new species. The new species is similar to those of the series Angulatae, especially E. bifida, E. walpoleana and E. strictiflora, with which it is compared because of their similarity in morphology. Its geographical distribution is restricted to canyons near Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas.

  7. Toxicity of Kalanchoe spp to chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M C; Smith, M C

    1984-03-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K tubiflora, K fedtschenkoi, K tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were tested for toxicity to 2-week-old Leghorn chicks. These species were analyzed for percentage of alkaloids, aliphatic nitro compounds, soluble oxalates, and nitrates and were examined qualitatively for cyanogenic glycosides. The solubility of the toxic principle in K daigremontiana was determined. Leaves of K daigremontiana, K tubiflora, and K fedtschenkoi were toxic to chicks at dosage levels of 8 to 12 mg/g of body weight. Toxic signs included depression, muscular incoordination, twitching and spiraling of the neck, tremors, convulsions, paralysis, and death. Kalanchoe tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were nontoxic at the highest dosage levels tested. Aliphatic nitro compounds and cyanogenic glycosides were not detected in any species. Alkaloids, nitrates, and soluble oxalates were present only in nontoxic concentrations. The toxic principle in K daigremontiana was soluble in 50%, 80%, and 100% ethanol, slightly soluble in water and acetone, and insoluble in benzene, chloroform, and ether.

  8. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  9. Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited ...

  10. Compositional Analysis of Lavandula pinnata Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentieri, Maria Pia; De Lucia, Barbara; Cristiano, Giuseppe; Avatoa Pinarosa

    2016-03-01

    The genus Lavandula includes about thirty species plus a number of intraspecific taxa and hybrids, which are distributed in the Mediterranean area. The traditional use of lavender both as perfume or medicinal plant is known since antiquity. Nowadays several species are extensively cultivated for the extraction of their essential oils (EOs) which are used in manufactured products like cosmetics and perfumes or in phytotherapy. Lavandula pinnata L. f. (syn L. pinnata Lundmark) is a rare species native to the Canary Islands used in folk medicine as relaxant and also a valuable remedy against bites. To the best of our knowledge, EOs from L. pinnata have been very little studied. The present paper reports on the quali- and quantitative compositional profile of the EOs distilled (by a Spring type apparatus) from the aerial parts (flowers and leaves) of this species cultivated in soilless conditions. Chemical analyses by means of GC and GC-MS techniques have indicated that oxygenated monoterpenes are the main constituents of both the flowers (68.30%) and the leaves (83.65%). Carvacrol is the main compound which characterizes the EOs of this species. In addition, discrete amounts of spathulenol (12.22%) and caryophyllene oxide (14.62%) have been detected in flowers EOs, while leaves EOs contained small amounts of carvacrol methyl ether (2.52%).

  11. Anti-HSV-1 and HSV-2 Flavonoids and a New Kaempferol Triglycoside from the Medicinal Plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ürményi, Fernanda Gouvêa Gomes; Saraiva, Georgia do Nascimento; Casanova, Livia Marques; Matos, Amanda Dos Santos; de Magalhães Camargo, Luiza Maria; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2016-12-01

    Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Crassulaceae) is a medicinal plant native to Madagascar. The aim of this study was to investigate the flavonoid content of an aqueous leaf extract from K. daigremontiana (Kd), and assess its antiherpetic potential. The major flavonoid, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1), was isolated from the AcOEt fraction (Kd-AC). The BuOH-soluble fraction afforded quercetin 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (2) and the new kaempferol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), named daigremontrioside. The crude extract, Kd-AC fraction, flavonoids 1 and 2 were evaluated using acyclovir-sensitive strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2. Kd-AC was highly active against HSV-1 (EC 50  = 0.97 μg/ml, SI > 206.1) and HSV-2 (EC 50  = 0.72 μg/ml, SI > 277.7). Flavonoids 1 and 2 showed anti-HSV-1 (EC 50  = 7.4 μg/ml; SI > 27 and EC 50  = 5.8 μg/ml; SI > 8.6, respectively) and anti-HSV-2 (EC 50  = 9.0 μg/ml; SI > 22.2 and EC 50  = 36.2 μg/ml; SI > 5.5, respectively) activities, suggesting the contribution of additional substances to the antiviral activity. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Characterization of rhizobial isolates nodulating Millettia pinnata in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Abdul; Amalraj, E Leo Daniel; Praveen Kumar, G; Grover, Minakshi; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-11-01

    Millettia pinnata (Synonym Pongamia pinnata) is a viable source of oil for the mushrooming biofuel industry, source for agroforestry, urban landscaping, and the bio-amelioration of degraded lands. It also helps in maintaining soil fertility through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, not much work is reported on classification and characterization of the rhizobia associated with this plant. In the present study, an attempt was made to isolate rhizobial strains nodulating Millettia from soils collected from southern regions of India. The isolates were characterized using numerical taxonomy, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and cross nodulation ability. The results showed high phenotypic and genetic diversity among the rhizobia symbiotic with Millattia pinnata. The isolates formed five clusters at similarity level of 0.82 based on the results of numerical taxonomy. Results on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that most microsymbionts of M. pinnata belonged to Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, which are closely related to Rhizobium sp., B. elkanii and B. yuanmingense. Among these isolates, some isolates could grow in a pH range of 4.0-10.0, some could tolerate a high salt concentration (3% NaCl) and could grow at a maximum temperature between 35 and 45 °C. M. pinnata formed nodules with diverse rhizobia in Indian soils. These results offered the first systematic information about the microsymbionts of M. pinnata grown in the soils from southern part of India. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gele en rode aanwinst bij sortimentsvergelijking kalanchoë

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, M.; Heij, G.

    2005-01-01

    Voor kalanchoë zijn achtentwintig nieuwe cultivars beoordeeld op het gebied van teelt en houdbaarheid, steeds in vergelijking met vijf vergelijkingscultivars. Tussen de kleuren bestaan vrij grote verschillen. De gele 'Yellow Josephine' en de rode Amora zijn de meest veelbelovende cultivars

  14. PRELIMINARY CLINICAL STUDY OF KALANCHOE SPATHULATA DC. ON INFLAMMATORY WOUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, C. L.; Yadav, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Here, an attempt is made to study the clinical aspect of Kalanchoe spathulata Dc. It has been observed that would heals rapidly leaving no scar. The study clearly validates the ancient concept of Ayurveda, that without taking the help of surgery, there are several medicinal plants which may cure diseases very well. PMID:22557495

  15. Modelo para determinção da área foliar de Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln Model for leaf area determination in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Xavier Peiter; Adroaldo Dias Robaina; Ana Rita Costenaro Parizi

    2006-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a verificação de um procedimento matemático que permita a descrição do crescimento foliar de Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln.) e possa prever a sua área foliar fotossinteticamente ativa a partir de medidas não destrutivas de folhas. As mudas de Kalanchoe Cv. "Gold Jewel" foram cultivadas para o procedimento experimental em vasos irrigados com doses recomendadas para a cultura. Semanalmente, foram retirados três vasos da estufa e as plantas tiver...

  16. Kalanchoë blossfeldiana, a new host for Sonchus yellow net virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwen, I.; Schoen, C.D.; Balen, van E.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The agent causing chlorotic spots in Kalanchoë blossfeldiana `Isabella¿ was investigated. A virus isolated from this naturally infected kalanchoë was mechanically transmissible to several indicator plants. Observation of suspension preparations in the electron microscope revealed rhabdovirus-like

  17. Cytotoxic Constituents from bark and leaves of Amyris pinnata Kunth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From leaves and bark of Amyris pinnata Kunth twelve compounds were isolated, corresponding to six lignans 1-6, three coumarins 7-9, a sesquiterpene 10, an oxazole alkaloid 11, and a prenylated flavonoid 12,. Metabolites were identified by spectroscopic techniques ( 1H and 13C NMR, EIMS and by comparison with published data in the literature. C ytotoxicity against leukemia, solid tumors, and normal cells was evaluated for all isolated compounds. Lignans were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds occurring in A. pinnata.

  18. Typification of the binomial Sedum boissierianum Hausskncht Crassulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bârcă

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genus Sedum, described by Linne in 1753, a polyphyletic genus of flowering plants in the family Crassulaceae, was extensively studied both by scholars and succulents enthusiasts. Despite the great attention it has received over time, many binomials lack types and consistent taxonomic treatments. My currently undergoing process of the comprehensive revision of the genus Sedum in România and the Balkans called for the clarification of taxonomical status and typification of several basionyms described based on plants collected from the Balkans and the region around the Black Sea. Almost a century and a half ago, Haussknecht intensely studied flora of Near East and assigned several binomials to plants of the genus Sedum, some of which were neglected and forgotten although they represent interesting taxa. The binomial Sedum boissierianum Haussknecht first appeared in schedae as nomen nudum around 1892, for specimens originating from Near East, but was later validated by Froederstroem in 1932. Following extensive revision of the relevant literature and herbarium specimens, I located original material for this taxon in several herbaria in Europe (BUCF, LD, P, Z. I hereby designate the lectotype and isolectotypes for this basionym and furthermore provide pictures of the herbarium specimens and pinpoint on a map the original collections sites for the designated types.

  19. Biofibres from biofuel industrial byproduct-Pongamia pinnata seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, Puttaswamy; Srinikethan, Govindan; Shetty, K Vidya

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel production using Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) seeds results in large amount of unused seed hull. These seed hulls serve as a potential source for cellulose fibres which can be exploited as reinforcement in composites. These seed hulls were processed using chlorination and alkaline extraction process in order to isolate cellulose fibres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis demonstrated the morphological changes in the fibre structure. Cellulose microfibres of diameter 6-8 µm, hydrodynamic diameter of 58.4 nm and length of 535 nm were isolated. Thermal stability was enhanced by 70 °C and crystallinity index (CI) by 19.8% ensuring isolation of crystalline cellulose fibres. The sequential chlorination and alkaline treatment stemmed to the isolation of cellulose fibres from P. pinnata seed hull. The isolated cellulose fibres possessed enhanced morphological, thermal, and crystalline properties in comparison with P. pinnata seed hull. These cellulose microfibres may potentially find application as biofillers in biodegradable composites by augmenting their properties.

  20. Growth performance and phytoremediation ability of Azolla pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Growth performance and phytoremediation ability of Azolla pinnata in produced water ... Toxicity symptoms of produced water on the plant include chlorosis, frond ... easily to various conditions and can tolerate a wide ... The aquatic macrophyte used for this experiment was .... the Kathloni oilfield in northeast India.

  1. Microcosm investigation on phytoremediation of Cr using Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The extent of Chromium (Cr) pollution in Singrauli industrial region, India was assessed and phytoremediation capacity of a small water fern, Azolla pinnata R.BR (Azollaceae) was observed to purify waters polluted by Cr under microcosm condition. Azolla pinnata endemic to India is a potential hyper-accumulator of heavy metals. During 13 days of the experiment the fern was grown in the aqueous medium containing Cr3+ and CrO4(2-) ions, each in a concentration 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg L(-1). The presence of these ions caused a + 3.1 to -37.5% inhibition of Azolla pinnata growth in comparison to the control. After 13 days of the experiment, metal contents in the solution was decreased up to 70% (CrO4(2-) 3.0 mg L(-1) treatment) to 88% (CrO4(2-) 0.5 mg L(-1) treatment). In the Azolla pinnata tissues, the concentration of couple of the ionic forms of Cr under investigation ranged from 415 to 1095 mg kg(-1) dry mass (dm); the highest level being found for Cr (III) containing solution.

  2. Kalanchosine dimalate, an anti-inflammatory salt from Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sônia Soares; de Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes; Ibrahim, Tereza; de Melo, Giany Oliveira; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Guette, Catherine; Férézou, Jean-Pierre; Koatz, Vera Lucia G

    2006-05-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of kalanchosine dimalate (KMC), an anti-inflammatory salt from the fresh juice of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis. KMC comprises the new metabolite kalanchosine (1) and malic acid (2) in a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio. Kalanchosine (1), 3,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxyoctanedioic acid, is the first naturally occurring dimeric bis(gamma-hydroxy-beta-amino acid) and is at least partially responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of K. brasiliensis.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Isolated Kalanchoe Chloroplasts 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Carolyn; Gibbs, Martin

    1975-01-01

    Chloroplasts isolated from Kalanchoe diagremontiana leaves were capable of photosynthesizing at a rate of 5.4 μmoles of CO2 per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. The dark rate of fixation was about 1% of the light rate. A high photosynthetic rate was associated with low starch content of the leaves. Ribose 5-phosphate, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, and dithiothreitol stimulated fixation, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate and azide were inhibitors. The products of CO2 fixation were primarily those of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. PMID:16659249

  4. Phytochemical screening of different extracts of Kalanchoe laciniata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids distribution in n-hexane and aqueous-methanolicextract of kalanchoelaciniata was assessed and compared. The present study was carried out to study the phytochemical constituents of Kalanchoe laciniata. Aqueous-methanol and n-hexane were the solvents used for the extraction of the plant. Phytochemical analysis was carried out on both of these extracts, indicated that n-hexane extract constitutes tannins, terpenoids on the other hand aqueous-methanolic extract contains saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides  and anthraquinones. 

  5. SOIL N, P AND K CONCENTRATIONS AND RICE YIELD INCREASED DUE TO THE APPLICATION OF Azolla pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arivin Rivaie*

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies showed that application of Azolla pinnata as biofertilizer improved soil fertility some agricultural crops, including rice, whereas farmers in Lampung consider that A. pinnata suppresses growth of rice seedlings, so they throw it field by raising irrigation water surface. Information on effects A. pinnata application on changes in nutrient availability and rice yield obtained from paddy fields of regions still rare. A study was carried out to investigate effects of different rates of A. pinnata on changes in N, P, K concentrations in paddy soils, N uptake, and rice yield. A well-irrigated paddy field was incorporated with A. pinnata, and then rice seedlings of Ciherang variety had been grown from June up to December 2009. Results: application of A. pinnata at dose of five t per ha increased concentration of N, P and K as well as rice yield. A. pinnata had a relatively high N content, ie 2.43 percent. Application of A. pinnata of 7.5 t per ha increased significantly available soil P, indicated that A. pinnata requires a fairly high P to grow optimally. Application of A. pinnata of 7.5 t per ha gave highest dry grain yield, suggests that application A. pinnata did not suppress rice yield, even use of A. pinnata as organic matter source will help to conserve fossil fuels and foreign exchange as well as will allow more paddy fields that can be fertilized by N.

  6. An outbreak of poisoning by Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in cattle in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Fábio S; Nascimento, Naiara C F; Almeida, Valdir M; Braga, Thaiza C; Ribeiro, Daniele P; Chaves, Hisadora A S; Silva Filho, Givaldo B; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2018-03-01

    In the world, Kalanchoe species are primarily ornamentals and houseplants, but some have escaped cultivation and can be found in the field. In Latin America, there are no reports of spontaneous poisoning by Kalanchoe species in animals. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of an outbreak of poisoning by Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in cattle in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil. Epidemiological and clinical data were obtained from the owner and veterinarian during technical visits. Prunings of this plant were disposed of in a pasture with a shortness of forage. Seventeen cattle had clinical signs, and thirteen died 4-5 days after the first clinical signs were observed. Clinical signs and gross and histological lesions include gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular disorders. Kalanchoe spp. contain cardiotoxic glycosides, and the clinical signs and lesions in cattle of this outbreak were consistent with poisoning by plants that contain these toxins.

  7. Kaliumfosfiet helpt kalanchoë tegen phytophthora (interview met Filip van Noort)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neefjes, H.; Noort, van F.R.

    2009-01-01

    Toevoegen van plantversterker kaliumfosfiet maakt kalanchoë weerbaar tegen phytophthora. Onderzoek bij WUR Glastuinbouw heeft dit aangetoond in een deel van een proef. De praktijk is voorzichtig met het middel

  8. Kalanchoe crop development under different levels of irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Cibele Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its importance in the floriculture sector, irrigation management of kalanchoe is characterized by empiricism, being necessary further studies on the use of water by this crop. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the several effects of irrigation levels on the growth of kalanchoe crop conducted in greenhouse in the municipality of Alegrete, state of Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted in a 7 x 15 m protected environment. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments (irrigation levels corresponding to 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the pot water retention capacity - PC and four repetitions, totaling sixteen plots. The crop cycle was 224 days after transplanting and the applied average depths were: 451.82; 367.38; 282.94; 198.51 mm for treatments: 100; 80; 60 and 40% of PC, respectively. Canopy area and number of leaves per plant were evaluated over the crop cycle. In the end of the cycle, the canopy diameter, number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per plant were evaluated. No significant differences were found only to the canopy area, by the F test. Irrigation water depths between 40 and 70% of the pot capacity were more appropriate for the crop growth in the study region. The cultivar presented the best development at irrigation levels below the maximum vessel water retention capacity, that is, it is resistant to drought.

  9. Kalanchoë blossfeldiana, a new host for Sonchus yellow net virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwen, I.; Schoen, C.D.; Balen, van, E.; Vlugt, van der, R.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The agent causing chlorotic spots in Kalanchoë blossfeldiana `Isabella¿ was investigated. A virus isolated from this naturally infected kalanchoë was mechanically transmissible to several indicator plants. Observation of suspension preparations in the electron microscope revealed rhabdovirus-like particles. On the basis of symptoms on indicator plants, serology, electron microscopy, molecular characterisation and back inoculation to K. blossfeldiana 'Isabella', the causal agent was identified...

  10. Kalanchoe winteri Gideon F.Sm., N.R.Crouch & Mich.Walters (Crassulaceae), a new species from the Wolkberg Centre of Endemism, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crouch, NR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available University, Port Elizabeth, 6031 South Africa (email: smithgideon1@gmail.com; epnfigueiredo@gmail.com). 4. Centre for Functional Ecology, Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Universidade de Coimbra, 3001-455 Coimbra, Portugal. 5. Natural Resources...

  11. Azolla pinnata growth performance in different water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiah, B; Harah, Z Muta; Sidik, B Japar; Hazma, W N Wan

    2012-07-01

    Azolla pinnata R.Br. growth performance experiments in different water sources were conducted from May until July 2011 at Aquaculture Research Station, Puchong, Malaysia. Four types of water sources (waste water, drain water, paddy field water and distilled water) each with different nutrient contents were used to grow and evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Four water sources with different nutrient contents; waste, drain, paddy and distilled water as control were used to evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Generally, irrespective of the types of water sources there were increased in plant biomass from the initial biomass (e.g., after the first week; lowest 25.2% in distilled water to highest 133.3% in drain water) and the corresponding daily growth rate (3.61% in distilled water to 19.04% in drain water). The increased in biomass although fluctuated with time was consistently higher in drain water compared to increased in biomass for other water sources. Of the four water sources, drain water with relatively higher nitrate concentration (0.035 +/- 0.003 mg L(-l)) and nitrite (0.044 +/- 0.005 mg L(-1)) and with the available phosphate (0.032 +/- 0.006 mg L(-1)) initially provided the most favourable conditions for Azolla growth and propagation. Based on BVSTEP analysis (PRIMER v5), the results indicated that a combination of more than one nutrient or multiple nutrient contents explained the observed increased in biomass of A. pinnata grown in the different water sources.

  12. Evaluation of wound healing, anti-microbial and antioxidant potential of Pongamia pinnata in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Dwivedi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased wound contraction and tensile strength, augmented hydroxyproline and hexosamine content, antioxidative activity and moderate antimicrobial activity support the early wound healing exhibited by P. pinnata. Induction in cytokine production may be one of the mechanisms in accelerating the wound healing. Results suggest that P. pinnata may be useful in tropical management of wound healing.

  13. Growth rules based on the modularity of the Canarian Aeonium (Crassulaceae) and their phylogenetic value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Growth forms of 22 species of Aeonium (Crassulaceae) were quantified. Since all species are simple in their modular construction, models were developed to predict module length, branching mode and flowering probability using linear and logistic regression. When combined, the parameters...... of these models are species specific. A discriminant analysis generates a statistically significant separation of species at the level of phylogenetic sections. The results therefore demonstrate the phylogenetic value of growth rules in plants. This dynamic approach strongly contrasts with the traditional static...

  14. [Progress in molecular biology of a semi-mangrove, Millettia pinnata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianzi; Zhang, Wanke; Huang, Rongfeng; Zheng, Yizhi

    2015-04-01

    Millettia pinnata L. is a leguminous tree with great potential in biodiesel applications and also a typical semi-mangrove. In this review, we presented several aspects about the recent research progress in molecular biology of M. pinnata. We descrived several types of molecular markers used to assess the genetic diversity and phylogeny of this species, genome and transcriptome analyses based on high-throughput sequencing platform accomplished for this species, and several gene and genomic sequences of this species isolated for further research. Finally, based on the current research progress, we proposed some orientations for future molecular biology research on M. pinnata.

  15. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, D.; Sapuan, S. M.; Zainudin, E. S.; Khalina, A.; Dahlan, K. Z. M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  16. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachtiar, D; Sapuan, S M; Zainudin, E S; Khalina, A; Dahlan, K Z M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  17. Polyamine-Induced Rapid Root Abscission in Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Sushma; Cohen, Michael F; Fukuto, Jon; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Floating ferns of the genus Azolla detach their roots under stress conditions, a unique adaptive response termed rapid root abscission. We found that Azolla pinnata plants exhibited dose-dependent rapid root abscission in response to the polyamines spermidine and spermine after a substantial time lag (>20 min). The duration of the time lag decreased in response to high pH and high temperature whereas high light intensity increased the time lag and markedly lowered the rate of abscission. The oxidation products of polyamines, 1,3-diaminopropane, β-alanine and hydrogen peroxide all failed to initiate root abscission, and hydroxyethyl hydrazine, an inhibitor of polyamine oxidase, did not inhibit spermine-induced root abscission. Exposure of A. pinnata to the polyamines did not result in detectable release of NO and did not affect nitrite-dependent NO production. The finding of polyamine-induced rapid root abscission provides a facile assay for further study of the mode of action of polyamines in plant stress responses.

  18. Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) and cross-amplification in related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Xie, Hongxian; Yang, Yi; Huang, Yelin; Wang, Jianwu; Tan, Fengxiao

    2017-05-01

    Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae). Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M. pinnata , 42 primer pairs were developed, of which 17 displayed polymorphisms across 89 individuals from four populations. For chloroplast loci, two to six alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.391 to 0.857. For mitochondrial loci, two to four alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity ranged from 0.264 to 0.740. Sixteen of the 17 screened markers could be successfully amplified in the related species M. pulchra . The 17 microsatellite markers developed here exhibited variation in M. pinnata and 16 presented transferability in the related species M. pulchra , suggesting that these markers will be valuable for genetic studies across M. pinnata and its related species.

  19. Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) and cross-amplification in related species1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Xie, Hongxian; Yang, Yi; Huang, Yelin; Wang, Jianwu; Tan, Fengxiao

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae). Methods and Results: Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M. pinnata, 42 primer pairs were developed, of which 17 displayed polymorphisms across 89 individuals from four populations. For chloroplast loci, two to six alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.391 to 0.857. For mitochondrial loci, two to four alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity ranged from 0.264 to 0.740. Sixteen of the 17 screened markers could be successfully amplified in the related species M. pulchra. Conclusions: The 17 microsatellite markers developed here exhibited variation in M. pinnata and 16 presented transferability in the related species M. pulchra, suggesting that these markers will be valuable for genetic studies across M. pinnata and its related species. PMID:28529836

  20. Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) and cross-amplification in related species 1

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanling; Xie, Hongxian; Yang, Yi; Huang, Yelin; Wang, Jianwu; Tan, Fengxiao

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae). Methods and Results: Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M. pinnata, 42 primer pairs were developed, of which 17 displayed polymorphisms across 89 individuals from four populations. For chloroplast loci, two to six alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.391 to 0.857. For mitochon...

  1. PHENOLOGY, POLLINATION AND SEED PRODUCTION OF Millettia pinnata IN KUNUNURRA, NORTHERN WESTERN AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Luh Arpiwi; Guijun Yan; Elizabeth L Barbour; Julie A Plummer

    2015-01-01

    Millettia pinnata L. Panigrahi atau Pongamia pinnata L. Piere adalah tumbuhan legum yang menghasilkan biji dengan kandungan minyak yang cocok untuk biodiesel. Fenologi dan polinasi pada tanaman ini dipantau dan dimanipulasi untuk meningkatkan pembentukan biji dan hasil panen. Musim berbunga di Kununurra berlangsung selama satu bulan dari awal Oktober dan pembungaan terjadi tidak bersamaan baik pada satu tanaman maupun di antara tanaman yang berbeda. Dua spesies lebah lokal sebagai polinator, ...

  2. Activity of cell wall degrading glycanases in methyl jasmonate-induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. In present studies it was shown that JA-Me markedly increased the total activities of cellulase, polygalacturonase, pectinase and xylanase in petioles, but did not affect activities of these enzymes in the blades and apical part of shoots of K. blossfeldiana. These results suggest that methyl jasmonate promotes the degradation of cell wall polysaccharides in the abscission zone and in this way induces leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.

  3. A novel gene of Kalanchoe daigremontiana confers plant drought resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhu, Chen; Jin, Lin; Xiao, Aihua; Duan, Jie; Ma, Luyi

    2018-02-07

    Kalanchoe (K.) daigremontiana is important for studying asexual reproduction under different environmental conditions. Here, we describe a novel KdNOVEL41 (KdN41) gene that may confer drought resistance and could thereby affect K. daigremontiana development. The detected subcellular localization of a KdN41/Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP) fusion protein was in the nucleus and cell membrane. Drought, salt, and heat stress treatment in tobacco plants containing the KdN41 gene promoter driving β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene transcription revealed that only drought stress triggered strong GUS staining in the vascular tissues. Overexpression (OE) of the KdN41 gene conferred improved drought resistance in tobacco plants compared to wild-type and transformed with empty vector plants by inducing higher antioxidant enzyme activities, decreasing cell membrane damage, increasing abscisic acid (ABA) content, causing reinforced drought resistance related gene expression profiles. The 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) staining results also showed less relative oxygen species (ROS) content in KdN41-overexpressing tobacco leaf during drought stress. Surprisingly, by re-watering after drought stress, KdN41-overexpressing tobacco showed earlier flowering. Overall, the KdN41 gene plays roles in ROS scavenging and osmotic damage reduction to improve tobacco drought resistance, which may increase our understanding of the molecular network involved in developmental manipulation under drought stress in K. daigremontiana.

  4. Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in Brahman cattle in Zimbabwe : the first field outbreak : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masvingwe

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.

  5. Kalanchoë staat ook 's nachts open voor CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van F.R.

    2005-01-01

    kalanchoë is een plant die 's nachts CO2 kan opnemen om het overdag te gebruiken. Onderzoek maakt duidelijk dat het raadzaam is de eerste twee weken en de laatste fase van de teelt 's nachts CO2 toe te dienen. Van week 3 tot en met 9 moet overdag CO2 gedoseerd worden

  6. Combined Effects of Light and Temperature on Product Quality of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Wuillai, S.E.; Heuvelink, E.

    2006-01-01

    A study with a comprehensive range of four constant photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD = 60, 90, 140 and 200 ¿mol m-2s-1) combined with four constant temperatures (18, 21, 23 and 26°C; equal day and night temperature) was conducted in growth chambers using the pot plant Kalanchoe

  7. [Difference in photoperiodic sensitivity of the upper and lower side of leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünning, E; Moser, I

    1966-09-01

    The short-day plant Kalanchoe blossfeldiana was grown on short photoperiods and was given supplementary light of low intensity (4-7 lux). If the supplementary light was supplied to the upper sides of the leaves flowering was strongly inhibited. Irradiation of the lower sides was much less effective.

  8. Modelling Visual Quality of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana: Influence of Cultivar and Pot Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Almeida, J.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.; Bakker, M.J.; Heuvelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    An explanatory model for predicting kalanchoe plant height and cropping duration has been developed for one cultivar and one pot size, as described in earlier papers. In two experiments (winter and summer) seven contrasting cultivars (`Anatole¿, `Debbie¿, `Delia¿, `Mie¿, `Pandora¿, `Tenorio¿ and

  9. Extratos de Curcuma longa L. e Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. no tratamento local do envenenamento por Bothrops alternatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Fonseca

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a utilização dos extratos aquosos das plantas Curcuma longa e Kalanchoe brasiliensis na terapêutica tópica complementar do envenenamento botrópico experimental em camundongos, visando a antagonização dos efeitos locais (edema, hemorragia e necrose provocados pelo veneno. O experimento mostrou que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o extrato de Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

  10. Cloning and Characterization of Oxidosqualene Cyclases from Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Yeats, Trevor; Han, Hong; Jetter, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The first committed step in triterpenoid biosynthesis is the cyclization of oxidosqualene to polycyclic alcohols or ketones C30H50O. It is catalyzed by single oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) enzymes that can carry out varying numbers of carbocation rearrangements and, thus, generate triterpenoids with diverse carbon skeletons. OSCs from diverse plant species have been cloned and characterized, the large majority of them catalyzing relatively few rearrangement steps. It was recently predicted that special OSCs must exist that can form friedelin, the pentacyclic triterpenoid whose formation involves the maximum possible number of rearrangement steps. The goal of the present study, therefore, was to clone a friedelin synthase from Kalanchoe daigremontiana, a plant species known to accumulate this triterpenoid in its leaf surface waxes. Five OSC cDNAs were isolated, encoding proteins with 761–779 amino acids and sharing between 57.4 and 94.3% nucleotide sequence identity. Heterologous expression in yeast and GC-MS analyses showed that one of the OSCs generated the steroid cycloartenol together with minor side products, whereas the other four enzymes produced mixtures of pentacyclic triterpenoids dominated by lupeol (93%), taraxerol (60%), glutinol (66%), and friedelin (71%), respectively. The cycloartenol synthase was found expressed in all leaf tissues, whereas the lupeol, taraxerol, glutinol, and friedelin synthases were expressed only in the epidermis layers lining the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf blade. It is concluded that the function of these enzymes is to form respective triterpenoid aglycones destined to coat the leaf exterior, probably as defense compounds against pathogens or herbivores. PMID:20610397

  11. Modelo para determinção da área foliar de Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln Model for leaf area determination in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Xavier Peiter

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a verificação de um procedimento matemático que permita a descrição do crescimento foliar de Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. e possa prever a sua área foliar fotossinteticamente ativa a partir de medidas não destrutivas de folhas. As mudas de Kalanchoe Cv. "Gold Jewel" foram cultivadas para o procedimento experimental em vasos irrigados com doses recomendadas para a cultura. Semanalmente, foram retirados três vasos da estufa e as plantas tiveram suas folhas cortadas, identificadas e submetidas a tomadas de medidas de sua posição na planta, do máximo comprimento longitudinal e do máximo comprimento transversal. Foram realizadas um total de nove coletas semanalmente, desde 04/04/2003 até o início da floração. Em cada coleta, três plantas eram amostradas e a área foliar calculada com a utilização do método de Gauss (GARCIA & PIEDADE, 1944 implementado em Visual Basic especificamente para este objetivo. Foram amostradas um total de 979 folhas e a verificação da possibilidade de uso de um fator de correção médio (FCM para o cálculo da área de uma folha, independentemente de sua posição na planta ou fase do ciclo de crescimento, foi averiguada por análise de regressão entre os valores obtidos pelo método padrão (Gauss e os valores estimados pelo método do FCM. Os resultados experimentais indicam que o valor FCM=1,1134 pode ser utilizado para estimar a área foliar pela multiplicação pelos valores de comprimento e largura de folha em qualquer fase do cultivo e sem qualquer posição da folha na planta.This research was aimed at versifying a mathematical procedure that allows the description of leaf of Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. and the estimation of its photosynthetically active leaf area starting from a non destructive leaf determination. Seedlings of Kalanchoe cv Gold Jewel were cultivated in irrigated vases with recommended doses for the culture

  12. Evaluation of Fresh Azolla pinnata as a Low-Cost Supplemental Feed for Thai Silver Barb Barbonymus gonionotus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Das

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic fern Azolla pinnata comprises significant high food value with a good proportion of protein, vitamins, and minerals. This study was carried out to examine the effect of fresh A. pinnata as a substitution of commercial fish feed (CFF for Thai silver barb Barbonymus gonionotus. Post fingerlings of B. gonionotus were reared in five treatments, labeled T1 to T5, by substituting 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% protein of CFF with A. pinnata protein (dry matter basis respectively for 56 days. The specific growth rate, net production rate, protein efficiency ratio, proximate composition, and overall conditions of fish were not significantly varied between the fish reared completely with CFF and 25% substitution with A. pinnata. However, a significantly higher profit rate (431.49 USD ha−1 56 day−1 was calculated for fish reared in T2 than other treatments. In contrast, there was a significant reduction of growth and other parameters of the fish that were observed in the case where more than 25% CFF was substituted with A. pinnata. The poorest performance was observed in fish fed completely with A. pinnata, at T5. Based on the results, 25% of CFF of Thai silver barb could be substituted with fresh A. pinnata without significantly lowering their growth and product quality and could contribute significant to a higher profit margin.

  13. Rhizobium pongamiae sp. nov. from Root Nodules of Pongamia pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigya Kesari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pongamia pinnata has an added advantage of N2-fixing ability and tolerance to stress conditions as compared with other biodiesel crops. It harbours “rhizobia” as an endophytic bacterial community on its root nodules. A gram-negative, nonmotile, fast-growing, rod-shaped, bacterial strain VKLR-01T was isolated from root nodules of Pongamia that grew optimal at 28°C, pH 7.0 in presence of 2% NaCl. Isolate VKLR-01 exhibits higher tolerance to the prevailing adverse conditions, for example, salt stress, elevated temperatures and alkalinity. Strain VKLR-01T has the major cellular fatty acid as C18:1  ω7c (65.92%. Strain VKLR-01T was found to be a nitrogen fixer using the acetylene reduction assay and PCR detection of a nifH gene. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic distinctiveness and molecular data (16S rRNA, recA, and atpD gene sequences, G + C content, DNA-DNA hybridization etc., strain VKLR-01T = (MTCC 10513T = MSCL 1015T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium for which the name Rhizobium pongamiae sp. nov. is proposed. Rhizobium pongamiae may possess specific traits that can be transferred to other rhizobia through biotechnological tools and can be directly used as inoculants for reclamation of wasteland; hence, they are very important from both economic and environmental prospects.

  14. The Diatom Staurosirella pinnata for Photoactive Material Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Angelis

    Full Text Available A native isolate of the colonial benthic diatom Staurosirella pinnata was cultivated for biosilica production. The silicified cell walls (frustules were used as a source of homogeneous and structurally predictable porous biosilica for dye trapping and random laser applications. This was coupled with the extraction of lipids from biomass showing potential to fabricate photoactive composite materials sustainably. The strain was selected for its ease of growth in culture and harvesting. Biosilica and lipids were obtained at the end of growth in indoor photobioreactors. Frustules were structurally characterized microscopically and their chemistry analyzed with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Frustule capacity of binding laser dyes was evaluated on a set of frustules/Rhodamine B (Rho B solutions and with respect to silicon dioxide and diatomite by Fluorescence Spectroscopy demonstrating a high affinity for the organic dye. The effect of dye trapping property in conveying Rho B emission to frustules, with enhancement of scattering events, was analyzed on Rho B doped polyacrylamide gels filled or not with frustules. Amplified spontaneous emission was recorded at increasing pump power indicating the onset of a random laser effect in frustule filled gels at lower power threshold compared to unfilled matrices.

  15. The Diatom Staurosirella pinnata for Photoactive Material Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosposito, Paolo; Casalboni, Mauro; Lamastra, Francesca Romana; Nanni, Francesca; Congestri, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    A native isolate of the colonial benthic diatom Staurosirella pinnata was cultivated for biosilica production. The silicified cell walls (frustules) were used as a source of homogeneous and structurally predictable porous biosilica for dye trapping and random laser applications. This was coupled with the extraction of lipids from biomass showing potential to fabricate photoactive composite materials sustainably. The strain was selected for its ease of growth in culture and harvesting. Biosilica and lipids were obtained at the end of growth in indoor photobioreactors. Frustules were structurally characterized microscopically and their chemistry analyzed with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Frustule capacity of binding laser dyes was evaluated on a set of frustules/Rhodamine B (Rho B) solutions and with respect to silicon dioxide and diatomite by Fluorescence Spectroscopy demonstrating a high affinity for the organic dye. The effect of dye trapping property in conveying Rho B emission to frustules, with enhancement of scattering events, was analyzed on Rho B doped polyacrylamide gels filled or not with frustules. Amplified spontaneous emission was recorded at increasing pump power indicating the onset of a random laser effect in frustule filled gels at lower power threshold compared to unfilled matrices. PMID:27828985

  16. Senyawa Bufadienolida yang bersifat Insektisida, Daigremontianin dari daun Cocor Bebek (Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Mayanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian berkelanjutan untuk pencarian senyawa-senyawa yang bersifat insektisida daritanaman Kalanchoe (Cocor bebek Indonesia, diperoleh hasil bahwa ekstrak metanol daun Cocorbebek (Kalanchoe daigremontiana memberikan aktivitas insektisida yang kuat terhadap instar ke tigalarva ulat sutera (Bombyx mori. Ekstrak metanol yang diperoleh selanjutnya dipisahkan senyawasenyawanyamenggunakan partisi dengan pelarut organik dan kombinasi kolom kromatografi padasilika gel dan ODS sehingga dihasilkan satu senyawa aktif insektisida. Struktur kimia senyawa yangbersifat insektisida tersebut ditentukan dengan metoda spektroskopi dan perbandingan data spektrasenyawa analog yang telah diperoleh dari penelitian sebelumnya sehingga senyawa aktif insektisidatersebut diidentifikasikan sebagai senyawa turunan bufadienolida, daigremontianin. Daegremontianinmenunjukkan aktivitas insektisidal yang kuat terhadap instar ke tiga ulat sutera (Bombyx mori denganLD50 0,9 μg/g diet.

  17. Níveis de irrigação na cultura do Kalanchoe cultivado em ambiente protegido Water levels in the culture of kalanchoe grown in protected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Costenaro Parizi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do desenvolvimento foliar é de grande importância para a avaliação do crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar as consequências dos diferentes níveis do manejo de água de irrigação sobre o crescimento foliar e o número de folhas do Kalanchoe. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com oito tratamentos de irrigação (15; 13; 11; 9; 8; 6; 4 e 2mm e dez repetições. A área foliar das plantas foi calculada por meio do produto do comprimento e da largura de cada folha, multiplicada pelo coeficiente de 1,1134. Os resultados mostraram que as lâminas de irrigação entre 6 e 9mm apresentaram maior crescimento foliar e maior número de folhas por planta. A máxima eficiência técnica foi encontrada com lâminas de 6,68 e 8,59mm, para área foliar e número de folhas por planta, respectivamente. Em condições de déficit hídrico, o Kalanchoe reduz expressivamente sua elongação foliar transversal em relação à longitudinal.The research about the leaf development is very important to evaluate the plants growth and development. The objective of this research was to verify the different level consequences about the irrigation water manner in the leaf growth and the number of the Kalanchoe leaves. The experimental search used was completely randomized, with eight treatments, they consisted in 15; 13; 11; 9; 8; 6; 4 e 2mm irrigation in ten repetitions. The plants leaf area was calculated by the area of each leaf, multiplied by the coefficient of 1.1134. The results showed that the irrigation length between 6 and 9mm showed a bigger leaf growth and more leaves in each plant; the biggest technical efficiency was found with 6.68 and 8.59mm length, to each leaf area and the leaves number in leaf/plant, respectively. In a water condition deficit the Kalanchoe reduces a lot the leaf transversal growth related to the longitudinal.

  18. Kalanchosides A-C, new cytotoxic bufadienolides from the aerial parts of Kalanchoe gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Yu-Lin; Wu, Tian-Shung; Bastow, K F; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2006-11-09

    [Structure: see text] Three new compounds, kalanchosides A-C (1-3), as well as five known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Kalanchoe gracilis. The compound structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. All eight isolated compounds showed significant cytotoxic activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines, with potency reaching the nanomolar range. However, only bryophyllin B (8) inhibited HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte cells.

  19. SOD activity in cam plant kalanchoe daigremontiana exposed to S02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Miszalski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kalanchoe daigremontiana CAM plants exhibit very low sensitivity to the action of sulphite dioxide. Fumigation for a week with 3 ppm SO2 leads to an increase in the dismutation rate of the oxygen radical expressed in units of SOD activity and an increase in SOD activity itself. This strong increase disappears 100 h after fumigation. A transient increase in SOD activity represents an adaptation mechanism to oxidative stress caused by SO2.

  20. Activity of cell wall degrading glycanases in methyl jasmonate-induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Saniewski; Ewa Gajewska; Henryk Urbanek

    2013-01-01

    It was found previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. In present studies it was shown that JA-Me markedly increased the total activities of cellulase, polygalacturonase, pectinase and xylanase in petioles, but did not affect activities of these enzymes in the blades and apical part of shoots of K. blossfeldiana. These results suggest that methyl jasmonate promotes the degradation of cell wall polysaccharides in the abscission zone and in thi...

  1. Stigma development and receptivity of two Kalanchoë blossfeldiana cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traoré, Leila Thérèse; Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk

    2014-01-01

    Several members of the Kalanchoë genus are popular as ornamental plants. Cross-breeding and wide hybridisation are essential to continuously introduce novel traits into cultivated plant material. This study aimed to identify the major factors related to the stigma affecting cross-pollination in t......Several members of the Kalanchoë genus are popular as ornamental plants. Cross-breeding and wide hybridisation are essential to continuously introduce novel traits into cultivated plant material. This study aimed to identify the major factors related to the stigma affecting cross......-pollination in the Kalanchoë blossfeldiana. Pollen tube growth after pollination of K. blossfeldiana 'Jackie' and 'Reese' was examined at different stigma developmental stages. Five distinct developmental stages were identified based on changes in morphology and activity of stigmatic peroxidase. After reciprocal pollination...... at the five stigma developmental stages, fluorescence microscopy was used to estimate the number of pollen tubes in situ. Both cultivars had receptive stigmas from stage I to IV, which concurred with the continuous expansion of the stigma covered with exudates. No pollen tube growth was observed at stage V...

  2. Phytoremediation of Hg and Cd from industrial effluents using an aquatic free floating macrophyte Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The level of heavy metal pollution in Singrauli, an industrial region in India, was assessed and the phytoremediation capacity of a small water fern, Azolla pinnata R.BR (Azollaceae), was observed to purify waters polluted by two heavy metals, i.e., mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) under a microcosm condition. Azolla pinnata is endemic to India and is an abundant and easy-growing free-floating water fern usually found in the rice fields, polluted ponds, and reservoirs of India. The fern was grown in 24 40-L aquariums containing Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions each in concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mgL(-1) during the course of this study. The study revealed an inhibition of Azolla pinnata growth by 27.0-33.9% with the highest in the presence of Hg (II) ions at 0.5 mgL(-1) in comparison to the control After 13 days of the experiment, metal contents in the solution were decreased up to 70-94%. In the tissues of Azolla pinnata, the concentration of selected heavy metals during investigation was recorded between 310 and 740 mgKg(-1) dry mass, with the highest levelfoundfor Cd (II) treatment at 3.0 mgL(-1) containing a metal solution.

  3. Services ecosystémiques du parc agroforestier à Cordyla pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agroforestry parklands provide multiple valuable services to farmers in the Southern Peanut Basin of Senegal. In order to understand ecosystem services provided by Cordyla pinnata agroforestry parkland, we conducted a study in the rural community of Keur Samba Gueye (Fatick, Senegal). The methodological approach ...

  4. Karakteristik Bubuk Instan Cemcem ( spondiaz pinnata lf kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Wrasiati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of tropical plant used as a traditional beverage in Bali is Kecemcem or Cemcem (Spondias pinnata (Lf Kurz or in Indonesian called Kedondong Hutan. Empirically, the beverage is mentioned for treating coughs, increasing appetite, and body refreshment. Besides used as a beverage, Cemcem leafs are also used as a flavor enhancer of fish products. The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of Cemcem instant powder produced by encapsulation using maltodextrin and dried by the thin layer drying method. Cemcem instant powder was then analyzed its content of vitamin C, total phenols, tannins, antioxidant capacity, water cntent, ash content, and solubility. The flavor compounds in Cemcem instant powder obtained in Bukit Jimbaran area are identified by GC-MS devices. The result showed that cemcem instant powder which was produced by 24 hours of maceration time has the best characteristics and potential to be developed as a natural antioxidant products. It has the highest of total phenol, tannin, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity. The content of vitamin C, total phenol, and tannin were 135.06 mg/100g, 38.95 mg GAE/g, and 11.01% respectively. The antioxidant activity of cemcem instant powder which analyzed by DPPH method was about 43.80%. There are 17 compounds detected by GC-MS, these compounds belonged alkenesalcoholsphenols compounds and esters of fatty acidsThe whole compounds were the building blocks of flavor cemcem leaves.Keywords : Characteristic of cemcem instant powder, antioxidant capacity, andflavor compounds of cemcem leaves

  5. Identifying Natural syNergist from Pongamia pinnata Using High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Combined with Isobolographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For identifying the synergistic compounds from Pongamia pinnata, an approach based on high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC combined with isobolographic analysis was designed to detect the synergistic effects in the complex mixture [...

  6. Pemberian Kombinasi Pupuk Hijau Azolla Pinnata Dengan Pupuk Guano Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Pakchoy (Brassica Chinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    OS, Ozi Nurhasanah; Yetti, Husna; Ariani, Erlida

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to look the influence of the combination of green fertilizer Azolla pinnata with guano toward the growth and production of pakchoy and to obtain the best treatment from Azolla pinnata with guano toward pakchoy. This research was conducted at the experimental farm of Farming Faculty of Riau University. This research was accomplished during 3 months that was from June to August 2014. It was carried out experimentally with Group Random Design (GRD), the treatment given which ...

  7. Transcriptome Characterization and Sequencing-Based Identification of Salt-Responsive Genes in Millettia pinnata, a Semi-Mangrove Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jianzi; Lu, Xiang; Yan, Hao; Chen, Shouyi; Zhang, Wanke; Huang, Rongfeng; Zheng, Yizhi

    2012-01-01

    Semi-mangroves form a group of transitional species between glycophytes and halophytes, and hold unique potential for learning molecular mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. Millettia pinnata is a semi-mangrove plant that can survive a wide range of saline conditions in the absence of specialized morphological and physiological traits. By employing the Illumina sequencing platform, we generated ∼192 million short reads from four cDNA libraries of M. pinnata and processed them into 108 ...

  8. Na(+) regulation by combined nitrogen in Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae symbiotic association during salt toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satya S; Singh, Santosh K; Mishra, Arun K

    2008-01-01

    To study the regulation of Na(+) ion by combined-N sources in Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae, Na(+) influx, intracellular Na(+) and Na(+) efflux were investigated in the presence of different N-sources (N(2), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and urea) and various NaCl concentrations. Sodium influx by Azolla pinnata fronds was minimum in the presence of NO(3)(-). Almost identical levels of intracellular sodium, although less than N(2) and NH(4)(+) incubated fronds were observed in the presence of NO(3)(-) and urea. Efflux of sodium was minimum in urea and NO(3)(-) grown fronds. A low residual sodium was observed in the fronds incubated in NO(3)(-) and urea supplemented media. Results suggest that nitrate and urea curtailed the entry of sodium, reduced salt toxicity maximally by maintaining the minimum level of sodium and also conserved energy due to slow influx and efflux of Na(+) within the fronds during salt shock and the process of adaptation.

  9. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, G Ravi; Chandrashekar, N

    2011-06-01

    In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried out at 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio and 60°C reaction temperature. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied. The result of the study suggested that 0.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration were optimum for biodiesel production from P. pinnata oil under microwave heating. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sturen met LED-licht maakt potplant niet zomaar compacter : onderzoek bij kalanchoë en potchrysant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van P.; Eveleens-Clark, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    LED-licht kan als energiebesparende techniek extra meerwaarde krijgen als het ook lukt om met de verschillende kleuren binnen het spectrum de plantkwaliteit te sturen. Voor potplanten zou met name sturen op compactheid een uitkomst zijn. Daarom heeft een onderzoeksteam de korte dag planten kalanchoë

  11. Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) biodiesel blend B5 as internal combustion engine fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Boruah, Dibakor

    2014-01-01

    In this study, fuel characteristics of biodiesel abstracted from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) were evaluated and compared with petroleum diesel. Various fuel properties such as density, viscosity, calorific value, ash content, cloud point, pour points, induction period and flash point were evaluated according to ASTM standards. A (5% v/v) blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel were used to run a diesel engine and their performances were investigated and compared in terms of fuel power, indicat...

  12. Bufadienolides from Kalanchoe daigremontiana as thrombin inhibitors-In vitro and in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Sieradzka, Malgorzata; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Pecio, Łukasz; Ponczek, Michal B; Nowak, Pawel; Stochmal, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Thrombin is an active plasma coagulation factor II, critical for the formation of fibrin clot during blood coagulation. For that reason, this protein is also a crucial target for different anti-thrombotic therapies. The work is based on in vitro evaluation of the inhibitory effect of bufadienolide-rich fraction, isolated from roots of Kalanchoe daigremontiana (1-50μg/ml) on enzymatic properties of a serine proteinase - thrombin. The efficacy of the inhibition of amidolytic activity of thrombin (measured as a hydrolysis of the chromogenic substrate S-2238, Chromogenix) attained about 10 and 66%, respectively. The IC 50 , established for the examined bufadienolide fraction was 2.79μg/ml, while the IC 50 calculated for argatroban (reference compound) was 0.78μg/ml. Linearization conducted using Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that the K. daigremontiana fraction contains compounds that are uncompetitive inhibitors of thrombin. K. daigremontiana fraction was also able to reduce the proteolytic activity of thrombin towards its physiological substrate, i.e. fibrinogen. Additionally, this study is supported by in silico analysis of interactions of the most common compounds, identified in the examined in Kalanchoe extract to crystal structure of this enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anticancer activity of Kalanchoe tubiflora extract against human lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Jen; Huang, Hsuan-Shun; Leu, Yann-Lii; Peng, Kou-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Jui; Chang, Meng-Ya

    2016-11-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation is a common feature of human cancer. Some of herbal extract or plant-derived medicine had been shown as an important source of effective anticancer agents. We previously reported that an n-BuOH-soluble fraction of Kalanchoe tubiflora has antiproliferative activity by inducing mitotic catastrophe. In this study, we showed that the H 2 O-soluble fraction of Kalanchoe tubiflora (KT-W) caused cell cycle arrest, and senescence-inducing activities in A549 cells. We used 2 dimensional PAGE to analyze the protein expression levels after KT-W treatment, and identified that the energy metabolism-related proteins and senescence-related proteins were disturbed. In vivo experiments showed that the tumor growths in A549-xenografted nude mice were effectively inhibited by KT-W. Our findings implied that KT-W is a putative antitumor agent by inducing cell cycle arrest and senescence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1663-1673, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Over-expression of KdSOC1 gene affected plantlet morphogenesis in Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Wang, Li; Chen, Jinhua; Liu, Chenglan; Zeng, Huiming; Wang, Huafang

    2017-07-17

    Kalanchoe daigremontiana reproduces asexually by producing plantlets along the leaf margin. The aim of this study was to identify the function of the SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 gene in Kalanchoe daigremontiana (KdSOC1) during plantlet morphogenesis. In this study, KdSOC1 gene expression was detected at stem cell niche during in vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet morphogenesis. Disrupting endogenous auxin transportation suppressed the KdSOC1 gene response. Knockdown of the KdSOC1 gene caused a defect in cotyledon formation during the early heart stage of somatic embryogenesis. Over-expression (OE) of the KdSOC1 gene resulted in asymmetric plantlet distribution, a reduced number of plantlets, thicker leaves, and thicker vascular fibers. Higher KdPIN1 gene expression and auxin content were found in OE plant compared to those of wild-type plant leaves, which indicated possible KdSOC1 gene role in affecting auxin distribution and accumulation. KdSOC1 gene OE in DR5-GUS Arabidopsis reporting lines resulted in an abnormal auxin response pattern during different stages of somatic embryogenesis. In summary, the KdSOC1 gene OE might alter auxin distribution and accumulation along leaf margin to initiate plantlet formation and distribution, which is crucial for plasticity during plantlet formation under various environmental conditions.

  15. Voltammogram of stainless steel/Fe-Co-Ni electrode on water electrolysis in base condition with dahlia pinnata tuber starch media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isana S. Y., L.; Yuanita, Dewi; Sulistyani, Al, Heru Pratomo

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen production in a safe, enviromentally friendly, and inexpensive is an attempt to realize energy needs commercially, one of them is electrolysis. Many attempts which relate with water electrolysis had been conducted to produce hydrogen, for example by using wastewater as water substitution. The research is to study the effect of dahlia pinnata tuber starch to stainless steel/Fe-Co-Ni electrode activity on water electrolysis in base condition. Stainless steel/Fe-Co-Ni electrode activity for breaking the water molecules eventually is better than stainless steel electrode, either there is existance of dahlia pinnata tuber starch or not. The presence of dahlia pinnata tuber starch apparently makes the covering on surface of the electrode so the catalytic activity of the electrode is reduced. Covering is mostly affected by dahlia pinnata tuber starch concentration. Wastewater which contains starch, especially dahlia pinnata tuber starch, obviously is not good enough because hydrogen production rate becomes obstructed.

  16. Response of growth and antioxidant enzymes in Azolla plants (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides) exposed to UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Amjad; Zeeshan, M; Abraham, G

    2008-06-01

    Effect of ultravilolet-B (0.4 Wm(-2)) irradiation on growth, flavonoid content, lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation and activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase was comparatively analysed in Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides. Growth measured as increment in dry weight reduced considerably due to all UV-B treatments. However, the reduction was found to be severe in A. filiculoides as compared to A. pinnata. The level of UV-absorbing compound flavonoids increased significantly in A. pinnata plants whereas only a slight increase in the flavonoid content was observed in A. filiculoides. UV-B exposure led to enhanced production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in A. filiculoides than A. pinnata. Proline accumulation also showed a similar trend. Marked differences in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) was noticed in both the plants exposed to UV-B. Our comparative studies indicate A. pinnata to be better tolerant to UV-B as compared with A. filiculoides which appears to be sensitive.

  17. The application dosage of Azolla pinnata in fresh and powder form as organic fertilizer on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of rice plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawati, Mieke Rochimi; Damayani, Maya; Herdiyantoro, Diyan; Suryatmana, Pujawati; Anggraini, Derisfha; Khumairah, Fiqriah Hanum

    2018-02-01

    The yield of rice plants is strongly influenced by N fertilizer. Nitrogen in rice plants has roles in vegetative growth, tiller formation and increasing yield through rice protein formation. Nitrogen supplied from organic fertilizers is better than inorganic fertilizers that may have environmental problem effects. Organic fertilizers from Azolla pinnata water fern contain higher N than other organic fertilizers. Symbiosis between A. pinnata and the N-fixing cyanobacteria results in high content of nitrogen, 3 to 5%. A. pinnata can be added to the rice field as organic fertilizer in form of fresh biomass or composted. Composted form can be ground into powder which passes through 100 mesh sieve. Preparation of compost powder of A. pinnata is done to reduce the constraints of voluminous application of organic fertilizers and to improve the efficiency of its use. The objective of this research was to compare the effect of the use of fresh A. pinnata and compost powder of A. pinnata on some soil and plant chemical properties and rice yield. The treatments applied were fresh A. pinnata at the dose of 0, 10 and 20 ton ha-1 and A. pinnata compost powder at 12.5 and 25 kg ha-1. The results showed that incorporation of fresh A. pinnata at 20 tons ha-1 and its compost powder at 25 kg ha-1 increased the available P of soil, plant P content and tiller number, but did not affect the content of organic-C, total soil N, plant N content and rice yield. This study suggested the benefits of A. pinnata compost powder technology in organic fertilization of soil to increase the nutrient content of soil and rice plants.

  18. A study on the Phytoremediation Potential of Azolla pinnata under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upekha Mandakini Lenaduwa Lokuge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination in aquatic environments has become one of the major environmental problems all over the world. Phytoremediation is a plant based technology that utilizes special plants known as hyperaccumulators to purify heavy metal contaminated sites. Hyperaccumulators are capable of absorbing heavy metals in greater concentrations.  Azolla pinnata is an aquatic macrophyte that has been earmarked for its hyperaccumulation ability. This green technology is often more favoured over conventional methods due to its low cost, low environmental impacts and wider public acceptance.This study was conducted under laboratory conditions to assess the ability of A. pinnata for the removal of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb through rhizofiltration, which is one of the phytoremediation strategies under laboratory conditions. Under three main experiments, the fern’s phytoremediation ability was investigated. In the first experiment, A. pinnata was exposed to prepared solutions of Cr, Ni and Pb of 2ppm, 4ppm, 6ppm, 8ppm and 10ppm and of Cd solutions of 0.5ppm, 1.0ppm, 1.5ppm, 2.0ppm, 2.5ppm and 3.0ppm respectively. Experiments were carried out separately for Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations for 7 days. The concentrations of heavy metals used in the experiments largely agreed with the environmentally measured values, although in certain experiments, the initial concentrations exceeded the environmental pollution levels.The presence of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb caused a maximum inhibition of A.pinnata growth by 47%, 54%, 52% and 45% respectively while the highest removal percentages of Cr- 98%, Ni- 57%, Cd- 88% and Pb- 86% were recorded in 2ppm, 2ppm, 0.5ppm and 8ppm treatments respectively. The highest Bio Concentration Factor (BCF for Cr was 1376.67 when treated with 6ppm, 684.95 at 4ppm for Ni, 1120.06 at 0.5ppm for Cd and 1332.53 at 8ppm for Pb respectively. At the end of the experiments toxic symptoms were observed in plats exposed to Cd and Ni. The findings of

  19. Features of morpho-anatomic structure of vegetative organs of Sedum antiquum Omelcz et Zaverucha (Crassulaceae DC.

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    Valentyna Berezkina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study results of biological features and morpho-anatomical structure of vegetative organs of Sedum antiquum Omelcz et Zaverucha (Crassulaceae DC. are given. S. antiquum is Eastern Carpathian-Opillia rare endemic species. It is listed in the Red Book of Ukraine and in the European Red List of Animals and Plants and is endangered in world scale. As a result of study of morpho-anatomic structure of leaves and stems of S. antiquum the anisocytic type of stomata and presence of cuticle have been determined. It was ascertained that structure of leaves is adapted to the accumulation of significant water reserves and its further gradual use. Ecological and phytocenotic conditions of growth are studied too. S. antiquum has been determined here as petrophyte, calcephyl, and succulent ephemer. This rare species need protection and control of population state in all natural habitats.

  20. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Luh Arpiwi; I Made Sutha Negara; I Nengah Simpen

    2017-01-01

    Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field. The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to e...

  1. Capturing the Biofuel Wellhead and Powerhouse: The Chloroplast and Mitochondrial Genomes of the Leguminous Feedstock Tree Pongamia pinnata

    OpenAIRE

    Kazakoff, Stephen H.; Imelfort, Michael; Edwards, David; Koehorst, Jasper; Biswas, Bandana; Batley, Jacqueline; Scott, Paul T.; Gresshoff, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Pongamia pinnata (syn. Millettia pinnata) is a novel, fast-growing arboreal legume that bears prolific quantities of oil-rich seeds suitable for the production of biodiesel and aviation biofuel. Here, we have used Illumina® 'Second Generation DNA Sequencing (2GS)' and a new short-read de novo assembler, SaSSY, to assemble and annotate the Pongamia chloroplast (152,968 bp; cpDNA) and mitochondrial (425,718 bp; mtDNA) genomes. We also show that SaSSY can be used to accurately assemble 2GS data,...

  2. Inheritance of rol-genes from Agrobacterium rhizogenes through two generations in Kalanchoë

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Wallström, Saba Victoria; Jensen, Erik Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    observed in the T1 generation was inherited to the offspring. F1 lines were produced by crossing the commercial Kalanchoë cultivar ‘Sarah’ with a selected T1 line. Subsequently, F2 populations were produced by self-pollination of individual selected lines. The rol-genes were inherited to the progeny...... and the presence of rol-genes was confirmed in all F1 and many F2 plant lines exhibiting dwarfism. Screening of F1 and F2 plants showed that the rol-genes were inherited together. Besides decreased plant height, several F1 and F2 lines containing rol-genes exhibited changes in plant diameter, number of branches...

  3. Influence of aromatic compounds on the quantity and heterogeneity of surface lipids of Kalanchoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Pacshenko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The component composition of surface lipids of kalanchoe leaves under the influence of strong solutions of monochlorobenzene, nonylphenol and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol was studied. It was shown that the plants adaptations to the exogenous influence included the elongation processes of the oxocompounds specifically to the structure of the xenobiotic and the increasing of the total quantity of the surface lipids independently from their nature. Monochlorobenzene decreases the biosynthesis of oxocompounds and upsets its elongation. It results in creation of short-chain polar substances. Nonylphenol also decreases the biosynthesis of oxocompounds, but it is accompanied by the activation of its elongation. 2,4,6-trinitrophenol  increases of the oxocompounds fraction and activates its elongation.

  4. Cardenolides and bufadienolide glycosides from Kalanchoe tubiflora and evaluation of cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Hseu, You-Cheng; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2013-09-01

    Two new cardenolides, kalantubolide A (1) and kalantubolide B (2), and two bufadienolide glycosides, kalantuboside A (3) and kalantuboside B (4), as well as eleven known compounds were isolated and characterized from the EtOH extract of Kalanchoe tubiflora. The structures of compounds were assigned based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses including HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY. Biological evaluation indicated that cardenolides (1-2) and bufadienolide glycosides (3-7) showed strong cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, Cal-27, A2058, and HL-60) with IC50 values ranging from 0.01 µM to 10.66 µM. Cardenolides (1-2) also displayed significant cytotoxicity toward HL-60 tumor cell line. In addition, compounds 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 blocked the cell cycle in the G2/M-phase and induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Fatty acid and sterol contents during methyl jasmonate-induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. In present studies it was showed that JA-Me did not affect or only slightly affected the content of free and bound fatty acids in petioles and blades. ß-Sitosterol, campesterol and ß-amyrin were identified in petioles and blades of K. blossfeldiana; JA-Me decreased the content of campesterol in petioles and increased the content of ß-sitosterol in blades. In blades of plants treated with JA-Me disappearance of olean-12-one was indicated but appearance of 2H-cyclopropa[a]-naphthalen-2-one,l, la, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7a, 7b-octahydro-l, 1, 7, 7a-tetramethyl (aristolone was documented. The significance of these findings in leaf abscission induced by methyl jasmonate in K. blossfeldiana is discussed.

  6. [Biological activity of metabolites of the herb Kalanchoe diagremontania (Hamet de la Bbathie) Jacobs et Perr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M M; Gerasimenko, N I; Chaĭkina, E L; Serebriakov, Iu M

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the hemolytic, antimicrobial, and phytoregulatory activity of various classes of lipids (triacylglycerols, free fatty acids (FFA), the glyceroglycolipids monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG)), sterols, all of them were obtained from the medical herb Kalanchoe diagremontiana, and also pigments, phenolic compounds (FC), polysaccharides, and ethanol extract (EE) of the herbal. It was established that EE, FC, FFA, and sterols display pH-dependent membranothropic activity. FFA showed antimicrobial activity and stimulated growth of buckwheat stalk sprouts. K. diagremontiana glyceroglycolopids did not display expressed biological activity. Caroteniods displayed pH-independent membranothopic action and antibacterial activity. Chlorophylls displayed antimicrobial action, but did not influence erythrocytes and buckwheat sprouts. Polysaccharides acted against the microorganisms Safale S-04, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysperum and buckwheat sprouts.

  7. Novel vitamin E forms in leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Phaseolus coccineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Jerzy; Pisarski, Adam; Szymańska, Renata

    2011-11-15

    In the present study, we isolated novel tocochromanols from green leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana and primary leaves of etiolated seedlings of Phaseolus coccineus that were identified as β-, γ-, and δ-tocomonoenols with unsaturation at the terminal isoprene unit of the side chain. The content of γ-tocomonoenol in leaves of etiolated bean increased gradually with the age of seedlings, reaching 50% of the γ-tocopherol level in 40-day-old plants. The content of this compound in leaves was increased by short illumination of etiolated plants and by addition of homogentisic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of tocopherols. These data indicated that γ-tocomonoenol is synthesized de novo from homogentisic acid and tetrahydro-geranylgeraniol diphosphate, a phytol precursor. Based on these results, a biosynthetic pathway of tocomonoenols is proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Water Conservation in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in Relation to Carbon Dioxide Dark Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabka, G G; Chaturvedi, S N

    1975-03-01

    The succulent Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poel. var Tom Thumb was treated on long and short photoperiods for 6 weeks during which short day plants developed thicker leaves, flowered prolifically, and exhibited extensive net dark fixation of carbon dioxide. In contrast, long day plants remained vegetative and did not develop thicker leaves or exhibit net carbon dioxide dark fixation. When examined after the photoperiodic state described, long day plants showed approximately three times more water loss over a 10-day period than short day plants. Water loss is similar during light and dark periods for short day plants but long day plants exhibited two times more water loss during the day than at night. The latter plants also lost three and one-half times more water during the light period than short day plants. The water conservation by short day plants is correlated with conditions of high carbon dioxide dark fixation and effects of its related Crassulacean acid metabolism on stomatal behavior.

  9. Phytotherapy of experimental depression: Kalanchoe integra Var. Crenata (Andr. Cuf Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy K E Kukuia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Kalanchoe sp. have been used since 1921 for central nervous system (CNS disorders such as psychosis and depression. It is known to possess CNS depressant effects. Aims: To investigate the antidepressant properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe integra. Settings and Design: The study was carried out at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology between 6 a.m. and 3 p.m. Materials and Methods: ICR mice were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST and tail suspension test (TST after they had received extract (30-300 mg/kg, fluoxetine (3-30 mg/kg, desipramine (3-30 mg/kg orally, or water (as vehicle. In a separate experiment, mice were pre-treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, α-methyl paratyrosine (AMPT; 400 mg/kg, both reserpine (1 mg/kg and AMPT (200 mg/kg concomitantly, or p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA; 200 mg/kg to ascertain the role of the noradrenergic and serotoninergic systems in the mode of action of the extract. Statistical analysis used: Means were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls′ post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In both FST and TST, the extract induced a decline in immobility, indicative of antidepressant-like effect. This diminution in immobility was reversed by pCPA, but not by reserpine and/or AMPT. The extract increased the swimming and climbing scores in the FST, suggestive of possible interaction with serotoninergic and noradrenergic systems. In the TST, the extract produced increases in both curling and swinging scores, suggestive of opioidergic monoaminergic activity, respectively. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the antidepressant potential of the aqueous leaf extract of K. integra is mediated possibly by a complex interplay between serotoninergic, opioidergic, and noradrenergic systems.

  10. Phytotherapy of experimental depression: Kalanchoe integra Var. Crenata (Andr.) Cuf Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuia, Kennedy K E; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac J; Woode, Eric; Biney, Robert P; Addae, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Kalanchoe sp. have been used since 1921 for central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as psychosis and depression. It is known to possess CNS depressant effects. To investigate the antidepressant properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe integra. The study was carried out at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology between 6 a.m. and 3 p.m. ICR mice were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) after they had received extract (30-300 mg/kg), fluoxetine (3-30 mg/kg), desipramine (3-30 mg/kg) orally, or water (as vehicle). In a separate experiment, mice were pre-treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg), α-methyl paratyrosine (AMPT; 400 mg/kg), both reserpine (1 mg/kg) and AMPT (200 mg/kg) concomitantly, or p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA; 200 mg/kg) to ascertain the role of the noradrenergic and serotoninergic systems in the mode of action of the extract. Means were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman-Keuls' post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. In both FST and TST, the extract induced a decline in immobility, indicative of antidepressant-like effect. This diminution in immobility was reversed by pCPA, but not by reserpine and/or AMPT. The extract increased the swimming and climbing scores in the FST, suggestive of possible interaction with serotoninergic and noradrenergic systems. In the TST, the extract produced increases in both curling and swinging scores, suggestive of opioidergic monoaminergic activity, respectively. The present study has demonstrated the antidepressant potential of the aqueous leaf extract of K. integra is mediated possibly by a complex interplay between serotoninergic, opioidergic, and noradrenergic systems.

  11. Manipulation of MKS1 gene expression affects Kalanchoë blossfeldiana and Petunia hybrida phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargul, Joanna Maria; Mibus, Heiko; Serek, Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of alternative methods to chemical treatments for growth retardation and pathogen protection in ornamental plant production has become a major goal in recent breeding programmes. This study evaluates the effect of manipulating MAP kinase 4 nuclear substrate 1 (MKS1) expression in Kalanchoë blossfeldiana and Petunia hybrida. The Arabidopsis thaliana MKS1 gene was overexpressed in both species via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, resulting in dwarfed phenotypes and delayed flowering in both species and increased tolerance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in transgenic Petunia plants. The lengths of the stems and internodes were decreased, while the number of nodes in the transgenic plants was similar to that of the control plants in both species. The transgenic Kalanchoë flowers had an increased anthocyanin concentration, and the length of the inflorescence stem was decreased. The morphology of transgenic Petunia flowers was not altered. The results of the Pseudomonas syringae tolerance test showed that Petunia plants with one copy of the transgene reacted similarly to the nontransgenic control plants; however, plants with four copies of the transgene exhibited considerably higher tolerance to bacterial attack. Transgene integration and expression was determined by Southern blot hybridization and RT-PCR analyses. MKS1 in wild-type Petunia plants was down-regulated through a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method using tobacco rattle virus vectors. There were no significant phenotypic differences between the plants with silenced MKS1 genes and the controls. The relative concentration of the MKS1 transcript in VIGS-treated plants was estimated by quantitative RT-PCR. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. TRATAMIENTO DE EFLUENTES PISCÍCOLAS (TILAPIA ROJA EN LAGUNAS CON Azolla pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO CHAUX F

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas con plantas acuáticas flotantes son una alternativa económicamente sostenible para el tratamiento de efluentes piscícolas. Se evaluó a escala piloto el desempeñ,o de un sistema de lagunas con Azolla pinnata en serie para el tratamiento de efluentes de cría de tilapia roja durante el proceso de levante y engorde. El sistema construido en la piscícola La Yunga (Popayán, Colombia consistió en dos líneas de cinco lagunas en serie; la primera con A. pinnata y la segunda sin la planta acuática; cada laguna se operó con un tiempo de detención de un día. La evaluación se realizó en época seca. La producción de Azolla fresca osciló entre 42 y 87 g/m2.d y el contenido de proteína entre 18,5% y 20,4%. Las eficiencias de remoción obtenidas en las líneas (con Azolla, sin Azolla fueron respectivamente: 56% y 46% DBO5; 49% y 26% DQO; 56% y 33% SST; 28% y 36% N-NTK; -108% y 23% N-NH4+; 64% y 34% fósforo total, mostrando superioridad del sistema con Azolla. Con solo tres lagunas en serie plantadas con A. pinnata se alcanzan las eficiencias máximas obtenidas en la remoción de DBO5, DQO, SST y fósforo total.

  13. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  14. Selenium hyperaccumulation - Astragalus bisulcatus, Cardamine hupingshanensis and Stanleya pinnata - may be useful for agromining selenium-rich soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium hyperaccumulator plants like Stanleya pinnata, Astragalus bisulcatus and the newly discovered Se-accumulator Cardamine hupingshanensis may play an important role in the Se cycle from soil to plant to human in China. Se-hyperaccumulators can be used for agromining or for phytoremediation of ...

  15. Consumo hídrico e desempenho de Kalanchoe cultivado em substratos alternativos Water absorption and performance of the Kalanchoe grown in alternative substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Rossana Castro de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescente consumo de flores e plantas ornamentais de vaso, a busca por elementos alternativos para substratos torna-se necessária, a fim de reduzir os custos da produção. Além disso, é importante quantificar as características físico-hídricas de forma a estabelecer o calendário de irrigações com base nesses materiais. A partir disso, este trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar o desempenho e o consumo de água de Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln, cultivar 'Gold Jewel', em 10 substratos alternativos, e definir os mais indicados para a produção comercial nas condições ambientais da região centro-oeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram testados substratos compostos por diferentes proporções de casca de arroz carbonizada, cinzas de casca de arroz, matéria orgânica doméstica decomposta, esterco bovino e esterco de aves. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. No final do ciclo, foram avaliados: altura, número de folhas, número de inflorescências, número de flores e diâmetro da copa das plantas nos diferentes tratamentos. Por meio dos resultados, pode-se concluir que, para produção de plantas, os substratos mais indicados são 100% em volume de matéria orgânica e 50% em volume de matéria orgânica +50% em volume de esterco bovino.With the increase in the flowers and ornamental crops consumption, the search for alternative elements to the substrates, became to necessary reduce spends the production. Besides, it's important to quantify the physics - hydric characteristics and the manner to establish the calendar of the irrigations using these materials. Based in this, this research had as the mainly purpose to evaluate the performance and the water consumption of the Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln, cv. Gold Jewel in ten alternative substrates and to define the most indicated to the commercial production in environmental

  16. Phytoremediation of domestic wastewaters in free water surface constructed wetlands using Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbile, Christopher O; Ogunrinde, Temitope A; Che Bt Man, Hasfalina; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Two constructed wetlands, one with Azolla pinnata plant (CW1) and the other without (CW2) for treating domestic wastewaters were developed. Fifteen water parameters which include: Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3N), Turbidity, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), and heavy metals such as Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. The experiments were conducted in two (dry and wet) seasons simultaneously. Results showed considerable reductions in all parameters and metals including Zn in CW1 compared with CW2 in the two seasons considered while Pb and Mn were not detected throughout the study. Zn concentration levels reduced significantly in both seasons just as removal efficiencies of 70.03% and 64.51% were recorded for CW1 while 35.17% and 33.45% were recorded for CW2 in both seasons. There were no significant differences in the removal efficiencies of Fe in both seasons as 99.55%, 59.09%, 88.89%, and 53.56% were recorded in CW1 and CW2 respectively. Azolla pinnata has proved effective in domestic wastewater phytoremediation studies.

  17. Test results of pongamia pinnata methyl esters with direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, MG.; Chattha, J.A.; Khan, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Pongamia Pinnata oil is considered as a potential source of biodiesel production in Pakistan. When selecting source for commercial production of biodiesel several criteria are used. One of them is that biodiesel or biodiesel/diesel fuel blends must provide satisfactory performance and emissions of the diesel engine without or with a little engine modification. In this research performance and emissions characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine running on Pongamia Pinnata methyl esters were discussed. Discussion was supported by an analysis of combustion characteristics derived from in-cylinder pressure data. Engine running on a neat biodiesel showed higher brake specific fuel consumption and lower brake fuel conversion efficiency at all loads, whereas emissions were improved except of carbon monoxide emission at high loads. Decrease in brake efficiency and reduction of nitrogen oxides emissions were attributed solely to the change in the rate of heat release. Deposits on fuel infector nozzle were observed when engine was running on the neat biodiesel. Based on test results conclusion was made that Pongamia biodiesel/diesel fuel blends can effectively be used as a diesel oil substitute. (author)

  18. PHENOLOGY, POLLINATION AND SEED PRODUCTION OF Millettia pinnata IN KUNUNURRA, NORTHERN WESTERN AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Arpiwi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Millettia pinnata L. Panigrahi atau Pongamia pinnata L. Piere adalah tumbuhan legum yang menghasilkan biji dengan kandungan minyak yang cocok untuk biodiesel. Fenologi dan polinasi pada tanaman ini dipantau dan dimanipulasi untuk meningkatkan pembentukan biji dan hasil panen. Musim berbunga di Kununurra berlangsung selama satu bulan dari awal Oktober dan pembungaan terjadi tidak bersamaan baik pada satu tanaman maupun di antara tanaman yang berbeda. Dua spesies lebah lokal sebagai polinator, Megachile sp., dan Nomia sp., memiliki tingkat kunjungan yang sangat rendah (6-13 kunjungan dengan puncak waktu kunjungan dari jam 9.00 sampai jam 10.00 dan periode aktivitas mencari makan yang pendek (dari jam 6.00 sampai 12.00. Hal ini mungkin terjadi karena sedikitnya volume nektar yang dihasilkan (1.0 ± 0.04 ?l dan tingginya temperatur di Kununurra. Viabilitas polen yang tinggi (85 ± 3% menurun tajam menjadi 10 ± 3% dengan penyimpanan selama satu tahun pada suhu 4oC, tetapi hanya sedikit menurun menjadi 62 ± 3% pada suhu penyimpanan -20oC dan -80oC. Kunjungan lebah madu (Apis mellifera meningkatkan hasil panen biji dari 296 menjadi 4.981 g/pohon, tetapi hasil panen ini masih rendah dan sangat bervariasi.

  19. Bio diesel synthesis from pongamia pinnata oil over modified CeO2 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh; Sathgatta Z, M. S.; Manjunatha, S.; Thammannigowda V, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the use of CeO 2 , ZrO 2 , Mg O and CeO 2 -ZrO 2 , CeO 2 -Mg O, CeO 2 -ZrO 2 -Mg O mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil with methanol to produce bio diesel. SO 4 2- /CeO 2 and SO 4 2- /CeO 2 -ZrO 2 were also prepared and used as solid acid catalysts for esterification of Pongamia pinnata oil (P-oil) to reduce the % of free fatty acid (FFA) in P-oil. The oxide catalysts were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by techniques such as NH 3 -Tpd for surface acidity, CO 2 -Tpd for surface basicity and powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity. The effect of nature of the catalyst, methanol to P-oil molar ratio and reaction time in esterification as well as in transesterification was investigated. The catalytic materials were reactive d and reused for five reaction cycles and the results showed that the ceria based catalysts have reasonably good reusability both in esterification and transesterification reaction. The test results also revealed that the CeO 2 -ZrO 2 modified with Mg O could have potential for use in the large scale bio diesel production. (Author)

  20. PENGARUH MEDIA KOMPOS DAN ASAL BENIH KRANJI (Pongamia pinnata TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TINGGI BIBIT DI PERSEMAIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aam Aminah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu hal terpenting dalam penyediaan bibit tanaman adalah media yang digunakan dalam pembibitan.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh media kompos yang diberikan dan asal benih kranji (Pongamia pinnata terhadap pertumbuhan tinggi bibit di persemaian.  Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan benih yang berasal dari Bangka, Carita, Batukaras dan banyuwangi.  Masing-masing bibit hasil perkecambahan dilakukan penyapihan dalam polybag dan dilakukan pengukuran sebanyak 3 kali.  Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa pada α = 5% pertumbuhan bibit tanaman kranji sangat dipengaruhi oleh penggunaan jenis kompos dan tidak dipengaruhi oleh lokasi asal benih. Pembibitan tanaman kranji lebih membutuhkan pupuk kompos sebagai pemberi nutrisi dan perbaikan struktur media.   Media is an important in the making seedling and it use in the production of cultivated seeds have economic value, is easily available and the range of non-destructive.  Determination of nutrients in the medium nursery is one of the factors to produce seedlings with a good quality.   The aim of research is produce of good seedling based on the compost type (conventional and brand and origin of seed (Bangka, Carita and Banyuwangi. The result is  α = 5% come from type of compost (conventional of randomized block design with 4 treatments. Compost, besides as fertilizer also contribute improving the structure of media for producing kranji (Pongamia pinnata seedlings.

  1. Comparative assessment of Azolla pinnata and Vallisneria spiralis in Hg removal from G.B. Pant Sagar of Singrauli Industrial region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to monitor the Hg pollution in water and sediments of G.B. Pant Sagar located in Singrauli Industrial Region, India and to suggest the efficient aquatic plants for its phytoremediation. The study assessed the comparative potential of a free floating water fern Azolla pinnata and submerged aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis to purify waters polluted by Hg. Six days laboratory experiments have been conducted to mark the percentage removal of Hg at initial concentration of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg L(-1). The percentage removal of Hg was higher for A. pinnata (80-94%) than V. spiralis (70-84%). Likewise, the Hg accumulated in dry mass was much higher for A. pinnata and a high correlation (R(2) = 0.91 for A. pinnata and 0.99 for V. spiralis) was obtained between applied Hg doses and accumulated amounts in biomass. A concentration dependent decrease in chlorophyll a, protein, RNA, DNA and nutrients (NO(3-) and PO(4)(3-)) uptake was detected in A. pinnata and V. spiralis due to Hg toxicity. The decrease was more prominent in Azolla than Vallisneria. The results recommended the use of A. pinnata and V. spiralis to ameliorate the industrial effluents (thermal power, chlor-alkali and coal mine effluent) contaminated with Hg.

  2. Flower formation in the short-day plant Kalanchoe by grafting with a long-day and a short-long-day Echeveria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1978-01-01

    Flower formation was induced in the short-day plant Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poellnitz under long-day conditions by grafting with flowering shoots of the short-long-day plant Echeveria harmsii (Rose) MacBr. and of the long-day plant Echeveria ''pulvoliver'' (E. pulvinata Rose x E. harmsii). Vegetative shoots from induced Echeveria plants failed to cause a flowering response in Kalanchoe. The presence of flowering and vegetative shoots side by side on induced Echeveria plants provides evidence for physiological chimeras in this genus.

  3. Antimalarial efficacy of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) and Plasmodium berghei (ANKA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, P V V; Sunita, K

    2017-09-11

    The objective of the current study was to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial activities of leaf, bark, flower, and the root of Pongamia pinnata against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain), cytotoxicity against Brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. For in vivo study, the plant extract which has shown potent in vitro antimalarial activity was tested against Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain). The plant Pongamia pinnata was collected from the herbal garden of Acharya Nagarjuna University of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Sequentially crude extracts of methanol (polar), chloroform (non-polar), hexane (non-polar), ethyl acetate (non-polar) and aqueous (polar) of dried leaves, bark, flowers and roots of Pongamia pinnata were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against P. falciparum 3D7 strain. The cytotoxicity studies of crude extracts were conducted against Brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts was carried out by following the standard methods. The chemical injury to erythrocytes due to the plant extracts was checked. The in vivo study was conducted on P. berghei (ANKA) infected BALB/c albino mice by following 4-Day Suppressive, Repository, and Curative tests. Out of all the tested extracts, the methanol extract of the bark of Pongamia pinnata had shown an IC 50 value of 11.67 μg/mL with potent in vitro antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that this extract was not toxic against Brine shrimp and THP-1 cells. The injury to erythrocytes analysis had not shown any morphological alterations and damage to the erythrocytes after 48 h of incubation. Because methanolic bark extract of Pongamia pinnata has shown good antimalarial activity in vitro, it was also tested in vivo. So the extract had exhibited an excellent activity against P. berghei malaria parasite while decrement of parasite counts was moderately low and

  4. Unique parallel radiations of high-mountainous species of the genus Sedum (Crassulaceae) on the continental island of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takuro; Yu, Chih-Chieh; Nakamura, Koh; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Yang, Qin-Er; Fu, Cheng-Xin; Qi, Zhe-Chen; Kokubugata, Goro

    2017-08-01

    We explored the temporal and spatial diversification of the plant genus Sedum L. (Crassulaceae) in Taiwan based on molecular analysis of nrITS and cpDNA sequences from East Asian Sedum members. Our phylogenetic and ancestral area reconstruction analysis showed that Taiwanese Sedum comprised two lineages that independently migrated from Japan and Eastern China. Furthermore, the genetic distances among species in these two clades were smaller than those of other East Asian Sedum clades, and the Taiwanese members of each clade occupy extremely varied habitats with similar niches in high-mountain regions. These data indicate that species diversification occurred in parallel in the two Taiwanese Sedum lineages, and that these parallel radiations could have occurred within the small continental island of Taiwan. Moreover, the estimated time of divergence for Taiwanese Sedum indicates that the two radiations might have been correlated to the formation of mountains in Taiwan during the early Pleistocene. We suggest that these parallel radiations may be attributable to the geographical dynamics of Taiwan and specific biological features of Sedum that allow them to adapt to new ecological niches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ying Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L. DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50=35.88 μg/mL and CVA16 (IC50=42.91 μg/mL. Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions.

  6. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-09-01

    Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  7. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Soon Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  8. Biphasic Fluence-Response Curves for Phytochrome-Mediated Kalanchoë Seed Germination 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethy, Roger; Dedonder, Andrée; De Petter, Edwin; Van Wiemeersch, Luc; Fredericq, Henri; De Greef, Jan; Steyaert, Herman; Stevens, Hilde

    1987-01-01

    The fluence-response curves for the effect of two red pulses separated by 24 hours on the germination of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. cv Vesuv seeds, incubated on gibberellic acid (GA3) are biphasic for suboptimal concentrations. The response in the low fluence range corresponds with a classical red/far-red reversible phytochrome mediated reaction. GA3 induces an additional response in the very low fluence range, which is also phytochrome mediated. The sensitivity to phytochrome-far-red absorbing form (Pfr), however, is increased about 20,000-fold, so that even far-red fluences become saturating. Both in the very low and low fluence response range, the maximal responses induced by saturating fluences are modulated by the GA3 concentration. GA3 having no direct influence on the phytochrome phototransformations, alters the Pfr requirement and determines the responding seed population fraction in the very low and low fluence range. The effet of GA3 appears to be on the transduction chain of the phytochrome signal. PMID:16665187

  9. Genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of whole plant extracts of Kalanchoe laciniata by Ames and MTT assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Ali; Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Akhtar, Bushra; Saleem, Ammara; Manan, Maria; Shabbir, Maryam; Ashraf, Muneeb; Peerzada, Sohaib; Ahmed, Shoaib; Raza, Moosa

    2017-01-01

    Lack of data on safety of herbal medicines have endangered human health and life. The present study evaluated the genotoxic and mutagenic effect of Kalanchoe laciniata to access the safety and usefulness of the medicinal plant. Aqua-methanolic and n-hexane extracts of K. laciniata were evaluated for the genotoxic potential using Ames assay and cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT assay. Ames assay was conducted using two strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA-100 and TA-102 whereas MTT assay was performed on baby hamster kidney cell line BHK-21. Aqua-methanolic extract of K. laciniata exhibited significant mutagenicity when exposed to TA-102 strain with a mutagenic index of 50.66 and 54.74 at maximum dose 150 mg/plate. The extract was also mutagenic to TA-100 strain but to a lesser extent. M.I of n-hexane extract was 12.15 and 15.51 for TA-100 and TA-102 respectively. n-hexane extract was mutagenic but little difference was observed between results of two strains. Both extracts were found to be cytotoxic with an IC 50 of 321.9 and 638.5 µg/mL for aqua-methanolic and n-hexane extracts respectively. On the basis of results it was concluded that aqua-methanolic and n-hexane extracts of K. laciniata possess mutagenic and cytotoxic potential. It is suggested to explore the plant further to evaluate its safety in rodents and other species.

  10. Transformation of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana with rol-genes is useful in molecular breeding towards compact growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Brian; Sriskandarajah, Sridevy; Serek, Margrethe; Müller, Renate

    2008-09-01

    Dwarf genotypes of the economically important flowering potted plant Kalanchoe blossfeldiana were developed by molecular breeding. Root inducing (Ri)-lines were regenerated by applying CPPU to the hairy roots, which were produced by inoculating leaf explants with a wild-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of T-DNA in the Ri-lines. Six Ri-lines were characterised in a greenhouse trial revealing that several morphological traits changed with respect to ornamental value such as plant height, number of lateral shoots, leaf size, leaf number, flower size and number of flowers. The Ri-lines differed in their degree of Ri-phenotype, and the internodes of the Ri-lines were clearly shorter, giving a compact growth habit compared to control plants. Time to anthesis was the same in Ri-line 331 as in control plants and delayed by only 3 days in Ri-line 306 as compared to control plants. A compact plant without delayed flowering can be assumed to be valuable for further breeding.

  11. Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Zhang, Yongjun; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 35.88 μg/mL) and CVA16 (IC50 = 42.91 μg/mL). Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions. PMID:22666293

  12. Water Conservation in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in Relation to Carbon Dioxide Dark Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabka, George G.; Chaturvedi, S. N.

    1975-01-01

    The succulent Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poel. var Tom Thumb was treated on long and short photoperiods for 6 weeks during which short day plants developed thicker leaves, flowered prolifically, and exhibited extensive net dark fixation of carbon dioxide. In contrast, long day plants remained vegetative and did not develop thicker leaves or exhibit net carbon dioxide dark fixation. When examined after the photoperiodic state described, long day plants showed approximately three times more water loss over a 10-day period than short day plants. Water loss is similar during light and dark periods for short day plants but long day plants exhibited two times more water loss during the day than at night. The latter plants also lost three and one-half times more water during the light period than short day plants. The water conservation by short day plants is correlated with conditions of high carbon dioxide dark fixation and effects of its related Crassulacean acid metabolism on stomatal behavior. PMID:16659116

  13. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to several chronic diseases including cancer and atherosclerosis. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is a special folk medicinal plant in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions of the stem of K. gracilis. TEAC, total phenolic compound content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation were analyzed. Among all fractions, the chloroform fraction showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities. The chloroform fraction also had the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Chloroform fractions also decreased LPS-induced NO production and expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions were studied in vitro using HepG2 cells, and the results were consistent with their antioxidant capacities. Chloroform fractions had the highest antiproliferative activity with an IC(50) of 136.85 ± 2.32 μg/ml. Eupafolin also had good pharmacological activity in the antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antiproliferative. Eupafolin might be an important bioactive compound in the stem of K. gracilis. The above experimental data indicated that the stem of K. gracilis is a potent antioxidant medicinal plant, and such efficacy may be mainly attributed to its polyphenolic compounds.

  14. A dual bacterial culture augments Kalanchoe spp. photosynthesis under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlak, Olexii; Rogutskyy, Ivan; Danilchenko, Boris; Mikheev, Olexander; Zaetz, Iryna; Lorek, Andreas; Koncz, Alexander; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Foing, Bernard H.; Kozyrovska, Natalia

    In consistence with conception of using microbial technology for plant growing/protosoil for-mation for Lunar/Martian greenhouses (Kozyrovska et al., 2004-2010), we anticipate microbes to alleviate impact of the environmental stressors on plant development. Bacteria can augment physiological processes in plants, for example, photosynthesis, by regulating a hormone level and decreasing glucose sensing in planta (Zhang et al., 2008). The study aimed to examine impact of consortium of well-defined bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca IMBG26 and Paenibacillus sp. IMBG150 on the CAM-plantlets Kalanhoe diagramontiana and Kalanhoe tubiflora pho-tosynthetic activity after acute action of gamma radiation (60Co), Near Martian ultraviolet radiation, low pressure (100 mbar), and high concentrations of CO2 (95Plantlets of K. tubi-flora were exposed to harmful doses of Near Martian UV radiation for 3 hours (26.53 J/cm2). A week before experiment kalanchoe plantlets were subjected to acute effects of ionizing radiation at doses of 30 and 70 Gy. In noninoculated plantlets after 30 Gy the photosynthetic activity fell to 71

  15. Kalanchoe tubiflora extract inhibits cell proliferation by affecting the mitotic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Jen; Yang, Ming-Yeh; Leu, Yann-Lii; Chen, Chinpiao; Wan, Chin-Fung; Chang, Meng-Ya; Chang, Chih-Jui

    2012-09-10

    Kalanchoe tubiflora (KT) is a succulent plant native to Madagascar, and is commonly used as a medicinal agent in Southern Brazil. The underlying mechanisms of tumor suppression are largely unexplored. Cell viability and wound-healing were analyzed by MTT assay and scratch assay respectively. Cell cycle profiles were analyzed by FACS. Mitotic defects were analyzed by indirect immunofluoresence images. An n-Butanol-soluble fraction of KT (KT-NB) was able to inhibit cell proliferation. After a 48 h treatment with 6.75 μg/ml of KT, the cell viability was less than 50% of controls, and was further reduced to less than 10% at higher concentrations. KT-NB also induced an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle as well as an increased level of cells in the subG1 phase. Instead of disrupting the microtubule network of interphase cells, KT-NB reduced cell viability by inducing multipolar spindles and defects in chromosome alignment. KT-NB inhibits cell proliferation and reduces cell viability by two mechanisms that are exclusively involved with cell division: first by inducing multipolarity; second by disrupting chromosome alignment during metaphase. KT-NB reduced cell viability by exclusively affecting formation of the proper structure of the mitotic apparatus. This is the main idea of the new generation of anti-mitotic agents. All together, KT-NB has sufficient potential to warrant further investigation as a potential new anticancer agent candidate.

  16. Changes in oxidative properties of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana leaf mitochondria during development of Crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustin, P; Queiroz-Claret, C

    1985-06-01

    Kalanchoe blossfeldiana plants grown under long days (16 h light) exhibit a C3-type photosynthetic metabolism. Switching to short days (9 h light) leads to a gradual development of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Under the latter conditions, dark CO2 fixation produces large amounts of malate. During the first hours of the day, malate is rapidly decarboxylated into pyruvate through the action of a cytosolic NADP(+)-or a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme. Mitochondria were isolated from leaves of plants grown under long days or after treatment by an increasing number of short days. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates as well as exogenous NADH and NADPH were readily oxidized by mitochondria isolated from the two types of plants. Glycine, known to be oxidized by C3-plant mitochondria, was still oxidized after CAM establishment. The experiments showed a marked parallelism in the increase of CAM level and the increase in substrate-oxidation capacity of the isolated mitochondria, particularly the capacity to oxidize malate in the presence of cyanide. These simultaneous variations in CAM level and in mitochondrial properties indicate that the mitochondrial NAD(+)-malic enzyme could account at least for a part of the oxidation of malate. The studies of whole-leaf respiration establish that mitochondria are implicated in malate degradation in vivo. Moreover, an increase in cyanide resistance of the leaf respiration has been observed during the first daylight hours, when malate was oxidized to pyruvate by cytosolic and mitochondrial malic enzymes.

  17. Effect of heat shock on ultrastructure and calcium distribution in Lavandula pinnata L. glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S S; Kirchoff, B K; Liao, J P

    2013-02-01

    The effects of heat shock (HS) on the ultrastructure and calcium distribution of Lavandula pinnata secretory trichomes are examined using transmission electron microscopy and potassium antimonate precipitation. After 48-h HS at 40°C, plastids become distorted and lack stroma and osmiophilic deposits, the cristae of the mitochondria become indistinct, the endoplasmic reticulum acquires a chain-like appearance with ribosomes prominently attached to the lamellae, and the plasma and organelle membranes become distorted. Heat shock is associated with a decrease in calcium precipitates in the trichomes, while the number of precipitates increases in the mesophyll cells. Prolonged exposure to elevated calcium levels may be toxic to the mesophyll cells, while the lack of calcium in the glands cell may deprive them of the normal protective advantages of elevated calcium levels. The inequality in calcium distribution may result not only from uptake from the transpiration stream, but also from redistribution of calcium from the trichomes to the mesophyll cells.

  18. Pengaruh Asam Kuat, Pengamplasan, Dan Lama Perendaman Terhadap Laju Imbibisi Dan Perkecambahan Biji Aren (Arenga pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Silalahi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Biji Arenga pinnata memiliki kulit biji  keras dan berlignin sehingga menghambat masuknya air ke dalam biji. Lapisan lignin pada kulit biji dapat didegradasi melalui reaksi kimia maupun perlakuan fisik. Perendaman biji aren dengan asam kuat (HNO3, H2SO4, dan HCl dan pengamplasan akan mempengaruhi laju imbibisi air melewati kulit biji. Variabel bebas dalam penelitian ini adalah konsentrasi asam kuat (HNO3, H2SO4, dan HCl, luas pengamplasan, air panas, lama perendaman, sedangkan variabel terikat laju imbibisi pada biji aren. Konsentrasi asam kuat yang digunakan adalah 1M dan 0,5M untuk masing-masing HNO3, H2SO4, dan HCl. Pengamplasan dilakukan di bagian pangkal biji, dan luas pengamplasan bervariasi (tanpa amplas, amplas ½ bagian, dan amplas keseluruhan. Setiap perlakuan direndam selama 18, 24 dan 36 jam. Biji aren yang diberi perlakuan fisik maupun kimia mengalami pengelupasan kulit biji. Laju imbibisi biji pada perendaman 24 jam lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lama perendaman 18 maupun 36 jam. Laju imbibisi tertinggi terjadi pada waktu perendaman 1M HCl dan amplas penuh dengan lama perendaman 24 jam sebesar 0,038 ± 0,002 mL/jam dan 0,038 ± 0,007 mL/jam . Biji aren yang diberi perlakuan fisik dan kimia mulai berkecambah 7 minggu setelah tanam dengan daya kecambah tertinggi pada pemberian HNO3 dan lama perendaman 18 jam.Abstract Arenga pinnata seed has a hard seed coat and lignin that inhibit the absorption of water into the seed. The lignin in the seed coat can be degraded by chemical or physical treatments. Soaking of the palm seeds into strong acids (HNO3, H2SO4, or HCl and sanding may affect the imbibition rate. The research was conducted to investigate the effect of a strong acid, sanding, and soaking time to the imbibition rate of A. pinnata seed. The independent variables in this research are concentration of the strong acids HNO3, H2SO4, and HCl; sanding, and soaking time, while the dependent variable is the rate of imbibition

  19. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Salvia pinnata L.

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    Nehir Unver Somer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Salvia pinnata L. (Labiatae, collected during flowering and fruiting periods, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. 37 compounds were identified representing 96.1 % of the essential oil obtained from the plant material collected during flowering period. 30 compounds were detected constituting 94.7 % of the essential oil of the plant material collected in fruiting period. The main components of the essential oils were characterized as bornyl acetate, camphor, camphene, bornyl formate, a -pinene and borneol. The oils were screened for antimicrobial activity by the micro-dilution assay against standard bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Both of the oils showed antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.

  20. Bio diesel synthesis from pongamia pinnata oil over modified CeO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh; Sathgatta Z, M. S.; Manjunatha, S.; Thammannigowda V, V., E-mail: mohamed.shamshuddin@gmail.com [HMS Institute of Technology, Chemistry Research Laboratory, NH4, Kyathsandra, Tumkur, 572104 Karnataka (India)

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the use of CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Mg O and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}-Mg O, CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-Mg O mixed oxides as solid base catalysts for the transesterification of Pongamia pinnata oil with methanol to produce bio diesel. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/CeO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} were also prepared and used as solid acid catalysts for esterification of Pongamia pinnata oil (P-oil) to reduce the % of free fatty acid (FFA) in P-oil. The oxide catalysts were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by techniques such as NH{sub 3}-Tpd for surface acidity, CO{sub 2}-Tpd for surface basicity and powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity. The effect of nature of the catalyst, methanol to P-oil molar ratio and reaction time in esterification as well as in transesterification was investigated. The catalytic materials were reactive d and reused for five reaction cycles and the results showed that the ceria based catalysts have reasonably good reusability both in esterification and transesterification reaction. The test results also revealed that the CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} modified with Mg O could have potential for use in the large scale bio diesel production. (Author)

  1. Pyridine metabolism and trigonelline synthesis in leaves of the mangrove legume trees Derris indica (Millettia pinnata) and Caesalpinia crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuling; Sasamoto, Hamako; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the pyridine metabolism in leaves of two mangrove legumes, Derris indica (= Millettia pinnata or Pongamia pinnata) and Caesalpinia crista. Radioactivity from [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide supplied exogenously to young leaf disks was recovered in nicotinic acid, nicotinic acid mononucleotide, NAD, NADP, nicotinamide mononucleotide and trigonelline. These mangrove species, especially D. indica, have strong ability to convert nicotinamide to trigonelline, but not to nicotinic acid glucoside. The endogenous trigonelline content in leaves of D. indica was more than 830 microg/g dry weight. This value is 5-12 times greater than that in leaves of Glycine max. There was little short-term effect of 250 and 500 mM NaCl (equivalent to ca. 50% and 100% sea water) on nicotinamide metabolism.

  2. Photoproduction of hydrogen by a non-sulphur bacterium isolated from root zones of water fern Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Pandey, K.D. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (IN). Centre of Advanced Study in Botany)

    1990-01-01

    A photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. BHU strain 1 was isolated from the root zone of water fern Azolla pinnata. The bacterium was found to produce hydrogen with potato starch under phototrophic conditions. The immobilized bacterial cells showed sustained hydrogen production with a more than 4-fold difference over free cell suspensions. The data have been discussed in the light of possible utilization of relatively cheaper raw materials by non-sulphur bacteria to evolve hydrogen. (author).

  3. Development of SCAR markers and PCR assays for single or simultaneous species-specific detection of Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium helicoides in ebb-and-flow irrigated kalanchoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonsi, Monday O; Ling, Yin; Kageyama, Koji

    2010-11-01

    Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium helicoides are important water-borne oomycete pathogens of irrigated ornamentals particularly ebb-and-flow irrigated kalanchoe in Japan. We developed novel PCR-based sequence characterized amplified region markers and assays for rapid identification and species-specific detection of both pathogens in separate PCR reactions or simultaneously in a duplex PCR.

  4. STRUKTUR HISTOLOGI HATI MENCIT(Mus musculus L. SETELAH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK DAUN EKOR NAGA (Rhapidhophora pinnata Schott

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    Ni Komang Tia Pramesti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rhapidhophora pinnata, Schott is a traditional medical plant that has been use remedy for treatment of hypertension, stroke. Aims of  this research is to determine the effect of Rhapidhophora pinnata Schott leaf extract toward  mouse (Mus musculus L liverhistological structure. This research used completely randomized  design with 28 female mice that were divide into 4 groups of  P0 (control received 0,9% NaCl, group P1, P2, and P3 received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg bw respectively by oral administration. The treatment were given daily for 14 days. All of the mice were sacrificed by ether after 15 days. The liver were examined for their histopathological changes, namely fatty degeneration, hydropic degenaration and necrosis. Results were statistically analised by Kruskal-Wallis method. Treatment groups showed no significant differences with regard of liver histopatological changes, however hemorrhage, sinusoid congestion and inflamatory cell infiltration were found in liver.   Keyword : Rhapidhophora pinnata Schott, liver, mice

  5. Transcriptome characterization and sequencing-based identification of salt-responsive genes in Millettia pinnata, a semi-mangrove plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianzi; Lu, Xiang; Yan, Hao; Chen, Shouyi; Zhang, Wanke; Huang, Rongfeng; Zheng, Yizhi

    2012-04-01

    Semi-mangroves form a group of transitional species between glycophytes and halophytes, and hold unique potential for learning molecular mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. Millettia pinnata is a semi-mangrove plant that can survive a wide range of saline conditions in the absence of specialized morphological and physiological traits. By employing the Illumina sequencing platform, we generated ~192 million short reads from four cDNA libraries of M. pinnata and processed them into 108,598 unisequences with a high depth of coverage. The mean length and total length of these unisequences were 606 bp and 65.8 Mb, respectively. A total of 54,596 (50.3%) unisequences were assigned Nr annotations. Functional classification revealed the involvement of unisequences in various biological processes related to metabolism and environmental adaptation. We identified 23,815 candidate salt-responsive genes with significantly differential expression under seawater and freshwater treatments. Based on the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR analyses, we verified the changes in expression levels for a number of candidate genes. The functional enrichment analyses for the candidate genes showed tissue-specific patterns of transcriptome remodelling upon salt stress in the roots and the leaves. The transcriptome of M. pinnata will provide valuable gene resources for future application in crop improvement. In addition, this study sets a good example for large-scale identification of salt-responsive genes in non-model organisms using the sequencing-based approach.

  6. Studies on Ameliorative Effects of Polyphenolic Extract from Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae on Carbon Tetrachloride - Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress: an in vivo Assessment

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    Mikhail O. NAFIU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates the effects of polyphenolic extract from the leaf of Paullinia pinnata against CCl4 – induced oxidative stress and liver damage in female albino rats. Thirty albino rats were randomly distributed into six groups (A-F. Rats in group A were given 1 ml normal saline orally to serve as control. The rats in groups B, C, D, E, and F were respectively induced intraperitoneally with single administration of 1 ml/kg body weight (b. wt CCl4 dissolved in liquid paraffin (1:1. Thirty minutes after induction, the rats in the respective groups were orally treated with normal saline, 50 mg/kg b. wt. Silymarin, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt. polyphenolic extract from P. pinnata respectively, once daily for 7 days.  Levels of liver function indices and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined. Administration of polyphenolic extract from P. pinnata significantly (p < 0.05 ameliorated CCl4- induced hepatotoxicity with respect to liver function indices, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation parameters. The biochemical changes observed were also consistent with histopathological observations on the rat liver, as architectural degeneration and severe cellular necrosis were restored after the administration of polyphenolic extract from P. pinnata in the treated groups. The study suggests that polyphenolic extract from P. pinnata is a potential hepatoprotective agent against CCl4-mediated hepatic injury through fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  7. Kalanchoe tubiflora extract inhibits cell proliferation by affecting the mitotic apparatus

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    Hsieh Yi-Jen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kalanchoe tubiflora (KT is a succulent plant native to Madagascar, and is commonly used as a medicinal agent in Southern Brazil. The underlying mechanisms of tumor suppression are largely unexplored. Methods Cell viability and wound-healing were analyzed by MTT assay and scratch assay respectively. Cell cycle profiles were analyzed by FACS. Mitotic defects were analyzed by indirect immunofluoresence images. Results An n-Butanol-soluble fraction of KT (KT-NB was able to inhibit cell proliferation. After a 48 h treatment with 6.75 μg/ml of KT, the cell viability was less than 50% of controls, and was further reduced to less than 10% at higher concentrations. KT-NB also induced an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle as well as an increased level of cells in the subG1 phase. Instead of disrupting the microtubule network of interphase cells, KT-NB reduced cell viability by inducing multipolar spindles and defects in chromosome alignment. KT-NB inhibits cell proliferation and reduces cell viability by two mechanisms that are exclusively involved with cell division: first by inducing multipolarity; second by disrupting chromosome alignment during metaphase. Conclusion KT-NB reduced cell viability by exclusively affecting formation of the proper structure of the mitotic apparatus. This is the main idea of the new generation of anti-mitotic agents. All together, KT-NB has sufficient potential to warrant further investigation as a potential new anticancer agent candidate.

  8. Efficient transformation of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and production of male-sterile plants by engineered anther ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sogo, Begoña; Pineda, Benito; Castelblanque, Lourdes; Antón, Teresa; Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Torresi, Claudia; Beltrán, José Pío; Moreno, Vicente; Cañas, Luis Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Engineered male sterility in ornamental plants has many applications such as facilitate hybrid seed production, eliminate pollen allergens, reduce the need for deadheading to extend the flowering period, redirect resources from seeds to vegetative growth, increase flower longevity and prevent gene flow between genetically modified and related native plants. We have developed a reliable and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated protocol for the genetic transformation of different Kalanchoe blossfeldiana commercial cultivars. Transformation efficiency for cv. 'Hillary' was 55.3% whereas that of cv. 'Tenorio' reached 75.8%. Selection was carried out with the nptII gene and increasing the kanamycin concentration from 25 to 100 mg l(-1) allowed to reduced escapes from 50 to 60% to virtually 0%. This method was used to produce male-sterile plants through engineered anther ablation. In our approach, we tested a male sterility chimaeric gene construct (PsEND1::barnase) to evaluate its effectiveness and effect on phenotype. No significant differences were found in the growth patterns between the transgenic lines and the wild-type plants. No viable pollen grains were observed in the ablated anthers of any of the lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct, indicating that the male sterility was complete. In addition, seed set was completely abolished in all the transgenic plants obtained. Our engineered male-sterile approach could be used, alone or in combination with a female-sterility system, to reduce the invasive potential of new ornamentals, which has become an important environmental problem in many countries.

  9. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana plants expressing the Arabidopsis etr1-1 allele show reduced ethylene sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanikhani, Mohsen; Mibus, Heiko; Stummann, Bjarne M; Serek, Margrethe

    2008-04-01

    Transgenic Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. with reduced ethylene sensitivity in flowers was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation using the plasmid pBEO210 containing the mutant ethylene receptor gene etr1-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the flower-specific fbp1-promoter from Petunia. Three ethylene-resistent T0 lines, 300, 324 and 331, were selected and analyzed for postharvest-performance and morphological characteristics. Line 324 was found to be infertile and only slightly less ethylene-sensitive than control-plants, but lines 300 and 331 had significantly increased ethylene-resistance and were fertile. These two lines were analyzed for copy-number of the etr1-1 gene by Southern blotting and were crossed with the ethylene-sensitive cultivar 'Celine' to create T1 progeny. Line 300 contains two T-DNA copies per nucleus, one of which is rearranged, and these are unlinked according to segregation data from the crossing to 'Celine' and PCR-analysis of progeny plants. For control plants all flowers were closed after 2 days at 2 microl l(-1 )ethylene, but for line 300 only 33% were closed after 10 days. Line 331 contains three T-DNA copies per nucleus and is more sensitive to ethylene than line 300. In the line 300 the etr1-1 gene was found by RT-PCR to be expressed in petals and stamens but not in carpels and sepals. Both lines 300 and 331, and their progeny, appear morphologically and physiologically identical to control plants except for the higher ethylene resistance. Line 300 and its progeny with only one T-DNA copy have very low ethylene sensitivity and may be useful in future breeding.

  10. Analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kigelia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L. and Tabernaemontana divaricata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ahad Ali; Islam, Mohammad Torequl

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kigelia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L., Tabernaemontana divaricata L. extracts by using acetic acid-induced writhing method in mice and brine shrimp lethality assay. The ethanolic extracts of the plants were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization by using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods, which were followed by acetic acid writhing and brine shrimp lethality test methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (10-1000 mg/kg body weight). In analgesic test, M. indica L. extract produced 28.16% and 22.02% writhing protection at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight in mice, respectively. While the T. divaricata L. extract produced 22.02% and 33.93%, K. pinnata L. extract produced 11.55% and 47.29% and A. calamus L. extract produced 15.16% and 54.51% of writhing protection at the same doses. The percent mortality (mean ± SD) was found to be 58.7 ± 25.22, 56.25 ± 22.88, 52.50 ± 24.37, and 61.25 ± 26.66 with M. indica L., T. divaricata L., K. pinnata L., and A. calamus L., respectively. And the LC(50) and LC(90) values were found to be 100 and 300 μg/mL for M. indica L. and that were (200 and 350 μg/mL), (100 and 350 μg/mL) and (50 and 300 μg/mL) for T. divaricata L., K. pinnata L., and A. calamus L., respectively. Thus it can be concluded that bark of M. indica L., leaves of T. divaricata L., bark of K. pinnata L., and roots of A. calamus L. have significant analgesic and cytotoxic activity and can be preferred in the treatment of pain and tumor.

  11. Analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kigelia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L. and Tabernaemontana divaricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ahad Ali Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kigelia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L., Tabernaemontana divaricata L. extracts by using acetic acid-induced writhing method in mice and brine shrimp lethality assay. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extracts of the plants were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization by using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods, which were followed by acetic acid writhing and brine shrimp lethality test methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (10-1000 mg/kg body weight. Results and Conclusion: In analgesic test, M. indica L. extract produced 28.16% and 22.02% writhing protection at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight in mice, respectively. While the T. divaricata L. extract produced 22.02% and 33.93%, K. pinnata L. extract produced 11.55% and 47.29% and A. calamus L. extract produced 15.16% and 54.51% of writhing protection at the same doses. The percent mortality (mean ± SD was found to be 58.7 ± 25.22, 56.25 ± 22.88, 52.50 ± 24.37, and 61.25 ± 26.66 with M. indica L., T. divaricata L., K. pinnata L., and A. calamus L., respectively. And the LC 50 and LC 90 values were found to be 100 and 300 μg/mL for M. indica L. and that were (200 and 350 μg/mL, (100 and 350 μg/mL and (50 and 300 μg/mL for T. divaricata L., K. pinnata L., and A. calamus L., respectively. Thus it can be concluded that bark of M. indica L., leaves of T. divaricata L., bark of K. pinnata L., and roots of A. calamus L. have significant analgesic and cytotoxic activity and can be preferred in the treatment of pain and tumor.

  12. PENGOLAHAN GULA AREN (Arrenga Pinnata Merr DI DESA BANUA HANYAR KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI TENGAH

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    Rosidah R Radam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gula aren salah satu pemanis yang telah diproduksi oleh bangsa Indonesia sejak lama. Gula aren sebagai alternatif bahan pemanis makanan dan merupakan mata pencaharian sampingan bagi kebanyakan masyarakat di Desa Banua Hanyar. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui produktivitas dan kontribusi terhadap pendapatan masyarakat. Objek penelitian ini adalah pembuat gula aren. Data yang dikumpulkan terdiri dari  karakteristik responden, proses pembuatan gula aren, perhitungan produktivitas dan kontribusinya terhadap pendapatan masyarakat. Produktivitas gula aren (Arenga pinnata Merr berkisar antara 0,465 Kg/hari hingga 1,137 kg/hari. Kontribusi dari pengolahan gula aren sebesar 60,48% dari pendapatan masyarakat. Tingkat kesejahteraan masyarakat termasuk dalam golongan termiskin dengan pendapatan tahunan per kapita Rp.962 919,- atau setara dengan 148 kg beras. Disarankan perlu pembentukan kelompok tani dengan tujuan keseragaman dalam harga pasar gula aren. Peningkatan kualitas dengan peningkatan bentuk cetakan, kemasan dan aneka  rasa. Sehingga produk gula aren dapat dijual di pasar modern. Palm sugar is a sweetener that has been produced by the nation of Indonesia since long ago.  Palm sugar as an alternative sweetener foodstuffs as well as an second job for most people in the Banua Hanyar village.  The purpose of this research to know the productivity and contribution to community income. The object of this research is the maker of palm sugar. Data collected as data characteristics, the process of making palm sugar, calculation of productivity and its contribution to household income. Productivity sugar palm (Arenga pinnata Merr ranged from 0.465 Kg / day up to 1,137 kg / day. Contributions from processing palm sugar by 60.48% of household income. The level of welfare including in the poorest of the poor with annual income  per capita of IDR 962 919, - or the equivalent of 148 kg of rice.  Need formation of farmer groups with the goal of

  13. Morphological Diversity of Fruits, Seeds and Seedlings of Pongamia (Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre in Java Island

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    NFN Supriyanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pongamia (Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre is one of a potential tree species to produce biodiesel. Pongamia-based biodiesel development program is still constrained by the availability of quality and quantity seeds due to the limited of seed sources. The purpose of this research was to identify the morphological diversity of fruits, seeds and seedlings from 5 populations in Java Island. Randomized completely design and randomized block design were used to assess the difference of fruits, seeds and seedlings morphological characteristics among populations. Principal component and hierarchy cluster analysis were used to explain variation pattern among populations. The results showed that the difference of populations was significantly affected by the difference of fruits, seeds, and seedlings morphology of pongamia. Seeds from Carita population showed good quality seed indicators with moisture content of 19.31%, and germination capacity of 74.50%. Sturdiness quotient of the seedling was 10.78. Contribution of genetic factor was higher than environtment factor is relation to the differences of morphological characteristics of fruits, seeds and seedlings of pongamia. Morphological character of the five populations can be divided into 3 groups, i.e. the first group of Batukaras and Kebumen, second group of Alas Purwo and Baluran, and group 3 was Carita.

  14. Transesterification for the preparation of biodiesel from crude-oil of Pongamia pinnata

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    Babu Veeresh A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was prepared from the non-edible oil of Pongamia pinnata L. by transesterification of the crude-oil with methanol in the presence of NAOH as catalyst. Vegetable oils can be transesterified by heating them with a large excess of anhydrous methanol and an acidic or basic reagent as catalyst. Both the acid as well as alkaline esterifications were subsequently performed to get the final product. A catalyst is usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. NaOH was found to be a better catalyst than KOH in terms of yield. In a transesterification reaction, a larger amount of methanol was used to shift the reaction equilibrium to the right side and produce more methyl esters as the proposed product. Several aspects including the type of catalyst (alkaline, acid, or enzyme, alcohol/vegetable oil molar ratio, temperature, purity of the reactants (mainly water content and free fatty acid content have an influence on the course of the transesterification. A maximum conversion of 94% (oil to ester was achieved using a 1:10 molar ratio of oil to methanol at 60 to 65 °C. Important fuel properties of methyl esters of pongamia oil (biodiesel compare well with ASTM standards.

  15. Photoperiodic responses of Kalanchoe and chrysanthemum to radiation by an infrared lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, C.H.; Lee, S.B.; Jeong, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a low intensity infrared radiation on the growth and photoperiodic responses of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana ‘Kaluna’ and ‘Taos’, and Dendranthema grandiflorum ‘Lemon Eye’ grown in growth chambers. In the first experiment, uniformly-rooted cuttings of ‘Kaluna’ and ‘Lemon Eye’ were selected and transplanted to 10 cm pots. After a week, pots were transferred from greenhouse to three environment-controlled growth chambers. All chambers were maintained at 25 ± 1 and 70% RH with an 8 hours photoperiod (760 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ), provided by high pressure sodium and white fluorescent lamps. During the night period one chamber was left unlit (darkness), while the second and third ones were lit with an incandescent lamp (10 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ) or an infrared lamp (15 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ), respectively. Shoot length, root length, stem diameter, number of flowers, number of branches, fresh weight, and dry weight were measured after eight weeks. Flowering occurred on plants maintained in the unlit darkness and under an incandescent lamp during the night period, while only vegetative growth was observed under an infrared lamp. In the second experiment, cuttings of uniformly-rooted ‘Taos’ and ‘Lemon Eye’ were selected and transferred from the greenhouse to three environment-controlled growth chambers with the same environment setting as in the first experiment at a week after potting. During the night period one chamber was left unlit (darkness), the second and third ones were lit with an incandescent or an infrared heating lamp, both at a 0.3 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 PPFD level. After nine weeks, flowering in all treatments was observed, but was slightly delayed under an incandescent and an infrared heating lamp. Because both the incandescent lamp and the infrared lamp slightly delayed flowering in these two species, a more detailed experiment is necessary to find out at which

  16. Continued selenium biofortification of carrots and broccoli grown in soils once amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. Bañuelos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Considering the use of adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops. In this multi-year micro-plot study, we investigate growing carrots and broccoli in soils that had been previously amended with Se-enriched Stanleya pinnata Pursh (Britton three and four years prior to planting one and two, respectively. Results showed that total and extractable Se concentrations in soils (0-30 cm were 1.65 mg kg-1 and 88 µg L-1, and 0.92 mg kg-1 and 48.6 µg L-1 at the beginning of the growing season for planting one and two, respectively. After each respective growing season, total Se concentrations in the broccoli florets and carrots ranged from 6.99 to 7.83 mg kg-1 and 3.15 to 6.25 mg kg-1 in planting one and two, respectively. In broccoli and carrot plant tissues, SeMet (selenomethionine was the predominant selenoamino acid identified in Se aqueous extracts. In postharvest soils from planting one, phospholipid analyses (PLFA showed that amending the soil with S. pinnata exerted no effect on the microbial biomass, AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, actinomycetes and Gram-positive and bacterial PLFA at both 0-5 and 0-30 cm, respectively, three years later. Successfully producing Se-enriched broccoli and carrots three and four years later after amending soil with Se-enriched S. pinnata clearly demonstrates its potential source as an organic Se enriched fertilizer for Se-deficient regions.

  17. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Alkharfy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%, leaves (11.42% and seeds (21.51% of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80. Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 value, 3.21 μg/mL, followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50–6.70 mg/100 g DW; sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18–4.71 mg/100 g DW; vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52–0.65 mg/100 g DW as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.

  18. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Arpiwi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field.  The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to evaluate the survival and growth of budded plants in the field. Pods were collected from 30 trees in Lovina Beach, Buleleng Regency, Bali. Oil was extracted from seeds using soxhlet with hexane as a solvent.  The high oil yielding trees were propagated by budding using root stocks grown from M. pinnata seeds.  Scions were taken from young branches of selected trees. Incision was made on rootstock and the same size of cut was made on a scion containing a single bud.  The scion was inserted to the incision of rootstock then closed tightly using plastic strips.   The plastic was removed when the scion grew into a little green shoot. One month after plastic removal, the scion union grew into a single shoot and then the budded plants were removed to polybags. Budded plants were planted in the field of Bukit Jimbaran, Badung Regency, Bali with 4 × 4 spacing. Results showed all budded plants successfully grow new shoots. Two months after planting the survival of budded plants was 100%. Plant height increased by 22.13 cm, stem diameter increased by 2.43 mm and the number of compound leaf increased by 2.08.  It can be concluded that four high oil yielding trees were selected from Lovina Beach and successfully propagated by budding. Survival of budded plants was 100% with vigorous growth.

  19. Evaluation of reproductive barriers contributes to the development of novel interspecific hybrids in the Kalanchoë genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Christensen, Brian

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundInterspecific hybridization is a useful tool in ornamental breeding to increase genetic variability and introduce new valuable traits into existing cultivars. The successful formation of interspecific hybrids is frequently limited by the presence of pre- and post-fertilization barriers....... In the present study, we investigated the nature of hybridization barriers occurring in crosses between Kalancho? species and evaluated possibilities of obtaining interspecific hybrids.ResultsThe qualitative and quantitative analyses of pollen tube growth in situ were performed following intra- and interspecific...... pollinations. They revealed occurrence of pre-fertilization barriers associated with inhibition of pollen germination on the stigma and abnormal growth of pollen tubes. Unilateral incongruity related to differences in pistil length was also observed. The pollen quality was identified as a strong factor...

  20. Production of an antimicrobial substance against Cryptococcus neoformans by Paenibacillus brasilensis Sa3 isolated from the rhizosphere of Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Tiago Oliveira; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Tupinambá, Gleiser; Padrón, Thaís Souto; Antoniolli, Angelo Roberto; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    An antifungal substance produced by Paenibacillus brasilensis strain Sa3 was preliminary characterized and showed to be stable after treatment with different enzymes and organic solvents and at a wide range of pH, and presented a molecular weight between 3 and 10 kDa. In vitro antagonism of this strain towards Cryptococcus neoformans was investigated by optical and electronic microscopic analyses and a fungicidal effect on C. neoformans was observed. Ultrastructural analysis showed intense changes on the fungus when it was paired cultured with strain Sa3, mainly the detachment of the capsule from the cell wall and the presence of altered organelles in the cytoplasm. This novel antifungal substance produced by P. brasilensis Sa3 may represent a new insight in antifungal therapy mainly against emergent fungi. Also, prospective studies on rhizobacteria of plants as Kalanchoe brasiliensis may offer a potential source for the discovery of bioactive compounds with medical value.

  1. The Expression of Millettia pinnata Chalcone Isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Salt-Sensitive Mutants Enhances Salt-Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui; Hu, Tangjin; Huang, Jianzi; Lu, Xiang; Huang, Baiqu; Zheng, Yizhi

    2013-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI) whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM) via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp) was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequ...

  2. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-01-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sul...

  3. Cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Elephantopus mollis, Kalanchoe crenata and 4 other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards human carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Victor; Fokou, Fabrice W; Karaosmanoğlu, Oğuzhan; Beng, Veronique P; Sivas, Hülya

    2017-05-25

    Cancer still constitutes one of the major health concerns globally, causing serious threats on patients, their families, and the healthcare system. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of Elephantopus mollis whole plant (EMW), Enantia chlorantha bark (ECB), Kalanchoe crenata leaves (KCL), Lophira alata bark (LAB), Millettia macrophylla leaves (MML) and Phragmanthera capitata leaves (PCL) towards five human solid cancer cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts, was evaluated. Extracts were subjected to qualitative chemical screening of their secondary metabolite contents using standard methods. The cytotoxicity of samples was evaluated using neutral red uptake (NR) assay meanwhile caspase activation was detected by caspase-Glo assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle distribution and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) whilst spectrophotometry was used to measure the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of polyphenols, triterpenes and sterols in all extracts. The IC 50 values of the best samples ranged from 3.29 μg/mL (towards DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells) to 24.38 μg/mL (against small lung cancer A549 cells) for EMW, from 2.33 μg/mL (mesothelioma SPC212 cells) to 28.96 μg/mL (HepG2 hepatocarcinoma) for KCL, and from 0.04 μg/mL (towards SPC212 cells) to 0.55 μg/mL (towards A549 cells) for doxorubicin. EMW induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by MMP loss and increased ROS production whilst KCL induced apoptosis via ROS production. This study provides evidences of the cytotoxicity of the tested plant extract and highlights the good activity of Elephantopus mollis and Kalanchoe crenata. They deserve more exploration to develop novel cytotoxic drugs.

  4. Flower inhibition in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. Bioassay of an endogenous long-day inhibitor and inhibition by (±) abscisic acid and xanthoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, W W

    1972-03-01

    The inhibition of flowering in Kalanchoe by crude sap expressed from leaves held in non-inductive long-day conditions is described, using a bioassay technique of leaf injection, which confirms the existence of a transferable inhibitor.This technique has also revealed that ± abscisic acid and Xanthoxin are inhibitory to flowering at 50 and 100 ppm respectively. The previously known inhibitory effects of gibberellic acid on flowering have also been confirmed.

  5. The Creation Of Furniture Products Design From Stem Waste Of Sugar Palm Tree (Arenga Pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Seriyoga Parta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugar Palm tree (Arenga Pinnata is one of potential natural resources that can be used as a based material of furniture products. But, this sugar palm tree potential hasn’t exploited maximally and only throws away as a waste that contaminates the environment. On the other side, woods that have been used as based material of furniture products are getting rare and expensive. Based on that problem, this research is aimed to design new furniture products models that exploite the stem waste as a prominent based material.  This research uses experiment method with steps: 1 finding and formulating concepts of furniture products design creation based on analysis towards the stem waste of sugar palm tree characteristics; 2 implementing of finding concepts to become furniture products models from stem waste of sugar palm tree. As a result of the research, it is found “tube” concept and tatah carved concept as a right concept to be applied in creation of furniture products from stem waste of sugar palm tree. Implementing of “tube” concept and tatah carved concept is made successfully in shape of some furniture products design such as:  table model, chair model and wardrobe model. Realization of these designs has concerned with the use of sugar palm tree as a prominent based material. According to the result of evaluation, all of these designs are deserved to be made. So, it is concluded that to anticipate the qualified wood as a based material of furniture products, we can use stem waste of sugar palm tree as alternative based material. Pohon aren (Arenga Pinnata merupakan salah satu sumber daya alam yang potensial digunakan sebagai bahan baku produk mebel. Akan tetapi, potensi batang pohon aren itu belum dimanfaatkan secara maksimal dan hanya terbuang menjadi limbah yang mengotori lingkungan. Di sisi lain, kayu yang selama ini dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku produk mebel keberadaannya makin langka dan mahal. Bertolak dari permasalahan itu

  6. Antimicrobial steroidal saponin and oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from Paullinia pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunga, Paul K; Qin, Xu-Jie; Yang, Xing W; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Du, Zhi Z; Gatsing, Donatien

    2014-10-02

    Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) is an African woody vine, which is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of human malaria, erectile dysfunction and bacterial infections. A phytochemical investigation of its methanol leaf and stem extracts led to the isolation of seven compounds which were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties. The extracts were fractionated and compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated from their spectroscopic data in conjunction with those reported in literature. The antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts, fractions and compounds were evaluated against bacteria, yeasts and dermatophytes using the broth micro-dilution technique. Seven compounds: 2-O-methyl-L-chiro-inositol (1), β-sitosterol (2), friedelin (3), 3β-(β-D-Glucopyranosyloxy) stigmast-5-ene (4), (3β)-3-O-(2'-Acetamido-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl) oleanolic acid (5), (3β,16α-hydroxy)-3-O-(2'-Acetamido-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl) echinocystic acid (6) and (3β)-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1″-3')-2'-acetamido-2'-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranosyl]oleanolic acid (7) were isolated. Compounds 5 and 7 showed the best antibacterial and anti-yeast activities respectively (MIC value range of 0.78-6.25 and 1.56-6.25 μg/ml), while 6 exhibited the best anti-dermatophytic activity (MIC value range of 6.25-25 μg/ml). The results of the present findings could be considered interesting, taking into account the global disease burden of these susceptible microorganisms, in conjunction with the search for alternative and complementary medicines.

  7. The Expression of Millettia pinnata Chalcone Isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Salt-Sensitive Mutants Enhances Salt-Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiqu Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE. The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequence of the MpCHI clone share high homology with other leguminous CHIs (73%–86%. Evolutionarily, the phylogenic analysis further revealed that the MpCHI is a close relative of leguminous CHIs. The MpCHI protein consists of 221 aminoacid (23.64 KDa, whose peptide length, amino acid residues of substrate-binding site and reactive site are very similar to other leguminous CHIs reported previously. Two pYES2-MpCHI transformed salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants (Δnha1 and Δnhx1 showed improved salt-tolerance significantly compared to pYES2-vector transformed yeast mutants, suggesting the MpCHI or the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway could regulate the resistance to salt stress in M. pinnata.

  8. The expression of Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae salt-sensitive mutants enhances salt-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hu, Tangjin; Huang, Jianzi; Lu, Xiang; Huang, Baiqu; Zheng, Yizhi

    2013-04-24

    The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI) whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM) via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp) was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequence of the MpCHI clone share high homology with other leguminous CHIs (73%-86%). Evolutionarily, the phylogenic analysis further revealed that the MpCHI is a close relative of leguminous CHIs. The MpCHI protein consists of 221 aminoacid (23.64 KDa), whose peptide length, amino acid residues of substrate-binding site and reactive site are very similar to other leguminous CHIs reported previously. Two pYES2-MpCHI transformed salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants (Δnha1 and Δnhx1) showed improved salt-tolerance significantly compared to pYES2-vector transformed yeast mutants, suggesting the MpCHI or the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway could regulate the resistance to salt stress in M. pinnata.

  9. Dietary effects of Azolla pinnata combined with exogenous digestive enzyme (Digestin™) on growth and nutrients utilization of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Ashraf; Saad, Amal; Hanafy, Mohamed; Sharawy, Zaki; El-Haroun, Ehab

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of either individual or combined wheat bran (WB) replacement with Azolla pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ in the diet of freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii Postlarvae (PL) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, chemical body composition and survival (%). Experimental diets were a wheat bran-soybean based diet with no Azolla and Digestin TM (control, T1), and diets containing 17% Azolla supplemented with Digestin TM 0% (T2), 1% (T3), 2% (T4) and 3% (T5). Each experimental diet was allocated into three tanks (6m3/tank) fed for 12 wks. Each tank was subdivided into three equal pens by nets (2m3) and stoked with 84 PL/m2. The experimental diets were readily consumed by prawns PLs where both high growth and good feed efficiency were achieved for all diets. The results showed that the diets containing A. pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ at the level up to 3% have the higher growth and better nutrient utilization than the control diet. No differences were observed for moisture and protein content among the experimental diets. However, the highest protein content was observed on prawns fed on diets T1 and T5 respectively, while the lowest value was recorded for T 4 diet. The results also show that prawn PLs fed the diets contain A. pinnata and supplemented with Digestin TM recorded the highest values of body lipid content compared to the control diet. Feed efficiency and economic conversion rate (ECR) values show that economic performance and the cost-effectiveness of the A. pinnata supplemented with up to 3% Digestin TM recorded the highest net return, and therefore it is recommended for prawn, M. rosenbergii PL's. These results are clearly indicating that A. pinnata have a good potential for use in prawn diets at reasonable levels than other conventional diets.

  10. Pengemasan Manisan Kolang-Kaling Basah (Arenga pinnata L. dengan Bahan Kemas Plastik dan Botol Kaca pada Penyimpanan Suhu Ruang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Safriani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan jenis kemasan terbaik yang dapat mempertahankan mutu manisan kolang-kaling (Arenga pinnata L. basah selama penyimpanan pada suhu ruang.  Pada penelitian ini telah dikaji pengaruh jenis kemasan (plastik polipropilen (PP, botol plastik polipropilen (PP, dan botol kaca dan lama penyimpanan (0, 5, 10, dan 15 hari terhadap mutu manisan kolang-kaling basah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa manisan kolang-kaling basah dengan mutu terbaik berdasarkan uji organoleptik dan kimia diperoleh dari kombinasi perlakuan manisan kolang-kaling basah yang dikemas menggunakan botol kaca dan lama penyimpanan 5 hari pada suhu ruang dengan karakteristik sebagai berikut: kadar air 35,75%, kadar gula 50,56 mg/L, kadar total asam 0,16%, nilai pH 4,40, total mikroba 0,34 CFU/ml, nilai organoleptik warna 3,83; aroma 3,90; dan tekstur 3,87.   Wet ‘Kolang-Kaling’ Sweets (Arenga pinnata L. Packaging Using Plastic Material and Glass Jar in Room Temperature Storage Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine the best type of packaging to maintain the quality of wet “kolang-kaling”(Arenga pinnata L. sweets during storage at the room temperature. The effects of the type of packaging (polypropylene plastic (PP, polypropylene plastic cup (PP,and  glass jar (jam jar, and storage duration (0, 5, 10, and 15 days on the quality of the wet “kolang-kaling” sweets were investigated.The results showed that the best quality of the wet “kolang-kaling” sweets based on the organoleptic and chemical analysis obtained from the  wet “kolang-kaling” sweets were packed by using glass jars, and storage of 5 days at room temperature with the following characteristics: water content of 35,75%, sugar content of 50,56 mg/L, total acid content of 0,16%, pH value of 4,40, the total microbial of 0,34 CFU/ml. The organoleptic value of the best treatment: color of 3,83; flavor of 3,90; texture of 3,87.

  11. Phylogeny of Marsileaceous Ferns and Relationships of the Fossil Hydropteris pinnata Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryer

    1999-09-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies have provided compelling evidence that confirms the once disputed hypothesis of monophyly for heterosporous leptosporangiate ferns (Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae). Hypotheses for relationships among the three genera of Marsileaceae (Marsilea, Regnellidium, and Pilularia), however, have continued to be in conflict. The phylogeny of Marsileaceae is investigated here using information from morphology and rbcL sequence data. In addition, relationships among all heterosporous ferns, including the whole-plant fossil Hydropteris pinnata are reconsidered. Data sets of 71 morphological and 1239 rbcL characters for 23 leptosporangiate ferns, including eight heterosporous ingroup taxa and 15 homosporous outgroup taxa, were subjected to maximum parsimony analysis. Morphological analyses were carried out both with and without the fossil Hydropteris, and it was excluded from all analyses with rbcL data. An annotated list of the 71 morphological characters is provided in the appendix. For comparative purposes, the Rothwell and Stockey (1994) data set was also reanalyzed here. The best estimate of phylogenetic relationships for Marsileaceae in all analyses is that Pilularia and Regnellidium are sister taxa and Marsilea is sister to that clade. Morphological synapomorphies for various nodes are discussed. Analyses that included Hydropteris resulted in two most-parsimonious trees that differ only in the placement of the fossil. One topology is identical to the relationship found by Rothwell and Stockey (1994), placing the fossil sister to the Azolla plus Salvinia clade. The alternative topology places Hydropteris as the most basal member of the heterosporous fern clade. Equivocal interpretations for character evolution in heterosporous ferns are discussed in the context of these two most-parsimonious trees. Because of the observed degree of character ambiguity, the phylogenetic placement of Hydropteris is best viewed as unresolved, and recognition of the

  12. UTILIZATION OF AREN (Arenga pinnata Merr. SAWMILLING WASTE FOR EDIBLE MUSHROOM CULTIVATION MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djarwanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aren (Arenga pinnata Merr. is a multipurpose tree that can be utilized for palm sugar, alcoholic drinks, beverages and construction wood. The use of aren sawdust has not been studied intensively. This study examines the utilization of aren sawdust as cultivation media for edible mushrooms. Aren sawdust was mixed with rice bran, CaCO3, gypsum, fertilizers and distilled water before sterilization in 30 minutes pressurized autoclave at 1210C and 1.5atm. The mixed media was inoculated with pure cultures containing four mushrooms species (Pleurotus flabellatus, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and Lentinula edodes and incubated for five weeks to allow mycelium growth producing fruit bodies. The fruit bodies were harvested everyday within four months and examined for its gained mushroom-weight and biological conversion efficiency/BE. The core part of aren trunk was cut into smaller pieces of 10 cm (width by 5 cm (thickness, by 120 cm (length. Each core sample was bored from the surface inward, creating holes with a particular distance apart. Each hole was inoculated with pure cultures containing 6 mushroom species (four species above, P. cystidiosus and Auricularia polytricha. The inoculated samples were slanted on bamboo support, and placed in a bamboo hut. Harvesting was carried out everyday after the fruiting body became mature and examined for its gained mushroom weight. Results show that the use of sawdust supplemented with nutritious material is more likely to improve the mushroom yield than that of aren sawn-timber core. In this case, the BE values with aren-sawdust media were 21.97-89.45% (P. flabellatus, 15.36-105.36% (P. ostreatus, 63.88-76.86% (P. sajor-caju, and up to 62.88% (L. edodes. Meanwhile, the yields (gained mushroom weight with aren sawn-timber media were 210g (P. ostreatus, 368g (P. flabellatus, 331g (P. sajor-caju and 48g (A. polytricha; however, P. cystidiosus and L. edodes inoculated on aren stem core failed to grow.

  13. The addition of zeolite adsorbents and calcium oxide on purification of bioethanol from sugar palm (arenga pinnata merr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlina, Netti; Siska Dewi Harahap, Ici

    2018-03-01

    Bioethanol (C2H5OH) is a biochemical liquid produced by microorganisms through fermentation process on sugar molecules from carbohydrates. Bioethanol is a fuel of vegetable oil that has similar properties to premium. With its main product of palm juice, Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) is a potential source of sugar and carbohydrate for bioethanol production. Production of palm juice can reach up to 12-14 liters/tree/day with total sugar content in palm juice ranges from 12-15%. The purpose of this research was to produce highly-concentrated bioethanol from palm juice through fermentation proccess to subtitude fossil fuel. This study was conducted with three stages of treatment, namely: the fermentation of palm juice, distillation of bioethanol, and purification of bioethanol with the addition of adsorbent zeolite and calcium oxide.

  14. Effect of aqueous bark extract of Garuga pinnata Roxb. in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaikar, Annie; Rajendran, K; Barik, Rakesh

    2006-09-19

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of bark of Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae). The various parameters studied included fasting blood sugar levels, serum lipid levels, liver glycogen content, serum insulin level and glycated hemoglobin in diabetic and normal rats. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide was used to induce type-II diabetes mellitus. Treatment with the extract at two dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the HDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased upon treatment with the extract thus proving the potent antidiabetic property of the plant.

  15. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-04-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sulphate and 11.84 μM silver nitrate. Elongated shoots were harvested and successful rooting of microshoots achieved on MS media supplemented with 9.84 μM IBA, with 81.1 % rooting. Remaining shoot buds sub-cultured for further multiplication and elongation. Each subculture produced eight to nine elongated microshoots up to four subcultures. The rooted microshoots were successfully hardened and transferred to field.

  16. Production of biogas from Azolla pinnata R. Br. and Lemna minor L. : effect of heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, S K; Gujral, G S; Jha, N K; Vasudevan, P [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

    1992-01-01

    The absorption of iron, copper, cadmium, nickel, lead, zinc, manganese and cobalt by Azolla pinnata R.Br and Lemna minor L., and subsequent utilization of this biomass for production of biogas (methane), have been investigated. Iron or manganese did not have any toxic effect on the anaerobic fermentation of Azolla and Lemna, while copper, cobalt, lead and zinc showed toxicity. At low concentrations cadmium and nickel showed a favourable effect on the rate of biogas production and its methane content, but with increase in concentrations,rate of biogas production and methane content decreased. However, although there was this decrease in biogas production and methane content, the methane content of biogas was still higher than that which was obtained from non-contaminated biomass. (author).

  17. Development of the cuticular wax during growth of Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Hamet et Perr. de la Bathie) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maarseveen, Clare; Han, Hong; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to monitor cuticular wax accumulation during leaf development of Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Leaves expanded linearly until they were 40-60 d old. Wax coverages of leaves on the third node increased steadily during initial leaf development, from 6.5 microg x cm(-2) on day 22 to 15.3 microg x cm(-2) on day 53, and then levelled off. Triterpenoids dominated the wax mixture throughout leaf development, but decreased from 74 to 40-45% in mature leaves, while very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives increased from 19 to 39-44%. The major VLCFA derivatives were alkanes, accompanied by fatty acids, primary alcohols, aldehydes and alkyl esters. In all compound classes, either C(34) or C(33) homologs predominated during leaf development. Eight different triterpenoids were identified, with glutinol constituting 70% of the fraction, and friedelin (20%) and germanicol (10%) as further major components of the young leaf wax. The glutinol percentage decreased, while the relative amounts of epifriedelanol and glutanol increased during development. Various leaf pairs upwards from the third node showed similar growth patterns and developmental time courses of cuticular wax amounts and composition. Based on these surface chemical analyses, the relative activities of biosynthetic pathways leading to various wax components can be assessed.

  18. Decarboxylation of Malate in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) fedtschenkoi (Role of NAD-Malic Enzyme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. M.; Lindsay, J. G.; Wilkins, M. B.; Nimmo, H. G.

    1995-01-01

    The role of NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) in the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) fedtschenkoi was investigated using preparations of intact and solubilized mitochondria from fully expanded leaves. Intact, coupled mitochondria isolated during the day or night did not differ in their ability to take up [14C]malic acid from the surrounding medium or to respire using malate or succinate as substrate. However, intact mitochondria isolated from plants during the day decarboxylated added malate to pyruvate significantly faster than mitochondria isolated from plants at night. NAD-ME activity in solubilized mitochondrial extracts showed hysteretic kinetics and was stimulated by a number of activators, including acetyl-coenzyme A, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and sulfate ions. In the absence of these effectors, reaction progress curves were nonlinear, with a pronounced acceleration phase. The lag period before a steady-state rate was reached in assays of mitochondrial extracts decreased during the photoperiod and increased slowly during the period of darkness. However, these changes in the kinetic properties of the enzyme could not account for the changes in the rate of decarboxylation of malate by intact mitochondria. Gel-filtration experiments showed that mitochondrial extracts contained three forms of NAD-ME with different molecular weights. The relative proportions of the three forms varied somewhat throughout the light/dark cycle, but this did not account for the changes in the kinetics behavior of the enzyme during the diurnal cycle. PMID:12228671

  19. Effect of methanolic fraction of Kalanchoe crenata on metabolic parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, René; Foyet, Angèle F; Essame, Jean-Louis O; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Kalanchoe crenata methanolic fraction (MEKC) on proteinuria, glucosuria, and some other biochemical parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats. Ether anesthetized rats received three intravenous injections (days 0, 14, and 28) of 2 mg/kg body weight of adriamycin. Repeated doses of the extract (0, 50, and 68 mg/kg b.w.) and losartan (10 mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally once daily, for 6 weeks, to these rats. Kidney functions were assessed through biochemical parameters. MEKC decreased proteinuria and also the urinary excretion of creatinine, glucose, and urea significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in serum levels of creatinine, urea, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, conjugate bilirubin, and alanine transaminase level was also recorded in nephropathic rats, but plasma levels of uric acid and glucose remained unchanged. Moreover, the plant extract markedly (P < 0.05) increased plasma sodium and decreased (P < 0.01) the urinary sodium and potassium levels. The results indicated that the treatment with the methanolic fraction of K. crenata may improve proteinuria and all other symptoms due to adriamycin-induced nephropathy and, more than losartan, could ameliorate kidney and liver functions. K. crenata could be a potential source of new oral antinephropathic drug.

  20. Lateral diffusion of CO2 in leaves of the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Heitor M; Jakovljevic, Ivona; Kaiser, Friedemann; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2005-04-01

    Dynamic patchiness of photosystem II (PSII) activity in leaves of the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier, which was independent of stomatal control and was observed during both the day/night cycle and circadian endogenous oscillations of CAM, was previously explained by lateral CO2 diffusion and CO2 signalling in the leaves [Rascher et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:11801-11805; Rascher and Luttge (2002) Plant Biol 4:671-681]. The aim here was to actually demonstrate the importance of lateral CO2 diffusion and its effects on localized PSII activity. Covering small sections of entire leaves with silicone grease was used for local exclusion of a contribution of atmospheric CO2 to internal CO2 via transport through stomata. A setup for combined measurement of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was used for recording photosynthetic activity with a spatiotemporal resolution. When remobilization of malic acid from vacuolar storage and its decarboxylation in the CAM cycle caused increasing internal CO2 concentrations sustaining high PSII activity behind closed stomata, PSII activity was also increased in adjacent leaf sections where vacuolar malic acid accumulation was minimal as a result of preventing external CO2 supply due to leaf-surface greasing, and where therefore CO2 could only be supplied by diffusion from the neighbouring malic acid-remobilizing leaf tissue. This demonstrates lateral CO2 diffusion and its effect on local photosynthetic activity.

  1. The effect of sugars in relation to methyl jasmonate on anthocyanin formation in the roots of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (Poelln.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Góraj-Koniarska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose and sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol applied alone and in solution with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me on the anthocyanin content in the roots of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. None of the sugars used individually in the experiment affected anthocyanin accumulation in the roots of intact plants. The anthocyanin level was similar to that in the control. Sucrose at concentrations of 0.5% and 3.0%, and glucose at a concentration of 3.0% inhibited anthocyanin accumulation induced by JA-Me. Only fructose at a concentration of 3.0% stimulated anthocyanin accumulation induced by JA-Me. The sugar alcohols, mannitol at a concentration of 3.0% and sorbitol at 0.5% and 3.0%, inhibited anthocyanin accumulation in the roots of intact K. blossfeldiana plants induced by JA-Me. In excised roots, both sugars and JA-Me used individually did not affect the formation of anthocyanins. Also, the sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol applied simultaneously with JA-Me had no effect on the accumulation of anthocyanins. However, roots treated with sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose in solution with JA-Me promoted the induction of anthocyanins in the apical parts of the roots.  The results suggest that anthocyanin elicitation in the roots of K. blossfeldiana by methyl jasmonate may be dependent on the interaction of JA-Me with sugars transported from the stems (leaves to the roots.

  2. Composition of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers on Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Hamet et Perr. de la Bathie) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maarseveen, Clare; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-05-01

    Epicuticular and intracuticular waxes from both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana were analyzed. All wax mixtures were found to contain approximately equal amounts of triterpenoids and very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives. The triterpenoid fraction consisted of glutinol (8-19% of the total wax) and friedelin (4-9%), together with smaller amounts of glutanol, glutinol acetate, epifriedelanol, germanicol and beta-amyrin. The VLCFA derivatives comprised C27-C35 alkanes (19-37% of the total wax), C32-C34 aldehydes (3-7%), C32 and C34 fatty acids (0.2-3%), C26-C36 primary alcohols (4-8%), and C42-C52 alkyl esters (2-9%). The wax layers were found to differ in triterpenoid amounts, with the intracuticular wax containing higher percentages of most triterpenoids than the epicuticular wax. Friedelin, the only triterpenoid ketone present, showed the opposite distribution with higher proportions in the epicuticular wax. VLCFA derivatives also accumulated to higher percentages in the epicuticular than in the intracuticular wax layer. Epicuticular wax crystals were observed on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.

  3. Redundancy of stomatal control for the circadian photosynthetic rhythm in Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, T P; Duarte, H M; Lüttge, U E

    2005-03-01

    In continuous light, the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier has a circadian rhythm of gas exchange with peaks occurring during the subjective night. The rhythm of gas exchange is coupled to a weak, reverse phased rhythm of quantum yield of photosystem II (Phi (PSII)). To test if the rhythm of Phi (PSII) persists in the absence of stomatal control, leaves were coated with a thin layer of translucent silicone grease which prevented CO2 and H2O exchange. In spite of this treatment, the rhythm of Phi (PSII) occurred with close to normal phase timing and with a much larger amplitude than in uncoated leaves. The mechanism underlying the Phi (PSII) rhythm in coated leaves can be explained by a circadian activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). At peaks of PEPC activity, the small amount of CO2 contained in the coated leaf could have become depleted, preventing the carboxylase activity of Rubisco and causing decreases in electron transport rates (observed as deep troughs of Phi (PSII) at 23-h in LL and at ca. 24-h intervals afterwards). Peaks of Phi (PSII) would be caused by a downregulation of PEPC leading to improved supply of CO2 to Rubisco. Substrate limitation of photochemistry at 23 h (trough of Phi (PSII)) was also suggested by the weak response of ETR in coated leaves to stepwise light enhancement. These results show that photosynthetic rhythmicity in K. daigremontiana is independent of stomatal regulation and may originate in the mesophyll.

  4. Effect of N-hydroxyurea, mitomycin C and actinomycin D on tumour formation on the leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana

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    Józef Koawalczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana wounded and infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens were treated with single doses of inhibitors (hydroxyurea - 190, mitomycin - 0.5, actinomycin - 2 µ,g per leaf. After delaying the time' of dosage of inhibitors during five days after inoculation, changes in susceptibility of the system to antitumorous activity of analysed compounds were observed. In several hours after inoculation (period of the bacteria metabolic activity in wounds all the inhibitors prevent strongly the tumour formation. At the time between 14 and 72 hours after inoculation, including the phase of tumour induction, the system becomes sensitive to the DNA synthesis inhibitors, particularly hydroxyurea. The intensified action of actinomycin appears again only about 60 hours after inoculation and lasts till the end of experiment (the initiation of the transformed plant cell proliferation. According to the literature the antitumorous effect of inhibitors could be connected with their action on the bacteria metabolism inside the host tissue. The activities of hydroxyurea and mitomycin in the second period correspond with the intensive DNA synthesis in plant cells, which is induced by wounding. The effect of actinomycin D in 60 hours after inoculation could depend upon the inhibition of the proliferation of the transformed host cells.

  5. Biphasic fluence-response curves for phytochrome-mediated kalanchoë seed germination : sensitization by gibberellic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethy, R; Dedonder, A; De Petter, E; Van Wiemeersch, L; Fredericq, H; De Greef, J; Steyaert, H; Stevens, H

    1987-01-01

    The fluence-response curves for the effect of two red pulses separated by 24 hours on the germination of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. cv Vesuv seeds, incubated on gibberellic acid (GA(3)) are biphasic for suboptimal concentrations. The response in the low fluence range corresponds with a classical red/far-red reversible phytochrome mediated reaction. GA(3) induces an additional response in the very low fluence range, which is also phytochrome mediated. The sensitivity to phytochrome-far-red absorbing form (Pfr), however, is increased about 20,000-fold, so that even far-red fluences become saturating. Both in the very low and low fluence response range, the maximal responses induced by saturating fluences are modulated by the GA(3) concentration. GA(3) having no direct influence on the phytochrome phototransformations, alters the Pfr requirement and determines the responding seed population fraction in the very low and low fluence range. The effet of GA(3) appears to be on the transduction chain of the phytochrome signal.

  6. Capturing the biofuel wellhead and powerhouse: the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of the leguminous feedstock tree Pongamia pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakoff, Stephen H; Imelfort, Michael; Edwards, David; Koehorst, Jasper; Biswas, Bandana; Batley, Jacqueline; Scott, Paul T; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Pongamia pinnata (syn. Millettia pinnata) is a novel, fast-growing arboreal legume that bears prolific quantities of oil-rich seeds suitable for the production of biodiesel and aviation biofuel. Here, we have used Illumina® 'Second Generation DNA Sequencing (2GS)' and a new short-read de novo assembler, SaSSY, to assemble and annotate the Pongamia chloroplast (152,968 bp; cpDNA) and mitochondrial (425,718 bp; mtDNA) genomes. We also show that SaSSY can be used to accurately assemble 2GS data, by re-assembling the Lotus japonicus cpDNA and in the process assemble its mtDNA (380,861 bp). The Pongamia cpDNA contains 77 unique protein-coding genes and is almost 60% gene-dense. It contains a 50 kb inversion common to other legumes, as well as a novel 6.5 kb inversion that is responsible for the non-disruptive, re-orientation of five protein-coding genes. Additionally, two copies of an inverted repeat firmly place the species outside the subclade of the Fabaceae lacking the inverted repeat. The Pongamia and L. japonicus mtDNA contain just 33 and 31 unique protein-coding genes, respectively, and like other angiosperm mtDNA, have expanded intergenic and multiple repeat regions. Through comparative analysis with Vigna radiata we measured the average synonymous and non-synonymous divergence of all three legume mitochondrial (1.59% and 2.40%, respectively) and chloroplast (8.37% and 8.99%, respectively) protein-coding genes. Finally, we explored the relatedness of Pongamia within the Fabaceae and showed the utility of the organellar genome sequences by mapping transcriptomic data to identify up- and down-regulated stress-responsive gene candidates and confirm in silico predicted RNA editing sites.

  7. Capturing the biofuel wellhead and powerhouse: the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of the leguminous feedstock tree Pongamia pinnata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H Kazakoff

    Full Text Available Pongamia pinnata (syn. Millettia pinnata is a novel, fast-growing arboreal legume that bears prolific quantities of oil-rich seeds suitable for the production of biodiesel and aviation biofuel. Here, we have used Illumina® 'Second Generation DNA Sequencing (2GS' and a new short-read de novo assembler, SaSSY, to assemble and annotate the Pongamia chloroplast (152,968 bp; cpDNA and mitochondrial (425,718 bp; mtDNA genomes. We also show that SaSSY can be used to accurately assemble 2GS data, by re-assembling the Lotus japonicus cpDNA and in the process assemble its mtDNA (380,861 bp. The Pongamia cpDNA contains 77 unique protein-coding genes and is almost 60% gene-dense. It contains a 50 kb inversion common to other legumes, as well as a novel 6.5 kb inversion that is responsible for the non-disruptive, re-orientation of five protein-coding genes. Additionally, two copies of an inverted repeat firmly place the species outside the subclade of the Fabaceae lacking the inverted repeat. The Pongamia and L. japonicus mtDNA contain just 33 and 31 unique protein-coding genes, respectively, and like other angiosperm mtDNA, have expanded intergenic and multiple repeat regions. Through comparative analysis with Vigna radiata we measured the average synonymous and non-synonymous divergence of all three legume mitochondrial (1.59% and 2.40%, respectively and chloroplast (8.37% and 8.99%, respectively protein-coding genes. Finally, we explored the relatedness of Pongamia within the Fabaceae and showed the utility of the organellar genome sequences by mapping transcriptomic data to identify up- and down-regulated stress-responsive gene candidates and confirm in silico predicted RNA editing sites.

  8. Pengaruh Beberapa Dosis Kompos Dan Azolla ( Azolla Pinnata R. B ) Segar Pada Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil 2 Varietas Tanaman Wortel ( Daucus Carotta L. )

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, M. Syahrial; Widaryanto, Eko; Nugroho, Agung

    2016-01-01

    Wortel termasuk jenis sayuran umbi yang bernilai ekonomis penting di dunia. Salah satu factor budidaya wortel adalah tanah yang tidak hanya sebagai media akar tanaman namun sebagai media tanaman dapat menyerap nutrisi, air dan oksigen. Salah satu peranan bahan organik adalah memperbaiki sifat fisik tanah. Azolla (Azolla pinnata) ialah tumbuhan paku air yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan organik untuk memperbaiki agregat tanah. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk dapat mengetahui pengaruh dosis kom...

  9. Larvicidal activity and possible mode of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids identified in Millettia pinnata seed toward three mosquito species

    OpenAIRE

    Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Jang, Myung Jin; Kim, Jun-Ran; Kadarkarai, Murugan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes transmit dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases, respectively. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and mechanism of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids from Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) seed as well as six pure fatty acids and four fatty acid esters toward third instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible C. pipiens pallens and A. aegypti as well as wild A. albopictus. Efficacy of 12 ...

  10. Expression of KxhKN4 and KxhKN5 genes in Kalanchoë blossfeldiana "Molly" results in novel compact plant phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Laura, Marina; Borghi, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Many potted plants like Kalanchoe¨ have an elongated natural growth habit, which has to be controlled through the application of growth regulators. These chemicals will be banned in the near future in all the EU countries. Besides their structural functions, the importance of homeotic genes...

  11. Application of different fertilizers in substrate for Kalanchoe luciae Raym.-Hamet cultivation Aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes em substrato de cultivo de Kalanchoe luciae Raym.-Hamet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Andrade Lessa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Succulents present great commercial importance, but information on the cultivation of these plants are not enough, especially considering the use of fertilizers during the growth phase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different fertilizers applied to the substrate in the cultivation of Kalanchoe luciae Raym.-Hamet. Cuttings measuring 6 cm in height and 12 cm in diameter were cultivated in 1.5 L pots containing the substrate (1 soil: 1 sand: 1 vermiculite. In this experiment, the effect of the fertilization based on NPK 10:10:10 was evaluated with and without the addition of a fertilizer mixture composed of 5 g bone flour, 5 g dolomite limestone, and 50 g ground charcoal, this proportion that was used for each 1.5 L substrate. After 60 days, an increase in the number of leaves, which was proportional to the increase in the doses of NPK applied, was verified. Even though the plants presented higher number of leaves (18.34 and higher height (18.73 cm for the substrate with 1.5 g L-1 of NPK 10:10:10, plants did not reach the compact aspect suggested by some producers. The addition of fertilizer mixture presented no effect on the leaves number and neither to the plant height, however, it was observed that the plants that received the fertilizer mixture presented the fifth leaf with bigger diameter. None of the treatments favored the formation of one of the most important characteristics of this species, the reddish color on the borders of the leaves.As suculentas apresentam grande importância comercial, mas, as informações sobre o cultivo destas plantas ainda são escassas, especialmente em relação à fertilização durante a fase de crescimento. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes adubações no substrato para cultivo de Kalanchoe luciae Raym.- Hamet. Mudas com 6 cm de altura e 12 cm de diâmetro foram cultivadas em vasos de 1,5 L, contendo o substrato (1 terra:1 areia: 1 vermiculita. Avaliou

  12. Antimicrobial properties of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana: a focus on drug resistance with particular reference to quorum sensing-mediated bacterial biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ratul; Mondal, Chaitali; Bera, Rammohan; Chakraborty, Sumon; Barik, Rajib; Roy, Paramita; Kumar, Alekh; Yadav, Kirendra K; Choudhury, Jayanta; Chaudhary, Sushil K; Samanta, Samir K; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Das, Satadal; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Sen, Tuhinadri

    2015-07-01

    This study attempts to investigate the antimicrobial properties of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana with a particular reference to quorum sensing (QS)-mediated biofilm formation. The methanol extract of K. blossfeldiana leaves (MEKB) was evaluated for antimicrobial properties including QS-controlled production of biofilm (including virulence factor, motility and lactone formation) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methanol extract of K. blossfeldiana was also evaluated for anti-cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 beta) properties in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methanol extract of K. blossfeldiana exhibited antimicrobial effect on clinical isolates, as well as standard reference strains. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to MEKB (subminimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)) displayed reduced biofilm formation, whereas supra-MIC produced destruction of preformed biofilms. Methanol extract of K. blossfeldiana reduced the secretion of virulence factors (protease and pyoverdin) along with generation of acyl homoserine lactone (AHL). Confocal laser scanning microscopy images indicate reduction of biofilm thickness. The extract also reduced cytokine formation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated PBMC. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana was found to interfere with AHL production, which in turn may be responsible for downregulating QS-mediated production of biofilm and virulence. This first report on the antibiofilm and anticytokine properties of this plant may open up new vistas for future exploration of this plant for combating biofilm-related resistant infections. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Efficacy of a Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri extract to control bacterial biofilms and dental calculus in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira L. Abdalla

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: An aqueous leaf extract of the medicinal species Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri (here denominated KGB has been found to be effective as an antimicrobial agent against canine oral cavity bacteria in in vitro assays. In this study, we investigated the effect of topic oral administration of KGB on the development of dental biofilm in Beagle dogs. The experiments were performed with an experimental group (0.2% of KGB extract, a negative control group (0.9% of saline solution and a positive control group (0.12% chlorhexidine. Each treatment was sprayed into the oral cavity daily for 28 days. Thirty Beagle dogs with similar characteristics and kept under the same management and diet were used. The measurement of dental plaque and calculus was performed using a computerized analytical method. The phenolic profile of KGB extract was analyzed by HPLC-DAD. KGB extract at 0.2% showed efficacy in controlling the formation of plaque compared to the negative control group, and dental calculus in relation to the negative and positive control groups. A significant difference was observed among these three groups. Peaks attributed to flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified in the HPLC-DAD chromatogram of the KGB extract. The presence of these substances could be related to the activity observed. Our findings demonstrate that treatment with KGB is effective in controlling periodontal disease in dogs, providing new insights into the medicinal properties of this plant. KGB extract has a potential use as a supplemental agent in pharmaceutical products for the prevention of periodontal disease.

  14. Contribution of carbon fixed by Rubisco and PEPC to phloem export in the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Birgit; Wanek, Wolfgang; Postl, Wolfgang; Richter, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants exhibit a complex interplay between CO(2) fixation by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco), and carbon demand for CAM maintenance and growth. This study investigated the flux of carbon from PEPC and direct Rubisco fixation to different leaf carbon pools and to phloem sap over the diurnal cycle. Concentrations and carbon isotope compositions of starch, soluble sugars, and organic acids were determined in leaves and phloem exudates of Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perr., and related to CO(2) fixation by PEPC and Rubisco. Three types of leaf carbon pools could be distinguished. (i) Starch and malate pools were dominant and showed a pattern of reciprocal mobilization and accumulation (85/54 and 13/48 mg C g(-1) DW, respective, at the beginning/end of phase I). The carbon isotope composition of these pools was compatible with predominant PEPC fixation (delta(13)C values of -13 and -11 per thousand for starch and malate compared to -11 per thousand of PEPC fixed carbon). (ii) Isotopic composition (-17 per thousand and -14 per thousand) and concentration of glucose and fructose (2 and 3 mg C g(-1) DW, respectively) were not affected by diurnal metabolism, suggesting a low turnover. (iii) Sucrose (1-3 mg C g(-1) DW), in contrast, exhibited large diurnal changes in delta(13)C values (from -17 per thousand in the evening to -12 per thousand in the morning), which were not matched by net changes in sucrose concentration. This suggests a high sucrose turnover, fed by nocturnal starch degradation and direct Rubisco fixation during the day. A detailed dissection of the carbon fixation and mobilization pattern in K. daigremontiana revealed that direct fixation of Rubisco during the light accounted for 30% of phloem sucrose, but only 15% of fixed carbon, indicating that carbon from direct Rubisco fixation was preferentially used for leaf export.

  15. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhen-Rung; Peng, Wen-Huang; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Ku, Yoe-Ray; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of the methanol extract of Kalanchoe gracilis (MKGS) stem in animal models by inducing writhing response with acetic acid and conducting formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect of MKGS was also estimated on mice with lambda-carrageenan induced paw edema model. In order to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of MKGS, we analyzed the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx) in the liver, and the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the edema paw tissue. In the analgesic tests, MKGS (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased both the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the licking time in the late phase of the formalin test. In the anti-inflammatory test, MKGS (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased paw edema at the third, fourth, fifth and sixth hours after lambda-carrageenan had been administrated. Furthermore, MKGS increased the activities of SOD and GRx in liver tissues and decreased MDA level in the edema paws three hours after lambda-carrageenan was injected. MKGS also affected the levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and NO induced by lambda-carrageenan. All these results suggested that MKGS possessed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of MKGS might be related to the lowering of MDA level in the edema paw via increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GRx in the liver, as well as the decreases in the levels of TNF-alpha and NO, and the production of IL-1beta in inflamed tissues.

  16. PENAMBAHAN KACANG-KACANGAN DALAM FORMULASI MAKANAN PENDAMPING AIR SUSU IBU (MP-ASI BERBAHAN DASAR PATI AREN(Arenga Pinnata (Wurmb Merr Addition of legumes in the Formulation of Supplementary Food Based on Palm Starch (Arenga Pinnata (Wurmb Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiarti P. Rahayu 2

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Food diversification is one of the governmental programs to reduce rice demand. Palm starch (Arenga Pinnata (Wurmb Merr has a good potency as carbohydrate source for supplementary food. Supplementary food from palm starch enriched with 4 legumes (red bean, green bean, soy bean, and paenutas sourch of protein were formulated. This weaning food was made by wet mixing all substances, then cooked at temperatur 750C for 10 minutes. The dough was then dried using drum dryer and milled. The flour was fortified by vitamin premix (vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin C, mineral premix (Na, Zn, Fe, Ca, and I and vanilla flavor (0,05; 0,10; 0,15; 0,20; and 0,25% to improve their nutritional and sensory qualities. Result obtained from hedonic tes indicated that soy bean is the most suitable bean 0,05 percent of vanilla flavor gave the best formula. Supplementary food from sugar palm starch contained 170 kkal energy, 4 g protein, 33g carbohydrate and 3 g fat per serving (42 g. If the formula was consumed three times per day it will fulfill 60 percent of AKG (Angka Kecukupan Gizi(Nutritional Daily Requirement of the baby and child’s protein. The protein digest of such supplementary food from sugar palm starch was 86,29 percent of casein and comply this with SNI 01-7111.4 -2005 and codex (1976 standard.

  17. KARAKTERISTIK DAN ANALISIS HUBUNGAN KEKERABATAN MALAPARI (Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre SEBAGAI TANAMAN PENGHASIL MINYAK DI DUA AKSESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferliana Febritasari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Malapari (Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre is an oil-producing plant which has the potential for biodiesel feedstock. This becomes a reason that Malapari plants need to be developed and cultivated. Malapari grow naturally in lowland forests on calcareous soils, rocks on the beach, along the edge of the mangroves and along stream and river tides. This study aims to determine the characteristics of Malapari and relationship between the two accessions grown in North Bali (Pemaron, Uma Anyar, Kalisada, Pengulon, Sumber Kelampok and East Java (Alas Purwo National Park and Baluran National Park based on morphological characters and oil content. The research was conducted in July-November 2015. The method used in this research was observation of morphological characters as well as the analysis of the oil content of seeds. Relationship among trees that grow in the two accessions was analyzed using Minitab Vis 14. Results showed that there were differences in morphological characteristics, namely the leaves, flowers, fruits, pod and seeds dimension and oil content.  Analysis of relationships among trees at similarity level above 80% classified them into 3 major groups, namely group I Malapari from Uma Anyar village with similarity level of 59,51%, group II Malapari from  Pengulon village with  similarity level of 80,16% and group III  Malapari from  Alas Purwo National Park and 32 other trees from various villages  having similarity level of 84,53%.

  18. Separation of toxic rhodamine B from aqueous solution using an efficient low-cost material, Azolla pinnata, by adsorption method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooh, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi; Lim, Linda B L; Lim, Lee Hoon; Dahri, Muhammad Khairud

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of untreated Azolla pinnata (AP) to remove toxic rhodamine B (RB) dye. The effects of adsorbent dosage, pH, ionic strength, contact time, and concentration were studied. Experiments involving the effects of pH and ionic strength indicated that hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions might be the dominant force of attraction for the RB-AP adsorption system. The kinetics modelling of the kinetics experiment showed that pseudo-second-order best represented the adsorption process. The Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion model showed that intraparticle diffusion is not the rate-limiting step, while the Boyd model suggested that film diffusion might be rate-limiting. The adsorption isotherm model, Langmuir, best represented the adsorption process, and the maximum adsorption capacity was predicted to be 72.2 and 199.7 mg g(-1) at 25 and 65 °C, respectively. Thermodynamics study indicates spontaneity, endothermic and physisorption-dominant adsorption process. The adsorbents were regenerated to satisfactory level with distilled water, HNO3 and NaOH. Pre-treatment of adsorbent with oxalic acid, citric acid, NaOH, HCl and phosphoric acid was investigated but the adsorption capacity was less than the untreated AP.

  19. Evaluation of anti-cholinesterase, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using from Millettia pinnata flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Gomathi, Thandapani; Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Devi Rajeswari, V; Kalpana, V N; Chung, Ill-Min

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of Ag-NPs using extracts from the medicinal plant, Millettia pinnata flower extract and investigate the effects of Ag-NPs on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), antibacterial and cytotoxicity activity. UV-Vis peak at 438 nm confirmed the Ag-NPs absorbance. The SEM analysis results confirmed the presence of spherical shaped Ag-NPs by a huge disparity in the particle size distribution with an average size of 49 ± 0.9 nm. TEM images revealed the formation of Ag-NPs with spherical shape and sizes in the range between 16 and 38 nm. The Ag-NPs showed an excellent inhibitory efficacy against AChE and BChE. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Escherichia coli (20.25 ± 0.91 mm). These nanoparticles showed the cytotoxic effects against brine shrimp (artemia saliana) nauplii with a LD 50 value of 33.92. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of phenolics from Spondias pinnata bark in amelioration of iron overload induced hepatic damage in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Panja, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2016-07-26

    Crude Spondias pinnata bark extract was previously assessed for its antioxidant, anticancer and iron chelating potentials. The isolated compounds gallic acid (GA) and methyl gallate (MG) were evaluated for their curative potential against iron overload-induced liver fibrosis and hepatocellular damage. In vitro iron chelation property and in vivo ameliorating potential from iron overload induced liver toxicity of GA and MG was assessed by different biochemical assays and histopathological studies. MG and GA demonstrated excellent reducing power activities but iron chelation potential of MG is better than GA. Oral MG treatment in mice displayed excellent efficacy (better than GA) to significantly restore the levels of liver antioxidants, serum markers and cellular reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent fashion. Apart from these, MG exceptionally prevented lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation whereas GA demonstrated better activity to reduce collagen content, thereby strengthening its position as an efficient drug against hepatic damage/fibrosis, which was further supported by histopathological studies. Alongside, MG efficiently eliminated the cause of liver damage, i.e., excess iron, by chelating free iron and reducing the ferritin-bound iron. The present study confirmed the curative effect of GA and MG against iron overload hepatic damage via their potent antioxidant and iron-chelating potential.

  1. Preparation of micro-fibrillated cellulose based on sugar palm ijuk (Arenga pinnata) fibres through partial acid hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, A.; Verawati, I.; Ramahdita, G.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterized micro-fibrillated cellulose (MFC) from sugar palm/ijuk fibre (Arenga pinnata) by partial sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Cellulose fibre was prepared by repeated treatments with 5 wt% sodium hydroxide 2 h at 80°C, followed by bleaching with 1.7 wt% sodium chlorite for 2 h at 80°C in acidic environment under stirring. MFC was prepared by partial hydrolysis with sulfuric acid in various concentrations (30, 40, 50, and 60 % for 45 min at 45 °C) under stirring. Fourier Transform Infrared, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer and X-ray Diffraction characterized cellulose fibre and MFC. FTIR measurements showed that alkaline and bleaching treatments were effective to remove non-cellulosic constituents such as wax, lignin and hemicellulose. FESEM observation revealed conversion into more clear surface and defibrillation of cellulosic fibre after pre-treatments. XRD measurement revealed increase in crystallinity after pre-treatments and acid hydrolysis from 54.4 to 87.8%. Thermal analysis showed that increasing acid concentration reduced thermal stability.

  2. Larvicidal activity and possible mode of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids identified in Millettia pinnata seed toward three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Jang, Myung Jin; Kim, Jun-Ran; Kadarkarai, Murugan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2015-04-19

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes transmit dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases, respectively. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and mechanism of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids from Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) seed as well as six pure fatty acids and four fatty acid esters toward third instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible C. pipiens pallens and A. aegypti as well as wild A. albopictus. Efficacy of 12 experimental liquid formulations containing M. pinnata seed methanol extract and hydrodistillate (0.5-10.0% liquids) was also assessed. The contact toxicities of all compounds and 12 formulations were compared with those of two larvicides, temephos and fenthion and the commercial temephos 200 g/L emulsifiable concentrate (EC). The possible mode of larvicidal action of the constituents was elucidated using biochemical methods. Larval mortality and cAMP level were analyzed by the Bonferroni multiple-comparison method. Potent toxicity was produced by karanjin, oleic acid, karanjachromene, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, pongamol, pongarotene, and elaidic acid toward C. pipiens pallens larvae (24 h LC50, 14.61-28.22 mg/L) and A. aegypti larvae (16.13-37.61 mg/L). Against wild A. albopictus larvae, oleic acid (LC50, 18.79 mg/L) and karanjin (35.26 mg/L) exhibited potent toxicity. All constituents were less toxic than either temephos or fenthion. Structure-activity relationship indicates that the degree of saturation, the side chain length, and the geometric isomerism of fatty acids appear to play a role in determining the fatty acid toxicity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the main site of action of the flavonoids, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. The mechanism of larvicidal action of elaidic acid, arachidic acid, and behenic acid might be due to interference with the octopaminergic system. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid might act on both AChE and octopaminergic receptor. M. pinnata seed

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of Reversible and Time-Dependent Inhibitory Effects of Kalanchoe crenata on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Kalanchoe crenata popularly known as "dog's liver" is used in most African countries for the treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes, asthma and HIV/AIDS related infections. The evaluation of K. crenata for herb-drug interactions has not been reported. This study therefore aims to evaluate the risk of K. crenata for herb-drug interaction in vitro. Crude methanol and fractions of K. crenata were incubated and preincubated with recombinant human CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Comparative studies were conducted in both human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP to ascertain the inhibition profile of the crude extract and the various fractions. The cocktail approach of recombinant human CYPs was conducted to confirm the inhibition potential of the fractions in the presence of other CYPs. The results showed significant time-dependent inhibition of tested samples on CYP3A4 with crude methanol (39KC), fractions 45A, 45B and 45D given IC50 fold decrease of 3.29, 2.26, 1.91 and 1.49, respective. Time dependent kinetic assessment of 39KC and 45D showed KI and kinact values for 39KC as 1.77 µg/mL and 0.091 min(-1) while that of 45D were 6.45 µg/mL and 0.024 min(-1), respectively. Determination of kinact based on IC50 calculations yielded 0.015 and 0.04 min(-1) for 39KC and 45D, respectively. Cocktail approach exhibited fold decreases in IC50 for all test fractions on CYP3A4 within the ranges of 2.10 - 4.10. At least one phytoconstituent in the crude methanol extract of Kalanchoe crenata is a reversible and time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4.

  4. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M

    1977-01-01

    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed. PMID:196595

  5. Karanja (Pongamia Pinnata) biodiesel production in Bangladesh, characterization of karanja biodiesel and its effect on diesel emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Hoque, S.M. Najmul; Akhter, Md. Shamim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, RUET (Bangladesh)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents production of biodiesel (BD) from non-edible renewable karanja (Pongamia Pinnata) oil, determination of BD properties and influence of BD on engine performance and emissions. Bangladesh imports 2.4 million metric ton (MT) DF each year [M.N. Nabi, M.S. Akhter, K.M.F. Islam, Prospect of biodiesel production from jatropha curcas, a promising non edible oil seed in Bangladesh, International Conference on Mechanical Engineering (ICME, Dhaka, Bangladesh) Proceedings 2007, paper no. ICME07-TH-06. ]. It has 0.32 million hectare of unused land [M.N. Nabi, S.M.N. Hoque, M.S. Uddin, Prospect of Jatropha curcas and pithraj cultivation in Bangladesh, Journal of Engineering and Technology, IUT, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 7 (1) (2009) 41-54. ]. It has been found that cultivating of karanja plant in such unused land; Bangladesh can reduce DF import by 28%. Karanja methyl ester (KME), which is termed as BD, has been produced by well-known transesterification process. The properties of B100 (B100) and its blends were determined mainly according to ASTM standard and some of them were as per EN14214 standard. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that the DF fuel contained mainly alkanes and alkens, while the B100 contained mainly esters. The gas chromatography (GC) of B100 revealed that a maximum of 97% methyl ester was produced from karanja oil. Engine experiment result showed that all BD blends reduced engine emissions including carbon monoxide (CO), smoke and engine noise, but increased oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Compared to DF, B100 reduced CO, and smoke emissions by 50 and 43%, while a 15% increase in NOx emission was observed with the B100. Compared to DF, engine noise with B100 was reduced by 2.5 dB. (author)

  6. Karanja (Pongamia Pinnata) biodiesel production in Bangladesh, characterization of karanja biodiesel and its effect on diesel emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Hoque, S.M. Najmul; Akhter, Md. Shamim

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents production of biodiesel (BD) from non-edible renewable karanja (Pongamia Pinnata) oil, determination of BD properties and influence of BD on engine performance and emissions. Bangladesh imports 2.4 million metric ton (MT) DF each year [M.N. Nabi, M.S. Akhter, K.M.F. Islam, Prospect of biodiesel production from jatropha curcas, a promising non edible oil seed in Bangladesh, International Conference on Mechanical Engineering (ICME, Dhaka, Bangladesh) Proceedings 2007, paper no. ICME07-TH-06. ]. It has 0.32 million hectare of unused land [M.N. Nabi, S.M.N. Hoque, M.S. Uddin, Prospect of Jatropha curcas and pithraj cultivation in Bangladesh, Journal of Engineering and Technology, IUT, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 7 (1) (2009) 41-54. ]. It has been found that cultivating of karanja plant in such unused land; Bangladesh can reduce DF import by 28%. Karanja methyl ester (KME), which is termed as BD, has been produced by well-known transesterification process. The properties of B100 (B100) and its blends were determined mainly according to ASTM standard and some of them were as per EN14214 standard. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that the DF fuel contained mainly alkanes and alkens, while the B100 contained mainly esters. The gas chromatography (GC) of B100 revealed that a maximum of 97% methyl ester was produced from karanja oil. Engine experiment result showed that all BD blends reduced engine emissions including carbon monoxide (CO), smoke and engine noise, but increased oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Compared to DF, B100 reduced CO, and smoke emissions by 50 and 43%, while a 15% increase in NOx emission was observed with the B100. Compared to DF, engine noise with B100 was reduced by 2.5 dB. (author)

  7. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  8. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth. Malme. (Fabaceae in the Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAIO C.C. MISSAGIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth. Malme. (Fabaceae, endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337. Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  9. Morphological study of the genus Herposiphonia (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae) on the coast of eastern Guangdong, China, with a description of H. pinnata sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lanping; Tan, Huaqiang; Zhang, Quanliang; Zeng, Lingzhao; Huang, Bingxin

    2016-03-01

    We present a taxonomic study of taxa of the red algae genus Herposiphonia (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae), collected from the coast of eastern Guangdong, China. We made detailed morphological studies and considered recent taxonomic criteria for species delimitation, and are making the first report of five different species on the coast of Guangdong, including a new species. The species identified were H. caespitosa Tseng, H. hollenbergii Dawson, H. pecten - veneris (Harvey) Falkenberg, H. subdisticha Okamura and H. pinnata Ding and Tan sp. nov. H. pinnata sp. nov. is characterized by bright green thalli; most parts of the feathery thalli are free of the substratum; determinate branches and indeterminate branches are arranged in a chaotic sequence; the primary axis has bare segments; the determinate branch has 9-11 periaxial cells per segment; vegetative trichoblasts are abundant; and tetrasporangia are formed on the middle of the determinate branch with 1-8 successive segments in a single rectilinear series. This paper is also the first record of sporophyte plants of H. pecten-veneris.

  10. Two additions to the flora of the Palni Hills, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soosairaj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hiptage parvifolia Wight & Arn. (Malpighiaceae and Kalanchoe olivacea Dalz. & Gibs. (Crassulaceae are collected and reported for the first time from the Palni hills of Western Ghats from Tamil Nadu, India. This paper provided a detailed taxonomic description, distribution, illustrations and photographs for their easy identification.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Azadirachta indica, Pongamia pinnata, Psidium guajava, and Mangifera indica and their mechanism of action against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiba, Dikonketso Cathrine; Prasad, Preety; Srivastava, Ajay; Crampton, Brigdet; Lall, Namrita Sharan

    2018-01-01

    Curative plants have reportedly been used to make chewing sticks/toothbrushes intended for the treatment of oral diseases. The in vitro antibacterial activities of Azadirachta indica , Pongamia pinnata , Psidium guajava , and Mangifera indica were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans , along with the cytotoxicity and antioxidant and synergistic potentials. The effect of M. indica on the expression of crucial virulence genes spaP and gtfB of S. mutans was determined. The antibacterial activity was determined using a modified microdilution method. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Griess reagent, and nitroblue tetrazolium calorimetric assays. The synergistic activity was investigated using a modified checkerboard method, while the cytotoxicity was determined according to a cell proliferation 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide salt assay. Reverse transcription was the chosen method for determining the difference in expression of the spaP and gtfB genes after treatment with the plant sample. M. indica and A. indica had the highest antibacterial activity at concentrations of 0.3 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml, respectively. A. indica had the best free radical scavenging of DPPH, exhibiting 50% inhibition at 28.72 μg/ml; while M. indica showed better superoxide scavenging potential than the positive control quercetin. Both M. indica and A. indica had adequate activity against the nitric oxide-free radical (12.87 and 18.89 μg/ml, respectively). M. indica selectively reduced the expression of the gtfB gene, indicating a mechanism involving Glucotranferases, specifically targeting bacterial attachment. Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica had very good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and moderate toxicity against Vero cells M. indica had the best antioxidant capacity overall M. indica reduced the expression of gtfB gene at 0.5 mg/ml. Abbreviations used : AA: Ascorbic acid; BHI

  12. An economically viable synthesis of biodiesel from a crude Millettia pinnata oil of Jharkhand, India as feedstock and crab shell derived catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Devarapaga; Chavan, Supriya B; Singh, Veena; Singh, Bhaskar; Sharma, Yogesh C

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel has emerged as a prominent source to replace petroleum diesel. The cost incurred in the production of biodiesel is higher than that for refining of crude oil to obtain mineral diesel. The heterogeneous catalyst was prepared from crab shells by calcining the crushed mass at 800°C. The solid waste catalyst was characterized with XRD, XPS, BET, SEM-EDS, and FT-IR. Millettia pinnata (karanja) oil extracted from its seeds was used as a feedstock for the synthesis of biodiesel. Biodiesel was synthesized through esterification followed by transesterification in a two-step process. Characterization of biodiesel was done using proton NMR spectroscopy. Reaction parameters such as reaction time, reaction temperature, concentration of catalyst and stirrer speed were optimized. Reusability of catalyst was checked and found that there was no loss of catalytic activity up to five times. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Bimodal effect of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative events in nitrite-induced rapid root abscission by the water fern Azolla pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Cohen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genus Azolla rapid abscission of roots from floating fronds occurs within minutes in response to a variety of stresses, including exposure to nitrite. We found that hydrogen peroxide, though itself not an inducer of root abscission, modulates nitrite-induced root abscission by Azolla pinnata in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 mM H2O2 significantly diminishing the responsiveness to 2 mM NaNO2, and 10 mM H2O2 slightly enhancing it. Hypoxia, which has been found in other plants to result in autogenic production of H2O2, dramatically stimulated root abscission of A. pinnata in response to nitrite, especially for plants previously cultivated in medium containing 5 mM KNO3 compared to plants cultivated under N2-fixing conditions without combined nitrogen. Plants, including Azolla, produce the small signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO from nitrite using nitrate reductase. We found Azolla plants to display dose-dependent root abscission in response to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Treatment of plants with the thiol-modifying agents S-methyl methanethiosulfonate or glutathione inhibited the nitrite-induced root abscission response. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy revealed higher levels of carbonylation in the abscission zone of dropped roots, indicative of reaction products of polysaccharides with potent free radical oxidants. We hypothesize that metabolic products of nitrite and NO react with H2O2 in the apoplast leading to free-radical-mediated cleavage of structural polysaccharides and consequent rapid root abscission.

  14. Bimodal effect of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative events in nitrite-induced rapid root abscission by the water fern Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael F; Gurung, Sushma; Birarda, Giovanni; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    In the genus Azolla rapid abscission of roots from floating fronds occurs within minutes in response to a variety of stresses, including exposure to nitrite. We found that hydrogen peroxide, though itself not an inducer of root abscission, modulates nitrite-induced root abscission by Azolla pinnata in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 mM H2O2 significantly diminishing the responsiveness to 2 mM NaNO2, and 10 mM H2O2 slightly enhancing it. Hypoxia, which has been found in other plants to result in autogenic production of H2O2, dramatically stimulated root abscission of A. pinnata in response to nitrite, especially for plants previously cultivated in medium containing 5 mM KNO3 compared to plants cultivated under N2-fixing conditions without combined nitrogen. Plants, including Azolla, produce the small signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite using nitrate reductase. We found Azolla plants to display dose-dependent root abscission in response to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Treatment of plants with the thiol-modifying agents S-methyl methanethiosulfonate or glutathione inhibited the nitrite-induced root abscission response. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy revealed higher levels of carbonylation in the abscission zone of dropped roots, indicative of reaction products of polysaccharides with potent free radical oxidants. We hypothesize that metabolic products of nitrite and NO react with H2O2 in the apoplast leading to free-radical-mediated cleavage of structural polysaccharides and consequent rapid root abscission.

  15. The Effect Of Some Plant Growth Regulators And Their Combination With Methyl Jasmonate On Anthocyanin Formation In Roots Of Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góraj Justyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effect of plant growth regulators (PGRs - auxins, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, brassinosteroid, ethylene and their interaction with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me applied to roots of the whole plants Kalanchoe blossfeldiana on the accumulation of anthocyanins in roots. The highest stimulation of anthocyanins synthesis was stated with application of JA-Me alone. In response to treatments with the other tested PGRs, the content of anthocyanins in roots of a whole plant was different depending on the concentration of the PGR when being applied alone or together with JA-Me. Auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA at a concentration of 50 mg·L-1, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at 5 mg·L-1 and abscisic acid (ABA at 10 mg·L-1 induced anthocyanin accumulation with approximately 60-115% compared to the control while 24-epibrassinolid (epiBL, gibberellic acid (GA3 and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP had no effect on the anthocyanin accumulation. The simultaneous administration of the PGRs with JA-Me usually resulted in the accumulation of anthocyanins in roots in a manner similar to that caused by JA-Me. PGRs applied to isolated roots did not stimulate anthocyanin accumulation, except for the combination of JA-Me with 50 mg·L-1 IAA.

  16. Cloning and characterization of oxidosqualene cyclases from Kalanchoe daigremontiana: enzymes catalyzing up to 10 rearrangement steps yielding friedelin and other triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Yeats, Trevor; Han, Hong; Jetter, Reinhard

    2010-09-24

    The first committed step in triterpenoid biosynthesis is the cyclization of oxidosqualene to polycyclic alcohols or ketones C(30)H(50)O. It is catalyzed by single oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) enzymes that can carry out varying numbers of carbocation rearrangements and, thus, generate triterpenoids with diverse carbon skeletons. OSCs from diverse plant species have been cloned and characterized, the large majority of them catalyzing relatively few rearrangement steps. It was recently predicted that special OSCs must exist that can form friedelin, the pentacyclic triterpenoid whose formation involves the maximum possible number of rearrangement steps. The goal of the present study, therefore, was to clone a friedelin synthase from Kalanchoe daigremontiana, a plant species known to accumulate this triterpenoid in its leaf surface waxes. Five OSC cDNAs were isolated, encoding proteins with 761-779 amino acids and sharing between 57.4 and 94.3% nucleotide sequence identity. Heterologous expression in yeast and GC-MS analyses showed that one of the OSCs generated the steroid cycloartenol together with minor side products, whereas the other four enzymes produced mixtures of pentacyclic triterpenoids dominated by lupeol (93%), taraxerol (60%), glutinol (66%), and friedelin (71%), respectively. The cycloartenol synthase was found expressed in all leaf tissues, whereas the lupeol, taraxerol, glutinol, and friedelin synthases were expressed only in the epidermis layers lining the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf blade. It is concluded that the function of these enzymes is to form respective triterpenoid aglycones destined to coat the leaf exterior, probably as defense compounds against pathogens or herbivores.

  17. Short-term administration of an aqueous extract of kalanchoe integra var. crenata (Andr.) Cuf leaves produces no major organ damage in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac J; Antwi, Daniel A; Awortwe, Charles; N'guessan, Benoit Banga; Nyarko, Alexander K

    2014-02-03

    Kalanchoe intergra (Ki) leaf extract is an orally administered multipurpose plant medicine in Ghana and other parts of the world for the treatment of ulcers, pain and adenoma of the prostate gland. There is paucity of information concerning its short-term usage. The present study is aimed at conducting histopathological and biochemical studies in a 14-day sub-acute toxicity studies using female Sprague-Dawley rats. Crude extract of Ki leaves was prepared and freeze-dried. A 14-day sub-acute toxicity studies was conducted using 2 week old nulliparous and non-pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats (120-150g). Reconstituted Ki was administered at a dosage of 900mgkg(-1) (high dose), 300mgkg(-1) with a control group receiving an equivalent volume of distilled water (as vehicle) by gastric lavage. Histopathological studies of major organs and blood chemistry analysis were performed on blood obtained via cardiac puncture into EDTA tubes after euthanisation. There was a significant decrease in urea (p<0.016) and creatinine levels (p<0.001) in both the high and low dose groups. There was an increase in ALP levels (P=0.01) in both the high and low dose groups. ALT and AST rather decreased significantly in both the high and low dose groups (p<0.0001). Histopathological results did not show any abnormalities in all the H&E stained paraffin sections. Thus the photomicrographs of the liver, kidney and heart were within histopathological limits. Ki leaf extract is non-toxic when administered by the oral route over a time period of 14 days at the above doses. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.

  18. Ectopic expression of Kxhkn5 in the viviparous species Kalanchoe × Houghtonii induces a novel pattern of epiphyll development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Marina; Borghi, Cristina; Regis, Cristina; Cassetti, Arianna; Allavena, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    KxhKN5 (class 1 KNOX gene) was cloned from Kalanchoe × houghtonii with strong tendency to form epiphylls on leaves. KxhKN5 appear to be homologue of BP of A. thaliana on the basis of phylogeny, expression and phenotype analysis. Beside the modification of several plant and leaf traits, the appearance of epiphylls was drastically reduced by both the silencing and the over-expression of KxhKN5 in most of the generated clones. In silenced clones, epiphyll production followed the morphogenetic pathway of the WT plants: somatic embryos outbreak in the centre of each leaf-pedestal, grown in the notch between leaf indentations and were supported by a suspensor. The connection between the epiphyll and the mother plant did not include any vasculature and as a result, the epiphylls dropped easily from the mother plant. The most represented category of over expressor clones, disclosed a novel pattern of epiphyll development: the leaf-pedestals were absent and single bud outbreaks in each leaf notch. Buds developed into shoots which remained attached to the maternal plant by a strong vascular connection. The leaves supporting shoots, produced a thickened midrib and veins, and their lamina ceased expanding. Finally, the leaf/shoot structure resembles a lateral branch. The ectopic expression of KxhKN5 in K. × houghtonii induces a process comparable to the alternation of leaf and shoot formation in other species and support the idea, that it is the variation in shared molecular and developmental processes which produces the growth of specific structures.

  19. Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18 μg/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21 μg/mL against EV71 and 9.08 μg/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39 μM) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24 μM). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

  20. Carbon isotope composition of intermediates of the starch-malate sequence and level of the crassulacean acid metabolism in leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Tom Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleens, E; Garnier-Dardart, J; Queiroz, O

    1979-09-01

    Isotype analyses were performed on biochemical fractions isolated from leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Tom Thumb. during aging under long days or short days. Irrespective of the age or photoperiodic conditions, the intermediates of the starch-malate sequence (starch, phosphorylated compounds and organic acids) have a level of (13)C higher than that of soluble sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose. In short days, the activity of the crassulacean acid metabolism pathway is predominant as compared to that of C3 pathway: leaves accumulate organic acids, rich in (13)C. In long days, the activity of the crassulacean acid metabolism pathway increases as the leaves age, remaining, however, relatively low as compared to that of C3 pathway: leaves accumulate soluble sugars, poor in (13)C. After photoperiodic change (long days→short days), isotopic modifications of starch and organic acids suggest evidence for a lag phase in the establishment of the crassulacean acid metabolism pathway specific to short days. The relative proportions of carbon from a C3-origin (RuBPC acitivity as strong discriminating step, isotope discrimination in vivo=20‰) or C4-origin (PEPC activity as weak discriminating step, isotope discrimination in vivo=4‰) present in the biochemical fractions were calculated from their δ(13)C values. Under long days, 30 to 70% versus 80 to 100% under short days, of the carbon of the intermediates linked to the starch-malate sequence, or CAM pathway (starch, phosphorylated compounds and organic acids), have a C4-origin. Products connected to the C3 pathway (free sugars, cellulose, hemicellulose) have 0 to 50% of their carbon, arising from reuptake of the C4 from malate, under long days versus 30 to 70% under short days.

  1. Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16 are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012 cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18 μg/mL and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41 μg/mL. Ethyl acetate (EA fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21 μg/mL against EV71 and 9.08 μg/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39 μM and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24 μM. Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection.

  2. Growth and cellular ion content of a salt-sensitive symbiotic system Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Vandna; Sharma, Naveen Kumar; Rai, Ashwani K

    2006-09-01

    Salinity, at a concentration of 10 mM NaCl affected the growth of Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae association and became lethal at 40 mM. Plants exposed up to 30 mM NaCl exhibited longer roots than the control, especially during the beginning of incubation. Average root number in plants exposed to 10 and 20 mM NaCl remained almost the same as in control. A further rise in NaCl concentration to 30 mM reduced the root number, and roots shed off at 40 mM NaCl. Presence of NaCl in the nutrient solution increased the cellular Na+ of the intact association exhibiting differential accumulation by individual partners, while it reduced the cellular Ca2+ level. However, cellular K+ content did not show significant change. Cellular Na+ based on fresh weight of respective individual partners (host tissues and cyanobiont) remained higher in the host tissues than the cyanobiont, while reverse was true for K+ and Ca2+ contents. The contribution of A. azollae in the total cellular ion content of the association was a little because of meagre contribution of the cyanobiont mass (19-21%). High salt sensitivity of Azolla-Anabaena complex is due to an inability of the association to maintain low Na+ and high Ca2+ cellular level.

  3. Phytoextraction potential of water fern (Azolla pinnata) in the removal of a hazardous dye, methyl violet 2B: Artificial neural network modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooh, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi; Lim, Linda B L; Lim, Lee-Hoon; Malik, Owais Ahmed

    2018-04-16

    This study investigated the potential of Azolla pinnata (AP) in the removal of toxic methyl violet 2B (MV) dye wastewater using the phytoextraction approach with the inclusion of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modelling. Parameters examined included the effects of dye concentration, pH and plant dosage. The highest removal efficiency was 93% which was achieved at a plant dosage of 0.8 g (dye volume = 200 mL, initial pH = 6.0, initial dye concentration = 10 mg L -1 ). A significant decrease in relative frond number (RFN), a growth rate estimator, observed at a dye concentration of 20 mg L -1 MV indicated some toxicity, which coincided with the plant pigments studies where the chlorophyll a content was lower than the control. There were little differences in the plant pigment contents between the control and those in the presence of dye (5 to 15 mg L -1 ) indicating the tolerance of AP to MV at lower concentrations. A three-layer ANN model was optimized (6 neurons in the hidden layer) and successfully predicted the phytoextraction of MV (R = 0.9989, RMSE = 0.0098). In conclusion, AP proved to be a suitable plant that could be used for the phytoextraction of MV while the ANN modelling has shown to be a reliable method for the modelling of phytoextraction of MV using AP.

  4. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with Pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sureshkumar, K.; Ganesan, R.; Velraj, R.

    2008-01-01

    Transport vehicles greatly pollute the environment through emissions such as CO, CO 2 , NO x , SO x , unburnt or partially burnt HC and particulate emissions. Fossil fuels are the chief contributors to urban air pollution and major source of green house gases (GHGs) and considered to be the prime cause behind the global climate change. Biofuels are renewable, can supplement fossil fuels, reduce GHGs and mitigate their adverse effects on the climate resulting from global warming. This paper presents the results of performance and emission analyses carried out in an unmodified diesel engine fueled with Pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel. Engine tests have been conducted to get the comparative measures of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) and emissions such as CO, CO 2 , HC, NO x to evaluate the behaviour of PPME and diesel in varying proportions. The results reveal that blends of PPME with diesel up to 40% by volume (B40) provide better engine performance (BSFC and BSEC) and improved emission characteristics. (author)

  5. The Ethnobotany and Potential of Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata Merr. on The Kasepuhan Pasir Eurih Community, Sindanglaya Village, Lebak Regency, Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nira Febriyanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata Merr. is one type of palm that has the potential of high ecological and economic value. This study aimed to identify the ethnobotany of sugar palm, analyzes habitat vegetation conditions, regeneration rate and spatial distribution of sugar palm in Kasepuhan Pasir Eurih. The method used is in-depth interview with informant selection using purposive sampling technique, vegetation analysis, observation and literature study. The greatest utilization is found in the male flower portion for tapping the water of nira as a raw material for making palm sugar. Sugar palm often found in the research location is sugar palm at the level of stake. The level of sugar palm regeneration in Kasepuhan Pasir Eurih is quite sustainable. The pattern of spatial spread of sugar palm in Kasepuhan Pasir Eurih is spread and located at an altitude of 500-600 masl as well as grow wild in the forest. The most common plant species found around sugar palm is africa (Maesopsis eminii which on average has the largest Important Value Index (IVI after sugar palm.Keywords: ethnobotany, kasepuhan community, regeneration, sugar palm

  6. Modulation of physiological responses with TiO2 nano-particle in Azolla pinnata R.Br. under 2,4-D toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Arnab Kumar; Ghosh, Arijit; Debnath, Subhas Chandra; Sarkar, Bipul; Saha, Indraneel; Adak, Malay Kumar

    2018-06-05

    The present work is emphasised with the herbicidal tolerance of Azolla pinnata R.Br. and its modulation with TiO 2 nano-particle. Both carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism were effected with 2,4-D as herbicide and in few cases TiO 2 -NP had recovered few detrimental effects. From the nutrient status in Azolla it recorded the recovery of nitrogen as well as potassium by TiO 2 -NP but not in case of phosphorus. However, a conversion of nitrate to ammonium was more induced by TiO 2 -NP under herbicidal toxicity. Similar results were obtained for inter-conversion of amino acid-nitrate pool, but no changes with glutamine synthase activity with TiO 2 -NP. Initially, the effects of 2,4-D was monitored with changes of chlorophyll content but had not been recovered with nanoparticle. Photosynthetic reserves expressed as both total and reducing sugar were insensitive to TiO 2 -NP interference but activity of soluble and wall bound invertase was in reverse trend as compared to control. The 2,4-D mediated changes of redox and its oxidative stress was ameliorated in plants with over expressed ADH activity. As a whole the Azolla bio system with TiO 2 supplementation may be useful in sustenance against 2,4-D toxicity through recovery of nitrogen metabolism. Thus, Azolla-TiO 2 -NP bio system would be realised to monitor the herbicidal toxicity in soil and its possible bioremediation.

  7. Pseudomonas moraviensis subsp. stanleyae, a bacterial endophyte of hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata, is capable of efficient selenite reduction to elemental selenium under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, L C; Ackerson, C J; Cornelis, P; Ye, L; Berendsen, R L; Hunter, W J; Noblitt, S D; Henry, C S; Cappa, J J; Montenieri, R L; Wong, A O; Musilova, L; Sura-de Jong, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Lens, P N L; Reynolds, R J B; Pilon-Smits, E A H

    2015-08-01

    To identify bacteria with high selenium tolerance and reduction capacity for bioremediation of wastewater and nanoselenium particle production. A bacterial endophyte was isolated from the selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) growing on seleniferous soils in Colorado, USA. Based on fatty acid methyl ester analysis and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) using 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD genes, the isolate was identified as a subspecies of Pseudomonas moraviensis (97.3% nucleotide identity) and named P. moraviensis stanleyae. The isolate exhibited extreme tolerance to SeO3(2-) (up to 120 mmol l(-1)) and SeO4(2-) (>150 mmol l(-1)). Selenium oxyanion removal from growth medium was measured by microchip capillary electrophoresis (detection limit 95 nmol l(-1) for SeO3(2-) and 13 nmol l(-1) for SeO4(2-)). Within 48 h, P. moraviensis stanleyae aerobically reduced SeO3(2-) to red Se(0) from 10 mmol l(-1) to below the detection limit (removal rate 0.27 mmol h(-1) at 30 °C); anaerobic SeO3(2-) removal was slower. No SeO4(2-) removal was observed. Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae stimulated the growth of crop species Brassica juncea by 70% with no significant effect on Se accumulation. Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae can tolerate extreme levels of selenate and selenite and can deplete high levels of selenite under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Pseudomonas moraviensis subsp. stanleyae may be useful for stimulating plant growth and for the treatment of Se-laden wastewater. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. The simulation model of growth and cell divisions for the root apex with an apical cell in application to Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska-Stachowiak, Anna; Nakielski, Jerzy

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to seed plants, the roots of most ferns have a single apical cell which is the ultimate source of all cells in the root. The apical cell has a tetrahedral shape and divides asymmetrically. The root cap derives from the distal division face, while merophytes derived from three proximal division faces contribute to the root proper. The merophytes are produced sequentially forming three sectors along a helix around the root axis. During development, they divide and differentiate in a predictable pattern. Such growth causes cell pattern of the root apex to be remarkably regular and self-perpetuating. The nature of this regularity remains unknown. This paper shows the 2D simulation model for growth of the root apex with the apical cell in application to Azolla pinnata. The field of growth rates of the organ, prescribed by the model, is of a tensor type (symplastic growth) and cells divide taking principal growth directions into account. The simulations show how the cell pattern in a longitudinal section of the apex develops in time. The virtual root apex grows realistically and its cell pattern is similar to that observed in anatomical sections. The simulations indicate that the cell pattern regularity results from cell divisions which are oriented with respect to principal growth directions. Such divisions are essential for maintenance of peri-anticlinal arrangement of cell walls and coordinated growth of merophytes during the development. The highly specific division program that takes place in merophytes prior to differentiation seems to be regulated at the cellular level.

  9. ;Green; carbon with hierarchical three dimensional porous structure derived from - Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and NiCo2O4-Ni(OH)2/Multiwall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite as electrode materials for high performance asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitra, K.; Narendra, Reddy; Venkatesh, Krishna; Nagaraju, N.; Kathyayini, Nagaraju

    2017-07-01

    Herein, we report for the first time synthesis and electrochemical supercapacitance performance of 3-D hierarchical porous "Green" carbon derived from Pongamia pinnata seed oil extract cake and its activation using different amounts of KOH. Also, nanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with various weight percentages of Ni and Co were prepared by hydrothermal method. Physico-chemical properties of "Green" carbon and nanocomposites were analyzed by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Brunner Emmett Teller surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Elemental Dispersive Spectrum, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Raman techniques. KOH activated carbon was found associated with combination of micropores & mesopores while the nanocomposite with mixture of spinel NiCo2O4 and Ni(OH)2. Porous carbon activated with 2:1::KOH:C (KC2) and the nanocomposite with 1:1 Ni & Co (NC1) exhibited excellent electrochemical performance in three electrode system. Further, fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor (AS) device Ni-Co-MWCNT (NC1)//KC2 exhibited specific capacitance (Cs) of 177 F/g as determined by cyclic voltammetry at 10 mV/s and retained 90% even at 3000th cycle in life cycle test conducted at high current density of 50 A/g. In order to evaluate its practical performance, the AS device was charged to 1.8 V at 5 A/g and used successfully to power a calculator for more than 1 h.

  10. PLANTAS MEDICINALES UTILIZADAS POR TRES COMUNIDADES INDÍGENAS EN EL NOROCCIDENTE DE LA AMAZONIA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Trujillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Usando entrevistas semiestructuradas y el índice de importancia relativa (IR, este trabajo documenta las plantas medicinales versátiles o de mayor importancia cultural en tres resguardos indígenas (emberá-katío, coreguaje y uitoto ubicadas en el piedemonte y planicie amazónica del departamento del Caquetá, Colombia. También se registran los usos medicinales y la parte de la planta más usada. En total se registraron 122 especies medicinales (94 géneros en 56 familias; Piperaceae fue la familia con el mayor número de especies (13, seguida por Gesneriaceae y Fabaceae con seis especies cada una. Solamente ocho especies fueron usadas entre dos comunidades, pero ninguna por las tres. La parte de la planta usada con mayor frecuencia en las tres comunidades fue la hoja, empleada en un total de 87 preparaciones medicinales utilizando 70 especies. Los cuatro sistemas corporales con mayor número de especies empleadas y número de tratamientos terapéuticos fueron los siguientes: enfermedades de la piel y tejidos subcutáneos, aflicciones y dolores no definidos, enfermedades infecciosas y parasitarias y enfermedades del sistema digestivo. Aproximadamente la mitad de las especies registradas son usadas para tratar fiebres, diarreas, problemas de hongos, mordeduras de serpientes, parásitos internos e inflamaciones. El 11% de las especies registradas (14 especies en 12 géneros y 12 familias fueron versátiles en relación a su uso (IR ≥ 1.0; el árbol nativo Rauvolfia leptophylla (Apocynaceae y la planta herbácea  introducida a América, Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae, tuvieron los valores de IR más altos (2.0 y 1.6. También se registran algunos síndromes de filiación cultural y se discute la importancia de estas plantas medicinales en el tratamiento de enfermedades comunes de estas comunidades con acceso limitado a centros de salud del gobierno.

  11. Stomatal responses to carbon dioxide of isolated epidermis from a C/sub 3/ plant, the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum L. , and a crassulacean-acid-metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewer, P.C.; Neales, T.F.; Incoll, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    The response of stomata in isolated epidermis to the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the gaseous phase was examined in a C/sub 3/ species, the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum, and a crassulacean-acid-metabolism (CAM) species, Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Epidermis from leaves of both species was incubated on buffer solutions in the presence of air containing various volume fractions of CO/sub 2/ (0 to 10,000 x 10/sup -6/). In both species and in the light and in darkness, the effect of CO/sub 2/ was to inhibit stomatal opening, the maximum inhibition of opening occurring in the range 0 to 360 x 10/sup -6/. The inhibition of opening per unit change in concentration was greatest between volume fractions of 0 and 240 x 10/sup -6/. There was little further closure above the volume fraction of 360 x 10/sup -6/, i.e. approximately ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/. Thus, although leaves of CAM species may experience much higher internal concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in the light than those of C/sub 3/ plants, this does not affect the sensitivity of their stomata to CO/sub 2/ concentration or the range over which they respond. Stomatal responses to CO/sub 2/ were similar in both the light and the dark, indicating that effects of CO/sub 2/ on stomata occur via mechanisms which are independent of light. The responses of stomata to CO/sub 2/ in the gaseous phase took place without the treatments changing the pH of the buffered solutions. Thus, it is unlikely that CO/sub 2/ elicited stomatal movement by changing either the pH or the HCO/sub 3//sup -//CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ equilibria. It is suggested that the concentration of dissolved unhydrated CO/sub 2/ may be the effector of stomatal movement and that its activity is related to its reactivity with amines.

  12. ALKALOIDS OF SOME EUROPEAN AND MACARONESIAN SEDOIDEAE AND SEMPERVIVOIDEAE (CRASSULACEAE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1992-01-01

    Some 22 pyrrolidine and piperdine alkaloids were detected in the leafy parts of Sedum acre, S. aetnense, S. anglicum, S. brissemoreti, S. farinosum, S. fusiforme, S. lancerottense, S. melanantherum, and S. nudum. In addition to the alkaloids known from S. acre, 1-(2-pyrrolidyl)-propan-2-one and

  13. Day–Night Changes of Energy-rich Compounds in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) Species Utilizing Hexose and Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, LI-SONG; NOSE, AKIHIRO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be divided into two groups according to the major carbohydrates used for malic acid synthesis, either polysaccharide (starch) or monosaccharide (hexose). This is related to the mechanism and affects energy metabolism in the two groups. In Kalanchoë pinnata and K. daigremontiana, which utilize starch, ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast inorganic pyrophosphatase) activity is greater than inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast adenosine triphosphatase) activity, but the reverse is the case in pineapple (Ananas comosus) utilizing hexose. To test the hypothesis that the energy metabolism of the two groups differs, day-night changes in the contents of ATP, ADP, AMP, inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in K. pinnata and K. daigremontiana leaves and in pineapple chlorenchyma were analysed. • Methods The contents of energy-rich compounds were measured spectrophotometrically in extracts of tissue sampled in the light and dark, using potted plants, kept for 15 d before the experiments in a growth chamber. • Key Results In the three species, ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) increased in the dark and decreased in the light, in contrast to ADP and AMP. Changes in ATP and AEC were greater in Kalanchoë leaves than in pineapple chlorenchyma. PPi content in the three species increased in the dark, but on illumination it decreased rapidly and substantially, remaining little changed through the rest of the light period. Pi content of Kalanchoë leaves did not change between dark and light, whereas Pi in pineapple chlorenchyma increased in the dark and decreased in the light, and the changes were far greater than in Kalanchoë leaves. Light-dark changes in PEP content in the three species were similar. • Conclusions These results corroborate our hypothesis that day–night changes in the contents of energy

  14. Day-night changes of energy-rich compounds in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species utilizing hexose and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Song; Nose, Akihiro

    2004-09-01

    Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be divided into two groups according to the major carbohydrates used for malic acid synthesis, either polysaccharide (starch) or monosaccharide (hexose). This is related to the mechanism and affects energy metabolism in the two groups. In Kalanchoë pinnata and K. daigremontiana, which utilize starch, ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast inorganic pyrophosphatase) activity is greater than inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast adenosine triphosphatase) activity, but the reverse is the case in pineapple (Ananas comosus) utilizing hexose. To test the hypothesis that the energy metabolism of the two groups differs, day-night changes in the contents of ATP, ADP, AMP, inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in K. pinnata and K. daigremontiana leaves and in pineapple chlorenchyma were analysed. The contents of energy-rich compounds were measured spectrophotometrically in extracts of tissue sampled in the light and dark, using potted plants, kept for 15 d before the experiments in a growth chamber. In the three species, ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) increased in the dark and decreased in the light, in contrast to ADP and AMP. Changes in ATP and AEC were greater in Kalanchoë leaves than in pineapple chlorenchyma. PPi content in the three species increased in the dark, but on illumination it decreased rapidly and substantially, remaining little changed through the rest of the light period. Pi content of Kalanchoë leaves did not change between dark and light, whereas Pi in pineapple chlorenchyma increased in the dark and decreased in the light, and the changes were far greater than in Kalanchoë leaves. Light-dark changes in PEP content in the three species were similar. These results corroborate our hypothesis that day-night changes in the contents of energy-rich compounds differ between CAM species and are related to the

  15. A Novel Antimicrobial Phenanthrene Alkaloid from Bryopyllum pinnatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatus Ebere Okwu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenenthrene alkaloid identified as 1-ethanamino 7 hex-1-yne-5I-one phenanthrene was isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (syn. B. calcinum kalanchoe pinnata a versatile Nigeria medicinal plant. The structure was elucidated using NMR, IR, UV and MS spectral data. Antimicrobial studies showed that the isolated compound successfully inhibited Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. This result authenticates the use of bryophyllum pinantum in phytomedicine for disease prevention and treatment of infections.

  16. Growth control of kalanchoe cultivars Rako and Gold Strike by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After soaking treatment, the cuttings were rooted in a fog tunnel with mean daily air temperature of 18.2°C and RH of 66%. Three replicates per treatment and eight plants per each replicate were used. All cuttings rooted well in all treatments. At all applied concentrations, plant height and stem internode length decreased ...

  17. Anticaries Activity of Azolla pinnata and Azolla rubra | Prashith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v3i3.21 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  18. Thermal degradation analysis of pongamia pinnata oil as alternative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Mariprasath

    water content analysis are performed to without catalytic added PPO ... Also, the water content of PPO ... and sludge which have effectively reduced breakdown strength [9]. ..... tion of non-edible oil plant in uncultivable waste lands in. India.

  19. Biología reproductiva de cinco especies ornitófilas en un fragmento de bosque caducifolio secundario en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Grases

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available La biología floral, biología de polinización y sistema de apareamiento fueron estudiados en dos especies nativas y tres especies introducidas presentes en un fragmento de bosque caducifolio secundario en Venezuela. Todas las especies estudiadas presentaron corolas tubulares, largas y estrechas; predominando los colores rojos. La antesis de todas las especies fue diurna, entre las 04:00 y las 11:00. La producción de néctar fue alta, excepto para Salvia coccinea (Lamiaceae (nativa. Nicotiana glauca (Solanaceae (nativa y Erythrina mitis (Fabaceae (introducida compartían sus polinizadores Chlorostilbon mellisugus y Amazilia tobaci (Apodiformes, Throchilidae. S. coccinea recibió visitas legítimas de Heliconius erato (Lepidóptera. Kalanchöe daigremontiana y K. pinnata (Crassulaceae (exóticas no recibieron ninguna visita legítima. Todas las especies fueron hermafroditas. K. daigremontiana y K. pinnata resultaron xenógamas obligadas; mientras S. coccinea, N. glauca y E. mitis resultaron parcialmente autocompatibles no autógamas. Las cinco especies mostraron una alta a-signación de biomasa total con respecto a otros sistemas de polinización. La a-signación de biomasa reproductiva fue siempre menor a las asignaciones de biomasa de atracción y de biomasa vegetativa floral. La asignación de biomasa masculina fue mayor que la femenina para N. glauca, S. coccinea y E. mitis, y menor para K. daigremontiana y K. pinnata. Las especies introducidas no parecen afectar notoriamente las eficiencias reproductivas de las especies nativas. Las eficiencias reproductivas de las especies nativas fueron superiores a las de las especies introducidas. Las eficiencias reproductivas de las especies introducidas resultaron bajas, debido a que se encuentran afectadas por la ausencia de sus polinizadores naturales.The floral biology, the pollination biology and the mating system were studied in two native and three introduced species of an arboretum in

  20. Plant life forms in thermal regulation and self purification of urban housing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, S H [Osmania Univ., Ecology and Environmental Studies Div., Hyderabad (India)

    1995-12-01

    This article is concerned with the air quality of the closed indoor environment with respect to its temperature and carbon dioxide levels and with the assessment of management practices that have been used to reduce temperature and carbon dioxide levels with the help of certain plants. Phanerophytic lifeforms, such as trees, shrubs, herbs and creepers surrounding dwellings can be shown to produce a cooling effect, reducing temperatures by up to 11{sup o}C. Certain succulent plants like Kalanchoe marmorata, Bryophyllum pinnata and Apicra deltoideae were observed under experimental conditions to reduce carbon dioxide levels up to 90% from closed chambers under dark conditions. Certain ornamental plants such as Verbena bipinnatifida and Ixora coccinea could remove 63-75% of carbon dioxide from closed indoor environments in the presence of light. (author) 3 tabs., 11 refs.

  1. Phylogeography of Rhodiola kirilowii (Crassulaceae: a story of Miocene divergence and quaternary expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiang Zhang

    Full Text Available The evolution and current distribution of the Sino-Tibetan flora have been greatly affected by historical geological events, such as the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP, and Quaternary climatic oscillations. Rhodiola kirilowii, a perennial herb with its distribution ranging from the southeastern QTP and the Hengduan Mountains (HM to adjacent northern China and central Asia, provides an excellent model to examine and disentangle the effect of both geological orogeny and climatic oscillation on the evolutionary history of species with such distribution patterns. We here conducted a phylogeographic study using sequences of two chloroplast fragments (trnL-F and trnS-G and internal transcribed spacers in 29 populations of R. kirilowii. A total of 25 plastid haplotypes and 12 ITS ribotypes were found. Molecular clock estimation revealed deep divergence between the central Asian populations and other populations from the HM and northern China; this split occurred ca. 2.84 million year ago. The majority of populations from the mountains of northern China were dominated by a single haplotype or ribotype, while populations of the HM harbored both high genetic diversity and high haplotype diversity. This distribution pattern indicates that HM was either a diversification center or a refugium for R. kirilowii during the Quaternary climatic oscillations. The present distribution of this species on mountains in northern China may have resulted from a rapid glacial population expansion from the HM. This expansion was confirmed by the mismatch distribution analysis and negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS values, and was dated to ca. 168 thousand years ago. High genetic diversity and population differentiation in both plastid and ITS sequences were revealed; these imply restricted gene flow between populations. A distinct isolation-by-distance pattern was suggested by the Mantel test. Our results show that in old lineages, populations may harbour divergent genetic forms that are sufficient to maintain or even increase overall genetic diversity despite fragmentation and low within-population variation.

  2. Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family crassulaceae in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, G.R.; Qaiser, M.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family Crassul aceae have been studied in Pakistan and Kashmir. Out of 31 taxa, 15 are Irano-Turanian elements, 16 are Sino-Japanese elements and only one is Mediterranean element. Twenty nine taxa are classified as uniregional, while one is biregional element. Only one taxon is considered as pluriregional element. Rhodiola saxifragoides, Rosularia adenotricha subsp. chitralica and Hylotelephium pakistanicum are endemic taxa. While Rhodiola pachyclados and Rosularia sedoides are partim endemic. The former species is confined to (Kurrum valley) Pakistan and Afghanistan whereas the latter species distributed in Kashmir and N India. Rhodiola coccinea subsp. scabrida is subendemic to the peripheral belt of Irano-Turanian and Sino-Japanese regions. (author)

  3. Taxonomic and floristic novelties for Echeveria ( Crassulaceae ) in Central Michoacan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Garc?a-Ruiz, Ignacio; Valent?n-Mart?nez, Dagoberto; Carrillo-Reyes, Pablo; Costea, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Echeveria coruana , is described and illustrated from the malpa?s near San Andr?s Cor?, Michoacan, Mexico. The species belongs to series Gibbiflorae and the new taxon was compared with Echeveria purhepecha and Echeveria patriotica , with whom it shares the closest morphological affinities. Additionally, Echeveria yalmanantlaensis an endangered species from Sierra of Manantl?n Biosphere Reserve, State of Colima, was also discovered near San Andr?s Cor? and is reported f...

  4. Flavonoids from Jovibarba globifera (Crassulaceae) rosette leaves and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Krzaczek, Tadeusz; Łopatyński, Tomasz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Zidorn, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Seven flavonoids new for the genus Jovibarba, kaempferol 1, kaempferol 3-O-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 2, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucoside 3, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-α-D-glucofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 4, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 5, kaempferol 3,7,4'-O-trimethyl ether 6 and quercetin 7, were isolated from fresh and dried leaves of J.ovibarba globifera subsp. globifera. The structures of these compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and spectrometric (MS) data, as well as by comparison of these with those reported in the literature. All of the flavonoids are reported for the first time from the investigated taxon. In addition the antioxidant activities in DPPH test of selected compounds were evaluated.

  5. Adaptive radiation of island plants: Evidence from Aeonium (Crassulaceae) of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    evidence that such traits have been acquired through convergent evolution on islands comes from molecular phylogenies; however, direct evidence of their selective value rarely is obtained. The importance of hybridization in the evolution of island plants is also considered as part of a more general......The presence of diverse and species-rich plant lineages on oceanic islands is most often associated with adaptive radiation. Here we discuss the possible adaptive significance of some of the most prominent traits in island plants, including woodiness, monocarpy and sexual dimorphisms. Indirect...... discussion of the mechanisms governing radiations on islands. Most examples are from the Hawaiian and Canarian floras, and in particular from studies on the morphological, ecological and molecular diversification of the genus Aeonium, the largest plant radiation of the Canarian Islands....

  6. Deep genetic divergence between disjunct Refugia in the Arctic-Alpine King's Crown, Rhodiola integrifolia (Crassulaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G DeChaine

    Full Text Available Despite the strength of climatic variability at high latitudes and upper elevations, we still do not fully understand how plants in North America that are distributed between Arctic and alpine areas responded to the environmental changes of the Quaternary. To address this question, we set out to resolve the evolutionary history of the King's Crown, Rhodiola integrifolia using multi-locus population genetic and phylogenetic analyses in combination with ecological niche modeling. Our population genetic analyses of multiple anonymous nuclear loci revealed two major clades within R. integrifolia that diverged from each other ~ 700 kya: one occurring in Beringia to the north (including members of subspecies leedyi and part of subspecies integrifolia, and the other restricted to the Southern Rocky Mountain refugium in the south (including individuals of subspecies neomexicana and part of subspecies integrifolia. Ecological niche models corroborate our hypothesized locations of refugial areas inferred from our phylogeographic analyses and revealed some environmental differences between the regions inhabited by its two subclades. Our study underscores the role of geographic isolation in promoting genetic divergence and the evolution of endemic subspecies in R. integrifolia. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analyses of the plastid spacer region trnL-F demonstrate that among the native North American species, R. integrifolia and R. rhodantha are more closely related to one another than either is to R. rosea. An understanding of these historic processes lies at the heart of making informed management decisions regarding this and other Arctic-alpine species of concern in this increasingly threatened biome.

  7. How Closely Do the δ13C Values of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plants Reflect the Proportion of CO2 Fixed during Day and Night?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant δ13C values provide an index of the proportions of CO2 fixed during daytime and nighttime was assessed. Shoots of seven CAM species (Aloe vera, Hylocereus monocanthus, Kalanchoe beharensis, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, Kalanchoe pinnata, Vanilla pauciflora, and Xerosicyos danguyi) and two C3 species (teak [Tectona grandis] and Clusia sp.) were grown in a cuvette, and net CO2 exchange was monitored for up to 51 d. In species exhibiting net dark CO2 fixation, between 14% and 73.3% of the carbon gain occurred in the dark. δ13C values of tissues formed inside the cuvette ranged between −28.7‰ and −11.6‰, and correlated linearly with the percentages of carbon gained in the light and in the dark. The δ13C values for new biomass obtained solely during the dark and light were estimated as −8.7‰ and −26.9‰, respectively. For each 10% contribution of dark CO2 fixation integrated over the entire experiment, the δ13C content of the tissue was, thus, approximately 1.8‰ less negative. Extrapolation of the observations to plants previously surveyed under natural conditions suggests that the most commonly expressed version of CAM in the field, “the typical CAM plant,” involves plants that gain about 71% to 77% of their carbon by dark fixation, and that the isotopic signals of plants that obtain one-third or less of their carbon in the dark may be confused with C3 plants when identified on the basis of carbon isotope content alone. PMID:12177497

  8. Medicinal plants used by Burundian traditional healers for the treatment of microbial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngezahayo, Jérémie; Havyarimana, François; Hari, Léonard; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Infectious diseases represent a serious and worldwide public health problem. They lead to high mortality, especially in non-developed countries. In Burundi, the most frequent infectious diseases are skin and respiratory (mainly in children) infections, diarrhea, added to malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Local population used mostly traditional herbal medicines, sometimes animal and mineral substances, to fight against these plagues. To survey in different markets and herbal shops in Bujumbura city, medicinal plants sold to treat microbial infections, with particular emphasis on the different practices of traditional healers (THs) regarding plant parts used, methods of preparation and administration, dosage and treatment duration. The ethnobotanical survey was conducted by interviewing, using a pre-set questionnaire, sixty representative healers, belonging to different associations of THs approved and recognised by the Ministry of Health. Each interviewed herbalist also participated in the collection of samples and the determination of the common names of plants. The plausibility of recorded uses has been verified through an extensive literature search. Our informants enabled us to collect 155 different plant species, distributed in 51 families and 139 genera. The most represented families were Asteraceae (20 genera and 25 species), Fabaceae (14 genera and 16 species), Lamiaceae (12 genera and 15 species), Rubiaceae (9 genera and 9 species), Solanaceae (6 genera and 6 species) and Euphorbiaceae (5 genera and 6 families). These plants have been cited to treat 25 different alleged symptoms of microbial diseases through 271 multi-herbal recipes (MUHRs) and 60 mono-herbal recipes (MOHRs). Platostoma rotundifolium (Briq.) A. J. Paton (Lamiaceae), the most cited species, has been reported in the composition of 41 MUHRs, followed by Virectaria major (Schum.) Verdc (Rubiaceae, 39 recipes), Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw. (Crassulaceae, 37 recipes), Stomatanthes

  9. KARAKTERISASI KOMPOSIT EDIBLE FILM BUAH KOLANG-KALING (Arenge Pinnata DAN LILIN LEBAH (Beeswax [Characterization of Composite Edible Film Derived from Palm Fruit (Arenge pinnata and Beeswax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study of the characteristics of edible film after addition of different concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax. The research used of Factorial Block Randomized Design with two treatments and each treatment was replicated three times. The first treatment was concentrations of the kolang-kaling (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, and the second treatment was concentrations of the beeswax (0%, 0,5%, 1%, and 1,5%. The parameters were water content, tensile strength, elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate. The result showed that the addition of different concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax significantly afected the water content, tensile strength, elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate. The thickness increased with the increasing concentrations of kolang-kaling and beeswax. The water vapor transmission rate, tensile strength, and elongation percentage were decreased. The tensile strength, elongation percentage, thickness, and water vapor transmission rate of edible film were 0,342 Kgf cm-2, 52,5%, 0,025 mm and 53,439 gm-2hari-1 respectively. The best treatment was achived by using concentration of kolang-kaling at 5% and concentration of beeswax at 1,5%.

  10. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, C M; Freitas, R M; Luz, N N N; Bezerra, M Z B; Trevisan, M T S

    2011-08-01

    A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL), Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL), Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL), Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL) and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL). The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL) should be present.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM. Feitosa

    Full Text Available A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL, Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL, Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL, Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL. The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL should be present.

  12. Potential Health Risks Posed by Plant-Derived Cumulative Neurotoxic Bufadienolides in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Botha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bufadienolide-type cardiac glycosides have a worldwide distribution and are mainly synthesized by plants, but there are also animal sources. In South Africa, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe cause a unique chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, predominantly in small stock. This paretic/paralytic condition is referred to as “krimpsiekte”, cotyledonosis or “nenta”. “Krimpsiekte” is a plant poisoning only reported from South Africa and is regarded as the most important plant poisoning of small stock in the semi-arid Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo. The toxicosis is caused by cumulative bufadienolides which have neurotoxic properties. Four types of cumulative neurotoxic bufadienolides, namely cotyledoside, and the tyledosides, orbicusides and lanceotoxins, have been isolated. Based on the structure activity relationships and certain toxicokinetic parameters possible reasons for their accumulation are presented. Consumption of edible tissues from animals that have ingested these plants poses a potential risk to humans.

  13. Photoperiod and cold night temperature in control of flowering in Kalanchoë

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Coelho, Lívia; Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk

    2015-01-01

    was used as control species to validate treatments that consisted of combining short day photoperiod (8 h) and different night temperature (18, 12 and 6C). While K. prittwitzii had 100% flowering for all treatments, K. marmorata only flowered at 12C (33% plants flowering) and 6C (25% plants flowering...

  14. Antiplasmid Potential of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Against Multidrug ResistancePseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    ZirakFaqe Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2014-01-01

    This study concerned with the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from various clinical cases in human which include (burn, wound and urine) that admitted to Emergency hospital and internal lab of teaching hospital in Erbil city. Forty isolates of P. aeruginosa from out of 120 samples were identified by using cultured, morphological and biochemical tests in addition to vitek machine. According to the resistance of the isolates to these antibiotics they showed variation in their resistance; th...

  15. Using the "Kalanchoe daigremontiana" Plant To Show the Effects of Photoperiodism on Plantlet Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an activity demonstrating the importance of photoperiod on plant development. Uses the plant devil's backbone for the experiment and studies the details of photoperiodic requirement for plantlet formation. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  16. Characterization of the anion sensitive ATPase in intact vacuoles of Kalanchoe diagremontiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobza, J.; Uribe, E.G.

    1986-04-01

    A method for the isolation of intact vacuoles from K. daigremontiana was developed which produced high yields of relatively pure vacuoles as determined by marker enzyme contamination. Upon isolation, the vacuoles were stabilized by the inclusion of 5% (w/v) ficoll. Enzyme activity was insensitive to vanadate and azide but was strongly inhibited by DCCD. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the inclusion of Mg/sup 2 +/ and was stimulated by anions as depicted by the series, NO/sub 3//sup -/ < Br/sup -/ < SO/sub 4//sup -/ < HCO/sub 3//sup -/ < Cl/sup -/. It was found that in intact vacuoles the ATPase activity was stimulated by phosphate to a level equivalent to that found with the chloride. The enzyme exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km for Mg-ATP complex of 0.51 mM.

  17. Climate Is Not All: Evidence From Phylogeography of Rhodiola fastigiata (Crassulaceae and Comparison to Its Closest Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiang Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available How geological events and climate oscillations in the Pleistocene glaciation shaped the geographic distribution of genetic variation of species on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and its adjacent areas has been extensively studied. However, little studies have investigated whether closely related species in the same genus with similar physiological and life history traits responded similarly to the glacial climatic oscillations. If this is not the case, we would expect that the population histories of studied species were not driven by extrinsic environmental changes alone. Here we conducted a phylogeographic study of a succulent alpine plant Rhodiola fastigiata, using sequences from chloroplast genome and nrITS region, as well as ecological niche modeling. The results of R. fastigiata were compared to other congeneric species that have been studied, especially to R. alsia and R. crenulata. We found that for both markers, two geographic groups could be revealed, corresponding to the QTP plateau and the Hengduan Mountains, respectively, indicating isolated refugia in those two areas. The two groups diverged 1.23 Mya during the Pleistocene. We detected no significant population expansion by mismatch distribution analysis and Bayesian Skyline Plot. We found that even these similar species with similar physiological and life history traits have had different demographic histories in the Quaternary glacial periods. Our comparative phylogeographic study sheds new lights into phylogeographic research that extrinsic environmental changes are not the only factor that can drive population demography, and other factors, such as coevolved interactions between plants and their specialized pathogens, that probably played a role need to be examined with more case studies.

  18. Diversification in insular plants: Inferring the phylogenetic relationship in Aeonium (Crassulaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Frydenberg, J.

    1999-01-01

    The ITS regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were sequenced in 37 species of the genus Aeonium. A phylogeny obtained through the use of parsimony agrees to some extent with the sectional division of the genus and confirms the position of two newly described species. It also suggests the potential imp...

  19. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  20. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a

  1. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-10-13

    This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but

  2. The optimum energy harvest efficiency of nitrogen fixing hydrophyte: Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennakone, K. (Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (LK) Ruhuna Univ., Matara (LK). Dept. of Physics); Punchihewa, S.; Jayasuriya, A.C. (Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (LK))

    1989-01-01

    Azolla is a nitrogen fixing hydrophyte that can be cultivated in absence of nitrogenous fertilizer. It is found that when biomass is continuously harvested from a culture of Azolla, solar energy can be converted at an optimum efficiency of 1.1%. (author).

  3. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  4. Genetic and Genomic Analysis of the Tree Legume Pongamia pinnata as a Feedstock for Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Biswas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The tree legume Pongamia { (L. Pierre [syn. (L. Panigrahi]} is emerging as an important biofuels feedstock. It produces about 30 kg per tree per year of seeds, containing up to 55% oil (w/v, of which approximately 50% is oleic acid (C. The capacity for biological N fixation places Pongamia in a more sustainable position than current nonlegume biofuel feedstocks. Also due to its drought and salinity tolerance, Pongamia can grow on marginal land not destined for production of food. As part of the effort to domesticate Pongamia our research group at The University of Queensland has started to develop specific genetic and genomic tools. Much of the preliminary work to date has focused on characterizing the genetic diversity of wild populations. This diversity is reflective of the outcrossing reproductive biology of Pongamia and necessitates the requirement to develop clonal propagation protocols. Both the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of Pongamia have been sequenced and annotated (152,968 and 425,718 bp, respectively, with similarities to previously characterized legume organelle genomes. Many nuclear genes associated with oil biosynthesis and nodulation in Pongamia have been characterized. The continued application of genetic and genomic tools will support the deployment of Pongamia as a sustainable biofuel feedstock.

  5. Genetic and Genomic Analysis of the Tree Legume Pongamia pinnata as a Feedstock for Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Bandana Biswas; Stephen H. Kazakoff; Qunyi Jiang; Sharon Samuel; Peter M. Gresshoff; Paul T. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The tree legume Pongamia { (L.) Pierre [syn. (L.) Panigrahi]} is emerging as an important biofuels feedstock. It produces about 30 kg per tree per year of seeds, containing up to 55% oil (w/v), of which approximately 50% is oleic acid (C). The capacity for biological N fixation places Pongamia in a more sustainable position than current nonlegume biofuel feedstocks. Also due to its drought and salinity tolerance, Pongamia can grow on marginal land not destined for production of food. As part...

  6. LIMBAH SERUTAN KAYU MATOA (Pometia pinnata SEBAGAI ZAT WARNA ALAM PADA KAIN BATIK SERAT SELULOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haerudin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Potensi limbah sumber daya alam di Indonesia hususnya limbah kayu-kayuan sangat melimpah yang selama ini belum dimanfaatkan dan belum miliki nilai jual yang sangat tinggi, salah satunya serutan kayu matoa. Pada penelitian ini mencoba melakukan ekperimen limbah serutan kayu matoa dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber bahan baku zat warna alam yang akan diaplikasikan pada kain batik serat selulosa.Tujuan dari  penelitian ini ingin melihat arah warna yang dihasilkan dari ekstraksi limbah serutan kayu matoa dengan melakukan beberapa perlakuan variasi suhu ekstrkasi 75°C dan 100°C dengan pelarut air, dalam suasana larutan celup pH asam 4 dan pH basa 10, serta perlakuan mordan akhir tawas 70 g/l dan tunjung 30 g/l, dari hasil ekperiment dilakukan uji beda warna (L, a, b dan uji ketahanan luntur warna pada pencucian.            Hasil uji beda warna (L,a,b pencelupan kayu matoa pada kain katun menghasilkan beda warna dengan kain standar uji dimana secara visualisasi dengan perlakuan suasana celup pH asam dengan mordan akhir tawas menghasilkan arah warna coklat sedang, dan dengan perlakuan mordan akhir tunjung menghasilkan arah warna coklat tua. Pada perlakuan suasana larutan celup pH basa dengan perlakuan mordan akhir tawas menghasilkan arah warna coklat muda serta dengan perlakuan mordan akhir tunjung mendapatkan arah warna coklat sedang. Dari hasil uji ketahanan luntur warna pada pencucian secara umum nilai yang diperoleh 4-5 dalam kategori baik.  

  7. Limbah Serutan Kayu Matoa (Pometia Pinnata) Sebagai Zat Warna Alam Pada Kain Batik Serat Selulosa

    OpenAIRE

    Haerudin, Agus; Farida, Farida Farida

    2017-01-01

    Potensi limbah sumber daya alam di Indonesia hususnya limbah kayu-kayuan sangat melimpah yang selama ini belum dimanfaatkan dan belum miliki nilai jual yang sangat tinggi, salah satunya serutan kayu matoa. Pada penelitian ini mencoba melakukan ekperimen limbah serutan kayu matoa dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber bahan baku zat warna alam yang akan diaplikasikan pada kain batik serat selulosa.Tujuan dari penelitian ini ingin melihat arah warna yang dihasilkan dari ekstraksi limbah serutan kayu mato...

  8. Services ecosystémiques du parc agroforestier à Cordyla pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats de l'enquête indiquent que les principales espèces ligneuses du parc citées pour leur fonction alimentaire dans la commune de. Keur Samba Guèye sont: Parkia biglobosa. (15%), Anacardium occidentale (13%),. Mangifera indica (10%), Zyziphus mauritiana. (10%), Detarium senegalensis (8%), Parinari.

  9. Pyrolysis kinetics of raw and hydrothermally carbonized Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-03-01

    The pyrolysis of karanj fruit hulls (KFH) and karanj fruit hull hydrothermal carbonization (KFH-HTC) hydrochar was thermogravimetrically investigated under a nitrogen environment at 5 °C/min, 10 °C/min, and 20 °C/min. The pyrolysis decomposition of KFH biomass was faster than that of KFH-HTC hydrochar because of the high volatility and fixed carbon of KFH biomass. Weight loss percentage was also affected by the heating rates. The kinetic data were evaluated with the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. The activation energy values obtained with these two methods were 61.06 and 68.53 kJ/mol for KFH biomass and 130.49 and 135.87 kJ/mol for KFH-HTC hydrochar, respectively. The analysis of kinetic process mechanisms was verified with the Coats-Redfern method. KFH-HTC hydrochar may play a potential role in transforming biomass to energy-rich feedstock for thermochemical applications because of its high heating value, high fixed carbon, and low ash and sulfur contents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on cow urine and Pongamia pinnata Linn seed in farmyard: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TRUST IN GOD

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... method has been followed to prepare the extract and incubation of pot inside the soil providing ... HPLC and FT-IR spectral analysis to elucidate the structure of the active principle. .... quantity of flavonoids. This extract which ...

  11. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  12. Thermo-mechanical behaviors of thermoplastic starch derived from sugar palm tree (Arenga pinnata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahari, J; Sapuan, S M; Zainudin, E S; Maleque, M A

    2013-02-15

    In recent years, increasing environmental concerns focused greater attention on the development of biodegradable materials. A thermoplastic starch derived from bioresources, sugar palm tree was successfully developed in the presence of biodegradable glycerol as a plasticizer. Sugar palm starch (SPS) was added with 15-40 w/w% of glycerol to prepare workable bioplastics and coded as SPS/G15, SPS/G20, SPS/G30 and SPS/G40. The samples were characterized for thermal properties, mechanical properties and moisture absorption on exposure to humidity were evaluated. Morphological studies through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to explain the observed mechanical properties. Generally, the addition of glycerol decrease the transition temperature of plasticized SPS. The mechanical properties of plasticized SPS increase with the increasing of glycerol but up to 30 w/w%. Meanwhile, the water absorption of plasticized SPS decrease with increasing of glycerol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative pharmacognosy of Pashanbhed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pashanbhed is a commercially available diuretic and lithotropic drug, used to treat renal problems. It is a controversial name as it is assigned to various plants such as Bergenia ligulata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Coleus aromaticus and Rotula aquatica. Objective: To perform the comparative preliminary phytochemical screening, diuretic activity, and thin layer chromatography (TLC finger printing profile of three plants (B. ligulata, C. aromaticus, and K. pinnata, most commonly used as Pashanbhed. Materials and Methods: Diuretic potential of methanolic extract (ME of three plants were evaluated at two dose levels (500 and 1,000 mg/kg p.o., using normal Wistar rats (Lipschitz method. Furosemide (20 mg/kg p.o. was used as a standard drug. The effect on urine output and electrolyte changes were measured for 24 h and compared. All MEs were screened preliminarily for their constituents and their TLC finger printing profiles were prepared. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni′s multiple comparison test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The MEs of all three plants have shown diuresis in normal rats. However, in intercomparison of the ME C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o. produced more significant diuresis (P < 0.05 and electrolyte excretion compared to other test groups, the effect was at par with furosemide. The ME of these plants showed presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, etc. Conclusion: The ME of C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o. has showed highest diuretic action (4.2 among the tested extracts. This suggests the use of C. aromaticus leaves as "Pashanbhed"; the most effective diuretic drug.

  14. Comparative pharmacognosy of Pashanbhed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Poonam; Gauttam, Vinod; Kalia, Ajudhia N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pashanbhed is a commercially available diuretic and lithotropic drug, used to treat renal problems. It is a controversial name as it is assigned to various plants such as Bergenia ligulata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Coleus aromaticus and Rotula aquatica. Objective: To perform the comparative preliminary phytochemical screening, diuretic activity, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) finger printing profile of three plants (B. ligulata, C. aromaticus, and K. pinnata), most commonly used as Pashanbhed. Materials and Methods: Diuretic potential of methanolic extract (ME) of three plants were evaluated at two dose levels (500 and 1,000 mg/kg p.o.), using normal Wistar rats (Lipschitz method). Furosemide (20 mg/kg p.o.) was used as a standard drug. The effect on urine output and electrolyte changes were measured for 24 h and compared. All MEs were screened preliminarily for their constituents and their TLC finger printing profiles were prepared. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The MEs of all three plants have shown diuresis in normal rats. However, in intercomparison of the ME C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o.) produced more significant diuresis (P < 0.05) and electrolyte excretion compared to other test groups, the effect was at par with furosemide. The ME of these plants showed presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, etc. Conclusion: The ME of C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o.) has showed highest diuretic action (4.2) among the tested extracts. This suggests the use of C. aromaticus leaves as “Pashanbhed”; the most effective diuretic drug. PMID:24948861

  15. Bio-Guided Targeting for Preservative and Anti-Ageing Cosmetic Ingredient Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Destandau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop a new antioxidant, antibacterial and natural cosmetic ingredient without cytotoxicity to skin cells, bioactive molecules contained in Kalanchoe pinnata leaf methanolic extract were targeted using semi-preparative HPLC fractionation linked to biological activity tests. Chromatographic effluent was collected at the column outlet into a 96 deep-well microplate, filling successively all the wells. After freeze-drying, the microplate was ready to use for different biological tests such as antimicrobial activity on microorganisms, skin cell viability and antioxidant activity on human keratinocyte cells. The injection of only 2.64 mg of crude extract into the HPLC system reveals a good correlation between the chromatographic peaks and the different biological activities. One fraction is mainly of interest since good antibacterial and antioxidant activities without cytotoxicity are observed. The analysis of this fraction using mass spectrometry allows the identification of glycoside derivatives of quercetin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol. Thus, a correlation between biological activity and the presence of these flavonoids is obtained. This screening method allows a rapid fractionation associated with a biological activity evaluation and a first molecular identification, saving time by limiting sample treatments and solvent consumption.

  16. Antioxidant activities of traditional plants in Sri Lanka by DPPH free radical-scavenging assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Hara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes free radical-scavenging activities of extracts of several plants harvested in Sri Lanka through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. These plants have traditionally been used in the indigenous systems of medicine in Sri Lanka, such as Ayurveda, as described below. (English name, “local name in Sri Lanka,” (scientific name.bougainvillea plant, “bouganvilla,” (Bougainvillea grabla, purple fruited pea eggplant,”welthibbatu,” (Solanum trilobatum [1], country borage plant, “kapparawalliya,” (Plectranthus amboinicus [2], malabar nut plant, “adhatoda,” (Justicia adhatoda [3], long pepper plant,”thippili,” (Piper longum [4], holy basil plant, “maduruthala,” (Ocimum tenuiflorum [5], air plant, “akkapana,” (Kalanchoe pinnata [6], plumed cockscomb plant, “kiri-henda,” (Celosia argentea [7], neem plant,”kohomba,” (Azadirachta indica [8], balipoovu plant, “polpala,” (Aerva lanata [9], balloon-vine plant, “wel penera,” (Cardiospermum halicacabum [10], emblic myrobalan plant, “nelli,” (Phyllanthus emblica [11], indian copperleaf plant, “kuppameniya,” (Acalypha indica [12], spreading hogweed plant, “pita sudu sarana,” (Boerhavia diffusa [13], curry leaf plant, “karapincha,” (Murraya koenigii [14], indian pennywort plant, “gotukola,” (Centera asiatica [15], jewish plum plant, “ambarella,”(Spondias dulcis [16]. Keywords: Antioxidative activity, DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Traditional plant, Medical herb

  17. Hormonal control of root development on epiphyllous plantlets of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) marnierianum: role of auxin and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulka, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Epiphyllous plantlets develop on leaves of Bryophyllum marnierianum when they are excised from the plant. Shortly after leaf excision, plantlet shoots develop from primordia located near the leaf margin. After the shoots have enlarged for several days, roots appear at their base. In this investigation, factors regulating plantlet root development were studied. The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) abolished root formation without markedly affecting shoot growth. This suggested that auxin transport from the plantlet shoot induces root development. Excision of plantlet apical buds inhibits root development. Application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in lanolin at the site of the apical buds restores root outgrowth. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin, reverses TIBA inhibition of plantlet root emergence on leaf explants. Both of these observations support the hypothesis that auxin, produced by the plantlet, induces root development. Exogenous ethylene causes precocious root development several days before that of a control without hormone. Ethylene treatment cannot bypass the TIBA block of root formation. Therefore, ethylene does not act downstream of auxin in root induction. However, ethylene amplifies the effects of low concentrations of NAA, which in the absence of ethylene do not induce roots. Ag(2)S(2)O(3), an ethylene blocker, and CoCl(2), an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, do not abolish plantlet root development. It is therefore unlikely that ethylene is essential for root formation. Taken together, the experiments suggest that roots develop when auxin transport from the shoot reaches a certain threshold. Ethylene may augment this effect by lowering the threshold and may come into play when the parent leaf senesces.

  18. Differential effects of elevated air humidity on stomatal closing ability of Kalanchoë blossfeldiana between the C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Hyldgaard, Benita; Gebraegziabher, Habtamu; Bouranis, Dimitris; Körner, Oliver; Nielsen, Kai Lønne; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2017-01-01

    High relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85%) impairs stomatal functionality, attenuating plant capacity to cope with abiotic stress. Previous studies were limited to C3 species, so the RH effect on stomatal physiology of CAM plants remains unexplored. We addressed the topic through

  19. Effect of feeding different levels of Azolla pinnata on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Bharat Mishra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to see the effect of feeding different levels of Azolla meal on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 160 Chabro chicks, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups each with four replicates of 10 birds. The first treatment (T1 served as a control in which basal diets was offered without Azolla supplementation while in T2, T3, and T4 groups, basal diet was replaced with Azolla meal at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels, respectively. A feeding trial was conducted upto 8 weeks. At the last week of trial, blood samples were collected randomly from one bird of each replicate and plasma was separated to estimate certain biochemical parameters, some blood metabolites, minerals and enzymes like alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total leukocytes count and differential leukocytes count were estimated in fresh blood just after collection. The humoral immune response was measured against sheep red blood cells,and cell-mediated immune response was measured against phyto hemagglutinin lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P. Results: The study showed that hematological profile of the Chabro bird was not affected by any treatment except heterophil and lymphocyte which was found higher in T2 and T3 groups and eosinophil was found higher in a T3 group than control. Blood glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and triglycerides were found similar in all the groups and within the normal values for broiler chicken. Liver enzymes and macro mineral content in blood were found similar in all the treatment groups and within normal physiological range. Although AST was found higher in 10% replacement group than control, the value was within normal range for broiler chicken. Although antibody titer was found similar in all the experimental groups in the present study, cell-mediate immune response (response to PHA-P was found higher in 5%, 7.5%, and 10% replacement groups than control(p<0.05. Conclusion: Similar blood biochemical parameters and higher cell-mediated immune response in Azolla replacement group indicated immune-modulatory effect of Azolla meal without any toxicity.

  20. Gastroprotective Properties of Karanjin from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata Seeds; Role as Antioxidant and H+, K+-ATPase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vismaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts are the most attractive sources of newer drugs and have been shown to produce promising results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Karanjin, a furano-flavonoid has been evaluated for anti-ulcerogenic property by employing adult male albino rats. Karanjin (>95% pure was administered to these rats in two different concentrations, that is, 10 and 20 mg kg−1 b.w. Ulcers were induced in the experimental animals by swim and ethanol stress. Serum, stomach and liver-tissue homogenates were assessed for biochemical parameters. Karanjin inhibited 50 and 74% of ulcers induced by swim stress at 10 and 20 mg kg−1 b.w., respectively. Gastric mucin was protected up to 85% in case of swim stress, whereas only 47% mucin recovery was seen in ethanol stress induced ulcers. H+, K+-ATPase activity, which was increased 2-fold in ulcer conditions, was normalized by Karanjin in both swim/ethanol stress-induced ulcer models. Karanjin could inhibit oxidative stress as evidenced by the normalization of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme (i.e., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels. Karanjin at concentrations of 20 mg kg−1 b.w., when administered orally for 14 days, did not indicate any lethal effects. There were no significant differences in total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase between normal and Karanjin-treated rats indicating no adverse effect on major organs. During treatment schedule, animals remained as healthy as control animals with normal food and water intake and body weight gain.

  1. Selection of superior salt/boron tolerant Stanleya pinnata genotypes and quantification of their selenium phytoremediation abilities in drainage sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The semi-metallic mineral Se, a naturally-occurring trace element, is primarily found as selenate originating from sedimentary and shale rock formations, e.g., in the western side of the San Joaquin Valley of central California (WSJV). Because selenate-Se is water soluble, bioavailable and biomagnif...

  2. Effect of feeding different levels of Azolla pinnata on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Deepesh Bharat; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Vinod; Bhattacharyya, Amitav; Kumar, Muneendra; Kushwaha, Raju; Vaswani, Shalini

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to see the effect of feeding different levels of Azolla meal on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken. The study was conducted on 160 Chabro chicks, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups each with four replicates of 10 birds. The first treatment (T1) served as a control in which basal diets was offered without Azolla supplementation while in T2, T3, and T4 groups, basal diet was replaced with Azolla meal at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels, respectively. A feeding trial was conducted upto 8 weeks. At the last week of trial, blood samples were collected randomly from one bird of each replicate and plasma was separated to estimate certain biochemical parameters, some blood metabolites, minerals and enzymes like alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total leukocytes count and differential leukocytes count were estimated in fresh blood just after collection. The humoral immune response was measured against sheep red blood cells,and cell-mediated immune response was measured against phyto hemagglutinin lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P). The study showed that hematological profile of the Chabro bird was not affected by any treatment except heterophil and lymphocyte which was found higher in T2 and T3 groups and eosinophil was found higher in a T3 group than control. Blood glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and triglycerides were found similar in all the groups and within the normal values for broiler chicken. Liver enzymes and macro mineral content in blood were found similar in all the treatment groups and within normal physiological range. Although AST was found higher in 10% replacement group than control, the value was within normal range for broiler chicken. Although antibody titer was found similar in all the experimental groups in the present study, cell-mediate immune response (response to PHA-P) was found higher in 5%, 7.5%, and 10% replacement groups than control(pAzolla replacement group indicated immune-modulatory effect of Azolla meal without any toxicity.

  3. Protection against salt toxicity in Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae symbiotic association by using combined-N sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Singh, Satya S

    2006-09-01

    Protection from salt stress was observed in the terms of yield (fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein) and nitrogenase activity. Azollapinnata appeared highly sensitive to 40 mM external NaCl stress. Fronds of Azolla unable to grow beyond a concentration of 30 mM NaCl and accordingly death was recorded at 40 mM NaCl on the 6th day of incubation. Yield was inhibited by various levels of NaCl (0, 10, 20 and 30 mM). Addition of combined-N to the growth medium protected the association partially from salt toxicity. Among the N-sources (NO3-, NH4+ and urea) tried, urea mitigated the salt-induced toxicity most efficiently. Reduction in nitrogenase activity was observed when intact Azolla was grown in nutrient medium either supplemented with different levels of NaCl or combined nitrogen. Only NO3- (5 mM) protected the enzymatic activity from salt toxicity while other concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and urea slowed down the salt-induced inhibition of enzyme activity in Azolla-Anabaena association. These results suggested that an optimum protection from salt stress could be obtained by using a combination of combined nitrogen sources. The reason for this protection might be due to the availability of combined nitrogen to the association, nitrogen is only available through the biological nitrogen fixation which is the most sensitive to salt stress.

  4. Sensory and Textural Characteristics of Noodle Made of Ganyong Flour (Canna edulis Kerr.) and Arenga Starch (Arenga pinnata Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, ERN; Ariani, D.; Miftakhussolikhah; Yosieto, E.; Angwar, M.; Pranoto, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ganyong (Canna edulis Kerr) is a local tuber which highest amount of starch content, but has not been fully utilized well at present. One way to improve the usefulness of canna is to process it into noodle, but it needs arenga starch which has high amylose content. The aim of this research was to study the sensory and textural properties of noodle made from canna flour and arenga starch. Research methodologies consist of: (i) characterization of canna flour and arenga starch, (ii) noodle production, and (iii) characterization sensory and textural properties of the noodle. Noodle was made with five ratio variations of canna flour and arenga starch, i.e. 100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; and 0:100. Sensory analysis was done by hedonic scoring method with attributes : color, stickiness, elasticity, firmness, surface smoothness and overall liking. Textural properties analyses consist of tensile strength, elongation, and stickiness measurements. The results showed that canna flour and arenga starch can be used in noodle making process. Noodle with 25% of canna flour was the most favored product and has the best textural properties. Factors which affect textural properties of product are the amylose and amylopectin amount in each starch. Tensile strength, elongation, and stickiness measurements of noodle with 25% of canna flour were 0,13 N; 41,61%; and 0,0115N respectively.

  5. Combustion kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation of Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Azharul; Kabir, G; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the combustion profile and kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of Karanj fruit hulls (KFH). The HTC-KFH hydrochar combustion kinetics was investigated at 5, 10, and 20°C/min by thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetics model, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose revealed the combustion kinetics parameters for the extent of conversion from 0.1 to 0.8; the activation energy varies from 114 to 67 kJ/mol respectively. The hydrochar combustion followed multi-steps kinetics; the Coats-Redfern models predicted the activation energies and pre-exponential constants for the hydrochar combustion zones. The diffusion models are the effective mechanism in the second and third zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amending soils with Se-hyperaccumulator plant derived sources of selenium (Se) may be useful for increasing Se content in food crops in Se-deficient regions of the world. In this study, we evaluated total Se and the different chemical species of Se in broccoli and carrots grown in soils amended with...

  7. Continued selenium biofortification of carrots and broccoli grown in soils once amended with Se-enriched S. pinnata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) biofortification has been practiced in Se-deficient regions throughout the world primarily by adding inorganic sources of Se to the soil. Adding organic sources of Se could be useful as an alternative Se amendment for the production of Se-biofortified food crops needed in Se-deficient ...

  8. DNA barcoding of Rhodiola (crassulaceae: a case study on a group of recently diversified medicinal plants from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiang Zhang

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding, the identification of species using one or a few short standardized DNA sequences, is an important complement to traditional taxonomy. However, there are particular challenges for barcoding plants, especially for species with complex evolutionary histories. We herein evaluated the utility of five candidate sequences - rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, trnL-F and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS - for barcoding Rhodiola species, a group of high-altitude plants frequently used as adaptogens, hemostatics and tonics in traditional Tibetan medicine. Rhodiola was suggested to have diversified rapidly recently. The genus is thus a good model for testing DNA barcoding strategies for recently diversified medicinal plants. This study analyzed 189 accessions, representing 47 of the 55 recognized Rhodiola species in the Flora of China treatment. Based on intraspecific and interspecific divergence and degree of monophyly statistics, ITS was the best single-locus barcode, resolving 66% of the Rhodiola species. The core combination rbcL+matK resolved only 40.4% of them. Unsurprisingly, the combined use of all five loci provided the highest discrimination power, resolving 80.9% of the species. However, this is weaker than the discrimination power generally reported in barcoding studies of other plant taxa. The observed complications may be due to the recent diversification, incomplete lineage sorting and reticulate evolution of the genus. These processes are common features of numerous plant groups in the high-altitude regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by potential native plants and their microscopic observation of root growing on stabilised distillery sludge as a prospective tool for in situ phytoremediation of industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    The safe disposal of post-methanated distillery sludge (PMDS) in the environment is challenging due to high concentrations of heavy metals along with other complex organic pollutants. The study has revealed that PMDS contained high amounts of Fe (2403), Zn (210), Mn (126), Cu (73.62), Cr (21.825), Pb (16.33) and Ni (13.425 mg kg -1 ) along with melanoidins and other co-pollutants. The phytoextraction pattern in 15 potential native plants growing on sludge showed that the Blumea lacera, Parthenium hysterophorous, Setaria viridis, Chenopodium album, Cannabis sativa, Basella alba, Tricosanthes dioica, Amaranthus spinosus L., Achyranthes sp., Dhatura stramonium, Sacchrum munja and Croton bonplandianum were noted as root accumulator for Fe, Zn and Mn, while S. munja, P. hysterophorous, C. sativa, C. album, T. dioica, D. stramonium, B. lacera, B. alba, Kalanchoe pinnata and Achyranthes sp. were found as shoot accumulator for Fe. In addition, A. spinosus L. was found as shoot accumulator for Zn and Mn. Similarly, all plants found as leaf accumulator for Fe, Zn and Mn except A. spinosus L. and Ricinus communis. Further, the BCF of all tested plants were noted 1. This revealed that metal bioavailability to plant is poor due to strong complexation of heavy metals with organic pollutants. This gives a strong evidence of hyperaccumulation for the tested metals from complex distillery waste. Furthermore, the TEM observations of root of P. hysterophorous, C. sativa, Solanum nigrum and R. communis showed formation of multi-nucleolus, multi-vacuoles and deposition of metal granules in cellular component of roots as a plant adaptation mechanism for phytoextraction of heavy metal-rich polluted site. Hence, these native plants may be used as a tool for in situ phytoremediation and eco-restoration of industrial waste-contaminated site.

  10. Signification biogéographique des processus d'adaptation photosynthétiques : 1. L'exemple des Kalanchoe malgaches

    OpenAIRE

    Brulfert, J.; Ravelomanana, D.; Gehrig, H.; Kluge, M.

    1996-01-01

    Le Métabolisme Acide des Crassulacées (CAM) est un type de photosynthèse présenté par les plantes qui ont dans les conditions naturelles à faire face à une contrainte hydrique. Il est caractérisé par la capacité de fixer le CO2 externe pendant la nuit (via la phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, PEPC) mais aussi pendant le jour (via la ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygénase, Rubisco). Ces propriétés sont associées à un comportement particulier des stomates qui sont ouverts la nuit (favorisan...

  11. Grenswaarden voor temperatuurfluctuaties van verschillende duur bij siergewassen : verslag van een teeltproef met modelgestuurd temperatuursverloop : Deelverslag 4: Vergelijking van verschillende teeltscenario’s voor Kalanchoe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, F.

    2004-01-01

    Uit eerder onderzoek blijkt dat temperatuurintegratie 10 tot 15 % energiebesparing oplevert. Het doel van het project is een systeem te ontwikkelen om te voorspellen wat temperatuurverschillen doen met het gewas in samenhang met andere factoren. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd bij de bloeiende potplant

  12. Identification of multiple PEPC isogenes in leaves of the facultative Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. cv. Tom Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, H; Taybi, T; Kluge, M; Brulfert, J

    1995-12-27

    In the facultative Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) plant Kulanchoe blossfeldiana cv. Tom Thumb, CAM can be induced by short-day treatment or water deficiency stress. From young leaves of well-watered and water-stressed individuals of this plant, cDNA clones coding for a partial sequence of the key enzyme of CAM, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, were isolated after transcription of mRNA. cDNA polymorphism was established by enzyme restriction profiles and sequencing data. Four PEPC isogenes could be shown to exist in K. blossfeldiana forming two gene pairs, with 95%-98% homology inside and only 75% between the pairs. One cDNA sequence pair having a length of 1113 bp and an open reading frame of 371 AA was identified as PEPC isoform specific for the C3 state, whereas the pair having a length of 1116 bp and an open reading frame of 372 AA could be attributed to the CAM state. These results were confirmed by Southern Blot hybridization.

  13. Bio indices for 2,4-D sensitivity between two plant species: Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Vernonia cinerea L. with their cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Arnab Kumar; Dey, Narottam; Adak, Malay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    In the present experiment a pteridophytic species Azolla and an angiospermic species Vernonia were evaluated on the basis of cellular reactivity for herbicidal action through ongoing concentrations. Initially, both the species recorded a significant activity of IAA-oxidase as mark of IAA metabolism with herbicidal sensitivity. Still, Vernonia species were more affected on 2,4-D mediated auxin catabolism. The loss of auxin concentrations on the tissues by 2,4-D reaction was also reflected on growth parameters including relative growth rate and chlorophyll biosynthesis. In a dose dependent manner Vernonia plants were more affected with loss of chlorophyll content and decline in relative growth rate. On the other hand, both those parameters were adjusted significantly with 2,4-D accumulation in Azolla . The stability of cellular metabolism was documented by significant down regulation of protein and lipid peroxidation with concomitant moderation to superoxide and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. The later two were more vulnerable to damage in the Vernonia plant with profuse accumulation of protein and lipid peroxidation products. Similarly, tissue specific reaction to superoxide and hydrogen peroxide accumulation were distinctly demarcated in two species significantly. As a whole, the cellular responses and metabolite distribution to 2,4-D sensitization are the features to describe bio-indices for aquatic fern species Azolla with comparison to angiospermic species Vernonia .

  14. Economically viable production of biodiesel from a rural feedstock from eastern India, P. pinnata oil using a recyclable laboratory synthesized heterogeneous catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Veena; Hameed, Bassim H.; Sharma, Yogesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Barium zirconate was synthesized by co-precipitation method using nitrates of barium and zirconia and was applied for biodiesel production using karanja oil as feedstock through transesterification reaction. - Highlights: • Barium zirconate have been used as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production. • Effect of calcination time on stability of catalyst was studied. • 98.79 ± 0.5% of FAME conversion from karanja oil was attained. • Catalyst is stable and can be reused up to nine cycles with conversion up to >65%. • Glycerol obtained as a byproduct was easily purified for better use. - Abstract: Barium zirconate was synthesized by co-precipitation method and its feasibility as a heterogeneous catalyst for production of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) was assessed. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized through transesterification of karanja oil with methanol. Synthesized barium zirconate was characterized by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Specific surface area and basicity of the catalyst were also deliberated. Catalyst characterization indicated formation of single phase of barium zirconate which was capable of catalyzing the transesterification of esterified karanja oil with methanol. Feedstock was characterized by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS). Reaction conditions such as molar ratio (oil:methanol), catalyst concentration, temperature, time, stirring speed and catalyst reusability were optimized. Calcination temperature and time significantly affected the catalytic activity of the catalyst because of variation in availability of basic sites. FAME conversion of 98.79 ± 0.5% was obtained at catalyst concentration of 1.0 wt%, 1:27 M ratio (oil:methanol), 65 °C for a 3 h contact time. The catalyst could be reused up to nine cycles and >65% fatty acid methyl ester conversion was sustained at ninth cycle. Glycerol obtained as a by-product was purified and analyzed by FTIR. Effect of catalyst on various feedstock at the same reaction conditions were studied. Physicochemical properties of karanja oil and respective methyl ester in comparison with petro diesel were also deliberated as per ASTM standards.

  15. Effect of Plasticizer Type and Concentration on Tensile, Thermal and Barrier Properties of Biodegradable Films Based on Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed L. Sanyang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of starch based films as a potential alternative choice to petroleum derived plastics is imperative for environmental waste management. This study presents a new biopolymer (sugar palm starch for the preparation of biodegradable packaging films using a solution casting technique. The effect of different plasticizer types (glycerol (G, sorbitol (S and glycerol-sorbitol (GS combination with varying concentrations (0, 15, 30 and 45, w/w% on the tensile, thermal and barrier properties of sugar palm starch (SPS films was evaluated. Regardless of plasticizer types, the tensile strength of plasticized SPS films decreased, whereas their elongation at break (E% increased as the plasticizer concentrations were raised. However, the E% for G and GS-plasticized films significantly decreased at a higher plasticizer concentration (45% w/w due to the anti-plasticization effect of plasticizers. Change in plasticizer concentration showed an insignificant effect on the thermal properties of S-plasticized films. The glass transition temperature of SPS films slightly decreased as the plasticizer concentration increased from 15% to 45%. The plasticized films exhibited increased water vapor permeability values from 4.855 × 10−10 to 8.70 × 10−10 g·m−1·s−1·Pa−1, irrespective of plasticizer types. Overall, the current study manifested that plasticized sugar palm starch can be regarded as a promising biopolymer for biodegradable films.

  16. Preparation of TiO2 photocatalyst with the matrix of palm wood ( Arenga pinnata ) waste in the photodegradation of batik wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresnadipayana, Dian; Wahyuni, Endang Tri; Santosa, Sri Juari; Mudasir

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to the preparation of TiO 2 photocatalyst with the matrix from palm wood waste whose has lignin and cellulose content. TiO 2 photocatalyst with the matrix from the wastewater of palm wood waste (TiO 2 /pww) was used as photocatalyst in photodegradation of batik wastewater. TiO 2 solid was dissolved in ethanol and aquadest, added with the powder of wood palm waste and stirred with a magnetic stirrer for 16 hours. Then separation was carried out using buchner and filtrate and residue were obtained. The filtrate was disposed and the residue was calcined with various temperatures for 3 hours. The temperatures in this research were 100 °C (TiO 2 /pww-100); 200°C (TiO 2 /pww-200); 300°C (TiO 2 /pww-300). Analysis and characterization of TiO 2 /wwp were conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectrophotometer Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) methods. Photocalalytic TiO 2 /wwp use the batch system in a reactor with UV light 40 watts, 220 volts and length wave 360 nm the plate magnetic stirrer. Liquid waste batik adds TiO 2 /wwp with time variation. At XRD analysis showed that the preparation of TiO 2 /pww could be done on the heating TiO 2 /pww temperature of 100°C and 200°C. At the temperature of 300°C, it was indicated that the lignocelluloses in palm wood waste were burned, meaning that few lignocelluloses remained. The result of FTIR analysis showed clearly that at the temperature of 300°C, a few spectrum of lignocelluloses remained in palm wood waste, while at a temperature of 100°C and 200°C, spectra of lignocelluloses of palm wood waste remained. The result of photocatalysis test indicated that TiO 2 /pww could reduce 40%, 72%, 81% and 64% COD for TiO 2 (control), TiO 2 /pww-100, TiO 2 /pww-200 and TiO 2 /pww-300, respectively. (paper)

  17. The leaf surface strucure of the species from the subgenus Sedum of the genus Sedum L. (Crassulaceae DC. from the protected soil collections of A.V. Fomin Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola V. Yatsenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By means of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM the structure of leaf ’s epidermis of 8 species of genus SedumL. was investigated. A number of common (amphistomatics, anisocytic type of stomatal complex, strum cuticle and different signs have been revealed in the structure of the leaf ’s tissue. The results acquired on the basis of micromorphology of a leaf ’s epidermis can be used in the taxonomy of the investigated Sedumspecies.

  18. An inventory of indigenous plants used as anthelmintics in Amathole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Medicinal plants mostly used for traditional management of intestinal worms were selected from 13 plant families: Alliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Crassulaceae, Dracaenaceae, Fabaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Lamiaceae, Longaniaceae, Punicaceae, Polygonaceae, and Verbenaceae. Out of ...

  19. Species of Concern (SOC) on Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-15

    ARISTIDA STRICTA; DRY, UPLAND FLAT, FILTERED LIGHT; WITH BAPTISIA CINEREA, VIOLA PEDATA, DALEA PINNATA.* SUBPOP A=PINE/SCRUB OAK SANDHILL; FEW SCATTERED...DIOSPYROS VIRG., GAYLUSSACIA DUMOSA, EPIGAEA REPENS, ANDROPOGON SP., BAPTISIA TINCT., TEPHROSIA VIRG., VACCINIUM CRASS., LESPEDEZA SP., DALEA PINNATA...ADENOCAULON BICOLOR , PHACELIA NEMORALIS, CAREX HENDERSONII. CIRSIUM VULGARE COMMON WHERE DISTURBED.* Cedar-hemlock forest on lower slopes of logged

  20. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...... and growth of pollen tubes, as well as lower frequencies of pollen tubes were observed in specific cross-combinations. Post-fertilization barriers related to endosperm development and hybrid incompatibility were also observed in Kalanchoë and Hibiscus genus, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative...

  1. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Y; Murat, M N; Hameed, B H

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 427 ... Vol 9, No 3 (1997), Soil Physical Properties Influencing the Fitting .... or Sodium Nitrate on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in Kalanchoe Species II: ... I: Titratable Acidity, Water Potential, Malate and Nitrate Content.

  3. A specific bioassay for the inhibition of flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J

    1972-06-01

    A bioassay for the inhibition of flowering involving the in vitro culture of excised, partially-induced, apices of Viscaria candida is described. This bioassay has been used to detect flowering inhibition in extracts from Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.

  4. Urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiana Chen

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of urea on nitrogen metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla pinnata. Compared to controls, the application of urea to A. pinnata resulted in a 44% decrease in nitrogenase activity, no significant change in glutamine synthetase activity, 660% higher glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, 39% increase in free amino acid levels, 22% increase in malondialdehyde levels, 21% increase in Na+/K+- levels, 16% increase in Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase levels, and 11% decrease in superoxide dismutase activity. In terms of H2O2 detoxifying enzymes, peroxidase activity did not change and catalase activity increased by 64% in urea-treated A. pinnata. These findings suggest that urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in A. pinnata.

  5. Biofuel bonanza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2012-01-01

    The native Australian legume ''Pongamia pinnata'' could be the basis for a new industry in Queensland's north, replacing fossil fuels and breaking the poverty cycle in indigenous communities.

  6. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154–213

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Guarro, J.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Bank, van der M.; Swart, W.J.; Stchigel, A.M.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Roux, J.; Madrid, H.; Damm, U.; Wood, A.R.; Shuttleworth, L.A.; Hodges, C.S.; Munster, M.; Jesús Yáñez-Morales, de M.; Zúñiga-Estrada, L.; Cruywagen, E.M.; Hoog, de G.S.; Silvera, C.; Najafzadeh, J.; Davison, E.M.; Davison, P.J.N.; Barrett, M.D.; Barrett, R.L.; Manamgoda, D.S.; Minnis, A.M.; Kleczewski, N.M.; Flory, S.L.; Castlebury, L.A.; Clay, K.; Hyde, K.D.; Maússe-Sitoe, S.N.D.; Chen, S.; Lechat, C.; Hairaud, M.; Lesage-Meessen, L.; Pawlowska, J.; Wilk, M.; Sliwinska-Wyrzychowska, A.; Metrak, M.; Wrzosek, M.; Pavlic-Zupanc, D.; Maleme, H.M.; Slippers, B.; Mac Cormack, W.P.; Archuby, D.I.; Grünwald, N.J.; Tellería, M.T.; Dueñas, M.; Martín, M.P.; Marincowitz, S.; Beer, de Z.W.; Perez, C.A.; Gené, J.; Marin-Felix, Y.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium

  7. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoja P Attanayake

    2013-01-01

    C onclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  8. Urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiana; Huang, Min; Cao, Fangbo; Pardha-Saradhi, P; Zou, Yingbin

    2017-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of urea on nitrogen metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla pinnata. Compared to controls, the application of urea to A. pinnata resulted in a 44% decrease in nitrogenase activity, no significant change in glutamine synthetase activity, 660% higher glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, 39% increase in free amino acid levels, 22% increase in malondialdehyde levels, 21% increase in Na+/K+- levels, 16% increase in Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase levels, and 11% decrease in superoxide dismutase activity. In terms of H2O2 detoxifying enzymes, peroxidase activity did not change and catalase activity increased by 64% in urea-treated A. pinnata. These findings suggest that urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in A. pinnata.

  9. The first record of the genus Tanaostigma (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmatidae) in the Old World, with the description of a new species from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Joshi, Sunil

    2016-11-15

    Tanaostigma Howard (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmatidae) is recorded for the first time in the fauna of the Old World, with T. indica Gupta sp. n.  described and illustrated from southern India, reared from Millettia (=Pongamia) pinnata (Fabaceae).

  10. New floristic records in the Balkans: 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    -50, 59-61, 70, 71, 79, 80), Berberidaceae (62), Brassicaceae (17, 27, 35), Campanulaceae (3, 4, 42-44), Caryophyllaceae (5, 28, 72, 81), Commelinaceae (22), Crassulaceae (29), Fabaceae (7-10, 36, 51-58, 63, 82, 83), Geraniaceae (18), Guttiferae (73), Iridaceae (31-33), Lamiaceae (74), Liliaceae s.l. (11...

  11. New floristic records in the Balkans: 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarkos, G.; Christodoulou, V.; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    ), Berberidaceae (81), Boraginaceae (1–3, 82), Brassicaceae (4, 5, 26, 27), Campanulaceae (6, 28, 29, 83), Caprifoliaceae (30), Chenopodiaceae (7), Cistaceae (8), Cornaceae (31), Crassulaceae (32–34), Dipsacaceae (84), Euphorbiaceae (64), Fabaceae (9–13, 35, 36, 65, 74), Gentianaceae (37, 38), Geraniaceae (39, 72...

  12. New floristic records in the Balkans: 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    ), Crassulaceae (6, 76-78), Cucurbitaceae (87), Dipsacaceae (7), Ericaceae (64), Euphorbiaceae (22, 100), Fabaceae (46, 61, 65-68, 70, (87), (7), (64), (22, 100), (46, 61, 65-68, 70, 79, 88), Gentianaceae (62), Grossulariaceae (71), Iridaceae (72), Juncaceae (12, 91), Lamiaceae (80), Liliaceae s.l. (13, 33-35, 51...

  13. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    -56), Campanulaceae (10), Caryophyllaceae (11, 27, 57), Chenopodiaceae (12), Convolvulaceae (13, 58), Crassulaceae (14, 59, 60), Cucurbitaceae (28), Cupressaceae (19), Cuscutaceae (49), Dryopteridaceae (2), Ephedraceae (20), Fabaceae (42- 48, 50, 61-69, 84), Gesneriaceae (85), Iridaceae (77, 88), Lamiaceae (70...

  14. New floristic records in the Balkans: 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    ), Boraginaceae (6, 7), Brassicaceae (8, 9, 43-49, 70), Campanulaceae (10, 11, 98), Caryophyllaceae (12- (6, 7), (8, 9, 43-49, 70), (10, 11, 98), (12- 14, 50, 71, 72), Chenopodiaceae (15), Crassulaceae (61, 91), Cyperaceae (22, 23), Dryopteridaceae (59), Fabaceae (62, 73-75, 92, 99), Geraniaceae (63), Lamiaceae...

  15. Floral induction, floral hormones and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de P.A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors, influencing the synthesis and action of floral hormones, and possible differences between floral hormones in different plants were studied. The experimental results are summarized in the conclusions 1-20, on pages 35-36 (Crassulaceae'); 21-39 on pages

  16. Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Sempervivum tectorum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Sempervivum tectorum L ( Crassulaceae ) on Aluminium-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Blood. ... Results: Aluminium (Al) exposure increased, compared to control group, the level of blood Al (293.64 %, p 0.05), glutathione ...

  17. Compilation of Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program (1983). Volume 2. Tabs F-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    POSITAE C. rugosa *Arctiumn minus CON VOLULACEAE * .Centaurea maculosa , Convolviliis Cirsium arvense (several possible) C. discolor CRASSULACEAE C. hill...Heracleum lanatumn A. umbllatusHieraciumn aurantiacum - A. sp. I H. florentinumn A. sp. 2 H. pratense A. sp. 3 Hypericumn perforatumn Centaurea maculosa H...Hypericumn perforatumn Aster umbellatus Lychnis alba Aster sp. I Melilotus alba *Centaurea maculosa Oenethera biennis Chrysanthemum leucanthemnum Prunus

  18. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Bryophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. Kurtz (Crassulaceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of diarrhoea. Objective: To investigate the antidiarrhoeal action of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (BP). Methods: Normal intestinal transit, castor oil-induced intestinal transit, castor ...

  19. Carbon isotope ratios of epidermal and mesophyll tissues from leaves of C3 and CAM plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, K.; Roksandic, Z.; Osmond, B.

    1981-01-01

    The δ 13 C values for epidermal and mesophyll tissues of two C 3 plants, Commelina communis and Tulipa gesneriana, and a CAM plant, Kalanchoē daigremontiana, were measured. The values for the tissues of both C 3 plants were similar. In young leaves of Kalanchoē, the epidermis and the mesophyll showed S 13 C values which were nearly identical, and similar to those found in C 3 plants. However, markedly more negative values for epidermal compared to mesophyll tissue, were obtained in the mature Kalanchoē leaf. This is consistent with the facts that the epidermis in a CAM leaf is formed when leaves engage in C 3 photosynthesis and that subsequent dark CO 2 fixation in guard cells or mesophyll cells makes only a small contribution to total epidermal carbon

  20. Resposta de calâncoe a reguladores de crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELLE MICHELOTTI BETTONI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana é uma planta ornamental envasada de destaque na floricultura nacional. O mercado demanda que ela apresente um crescimento vigoroso, porte pequeno (máximo 21 cm de altura com, no mínimo, dez flores abertas por vaso. Para produzirem plantas de primeira qualidade, os produtores de kalanchoe utilizam reguladores vegetais inibidores da síntese de giberelina. O CCC (Cloreto de Chlormequat é um inibidor da síntese de giberelina pouco usado em kalanchoe, porém, em outras ornamentais, tem sido relacionado com a obtenção de plantas mais atrativas para o mercado consumidor, por serem mais compactas, com hastes mais fortes e folhas mais verdes. Entre os reguladores vegetais, a aplicação de citocinina tem sido relacionada com aumento do número de hastes e de botões florais. Visando a reduzir o porte e aumentar o número de flores por planta, esta pesquisa avaliou o efeito da aplicação em kalanchoe do inibidor de giberelina Tuval® (contendo 100g L-1 de CCC e do extrato da alga Ascophyllum. Nodosum (composto contendo citocinina natural, em três épocas diferentes. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o Tuval®, nas concentrações de 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, reduziu o porte de kalanchoe; entretanto, a redução não foi suficiente para que as plantas pudessem ser consideradas como de primeira qualidade, e o efeito do extrato de A. nodosum na concentração de2000 mg L-1 associado ao CCC não ficou caracterizado.

  1. Effect of γ-radiation on the incidence of plant tumors (to the problem of carcinogenesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Yurov, S.S.; Vagabova, M.Eh.; Shchelkaeva, N.V.

    1986-01-01

    In experiments on two plant species: of Kalanchoe diagremontiana and potato (Solanum tuberosum) it was shown that γ-irradiation of the plant tissues, before infecting with Ti-plasmide Agrobacterium tumefaciens C-58, with doses stimulating the development of the plants markedly increases the incidence of tumors, promotes their growth, and increases the probability of inverse differentiation of tumor cells

  2. Application of succulent plant leaves for Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    When expressing plant cell wall degrading enzymes in the widely used tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) after Agrobacterium infiltration, difficulties arise due to the thin leaf structure. Thick leaved succulents, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and Hylotelephium telephium, were tested as alternatives. A xyloglucanase, as well as a xyloglucanase inhibitor protein was successfully produced. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Anti-dyslipidemic and Antioxidant Potentials of Methanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The activity of the methanol extract of the whole plant of Kalanchoe crenata (MEKC) was studied for the treatment of diabetes-induced nephropathy in rats. Methods: Five-day old Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection (90 ìg/kg body weight) to induce diabetes. Kidney disease onset in ...

  4. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 39 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Kalanchoë blossfeldiana with a flavonoid 3',5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) gene · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Buddharak, R Chundet, W U-kong, 2765-2769 ...

  5. by recycled subirrigational supply of plant growth retardants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... an ebb and flow system on the growth and flowering of kalanchoe cultivar 'Gold Strike' was examined. Plants potted in 10 cm .... photoperiod during the first six weeks after pinching. .... stage and adverse influences on overall growth of the plants. ..... retardants on the growth and flowering in poinsettia. RDA.

  6. Discovery and Innovation - Vol 10, No 3 (1998)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Ammonium Sulphate or Sodium Nitrate on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in Kalanchoe Species I: Titratable Acidity, Water Potential, Malate and Nitrate Content. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M N Makobe, A K Misra, J N Macharia, 208-216.

  7. Radiation-induced irreparable heritable changes in cells promoting their tumoral transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Vagabova, M.Eh.; Yurov, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    In experiments with model plant tumors (Kalanchoe-ti plasmid Agrobat. tumefaciens C-58D) it was shown that exposure of the recepient plant to low-level γ-radiation of Gy induced changes in cells that were not repaired over two months promoting tumoral transformations in them. Those changes were shown to persist in the offspring of the exposed somatic cells

  8. Daily rhythm of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Crassulacean acid metabolism plants : Immunological evidence for the absence of a rhythm in protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Vidal, J; Gadal, P; Queiroz, O

    1982-11-01

    Immunotitration of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) extracted from leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poelln. cv. Tom Thumb. It was established that at different times of the day-night cycle the daily rhythm of enzyme capacity does not result from a rhythm in protein synthesis, but rather from changes in the specific activity of the enzyme.

  9. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Crude Extracts From Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Kalanchoe crenata were screened for their antimicrobial activities. Solvents used included water, methanol, and local solvents such as palmwine, local gin (Seaman's Schnapps 40% alcoholic drink,) and “omi ekan-ogi” (Sour water from 3 days fermented milled maize).

  10. Two new species of scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea from Sardinia (Italy with a check list of Sardinian Coccoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Pellizzari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of scale insects collected in Sardinia (Italy are described and illustrated: Spinococcus giuliae sp. n. (Pseudococcidae off the roots of Umbilicus rupestris (Crassulaceae and Micrococcus sardous sp. n. (Micrococcidae off the root of an undetermined grass (Poaceae growing near the sea. A n identification key to Micrococcus species and a revised list of the scales presently known in the island are also provided.

  11. Linking ecosystem services and water resources: landscape-scale hydrology of the Little Karoo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available with a dense biological soil crust (biocrust) formed by cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses (Esler et al. 2006). The dwarf (< 50 cm tall) Karoo shrub- land is rich in endemic succulents, particularly Aizoaceae and Crassulaceae. Slightly raised, more...% moderately degraded (Table 1; Thompson et al. 2005). River floodplains have been severely affected, with 51% of all lower river reaches (Vlok et al. 2005) being severely degraded and only 11% in good condition. Less than 2% of the area of succulent Karoo...

  12. Bioactive constituents from Chinese natural medicines. XXXII. aminopeptidase N and aldose reductase inhibitors from Sinocrassula indica: structures of sinocrassosides B(4), B(5), C(1), and D(1)-D(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Xie, Haihui; Wang, Tao; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2008-10-01

    From the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Sinocrassula indica (Crassulaceae), six new flavonol glycosides, sinocrassosides B(4) (1), B(5) (2), C(1) (3), D(1) (4), D(2) (5), and D(3) (6), were isolated together with 30 compounds. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In addition, several constituents were found to show inhibitory effects on aminopeptidase N and aldose reductase.

  13. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volumes II-I and II-II. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada and Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah. Supplement. Spring Survey of the IOC Valleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    pinnata X K CACTACEAE Coryphantha vivipara x Opuntia echinocarpa K 0 x K K K 5putaerinacea K Op’untia sp. x X -12- TABLE 3-1 (Cont.) Shelter site...pilosus x Lepidium montanun X CACTACEAE Opuntia echinocarpa x x Opuntia erinacea X X X CHENOPODIACEAE Atriplex canescens X X X Ceratoides lanata X X X X...Stanleya pinnata X CACTACEAE Coryphantha vivipara var. rosea X Echinocereus engelmannii X opuntia echinocarpa X X X X X X X X Opuntia erinacea XX X X X X x

  14. Antimicrobial Screening of Some Exotic Tree Species of Rajasthan Desert

    OpenAIRE

    B.B.S. Kapoor* and Shelja Pandita

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial screening of ethyl ether and alcoholic extracts of leaves of four selected exotic tree species growing inRajasthan Desert was carried out. Colophospermum mopane, Holoptelea integrifolia, Kigelia pinnata andPutranjiva roxburghii showed positive reactions against bacterial pathogens i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichiacoli and a fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

  15. The evaluation of selected ghanaian medicinal plants for cytotoxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of Adenia lobata root, Clerodendrum capitatum leaves, Garcinia kola stem bark, Plumbago zeylanica leaves and Vernonia conferta root, showed relatively low cytotoxic activities while extracts of Ficus asperifolia leaves, Paullinia pinnata root and Thonningia sanguinea root exhibited moderate activity (IC50 values ...

  16. Studies on repellent activity of seed oils alone and in combination on mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh, Y; Savitri, P; Kaushik, R; Singh, N P

    2014-09-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the relative repellency of Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils on vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. The repellents were formulated into 3 groups: seed oils, their mixture and combination of seed oils with three carrier oils viz. olive, mustard and coconut oil. Different formulations of each oil were tested at the concentrations of 1% and 5% on human baits. Efficiency was assessed, based on the total protection time; biting rate and percent protection provided by each formulation. Results showed that 5% formulation of the Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils, mixed in 1:1 ratio exhibited highest percentage repellency of 85%, protection time of 300 min and bite rate of 6%. 5% concentration of A. indica and P. pinnata seed oil in mustard oil base offered 86.36% and 85% protection respectively with total protection time of 230 and 240 min respectively. The study confirms that Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata have mosquito-repellent potential. When mixed in different ratios or with some carrier oil their efficacy increases 2-fold in some cases. These formulations are very promising for topical use (> 5 hrs complete protection) and are comparable to the protection provided by advanced Odomos mosquito repellent cream available commercially and thus are recommended for field trial.

  17. Composition floristique et dynamique du parc agroforestier à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of satellite imagery and parklands' trees inventory, carried out and applied to the sites of Keur Samba Gueye and Santhie Rame, provided information on parklands' diversity of floristic composition and assessment of the density, structural characteristics and dynamics of C. pinnata trees. The ligneous flora of the ...

  18. Antiprotozoal Screening of 60 South African plants, and the identification of the Antitrypanosomal Germacranolides Schkuhrin I and II

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoka, TA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available , and the germacranolide sesquiterpene lactones schkuhrin I and II from S. pinnata, and cynaropicrin from V. mespilifolia were identified, with IC(sub)50 values of 0.9, 1.5, and 0.23 µM, respectively....

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adusei-Okrah, V. Vol 13, No 1 (2008) - Articles Improving the Nitrogen Mineralization of Dried Azolla pinnata as a Bio-fertilizer for Increased Rice Production in the Vertisol Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-4307. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  20. Revision of Meliosma (Sabiaceae), section Lorenzanea excepted, living and fossil, geography and phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusekom, van C.F.

    1971-01-01

    Up to the present Meliosma was subdivided into two sections, Simplices and Pinnatae. These taxa are shown to be artificial, and a new, less simple but more natural infrageneric subdivision is made, viz. into the subgenera Kingsboroughia and Meliosma, subdivided into the sections Hendersonia and

  1. Bio-activity of oils of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Pongamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different concentration of oils obtained from two plants species belonging to family Fabaceae i.e. Trigonella foenum-graecum and Pongamia pinnata were evaluated for their antifungal and antibacterial activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by MIC ...

  2. Molecular identification of Azolla invasions in Africa: The Azolla specialist, Stenopelmus rufinasus proves to be an excellent taxonomist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of Azolla filiculoides in South Africa with the Azolla specialist Stenopelmus rufinasus has been highly successful. However, field surveys showed that the agent utilized another Azolla species, thought to be the native Azolla pinnata subsp. africana, which contradicted host specif...

  3. Evaluation of Selected Ornamental Asteraceae as a Pollen Source for Urban Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróblewska Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Offering more floral resources for urban bees can be achieved by growing ornamental bee plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate selected Asteraceae (Calendula officinalis ‘Persimmon Beauty’ and ‘Santana’, Centaurea macrocephala, Cosmos sulphureus, Dahlia pinnata, Tagetes patula, Tithonia rotundifolia, and Zinnia elegans as pollen sources for pollinators. Under urban conditions in Lublin, SE Poland, the investigated plants flowered from late June to the end of October. The mass of pollen produced in florets and capitula was found to be species-related. The highest pollen amounts per 10 florets (10.1 mg as well as per capitulum (249.7 mg were found for C. macrocephala. The mass of pollen yielded by a single plant depended on both the pollen mass delivered per disk florets and the proportion of disk florets in capitulum, and the flowering abundance of the plants. A single plant of D. pinnata and a single plant of T. rotundifolia each produced the largest pollen mass. Mean pollen yield per 1m2 of a plot ranged from 6.2 g (Z. elegans to 60.7 g (D. pinnata. Pollen grains are tricolporate, with echinate exine, medium or small in size. They can be categorised as oblatespherical, spherical, and prolatespherical. The principal visitors to C. macrocephala, C. sulphureus, and C. officinalis were honey bees, whereas bumble bees dominated on T. rotundifolia and D. pinnata. A magnet plant for butterflies was Z. elegans. Among the investigated species, D. pinnata, C. macrocephala, and T. rotundifolia were found to be the most valuable sources of pollen flow for managed and wild bees.

  4. Problem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants. II. Physical, Chemical, Toxicological, and Biological Properties of 16 Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Dieldrin (6 pounds dieldrin per acre) injures Dianthus , holly- hock, Kalanchoe, orchids, and Verbina by retardation of growth or leaf injury (218...Endrin injures Dianthus , KaZanchoe, Litiwn tongiflorum, -and scabious, as evidenced by retarded growth, inhibited flowering, and leaf burn (application...of 6 pounds endrin per acre for Dianthus , and 2 pounds endrin per acre for scabious) (98). Kerr and Kuitert (99) report that high concentrations of

  5. Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria

    Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.

  6. Carbon fixation and isotope discrimination by a crassulacean plant: dependence on the photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, J C; Queiroz, O

    1974-03-22

    Variations of more than 1 percent are observed in the carbon-13 to carbon-12 ratio of extracts of leaves of the succulent Kalanchoe blossfeldiana when the photoperiod is changed from long to short days. This indicates that the mechanism of carbon fixation switches from the Calvin (C(3)) pathway to the Hatch-Slack (C(4)) pathway of primary enzymic operation. The variations observed in the isotope compositions are tentatively explained by a model.

  7. The response of pot plants to reduction of energy consumption peaks in greenhouses. [Heating]. Potteplanters reaktion paa udjaevning af energiforbrugs spidser i vaeksthuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, L.H.; Adriansen, E.; Amsen, M.G.; Nielsen, O.F. (Danish Research Service for Plant and Soil Science, Research Centre for Horticulture, Dept. Hort. Engineering, Institute of Glasshouse Crops, Aarslev (DK))

    1989-01-01

    This experiment was started to avoid difficulties in energy supply, when big areas of greenhouses were connected to district heating. The aim of the experiment was to find ways to reduce energy consumption peaks at dawn and at dusk by means of simple techniques. This paper reports on the results of an experiment where five different pot plants were grown by a temperature control strategy based upon low day and high night room temperature set points (14 deg./22 deg. C) combined with reduced opening speed of the mixing valves. In general it may be concluded that it is possible to produce Chrysanthemum, Begonia, Kalanchoe, Hedera and Ficus with a temperature control strategy which reduces energy consumption peaks at dawn and at dusk without affecting the plant quality. However, it is necessary to apply growth retardants to Chrysanthemum and Kalanchoe to secure a good quality. The production time is reduced for Kalanchoe, increased for Chrysanthemum and Hedera and unchanged for Begonia and Ficus. (author).

  8. Screening CAM-fotosynthese Bromelia's

    OpenAIRE

    Warmenhoven, M.G.; Marissen, A.; Garcia Victoria, N.

    2006-01-01

    De ‘normale’ wijze van CO2-opname bij de meeste planten gebeurt overdag, wanneer er licht is om de opgenomen CO2 door middel van fotosynthese direct om te zetten in suikers. CO2 wordt opgenomen door de huidmondjes, dus is het nodig dat de huidmondjes overdag (als het licht is) open staan. ‘s Nachts zijn de huidmondjes meestal dicht. Via de huidmondjes gaat ook waterdamp naar buiten, de planten verdampen zo overdag veel meer dan ‘s nachts. Een aantal plantenfamilies (Crassulaceae, Bromeliaceae...

  9. Biotechnological approaches to enhance salidroside, rosin and its derivatives production in selected Rhodiola spp. in vitro cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech-Baran, Marta; Sykłowska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka

    Rhodiola (Crassulaceae) an arctic-alpine plant, is extensively used in traditional folk medicine in Asian and European countries. A number of investigations have demonstrated that Rhodiola preparations exhibit adaptogenic, neuroprotective, anti-tumour, cardioprotective, and anti-depressant effects. The main compounds responsible for these activities are believed to be salidroside, rosin and its derivatives which became the target of biotechnological investigations. This review summarizes the results of the diverse biotechnological approaches undertaken to enhance the production of salidroside, rosin and its derivatives in callus, cell suspension and organ in vitro cultures of selected Rhodiola species.

  10. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in some (non-Cactaceae) succulent plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2010-01-01

    The water-accumulating leaves of crassulacean acid metabolism plants belonging to five different families were investigated for the presence of biominerals by infrared spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. Spectroscopic results revealed that the mineral present in succulent species of Agavaceae, Aizoaceae, and Asphodelaceae was calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O). Crystals were predominantly found as raphides or solitary crystals of various morphologies. However, representative Crassulaceae members and a succulent species of Asteraceae did not show the presence of biominerals. Overall, these results suggest no correlation between calcium oxalate generation and crassulacean acid metabolism in succulent plants.

  11. The genus Callophyllis (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta from the central-south Chilean coast (33° to 41° S, with the description of two new species El género Callophyllis (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta de la costa central y sur de Chile (33° a 41° S, con la descripción de dos nuevas especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIA ARAKAKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status of the species in the genus Callophyllis Kützing (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta from central-south Chile (33° to 41° S is examined on the basis of morphological and molecular evidence. Of the four species originally cited for central Chile, C. variegata, C. pinnata, C. atrosanguinea and C. laciniata, only the presence of C. variegata has been confirmed in this study. C. pinnata reported from Chile is found to be different from C. pinnata described from California, and it is here newly described as C. concepcionensis sp. nov. C. atrosanguinea from southern Chile (including C. linguata from the Antarctic Peninsula is distinct from the species called C. atrosanguinea from central-south Chile, the latter which is here described as C. macrostiolata sp. nov. C. variegata, C. concepcionensis and C. macrostiolata are distinguished from one another by their external habit, the nature and distribution of their cystocarps, and the female reproductive morphology. Comparative rbcL sequence analysis corroborates the distinction of these taxa from central-south Chile and their relationships to other species worldwide.Se examina el estatus taxonómico de las especies del género Callophyllis Kützing (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta de la costa centro-sur de Chile (33° a 41° S en base a caracteres morfológicos y moleculares. De las cuatro especies citadas para Chile central, C. variegata, C. pinnata, C. atrosanguinea y C. laciniata, solo la presencia de C. variegata ha sido confirmada en este estudio. C. pinnata de Chile muestra diferencias con C. pinnata descrita para California y con el resto de las especies de Callophyllis hasta ahora conocidas, constituyendo así una nueva especie, C. concepcionensis sp. nov. C. atrosanguinea del sur de Chile (incluyendo C. linguata de la Península Antártica muestra diferencias con la especie llamada C. atrosanguinea de la costa centro-sur de Chile, esta última especie es descrita como C. macrostiolata

  12. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (Insecta) Abundance, Diversity and Role in Leaf Litter Breakdown in Tropical Headwater River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Hamid, Suhaila; Md Rawi, Che Salmah

    2017-07-01

    Leaf litter decomposition in a tropical stream was examined in two types of leaf packs; single species leaf packs of Pometia pinnata and two species leaf packs of equal combination of Pometia pinnata and Dolichandrone spathacea leaves. Both leaf packs were immersed in a river and weekly examined for remains of decomposed leaves and presence of EPT. In the control leaf packs, leaves in the two species leaf packs treatments decomposed within 35 days, faster than in single species leaf packs which decomposed after 42 days. In the presence of EPT, the leaf breakdown took 28 days in two species and 35 days for single species leaf packs. Higher abundance of EPT was observed in single species leaf packs but its diversity was higher in two species leaf packs. Litter breakdown in the stream was faster in the presence of EPT and softer leaves of D. spathacea with higher nitrogen content underwent faster decomposition and sustained higher numbers of EPT.

  13. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  14. Management of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Khan, Anisa B

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, potential of Eisenia fetida to recycle the different types of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) used as substrate in different reactors (Azolla pinnata reactor, Trapa natans reactor, Ceratophyllum demersum reactor, free-floating macrophytes mixture reactor, and submerged macrophytes mixture reactor) during 2 months experiment is investigated. E. fetida showed significant variation in number and weight among the reactors and during the different fortnights (P macrophytes mixture reactor (number 105 ± 5.77 %; weight 41.07 ± 3.97 % ). ANOVA showed significant variation in cocoon production (F4 = 15.67, P macrophyte affects the growth and reproduction pattern of E. fetida among the different reactors, further the addition of A. pinnata in other macrophytes reactors can improve their recycling by E. fetida.

  15. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN TUMBUHAN AIR PADA AIR LIMBAH RUMAH TANGGA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN IKAN GURAMI (Osphronemus gouramy SEBAGAI INFORMASI BAGI MASYARAKAT TENTANG PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DAN DAUR ULANG LIMBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafzon Exaputra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Utilization fern (Azolla pinnata and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes in addition to preserving the environment also produces elements that are needed for the growth of living things. Household wastewater by plants Azolla pinnata and hyacinth will return sustainability, and can be used as a maintenance gourami (Osphronemus gouramy.        The purpose of this research are: (1 to determine the effect of aquatic plants in domestic wastewater to the quality of the water quality standard household waste and growth of carp (Osphronemus gouramy. (2 to find out which one is better growth of carp (Osphronemus gouramy in household waste water between the new and old by fern (Azolla pinnata and by plants hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes. (3 as a source of information for the public about environmental pollution and recycling of waste water by using plants in domestic wastewater.        This type of research experiments. Samples of each treatment 20 fish carp with 4 treatments. Treatment I (wastewater new households by ferns, treatment of II (wastewater new households by plants hyacinth, Treatment III (domestic wastewater long by ferns, treatment IV (household wastewater long by water hyacinth plants. The measured parameters ie width, length and weight of carp within a certain period. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA two lanes and qualitative analysis.        The results obtained by analysis of existing water plants on the effect of domestic wastewater on growth of carp (Osphronemus gouramy, as well as the provision of fern (Azolla pinnata provides the most good influence on the growth of carp. Kata Kunci: Tumbuhan air, air limbah rumah tangga, pertumbuhan ikan gurami.

  16. REVIEW:Species diversity of indigenous fruits in Indonesia and its potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHAN UJI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is rich of species diversity of indigenous fruits. The results of study reported that there are 266 species of indigenous fruits encountered in Indonesia and 62 species of them are cultivated. Four genera of indigenous fruits are recommended to developed in Indonesia, i.e. Durio, Mangifera, Garcinia and Nephelium. This study also reported that duku (Lansium domesticum, salak (Salacca zalacca, buah merah (Pandanus conoideus, and matoa (Pometia pinnata have a good prospect also to be developed in Indonesia.

  17. Effects of Enzymatic Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Sugar Palm Fruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    P, Arsad; R, Sukor; WZ, Wan Ibadullah; NA, Mustapha; AS, Meor Hussin

    2015-01-01

    The interest in fruit and vegetable juices production has increased significantly all over the world due to their benefit value, quality of production and increasing of consumer awareness and preference for healthy food. The production of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fruit juice with exotic characteristics has the potential to be explored based on the new technologies and methods in juices industry. In beverage industry, enzyme is an essential tool for quality improvement and cost saving by in...

  18. Assessing Installation Ethnobotanical Resources Using Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) Data: A Fort Riley, Kansas, Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    incarnata S F Carya illinoensis G L Asclepias stenophylla S B Ceanothus herbaceus S B Asclepias syriaca S B Ceanothus oliganthus S L Asclepias tuberosa S...cannabinum S B Carex retroflexa G F Argemone polyanthemos S F Carex vulpinoidea S F Artemisia ludoviciana S B Carya cordiformis S B Asclepias...longipilum G B Descurainia pinnata S F Hordeum pusillum G F Descurainia sophia S F Hymenopappus scabiosaeus G B Desmanthus illinoensis S B Hypericum

  19. CYTO SCREENING OF LEAVES OF HOLOPTELEA INTEGRIFOLIA Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    H K I Singh Parmar

    2014-01-01

    As per the traditional herbal medicine books many medicinal plants are available in India, the ayurveda is a traditional for the oldest Indian medication the book contain a lot of drug description and they are use for cure and treat a dieses or alter the physiology and biological changes into the human body to remove the pain and stress form the body. The Holoptelea integrifolia is known as chillure in common language, the plat are geographical changes of the karanja (Millettia pinnata) In...

  20. The Contemporary Land Mammals of Egypt (Including Sinai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-15

    dactylifera), Tamarix nilotica, and mats of Imperata cylin- drica and Juncus rigidus. The last, together with T nilotica, choke the salty stream bed of Wadi...bipinnata and Imperata cylindrical occur along the canal banks. Marshy areas are dominated byJuncus rigidus and Phragmites australis. Alhagi mannifera...mannifera and stands of Panicum turgidum, Imperata cylindrica, and l)esmostachya bi- pinnata occur on the deeper sand sheets. Trees (Maerua crassifolia

  1. Investigation of the acaricidal activity of the acetone and ethanol extracts of 12 South African plants against the adult ticks of Rhipicephalus turanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Fouche

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal activity of acetone and ethanol extracts of 12 plant species was evaluated using the contact method on Rhipicephalus turanicus (Acari: Ixodidae ticks at an initial concentration of 20% (200 mg/mL. Eight of the 12 plants had mortality greater than 50% and the acetone extracts had better acaricidal activity than the ethanol extracts. The acetone extract of Calpurnia aurea (leaves and flowers had the highest corrected mortality (CM of 92.2% followed by Schkuhria pinnata (whole plant with a CM of 88.9%, Ficus sycomorus (bark and stems 86.7% and Senna italica subsp. arachoides (roots, leaves and fruits 83.3%. Selected extracts were tested at five different concentrations using the adult immersion test. From dose–response assays, EC50 values of 61.82 mg/mL, 115.21 mg/mL and 161.02 mg/mL were obtained for the acetone extracts of S. pinnata (whole plant, S. italica subsp. arachoides (roots, leaves and fruits and C. aurea (leaves and flowers respectively. The ethanol extract of Monsonia angustifolia (whole plant had the highest CM of 97.8% followed by S. pinnata (whole plant with a CM of 86.7%, C. aurea (leaves and flowers 81.1% and Cleome gynandra (leaves 77.8%. There is potential for the development of environmentally benign botanicals as natural acaricides against R. turanicus.

  2. The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresshoff, Peter M; Hayashi, Satomi; Biswas, Bandana; Mirzaei, Saeid; Indrasumunar, Arief; Reid, Dugald; Samuel, Sharon; Tollenaere, Alina; van Hameren, Bethany; Hastwell, April; Scott, Paul; Ferguson, Brett J

    2015-01-01

    Much of modern agriculture is based on immense populations of genetically identical or near-identical varieties, called cultivars. However, advancement of knowledge, and thus experimental utility, is found through biodiversity, whether naturally-found or induced by the experimenter. Globally we are confronted by ever-growing food and energy challenges. Here we demonstrate how such biodiversity from the food legume crop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) and the bioenergy legume tree Pongamia (Millettia) pinnata is a great value. Legume plants are diverse and are represented by over 18,000 species on this planet. Some, such as soybean, pea and medics are used as food and animal feed crops. Others serve as ornamental (e.g., wisteria), timber (e.g., acacia/wattle) or biofuel (e.g., Pongamia pinnata) resources. Most legumes develop root organs (nodules) after microsymbiont induction that serve as their habitat for biological nitrogen fixation. Through this, nitrogen fertiliser demand is reduced by the efficient symbiosis between soil Rhizobium-type bacteria and the appropriate legume partner. Mechanistic research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of legumes is thus strategically essential for future global agriculture. Here we demonstrate how molecular plant science analysis of the genetics of an established food crop (soybean) and an emerging biofuel P. pinnata feedstock contributes to their utility by sustainable production aided by symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-Mediated Transformation – a Non-GMO Platform For Developing Compact Ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Lauridsen, Uffe Bjerre

    of these compounds are potentially harmful to both the environment and human health. A new non-GMO molecular breeding strategy, as opposed to both the application of chemical growth retardants and conventional molecular breeding is Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. In this method, the soil borne...... for transformations, plants produced via this approach are not considered as GMOs in the European Union and Japan. We have developed an optimised Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation platform useful for a wide range of ornamentals. Kalanchoë was the starting point and the effect of the rol-genes has now...

  4. Anisotropic cell growth-regulated surface micropatterns in flower petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Flower petals have not only diverse macroscopic morphologies but are rich in microscopic surface patterns, which are crucial to their biological functions. Both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis are conducted to reveal the physical mechanisms underlying the formation of minute wrinkles on flower petals. Three representative flowers, daisy, kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Eustoma grandiflorum, are investigated as examples. A surface wrinkling model, incorporating the measured mechanical properties and growth ratio, is used to elucidate the difference in their surface morphologies. The mismatch between the anisotropic epidermal cell growth and the isotropic secretion of surficial wax is found to dictate the surface patterns.

  5. Phases of crown-gall transformation susceptible to hydroxyurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Rennert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the use of bacterial strains, both sensitive and resistant to hydroxyurea the action of this inhibitor on tumour formation on the leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens was tested for five days after inoculation. The results are in agreement with the opinion that the anti-tumour effect of hydroxyurea applied in the induction phase (between 18 and 60 h after inoculation is the result of its direct action on plant cells, whereas inhibition of tumour formation by the inhibitor in the inoculation period depends on its action on the pathogenic bacteria.

  6. TECHNOLOGY AND ANALYSIS DEVELOPMENT OF STOMATOLOGICAL MATRIX SYSTEM OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACTION DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Marinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Timeliness of double-layer matrix system (of stomatological medicated films with antiinflammatory, local anesthetic, regenerative, anti-edematous action was shown. One layer of the system includes lidocaine hydrochloride and kalanchoe sap, another contains furacilin and urea. The best possible polymer carriers of preparations under study which provide their sufficient release from matrix system. Signified antimicrobic activity of double-layer system and osmotic activity were established. Double-layer matrix systems offered may be used in stomatology with for treatment and preventive measures of different diseases of parodontium tissues

  7. Taxonomic value of foliar characters in Dahlstedtia Malme: Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae Valor taxonômico de caracteres foliares em Dahlstedtia Malme: Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae is a neotropical genus, native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and comprises two species, D. pinnata (Benth. Malme and D. pentaphylla (Taub. Burk., although it has been considered a monotypic genus by some authors. Leaf anatomy was compared to verify the presence of anatomical characters to help delimit species. Foliar primordium, leaflet, petiolule, petiole and pulvinus were collected from cultivated plants (Campinas, SP, Brazil and from natural populations (Picinguaba, Ubatuba and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil - D. pinnata; Antonina, PR, Brazil - D. pentaphylla. Studies on leaflet surface assessment (Scanning Electron Microscopy, as well as histology and venation analyses were carried out of dehydrated, fresh and fixed material from two species. Leaflet material was macerated for stomatal counts. Histological sections, obtained by free-hand cut or microtome, were stained with Toluidine Blue, Safranin/Alcian Blue, Ferric Chloride, Acid Phloroglucin. Secretory cavities are present in the lamina, petiolule, petiole, pulvinus and leaf primordium in D. pentaphylla, but not in D. pinnata, and can be considered an important character for species diagnosis. Other leaf characters were uninformative in delimiting Dahlstedtia species. There is cambial activity in the petiolule, petiole and pulvinus. This study, associated with other available data, supports the recognition of two species in Dahlstedtia.Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae é um gênero neotropical, com duas espécies reconhecidas, D. pinnata (Benth. Malme e D. pentaphylla (Taub. Burk., embora tenha sido considerado monotípico por alguns autores. Seus representantes ocorrem na Floresta Atlântica, nos Estados do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Neste trabalho, realizamos um estudo comparativo da anatomia foliar, para verificar a presença de caracteres que possam auxiliar a identificação das espécies. Primórdio foliar, lâmina foliar, peciólulo, pecíolo e pulvino

  8. Nocturnal uptake and assimilation of nitrogen dioxide by C3 and CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Misa; Konaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 by C3 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, they were fumigated with 4 microl l(-1) 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 8 h. The amount of NO2 and assimilation of NO2 by plants were determined by mass spectrometry and Kjeldahl-nitrogen based mass spectrometry, respectively. C3 plants such as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and ground cherry (Physalis alkekengi) showed a high uptake and assimilation during daytime as high as 1100 to 2700 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. While tobacco and ground cherry strongly reduced uptake and assimilation of NO2 during nighttime, kenaf kept high nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 as high as about 1500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. Stomatal conductance measurements indicated that there were no significant differences to account for the differences in the uptake of NO2 by tobacco and kenaf during nighttime. CAM plants such as Sedum sp., Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (kalanchoe) and Aloe arborescens exhibited nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2. However, the values of uptake and assimilation of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime was very low (at most about 500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight) as compared with those of above mentioned C3 plants. The present findings indicate that kenaf is an efficient phytoremediator of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime.

  9. Interactive effects of herbicide and enhanced UV-B on growth, oxidative damage and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in two Azolla species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Kumar, Sushil; Parihar, Parul; Singh, Rachana

    2016-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of alone and combined exposures of herbicide pretilachlor (5, 10 and 20μgml(-1)) and enhanced UV-B radiation (UV-B1; ambient +2.2kJm(-2) day(-1) and UV-B2; ambient +4.4kJm(-2) day(-1)) on growth, oxidative stress and the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in two agronomically important Azolla spp. viz., Azolla microphylla and Azolla pinnata. Decreased relative growth rate (RGR) in both the species under tested stress could be linked to enhanced oxidative stress, thus higher H2O2 accumulation was observed, that in turn might have caused severe damage to lipids and proteins, thereby decreasing membrane stability. The effects were exacerbated when spp. were exposed to combined treatments of enhanced UV-B and pretilachlor. Detoxification of H2O2 is regulated by enzymes/metabolites of AsA-GSH cycle such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity that were found to be stimulated. While, dehydroascorabte reductase (DHAR) activity, and the amount of metabolites: ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and ratios of reduced/oxidized AsA (AsA/DHA) and GSH (GSH/GSSG), showed significant reduction with increasing doses of both the stressors, either applied alone or in combination. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), an enzyme involved in scavenging of xenobiotics, was found to be stimulated under the tested stress. This study suggests that decline in DHAR activity and in AsA/DHA ratio might have led to enhanced H2O2 accumulation, thus decreased RGR was noticed under tested stress in both the species and the effect was more pronounced in A. pinnata. Owing to better performance of AsA-GSH cycle in A. microphylla, this study substantiates the view that A. microphylla is more tolerant than A. pinnata. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative growth behaviour and leaf nutrient status of native trees planted on mine spoil with and without nutrient amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Singh, J.S. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    2001-07-01

    The effect of nutrient amendment on growth of nine indigenous tree species planted on coal mine spoil was studied. Greater growth in fertilized plots was accompanied by greater foliar N and P concentrations in all species. The response to fertilization varied among species and was greater in non-leguminous than in leguminous species. Furthermore, leguminous species exhibited higher growth rates compared to non-leguminous species. Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Gmelina arborea and Azadirachta indica fitted the elastic similarity model of tree growth; whereas Pongamia pinnata and Phyllanthus emblica followed the constant stress model. Tectona grandis was the only species which fitted the geometric similarity model.

  11. Associações Rhizobium - Leguminosas no Estado de Rondõnia

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães,Fátima M. M.; Silva,Marlene F. da

    1987-01-01

    Verificou-se a ocorrência de nodulação em mudas e/ou individuos adultos de 54 es-pécies da familia Leguminosae em áreas de floresta intacta e áreas perturbadas,no Estado de Rondônia. Das espécies observadas: Acácia polyphyllaÁ. DC., Amburana acreana(Ducke) A. C. Smith, Babieria pinnata(Pers.) Baill., Bauhinia acreanaHarms., BauhiniulongicuspÍ4 Spr. ex Benth., Cassia fastuosaWilld., Dalbergia inundataBenth., Derris ama zonicaKiiiip, Hymenaea reticulataDucke, Machaerium inundaium(Mart. ex Benth...

  12. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    Inflorescences of sugar palms exude copious amounts of sugar-rich sap, when their peduncles are scarred. In Thailand this phenomenon form the basis of a widespread cottage industry based on species such as Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifera, Cocos nucifera and Nypa fruticans. The extracted sugar...... sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  13. 1239-IJBCS-Article-Samba Ndiaye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    de Cordyla pinnata, une légumineuse arborée qui forme un parc agroforestier au Sénégal. Les analyses de sols ont montré des valeurs plus élevées pour N total, Ca échangeable et CEC sous le couvert de l'espèce. Pour le mil, la hauteur, les biomasses aérienne et racinaire ont également été plus élevées sur les sols SC.

  14. Response surface methodology to simplify calculation of wood energy potency from tropical short rotation coppice species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqiqi, M. T.; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.

    2018-04-01

    Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) system is an option to provide renewable and sustainable feedstock in generating electricity for rural area. Here in this study, we focussed on application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to simplify calculation protocols to point out wood chip production and energy potency from some tropical SRC species identified as Bauhinia purpurea, Bridelia tomentosa, Calliandra calothyrsus, Fagraea racemosa, Gliricidia sepium, Melastoma malabathricum, Piper aduncum, Vernonia amygdalina, Vernonia arborea and Vitex pinnata. The result showed that the highest calorific value was obtained from V. pinnata wood (19.97 MJ kg-1) due to its high lignin content (29.84 %, w/w). Our findings also indicated that the use of RSM for estimating energy-electricity of SRC wood had significant term regarding to the quadratic model (R2 = 0.953), whereas the solid-chip ratio prediction was accurate (R2 = 1.000). In the near future, the simple formula will be promising to calculate energy production easily from woody biomass, especially from SRC species.

  15. POMETIA (SAPINDACEAE, A STUDY IN VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jacobs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A monograph   of   Pometia,   which   extends   from   Ceylon   throughout Malaysia to Samoa, with a few stations in SE. Asia and Formosa. Two species are recognized:   P. ridleyi   and   P. pinnata,   the   latter   having a particular pattern of  alternating- nerves.  Pometia pinnata is  extremely variable and clearly still in process of differentiation. From the wealth of forms,  8 formae  have  been  selected  for taxonomic  recognition,  1  of them is newly described, 7 are new combinations;  characters are found in the leaves and the inflorescence. Besides, a number of unnamed paramorphs have been described. The distribution of the variability has been sketched for each region. Details about ecology etc. are given. Specimens are cited where  appropriate  and  a general  Identification  List  is  given at the end.

  16. EFEKTIVITAS NIRA AREN SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGEMBANG ADONAN ROTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mody Lempang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a natural process that happen in fresh-sweet sap of aren trees (Arenga pinnata Merr., because many kinds of microorganism stay and life in this substance e.g. bakteria (Acetobacter acetic and yeast (Saccharomyces tuac. Species of yeast from genus of Saccharomyses, e.g. Saccharomyses serivisae is wellknown as microorganism that can ferment sugar (glucose into alchohol and CO2. This natural process as well happen in aren sap, so that this substance potencially using as a swollen agent of bread or cake dough. This research objective is to recognize the effectiveness of aren sap as a swollen agent of bread dough. Fermentation duration of bread dough was one hour by using swollen agent of fresh, 10 hours old and 20 hours old of aren sap. Daily yield of sap tapped from aren trees in Maros district, South Sulawesi province was 7 litre (4-5 litre collected in the morning and 2-3 litre colected in the afternoon. Aren sap containt some of nutritions e.g. carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamin C and mineral. Sweet taste of aren sap caused by it’s charbohydrate content of 11.18%. The effectiveness of aren sap as a swollen agent of bread dough is lower than instant (commercial yeast. The older of aren sap the lower of it’s effectiveness as a swollen agent of dough and kuality of bread yield.    Keywords : Sap, Arenga pinnata, swollen agent, bread dough

  17. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  18. Comparison of biomass productivity and nitrogen fixing potential of Azolla SPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, A.; Singh, P.K. [Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    2003-03-01

    Study was conducted on six different Azolla species, available in the germplasm collection of NCCUBGA, IARI, New Delhi namely A. filiculoides, A. mexicana, A. microphylla, A. pinnata, A. rubra and A. caroliniana in a polyhouse to assess their growth potential by determining their maximal biomass productivity, doubling time and relative growth rates. Their nitrogen fixing potential was assessed by acetylene reduction assay. Among them Azolla microphylla gave highest biomass production and relative growth rate followed by Azolla caroliniana. Both these had high nitrogenase activity also. Peak nitrogenase activity of these strains was found on 14th day of growth and it declined on further incubation. Azolla microphylla and Azolla rubra were more tolerant to salinity than others. On the other hand Azolla pinnata, which is endemic species found in India, exhibited low biomass production, relative growth rate and lower nitrogenase activity compared to other species. It was unable to sustain growth in saline medium. Under polyhouse conditions, A. microphylla was found to perform better than other cultures in terms of biomass productivity, N fixing ability and salt tolerance. Hence it is taken up for mass production.(author)

  19. Fluoride remediation using floating macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Six aquatic macrophytes, such as Pistia stratiotes, Ceratophyllum demersum, Nymphoides indica, Lemna major, Azolla pinnata,and Eichhornia crassipes were considered for remove fluoride from aqueous solution. Five different concentrations (10, 30, 50, and 100 ppm of fluoride solution were taken in 1 L plastic container. Fixed weight (20 g of macrophytes along with 500 ml fluoride solution was taken in each plastic container for 72 hours observation. Results demonstrated all the macrophytes show highest fluoride removal during 24 h to 48 h, but after 72 h their efficiency reduced drastically. The species N. indica showed better removal efficiency than other experimental macrophytes. In general, pigment measurement data indicated higher concentration at 72 h. However, Pistia sp. showed higher concentration of pigmentation at intermediate time interval (48 h. Higher level of dry weight to fresh weight ratio was recorded for L. major and A. pinnata at all concentrations, excepting at 10 ppm. In addition, all macrophytes showed lower RGR at higher concentration. Isotherm study indicated that macrophyte C. demersum is a good fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm whereas L. major with Langmuir isotherm during 24 hours.

  20. Harnessing indigenous plant seed oil for the production of bio-fuel by an oleaginous fungus, Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, isolated from tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukrutha, S K; Janakiraman, Savitha

    2014-01-01

    Cunninghamella blakesleeana- JSK2, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) producing tropical fungal isolate, was utilized as a tool to evaluate the influence of various plant seed oils on biomass, oleagenicity and bio-fuel production. The fungus accumulated 26 % total lipid of their dry biomass (2 g/l) and 13 % of GLA in its total fatty acid. Among the various plant seed oils tested as carbon sources for biotransformation studies, watermelon oil had an effect on biomass and total lipid increasing up to 9.24 g/l and 34 % respectively. Sunflower, pumpkin, and onion oil increased GLA content between 15-18 %. Interestingly, an indigenous biodiesel commodity, Pongamia pinnata oil showed tremendous effect on fatty acid profile in C. blakesleeana- JSK2, when used as a sole source of carbon. There was complete inhibition of GLA from 13 to 0 % and increase in oleic acid content, one of the key components of biodiesel to 70 % (from 20 % in control). Our results suggest the potential application of indigenous plant seed oils, particularly P. pinnata oil, for the production of economically valuable bio-fuel in oleaginous fungi in general, and C. blakesleeana- JSK2, in particular.

  1. Genetic diversity among and within cultured cyanobionts of diverse species of Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, A; Prasanna, R; Prasanna, B M; Singh, P K

    2008-01-01

    The cyanobionts isolated from 10 Azolla accessions belonging to 6 species (Azolla mexicana, A. microphylla, A. rubra, A. caroliniana, A. filiculoides, A. pinnata) were cultured under laboratory conditions and analyzed on the basis of whole cell protein profiles and molecular marker dataset generated using repeat sequence primers (STRR(mod) and HipTG). The biochemical and molecular marker profiles of the cyanobionts were compared with those of the free-living cyanobacteria and symbiotic Nostoc strains from Anthoceros sp., Cycas sp. and Gunnera monoika. Cluster analysis revealed the genetic diversity among the selected strains, and identified 3 distinct clusters. Group 1 included cyanobionts from all the 10 accessions of Azolla, group 2 comprised all the symbiotic Nostoc strains, while group 3 included the free-living cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Nostoc and Anabaena. The interrelationships among the Azolla cyanobionts were further revealed by principal component analysis. Cyanobionts from A. caroliniana-A. microphylla grouped together while cyanobionts associated with A. mexicana-A. filiculoides along with A. pinnata formed another group. A. rubra cyanobionts had intermediate relationship with both the subgroups. This is the first study analyzing the diversity existing among the cultured cyanobionts of diverse Azolla species through the use of biochemical and molecular profiles and also the genetic distinctness of these free-living cyanobionts as compared to cyanobacterial strains of the genera Anabaena and Nostoc.

  2. Identification of a common cyanobacterial symbiont associated with Azolla spp. through molecular and morphological characterization of free-living and symbiotic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, J S; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S A

    1991-01-01

    Symbiotically associated cyanobacteria from Azolla mexicana and Azolla pinnata were isolated and cultured in a free-living state. Morphological analyses revealed differences between the free-living isolates and their symbiotic counterparts, as did restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses with both single-copy glnA and rbcS gene probes and a multicopy psbA gene probe. RFLP analyses with Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 nifD excision element probes, including an xisA gene probe, detected homologous sequences in DNA extracted from the free-living isolates. Sequences homologous to these probes were not detected in DNA from the symbiotically associated cyanobacteria. These analyses indicated that the isolates were not identical to the major cyanobacterial symbiont species residing in leaf cavities of Azolla spp. Nevertheless, striking similarities between several free-living isolates were observed. In every instance, the isolate from A. pinnata displayed banding patterns virtually identical to those of free-living cultures previously isolated from Azolla caroliniana and Azolla filiculoides. These results suggest the ubiquitous presence of a culturable minor cyanobacterial symbiont in at least three species of Azolla. Images PMID:1685078

  3. Reduction of energy consumption peaks in a greenhouse by computer control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsen, M.G.; Froesig Nielsen, O.; Jacobsen, L.H. (Danish Research Service for Plant and Soil Science, Research Centre for Horticulture, Department of Horticultural Engineering, Aarslev (DK))

    1990-01-01

    The results of using a computer for environmental control in one greenhouse is in this paper compared with using modified analogue control equipment in another one. Energy consumption peaks can be almost prevented by properly applying the computer control and strategy. Both treatments were based upon negative DIF, i.e. low day and high night minimum set points (14 deg. C/ 22 deg. C) for room temperature. No difference in production time and quality was observed in six different pot plant species. Only Kalanchoe showed significant increase in fresh weight and dry weight. By applying computer control, the lack of flexibility of analogue control can be avoided by applying computer control and a more accurate room temperature control can be obtained. (author).

  4. Novel gaseous ethylene binding inhibitor prevents ethylene effects in potted flowering plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serek, M.; Reid, M.S. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Horticulture); Sisler, E.C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1994-11-01

    A 6-hour fumigation of flowering Begonia xelatior hybrida Fotsch. Najada' and Rosa', B. xtuberhybrida Voss. Non-Stop', Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tropicana', and Rosa hybrida L. Victory Parade' plants with 1-MCP, (formerly designated as SIS-X), a gaseous nonreversible ethylene binding inhibitor, strongly inhibited exogenous ethylene effects such as bud and flower drop, leaf abscission, and accelerated flower senescence. The inhibitory effects of 1-MCP increased linearly with concentration, and at 20 nl-liter[sup [minus]1] this compound gave equal protection to that afforded by spraying the plants with a 0.5 STS mM solution. Chemical names used: 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), silver thiosulfate (STS).

  5. A failure of the Red Pierrot Talicada nyseus Guérin-Méneville, 1843 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae butterfly to colonize Delhi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv K. Singh Bais

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Red Pierrot Talicada nyseus Guérin-Méneville, 1843 is a butterfly of the semi-arid plains. Its historical distribution range includes Sri Lanka, southern India, northeastern India and Myanmar. It was recently reported from a few places in northern India far away from its known range boundaries in India. Dehradun, Kumaon Himalaya, Delhi and Kalatop are the places from where it has been reported in the recent past. Talicada nyseus nyseus appeared in the Delhi area in 2008, survived and bred for more than a year and then suddenly disappeared in the summer of 2009. The appearance of T.n. nyseus in Dehradun has been linked to the introduction of Kalanchoe ornamental plants in the newly developed residential areas. This paper examines the likely reasons for its disappearance from the Delhi area.

  6. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea formed callus and roots, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pelargonium grandiflorum, P. peltatum, P. radula, Coleus shirensis and Magnolia soulangeana produced callus, Philodendron scandens, Rhododendron smirnovii, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Coprosma baueri, Cestrum purpureum and Solanum rantonnetii did not exhibit any regeneration reactions.

  7. Phytochrome-mediated responses of cells and protoplasts of green calli obtained from the leaves of a CAM plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mricha, A; Brulfert, J; Pierre, J N; Queiroz, O

    1990-04-01

    Green callus obtained from leaves of the CAM-inducible plant Kalanchoe blossfeldiana cv. Montezuma has previously been shown to perform C3-type photosynthesis under 16-h days and to shift to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) under 9-h days. The utilization of photoperiodic regimes (i.e. night interruptions by 30 min red light) established that CAM induction in the callus was under the control of phytochrome, as shown by measurements of CAM criteria: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity and malic acid pools. Short-term responsiveness of the callus cells to phytochrome modulations by monochromatic radiations was also established by the rapid changes observed in the diameter of the callus-derived protoplasts. These results provide further evidence that whole plant correlations are not necessary for phytochrome operativity.

  8. Phosphorylation-dephosphorylation process as a probable mechanism for the diurnal regulatory changes of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Vidal, J; Le Marechal, P; Gadal, P; Queiroz, O; Kluge, M; Kruger, I

    1986-04-14

    Day and night forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) (PEPC) were extracted from leaves of the CAM plants Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. tubiflora and K. blossfeldiana previously fed with [32P] labelled phosphate solution. A one-step immunochemical purification followed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography showed that, in all species, the night form of the enzyme was phosphorylated and not the day form. Limited acid hydrolysis of the night form and two-dimensional separation identified predominantly labelled phosphoserine and phosphothreonine. In vitro addition of exogenous acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) to desalted night form-containing extracts resulted within 30 min in a shift in PEPC enzymic properties similar to the in vivo changes from night to day form. It is suggested that phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of the enzyme could be the primary in vivo process which might explain the observed rhythmicity of enzymic properties.

  9. Photoperiodism and crassulacean acid metabolism : I. Immunological and kinetic evidences for different patterns of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoforms in photoperiodically inducible and non-inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Müller, D; Kluge, M; Queiroz, O

    1982-05-01

    Plants of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poelln. Tom Thumb and Sedum morganianum E. Walth. were grown under controlled photoperiodic conditions under either short or long days. Gaz exchange measurements confirmed that in K. blossfeldiana Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was photoperiodically inducible and that S. morganianum performed CAM independently of photoperiod. With K. blossfeldiana, a comparison of catalytic and regulatory properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) from short-day and long-day grown plants showed differences, but not with S. morganianum. Ouchterlony double diffusion tests and immunotitration experiments (using a S. morganianum PEPC antibody) established that CAM is induced in K. blossfeldiana-but not in S. morganianum-through the synthesis of a new PEPC isoform; this form shows an immunological behavior different from that prevailing under non-inductive conditions and can be considered as specific for CAM performance.

  10. Changes in the isozymic pattern of phosphoenolpyruvate : An early step in photoperiodic control of crassulacean acid metabolism level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Arrabaça, M C; Guerrier, D; Queiroz, O

    1979-01-01

    Two major isofunctional forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) have been separated from the leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tom Thumb by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and diethylaminoethyl cellulose techniques: one of the forms prevails under long-day treatment (low crassulacean acid metabolism level), the other develops under short-day treatment (high Crassulacean acid metabolism level). Molecular weights are significantly different: 175·10(3) and 186·10(3), respectively. These results indicate that two populations of phosphoenolyruvate carboxylase are present in the plant, one of which is responsible for Crassulacean acid metabolism activity under the control of photoperiod.The Crassulacean acid metabolism appears to depend on the same endogenous clock that governs other photoperiodically controlled events (e.g. flowering). The metabolic and energetic significance of this feature is discussed. It is suggested that modification in isozymic composition could be an early step in the response to photoperiodism at the metabolic level.

  11. Effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on time of flowering in four short-day and four long-day species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reekie, J.Y.C.; Hicklenton, P.R. (Agriculture Canada Research Station, Kentiville, NS (Canada)); Reekie, E.G. (Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if the effect of elevated CO[sub 2] on flowering phenology is a function of the photoperiodic response of the species involved. Four long-day plants, Achillea millefolium, Callistephus chinensis, Campanula isophylla, and Trachelium caeruleum, and four short-day plants, Dendranthema grandiflora, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pharbitis nil, and Xanthium pensylvanicum, were grown under inductive photoperiods (9 h for short day and 17 h for long day) at either 350 or 1000 [mu]l/l CO[sub 2]. Time of visible flower bud formation, flower opening, and final plant biomass were assessed. Elevated CO[sub 2] advanced flower opening in all four long-day species and delayed flowering in all four short-day species. In the long-day species, the effect of CO[sub 2] was primarily on bud initiation; all four species formed buds earlier at high CO[sub 2]. Bud development, the difference in time between flower opening and bud initiation, was advanced in only one long-day species, Callistephus chinensis. Mixed results were obtained for the short-day species. Elevated CO[sub 2] exerted no effects on bud initiation but delayed bud development in Dendranthema and Kalanchoe. In Xanthium, bud initiation rather than bud development was delayed. Data on bud initiation and development were not obtained for Pharbitis. The negative effect of CO[sub 2] upon phenology in the short-day species was not associated with negative effects on growth. Elevated CO[sub 2] increased plant size in both long-day and short-day species. 26 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Antiproliferative activity and phenotypic modification induced by selected Peruvian medicinal plants on human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraz, Maëlle; Lavergne, Cédric; Jullian, Valérie; Wright, Michel; Gairin, Jean Edouard; Gonzales de la Cruz, Mercedes; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2015-05-26

    The high incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Peru and the wide use of medicinal plants in this country led us to study the activity against HCC cells in vitro of somes species used locally against liver and digestive disorders. Ethnopharmacological survey: Medicinal plant species with a strong convergence of use for liver and digestive diseases were collected fresh in the wild or on markets, in two places of Peru: Chiclayo (Lambayeque department, Chiclayo province) and Huaraz (Ancash department, Huaraz province). Altogether 51 species were collected and 61 ethanol extracts were prepared to be tested. Biological assessment: All extracts were first assessed against the HCC cell line Hep3B according a 3-step multi-parametric phenotypic assay. It included 1) the evaluation of phenotypic changes on cells by light microscopy, 2) the measurement of the antiproliferative activity and 3) the analysis of the cytoskeleton and mitosis by immunofluorescence. Best extracts were further assessed against other HCC cell lines HepG2, PLC/PRF/5 and SNU-182 and their toxicity measured in vitro on primary human hepatocytes. Ethnopharmacological survey: Some of the species collected had a high reputation spreading over the surveyed locations for treating liver problems, i.e. Baccharis genistelloides, Bejaria aestuans, Centaurium pulchellum, Desmodium molliculum, Dipsacus fullonum, Equisetum bogotense, Gentianella spp., Krameria lapacea, Otholobium spp., Schkuhria pinnata, Taraxacum officinale. Hep3B evaluation: Fourteen extracts from 13 species (Achyrocline alata, Ambrosia arborescens, Baccharis latifolia, Hypericum laricifolium, Krameria lappacea, Niphidium crassifolium, Ophryosporus chilca, Orthrosanthus chimboracensis, Otholobium pubescens, Passiflora ligularis, Perezia coerulescens, Perezia multiflora and Schkuhria pinnata) showed a significant antiproliferative activity against Hep3B cells (IC50≤ 50µg/mL). This was associated with a lack of toxicity on primary

  13. Successional study for the restoration at Carpatos forest reserve in Guasca, Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantillo Higuera Edgard Ernesto; Lozada Silva Alberto; Pinzon Gonzalez Julian

    2009-01-01

    Based on floristic and structural characterization, four stages of secondary succession were analyzed within a matrix of vegetation that had been disrupted (185 ha) at Carpatos Forest Reserve. This reserve is located in the foothills of Colombian's Eastern Mountain Range (Cordillera Oriental), among 2600 and 3000 meters above sea level, and it is aimed at making a contribution to prepare a restoration protocol. In flat, wet areas, vegetation represented by grassland whit Rubus floribundum y Pteridium aquilinum, grows up to 0.7 m height on average. It is characterized by Pteridium aquilinum, which holds an average of 1638 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of four species with the same number of genera and families bushes of Solanum inopinum and Chusquea scandens, less than 3 m height, were dominated by Chusquea scandens, with an estimated average of 638 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of four species and the same number of genera and families. In areas of steeper slopes and lower humidity more structured vegetation grows. This forests in recovery dominated by Miconia theaezans y Myrsine coriacea, which contains two types of vegetation: Hedyosmum crenatum y Myrsine coriacea, which are dominated by a shrub layer no taller than 5 m, with Myrsine coriacea as its most important species, and an estimated average of 1742 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of 18 species, 16 genera and 13 families, and Weinmannia pinnata y Miconia theaezans, represented by Myrsine coriacea, Miconia theaezans and Weinmannia pinnata as important species, which held an estimated average of 1833 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of 14 species, 12 genera and 11 families. Myrsine coriacea, Miconia theaezans, Weinmannia pinnata and Hedyosmun crenatum are regarded as the most suitable to start reproductive, adaptive and developing silvicultural protocols. Management analysis suggests that there is a correlation between higher clay content and the secondary-succession initial-state communities

  14. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Colin F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf periphery, making them potentially more susceptible to some herbivore feeding modes than others. In this study we investigate the protective function of Se in the Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus against two cell disrupting herbivores, the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae. Results Astragalus bisulcatus and S. pinnata with high Se concentrations (greater than 650 mg Se kg-1 were less subject to thrips herbivory than plants with low Se levels (less than 150 mg Se kg-1. Furthermore, in plants containing elevated Se levels, leaves with higher concentrations of Se suffered less herbivory than leaves with less Se. Spider mites also preferred to feed on low-Se A. bisulcatus and S. pinnata plants rather than high-Se plants. Spider mite populations on A. bisulcatus decreased after plants were given a higher concentration of Se. Interestingly, spider mites could colonize A. bisulcatus plants containing up to 200 mg Se kg-1 dry weight, concentrations which are toxic to many other herbivores. Selenium distribution and speciation studies using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μXRF mapping and Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the spider mites accumulated primarily methylselenocysteine, the relatively non-toxic form of Se that is also the predominant form of Se in hyperaccumulators. Conclusions This is the first reported study investigating the

  15. Effects of atmospheric SO[sub 2] on Azolla and Anabaena symbiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, J.-S.; Wellburn, A.R. (Division of Biological Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Lancaster Univ., Lancaster (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    The water fern Azolla pinnata R. Br. was fumigated for 1 week with either 25, 50 or 100 nl l[sup -1] SO[sub 2]. The symbiosis of Azolla with Anabaena azollae (spp.) was severely damaged by atmospheric SO[sub 2] even at the lowest concentration studied showing significant reductions in growth, reduction of C[sub 2]H[sub 2], NH[sub 3] assimilation, protein synthesis, and heterocyst development. These disturbances appear to be mainly responsible for the extreme sensitivity of this fern to atmospheric SO[sub 2]. Changes in violaxanthin/antheraxanthin and epoxylutein/lutein ratios also indicate that free radical products are induced by atmospheric SO[sub 2]. These results suggest that the Azolla-Anabeana symbiotic system is a very responsive and reliable lower plant model to study the detailed effects of total sulfur deposition upon the balances between various important plant metabolic processes.

  16. Bioenergy potential of eight common aquatic weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Nipaney, P.C.; Schaumberg, G.D. (Pondicherry (Central) Univ. (IN). Salim Ali School of Ecology)

    1990-01-01

    Eight common aquatic weeds Salvinia molesta, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphaea stellata, Azolla pinnata, Ceratopteris sp. Scirpus sp. Cyperus sp, and Utricularia reticulata were digested anaerobically to produce methane. The carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, carbon to phosphorus (C/P) ratio, and the volatile solids (VS) content of the weeds varied widely. No trend between these factors and the methane yield was discernable; the possible reasons are discussed. The energy potential of the weeds per unit area of the weed crop was worked out. Natural stands of salvinia, such as the one employed in the present investigation, would yield energy (methane) of the order of 10{sup 8} Kcal/ha/yr. (author).

  17. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohibbe Azam, M.; Waris, Amtul; Nahar, N.M. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342003 (India)

    2005-10-01

    Fatty acid profiles of seed oils of 75 plant species having 30% or more fixed oil in their seed/kernel were examined. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of oils were empirically determined and they varied from 169.2 to 312.5, 4.8 to 212 and 20.56 to 67.47, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV and CN were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ester of oils of 26 species including Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were found most suitable for use as biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of USA, Germany and European Standard Organization. The fatty acid methyl esters of another 11 species meet the specification of biodiesel standard of USA only. These selected plants have great potential for biodiesel. (author)

  18. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-08-29

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.

  19. An Experimental Investigation of Karanja Biodiesel Production in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Harreh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of nonedible feedstock for the production of biodiesel has become an area of research interest among clean energy experts in the past few years. This research is aimed at the utilization of Pongamia pinnata (karanja, a nonedible feedstock from the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, to produce biodiesel to be known as crude karanja oil (CKO. A one-step transesterification process utilizing 7 : 1–10 : 1 wt% methanol (CH3OH and 0.5–1.2 wt% sodium hydroxide (NaOH at 65°C for 1.5 hrs has been used for the biodiesel production yielding 84% conversion. The physiochemical properties of the CKO produced revealed that it conforms with EN14214 standards for brake power (BP, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and brake thermal efficiency (BTE as they are all noted be optimal at B40.

  20. Characterization of Microsatellites for the Endangered Ruta oreojasme (Rutaceae and Cross-Amplification in Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Meloni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Ruta oreojasme is an endangered species endemic to Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, where it occurs in small populations with disjunct distribution. Nothing is known about the genetic structure of these populations. Methods and Results: Using a microsatellite-enriched library method, 10 microsatellite markers have been developed from R. oreojasme, all of which showed polymorphism. The transferability of the 10 markers was tested in two other Canarian endemic species, R. microcarpa and R. pinnata, as well as in the widespread species R. montana. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the value of these newly developed microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic structure in R. oreojasme and show their potential applicability for population genetic studies in other Ruta species.

  1. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy

    Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK). The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  2. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andimuthu Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB, with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK. The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  3. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohibbe Azam, M.; Waris, Amtul; Nahar, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid profiles of seed oils of 75 plant species having 30% or more fixed oil in their seed/kernel were examined. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of oils were empirically determined and they varied from 169.2 to 312.5, 4.8 to 212 and 20.56 to 67.47, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV and CN were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ester of oils of 26 species including Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were found most suitable for use as biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of USA, Germany and European Standard Organization. The fatty acid methyl esters of another 11 species meet the specification of biodiesel standard of USA only. These selected plants have great potential for biodiesel

  4. In situ observations of the radioactivity of some marine species and sediments of the French coast from Banyuls to Menton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tine, J.; Badie, C.; Fraizier, A.; Bertrand, I.

    1980-01-01

    The object of this preliminary work is to measure the gamma radioactivity of some marine species and sediments of the French Mediterranean coast line between Banyuls and Menton. The marine species measured are: mussels, sea urchins and ten species of seaweed, namely: Ulva sp., Codium sp., Zoostera marina, Corallina elongata, Stypocaulon scoparium, Cymodocee nodosa, Pterocladia pinnata, Asparagopsis armata, Cystoseira sp., Sphaerococcus coronopifolius. The sampling places are spread over twenty four stations, eight of which are maritime and six representative of coastal lakes west of the Rhone. This aggregate study allowed us to highlight certain particular points and to make a choice between the indicators for a subsequent study in the most interesting areas [fr

  5. Firewood crops in areas of brackish water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Parts of the Mathura, Agra, Etah and Aligarh districts of Uttar Pradesh have a special problem of brackish water which is the result of the complete destruction of natural vegetation during a period of several centuries. Twenty species of trees and shrubs (listed) were planted during 1981-1982 in plots of 30 x 30 m at a spacing of 1.5 x 1.5 m. A detailed analysis of water from the Forest Research Station, Mathura is presented; pH ranged from 7.00 to 7.85 and electrical conductivity from 4.0 to 6.10. Various salt concentrations were high. At 18 months old the species that were doing well were: Prosopis juliflora, Acacia nilotica, Terminalia arjuna, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbek, Pongamia pinnata, Cassia auriculata, Adhatoda vasica and Cassia siamea.

  6. Potential rapd markers for population studies in tree legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, S.M.; Ramasubramanian, T.; Mohankumar, S.

    2011-01-01

    RAPDs were quite efficient in bringing out the diversity at DNA level among non-edible legumes viz., Acacia nilotica, Adenanthera pavonina, Prosopis juliflora, Pithecolobium dulce, Clitoria ternatea and Pongamia pinnata. The RAPD primer index reveals the information content of the RAPD primer per se. Of the 82 primers tested, OPE 8, OPI 6, OPL 2, OPL 16, OPI 18, OPI 13, OPI 14, OPP 1, OPE 20 and OPI 4 with comparatively higher primer index were more informative and can be used for further DNA finger printing and population studies in tree legumes. CTAB protocol was found to be superior in isolating genomic DNA of good quality. The 260/280 ratios varied between 1.70 and 2.09. Though the genomic DNA isolated by potassium acetate method was found to be intact in 0.8% agarose gel, the yield was significantly lower than the modified CTAB method. (author)

  7. Can Scientific Evidence Support Using Bangladeshi Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea? A Review on Seven Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B. C.; Malterud, Karl E.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety. PMID:23698166

  8. Can scientific evidence support using Bangladeshi traditional medicinal plants in the treatment of diarrhoea? A review on seven plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B C; Malterud, Karl E

    2013-05-22

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety.

  9. Can Scientific Evidence Support Using Bangladeshi Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea? A Review on Seven Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl E. Malterud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety.

  10. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  11. Overexpressing the Sedum alfredii Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase Increased Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD is a very important reactive oxygen species (ROS-scavenging enzyme. In this study, the functions of a Cu/Zn SOD gene (SaCu/Zn SOD, from Sedum alfredii, a cadmium (Cd/zinc/lead co-hyperaccumulator of the Crassulaceae, was characterized. The expression of SaCu/Zn SOD was induced by Cd stress. Compared with wild-type (WT plants, overexpression of SaCu/Zn SOD gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced the antioxidative defense capacity, including SOD and peroxidase activities. Additionally, it reduced the damage associated with the overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide radicals (O2•-. The influence of Cd stress on ion flux across the root surface showed that overexpressing SaCu/Zn SOD in transgenic Arabidopsis plants has greater Cd uptake capacity existed in roots. A co-expression network based on microarray data showed possible oxidative regulation in Arabidopsis after Cd-induced oxidative stress, suggesting that SaCu/Zn SOD may participate in this network and enhance ROS-scavenging capability under Cd stress. Taken together, these results suggest that overexpressing SaCu/Zn SOD increased oxidative stress resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis and provide useful information for understanding the role of SaCu/Zn SOD in response to abiotic stress.

  12. Transformation of medicinal plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurska, Katarzyna; Berdowska, Agnieszka; Król, Małgorzata

    2016-12-20

    For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall). This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions. The main goal of plant transformation is to increase the amount of naturally occurring bioactive compounds and the production of biopharmaceuticals. Genetic plant transformation via bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium is a complex process which requires detailed analysis of incorporated transgene expression and occurs only in the case when the plant cell acquires the ability to regenerate. In many cases, the regeneration efficiency observed in medicinal plants are inefficient after applied transformation procedures. To date there have been attempts of genetic transformation by using A. tumefaciens of medicinal plants belonging to the families: Apocynaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Begoniaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Linaceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae.

  13. Antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekesi, Gabriella; Dobos, Ildiko; Benedek, György; Horvath, Gyöngyi

    2003-11-01

    The extract of Sempervivum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae) containing several flavonoids is widely used as an antiinflammatory agent in folk medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated that various flavonoids or flavonoid-containing plant extracts produce significant antinociception, but no data are available concerning their antinociceptive effect especially at the spinal level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract on acute and inflammatory pain sensitivity in awake rats. The pain sensitivity was assessed by the acute tail- flick test in intact rats and by the paw withdrawal test after carrageenan-induced inflammation using heat stimulus. The plant extract was administered intraperitoneally and intrathecally in rats. The intraperitoneal injection of a high dose of the extract (1000 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the paw withdrawal latency of the inflamed paw. The intrathecal administration (30-300 micro g) caused a small, but significant increase (10%-15%) in tail- flick latency. In the carrageenan-induced inflammatory model, the intrathecally applied extract (30-1000 micro g) significantly decreased, but did not relieve the thermal hyperalgesia. The results suggest that the spinal cord does not seem to play an important role in the antinociceptive effects of this plant extract. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Sempervivum brevipilum Muirhead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran Kahriman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the fresh flower, leaf, and stem of Sempervivum brevipilum Muirhead. (Crassulaceae were isolated by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of fifty, fourty-three, and thirty-one compounds were identified, constituting over 92.6%, 92.6%, and 94.3% of oil composition of the flower, leaf, and stem of S. brevipilum, respectively. The chemical profile reveals the dominance of hydrocarbons (flower: 65.3%, leaf: 47.6%, stem: 71.1%. The major compounds of essential oils from S. brevipilum were tetracosane (20.2% in flower, 1,2-diphenyl ethandione (16.1% in leaf and docosane (30.5% in stem. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were the major class of terpenoids in flower (2.2% and in stem (1.8%, oxygenated diterpene was the major class of terpenoids in leaf (4.5%. Oxygenated monoterpenes were in minor amounts in all parts (flower: 0.3%, leaf: 0.7%, stem: 0.1% of the plant. In addition, antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of S. brevipilum were investigated. The oils didn’t show any antibacterial and antifungal activity against tested bacteria, but showed high antituberculostatic activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis.

  15. Transformation of medicinal plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bandurska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall. This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions. The main goal of plant transformation is to increase the amount of naturally occurring bioactive compounds and the production of biopharmaceuticals. Genetic plant transformation via bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium is a complex process which requires detailed analysis of incorporated transgene expression and occurs only in the case when the plant cell acquires the ability to regenerate. In many cases, the regeneration efficiency observed in medicinal plants are inefficient after applied transformation procedures. To date there have been attempts of genetic transformation by using A. tumefaciens of medicinal plants belonging to the families: Apocynaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Begoniaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Linaceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae.

  16. Atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz Antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Braz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz pertence a família Crassulaceae e é conhecida vulgarmente como coirama, folha-da-fortuna, ou folha-do-ar, sendo usada popularmente como antifúngico, no tratamento da hipertensão, em úlceras e em inflamações. O presente estudo objetivou analisar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz em modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por indometacina em Rattus norvegicus, machos (150 a 250 g com idade de 70 dias. Os animais receberam por via oral: água, extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz (1 e 2 g Kg-1 ou ranitidina (60 mg Kg-1 , fármaco com ação gastroprotetora conhecida que atua bloqueando os receptores de histamina H2. Após uma hora dos tratamentos, todos animais receberam indometacina via intraperitoneal. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz possui ação gastroprotetora; na dose de 1 g Kg-1 inibiu 45,49% o índice de ulceração induzido pela indometacina, e, na dose de 2 g Kg-1, inibiu 49,50%. Sugere-se o envolvimento de vários mecanismos na ação gastroprotetora dessa planta e não somente uma possível participação das prostaglandinas nesse efeito. Estudos futuros com diferentes modelos de indução de úlcera gástrica tornam-se necessários para melhor avaliar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz.Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz belongs to the family Crassulaceae, is popularly known as "coirama", "folha-da-fortuna", or "folha-do-ar" and has been commonly used as antifungal, in the treatment of hypertension, ulcers and inflammation. The present study aimed to analyze the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz using indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in Rattus norvegicus, males (150-250 g aged 70 days old. The animals received by the oral route: water, aqueous extract from

  17. [Methods for the detection of Agrobacterium from plant, soil and water samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alippi, Adriana M; López, Ana C; Balatti, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    The genus Agrobacterium includes phytopathogenic bacteria that induce the development of root crown galls and/or aerial galls at the base of the stem or hairy roots on more than 600 species of plants belonging to 90 dicotyledonous families and non-pathogenic species. These bacteria being natural soil inhabitants are particularly difficult to eradicate, which is a problem in nurseries where more than 80% of infections occur. Since early detection is crucial to avoid the inadvertent spread of the disease, the aim of this work was to develop sensitive and precise identification techniques by using a set of semi-selective and differential culture media in combination with a specific PCR to amplify a partial sequence derived from the virC operon, as well as a multiplex PCR on the basis of 23SrDNA sequences, and biological assays to identify and differentiate species and biovars of Agrobacterium obtained either from soil, water or plant samples. The combination of the different assays allowed us to reduce the number of false positive and negative results from bacteria isolated from any of the three types of samples. Therefore, the combination of multiplex PCR, specific PCR, isolations in semi-selective D1, D1-M and YEM-RCT media combined with bioassays on cut leaves of Kalanchoe and seedlings of California Wonder pepper cultivar constitute an accurate tool to detect species and biovars of Agrobacterium for diagnostic purposes.

  18. Ethno-veterinary control of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks in Zhombe, Njelele and Shamrock resettlement in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlovu, Daud Nyosi; Masika, Patrick J

    2013-02-01

    A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the ethno-veterinary practices and other control methods used by smallholder farmers for the management of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks. A total of 153 farmers were interviewed from Njelele, Zhombe communal and Shamrock resettlement areas. Crop production contributed most to livelihoods (83.2 %) while livestock contributed 9.0 %. Over 90 % of the respondents had attended school up to primary level, with 11.4 % undergoing animal health and husbandry training. Treatment of livestock diseases was practised by 96 % of the farmers, and 49.7 % of these farmers used ethno-veterinary medicines. Across the study sites, dermatophilosis was controlled using the following plants: Cissus quadrangularis (59.7 %), Catunaregam spinosa (10.5 %), Pterocarpus angolensis (10.5 %), Kalanchoe lanceolata (5.3 %), Aloe chabaudii (3.5 %), Cassia abbreviata (1.8 %), Dichrostachys cinerea (1.8 %), Urginea sanguinea (1.8 %), Ximenia caffra (1.8 %) and a plant locally called umfanawembila (1.8 %). Carica papaya and two plants, locally called mugimbura and umdungudungu, were used for tick control, and these were reported once from Njelele communal. Other control methods, besides plants or conventional drugs, were used by 28 % of the farmers for the treatment of dermatophilosis and ticks. Some farmers (14.4 %) claimed that ethno-veterinary medicines performed better than conventional drugs. The study revealed that farmers used ethno-veterinary medical practices for the treatment of dermatophilosis but rarely for tick control.

  19. Uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by plants: removal of volatile indoor air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprapat, Wararat; Suksabye, Parinda; Areephak, Sirintip; Klantup, Polawat; Waraha, Atcharaphan; Sawattan, Anuchit; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2014-04-01

    Air borne uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by twelve plant species was examined. Of the twelve plant species examined, the highest toluene removal was found in Sansevieria trifasciata, while the ethylbenzene removal from air was with Chlorophytum comosum. Toluene and ethylbenzene can penetrate the plant׳s cuticle. However, the removal rates do not appear to be correlated with numbers of stomata per plant. It was found that wax of S. trifasciata and Sansevieria hyacinthoides had greater absorption of toluene and ethylbenzene, and it contained high hexadecanoic acid. Hexadecanoic acid might be involved in toluene and ethylbenzene adsorption by cuticles wax of plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis or the potential quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in toluene exposed plants showed no significant differences between the control and the treated plants, whereas plants exposed to ethylbenzene showed significant differences or those parameters, specifically in Dracaena deremensis (Lemon lime), Dracaena sanderiana, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Cordyline fruticosa. The Fv/Fm ratio can give insight into the ability of plants to tolerate (indoor) air pollution by volatile organic chemicals (VOC). This index can be used for identification of suitable plants for treating/sequestering VOCs in contaminated air. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elansary, Hosam O; Szopa, Agnieszka; Kubica, Paweł; Ekiert, Halina; Ali, Hayssam M; Elshikh, Mohamed S; Abdel-Salam, Eslam M; El-Esawi, Mohamed; El-Ansary, Diaa O

    2018-01-01

    In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus , Brassica juncea , and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus ; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii . Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis , pods of S. alexandrina , and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases.