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Sample records for kaizen event case

  1. KAIZEN – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Shettar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of manufacturing industries is to increase productivity with high quality. At present, many manufacturing companies are facing problems such as high quality rejection, high inventories, high lead time, high costs of production, and inability to cope with customer orders. By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities. Kaizen is one of the powerful tools of lean manufacturing. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost and quality. Kaizen ensures that manufacturing processes become leaner and fitter, but eliminate waste (problem where value is added. The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on kaizen, present an overview of kaizen concepts that are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. A case study of implementation of Kaizen‟s has been discussed.

  2. INTRODUCTION OF LEAN MANUFACTURING PHILOSOPHY BY KAIZEN EVENT: CASE STUDY ON A METALMECHANICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mitsuo Kojima Campos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The competitive scenario requires organizational strategies increasingly elaborated, creating the need of companies to structure their management models in order to absorb these conflicts generated by competition. The manufacturing area is financially affecting deeply the company's results, thus process improvement comes as the organization's survival guideline, and the rationalization of waste without the need for high investments, shown a great competitive alternative. The application of Kaizen event seeks to measure the benefits generated by the implementation of the philosophy of lean manufacturing, working setup aspects of machinery, the manufacturing process flow, reduced delivery lead-time and inventory process. The Kaizen Blitz was applied in a production cell of stamping and spirt processes. The obtained major improvements have been the reduction of machine setup time, reducing lead-time of item processing, the material flow within the production cell, and creating conditions for a more flexible management of the production schedule.

  3. Kaizen implementation: A best case analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study add insights to the concept on kaizen and its implementation process based upon an in-depth case study at OMN, a Japanese manufacturer in the Netherlands which has successfully adopted kaizen concepts. It was found that employee discipline and personal-initiatives are the two critical

  4. KAIZEN – A case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manjunath Shettar; Pavan Hiremath

    2015-01-01

    .... By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities...

  5. Applying Lean principles and Kaizen rapid improvement events in public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gene; Poteat-Godwin, Annah; Harrison, Lisa Macon; Randolph, Greg D

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes a local home health and hospice agency's effort to implement Lean principles and Kaizen methodology as a rapid improvement approach to quality improvement. The agency created a cross-functional team, followed Lean Kaizen methodology, and made significant improvements in scheduling time for home health nurses that resulted in reduced operational costs, improved working conditions, and multiple organizational efficiencies.

  6. IMPROVING OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY WITH KAIZEN PHILOSOPHY: A CASE STUDY IN A METALLURGICAL COMPANY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafael Luiz Santos; Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-01-01

    .... Thus organizations apply in their cases the concept of Lean philosophy through Kaizen methodology which pursuits continuous and gradual improvement for enterprises as well as for personal life...

  7. International Transfer of Kaizen: Japanese Manufacturers in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Yokozawa, K

    2012-01-01

    Kaizen, the synonym for continuous improvement, is an essential component of Japanese management system. Kaizen programs have long been employed with great success in Japanese companies. Due to their origin in Japanese organisations, and their embeddedness in Japanese context, applicability of kaizen to countries with different cultures and different management styles still remains to be understood. The purpose of the research is to investigate the international transfer of kaizen. Case study...

  8. Driving student-centred calculus: results of a comprehensive case study for Kaizen learning in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Bernhard; Rupp, Florian; Viet, Nils; Stockhausen, Paul v.; Gallenkämper, Jonas; Kreuzer, Judith

    2015-04-01

    The art of teaching freshmen students is undergoing a rapid paradigm change. Classical forms of teaching are not applicable any more and an unmanageable offer of new multimedia tools and concepts is glutting the market. Moreover, compared to previous courses, the class size triples. In view of these challenges, we implemented a new teaching concept best described as Kaizen learning. By Kaizen learning, we define a teaching philosophy that is based on a concise mix of short learning units (with feedback loops and tests) and of carefully chosen repetitions (also with feedback loops and tests) to calibrate a course for the students. Here, this intensive blended, student-centred learning paradigm is analysed together with its direct impact on the students' performance. This case study leads to easy-to-implement key drivers for successfully teaching science in Oman, such as (1) human-human interaction, (2) clearly communicated expectations, (3) avoidance of a short-term learning attitude, (4) a no-calculator policy, (5) continuous Kaizen learning, and (6) balanced combination of traditional teaching and e-learning.

  9. KAIZEN CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yenque D., Julio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; García P., Manuel; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Raez G., Luis; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Many times we ask the question why Japanese companies are competitive?, Surely many of the answers to this mystery have support in the Kaizen. And the Kaizen is not a simple concept, it is a whole way of life that involves both managers and workers in the pursuit of progressive improvement of enterprises. In his book Kaizen, The Key to Japanese Competitive Advantage, Masaaki Imai explains in simple terms what is the essence of this philosophy: Kaizen means improvement means further progressiv...

  10. Kaizen newspaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Scott C. (Inventor); Proferes, John Nicholas (Inventor); Baker, Sr., Mitchell D. (Inventor); Reilly, Kenneth B. (Inventor); Tiwari, Vijai K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems, computer program products, and methods are disclosed for tracking an improvement event. An embodiment includes an event interface configured to receive a plurality of entries related to each of a plurality of improvement events. The plurality of entries includes a project identifier for the improvement event, a creation date, an objective, an action related to reaching the objective, and a first deadline related to the improvement event. A database interface is configured to store the plurality of entries in an event database.

  11. Process of international kaizen transfer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study sheds light on the international kaizen transfer process. Two research questions were explored: what are the major stages in the kaizen transfer process? And what are the activities, positive and negative factors influencing each stage? Case studies with 15 Japanese manufacturers in the

  12. The Economics of an Investment in Kaizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuwan, Danupun

    2010-10-01

    Kaizen has been widely accepted as a continuous process improvement with the gradualist approach. This paper presents the research carried out to explore the pattern of an investment in Kaizen to enhance overall profit. System dynamics-based simulation has been employed with an optimization technique, a Steepest Ascent approach, to improve experimental variables e.g. the amount of spending on prevention and appraisal activities, the time and the amount to reduce the investment which results in maximum Net Present Value (NPV) of profit. The simulation model in this study is based on a Thai automobile manufacturer as a case study company. The result suggests that the investment in Kaizen should spend on activities to eliminate and detect all defects in the early phase and then reduce economically when the process is under controlled. It can be named as the `Hybrid quality improvement', which was proved in this study that it provides greater overall profit than the Stepwise Kaizen and the constant spending. This study also presents the behavior of quality costs and profit against time scale along the different patterns of the investment in Kaizen.

  13. "Kaizen" and Technology Transfer Instructors as Work-based Learning Facilitators in Overseas Transplants: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, Barry; Fujiwara, Asahi

    2000-01-01

    A study of 240 instructors of kaizen (continuous quality improvement) and technology transfer in overseas assignments for Toyota found that commitment to work and corporate cultural values were significant. Instructors recognized the responsibility and challenges of communicating and transferring their know-how across cultures. (SK)

  14. "Kaizen" and Technology Transfer Instructors as Work-based Learning Facilitators in Overseas Transplants: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, Barry; Fujiwara, Asahi

    2000-01-01

    A study of 240 instructors of kaizen (continuous quality improvement) and technology transfer in overseas assignments for Toyota found that commitment to work and corporate cultural values were significant. Instructors recognized the responsibility and challenges of communicating and transferring their know-how across cultures. (SK)

  15. The "special K" in kaizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, L F

    1999-05-01

    Do you want a strategy that guarantees the success of kaizen in your organization? This article will provide insights as to why one organization may succeed and another fails. Learn why the "Special K" is the difference. Idea will be presented on how to develop the "Special K" in others and ourselves. You will be challenged to become a "kaizener".

  16. Kaizen – Right Management Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Besta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the Kaizen principles so called the continual improving principles. It compares the Japanese and European view at the control of the changes. Then the article describes the implementation of Kaizen principles in the companies.

  17. Application of kaizen methodology to foster departmental engagement in quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtges, Paul; Decker, Michael Christopher

    2014-12-01

    The Toyota Production System, also known as Lean, is a structured approach to continuous quality improvement that has been developed over the past 50 years to transform the automotive manufacturing process. In recent years, these techniques have been successfully applied to quality and safety improvement in the medical field. One of these techniques is kaizen, which is the Japanese word for "good change." The central tenant of kaizen is the quick analysis of the small, manageable components of a problem and the rapid implementation of a solution with ongoing, real-time reassessment. Kaizen adds an additional "human element" that all stakeholders, not just management, must be involved in such change. Because of the small size of the changes involved in a kaizen event and the inherent focus on human factors and change management, a kaizen event can serve as good introduction to continuous quality improvement for a radiology department. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Kaizen: The Search for Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, William J.

    1991-01-01

    The Japanese concept of Kaizen (continuous improvement) may be applied to higher education institutions. Focus is on improvement of the products produced, the process by which they are delivered, and the people involved in the products and the process. (SK)

  19. Kaizen: The Search for Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, William J.

    1991-01-01

    The Japanese concept of Kaizen (continuous improvement) may be applied to higher education institutions. Focus is on improvement of the products produced, the process by which they are delivered, and the people involved in the products and the process. (SK)

  20. The role of kaizen in creating radical performance results in a logistics service provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez Agmoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the role of an incremental change in organizational process in creating radical performance results in a service provider company. The role of Kaizen is established prominently in manufacturing, but is nascent in service applications. This study examines the impact of introducing Kaizen as an ODI tool-how it is applied, how it works, and whether participants believe it helps service groups form more effective working relationships that result in significant performance improvements. Methods: Exploring the evolving role of Kaizen in service contexts, this study explores a variety of facets of human communication in the context of continuous improvement and teamwork inter-organizationally. The paper consists of an archival study and an action research case study. A pre-intervention study consisting of observations, interviews, and submission of questionnaires to employees of a manufacturing and air-sea freight firm was conducted. A Kaizen intervention occurred subsequently, and a post-intervention study was then conducted. Results: Radical improvements in both companies such as 30% financial growth, 81% productivity improvement and more are demonstrated in this paper. Conclusions: Findings offer unique insights into the effects of Kaizen in creating radical performance improvements in a service company and its customer. Both qualitative and quantitative results of business, satisfaction, and productivity suggest time invested in introducing Kaizen into a service organization helps the companies improve relationships and improve the bottom line dramatically.

  1. Kaizen planning, implementing and controlling

    CERN Document Server

    García-Alcaraz, Jorge Luis; Maldonado-Macías, Aidé Aracely

    2017-01-01

    This book reports a literature review on kaizen, its industrial applications, critical success factors, benefits gained, journals that publish about it, main authors (research groups) and universities. Kaizen is treated in this book in three stages: planning, implementation and control. The authors provide a questionnaire designed with activities in every stage, highlighting the benefits gained in each stage. The study has been applied to more than 400 managers and leaders in continuous improvement in Mexican maquiladoras. A univariate analysis is provided to the activities in every stage. Moreover, structural equation models associating those activities with the benefits gained are presented for a statistical validation. Such a relationship between activities and benefits helps managers to identify the most important factor affecting their benefits and financial income.

  2. Kaizen and ergonomics: the perfect marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Martin Antonio; Lopez, Luis Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an approach of how Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) and Ergonomics could be implemented in the field of work. The Toyota's Team Members are the owners of this job, applying tools and techniques to improve work conditions using the Kaizen Philosophy in a QCC Activity (Quality Control Circle).

  3. Using kaizen to improve employee well-being: Results from two organizational intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Nielsen, Karina M; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Hasson, Henna

    2017-08-01

    Participatory intervention approaches that are embedded in existing organizational structures may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organizational interventions, but concrete tools are lacking. In the present article, we use a realist evaluation approach to explore the role of kaizen, a lean tool for participatory continuous improvement, in improving employee well-being in two cluster-randomized, controlled participatory intervention studies. Case 1 is from the Danish Postal Service, where kaizen boards were used to implement action plans. The results of multi-group structural equation modeling showed that kaizen served as a mechanism that increased the level of awareness of and capacity to manage psychosocial issues, which, in turn, predicted increased job satisfaction and mental health. Case 2 is from a regional hospital in Sweden that integrated occupational health processes with a pre-existing kaizen system. Multi-group structural equation modeling revealed that, in the intervention group, kaizen work predicted better integration of organizational and employee objectives after 12 months, which, in turn, predicted increased job satisfaction and decreased discomfort at 24 months. The findings suggest that participatory and structured problem-solving approaches that are familiar and visual to employees can facilitate organizational interventions.

  4. TAKING ADVANTAGES OF KAIZEN TO IMPROVE LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kostenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper encapsulates the essence of kaizen system, its main elements and the possibility of use it in enhancing labour productivity. The study examines a specific of kaizen implementation in Japan, the U.S. and Europe as well as in Ukraine and Russia. The comparative analysis of traditional and kaizen management is presented.

  5. Using "Kaizen" to Improve Graduate Business School Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the applicability of "kaizen" in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: "Kaizen" process was used for ten courses contained in a part-time executive MS degree program in management. Findings: "Kaizen" was found to be an effective process for improving graduate business school courses and the value proposition for…

  6. Using "Kaizen" to Improve Graduate Business School Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the applicability of "kaizen" in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: "Kaizen" process was used for ten courses contained in a part-time executive MS degree program in management. Findings: "Kaizen" was found to be an effective process for improving graduate business school courses and the value proposition for…

  7. The role of Japanese expatriates when Japanese companies transfer kaizen principles to their overseas affiliates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges faced by Japanese manufacturers during the process of transferring kaizen to overseas subsidiaries. Case study research was conducted among l5 Japanese manufacturers in the Netherlands. The first-level analysis confirms the conclusions from the literature that the

  8. ROMANIAN COMPANIES DILEMMAS - BUSINESS REENGINEERING OR KAIZEN

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    MIHAELA GHICAJANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of two American and Japanese management strategies, the reengineering and Kaizen strategies, which can be used successfully by the Romanian companies, too. Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, service and speed. Kaizen is a philosophy of life that addresses to the best who want to be more and better. It is a process of improvement that never ends and it results in many advantages. The Japanese leadership model has shown that progress in small steps, but fast, reliable and leads to long-term wins. Kaizen method, implemented in Romania, too, has brought to people satisfaction and more money in their pocket.

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LEAN-KAIZEN APPROACH IN FASTENER INDUSTRIES USING THE DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is an attempt to improve the quality system of ten small scale fastener manufacturing industries through the implementation of the Lean-Kaizen approach using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA Charnes Cooper & Rhodes (CCR model with constant returns to scale (CRS. Output maximization is taken as the objective function to identify the percentage scope of improvements. The data is collected by paying personal visits to the selected industries for three inputs (manpower, maintenance, and training of employees and two outputs (quality, on-time delivery of their quality system. The DEA CCR model is applied to identify efficiency scores of the quality system by taking the most efficient industry as a benchmark for the rest of the organizations. The Lean-Kaizen approach is applied to identify waste / non-value added activities in outputs of the selected industries. Four Kaizen events are proposed to eliminate waste / non-value added activities in their quality system. The data collected after the Kaizen events are further analyzed by the DEA CCR model. The improvements in efficiency scores of the selected industries are presented as findings in this research paper. Two fastener industries became 100% efficient while the rest of the organizations reported 8% to 49% improvements in their efficiency scores of the quality system. The conclusions are made as the Lean-Kaizen using DEA is found to be an effective approach to improve the quality system of fastener industries. This study will be beneficial for researchers, practitioners and academicians for tackling the inefficiencies in the organization.

  10. Koncepce Kaizen a její aplikace

    OpenAIRE

    Staněk, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the Kaizen strategy description on the theoretical and the practical level as well. The company on which the implementing Kaizen system was described is Avia Ashok Leyland Motors. The theoretical part tackles the definitions of key concepts, 5S system, visual management and clarification of Japanese term muda. The aim of this thesis is to describe and evaluate the up-to-now progress of Kaizen system implementation. In the practical part, the 5S system and visual managem...

  11. Progressive Kaizen The Key to Gaining a Global Competitive Advantage

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, John W

    2011-01-01

    All Kaizen is not one and the same. There are four distinctly different types, each with its own purpose and results. Companies that understand these differences harness Kaizen's ultimate power and influence and achieve amazing success in a global manufacturing environment. Companies must, however, restructure the major objectives of certain key players in the process and institute various management initiatives that drive Kaizen down to an individual job level. Written by recognized Lean Manufacturing professional John Davis, Progressive Kaizen: The Key to Gaining a Global Competitive Advanta

  12. Affecting the value chain through supplier kaizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, C R; Vargas, D H

    1999-02-01

    In the aerospace industry, typically 60 percent of a product's cost and 70 percent of the lead time are due to purchased material. To affect price and customer responsiveness, improvement initiatives must be extended into the supply chain. Many companies have developed supply base management systems that include long-term agreements with suppliers, partnering with suppliers in risk taking and product design, information sharing, and quality and delivery rating systems. The premise is that suppliers are an extension of the factory. But to take full advantage of customer-supplier relationships, the suppliers must be "developed" in the same manner as a manufacturing unit. Supplier kaizen is a method of bringing suppliers to the same level of operations as the parent company, through training and improvement projects, to ensure superior performance and nurture the trust that is required for strong partnerships. This article describes Sikorsky Aircraft's use of kaizen to improve its supply base management.

  13. Quick and continuous improvement through kaizen blitz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNichols, T; Hassinger, R; Bapst, G W

    1999-05-01

    It is our objective to provide you with a step-by-step approach to conducting a kaizen blitz within two days and describe how to achieve dramatic performance improvement with employee buy-in through this process. Kaizen blitz has been used dozens of times by the authors, and in some instances the same area has been blitzed as many as four times, with significant improvements each and every time. Employees have even taken it on themselves to conduct informal blitzes as a continuing improvement effort after a formal blitz has been conducted in their area. Blitzes can succeed in a variety of environments. The morning after the employees of one company attended this presentation, they self initiated a mini-blitz and discovered opportunities for improvement that they enthusiastically presented to management.

  14. Kaizen: ergonomics approach to occupational health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2011-12-01

    Kaizen (work improvement) is the forte of Japanese industry. Kaizen activities were born in the early 20th century under the name efficiency research. These activities were the beginning of industrial engineering (IE). Later on people began to rethink the single-minded devotion to improving productivity. Then the job re-design concept was developed. The main target of kaizen in the area of occupational health and safety in Japanese manufacturing is the improvement of inadequate working posture followed by the improvement of work for transporting and lifting heavy objects. Unfortunately, the kaizen activities undertaken by most Japanese companies are still focused on improving productivity and quality. The know-how for promoting kaizen activities that integrate the three aspects of IE, occupational health, and ergonomics is not being accumulated, however. In particular, the IE techniques should be incorporated into kaizen activities aimed at occupational safety and health, and the quantitative assessment of workload is required. In addition, it is important for on-the-job kaizen training in the ERGOMA Approach for production supervisors, who are the main advocates of IE kaizen.

  15. International transfer of Kaizen: Japanese manufacturers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo

    2012-01-01

    Kaizen, the synonym for continuous improvement, is an essential component of Japanese management system. Kaizen programs have long been employed with great success in Japanese companies. Due to their origin in Japanese organisations, and their embeddedness in Japanese context, applicability of

  16. International Transfer of Kaizen: Japanese Manufacturers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, K.

    2012-01-01

    Kaizen, the synonym for continuous improvement, is an essential component of Japanese management system. Kaizen programs have long been employed with great success in Japanese companies. Due to their origin in Japanese organisations, and their embeddedness in Japanese context, applicability of kaize

  17. Kaizen aplicado à logística

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Catarina Almeida

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho propõe alcançar um aumento de produtividade e consequente redução de custos e desperdícios ajudando o departamento logístico da Empresa Revigrés – Industria de Revestimentos de Grés, Lda, a tornar-se mais eficiente, através da aplicação da filosofia kaizen que propõe melhorias no desempenho por implementação de pequenas ações. O objetivo deste projeto é a melhoria do departamento logístico globalmente, para isso houve o recurso a pesquisas e levantamento ...

  18. Kaizen - continuous improvement of high voltage products; Kaizen - kontinuierliche Verbesserung bei Hochspannungsprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, M. [ABB Calor Emag Schaltanlagen AG, Hanau-Grossauheim (Germany); Goessmann, T. [ABB Calor Emag Schaltanlagen AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    1999-07-12

    In the actual global competition only the company can survive who cares for the continuous improvement of all business activities. The ABB Calor Emag Schaltanlagen AG at his production site in Hanau-Grossauheim has installed a specific improvement programm called KVP what is based on the ideas of Kaizen. Aim is the improvement of processes, mainly in production, concerning quality, dates, costs and environment by activating all colleagues. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im heutigen globalen Wettbewerb kann sich nur der behaupten, der sich kontinuierlich in allen Unternehmensbereichen weiterentwickelt. Die ABB Calor Emag Schaltanlagen AG hat in ihrem Werk Hanau-Grossauheim nach den Ideen des Kaizen ein werkspezifisches Programm zur kontinuierlichen Verbesserung der Prozesse in der Fertigung eingefuehrt. Ziel ist die stetige Verbesserung von Fertigungsparametern, wie Qualitaet, Termine, Kosten und Umwelt unter Einbeziehung aller Mitarbeiter. (orig.)

  19. Kaizen, áno či nie?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Vidová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Actual International economic situation brings continual changes. They press upon the business to behave rationally, to find the position and way of costs saving not to suffer the customer. The customer loss will show as smaller business incomes and lesser company investments. That is why Muda detecting and barriers removal in production process, logistics, and administration makes the ground of lean business management. Kaizen support it by sequential partial steps. Scientific aim: Scientific aim of this article is to introduce the academic audience one of the actual tool of waste finding. There were and there are too many approaches to raise the processes efficiency, e. g. reengineering, innovations but Kaizen brings us new view for making small systematic changes that could not be too sore and expensive. The second element of this paper was to observe the utilization of Kaizen in practice. Methodology/methods: The article captures some partial results of the questionnaire survey carried out as a verification of Kaizen and Lean logistics application in Slovak business. Within the questionnaire result qualification we were using the analysis and synthesis finding the real causes of mentioned answers. Finally we put the relative answers together into the group that brings us complete view of the Kaizen situation in industrial practice in Slovakia. Findings: The results of the questionnaire said that Kaizen is used only by 4% of respondents. 52% of them use some of Kaizen tools but 32% do not use them, at all. The most common tools mentioned in the survey ware check lists, histograms and Pareto chart. 72% of companies improve their processes 90% of the proposals are rewarded. There are mostly financial bonuses but also material ones. 36% of respondents have gained positive results and they continue the way of Kaizen utilisation and 44% of them do not evaluate results that show superficial task handling and lack of

  20. Kaizen: Uma Metodologia Inovadora na Siderurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hericson Estanislau Prata

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A racionalização do processo produtivo industrial, por meio da redução dos desperdícios e da modernização do processo produtivo, com a adoção do Sistema Toyota de Produção (Produção Enxuta, tem sido adotada por uma parte importante das indústrias no mundo. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever essa metodologia empregada pelo grupo de melhoria de fase intensiva adotado na Vallourec Tubos do Brasil S.A. Como resultado, verificou-se que o processo utilizado para a implantação de mudanças em curto prazo foi a semana intensiva, também conhecida como evento Kaizen na indústria automotiva.

  1. The Kaizen principle of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Titkos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with a new aspect of training and development. By defining the validity and the competencies of the training method, the importance and the possible methodology of personality development are introduced. It is assumed that a mature personality, as a product of the individualizing process described by Jung, is a behavior-determining competency. Depending on the situation at times teaching is needed, at other times trainings, or in other cases the causes of failure related to behavior should be analyzed. If cognitive understanding is to be influenced, a teaching method should be applied, if behavioral change is aimed at, training is to be implemented, and if the causes of the behavior are to be explored other methods should be found

  2. Kaizen: a method of process improvement in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Gregory H; McCoin, Nicole Streiff; Lescallette, Richard; Russ, Stephan; Slovis, Corey M

    2009-12-01

    Recent position statements from health care organizations have placed a strong emphasis on continuous quality improvement (CQI). CQI finds many of its roots in kaizen, which emphasizes small, low-cost, low-risk improvements. Based on the successful Kaizen Programs at organizations such as Toyota, the authors thought the emergency department (ED) would be an ideal environment to benefit from such a program. The authors sought to create a CQI program using a suggestion-based model that did not require a large time commitment, was easy to implement, and had the potential to empower all physicians in the department. It would not take the place of other improvement efforts, but instead augment them. The hypothesis was that such a program would foster sustainable engagement of emergency physicians in system improvement efforts and lead to a continuous stream of low-cost implementable system improvement interventions. A CQI program was created for the physician staff of the Department of Emergency Medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, focusing on a suggestion-based model using kaizen philosophy. Lectures teaching kaizen philosophy were presented. Over the past 4 years, a methodology was developed utilizing a Web-based application, the Kaizen Tracker, which aids in the submission and implementation of suggestions that are called kaizen initiatives (KIs). The characteristics of the KIs submitted, details regarding resident and faculty participation, and the effectiveness of the Kaizen Tracker were retrospectively reviewed. There were 169, 105, and 101 KIs placed in the postimplementation calendar years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Seventy-six percent of KIs submitted thus far have identified a "process problem." Fifty-three percent of KIs submitted have led to operational changes within the ED. Ninety-three percent of the resident physicians entered at least one KI, and 73% of these residents submitted more than one KI. Sixty-nine percent of the

  3. Kaizen as a business philosophy in sport organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of any sports organization, in addition to possessing optimal contingent and quality of all the necessary resources, is conditioned by the proper management systems. By applying appropriate business philosophy (in line with the shape and the specific characteristics of sport organizations the management seeks to achieve its objectives, particularly sportingones, which are the basis for all other (business goals of the organization. Kaizen, as a modern business philosophy, was said by its founder (Masaki Imai to be a continuous work on how to be a better man. Simply saying 'better' is not a precise definition. Kaizen is primarily a daily and continuous improvement. When it comes to sports organizations, one can also talk about the realistic possibilities for the application of kaizen philosophy in their business processes and activities. Seeing as in business organizations the kaizen system requires involvement of all employees (of course, respecting the specific position, role and responsibilities of individuals in the organizational set up it is quite logical that the sports organization and this approach may be completely acceptable. Essentially the paper, deals with the explication of the determinants of Kaizen as a business philosophy and its possible applicability to sports organizations; as well as a possible model for creating organizational change in them.

  4. Development of the workflow kine systems for support on KAIZEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuki; Ito, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Yomogida, Satoshi; Morio, Koji; Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the new workflow line system consisted of the location and image recording, which led to the acquisition of workflow information and the analysis display. From the results of workflow line investigation, we considered the anticipated effects and the problems on KAIZEN. Workflow line information included the location information and action contents information. These technologies suggest the viewpoints to help improvement, for example, exclusion of useless movement, the redesign of layout and the review of work procedure. Manufacturing factory, it was clear that there was much movement from the standard operation place and accumulation residence time. The following was shown as a result of this investigation, to be concrete, the efficient layout was suggested by this system. In the case of the hospital, similarly, it is pointed out that the workflow has the problem of layout and setup operations based on the effective movement pattern of the experts. This system could adapt to routine work, including as well as non-routine work. By the development of this system which can fit and adapt to industrial diversification, more effective "visual management" (visualization of work) is expected in the future.

  5. Kaizen method for esophagectomy patients: improved quality control, outcomes, and decreased costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannettoni, Mark D; Lynch, William R; Parekh, Kalpaj R; McLaughlin, Kelley A

    2011-04-01

    The majority of costs associated with esophagectomy are related to the initial 3 days of hospital stay requiring intensive care unit stays, ventilator support, and intraoperative time. Additional costs arise from hospital-based services. The major cost increases are related to complications associated with the procedure. We attempted to define these costs and identify expense management by streamlining care through strict adherence to patient care maps, operative standardization, and rapid discharge planning to reduce variability. Utilizing methods of Kaizen philosophy we evaluated all processes related to the entire experience of esophageal resection. This process has taken over 5 years to achieve, with quality and cost being tracked over this time period. Cost analysis included expenses related to intensive care unit, anesthesia, disposables, and hospital services. Quality improvement measures were related to intraoperative complications, in-hospital complications, and postoperative outcomes. The Institutional Review Board approved the use of anonymous data from standard clinical practice because no additional treatment was planned (observational study). Utilizing a continuous process improvement methodology, a 43% reduction in cost per case has been achieved with a significant increase in contribution margin for esophagectomy. The length of stay has been reduced from 14 days to 5. With intraoperative and postoperative standardization the leak rate has dropped from 12% to less than 3% to no leaks in our current Kaizen modification of care in our last 64 patients. Utilizing lean manufacturing techniques and continuous process evaluation we have attempted to eliminate variability, standardized the phases of care resulting in improved outcomes, decreased length of stay, and improved contribution margins. These Kaizen improvements require continuous interventions, strict adherence to care maps, and input from all levels for quality improvements. Copyright © 2011 The

  6. Rapid-fire improvement with short-cycle kaizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, E

    1999-05-01

    Continuous improvement is an attractive idea, but it is typically more myth than reality. SCK is no myth. It delivers dramatic improvements in traditional measures quickly. SCK accomplishes this via kaizens: rapid, repeated, time-compressed changes for the better in bite-sized chunks of the business.

  7. The Kaizen Connection: How Companies Pick Tomorrow's Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Dale; Lee, Chris

    1988-01-01

    Kaizen is a Japanese management concept that means gradual, ongoing improvement involving everyone from top management to production workers. This concept is starting to appear in American companies, and it requires the personnel department to do a much more thorough assessment of job applicants, testing for leadership skills, interpersonal…

  8. The Kaizen Connection: How Companies Pick Tomorrow's Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Dale; Lee, Chris

    1988-01-01

    Kaizen is a Japanese management concept that means gradual, ongoing improvement involving everyone from top management to production workers. This concept is starting to appear in American companies, and it requires the personnel department to do a much more thorough assessment of job applicants, testing for leadership skills, interpersonal…

  9. Kaizen practice in healthcare: a qualitative analysis of hospital employees' suggestions for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocato, Pamela; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Hasson, Henna; Nyström, Monica Elisabeth

    2016-07-29

    Kaizen, or continuous improvement, lies at the core of lean. Kaizen is implemented through practices that enable employees to propose ideas for improvement and solve problems. The aim of this study is to describe the types of issues and improvement suggestions that hospital employees feel empowered to address through kaizen practices in order to understand when and how kaizen is used in healthcare. We analysed 186 structured kaizen documents containing improvement suggestions that were produced by 165 employees at a Swedish hospital. Directed content analysis was used to categorise the suggestions into following categories: type of situation (proactive or reactive) triggering an action; type of process addressed (technical/administrative, support and clinical); complexity level (simple or complex); and type of outcomes aimed for (operational or sociotechnical). Compliance to the kaizen template was calculated. 72% of the improvement suggestions were reactions to a perceived problem. Support, technical and administrative, and primary clinical processes were involved in 47%, 38% and 16% of the suggestions, respectively. The majority of the kaizen documents addressed simple situations and focused on operational outcomes. The degree of compliance to the kaizen template was high for several items concerning the identification of problems and the proposed solutions, and low for items related to the test and implementation of solutions. There is a need to combine kaizen practices with improvement and innovation practices that help staff and managers to address complex issues, such as the improvement of clinical care processes. The limited focus on sociotechnical aspects and the partial compliance to kaizen templates may indicate a limited understanding of the entire kaizen process and of how it relates to the overall organisational goals. This in turn can hamper the sustainability of kaizen practices and results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  10. Kaizen as a business philosophy in sport organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Nešić Milan

    2014-01-01

    The success of any sports organization, in addition to possessing optimal contingent and quality of all the necessary resources, is conditioned by the proper management systems. By applying appropriate business philosophy (in line with the shape and the specific characteristics of sport organizations) the management seeks to achieve its objectives, particularly sportingones, which are the basis for all other (business) goals of the organization. Kaizen, as a modern business philosophy, was sa...

  11. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach: In the study, a survey

  12. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach: In the study, a survey int

  13. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach - In the study, a survey in

  14. [The organizational benefits of the Kaizen approach at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtois, Jonathan; Paris, Yvon; Poder, Thomas G; Chaussé, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the cost savings associated with using the kaizen approach in our hospital. Originally developed in Japan, the kaizen approach, based on the idea of continuous improvement, has considerable support in North America, including in the Quebec health care system. This study assessed the first fifteen kaizen projects at the CHUS. Based on an economic evaluation, we showed that using the kaizen approach can result in substantial cost savings. The success of the kaizen approach requires compliance with specific prerequisites. The future of the approach will depend on our ability to comply with these prerequisites. More specifically, such compliance will determine whether the approach is merely a passing fad or a strategy for improving our management style to promote greater efficiency.

  15. Teaching experience of application of Kaizen in a company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Alhely Ceballos Cháve

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the relationship between teaching and business, highlighting the importance of training in the workplace. Specifically, the professional experience of one of the signers of the article is described when passing from student to graduate and work as an Industrial Engineer. Once in the company, when the problems were detected, a training program was elaborated to give a workshop on Kaizen that solved those problems. To this end, the workshop focused on the 5S methodology. The result was that it began to be implemented in the other plants of the company where the same problem existed.

  16. Kaizen: a process improvement model for the business of health care and perioperative nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Hassan A

    2012-01-01

    Kaizen is a proven management technique that has a practical application for health care in the context of health care reform and the 2010 Institute of Medicine landmark report on the future of nursing. Compounded productivity is the unique benefit of kaizen, and its principles are change, efficiency, performance of key essential steps, and the elimination of waste through small and continuous process improvements. The kaizen model offers specific instruction for perioperative nurses to achieve process improvement in a five-step framework that includes teamwork, personal discipline, improved morale, quality circles, and suggestions for improvement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The Kaizen as a system current management staff for organizational success in the Toyota factory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Méndez, Elita; Chirinos, Edgar; Figueredo, Carlos; Rivero, Eduarda; Goyo, Aurora

    2010-01-01

    The investigation was directed to propose strategies kaizen for continuous improvement of technological, managerial and operational standards in the factory Toyota company located in Cumaná, Sucre State...

  18. KAIZEN METHODOLOGY IN QUALITY MANAGEMENT TO REDUCE WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boca Gratiela Dana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaizen cannot deal with all problems and one size does not fit all but a flexibleimplementation opens up the dimension of collaboration between the workforce, themanagement and the technical departments. In every company, it operates in a differentway to suit the circumstances but all consider it indispensable. It is more flexible andtolerant than may be expected; it is a tool for integration of technological strategy with thebusiness strategy of the organization. Technology is forcing organizations to become morecompetitive as at every instance innovations take place. Recent innovations in the form oftotal quality management, reengineering work process, flexible manufacturing system haveonly one thing in common - well serving the customer by improved operational efficiency.For instant Quality Management advocates emphasize the importance of achieving higherquality and flexibility at lower level of cost and waste.

  19. Improvement of the characteristics of a diagonal-flow fan in low flow range with casing-bleed-holes; Keshingu kiko ni yoru sharyu sofuki no teiryu ryoiki tokusei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Yoichi; Sasaki, Kazuto; Yamaguchi, Sumio; Yamashita, Shoji; Shimada, Taichiro

    1999-09-01

    Generally, a high specific speed diagonal flow fan with a small pressure rise coefficient has a slight positive gradient part of the pressure rise - flow rate characteristics. In addition, the pressure fall is small, between the flow rate at which the impeller stall in the throttle closer and the stalling flow rate. In the case, Kaneko et al. suggest a way of improvement on performance characteristics by an inlet annular wing which removes a low-momentum fluid from a rotor tip region. However, in case of a fan that has a sharp drop of pressure rise in the stall characteristics, it is not clear that the stall characteristics can be improved by this way. In this study, in order to improve the unstable characteristics of a high pressure rise coefficient diagonal flow fan, Tip clearance flow has been investigated on five rotor-casings with various holes to bleed low-momentum fluid in the range of flow rate from design point to stall point. (author)

  20. Ares Launch Vehicles Lean Practices Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv, N.; Self, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes test strategies and lean philisophies and practices that are applied to Ares Launch Vehicles. The topics include: 1) Testing strategy; 2) Lean Practices in Ares I-X; 3) Lean Practices Applied to Ares I-X Schedule; 4) Lean Event Results; 5) Lean, Six Sigma, and Kaizen Practices in the Ares Projects Office; 6) Lean and Kaizen Success Stories; and 7) Ares Six Sigma Practices.

  1. Encontrando al Kaizen : un análisis teórico de la mejora continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Suárez Barraza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde que Masaaki lmai acuño el término de Kaizen a mediados de los años ochenta, este se ha visto como un elemento clave para la competitividad de las empresas japonesas. No obstante, y a pesar de que el Kaizen ha sido definido por el autor que condujo a la luz el término, todavía sigue existiendo en la literatura sobre el tema cierta ambigüedad e inconsistencia. Además, existe una clara necesidad de desarrollar esta teoría en el campo de la dirección de operaciones.El propósito de este trabajo es analizar el Kaizen en la literatura académica y práctica con el fin de mejorar, explorar y hacer una contribución a su potencial perfil teórico. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura usando Kaizen como término de búsqueda en varias bases de datos: Proquest, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Emerald, Science Direct and Google Scholar. También se consultaron libros escritos tanto por académicos como por los que lo practican. La literatura concerniente al Kaizen fue metodológicamente analizada y clasificada. Los hallazgos del estudio indican que el Kaizen es presentado bajo tres perspectivas o esferas, que incluyen una serie de principios y técnicas. Comparando los tres puntos de vista, emergieron un conjunto de principios y/o piedras angulares.Since Masaaki 'mai coined the term Kaizen in the mid eighties it has been regarded as a key element in the competitiveness of Japanese companies. However, even though Kaizen was defined by the author who created the term, writings by scholars and practitioners in the field exhibit a certain degree of ambiguity and inconsistency. Finally, there is a clear need to develop this theory in the field of operations management. Kaizen in the academic and practitioner literature in order to better understand it and further explore and contribute to its potential theoretical profile. A literature review was carried out using Kaizen as a search term. Various databases were used for this

  2. Cartography and Population Geography as Current Events: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comenetz, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    The Sanders housing lawsuit in Pennsylvania provides a case study of how to incorporate current events into the teaching of cartography or population geography at the high school or college level. Settlement of the Sanders case resulted in the release of information about the segregation of public housing by race in the Pittsburgh area. The issues…

  3. ANALYSIS OF A MEDIA EVENT. CASE STUDY: EUROVISION 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta CIACU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to identify the characteristics of a media event and to analyze the specific features of a major event in Europe, the Eurovision Song Contest. The research design was based on the theoretical presentation of the media event concept related to the interpretation of the specific features of this year’s edition. This case study starts from framing the event into the restorative event category because the event itself is the result of an over-exposure, both pre and post event and especially during it. Another aspect that gives Eurovision the label of a“media event” comes from its interrupting nature. That is given by the mobilization of the public who abandoned their daily activities and participated at the event on the ground, in Baku, or in front of the TV. The anticipated nature of the event is reflected in the frequency with which it took place from 1956 to present and in its over-exposure as well, being the longest running program in the television history, with the largest international audience of the unsporting broadcasts.

  4. Adverse events due to the immunization: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An adverse event after immunization is a medical incident following the administration of vaccine, which can be connected with vaccine usage. This event could be a reaction to a vaccine component or lapse in vaccine handling, transport and storage or coincidental event. The assessment of severity of this reaction and the decision about prospective permanent contraindications for futher immunization are to be made by the regional expert team for permanent contraindications. This is regulated by low. Case report. A series of adverse events after immunization in three children of a single family is reported. As regulated by law, all three children were vaccinated with different vaccines, from 2007. to 2010. Although the recorded events were diverse by their nature, way of clinical manifestation and severity they all required hospitalization. In addition to being siblings, the three children had the same atopic diseases in their personal and family anamnesis. All adverse events were explored including allergological/immunological tests. Thanks to the good cooperation of involved general practicioners, pediatricians, members of expert team for permanent contraindications and clinicians, two of three children received the full series of vaccines in optimal time. Discussion. Decision making about futher immunization of children with adverse event after vaccine administration depends on the nature and severity of developed medical condition, results of medical exploration, existing immunity and personal risk of getting disease and subsequent complications. Conclusion. Bearing in mind the significance of immunization for personal and collective immunity, good cooperation of all physicians and experts involved in each single case of adverse event is required.

  5. The Mediating Effect of Kaizen between Total Quality Management (TQM) and Business Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ang Wei; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    Every customer preference is different but yet important. The global market is shifting rapidly, organizations are needed to continuously identify new opportunity to obtain competitive advantages. Literature suggested that manufacturing companies are needed to differentiate themselves through emphasize on quality and continuous improvement in product and services as a crucial part to secure and success in the future. The Total Quality Management (TQM) practices has developed a strong bearing on growth and competitiveness in market. Therefore, a proper continuous improvement (Kaizen) practice is needed to eliminate waste and value added in production to remain competitiveness and retained the potential customer. However, based on the previous study it had indicated an inconsistent result between TQM and BP. Besides that, researcher also less emphasized on mediator in previous work. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to recommend the relationship between TQM and business performance with a mediator's effect of Kaizen. This proposed model attempt to create knowledge to both academician and company players to acquire a better understanding among the TQM and Kaizen practices. Consequently, the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) techniques is applying to identify and evaluate the relationship among TQM, Kaizen, and business performance in developing a new TQM model.

  6. International transfer of kaizen: an empirical study of Japanese manufacturers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few decades, a number of studies have been published that have identified specific Japanese approaches to management as being superior to other types of approaches (e.g. Toyota Production System). Recently, one of the specific issues that received attention is the concept of kaizen.

  7. Kaizen and the Art of University Administration. AIR 1992 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffo, John A.; Krallman, John D.

    This paper examines how the concepts of strategic planning, assessment, and Total Quality Management fit together and relate to one another in the field of higher education. Central to the explanation of how these topics are related is the Japanese philosophy of Kaizen, a driving force behind the quality improvement movement in that country. The…

  8. International transfer of kaizen: an empirical study of Japanese manufacturers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few decades, a number of studies have been published that have identified specific Japanese approaches to management as being superior to other types of approaches (e.g. Toyota Production System). Recently, one of the specific issues that received attention is the concept of kaizen. Kaiz

  9. Spatial Bayesian surveillance for small area case event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotejanaprasert, Chawarat; Lawson, Andrew; Bolick-Aldrich, Susan; Hurley, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    There has been little development of surveillance procedures for epidemiological data with fine spatial resolution such as case events at residential address locations. This is often due to difficulties of access when confidentiality of medical records is an issue. However, when such data are available, it is important to be able to affect an appropriate analysis strategy. We propose a model for point events in the context of prospective surveillance based on conditional logistic modeling. A weighted conditional autoregressive model is developed for irregular lattices to account for distance effects, and a Dirichlet tessellation is adopted to define the neighborhood structure. Localized clustering diagnostics are compared including the proposed local Kullback-Leibler information criterion. A simulation study is conducted to examine the surveillance and detection methods, and a data example is provided of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma data in South Carolina.

  10. Planning and managing a corporate event : case: Event Activation Galaxy Studio Samsung S7/ S7 Edge

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Quyen; Tran, Fa

    2017-01-01

    The thesis was written about the case: Event Activation Studio Galaxy Samsung S7/S7 Edge. Samsung is a global leading conglomerate company in the technology industry. This thesis discusses how to plan and manage an Event Activation for Samsung. The primary objective of this thesis was to provide a step-by-step guideline for planning and managing a corporate event. This objective was achieved by performing the following tasks: clarifying the influential role of corporate events in marketi...

  11. A kaizen approach to food safety quality management in the value chain from wheat to bread

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a Management Science approach to quality management in food production. Aspects of food quality, product conformance and reliability/food safety are examined, starting with wheat and ending with its value chain transformation into bread. Protein qualities that influence glycemic index levels in bread are used to compare the value chains of France and the US. With Kaizen models the book shows how changes in these characteristics are the result of management decisions made by the wheat growers in response to government policy and industry strategy. Lastly, it provides step-by-step instructions on how to apply kaizen methodology and Deming's work on quality improvement to make the HACCPs (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) in food safety systems more robust.

  12. A severe blizzard event in Romania – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Georgescu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available During winter cold strong winds associated with snowfalls are not unusual for South and Southeastern Romania. The episode of 2–4 January 2008 was less usual due to its intensity and persistence. It happened after a long period (autumn 2006–autumn 2007 of mainly southerly circulations inducing warm weather, when the absolute record of the maximum temperature was registered. The important snowfalls and snowdrifts, leading to a consistent snow layer (up to 100 cm, produced serious transport and electricity supply perturbations.

    Since this atypical local weather event was not correctly represented by the operational numerical forecasts, several cross-comparison numerical simulations were performed to analyze the relative role of the coupler/coupling models and to compare two ways of process-scale uncertainties mitigation: optimizing the forecast range and performing ensemble forecast through the perturbation of the lateral boundary conditions. The results underline, for this case, the importance of physical parametrization package on the first place and secondary, the importance of the model horizontal resolution. The resolution increase is beneficial only in the local process representation; on larger scale it may either improve or decrease the accuracy effect, depending on the specified nudging between large-scale and small-scale information. The event capture is likely to be favored by two elements: a more appropriate time-scale of the event's physics and the quality of the transmitted large-scale information. Concerning the time scale, the statistics on skill as a function of forecast range are shown to be a useful tool in order to increase the accuracy of the numerical simulations. Ensembles forecasting versus resolution increase experiments indicate, for such atypical events, an interesting supply in the forecast accuracy through the ensemble method when applied to correct the minimum skill of the deterministic forecast.

  13. ANALISIS PENGARUH KAIZEN TERHADAP KINERJA KARYAWAN PT FUMAKILLA INDONESIA UNIT BANJARMASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iman Ramadhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This  research  aimed  to  identify  and  analyze  the  infl uence  of  kaizen  which consist of seiri (X1, seiton (X2, seiso (X3, seikestu (X4, and shitsuke (X5 as independent variables either simultaneously or partially to the employees’ performance (Y as dependent variable at PT Fumakilla Indonesia, Banjarmasin unit.  The instrument used in this research was questionnaire and then it distributed to all production employees (105 people at PT Fumakilla Indonesia, Banjarmasin Unit based on a sample census. The variable measured by using Likert Scale from 1 to 5. Multiple linear regression analysis also used to determine the effect of independent variables, namely seiri (X1, seiton (X2, seiso (X3, seikestu (X4, and shitsuke (X5 to the dependent variable, that is employees’ performance (Y simultaneously or partially. The results indicate that kaizen which consist of seiri (X1, seiton (X2, seiso (X3,  seikestu  (X4,  and  shitsuke  (X5  simultaneously  affect  the  employees’ performance (Y. Whereas, as partially, only seiri (X1, seiton (X2, and seiso (X3 signifi cantly have infl uence to the employees’ performance, whereas seikestu (X4 and shitsuke (X5 have no signifi cant infl uence. Keywords : Kaizen, employees’ performance

  14. Adverse Events of Acupuncture: A Systematic Review of Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shifen; Wang, Lizhen; Cooper, Emily; Zhang, Ming; Manheimer, Eric; Berman, Brian; Shen, Xueyong; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture, moxibustion, and cupping, important in traditional Eastern medicine, are increasingly used in the West. Their widening acceptance demands continual safety assessment. This review, a sequel to one our team published 10 years ago, is an evaluation of the frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs) reported for acupuncture, moxibustion, and cupping between 2000 and 2011. Relevant English-language reports in six databases were identified and assessed by two reviewers. During this 12-year period, 117 reports of 308 AEs from 25 countries and regions were associated with acupuncture (294 cases), moxibustion (4 cases), or cupping (10 cases). Country of occurrence, patient's sex and age, and outcome were extracted. Infections, mycobacterial, staphylococcal, and others, were the main complication of acupuncture. In the previous review, we found the main source of infection to be hepatitis, caused by reusable needles. In this review, we found the majority of infections to be bacterial, caused by skin contact at acupoint sites; we found no cases of hepatitis. Although the route of infection had changed, infections were still the major complication of acupuncture. Clearly, guidelines such as Clean Needle Technique must be followed in order to minimize acupuncture AEs. PMID:23573135

  15. Adverse events associated with yoga: a systematic review of published case reports and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Krucoff, Carol; Dobos, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    While yoga is gaining increased popularity in North America and Europe, its safety has been questioned in the lay press. The aim of this systematic review was to assess published case reports and case series on adverse events associated with yoga. Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, CAMBase, IndMed and the Cases Database were screened through February 2013; and 35 case reports and 2 case series reporting a total of 76 cases were included. Ten cases had medical preconditions, mainly glaucoma and osteopenia. Pranayama, hatha yoga, and Bikram yoga were the most common yoga practices; headstand, shoulder stand, lotus position, and forceful breathing were the most common yoga postures and breathing techniques cited. Twenty-seven adverse events (35.5%) affected the musculoskeletal system; 14 (18.4%) the nervous system; and 9 (11.8%) the eyes. Fifteen cases (19.7%) reached full recovery; 9 cases (11.3%) partial recovery; 1 case (1.3%) no recovery; and 1 case (1.3%) died. As any other physical or mental practice, yoga should be practiced carefully under the guidance of a qualified instructor. Beginners should avoid extreme practices such as headstand, lotus position and forceful breathing. Individuals with medical preconditions should work with their physician and yoga teacher to appropriately adapt postures; patients with glaucoma should avoid inversions and patients with compromised bone should avoid forceful yoga practices.

  16. PRINSIP-PRINSIP KAIZEN JEPANG DALAM PERSPEKTIF AL-QUR’AN DAN SUMBANGANNYA BAGI PSIKOLOGI PENDIDIKAN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Syukur Rahmatullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The paper discuss and study about Kaizen principle, that is Japanese culture principle and its quality have to attest and aims to point of successfully both individual and group also. This Kaizen principle substances and values that contained in it apparently have discussed long time ago by founding further of Islam, and have taught in al-Qur’an. Unfortunately the people who studied it and become expert precisely are Japanese people that isn’t moslem/Islam. So, in this short paper will explain the strong relevance/great relevance between Kaizen principle and al-Qur’an and also the implication for the psychology of Islamic Education.

  17. PROMOTING TOURIST DESTINATIONS THROUGH SPORT EVENTS. THE CASE OF BRASOV

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Nicoleta CANDREA; Ana ISPAS

    2010-01-01

    Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of de...

  18. Managing mega event strategy: the case of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Using mega event to increase competitiveness and position cities on the world stage has been an important strategy for many Dutch cities in the post industrial era. However, how mega event works in the practice and to what extent these mega events stimulate urban transformation process of the host c

  19. Managing mega event strategy: the case of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Using mega event to increase competitiveness and position cities on the world stage has been an important strategy for many Dutch cities in the post industrial era. However, how mega event works in the practice and to what extent these mega events stimulate urban transformation process of the host c

  20. Developing future precipitation events from historic events: An Amsterdam case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, Iris; van den Hurk, Bart; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Due to climate change, the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events is expected to increase. It is therefore of high importance to develop climate change scenarios tailored towards the local and regional needs of policy makers in order to develop efficient adaptation strategies to reduce the risks from extreme weather events. Current approaches to tailor climate scenarios are often not well adopted in hazard management, since average changes in climate are not a main concern to policy makers, and tailoring climate scenarios to simulate future extremes can be complex. Therefore, a new concept has been introduced recently that uses known historic extreme events as a basis, and modifies the observed data for these events so that the outcome shows how the same event would occur in a warmer climate. This concept is introduced as 'Future Weather', and appeals to the experience of stakeholders and users. This research presents a novel method of projecting a future extreme precipitation event, based on a historic event. The selected precipitation event took place over the broader area of Amsterdam, the Netherlands in the summer of 2014, which resulted in blocked highways, disruption of air transportation, flooded buildings and public facilities. An analysis of rain monitoring stations showed that an event of such intensity has a 5 to 15 years return period. The method of projecting a future event follows a non-linear delta transformation that is applied directly on the observed event assuming a warmer climate to produce an "up-scaled" future precipitation event. The delta transformation is based on the observed behaviour of the precipitation intensity as a function of the dew point temperature during summers. The outcome is then compared to a benchmark method using the HARMONIE numerical weather prediction model, where the boundary conditions of the event from the Ensemble Prediction System of ECMWF (ENS) are perturbed to indicate a warmer climate. The two

  1. Events as a Framework for Tourist Destination Branding – Case Studies of Two Cultural Events in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Trošt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Events have become an increasingly significant component of destination branding. Many destinations throughout the world have developed events portfolios as a strategic initiative to attract tourists and to reinforce their brand. In this paper, the focus of research will be on tourist destination branding by means of events. The relationship between events and destination branding is examined through six phases of the process of building a destination brand identity with the use of events. When it comes to destination branding, a need for an analysis of strategic documents of destination development imposes because event tourism strategies help destinations plan how to use events in a tourism role. The purpose of this study is to examine which factors are of the top priorities when using events as a marketing approach. The method of case study will be used, by which two cultural events which take place in the Republic of Croatia will be analyzed, namely, “Špancirfest” in Varaždin and “Trka na prstenac” in Barban. Varaždin and Barban are on different levels in their branding work. The different sizes and locations of the destinations naturally affect the operating procedures. This article may be of interest to destination marketers and event organizers, especially in developing destinations which intend to differentiate themselves from the competitive market.

  2. Improving efficiency and safety in external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery using a Kaizen approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ajay; Adair, Nilda; O'Brien, Mildred; Naparstek, Nikoleta; Cangelosi, Thomas; Zuvic, Petrina; Joseph, Sherin; Meier, Jason; Bloom, Beatrice; Potters, Louis

    2017-06-29

    Modern external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery processes potentially increase the number of tasks to be performed by therapists and thus opportunities for errors, yet the need to treat a large number of patients daily requires a balanced allocation of time per treatment slot. The goal of this work was to streamline the underlying workflow in such time-interval constrained processes to enhance both execution efficiency and active safety surveillance using a Kaizen approach. A Kaizen project was initiated by mapping the workflow within each treatment slot for 3 Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators. More than 90 steps were identified, and average execution times for each were measured. The time-consuming steps were stratified into a 2 × 2 matrix arranged by potential workflow improvement versus the level of corrective effort required. A work plan was created to launch initiatives with high potential for workflow improvement but modest effort to implement. Time spent on safety surveillance and average durations of treatment slots were used to assess corresponding workflow improvements. Three initiatives were implemented to mitigate unnecessary therapist motion, overprocessing of data, and wait time for data transfer defects, respectively. A fourth initiative was implemented to make the division of labor by treating therapists as well as peer review more explicit. The average duration of treatment slots reduced by 6.7% in the 9 months following implementation of the initiatives (P = .001). A reduction of 21% in duration of treatment slots was observed on 1 of the machines (P Kaizen approach has the potential to improve operational efficiency and safety with quick turnaround in radiation therapy practice by addressing non-value-adding steps characteristic of individual department workflows. Higher effort opportunities are identified to guide continual downstream quality improvements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Sport tourism event impacts on the host community – a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article specifically evaluates the Red Bull Big Wave Africa (RBBWA) event as a case ... and direct observations were carried out as methods of obtaining data. ... The results indicated the event has entertainment value; provides economic ...

  4. Use Cases of Discrete Event Simulation Appliance and Research

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades Discrete Event Simulation has conquered many different application areas. This trend is, on the one hand, driven by an ever wider use of this technology in different fields of science and on the other hand by an incredibly creative use of available software programs through dedicated experts. This book contains articles from scientists and experts from 10 countries. They illuminate the width of application of this technology and the quality of problems solved using Discrete Event Simulation. Practical applications of simulation dominate in the present book.   The book is aimed to researchers and students who deal in their work with Discrete Event Simulation and which want to inform them about current applications. By focusing on discrete event simulation, this book can also serve as an inspiration source for practitioners for solving specific problems during their work. Decision makers who deal with the question of the introduction of discrete event simulation for planning support and o...

  5. SUSTAINABLE EVENT TOURISM: CASE STUDY CITY OF PULA, CROATIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jasmina Grzinic; Nikola Vojnovic

    2014-01-01

    ... heritage from antique, medieval and new age periods. The festival and event organisers in Pula use historical and cultural themes in order to develop annual attractions by which they draw in tourists and brand the destination...

  6. Effects of management commitment and organization of work teams on the benefits of Kaizen: Planning stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midiala Oropesa-Vento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un análisis de los efectos que tienen el compromiso gerencial y la organización de equipos de trabajo en los beneficios de la implementación del kaizen en las empresas industriales durante su etapa de planeación. Para buscar la información se aplicaron 200 cuestionarios a 68 empresas distribuidas en los estados de Tabasco, Sinaloa y Chihuahua en México y también en la provincia de Camagüey. Cuba. Para obtener un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales explicativo de los efectos, se utilizó la metodología de mínimos cuadrados parciales usando WarpPLS 4.0. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que cuando existe un alto compromiso gerencial se tiene impactos positivos en los beneficios económicos y competitivos de las empresas. Asimismo, la organización de equipos de trabajo tiene impactos positivos sobre los beneficios competitivos y estos a su vez sobre los beneficios económicos obtenidos. Como resultado de este estudio se muestra el impacto que tienen determinados factores críticos de éxito del Kaizen, en los beneficios de implementación del mismo, elemento primordial para su sostenibilidad en el tiempo.

  7. Ergonomics and Kaizen as strategies for competitiveness: a theoretical and practical in an automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Leandro; Balbinotti, Giles; Varasquin, Adriano; Gontijo, Leila

    2012-01-01

    With increased international competitiveness in the automotive industry, came the concern of the companies save costs and lower production costs. For this purpose many ways are designed to reduce costs and waste of raw materials and reduce activities that do not aggregate value to manufacturing processes. In the early XVII appears the manufacturing system, which processes were hard with little concern for the health and safety of employees and conditions of the workplace. After the advent of the production system called lean manufacturing, a new paradigm in terms of production system capable of providing high levels of productivity and quality. It is based on waste elimination that occur during the production process. After began a new way of thinking, creating a culture of continuous improvement and lean process with no waste and reducing costs, without neglecting the welfare worker and improving the conditions of their work environment. This paper presents a reflection on the application of ergonomics in a lean production system of an automotive industry, using methodology based on the Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) to gain performance and improving the conditions of the workplace, also will be presented with positive and negative points in using this methodology in relation to ergonomics. The research will be conducted by collecting data 'in loco' and interviews with workers. Some studies show that in companies that are lean system and using the methodology of Kaizen, the results of product quality, levels of absenteeism and accidents are better than those obtained in companies that do not apply the same concept.

  8. REDUCTION OF CYCLE TIME IN SCREW AIR COMPRESSOR ASSEMBLY LINE USING KAIZEN SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rajenthirakumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this competitive world, any company has to fulfill its customer needs to survive in the market. Lean manufacturing is a technique that can be adopted in a company to improve the quality of its products, reduce the cost of the production and also deliver the products in less time. The goal of this work is to show the applicability of lean manufacturing’s body of knowledge in a screw air compressor manufacturing company. Here, the main objective is to evolve and test several methodologies to eliminate wastes in the assembly line as the company at present unable to meet the customer demand. A systematic approach is suggested for the implementation of lean principles to showcase that lean could be applied to the compressor assembly line to enhance the productivity thereby making the line more efficient. In the current assembly line there was no work standardization followed by absence of kaizen that has led to an increased assembly time. Thus with the help of lean tools and techniques such as 5S, kaizen, standardization, visual management, poke yoke and string diagram the total cycle time has been reduced from 236 to 209 minutes. This reduction has benefitted the company in meeting the customer demand, increased profit and work satisfaction.

  9. SUSTAINABLE EVENT TOURISM: CASE STUDY CITY OF PULA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Grzinic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern tourism expands through cultural experience, which is reflected in economic, ecological and socio-cultural effects on destinations. Event tourism is a growing market segment and represents a challenge for all destination stakeholders. As the largest town in the Croatian part of Istria, the City of Pula represents a valid basis for the development of event tourism due to its coastal geography and rich cultural and historical heritage from antique, medieval and new age periods. The festival and event organisers in Pula use historical and cultural themes in order to develop annual attractions by which they draw in tourists and brand the destination. In this paper, the hypothesis is set on the lack of benefits from event organisation in the destination (the City of Pula in the ecological, economic and socio-cultural senses. In resolving of research problems with authorised representatives of local boards Arena, Monte Zaro and Stinjan, standardised, semi-structured and problem-centred interviews were conducted for the purposes of contribution to research relative to sustainability and responsibility of events in tourism.

  10. STUDIES AND RESEARCH ON THE CREATION OF A THEORETICAL BASIS FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVING A PRODUCT/PROCESS THROUGH THE KAIZEN METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPIRIDON Cosmin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaizen is a Japanese word which is today used as an international mark for quality management. Composed by two words, “kai” which means “change” and “zen” which means “good”, kaizen translates into “continuous improvement” which describes a simple philosophy on how to improve the quality of a product or a process, by taking small steps each day to obtain the desired improvements.

  11. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  12. The most unusual dust event cases from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur; Meinander, Outi; Gritsevich, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Iceland has the largest area of volcaniclastic sandy desert on Earth where dust is originating from volcanic, but also glaciogenic sediments. Total Icelandic desert areas cover over 44,000 km2 suggesting Iceland being the largest Arctic as well as European desert. Satelite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes traveling over 1000 km at times. The mean frequency of days with dust suspension was to 135 dust days annually in 1949-2011. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 31 - 40.1 million tons yr-1 affecting the area of > 500,000 km2, which places Iceland among the most active dust sources on Earth. Volcanic dust is distributed over local glaciers (about 4.5 million t annually) and surrounding oceans (6 - 14 million t annually). Mean dust emissions were calculated for minor, medium and major dust events as 0.1, 0.3 and 1 million tons per event, respectively. Three unusual dust events were observed and measured: The first, an extreme wind erosion event of the fresh Eyjafjallajokull 2010 volcanic ash, the second, a Snow-Dust Storm in 2013, and the third, a suspended dust during moist and low wind conditions. Frequent volcanic eruptions in Iceland (new eruption each 3-4 years on average) represent important inputs to dust variability. Freshly deposited ash prolongs impacts of volcanic eruptions as we observed after the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption. In September 2010, an extreme storm was recorded with the maximum wind speed of 38.7 ms-1. The maximum saltation was 6825 pulses per minute while the aeolian transport over one m wide transect and 150 cm height reached 11,800 kg m-1. The largest previously measured amount in Iceland in one storm was about 4,200 kg m-1. This storm is among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. Dust events in South Iceland often take place in winter or at sub-zero temperatures. The Snow-Dust Storm occurred in March 6-7th 2013 when snow was nearly black with several mm thick dark layer of dust deposited on snow

  13. Network of Recurrent events - A case study of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Revathi, P G

    2010-01-01

    A recently proposed method of constructing seismic networks from 'record breaking events' from the earthquake catalog of California (Phy. Rev. E, 77 6,066104, 2008) was successfull in establishing causal features to seismicity and arrive at estimates for rupture length and its scaling with magnitude. The results of our implementation of this procedure on the earthquake catalog of Japan establishes the robustness of the procedure. Additionally, we find that the temporal distributions are able to detect heterogeneties in the seismicity of the region.

  14. Strategi Peningkatan Daya Saing Usaha Kecil dan Menengah (UKM Berbasis Kaizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Suranta Meliala

    2016-04-01

    Perekonomian adalah salah satu faktor kemajuan suatu negara. Setiap negara bersaing ketat untuk meningkatkan produktvitas perekonomiannya. Perekonomian Indonesia saat ini menempati urutan ke 17 dunia. Pertumbuhan ekonomi di Indonesia yang sangat signifikan ternyata tidak lepas dari peran dari usaha kecil dan menengah (UKM yang menopang pertumbuhan ekspor dan impor, salah satu UKM yang bisa diunggulkan adalah UKM pembuatan sepatu. Peran UKM yang begitu besar dan signifikan harus terus dijaga dan dikembangkan untuk bisa bersaing pada era persaingan global seperti penerapan Masyarakat Ekonomi Asean (MEA pada januari 2015. Permasalahan yang mengganggu perkembangan dan produktivitas dari UKM sepatu, khususnya di sekitar Kota Medan akan dibagi kedalam 4 kategori, yaitu:(1 manusia, (2 proses, (3 fasilitas, dan (4 Persaingan usaha. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, diketahui bahwa permasalahan yang paling utama yang mempengaruhi perkembangan UKM sepatu di Kota Medan adalah sumber daya manusianya. Pemecahan permasalahan ini akan dilakukan dengan strategi Kaizen (5S yang akan dipadukan dengan konsep Training within industry (TWI dan konsep P-Course. Perbaikan ini akan menghasilkan strategi-strategi untuk peningkatan produktivitas kerja UKM secara keseluruhan dengan fokus utama adalah pekerja dan sistem kerjanya. Strategi ini diharapkan mampu membenahi kelemahan UKM sepatu yang ada, guna menghadapi ketatnya persaingan global yang akan datang.  Kata kunci: Usaha kecil dan menengah (UKM, kaizen, training within industry (TWI,konsep p-course, konsep 5S

  15. Transferencia de conocimiento dentro de la empresa: análisis de variables precursoras en un entorno lean-kaizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Irma Máynez-Guaderrama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La manufactura esbelta es un enfoque sistemático que identifica y elimina el desperdicio, a través del mejoramiento continuo. Una actividad común en ella son los eventos kaizen, los cuales impactan a los subsistemas técnico y humano de la organización, pero desafortunadamente son pocos los trabajos que indagan sobre su efecto en el segundo subsistema. Por ello, este trabajo busca contribuir con evidencia empírica de variables asociadas al mismo, particularmente las relaciones entre la cultura organizacional y la transferencia de conocimiento tácito dentro de la empresa, a través de la mediación de la comprensión de la necesidad de kaizen, el espíritu de trabajo y el compromiso afectivo organizacional. Método: Se diseñó una investigación cuantitativa, empírica y de sección transversal, basada en la revisión literaria del espíritu de trabajo, la comprensión de la necesidad de kaizen, el compromiso afectivo, la cultura organizacional y la transferencia de conocimiento tácito dentro de la empresa. El muestreo fue no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se aplicaron 100 encuestas en una empresa localizada en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, que labora en un entorno lean y donde cotidianamente se llevan a cabo eventos kaizen. Como técnica de análisis estadístico se utilizó la modelación a través de ecuaciones estructurales [SEM] con base en mínimos cuadrados parcializados [PLS], por su utilidad para estimar modelos que utilizan variables latentes. Resultados: Se encontró que la cultura organizacional influye de forma directa e indirecta a la transferencia de conocimiento tácito dentro de la empresa. La cultura organizacional ayuda a la comprensión de la necesidad de kaizen [condición que apoya al éxito de los eventos kaizen], y ésta incide favorablemente sobre el espíritu de trabajo de los empleados. Por otra parte, el compromiso organizacional, recibe influencia positiva y significativa, tanto del espíritu de

  16. Modelo para o desenvolvimento de projetos kaizen para a indústria da construção civil

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Vivan; Felipe Alfonso Huertas Ortiz; José Carlos Paliari

    2016-01-01

    Resumo O kaizen é um dos princípios que sustentam o Sistema Toyota de Produção (STP) como filosofia, porém é árduo seu uso na Indústria da Construção Civil (ICC) devido às suas inerentes características de produção. Assim, foi desenvolvido um modelo que auxilia o profissional da ICC a desenvolver de forma sistemática um projeto kaizen, por meio do uso de ferramentas de diagnóstico e análise do sistema de produção. O método de pesquisa é definido por três etapas sequenciais governadas por duas...

  17. Modelo para o desenvolvimento de projetos kaizen para a indústria da construção civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Vivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O kaizen é um dos princípios que sustentam o Sistema Toyota de Produção (STP como filosofia, porém é árduo seu uso na Indústria da Construção Civil (ICC devido às suas inerentes características de produção. Assim, foi desenvolvido um modelo que auxilia o profissional da ICC a desenvolver de forma sistemática um projeto kaizen, por meio do uso de ferramentas de diagnóstico e análise do sistema de produção. O método de pesquisa é definido por três etapas sequenciais governadas por duas estratégias de pesquisa: teórico-conceitual, para as atividades de revisão bibliográfica e desenvolvimento do modelo, e pesquisa-ação visando à aplicação em um canteiro de obras voltado para a produção de habitações. Como resultado da pesquisa-ação, por meio do modelo, foram identificados e classificados nove problemas no sistema produtivo, suas raízes e oportunidades de kaizen. A proposta de sistematização da geração de oportunidades de kaizen para a ICC contribui diretamente para a qualidade dos produtos finais e redução de custos nos canteiros de obras, pois possibilita a melhoria contínua dos processos a partir de maiores níveis de valor agregado, com a redução do uso de recursos na produção.

  18. Characteristics of event tourism marketing. Case study: the European youth Olympic festival, Brasov 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herţanu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Event tourism is a very important branch of tourism, not only from the economic point of view, but also as the cultural and social development of a tourism destination. Organizing sporting events is considered, by the managers of tourism destinations, as an improvement strategy regarding the destination image, and as a competitive advantage. This article brings forward the features of event tourism concerning the marketing mix policies and the importance of events in the development of an area. The chosen study case is Brasov County area, which will host, in 201,3 the winter edition of the European Youth Olympic Festival.

  19. #DDOD Use Case: Access to Medicare Part D Drug Event File (PDE) for cost transparency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case to request access to Medicare Part D Drug Event File (PDE) for cost transparency to pharmacies and patients. WHAT IS A USE CASE? A “Use Case”...

  20. PROMOTING TOURIST DESTINATIONS THROUGH SPORT EVENTS. THE CASE OF BRAŞOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ISPAS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of destination marketers as a strategy to enhance its destination image and differentiate its tourism products. Communities are attracted to hosting sport events to draw marketing benefits that will contribute to the success of the destination in the long run by creating awareness, improving their image with visitors and attracting tourism business to generate future inbound travel. As such, destination images can be influenced by the hosting of a sport event and the attributes associated with this event. The purpose of this paper is to outline the role of sport event tourism in the promotion of tourist destinations. A case study has been chosen in order to illustrate the interdependence between event and destination marketing: Braşov, hosting the winter edition of The European Youth Olympic Festival in 2013. The paper includes a series of recommendations for destination managers in order to maximise the benefits of this event and take this opportunity to promote Braşov on the international market.

  1. Hierarchical event selection for video storyboards with a case study on snooker video visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Matthew L; Legg, Philip A; Chung, David H S; Griffiths, Iwan W; Chen, Min

    2011-12-01

    Video storyboard, which is a form of video visualization, summarizes the major events in a video using illustrative visualization. There are three main technical challenges in creating a video storyboard, (a) event classification, (b) event selection and (c) event illustration. Among these challenges, (a) is highly application-dependent and requires a significant amount of application specific semantics to be encoded in a system or manually specified by users. This paper focuses on challenges (b) and (c). In particular, we present a framework for hierarchical event representation, and an importance-based selection algorithm for supporting the creation of a video storyboard from a video. We consider the storyboard to be an event summarization for the whole video, whilst each individual illustration on the board is also an event summarization but for a smaller time window. We utilized a 3D visualization template for depicting and annotating events in illustrations. To demonstrate the concepts and algorithms developed, we use Snooker video visualization as a case study, because it has a concrete and agreeable set of semantic definitions for events and can make use of existing techniques of event detection and 3D reconstruction in a reliable manner. Nevertheless, most of our concepts and algorithms developed for challenges (b) and (c) can be applied to other application areas.

  2. PROMOTING TOURIST DESTINATIONS THROUGH SPORT EVENTS. THE CASE OF BRAŞOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Nicoleta CANDREA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of destination marketers as a strategy to enhance its destination image and differentiate its tourism products. Communities are attracted to hosting sport events to draw marketing benefits that will contribute to the success of the destination in the long run by creating awareness, improving their image with visitors and attracting tourism business to generate future inbound travel. As such, destination images can be influenced by the hosting of a sport event and the attributes associated with this event. The purpose of this paper is to outline the role of sport event tourism in the promotion of tourist destinations. A case study has been chosen in order to illustrate the interdependence between event and destination marketing: Braşov, hosting the winter edition of The European Youth Olympic Festival in 2013. The paper includes a series of recommendations for destination managers in order to maximise the benefits of this event and take this opportunity to promote Braşov on the international market.

  3. GELECEĞİN MALİYETLERİNİN KONTROLÜNDE YENİ BİR YAKLAŞIM: HEDEF VE KAIZEN MALİYETLEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEYNEP TÜRK

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Firmalar tarafından modern üretim teknolojilerinin kullanılması yeni maliyet ve yönetim muhasebesi yöntemlerinin geliştirilmesine ve uygulanmasına neden olmuştur. Hedef ve kaizen maliyetleme bu yeni sistemlerin örneklerindendir. Japon elektronik ve araç üreticileri hedef ve kaizen maliyetlemeyi yoğun bir şekilde kullanmışlardır. Hedef ve kaizen maliyetleme, firmalara bugünün dizaynı ile geleceğin maliyetlerinin düşürülmesinde ve kontrol edilmesinde yardımcı olmaktadır. Çalışmamızda, söz konusu maliyet sistemleri ayrıntıları ile incelenecektir.

  4. Cardiovascular risk score and cardiovascular events among airline pilots: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Larsen, Peter D; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J

    2012-05-01

    A cardiovascular risk prediction score is routinely applied by aviation authorities worldwide. We examined the accuracy of the Framingham-based risk chart used by the New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority in predicting cardiovascular events among airline pilots. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of 5-yr cardiovascular risk score and cardiovascular events in Oceania-based airline pilots. Cases were pilots with cardiovascular events as recorded on their medical records. Each case was age and gender matched with four controls that were randomly selected from the pilot population. To collect data before the events, 5-yr retrospective evaluations were conducted. Over a 16-yr study period we identified 15 cases of cardiovascular events, 9 (60%) of which were sudden clinical presentations and only 6 (40%) of which were detected using cardiovascular screening. There were 8 cases (53%) and 16 controls (27%) who had a 5-yr risk of > or = 10-15%. Almost half of the events (7/15) occurred in pilots whose highest 5-yr risk was in the 5-10% range. Cases were 3.91 times more likely to have highest 5-yr risk score of > or =10-15% than controls (OR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.04-16.35). The accuracy of the highest risk scores were moderate (AUC = 0.723, 95% CI 0.583-0.863). The cutoff point of 10% is valid, with a specificity of 0.73, but low sensitivity (0.53). Despite a valid and appropriate cutoff point, the tool had low sensitivity and was unable to predict almost half of the cardiovascular events.

  5. Retrospective analysis of 53 cases of medical supplies quality adverse event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-zu LUO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical supplies are the basic material for medical work in the hospital, and in relation to the patient's life.This paper analyzed retrospectively 53 cases of medical supplies quality adverse event in our hospital from 2011 to 2012.Accordingly, it was discussed how to improve the whole quality control system of medical supplies, how to ensure clinical safety, and how to reduce the incidence of adverse events.

  6. A Case of Three Consecutive Events of Acute Myocardial Infarctions in Three Different Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyun; Her, Sung-Ho; Park, Mahn Won; Cho, Jung Sun; Kim, Chan Joon; Kwon, Jong-Bum; Ro, Sang Mi; Park, Yun Kyung

    2013-01-01

    A 51-year-old man was being admitted to the emergency department with chest pains. He had a history of acute myocardial infarction (MI) on two prior occasions and was successfully treated with drug eluting stents. He was diagnosed with 3 consecutive events of acute MI in 3 different vessels. The consecutive events of acute MI in different vessels are a very rare case. He did not have risk factors, such as coagulation abnormality, clopidogrel resistance, patient's compliance and vessel abnorma...

  7. A positive event dependence model for self-controlled case series with applications in postmarketing surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Shawn E

    2013-03-01

    A primary objective in the application of postmarketing drug safety surveillance is to ascertain the relationship between time-varying drug exposures and recurrent adverse events (AEs) related to health outcomes. The self-controlled case series (SCCS) method is one approach to analysis in this context. It is based on a conditional Poisson regression model, which assumes that events at different time points are conditionally independent given the covariate process. This requirement is problematic when the occurrence of an event can alter the future event risk. In a clinical setting, for example, patients who have a first myocardial infarction (MI) may be at higher subsequent risk for a second. In this work, we propose the positive dependence self-controlled case series (PD-SCCS) method: a generalization of SCCS that allows the occurrence of an event to increase the future event risk, yet maintains the advantages of the original model by controlling for fixed baseline covariates and relying solely on data from cases. As in the SCCS model, individual-level baseline parameters drop out of the PD-SCCS likelihood. Data sources used for postmarketing surveillance can contain tens of millions of people, so in this situation it is particularly advantageous that PD-SCCS avoids doing a costly estimation of individual parameters. We develop expressions for large sample inference and optimization for PD-SCCS and compare the results of our generalized model with the more restrictive SCCS approach. Copyright © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  8. Cutaneous adverse events of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors: A retrospective review of 99 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumutnart Chanprapaph

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous reports regarding the cutaneous adverse events of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are mostly limited to small case reports and case series, mainly involving Caucasian patients. Aims: We describe the trends in the clinical presentation of Asian patients who had cutaneous adverse events induced by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and to explore the relationship between skin adverse events and tumor response. Methods: From 2006 to 2010, medical records of Thai patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors were retrieved and analyzed. Results: In all, 99 patients were reviewed and analyzed. Erlotinib and gefitinib were commenced in 75 (75.8% and 24 (24.2% patients, respectively. Cutaneous adverse events occurred in 43 (57.3% patients receiving erlotinib and in 15 (62.5% patients receiving gefitinib. The most common adverse event was xerosis (52.5%. Less common adverse events included papulo-pustular eruption (27.3%, erythematous maculopapular rash (11.1%, mucositis (6.7%, paronychia (5.1%, and trichomegaly (2%. Elderly patients had a higher occurrence of xerosis. The presence of cutaneous adverse events was significantly higher in subjects who had a tumor response. Limitations: The limitations of study include its retrospective nature, and the initial screening of cutaneous adverse events was done by non-dermatologists. Conclusions: Cutaneous adverse events due to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are not uncommon in the Asian population. We found a positive correlation between the occurrences of cutaneou adverse events and tumor response supporting the view that they are surrogate markers for therapeutic response.

  9. Critical success factors model developing for sustainable Kaizen implementation in manufactur-ing industry in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftu Hailu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to identify critical success factors and model developing for sustaining kaizen implementation. Peacock shoe is one of the manufacturing industries in Ethiopia facing challenges on sustaining. The methodology followed is factor analysis and empirically testing hypothesis. A database was designed using SPSS version 20. The survey was validated using statistical validation using the Cronbach alpha index; the result is 0.908. The KMO index value was obtained for the 32 items and had a value of 0.642 with Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 4503.007, degree of freedom 496 and significance value 0.000. A factor analysis by principal components and varimax rotation was applied for finding the critical success factors. Finding designates that 32 items were merged into eight critical success factors. All the eight factors together explain for 76.941 % of the variance. Multiple regression model analysis has indicated that some of the critical success factors had relationship with success indicators. Due to constraint of time, the researcher focused only at peacock shoe manufacturing industry. Other limitation also includes the absence of any local research that shows the critical success factors at the moment.

  10. A case-base sampling method for estimating recurrent event intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Olli

    2016-10-01

    Case-base sampling provides an alternative to risk set sampling based methods to estimate hazard regression models, in particular when absolute hazards are also of interest in addition to hazard ratios. The case-base sampling approach results in a likelihood expression of the logistic regression form, but instead of categorized time, such an expression is obtained through sampling of a discrete set of person-time coordinates from all follow-up data. In this paper, in the context of a time-dependent exposure such as vaccination, and a potentially recurrent adverse event outcome, we show that the resulting partial likelihood for the outcome event intensity has the asymptotic properties of a likelihood. We contrast this approach to self-matched case-base sampling, which involves only within-individual comparisons. The efficiency of the case-base methods is compared to that of standard methods through simulations, suggesting that the information loss due to sampling is minimal.

  11. The Application of Lean Thinking Principles and Kaizen Practices for the Successful Development and Implementation of the Ares I-X Flight Test Rocket and Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, B. R.; Davis, S. R.; Heitzman, K. S.; Olsen, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    On October 28, 2009 the Ares I-X flight test rocket launched from Kennedy Space Center and flew its suborbital trajectory as designed. The mission was successfully completed as data from the test, and associated development activities were analyzed, transferred to stakeholders, and well documented. A positive lesson learned from Ares I-X was that the application of lean thinking principles and kaizen practices was very effective in streamlining development activities. Ares I-X, like other historical rocket development projects, was hampered by technical, cost, and schedule challenges and if not addressed boldly could have resulted in cancellation of the test. The mission management team conducted nine major meetings, referred to as lean events, across its elements to assess plans, procedures, processes, requirements, controls, culture, organization, use of resources, and anything that could be changed to optimize schedule or reduce risk. The preeminent aspect of the lean events was the focus on value added activities and the removal or at least reduction in non-value added activities. Trained Lean Six Sigma facilitators assisted the Ares I-X developers in conducting the lean events. They indirectly helped formulate the mission s own unique methodology for assessing schedule. A core team was selected to lead the events and report to the mission manager. Each activity leveraged specialized participants to analyze the subject matter and its related processes and then recommended alternatives and solutions. Stakeholders were the event champions. They empowered and encouraged the team to succeed. The keys to success were thorough preparation, honest dialog, small groups, adherence to the Ares I-X ground rules, and accountability through disciplined reporting and tracking of actions. This lean event formula was game-changing as demonstrated by Ares I-X. It is highly recommended as a management tool to help develop other complex systems efficiently. The key benefits for

  12. Classification of Earthquake-triggered Landslide Events - Review of Classical and Particular Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A.; Havenith, H. B.; Schlögel, R.

    2016-12-01

    Seismically induced landslides often contribute to a significant degree to the losses related to earthquakes. The identification of possible extends of landslide affected areas can help to target emergency measures when an earthquake occurs or improve the resilience of inhabited areas and critical infrastructure in zones of high seismic hazard. Moreover, landslide event sizes are an important proxy for the estimation of the intensity and magnitude of past earthquakes in paleoseismic studies, allowing us to improve seismic hazard assessment over longer terms. Not only earthquake intensity, but also factors such as the fault characteristics, topography, climatic conditions and the geological environment have a major impact on the intensity and spatial distribution of earthquake induced landslides. Inspired by classical reviews of earthquake induced landslides, e.g. by Keefer or Jibson, we present here a review of factors contributing to earthquake triggered slope failures based on an `event-by-event' classification approach. The objective of this analysis is to enable the short-term prediction of earthquake triggered landslide event sizes in terms of numbers and size of the affected area right after an earthquake event occurred. Five main factors, `Intensity', `Fault', `Topographic energy', `Climatic conditions' and `Surface geology' were used to establish a relationship to the number and spatial extend of landslides triggered by an earthquake. Based on well-documented recent earthquakes (e.g. Haiti 2010, Wenchuan 2008) and on older events for which reliable extensive information was available (e.g. Northridge 1994, Loma Prieta 1989, Guatemala 1976, Peru 1970) the combination and relative weight of the factors was calibrated. The calibrated factor combination was then applied to more than 20 earthquake events for which landslide distribution characteristics could be crosschecked. We present cases where our prediction model performs well and discuss particular cases

  13. 'Case reporting of rare adverse events in otolaryngology': can we defend the case report?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dias, Andrew

    2012-01-31

    The study of errors in medicine has proliferated since the publication of The Institute of Medicine Report \\'TO ERR IS HUMAN\\' in 2000. Case nuances and process of care issues are valuable areas to explore if the goal is to provide the health care worker with the knowledge to avoid future errors. Meta-analysis and randomized controlled trials provide a large data base of evidence towards improvement and opportunities, but it is suggested that case reports can still provide valuable clinical information. The aim is to use the published literature to produce a series of rare harm case reports in E.N.T. The methods include systematic literature review. Journals searched in PUBMED were 60. Rare harm case obtained from the search were 5,322. Rare harm case reports not reported in any other form of evidence-based medicine were 40. Yes, the case report can be defended as it is an important pillar of evidence-based medicine.

  14. Two Cases of Nivolumab Re-Administration after Pneumonitis as Immune-Related Adverse Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Imafuku

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nivolumab is a recently approved medication for the treatment of unresectable malignant melanoma. Many immune-related adverse events (irAEs associated with nivolumab have been reported, such as pneumonitis, hepatitis, dermatitis, and thyroiditis. Prednisolone can effectively treat irAEs. However, it is unclear how or if nivolumab should be administered to patients after they have experienced an irAE. Herein, we show 2 patients who underwent pneumonitis as irAE. Case 1 demonstrated a cryptogenic organizing pneumonia pattern in the CT scan and case 2 had a diffuse alveolar damage (DAD pattern. Oral corticosteroids improved chest shadow of CT scan in both cases. However, when nivolumab was re-administrated, case 1 demonstrated no symptoms, but case 2 demonstrated pneumonia again. From our cases, it is difficult to re-administrate nivolumab for the patients with pneumonitis which shows a DAD pattern in CT, even if oral corticosteroids improve their symptoms.

  15. Otimização de um programa Kaizen em uma empresa do setor metal mecânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimara Santos Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manter um programa de melhoria contínua ativo dentro das organizações é um desafio permanente para os gestores. Após a implantação, muitos programas perdem força e caem em descrédito. Este artigo apresenta o programa Kaizen em uma empresa do setor metal mecânico, tendo como objetivo avaliar as etapas de implantação, as facilidades e dificuldades enfrentadas após a implantação e contribuir com sugestões de melhorias. O escopo do trabalho fundamenta-se na base Kaizen e suas práticas de implantação, focando na mudança cultural e comportamental dos funcionários de chão de fábrica. O resultado mostrou que são grandes as chances de abandonar a ferramenta após o surgimento das primeiras melhorias. Para evitar isso, o comprometimento das lideranças e os resultados obtidos em curto período de tempo são elementos vitais.

  16. The average cost of measles cases and adverse events following vaccination in industrialised countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou Ulla

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the annual incidence rate of measles has dramatically decreased in industrialised countries since the implementation of universal immunisation programmes, cases continue to occur in countries where endemic measles transmission has been interrupted and in countries where adequate levels of immunisation coverage have not been maintained. The objective of this study is to develop a model to estimate the average cost per measles case and per adverse event following measles immunisation using the Netherlands (NL, the United Kingdom (UK and Canada as examples. Methods Parameter estimates were based on a review of the published literature. A decision tree was built to represent the complications associated with measles cases and adverse events following imminisation. Monte-Carlo Simulation techniques were used to account for uncertainty. Results From the perspective of society, we estimated the average cost per measles case to be US$276, US$307 and US$254 for the NL, the UK and Canada, respectively, and the average cost of adverse events following immunisation per vaccinee to be US$1.43, US$1.93 and US$1.51 for the NL, UK and Canada, respectively. Conclusions These average cost estimates could be combined with incidence estimates and costs of immunisation programmes to provide estimates of the cost of measles to industrialised countries. Such estimates could be used as a basis to estimate the potential economic gains of global measles eradication.

  17. Implementación del Kaizen en méxico: un estudio exploratorio de una aproximación gerencial japonesa en el contexto latinoamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Suárez-Barraza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, los términos Lean Thinking y Kaizen han cobrado gran importancia en la gestión operacional y estratégica de las organizaciones de este nuevo siglo. dicha relevancia se ha centrado en la búsqueda constante por reducir los costos operativos mejorando con ello la productividad y la competitividad de las organizaciones multinacionales. Por ello, parte de la pregunta de investigación que rige este artículo es: ¿Cómo se presenta la implementación del Kaizen en un contexto organizacional como es una empresa multinacional en méxico? el propósito del estudio es, por tanto, explorar empíricamente la implementación del Kaizen en algunas organizaciones multinacionales de méxico, con el fin de analizarlas y compararlas con los esquemas teóricos del tema. la investigación es de corte cualitativo siguiendo la estrategia de múltiples casos de estudio. se seleccionaron dos empresas multinacionales ubicadas en la zona industrial de toluca del estado de méxico, méxico. los resultados demuestran, con base en la evidencia empírica, que existe una brecha entre los esquemas teóricos del Kaizen y la realidad práctica estudiada en los dos casos de estudios seleccionados. Partiendo de estos resultados del estudio exploratorio fue posible proponer cuatro proposiciones teóricas que condensan el presente trabajo de investigación. este artículo, a pesar de ser de carácter exploratorio, busca generar un aporte teórico de lo que ocurre en las empresas multinacionales ubicadas en méxico en materia de la implementación de una técnica gerencial japonesa como el Kaizen en un contexto latinoamericano.

  18. Epistaxis and other haemorrhagic events associated with the smoking cessation medicine varenicline : a case series from two national pharmacovigilance centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Harmark, Linda; Tan, Ming; Maggo, Simran; van Grootheest, Kees

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To present a case series of haemorrhagic events associated with varenicline identified from the New Zealand (NZ) and Netherlands national pharmacovigilance centres and propose a possible mechanism for these adverse events. Methods Reports of epistaxis and other haemorrhagic events (in all sy

  19. Numerical Simulations as Tool to Predict Chemical and Radiological Hazardous Diffusion in Case of Nonconventional Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Ciparisse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations are widely used nowadays to predict the behaviour of fluids in pure research and in industrial applications. This approach makes it possible to get quantitatively meaningful results, often in good agreement with the experimental ones. The aim of this paper is to show how CFD calculations can help to understand the time evolution of two possible CBRNe (Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-explosive events: (1 hazardous dust mobilization due to the interaction between a jet of air and a metallic powder in case of a LOVA (Loss Of Vacuum Accidents that is one of the possible accidents that can occur in experimental nuclear fusion plants; (2 toxic gas release in atmosphere. The scenario analysed in the paper has consequences similar to those expected in case of a release of dangerous substances (chemical or radioactive in enclosed or open environment during nonconventional events (like accidents or man-made or natural disasters.

  20. Climate Change Risks – Methodological Framework and Case Study of Damages from Extreme Events in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2016-01-01

    , affect damage estimates and thereby the economic recommendations for climate change adaptation decision making. The conclusion is that taken vulnerabilities and equity concerns into consideration in adaptation planning for Least Developed Countries really makes a strong case for allocating economic......Climate change imposes some special risks on Least Developed Countries, and the chapter presents a methodological framework, which can be used to assess the impacts of key assumptions related to damage costs, risks and equity implications on current and future generations. The methodological...... framework is applied to a case study of severe storms in Cambodia based on statistical information on past storm events including information about buildings damaged and victims. Despite there is limited data available on the probability of severe storm events under climate change as well on the actual...

  1. Simulating large-scale pedestrian movement using CA and event driven model: Methodology and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Jia, Hongfei; Li, Yanzhong; Guo, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale regional evacuation is an important part of national security emergency response plan. Large commercial shopping area, as the typical service system, its emergency evacuation is one of the hot research topics. A systematic methodology based on Cellular Automata with the Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model has been proposed, and the methodology has been examined within context of a case study involving the evacuation within a commercial shopping mall. Pedestrians walking is based on Cellular Automata and event driven model. In this paper, the event driven model is adopted to simulate the pedestrian movement patterns, the simulation process is divided into normal situation and emergency evacuation. The model is composed of four layers: environment layer, customer layer, clerk layer and trajectory layer. For the simulation of movement route of pedestrians, the model takes into account purchase intention of customers and density of pedestrians. Based on evacuation model of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model, we can reflect behavior characteristics of customers and clerks at the situations of normal and emergency evacuation. The distribution of individual evacuation time as a function of initial positions and the dynamics of the evacuation process is studied. Our results indicate that the evacuation model using the combination of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven scheduling can be used to simulate the evacuation of pedestrian flows in indoor areas with complicated surroundings and to investigate the layout of shopping mall.

  2. Blunt injury to the inferior gluteal artery: case report of a rare "near miss" event

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Wei; Pan Jinshe; Smith Wade R; Liu Huaijun; Zhang Qi; Zhang Yingze

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic injuries of the inferior gluteal artery are rare, the majority of which are aneurysms due to sharp or blunt trauma. We report the rare case of a "near miss" event of a patient with an acute hemorrhagic mass in the right buttock caused by blunt trauma to the inferior gluteal artery without "hard" clinical signs of vascular injury. Despite the unusual presentation, diffuse injury of the inferior gluteal artery branches was diagnosed by ultrasonography and angiography. This ar...

  3. Tsunami Modeling of Hikurangi Trench M9 Events: Case Study for Napier, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.; Nyst, M.; Farahani, R.; Bryngelson, J.; Lee, R.; Molas, G.

    2015-12-01

    RMS has developed a tsunami model for New Zealand for the insurance industry to price and to manage their tsunami risks. A key tsunamigenic source for New Zealand is the Hikurangi Trench that lies offshore on the eastside of the North Island. The trench is the result of the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North Island at a rate of 40-45 mm/yr. Though there have been no M9 historical events on the Hikurangi Trench, events in this magnitude range are considered in the latest version of the National Seismic Hazard Maps for New Zealand (Stirling et al., 2012). The RMS modeling approaches the tsunami lifecycle in three stages: event generation, ocean wave propagation, and coastal inundation. The tsunami event generation is modeled based on seafloor deformation resulting from an event rupture model. The ocean wave propagation and coastal inundation are modeled using a RMS-developed numerical solver, implemented on graphic processing units using a finite-volume approach to approximate two-dimensional, shallow-water wave equations over the ocean and complex topography. As the tsunami waves enter shallow water and approach the coast, the RMS model calculates the propagation of the waves along the wet-dry interface considering variable land friction. The initiation and characteristics of the tsunami are based on the event rupture model. As there have been no historical M9 events on the Hikurangi Trench, this rupture characterization posed unique challenges. This study examined the impacts of a suite of event rupture models to understand the key drivers in the variations in the tsunami inundation footprints. The goal was to develop a suite of tsunamigenic event characterizations that represent a range of potential tsunami outcomes for M9 events on the Hikurangi Trench. The focus of this case study is the Napier region as it represents an important exposure concentration in the region and has experience tsunami inundations in the past including during the 1931 Ms7

  4. [Analysis on 315 cases of clinical adverse drug reaction/event induced by gastrodin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang-yang; Dong, Zhi; Lu, Xiao-qin; Xia, Yong-peng; Zhu, Shu-bing

    2015-05-01

    With patients' general situation, medication use, occurrence time of adverse drug reaction/event (ADR/ADE), clinical manifestations and prognosis as reference items, a retrospective study was made for 315 cases with ADR/ADE induced by Gastrodin in Chongqing from January 2008 to June 2014, in order to analyze the characteristics of ADR/ADE and provide reference for rational clinical medication. The results showed that among the 315 cases with ADR/ADE, 143 cases (45.4%) were males and 172 cases (54.6%) were females, most of them (74.9%) were aged above 45; 60 cases (19.0%) with ADE were caused by off-label indications and 66 cases (21.0%) with ADE were caused by over dosage; ADR/ADE cases induced by intravenous drip mainly happened within 30 min (85.5%), ADR/ADE cases induced by oral administration mainly happened within 2 h (74.4%), and all of ADR/ ADE cases induced by intramuscular injection happened within 10 min. Totally 593 ADR/ADE cases were reported, which were mainly damages in gastrointestinal system, skin and its adnexa; And 61.9% of ADR/ADE cases were newly reported. It is suggested that medical workers shall learn about the regularity and characteristics of ADR/ADE induced by gastrodin, apply it in clinic with standards, pay close attention to changes of patients' situations and attach importance to the monitoring of ADR/ADE, so as to enhance the safety of medication.

  5. The Skateboard Factory: a teaching case on discrete-event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract Real-life applications during the teaching process are a desirable practice in simulation education. However, access to real cases imposes some difficulty in implement such practice, especially when the classes are large. This paper presents a teaching case for a computer simulation course in a production engineering undergraduate program. The motivation for the teaching case was to provide students with a realistic manufacturing case to stimulate the learning of simulation concepts and methods in the context of industrial engineering. The case considers a virtual factory of skateboards, which operations include parts manufacturing, final assembly and storage of raw materials, work-in-process and finished products. Students should model and simulate the factory, under push and pull production strategies, using any simulation software available in the laboratory. The teaching case, applied in the last two years, contributed to motivate and consolidate the students’ learning of discrete-event simulation. It proved to be a feasible alternative to the previous practice of letting students freely choose a case for their final project, while keeping the essence of project-based learning approach.

  6. Neurologic Adverse Events Associated with Voriconazole Therapy: Report of Two Pediatric Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Sevliya Öcal; Atici, Serkan; Akkoç, Gülşen; Yakut, Nurhayat; İkizoğlu, Nilay Baş; Eralp, Ela Erdem; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Although voriconazole, a triazole antifungal, is a safe drug, treatment with this agent is associated with certain adverse events such as hepatic, neurologic, and visual disturbances. The current report presents two cases, one a 9-year-old boy and the other a 17-year-old girl, who experienced neurologic side effects associated with voriconazole therapy. Our aim is to remind readers of the side effects of voriconazole therapy in order to prevent unnecessary investigations especially for psychological and ophthalmologic problems. The first case was a 9-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis and invasive aspergillosis that developed photophobia, altered color sensation, and fearful visual hallucination. The second case was a 17-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and she experienced photophobia, fatigue, impaired concentration, and insomnia, when the dose of voriconazole therapy was increased from 12 mg/kg/day to 16 mg/kg/day. The complaints of the two patients disappeared after discontinuation of voriconazole therapy. Our experience in these patients reminded us of the importance of being aware of the neurologic adverse events associated with voriconazole therapy in establishing early diagnosis and initiating prompt treatment. In addition, although serum voriconazole concentration was not measured in the present cases, therapeutic drug monitoring for voriconazole seems to be critically important in preventing neurologic side effects in pediatric patients. PMID:27313918

  7. Neurologic Adverse Events Associated with Voriconazole Therapy: Report of Two Pediatric Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevliya Öcal Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although voriconazole, a triazole antifungal, is a safe drug, treatment with this agent is associated with certain adverse events such as hepatic, neurologic, and visual disturbances. The current report presents two cases, one a 9-year-old boy and the other a 17-year-old girl, who experienced neurologic side effects associated with voriconazole therapy. Our aim is to remind readers of the side effects of voriconazole therapy in order to prevent unnecessary investigations especially for psychological and ophthalmologic problems. The first case was a 9-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis and invasive aspergillosis that developed photophobia, altered color sensation, and fearful visual hallucination. The second case was a 17-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and she experienced photophobia, fatigue, impaired concentration, and insomnia, when the dose of voriconazole therapy was increased from 12 mg/kg/day to 16 mg/kg/day. The complaints of the two patients disappeared after discontinuation of voriconazole therapy. Our experience in these patients reminded us of the importance of being aware of the neurologic adverse events associated with voriconazole therapy in establishing early diagnosis and initiating prompt treatment. In addition, although serum voriconazole concentration was not measured in the present cases, therapeutic drug monitoring for voriconazole seems to be critically important in preventing neurologic side effects in pediatric patients.

  8. Case studies of particle formation events observed in boreal forests: implications for nucleation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol nucleation events observed worldwide may have significant climatic and health implications. However, the specific nucleation mechanisms remain ambiguous. Here, we report case studies of eight nucleation events observed during an intensive field campaign at a boreal forest site (Hyytiälä, Finland in spring 2005. The present analysis is based on comprehensive kinetic simulations using an ion-mediated nucleation (IMN model in which the key physical and chemical parameters are constrained by a variety of recent measurements. Out of the 22 days of the campaign on which nucleation events were observed, eight major events were selected for detailed analysis on the basis of indications that the observed air masses were relatively homogeneous. In most of these cases, reasonable agreement is found between IMN predictions and field data for a range of variables, including critical nucleation sizes, size-dependent overcharging ratios, and the concentrations of 1.8–3 nm stable clusters and 3–6 nm particles, and their diurnal variations. The possible reasons leading to substantial differences between observation and theory in some cases are also explored. Statistically, roughly 80% of the nucleation events recorded during the Hyytiälä campaign exhibited mean size-dependent particle overcharging ratios within the range of, or exceeding, those predicted by the IMN model, suggesting that ion nucleation processes were significant during these events. The nucleation rates calculated using the IMN modeling approach are contrasted with those predicted by other theories/models, and key differences between the results are discussed. In particular, it is concluded that the ion nucleation model originally developed by Lovejoy et al. (2004 significantly under-predicts ion nucleation rates, and cannot explain the new observations from Hyytiälä regarding the electrical properties of nanoparticles. We also show that, for the well documented conditions of

  9. Adverse events following yellow fever immunization: Report and analysis of 67 neurological cases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Reinaldo de Menezes; Pavão, Ana Luiza Braz; de Oliveira, Patrícia Mouta Nunes; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Carvalho, Sandra Maria D; Mohrdieck, Renate; Fernandes, Alexandre Ribeiro; Sato, Helena Keico; de Figueiredo, Patricia Mandali; von Doellinger, Vanessa Dos Reis; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S

    2014-11-20

    Neurological adverse events following administration of the 17DD substrain of yellow fever vaccine (YEL-AND) in the Brazilian population are described and analyzed. Based on information obtained from the National Immunization Program through passive surveillance or intensified passive surveillance, from 2007 to 2012, descriptive analysis, national and regional rates of YFV associated neurotropic, neurological autoimmune disease, and reporting rate ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for first time vaccinees stratified on age and year. Sixty-seven neurological cases were found, with the highest rate of neurological adverse events in the age group from 5 to 9 years (2.66 per 100,000 vaccine doses in Rio Grande do Sul state, and 0.83 per 100,000 doses in national analysis). Two cases had a combination of neurotropic and autoimmune features. This is the largest sample of YEL-AND already analyzed. Rates are similar to other recent studies, but on this study the age group from 5 to 9 years of age had the highest risk. As neurological adverse events have in general a good prognosis, they should not contraindicate the use of yellow fever vaccine in face of risk of infection by yellow fever virus.

  10. MÉTODOS DE CUSTEIO – ALVO ( TARGET COSTING E KAIZEN ( KAIZEN COSTING APOIADO POR QFD ( QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT COMO FERRAMENTAS PARA REDUÇÃO DE CUSTOS NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PRODUTOS E NA PRODUÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRATES , Glaucia Aparecida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Target Costing (Target Costing is a tool for strategic planning that considers a holistic view of their products and their compositions and identifies opportunities for cost reduction and product improvement. This mentality is incorporating the business community because, increasingly, the market is influenced by the value that customers attach to the product and its characteristics. Thus, one must determine the maximum cost that may be incurred to obtain the desired return from a price dictated by the market on which firms can not influence. It is different from the traditional concept, where price is a function of the cost it incurs to produce a particular good. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate through a literature review on the application of methods to reduce costs by integrating systems Target Costing and Kaizen supported by QFD (Quality Function Deployment improvements in existing product development and process optimization. We performed a literature search on the issues involved in the work and their interaction. It is noticed that, precisely in Japanese industries were some concepts and techniques used to date, considered very current and influencing business relationships with its suppliers. Among them may be mentioned: QFD and also the topic covered in this article, the system cost kaizen. This is due to the deep recession in which Japanese industries have passed since the 50s until the early 90s, which forced companies to reduce their fixed costs intensely and continuously improving its processes. The Target Costing (Target Costing is a tool for strategic planning that considers a holistic view of their products and their compositions and identifies opportunities for cost reduction and product improvement. This mentality is incorporating the business community because, increasingly, the market is influenced by the value that customers attach to the product and its characteristics. Thus, one must determine the maximum cost

  11. El Kaizen-GP: un modelo gerencial para mejorar los procesos y los servicios públicos municipales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Suárez Barraza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ante los cambios vertiginosos que se experimentan alrededor del mundo en el siglo XXI, los retos en materia de servicios públicos exigen mejoras constantes en la gestión pública, sobre todo aquella del ámbito local. Por tal motivo, esta investigación de dos casos de estudio de ayuntamientos (uno mexicano y otro español brindan un esquema conceptual denominado Kaizen-GP, que representa un modelo gerencial único, inédito y adaptado a la realidad del sector público. Dicho modelo de mejora continua busca consolidar la innovación de los procesos y servicios públicos de las administraciones locales de los países iberoamericanos.

  12. Cost management in the internal value chain of integrated application of activity-based costing, Kaizen concept and target costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić-Tomić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is an effort to view the possibilities of integrated use of target costing, activity based costing and Kaizen concept in the internal value chain as the central link of the entire chain. The idea is to stimulate the company management to think about the costs, position they take in the structure of price cost and their influence on forming the sales price since it is very important to produce right product for the consumer, of desired quality and functionality but along with as low production costs as possible. It is therefore needed to construct the right design of a product and provide its production at the shortest possible time along with as low costs as possible which will impact the efficiency of the entire value chain.

  13. El Kaizen-GP: un modelo gerencial para mejorar los procesos y los servicios públicos municipales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Suárez Barraza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ante los cambios vertiginosos que se experimentan alrededor del mundo en el siglo XXI, los retos en materia de servicios públicos exigen mejoras constantes en la gestión pública, sobre todo aquella del ámbito local. Por tal motivo, esta investigación de dos casos de estudio de ayuntamientos (uno mexicano y otro español brindan un esquema conceptual denominado Kaizen-GP, que representa un modelo gerencial único, inédito y adaptado a la realidad del sector público. Dicho modelo de mejora continua busca consolidar la innovación de los procesos y servicios públicos de las administraciones locales de los países iberoamericanos.

  14. Discussions On Worst-Case Test Condition For Single Event Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra; Zafrani, Max; Sherman, Phillip

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the failure characteristics of single- event burnout (SEB) on power MOSFETs based on analyzing the quasi-stationary avalanche simulation curves. The analyses show the worst-case test condition for SEB would be using the ion that has the highest mass that would result in the highest transient current due to charge deposition and displacement damage. The analyses also show it is possible to build power MOSFETs that will not exhibit SEB even when tested with the heaviest ion, which have been verified by heavy ion test data on SEB sensitive and SEB immune devices.

  15. Proposta de um método de apoio ao planejamento de projetos Kaizen: aplicação na indústria aeronáutica.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Reimberg Syrio

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho propõe um método de apoio ao planejamento de projetos kaizen, priorizando-os em função das necessidades dos clientes e da empresa em questão, dos desperdícios identificados em seu fluxo de valor e das limitações de recursos para realizar todas modificações necessárias simultaneamente. Para esta priorização dos projetos kaizen, o método proposto integra algumas ferramentas, conceitos e métodos já conhecidos como o Mapeamento do Fluxo de Valor, a Teoria das Restrições, o Método KT...

  16. Mining severe drug-drug interaction adverse events using Semantic Web technologies: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqian; Liu, Hongfang; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a major contributing factor for unexpected adverse drug events (ADEs). However, few of knowledge resources cover the severity information of ADEs that is critical for prioritizing the medical need. The objective of the study is to develop and evaluate a Semantic Web-based approach for mining severe DDI-induced ADEs. We utilized a normalized FDA Adverse Event Report System (AERS) dataset and performed a case study of three frequently prescribed cardiovascular drugs: Warfarin, Clopidogrel and Simvastatin. We extracted putative DDI-ADE pairs and their associated outcome codes. We developed a pipeline to filter the associations using ADE datasets from SIDER and PharmGKB. We also performed a signal enrichment using electronic medical records (EMR) data. We leveraged the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) grading system and classified the DDI-induced ADEs into the CTCAE in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). We identified 601 DDI-ADE pairs for the three drugs using the filtering pipeline, of which 61 pairs are in Grade 5, 56 pairs in Grade 4 and 484 pairs in Grade 3. Among 601 pairs, the signals of 59 DDI-ADE pairs were identified from the EMR data. The approach developed could be generalized to detect the signals of putative severe ADEs induced by DDIs in other drug domains and would be useful for supporting translational and pharmacovigilance study of severe ADEs.

  17. A case-crossover analysis of forest fire haze events and mortality in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahani, Mazrura; Zainon, Nurul Ashikin; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Latif, Mohd Talib; Hod, Rozita; Khan, Md Firoz; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-10-01

    The Southeast Asian (SEA) haze events due to forest fires are recurrent and affect Malaysia, particularly the Klang Valley region. The aim of this study is to examine the risk of haze days due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia on daily mortality in the Klang Valley region between 2000 and 2007. We used a case-crossover study design to model the effect of haze based on PM10 concentration to the daily mortality. The time-stratified control sampling approach was used, adjusted for particulate matter (PM10) concentrations, time trends and meteorological influences. Based on time series analysis of PM10 and backward trajectory analysis, haze days were defined when daily PM10 concentration exceeded 100 μg/m3. The results showed a total of 88 haze days were identified in the Klang Valley region during the study period. A total of 126,822 cases of death were recorded for natural mortality where respiratory mortality represented 8.56% (N = 10,854). Haze events were found to be significantly associated with natural and respiratory mortality at various lags. For natural mortality, haze events at lagged 2 showed significant association with children less than 14 years old (Odd Ratio (OR) = 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.01-1.99). Respiratory mortality was significantly associated with haze events for all ages at lagged 0 (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.02-1.40). Age-and-gender-specific analysis showed an incremental risk of respiratory mortality among all males and elderly males above 60 years old at lagged 0 (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.09-1.64 and OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.09-1.84 respectively). Adult females aged 15-59 years old were found to be at highest risk of respiratory mortality at lagged 5 (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.03-1.99). This study clearly indicates that exposure to haze events showed immediate and delayed effects on mortality.

  18. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2012-02-01

    The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured. For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average) and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average) were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported. Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding. Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of danger in the case of floods, often

  19. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured.

    For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported.

    Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding.

    Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of

  20. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of Critical Infrastructure in the Event of Earthquake: A Case Study of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    prasad, Suraj

    2016-04-01

    With changing paradigms of disaster preparedness, the safety and security of critical infrastructure in the event of a geo-hazard has become increasingly important. In a developing and densely populated country like India, which is vulnerable to many different geo-hazards, a lack of clear policy directive regarding safety of such infrastructure could be especially damaging both in terms of life and property. The problem is most acute in India's mega cities, where inefficient infrastructure means that facilities like transportation, communication, and electricity generation are obsolete and vulnerable to sudden disruptions. The present study takes the case of the National Capital Territory of Delhi and attempts to examine the critical infrastructures of the city in the event of an earthquake. Delhi lies in a very active seismic zone with various faults in and around the city. The Government of India has classified Delhi in Zone 4 (High Risk Zone) based on past and expected seismic activities in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. With a population of over 20 Million in the Urban Agglomeration of Delhi, any major earthquake in an already overstretched infrastructure could have a devastating impact. This study will test the critical infrastructures of the city in terms of their disaster preparedness and suggest ways and measures to increase the same. Keywords: Geo-hazards, Critical Infrastructure, vulnerable, Earthquakes, Delhi

  2. Study on Motives of University Students for Watching Sport Events (Sırnak Province Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi ÜZÜM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study has been conducted to determine the factors influencing motives of university students in Sirnak on watching sport events. The sampling group includes 73 females and 107 males, totally 180 students. External motivations scale for sport spectators (EMSSS and internal motivations scale for sport spectators (IMSSS developed by Polat and Yalçın (2014 were used as a data collection tool for this study. (EMSSS consists of totally 34 articles and 9 sub - dimensions, which are defined as Social Sharing , Popularity and Actuality, Family Bonds, Promotion and Media, Ethics, Opportunities for Betting, Knowledge, Cultural Development, and Esthetic Values (IMSSS consists of 40 articles and 7 sub - dimensions, whic h are described as National Sentiments, Passion for the Sport, Quality and Sense of Competition, Fanship, Regional Loyalty, Success and Level of Skill, Relaxation and Reducing Stress . T - test, Pearson's correlation analysis and one - way analysis of varianc e test were applied for the analysis of survey data. According to the survey findings; it is possible to say that factors such as gender, active sportsmanship, the most watched sport branch, age, the amount of expenses for watching competitions etc. can in fluence motives for watching sport events.

  3. Blunt injury to the inferior gluteal artery: case report of a rare "near miss" event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traumatic injuries of the inferior gluteal artery are rare, the majority of which are aneurysms due to sharp or blunt trauma. We report the rare case of a "near miss" event of a patient with an acute hemorrhagic mass in the right buttock caused by blunt trauma to the inferior gluteal artery without "hard" clinical signs of vascular injury. Despite the unusual presentation, diffuse injury of the inferior gluteal artery branches was diagnosed by ultrasonography and angiography. This article highlights the importance of considering an arterial injury following blunt trauma to the buttock with subsequent pain and swelling. Appreciation of this rare injury pattern is necessary in order to facilitate rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  4. Modeling a Civil Event Case Study for Consequence Management Using the IMPRINT Forces Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacy, Marc; Gosakan, Mala; Eckdahl, Angela; Miller, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    A critical challenge in the Consequence Management (CM) domain is the appropriate allocation of necessary and skilled military and civilian personnel and materiel resources in unexpected emergencies. To aid this process we used the Forces module in the Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT). This module enables analysts to enter personnel and equipment capabilities, prioritized schedules and numbers available, along with unexpected emergency requirements in order to assess force response requirements. Using a suspected terrorist threat on a college campus, we developed a test case model which exercised the capabilities of the module, including the scope and scale of operations. The model incorporates data from multiple sources, including daily schedules and frequency of events such as fire calls. Our preliminary results indicate that the model can predict potential decreases in civilian emergency response coverage due to an involved unplanned incident requiring significant portions of police, fire and civil responses teams.

  5. Analysis of Shop Floor Performance through Discrete Event Simulation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Wei Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shop floor performance management is a method to ensure the effective utilization of people, processes, and equipment. Changes in the shop floor might have a positive or negative effect on production performance. Therefore, optimal shop floor operation is required to enhance shop floor performance and to ensure the long-term efficiency of the production process. This work presents a case study of a semiconductor industry. The punching department is modeled to investigate the effect of changes in the shop floor on production performance through discrete event simulation. The effects on the throughput rate, machine utilization, and labor utilization are studied by adjusting the volume of parts, number of operators, and flow pattern of parts in a series of models. Simulation results are tested and analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The best model under changes in the shop floor is identified during the exploration of alternative scenarios.

  6. An exemplary case of a bromine explosion event linked to cyclone development in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Kaleschke, L.; Strong, K.; Theys, N.; Weber, M.; Zhao, X.; Zien, A.

    2016-02-01

    Intense, cyclone-like shaped plumes of tropospheric bromine monoxide (BrO) are regularly observed by GOME-2 on board the MetOp-A satellite over Arctic sea ice in polar spring. These plumes are often transported by high-latitude cyclones, sometimes over several days despite the short atmospheric lifetime of BrO. However, only few studies have focused on the role of polar weather systems in the development, duration and transport of tropospheric BrO plumes during bromine explosion events. The latter are caused by an autocatalytic chemical chain reaction associated with tropospheric ozone depletion and initiated by the release of bromine from cold brine-covered ice or snow to the atmosphere. In this manuscript, a case study investigating a comma-shaped BrO plume which developed over the Beaufort Sea and was observed by GOME-2 for several days is presented. By making combined use of satellite data and numerical models, it is shown that the occurrence of the plume was closely linked to frontal lifting in a polar cyclone and that it most likely resided in the lowest 3 km of the troposphere. In contrast to previous case studies, we demonstrate that the dry conveyor belt, a potentially bromine-rich stratospheric air stream which can complicate interpretation of satellite retrieved tropospheric BrO, is spatially separated from the observed BrO plume. It is concluded that weather conditions associated with the polar cyclone favoured the bromine activation cycle and blowing snow production, which may have acted as a bromine source during the bromine explosion event.

  7. Adverse events in Public Dental Service in a Swedish county--a survey of reported cases over two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Lena; Gabre, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Adverse events cause suffering and increased costs in health care. The main way of registering adverse event is through dental personnel's reports, but reports from patients can also contribute to the knowledge of such occurrences. This study aimed to analyse the adverse events reported by dental personnel and patients in public dental service (PDS) in a Swedish county. The PDS has an electronic system for reporting and processing adverse events and, in addition, patients can report shortcomings, as regards to reception and treatment, to a patient committee or to an insurance company. The study material consisted of all adverse events reported in 2010 and 2011, including 273 events reported by dental personnel, 53 events reported by patients to the insurance company and 53 events reported by patients to the patient committee. Data concerning patients' age and gender, the nature, severity and cause of the event and the dental personnel's age gender and profession were collected and analysed. Furthermore the records describing the dental personnel's reports from 2011 were studied to investigate if the event had been documented and the patient informed. Age groups 0 to 9 and 20 to 39 years were underrepresented while those between the ages 10 to 19 and 60 to 69 years were overrepresented in dental personnel's reports. Among young patients delayed diagnosis and therapy dominated and among patients over 20 years the most frequent reports dealt with inadequate treatments, especially endodontic treatments. In 29% of the events there was no documentation of the adverse event in the records and 49% of cases had no report about patient information. The majority of the reports from dental personnel were made by dentists (69%). Reporting adverse events can be seen as a reactive way of working with patient safety, but knowledge about frequencies and causes of incidents is the basis of proactive patient safety work.

  8. Superando el síndrome del "enemigo externo" en una firma autopartista a través del kaizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván Pérez Rave

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dos problemas de una firma autopartista, con causas atribuidas inicialmente a factores externos no controlables (síndrome del "enemigo externo", motivan el uso del kaizen, incorporando concepciones filosóficas y metodológicas. La metodología propuesta consta de tres etapas; la primera, iniciar, pretende conducir hacia el compromiso, la participación y el desarrollo de habilidades iniciales de los empleados; luego sigue desarrollar, que ejecuta el análisis y la solución del problema; se culmina con sostener, para mantener las contramedidas, evitar la recurrencia del problema e incentivar a los participantes. Al desplegar la metodología en los dos casos objeto de estudio (1. Muda de espera por falta de suministro y 2. Muda de defectos de hojas impresas, se identificó que las causas de dichos muda se debieron a factores internos a la empresa y no a las creencias iniciales de la firma sobre aspectos externos, no controlables. La causa del muda de espera estuvo relacionada con la cantidad de personal programado en la línea de ensamble; las impresiones defectuosas se asociaron a la política de almacenaje y protección de las hojas, así como a las instrucciones de impresión. El impacto del despliegue en la empresa se dedujo satisfactorio, ya que mediante la implantación de contramedidas basadas en creatividad, sentido común, consenso y participación de los empleados, se favorecen indicadores asociados a los problemas precisos, entre ellos, costos anuales de los muda (reducción: 87% en costos del muda de espera y 60,5% en costos de hojas defectuosas. Este trabajo provee elementos teóricos y metodológicos, que posibilitan la adaptación a otros contextos, exigiendo: compromiso directivo, justificación del cambio, entrenamiento de empleados, incentivos, comunicación y estrategias de aprendizaje, entre otros, para solucionar problemas y sostener los eventos kaizen.

  9. PROMOTING TOURIST DESTINATIONS THROUGH SPORT EVENTS. THE CASE OF BRAŞOV

    OpenAIRE

    Ana ISPAS; Adina Nicoleta CANDREA

    2010-01-01

    Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of de...

  10. PROMOTING TOURIST DESTINATIONS THROUGH SPORT EVENTS. THE CASE OF BRAŞOV

    OpenAIRE

    ISPAS Ana; Adina Nicoleta CANDREA

    2010-01-01

    Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of de...

  11. Coordination activities of human planners during rescheduling : case analysis and event handling procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Snoo, C.; van Wezel, W.M.C.; Wortmann, J.C.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the process of event handling and rescheduling in manufacturing practice. Firms are confronted with many diverse events, such as new or changed orders, machine breakdowns, and material shortages. These events influence the feasibility and optimality of schedules, and thus induce

  12. Multiple Case Study of Event Management Curricula and Industry Professionals' Expectations of New Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Premila A.

    2016-01-01

    The event management segment of the hospitality industry has experienced tremendous growth in recent years. As a result, demand for qualified event management professionals continues to increase. To help prepare qualified professionals for the event management industry, higher education institutions in the United States are now offering…

  13. Protection forest resilience after a fire event: a case study in Vallis, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Werlen, Mario; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Forests are well known to protect against natural hazards such as landslides, rockfall and floods. Nevertheless, they are dynamic ecosystems which are exposed to a variety of disturbances such as windstorms, fires, bark beetle and pathogen outbreaks. Catastrophic disturbances like windstorms and fires usually remove large portions of the canopy, starting a succession process which lead to a complete stand regeneration. Disturbances belong to the natural dynamic of forests, however they are highly undesirable in the case where forest protect infrastructure or settlements. Quantifying the decay and recovery of the protection effect of forests after disturbances is therefore important to evaluate risks and implement appropriate management techniques, when needed. This work analyzes the dynamic of a Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris) protection forests near Visp (Vallis) after a fire event, focusing on root reinforcement, which is the key factor in preventing shallow landslides. Forest cover, root distribution and root mechanical properties were analyzed 4 years after the fire event, and the root reinforcement has been quantified. Furthermore, the contribution of natural regeneration has been evaluated. Results show that the root reinforcement of Scots pine has declined massively in the forest fire area. At a distance of 1.5 m from the tree stem there is a reduction of 60% compared with the live stand. With increasing distance from the stem, the reduction in the reinforcement is even bigger. At a distance of 2.5 meters it is 12% and at 3.5 meters, only 5% of the original root reinforcement. This decrease is due to the decomposition of roots and associated change in the mechanical properties of the wood. The reinforcement of the dead roots in the forest area is estimated between 0.36 kPa and 2.64 kPa. The contribution of the emerging regeneration is estimated on average 0.01 kPa. Overall the stand provides a reinforcement between 0.37 kPa and 2.65 kPa. From the results it

  14. INNOVATION IN THE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES – CASE STUDY OF AN EVENT PLANNING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filculescu Adina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Creative industries have recently gained attention from economists and policy makers as they are said to contribute in a significant way to the economic and technological development of knowledge societies. In Romania there has not been too much talk about the way in which these industries are inserted in the larger chain of industrial innovation, nor about the particularities of their innovation processes which could provide interesting insights for the more traditional industries that are in need of a creativity boost. This paper seeks to fill this gap by offering a process view of business innovation in an event management company, which we argue has many of the characteristics encountered in organizations belonging to creative industries. Through an in-depth case study based on diary entries and interviews we uncover the way in which innovation is understood in this service sector and how this understanding is translated into repeatable business processes. Based on the review of the literature concerned with innovativeness in creative industries we have decided upon four important research themes: people, products, places and policies. By people we refer, first of all, to the entrepreneur who was asked to reflexively answer questions related to passions/interests, formal and non-formal knowledge and social capital in order to assess the entrepreneurial capacity. Also included in this category are the clients of the company and the employees, which represent major players in the innovation process during different stages. Places are important because they are used in the definition of innovation: something new to someone somewhere, and also because they are regarded as a source of inspiration and a possible hindrance in the implementation of the desired event design. Products encompass the raw materials that are used in creating the flower arrangements and the general room décor as well as the technologies that stand behind them, while

  15. Slowing of Event-Related Potentials in Primary Progressive Aphasia. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Giaquinto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA is a rare and insidious language impairment that worsens over time. It belongs to the group of fronto–temporal dementias. This study was aimed at assessing the role of speed of cognitive abilities, such as word recognition, in PPA. The design is a single-case, longitudinal study. A male patient suffering from PPA was enrolled and 15 healthy older adults were the control group. An event-related electrical potential connected with word recognition, namely the N400, was delayed by 200 msec at baseline compared to healthy controls and progressively deteriorated. One year later, the delay was greater and two years later the potential had disappeared. Reduced speed of processing is an early pathological factor that negatively affecting higher cognitive functions in APP. Event–related electrical potentials are recommended in the field of aphasia and cognitive decline. They permit observation of a speed decline in higher cognitive abilities, when pathological changes at a central level begin and language comprehension seems to be unaffected.

  16. Operating room team members' views of workload, case difficulty, and nonroutine events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnick, Ann F; Donaghey, Beth; Slagle, Jason; Weinger, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Interventions such as mandatory "time-outs" have contributed to intraoperative safety but improvements are still necessary. We present data provided by 3 professions always present in the intraoperative setting that suggest next steps in the quest for improvements. We describe the differences and similarities in operating room (OR) nurses', anesthesia providers', and surgeons' beliefs about team function, case difficulty, nonroutine event (NRE), and error causation using a qualitative design at 3 Veterans' Administration hospitals. Intraoperative errors are costly in lives, suffering, and dollars. A quality improvement tenet states that workers are a rich information source regarding the context within which quality can be improved. Identifying and describing OR providers' beliefs are necessary steps in devising novel approaches to quality improvement. Intraoperative NRE and error prevention opportunities exist within and outside of the OR. There may be "cascade" and "perfect storm conditions" before and during operative procedures that increase the likelihood of NREs. Confirmation of these phenomena could improve prediction and prevention of NREs. Exploration of differences in team definition and team performance ratings by provider type may also identify avenues for improvement.

  17. Vision-based Detection of Acoustic Timed Events: a Case Study on Clarinet Note Onsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzica, A.; van Gemert, J. C.; Liem, C. C. S.; Hanjalic, A.

    2017-05-01

    Acoustic events often have a visual counterpart. Knowledge of visual information can aid the understanding of complex auditory scenes, even when only a stereo mixdown is available in the audio domain, \\eg identifying which musicians are playing in large musical ensembles. In this paper, we consider a vision-based approach to note onset detection. As a case study we focus on challenging, real-world clarinetist videos and carry out preliminary experiments on a 3D convolutional neural network based on multiple streams and purposely avoiding temporal pooling. We release an audiovisual dataset with 4.5 hours of clarinetist videos together with cleaned annotations which include about 36,000 onsets and the coordinates for a number of salient points and regions of interest. By performing several training trials on our dataset, we learned that the problem is challenging. We found that the CNN model is highly sensitive to the optimization algorithm and hyper-parameters, and that treating the problem as binary classification may prevent the joint optimization of precision and recall. To encourage further research, we publicly share our dataset, annotations and all models and detail which issues we came across during our preliminary experiments.

  18. Risk factors for ventilator-associated events: a case-control multivariable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah C; Li, Lingling; Murphy, Michael V; Klompas, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently released new surveillance definitions for ventilator-associated events, including the new entities of ventilator-associated conditions and infection-related ventilator-associated complications. Both ventilator-associated conditions and infection-related ventilator-associated complications are associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospital death, but little is known about their risk factors and how best to prevent them. We sought to identify risk factors for ventilator-associated conditions and infection-related ventilator-associated complications. Retrospective case-control study. Medical, surgical, cardiac, and neuroscience units of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Hundred ten patients with ventilator-associated conditions matched to 110 controls without ventilator-associated conditions on the basis of age, sex, ICU type, comorbidities, and duration of mechanical ventilation prior to ventilator-associated conditions. None. We compared cases with controls with regard to demographics, comorbidities, ventilator bundle adherence rates, sedative exposures, routes of nutrition, blood products, fluid balance, and modes of ventilatory support. We repeated the analysis for the subset of patients with infection-related ventilator-associated complications and their controls. Case and control patients were well matched on baseline characteristics. On multivariable logistic regression, significant risk factors for ventilator-associated conditions were mandatory modes of ventilation (odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.6-8.0) and positive fluid balances (odds ratio, 1.2 per L positive; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4). Possible risk factors for infection-related ventilator-associated complications were starting benzodiazepines prior to intubation (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.3-29), total opioid exposures (odds ratio, 3.3 per 100 μg fentanyl equivalent/kg; 95% CI, 0.90-16), and paralytic medications (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 0

  19. Unique obstacle race injuries at an extreme sports event: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Kim, Pamela H; Duprey, Robert T; Jayant, Deepak A; Steinweg, Brent H; Preiss, Benjamin R; Barr, Gavin C

    2014-03-01

    Obstacle course endurance events are becoming more common. Appropriate preparedness for the volume and unique types of injury patterns, as well as the effect on public health these events may cause, has yet to be reported in emergency literature. We describe 5 patients who presented with diverse injuries to illustrate the variety of injuries sustained in this competitive event. In particular, 4 of the patients had a history of contact with electrical discharge, an obstacle distinctive to the Tough Mudder experience.

  20. Urban strategies and post-event legacy: the case of summer Olympic cities

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth, improve the city image and put the host city on the world agenda. Most cities stressed exploring city marketing and reimaging effect of these mega events, like the construction of iconic flagship projects or large scale facilities and infrastructures; however, limited attention has b...

  1. Communicating natural hazards. The case of marine extreme events and the importance of the forecast's errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Eduardo; Camargo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Scientific knowledge has to fulfill some necessary conditions. Among them, it has to be properly communicated. Usually, scientists (mis)understand that the communication requirement is satisfied by publishing their results on peer reviewed journals. Society claims for information in other formats or languages and other tools and approaches have to be used, otherwise the scientific discoveries will not fulfill its social mean. However, scientists are not so well trained to do so. These facts are particularly relevant when the scientific work has to deal with natural hazards, which do not affect just a lab or a computer experiment, but the life and fate of human beings. We are actually working with marine extreme events related with sea level changes, waves and other coastal hazards. Primary, the work is developed on the classic scientific format, but focusing not only in the stochastic way of predicting such extreme events, but estimating the potential errors the forecasting methodologies intrinsically have. The scientific results are translated to a friendly format required by stakeholders (which are financing part of the work). Finally, we hope to produce a document prepared for the general public. Each of the targets has their own characteristics and we have to use the proper communication tools and languages. Also, when communicating such knowledge, we have to consider that stakeholders and general public have no obligation of understanding the scientific language, but scientists have the responsibility of translating their discoveries and predictions in a proper way. The information on coastal hazards is analyzed in statistical and numerical ways, departing from long term observation of, for instance, sea level. From the analysis it is possible to recognize different natural regimes and to present the return times of extreme events, while from the numerical models, properly tuned to reproduce the same past ocean behavior using hindcast approaches, it is

  2. Using Information Communication Technologies to Develop Dynamic Curriculum Frameworks for Diverse Cohorts: A Case Study from Event Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Bree Jamila

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the role of information communication technologies (ICTs) in establishing a well-aligned, authentic learning environment for a diverse cohort of non-cognate and cognate students studying event management in a higher education context. Based on a case study which examined the way ICTs assisted in accommodating diverse…

  3. Using Information Communication Technologies to Develop Dynamic Curriculum Frameworks for Diverse Cohorts: A Case Study from Event Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Bree Jamila

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the role of information communication technologies (ICTs) in establishing a well-aligned, authentic learning environment for a diverse cohort of non-cognate and cognate students studying event management in a higher education context. Based on a case study which examined the way ICTs assisted in accommodating diverse…

  4. Patellar dislocation: a case report and a review of other uncommon adverse events associated with blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meny, G M; Murphy, S

    2003-01-01

    Patellar dislocation is a fairly common occurrence usually associated with various activities such as sports or dancing. A case report of patellar dislocation associated with blood donation in a 17-year-old female is described. A review of uncommon adverse events associated with blood donation is also presented.

  5. Using Probabilistic Record Linkage of Structured and Unstructured Data to Identify Duplicate Cases in Spontaneous Adverse Event Reporting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimeyer, Kory; Menschik, David; Winiecki, Scott; Paul, Wendy; Barash, Faith; Woo, Emily Jane; Alimchandani, Meghna; Arya, Deepa; Zinderman, Craig; Forshee, Richard; Botsis, Taxiarchis

    2017-07-01

    Duplicate case reports in spontaneous adverse event reporting systems pose a challenge for medical reviewers to efficiently perform individual and aggregate safety analyses. Duplicate cases can bias data mining by generating spurious signals of disproportional reporting of product-adverse event pairs. We have developed a probabilistic record linkage algorithm for identifying duplicate cases in the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). In addition to using structured field data, the algorithm incorporates the non-structured narrative text of adverse event reports by examining clinical and temporal information extracted by the Event-based Text-mining of Health Electronic Records system, a natural language processing tool. The final component of the algorithm is a novel duplicate confidence value that is calculated by a rule-based empirical approach that looks for similarities in a number of criteria between two case reports. For VAERS, the algorithm identified 77% of known duplicate pairs with a precision (or positive predictive value) of 95%. For FAERS, it identified 13% of known duplicate pairs with a precision of 100%. The textual information did not improve the algorithm's automated classification for VAERS or FAERS. The empirical duplicate confidence value increased performance on both VAERS and FAERS, mainly by reducing the occurrence of false-positives. The algorithm was shown to be effective at identifying pre-linked duplicate VAERS reports. The narrative text was not shown to be a key component in the automated detection evaluation; however, it is essential for supporting the semi-automated approach that is likely to be deployed at the Food and Drug Administration, where medical reviewers will perform some manual review of the most highly ranked reports identified by the algorithm.

  6. Serious adverse events after HPV vaccination: a critical review of randomized trials and post-marketing case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lavín, Manuel; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis

    2017-07-20

    This article critically reviews HPV vaccine serious adverse events described in pre-licensure randomized trials and in post-marketing case series. HPV vaccine randomized trials were identified in PubMed. Safety data were extracted. Post-marketing case series describing HPV immunization adverse events were reviewed. Most HPV vaccine randomized trials did not use inert placebo in the control group. Two of the largest randomized trials found significantly more severe adverse events in the tested HPV vaccine arm of the study. Compared to 2871 women receiving aluminum placebo, the group of 2881 women injected with the bivalent HPV vaccine had more deaths on follow-up (14 vs. 3, p = 0.012). Compared to 7078 girls injected with the 4-valent HPV vaccine, 7071 girls receiving the 9-valent dose had more serious systemic adverse events (3.3 vs. 2.6%, p = 0.01). For the 9-valent dose, our calculated number needed to seriously harm is 140 (95% CI, 79-653). The number needed to vaccinate is 1757 (95% CI, 131 to infinity). Practically, none of the serious adverse events occurring in any arm of both studies were judged to be vaccine-related. Pre-clinical trials, post-marketing case series, and the global drug adverse reaction database (VigiBase) describe similar post-HPV immunization symptom clusters. Two of the largest randomized HPV vaccine trials unveiled more severe adverse events in the tested HPV vaccine arm of the study. Nine-valent HPV vaccine has a worrisome number needed to vaccinate/number needed to harm quotient. Pre-clinical trials and post-marketing case series describe similar post-HPV immunization symptoms.

  7. University Response to Crisis Events Involving International Populations: The Case of Seven Directors of International Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research study focuses on crisis events affecting university international populations. It explores how seven directors of university international offices at seven different geographical locations in Texas respond to those events. The study findings shed light on the current state of crisis preparedness in higher education from…

  8. Regional economic impact of an event: the case of the Rotterdam Marathon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willem, Jan; Goedknegt, Bart; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The Rotterdam Marathon is an annual sports event in Rotterdam. This biggest one-day event in the Netherlands attracted around 925,000 visitors in 2014. This paper aims at evaluating its regional economic impact by way of input output analysis in terms of number of jobs.

  9. Urban strategies and post-event legacy: the case of summer Olympic cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth, improve the city image and put the host city on the world agenda. Most cities stressed

  10. Urban strategies and post-event legacy: the case of summer Olympic cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth, improve the city image and put the host city on the world agenda. Most cities stressed

  11. Temporal and spatial characteristics of rainfall events: a Slovenian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolšak, Domen; Bezak, Nejc; Šraj, Mojca

    2016-04-01

    Temporal rainfall distribution within individual rainfall events can have significant impact on the runoff characteristics such as the time to peak discharge and peak discharge values. Therefore, the information about temporal rainfall distribution within rainfall event is crucial for planning of hydraulic structures, flood protection, reliable hydrological modelling, etc. The main aim of this study was to investigate temporal and spatial characteristics of rainfall events in Slovenia, Europe. Data from 30 rainfall stations in Slovenia were used in order to analyze properties of rainfall events in Slovenia. Rainfall data with 5-minute time step was used and the sample data lengths varied from 10 to 66 years with a mean sample data length of 35 years. Huff curves and binary shape code (BSC) method, which was proposed by Terranova and Iaquinta (2011), were used to analyze temporal and spatial characteristics of rainfall events in Slovenia. All calculations were performed using the free software program R (https://www.r-project.org). The results of the study show that rainfall characteristics in eastern (BSC 1111) and western (BSC 0000) part of Slovenia are not the same. This means that in the western part of Slovenia on average the majority of rainfall occurs in the second part of the rainfall event and in the eastern part of Slovenia on average most of the rainfall occurs in the first part of the rainfall event. Thus, on average higher peak discharge values can be expected in rivers located in the western part of Slovenia due to the higher antecedent conditions. Furthermore, the estimated BSC types did not depend on the rainfall station elevation. Moreover, the calculated BSC types were dependent on the duration of the rainfall event. The BSC 1111 type (most of rainfall occurs in the first part of the rainfall event) was the most frequent for the shorter duration rainfall events (less than 12 hours) and the BSC 0000 type (most of rainfall occurs in the second part

  12. Transient paralysis during acupuncture therapy: a case report of an adverse event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beable, Anne

    2013-09-01

    A patient with apparently well-controlled epilepsy with a painful musculoskeletal condition was treated successfully with two sessions of acupuncture. However, 4 h after the first treatment and during the second, an adverse event involving impairment of consciousness occurred. The patient subsequently experienced an increased frequency of complex partial seizures resulting in the loss of his driving licence. A detailed retrospective review of the past medical history indicated that the patient probably had comorbidities in the form of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and dysfunctional somatosensory/vestibular processing. Acupuncture may have triggered the adverse event via shared neurosubstrates. This adverse event raises possible implications regarding safe clinical acupuncture practice.

  13. ECONOMIC AND TOURISM IMPACT OF SMALL EVENTS: THE CASE OF SMALL-SCALE FESTIVALS IN ISTANBUL, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. EGRESI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic and Tourism Impact of Small Events: the Case of Small-Scale Festivals in Istanbul, Turkey. More and more festivals are organized every year around the world, in big cities and villages alike, due to the numerous benefits they are perceived to bring at local and national levels. While the economic and tourism impact of mega events and of hallmark events is better documented there are very few studies dealing with the economic impact of small events. Consequently, to close this gap, our study investigated the importance of small events and festivals for local economic development and as tourism attractions in Istanbul, Turkey. We used a questionnaire to interview non-local participants at three different small festivals taking place in April and May 2013. We found that, although tourists attending these festivals spend money in the local economy, the economic impact of these events is limited due to the fact that very few tourists were found to participate. The role of these small festivals as primary motivators for tourism is therefore being questioned; however, small festivals could play more important roles as secondary attractions.

  14. Estimating Flood Quantiles on the Basis of Multi-Event Rainfall Simulation – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosińska Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to estimating the probability distribution of annual discharges Q based on rainfall-runoff modelling using multiple rainfall events. The approach is based on the prior knowledge about the probability distribution of annual maximum daily totals of rainfall P in a natural catchment, random disaggregation of the totals into hourly values, and rainfall-runoff modelling. The presented Multi-Event Simulation of Extreme Flood method (MESEF combines design event method based on single-rainfall event modelling, and continuous simulation method used for estimating the maximum discharges of a given exceedance probability using rainfall-runoff models. In the paper, the flood quantiles were estimated using the MESEF method, and then compared to the flood quantiles estimated using classical statistical method based on observed data.

  15. THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE MEGA SPORT EVENTS ON TOURISM IN THE BRICS COUNTRIES CASE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iuliana Pop; Adrian Kanovici; Gratiela Ghic; Madalina Andrei

    2016-01-01

      At the beginning of the 21st century, events tourism witnessed an impressive development in a series of countries due to the increase of the spare time and of the people's income, to the cheaper...

  16. National vulnerability to extreme climatic events: the cases of electricity disruption in China and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Li Fan; Qiao-Mei Liang; Xiao-Jie Liang; Hirokazu Tatano; Yoshio Kajitani; Yi-Ming Wei

    2014-01-01

    Extreme climatic events are likely to adversely affect many countries throughout the world, but the degrees among countries may be different. China and Japan are the countries with high incidences of extreme weather/disaster, both facing with the urgent task of addressing climate change. This study seeks to quantitatively compare the impacts of extreme climatic events on socio-economic systems (defined as vulnerability) of the two countries by simulating the consequences of hypothetical the s...

  17. High Resolution Modeling in Mountainous Terrain for Water Resource Management: AN Extreme Precipitation Event Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarik, M. T.; Watson, K. A.; Flores, A. N.; Anderson, K.; Tangen, S.

    2016-12-01

    The water resources infrastructure of the Western US is designed to deliver reliable water supply to users and provide recreational opportunities for the public, as well as afford flood control for communities by buffering variability in precipitation and snow storage. Thus water resource management is a balancing act of meeting multiple objectives while trying to anticipate and mitigate natural variability of water supply. Currently, the forecast guidance available to personnel managing resources in mountainous terrain is lacking in two ways: the spatial resolution is too coarse, and there is a gap in the intermediate time range (10-30 days). To address this need we examine the effectiveness of using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a state of the art, regional, numerical weather prediction model, as a means to generate high-resolution weather guidance in the intermediate time range. This presentation will focus on a reanalysis and hindcasting case study of the extreme precipitation and flooding event in the Payette River Basin of Idaho during the period of June 2nd-4th, 2010. For the reanalysis exercise we use NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data sets as input boundary conditions to WRF. The model configuration includes a horizontal spatial resolution of 3km in the outer nest, and 1 km in the inner nest, with output temporal resolution of 3 hrs and 1 hr, respectively. The hindcast simulations, which are currently underway, will make use of the NCEP Climate Forecast System Reforecast (CFSRR) data. The current state of these runs will be discussed. Preparations for the second of two components in this project, weekly WRF forecasts during the intense portion of the water year, will be briefly described. These forecasts will use the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) operational forecast data as boundary conditions to provide forecast guidance geared towards water resource

  18. EXPLOSIVE EVENTS ON A SUBARCSECOND SCALE IN IRIS OBSERVATIONS: A CASE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Fu, Hui [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209 Shandong (China); Madjarska, Maria S.; Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Galsgaard, Klaus, E-mail: huangzhenghua@gmail.com [Niels Bohr Institute, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-12-20

    We present a study of a typical explosive event (EE) at subarcsecond scale witnessed by strong non-Gaussian profiles with blue- and redshifted emission of up to 150 km s{sup –1} seen in the transition region Si IV 1402.8 Å, and the chromospheric Mg II k 2796.4 Å and C II 1334.5 Å observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) at unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. For the first time an EE is found to be associated with very small-scale (∼120 km wide) plasma ejection followed by retraction in the chromosphere. These small-scale jets originate from a compact bright-point-like structure of ∼1.''5 size as seen in the IRIS 1330 Å images. SDO/AIA and SDO/HMI co-observations show that the EE lies in the footpoint of a complex loop-like brightening system. The EE is detected in the higher temperature channels of AIA 171 Å, 193 Å, and 131 Å, suggesting that it reaches a higher temperature of log T = 5.36 ± 0.06 (K). Brightenings observed in the AIA channels with durations 90-120 s are probably caused by the plasma ejections seen in the chromosphere. The wings of the C II line behave in a similar manner to the Si IV'S, indicating close formation temperatures, while the Mg II k wings show additional Doppler-shifted emission. Magnetic convergence or emergence followed by cancellation at a rate of 5 × 10{sup 14} Mx s{sup –1} is associated with the EE region. The combined changes of the locations and the flux of different magnetic patches suggest that magnetic reconnection must have taken place. Our results challenge several theories put forward in the past to explain non-Gaussian line profiles, i.e., EEs. Our case study on its own, however, cannot reject these theories; thus, further in-depth studies on the phenomena producing EEs are required.

  19. CONTEMPORARY ART EVENTS IN TOURISM: THE CASE OF INTERNATIONAL ISTANBUL BIENNALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi EROGLU,

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Known as a contemporary art event of the biennial is organized every two years and mostly take the name from host city. The name of biennial used firstly in Venice and it was organized first time in Venice as Venice Biennial. Biennials accessed to many cities of the world and has provided economic contributions except of the social and cultural contributions for the city. International Istanbul Biennial that organized since 1987 in Turkey is not known and realized enough in terms of contribution and potential in Turkey. Especially paying attention to provided and providing contribution of biennials are necessary in tourism field. In the research biennials were examined on the field of event tourism as contemporary art events. Also in this research tourism were associated and classified with biennials in the framework of literature. Making assessment about contemporary art events in tourism is made with example of İnternational İstanbul Biennials in Turkey. Some examples and suggestions were tried to give for understanding potential of contemporary art events in tourism and relationship between biennials and tourism. In addition, information is given about biennials that are at international level. The main purpose of the research is that paying attention to benefits which is provided and possible from İnternational Istanbul Biennial and emphasized to importance of event tourism in Turkey.

  20. Performance improvement of standard turbo-compressor; Han`yo turbo asshukuki no seino kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokari, T.; Hasegawa, K.; Ozaki, S.; Majima, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    Abradable materials are soft and cause no contact damage to the impeller of the turbo-compressor. Using such materials for the inlet casing facing to the impeller allows very small clearances between the impeller and inlet casing, thus improving the compressor efficiency by 10% over conventional types. Changing the area of abradable material applied to the inlet casing identified the optimum area in which decrease of the compressor surge margin is minimized and efficiency is improved by 10%. As a result, turbo-compressors have the best performance when the abradable materials are applied from the impeller outlet to two-thirds of the forward location of the inlet casing. (author)

  1. Sport events and climate for visitors--the case of FIFA World Cup in Qatar 2022.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Fröhlich, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The effect of weather on sport events is not well studied. It requires special attention if the event is taking place at a time and place with extreme weather situations. For the world soccer championship in Qatar (Doha 2022), human biometeorological analysis has been performed in order to identify the time of the year that is most suitable in terms of thermal comfort for visitors attending the event. The analysis is based on thermal indices like Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that this kind of event may be not appropriate for visitors, if it is placed during months with extreme conditions. For Doha, this is the period from May to September, when conditions during a large majority of hours of the day cause strong heat stress for the visitors. A more appropriate time would be the months November to February, when thermally comfortable conditions are much more frequent. The methods applied here can quantify the thermal conditions and show limitations and possibilities for specific events and locations.

  2. Sport events and climate for visitors—the case of FIFA World Cup in Qatar 2022

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Fröhlich, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The effect of weather on sport events is not well studied. It requires special attention if the event is taking place at a time and place with extreme weather situations. For the world soccer championship in Qatar (Doha 2022), human biometeorological analysis has been performed in order to identify the time of the year that is most suitable in terms of thermal comfort for visitors attending the event. The analysis is based on thermal indices like Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results show that this kind of event may be not appropriate for visitors, if it is placed during months with extreme conditions. For Doha, this is the period from May to September, when conditions during a large majority of hours of the day cause strong heat stress for the visitors. A more appropriate time would be the months November to February, when thermally comfortable conditions are much more frequent. The methods applied here can quantify the thermal conditions and show limitations and possibilities for specific events and locations.

  3. Sustainable wastewater treatment of temporary events: the Dranouter Music Festival case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, S W H; Audenaert, W; Decostere, B; Hogie, J; Dejans, P

    2008-01-01

    Music festivals and other temporary events, such as bicycle races, lay a heavy burden on the surrounding environment. Treatment of the wastewater originating from such events is necessary if no municipal treatment plant is available. This study demonstrated that activated carbon is a performant technique for the treatment of wastewaters originating from these temporary events. Freundlich isotherms and maximum operational linear velocity (6 m/h) were determined on a lab-scale set-up. A pilot-scale set up was used to treat part (5%) of the total volume of the Dranouter Music Festival shower wastewater. On average 90% removal of COD and suspended solids concentration was obtained. Application of the activated carbon filter resulted in the fact that the local discharge limits were met without operational problems.

  4. Statistical distribution of elapsed times and distances of seismic events: the case of the Southern Spain seismic catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Martínez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Several empiric cumulative distributions of elapsed times and distances between seismic events occurred in the Southern Iberian Peninsula from 1985 to 2000 (data extracted from the seismic catalogue of the Andalusian Institute of Geophysics are investigated. Elapsed times and distances between consecutive seismic events of the whole catalogue, taking into account threshold magnitudes of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0, and of five seismic crises, without distinguishing magnitudes, are investigated. Additionally, the series of distances and elapsed times from the main event to every aftershock are also analysed for the five seismic crises. Even though a power law is sometimes a satisfactory model for the cumulative distribution of elapsed times and distances between seismic events, in some cases a fit with a Weibull distribution for elapsed times performs better. It is worth of mention that, in the case of the seismic crises, the fit achieved by the power law is sometimes improved when it is combined with a logarithmic law. The results derived might be a contribution to a better representation of the seismic activity by means of models that could be based on random-walk processes.

  5. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle events of September–October 1989 on polar stratospheric aerosols: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mironova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main ionization source of the middle and low Earth's atmosphere is related to energetic particles coming from outer space. Usually it is ionization from cosmic rays that is always present in the atmosphere. But in a case of a very strong solar eruption, some solar energetic particles (SEPs can reach middle/low atmosphere increasing the ionization rate up to some orders of magnitude at polar latitudes. We continue investigating such a special class of solar events and their possible applications for natural variations of the aerosol content. After the case study of the extreme SEP event of January 2005 and its possible effect upon polar stratospheric aerosols, here we analyze atmospheric applications of the sequence of several events that took place over autumn 1989. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from two satellites with space-borne optical instruments SAGE II and SAM II that were operating during September–October 1989, we found that an extreme major SEP event might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles in the polar stratospheric region. However, the effect of the additional ambient air ionization on the aerosol formation is minor, in comparison with temperature effect, and can take place only in the cold polar atmospheric conditions. The extra aerosol mass formed under the temperature effect allows attributing most of the changes to the "ion–aerosol clear sky mechanism".

  6. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle events of September–October 1989 on polar stratospheric aerosols: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mironova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main ionization source of the middle and low Earth atmosphere is related to energetic particles coming from outer space. Usually it is ionization from cosmic rays that is always present in the atmosphere. But in a case of a very strong solar eruption some solar energetic particles (SEP can reach middle/low atmosphere increasing the ionization rate up to some orders of magnitude at polar latitudes. We continue investigating such a special class of solar events and their possible applications for natural variations of the aerosol content. After the case study of the extreme SEP event of January 2005 and its possible effect upon polar stratospheric aerosols, here we analyze atmospheric applications of the second sequence of several events that took place over the Autumn 1989. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from two satellites with space-borne optical instruments SAGE II and SAM II that were operating during September–October 1989, we found that an extreme major SEP event might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles in the polar stratospheric region. However, the effect of the additional ambient air ionization on the aerosol formation is minor, in comparison with temperature effect, and can take place only in the cold polar atmospheric conditions.

  7. The Economic Effects of the Mega Sport Events on Tourism in the BRICS Countries Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Pop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, events tourism witnessed an impressive development in a series of countries due to the increase of the spare time and of the people’s income, to the cheaper and more diversified world transport, especially the air transport and due to the emergence of new destinations. Emergent countries, such as China and Russia, recorded not only an increase in the number of tourists but also in the revenues from tourism activities. One of the reasons is the opening of these countries frontiers in order to reaffirm their power on international level (Golubchikov, 2016. Besides the relaxation, business and religious tourism, the sport tourism becomes more and more important. It also comprises the tourism for mega sport events, such as the Summer and Winter Olympics or the World Championships in different sports. For the organising countries, there is a real challenge to ensure the investments for the infrastructure, although it supports their economic development, being used after the sport events conclusion. Considering the available data from the World Bank and the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, the authors make a quantitative investigation regarding the impact of the mega sport events on the tourism phenomenon in the BRICS countries. The article also researches a small and specific group of countries (BRICS, considering a niche tourism phenomenon. The article aims to emphasize the role of the mega sport events in the BRICS countries, directly connected with their capacity to economically support the organization of these events and also with the desire to internationally promote their national values.

  8. The "New Climate" New Atmospheric Events and "New Climate Risks": The case of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Since the end of last century, qualified meteorological events of "exceptional" causing floods have ceased to occur in Morocco and elsewhere, with a recurrence increasingly high, prompting to wonder about the "new" mode of climate's hydrothermal functioning inducing torrential rains, as well as its effect on the environment and societies.The latest event is the disaster of November 2014 flooding in southern Morocco, which is due especially to the non usual rains return.Weather conditions were marked by enhanced Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC), characterized by persistent high temperatures during the autumn period in Morocco, mainly south of the Atlas, combined by the intrusion of a cold drop in the beginning of the event on 11.17.2014, and straightforward installation of a planetary valley across the Moroccan coast on 11.24.2014, which has evolved into storm (Xandra) in which depression has reached the surprising value of 975 hPa on 11.28.2014.Human and material damage caused by this flood are impressive: people died, roads, bridges and crops have been destroyed, overwhelmed dams. It has been a catastrophe.This event and others like it (Mohammedia 2002, Tangier 2008, Gharb 2009-2010, Casablanca 2010), must be considered as references for the simulation of future situations, and integration into development plans on future.This communication aims to identify the processes and conditions that have generated these events causing floods, the "exceptional" characteristics of recorded rainfall, the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Those floods affect the whole country, especially low areas, foothills and the mouths of rivers. There are the most vulnerable locations mainly on the autumn which is the most exposed to torrential rainfall season !! ... Etc.

  9. Analysis of Microphysics Mechanisms in Icing Aircraft Events: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose Luis; Fernández, Sergio; Gascón, Estibaliz; Weigand, Roberto; Hermida, Lucia; Lopez, Laura; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    The appearance of Supercooled Large Drops (SLD) can give way to icing aircraft. In these cases, atmospheric icing causes an unusual loss of support on the aircraft due to the rapid accumulation of ice on the wings or measurement instruments. There are two possible ways that SLD can be formed: The first is through a process called "warm nose", followed by "resupercooling". This process is usually associated with the entrance of warm fronts. The second possibility is that drops are formed by the process of condensation, and they grow, to sizes of at least 50 µm through processes of collision-coalescence, in environments with temperatures inferior to 0°C at all times, but without being able to produce a freezing process. Some authors point out that approximately 75% of gelling precipitation events are produced as a consequence of this second situation. Within the framework of the TECOAGUA Project, a series of scientific flights were performed in order to collect data in cloud systems capable of producing precipitation during the winter period and their capacity to create environments favorable to "icing aircraft". These flights were carried out making use of a C 212-200 aircraft, belonging to the National Institute of Aerospatial Techniques (INTA), with a CAPS installed. On 1 February 2012, the C 212-200 aircraft took off from the airport in Torrejón de Ardoz (Madrid), flying about 70 km to stand upright on the northern side of the Central System, finding itself at a flight level of 3500 m, an elevated concentration of SLD at temperatures around -12°C, with liquid water content up to 0.44 g/m3, which provoked the accumulation of ice on the outline of the aircraft's wings, which required a cancellation of the flight. Surrounding the flight area, a microwave radiometer (MWR) was installed. An area of instability between 750 hPa and 600 hPa was identified in the vertical MWR profiles of temperature and humidity during the hour of the flight. It is mainly in this

  10. Sustainability in Proximity to Industry: The Case of Critical Events in Walpole Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWynsberghe, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Since 1973, the Heritage Centre and its precursors on Walpole Island First Nations Reserve (Ontario) have countered environmental threats through research, creation of environmental management plans, and youth education and employment in environmental projects. A study of four critical environmental events shows how community support was mobilized…

  11. Minimizing cache misses in an event-driven network server: A case study of TUX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatia, Sapan; Consel, Charles; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the performance of CPU-bound network servers and demonstrate experimentally that the degradation in the performance of these servers under high-concurrency workloads is largely due to inefficient use of the hardware caches. We then describe an approach to speeding up event-driven netwo...

  12. Literacy shapes thought: the case of event representation in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eDobel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lively debate whether conceptual representations of actions or scenes follow a left-to-right spatial transient when participants depict such events or scenes. It was even suggested that conceptualizing the agent on the left side represents a universal. We review the current literature with an emphasis on event representation and on cross-cultural studies. While there is quite some evidence for spatial bias for representations of events and scenes in diverse cultures, their extent and direction depend on task demands, one‘s native language and, importantly, on reading and writing direction. Whether transients arise only in subject-verb-object languages, due to their linear sentential position of event participants, is still an open issue. We investigated a group of illiterate speakers of Yucatec Maya, a language with a predominant verb-object-subject structure. They were compared to illiterate native speakers of Spanish. Neither group displayed a spatial transient. Given the current literature, we argue that learning to read and write has a strong impact on representations of actions and scenes. Thus, while it is still under debate whether language shapes thought, there is firm evidence that literacy does.

  13. Going against the flow: a case for upstream dispersal and detection of uncommon dispersal events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, E.R.J.; Fraaije, Rob G.A.; Groot, de G.A.; Erkens, R.H.J.; Garsen, Annemarie G.; Kleyheeg, Erik; Raven, Bart M.; Soons, Merel B.

    2016-01-01

    1.Dispersal and colonisation are key processes determining species survival, and their importance is increasing as a consequence of ongoing habitat fragmentation, land-use change and climate change. Identification of long-distance dispersal events, including upstream dispersal, and of the dispersal

  14. Going against the flow: a case for upstream dispersal and detection of uncommon dispersal events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, E. R. Jasper; Fraaije, Rob G. A.; de Groot, G. Arjen; Erkens, Roy H. J.; Garssen, Annemarie G.; Kleyheeg, Erik; Raven, Bart M.; Soons, Merel B.

    2016-01-01

    * Dispersal and colonisation are key processes determining species survival, and their importance is increasing as a consequence of ongoing habitat fragmentation, land-use change and climate change. Identification of long-distance dispersal events, including upstream dispersal, and of the dispersal

  15. From big data to bedside decision-making: the case for AdverseEvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Biondi Zoccai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine has gained mainstream popularity, but it requires a delicate balance between clinical evidence, physician skills, patient preferences, and costs. Facing the individual patient, even a simple decision such as which antithrombotic agent should be prescribed becomes complex. There are several reasons for this conundrum, but one of the foremost is the limited external validity of pivotal randomized trials, with their extremely restrictive selection criteria. Post-marketing reporting of adverse events is a very useful and democratic means to appraise the risk-benefit profile, but to date such reports were not organized or available. The development of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA venue for such task, the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS has substantially improved data collection. However, analysis of this extensive relational database remains complex for most but few companies or agencies. AdverseEvents is a novel online platform enabling updated and user-friendly inquiry of FAERS. Given its ease of use, flexibility and comprehensiveness, it is likely going to improve decision making for healthcare authorities and practitioners, as well as patients. This is clearly testified by the precise and informative comparative analysis that can be performed with AdverseEvents on novel antithrombotic agents.

  16. Literacy shapes thought : the case of event representation in different cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bölte, Jens

    2014-01-01

    There has been a lively debate whether conceptual representations of actions or scenes follow a left-to-right spatial transient when participants depict such events or scenes. It was even suggested that conceptualizing the agent on the left side represents a universal. We review the current literatu

  17. Literacy shapes thought: the case of event representation in different cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bölte, Jens

    2014-01-01

    There has been a lively debate whether conceptual representations of actions or scenes follow a left-to-right spatial transient when participants depict such events or scenes. It was even suggested that conceptualizing the agent on the left side represents a universal. We review the current literature with an emphasis on event representation and on cross-cultural studies. While there is quite some evidence for spatial bias for representations of events and scenes in diverse cultures, their extent and direction depend on task demands, one's native language, and importantly, on reading and writing direction. Whether transients arise only in subject-verb-object languages, due to their linear sentential position of event participants, is still an open issue. We investigated a group of illiterate speakers of Yucatec Maya, a language with a predominant verb-object-subject structure. They were compared to illiterate native speakers of Spanish. Neither group displayed a spatial transient. Given the current literature, we argue that learning to read and write has a strong impact on representations of actions and scenes. Thus, while it is still under debate whether language shapes thought, there is firm evidence that literacy does.

  18. Field configuring events shaping sustainability transitions? The case of solar PV in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolly, Suyash; Raven, R.P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The sustainability transitions literature has emphasized the analytical challenges in understanding the trade-offs in protecting niche innovations. This paper builds on an emerging body of literature that argues that the concept of field-configuring events (FCE) is useful for understanding

  19. Trends in flash flood events versus convective precipitation in the Mediterranean region: The case of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Marcos, Raul; Turco, Marco; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the potential relationship between flash flood events and convective precipitation in Catalonia, as well as any related trends. The paper starts with an overview of flash floods and their trends in the Mediterranean region, along with their associated factors, followed by the definition of, identification of, and trends in convective precipitation. After this introduction the paper focuses on the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, for which there is a long-term precipitation series (since 1928) of 1-min precipitation from the Fabra Observatory, as well as a shorter (1996-2011) but more extensive precipitation series (43 rain gauges) of 5-min precipitation. Both series have been used to characterise the degree of convective contribution to rainfall, introducing the β parameter as the ratio between convective precipitation versus total precipitation in any period. Information about flood events was obtained from the INUNGAMA database (a flood database created by the GAMA team), with the aim of finding any potential links to convective precipitation. These flood data were gathered using information on damage where flood is treated as a multifactorial risk, and where any trend or anomaly might have been caused by one or more factors affecting hazard, vulnerability or exposure. Trend analysis has shown an increase in flash flood events. The fact that no trends were detected in terms of extreme values of precipitation on a daily scale, nor on the associated ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) extreme index, could point to an increase in vulnerability, an increase in exposure, or changes in land use. However, the summer increase in convective precipitation was concentrated in less torrential events, which could partially explain this positive trend in flash flood events. The β parameter has been also used to characterise the type of flood event according to the features of the precipitation. The highest values

  20. Use of Hypoprothrombinemia-Inducing Cephalosporins and the Risk of Hemorrhagic Events: A Nationwide Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Existing data regarding the risk of hemorrhagic events associated with exposure to hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins are limited by the small sample size. This population-based study aimed to examine the association between exposure to hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins and hemorrhagic events using National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan.A nationwide nested case-control study.National Health Insurance Research database.We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of 6191 patients who received hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins and other antibiotics for more than 48 hours. Multivariable conditional logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI for hemorrhagic events associated with exposure to hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins (overall, cumulative dose measured as defined daily dose (DDD, and individual cephalosporins.Within the cohort, we identified 704 patients with hemorrhagic events and 2816 matched controls. Use of hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins was associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic events (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.42-2.06, which increased with higher cumulative doses (5 DDDs, aOR 1.89. The aOR for individual cephalosporin was 2.88 (95% CI, 2.08-4.00, 1.35 (1.09-1.67 and 4.57 (2.63-7.95 for cefmetazole, flomoxef, and cefoperazone, respectively. Other risk factors included use of anticoagulants (aOR 2.08 [95% CI, 1.64-2.63], liver failure (aOR 1.69 [1.30-2.18], poor nutritional status (aOR 1.41 [1.15-1.73], and history of hemorrhagic events (aOR 2.57 [1.94-3.41] 6 months prior to the index date.Use of hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins increases risk of hemorrhagic events. Close watch for hemorrhagic events is recommended when prescribing these cephalosporins, especially in patients who are at higher risk.

  1. Assessing Extreme Events for Anthropogenic Influence: Examples of Recent Cases for Australian Temperatures, U.S. Precipitation, and Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, T. R.; Zeng, F. J.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Duffy, P.; Arnold, J. R.; Massey, C.; Wehner, M. F.; Stone, D. A.; Bender, M.; Morin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The degree to which particular extreme weather and climate events are assessed as being attributable to anthropogenic climate change (e.g., that anthropogenic forcing influenced their probability of occurrence or other characteristics) can vary dramatically from case to case. One example assessed at GFDL is the record or near-record annual mean temperature over a large region of Australia in 2013. According to this analysis of the CMIP5 models, the event was largely attributable to anthropogenic forcing of the climate system. Another 2013 case was the extreme positive annual mean precipitation anomalies in 5x5 degree gridded (GHCN) precipitation data that were observed along the U.S./Canadian border region. This is a region with a detectable long-term increase of precipitation since 1900. Nonetheless, the 2013 event is assessed as primarily attributable to internal (unforced) climate variability and only partly attributable to external forcing (natural and anthropogenic combined). There are many outstanding challenges to these studies. Among these are the limitations to historical data length, data quality, model ensemble size, and model control run length. Furthermore, there is room for improvement in addressing model biases, station/gridcell scale mismatches, modeling the extreme ends of the distributions e.g. with Generalized Extreme Value methods, etc. Another project assesses anthropogenic influences on the track and evolution (but not the likelihood) of Sandy-like storms. Assuming the existence of a Sandy-like storm under non-industrial conditions, we use CMIP5 model simulations, a global atmospheric model time slice experiment, and regional hurricane model idealized simulations to suggest that the unusual left turn the storm took may have been made more likely by anthropogenic climate forcing. This does not imply that Sandy-like events are less likely in the non-industrial climate, because we assumed the existence of such a storm to begin with.

  2. Conveying corporate communication by the means of organizing an event- Case Antti Arola Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Arola, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is built around the concept of conveying corporate communication and brand communication through organizing an event. Corporate communication is a way to lead the company´s stakeholders to create certain images of the company and to create relationships with the stakeholders. Part of the company´s corporate communication is brand communication. Brand communication is familiarizing products or services to the target group through marketing, creating images and influencing the stake...

  3. Ecological Responses to Extreme Flooding Events: A Case Study with a Reintroduced Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Redondo, Andrea; Bearhop, Stuart; Cleasby, Ian R; Lock, Leigh; Votier, Stephen C; Hilton, Geoff M

    2016-06-27

    In recent years numerous studies have documented the effects of a changing climate on the world's biodiversity. Although extreme weather events are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity and are challenging to organisms, there are few quantitative observations on the survival, behaviour and energy expenditure of animals during such events. We provide the first data on activity and energy expenditure of birds, Eurasian cranes Grus grus, during the winter of 2013-14, which saw the most severe floods in SW England in over 200 years. We fitted 23 cranes with telemetry devices and used remote sensing data to model flood dynamics during three consecutive winters (2012-2015). Our results show that during the acute phase of the 2013-14 floods, potential feeding areas decreased dramatically and cranes restricted their activity to a small partially unflooded area. They also increased energy expenditure (+15%) as they increased their foraging activity and reduced resting time. Survival did not decline in 2013-14, indicating that even though extreme climatic events strongly affected time-energy budgets, behavioural plasticity alleviated any potential impact on fitness. However under climate change scenarios such challenges may not be sustainable over longer periods and potentially could increase species vulnerability.

  4. Search Coil and Fluxgate Data Merging on MMS: Examples on Dipolarization Event Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, F.; Fischer, D.; Magnes, W.; Valavanoglou, A.; Le Contel, O.; Nakamura, R.; Andriopoulou, M.; Schmid, D.; Baumjohann, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C.; Strangeway, R. J.; Leinweber, H. K.; Bromund, K. R.; Anderson, B. J.; Le, G.; Chutter, M.; Needell, J.; Dors, I.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.; Mirioni, L.

    2015-12-01

    The instrument suite of MMS mission includes one search coil and two fluxgate magnetometers on each observatory and can therefore provide the possibility to study events that cross the sensitive frequency range of both instrument types. It is therefore desirable to have a common merged data product that combines the best parts of both instruments. Extensive ground based test measurements have been performed to identify the properties of the instruments. New models for compensating time and frequency properties were created and the difference to existing calibrations is analyzed. Considerations for application as well as signal processing constraints are discussed and the resulting method is applied on data from the mission. Dipolarization events can serve as suitable example, since they contain a variety of disturbances with different characteristic scales: transient filamentary properties, sharp fronts, reconfiguration of the current sheet, wave signatures on kinetic as well as fluid scales, thus requiring highest sensitivity data in a wide frequency range. We show these different signatures relevant to the dipolarization events based on the analysis of these newly produced data.

  5. Flow monitoring with a camera: a case study on a flood event in the Tiber River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, F; Olivieri, G; Petroselli, A; Porfiri, M; Grimaldi, S

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring surface water velocity during flood events is a challenging task. Techniques based on deploying instruments in the flow are often unfeasible due to high velocity and abundant sediment transport. A low-cost and versatile technology that provides continuous and automatic observations is still not available. Among remote methods, large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) is an optical method that computes surface water velocity maps from videos recorded with a camera. Here, we implement and critically analyze findings obtained from a recently introduced LSPIV experimental configuration during a flood event in the Tiber River at a cross section located in the center of Rome, Italy. We discuss the potential of LSPIV observations in challenging environmental conditions by presenting results from three tests performed during the hydrograph flood peak and recession limb of the event for different illumination and weather conditions. The obtained surface velocity maps are compared to the rating curve velocity and to benchmark velocity values. Experimental findings show that optical methods should be preferred in extreme conditions. However, their practical implementation may be associated with further hurdles and uncertainties.

  6. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF SPORT EVENTS: THE CASE OF WORLD PADDLE TOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez-Naranjo, Hector V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays tourism is one of the most important sectors of our country, and no one has any doubt about importance of sport for the economy. Both concepts create sports tourimn, and sporting event are its greatest exponent that is having special importance both at academic and at the economic and social levels. Taking into account the above, this research aims to analyze socioeconomic impact of the paddle tournament Caceres International Open 2013. The CBA methodology will be used; its main objective is to calculate a benefit/cost ratio analyzing the contribution made by two groups of respondents (attendees and participants. Among final conclusions of this study we establish different groups of stakeholders, and this methodology can be applied to these groups to value the impact of sporting events. It has also been found out that the contribution made by public institutions has economic effects in other sectors of the city; so sporting events can be considered a complement of the tourism sector.

  7. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  8. Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the databa

  9. Extreme climate events, migration for cultivation and policies: A case study in the early Qing Dynasty of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG XiuQi; YE Yu; ZENG ZaoZao

    2007-01-01

    Based on the historical records of the annual increase in the workforce(men older than 16 years of age),the annual new taxed cropland in the Shengjing area (Northeast China),the extreme climate events in North China,and related management policies in Northeast China during 1661-1680,a case study has been conducted to investigate the relationship between the extreme climate events in North China and the migration to Northeast China for cultivation.This study has found that the migration to Northeast China for cultivation from 1661 to 1680 was a response to the drought events that occurred in North China.The upsurge of migration,which occurred in 1665-1680,was a response to the drought period during 1664-1680 in North China while the fewer disasters period in Northeast China.There were three migratory peaks during the upsurge of migration,which corresponded to the three drought events.The peaks of migration,however,often lagged behind the drought events about 1-2 years.The encouraging-migration policy,which was adopted to encourage cultivation in Northeast China,did not produce much migration into the region in the early Qing Dynasty.It did,however,provide a policy background,which ensured more than 10000 migrants per year to Northeast China when North China suffered from drought/flood disasters.As a response to the highest peak of migration induced by the severe droughts in North China during 1664-1667,a prohibiting-migration policy restricted further migration to Northeast China was carried out in 1668.Although the prohibiting-migration policy could not entirely stop the migrants fleeing from famine in North China to Northeast China,the migrants and cultivation were significantly reduced under the policy.The frequent changes of the policy on the years when taxation started after the land was cultivated were also related to climate events.The extreme climate events in North China,migration to Northeast China for cultivation,and the related management policies showed

  10. Extreme climate events,migration for cultivation and policies:A case study in the early Qing Dynasty of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the historical records of the annual increase in the workforce (men older than 16 years of age), the annual new taxed cropland in the Shengjing area (Northeast China), the extreme climate events in North China, and related management policies in Northeast China during 1661―1680, a case study has been conducted to investigate the relationship between the extreme climate events in North China and the migration to Northeast China for cultivation. This study has found that the migration to Northeast China for cultivation from 1661 to 1680 was a response to the drought events that occurred in North China. The upsurge of migration, which occurred in 1665―1680, was a response to the drought period during 1664―1680 in North China while the fewer disasters period in Northeast China. There were three migratory peaks during the upsurge of migration, which corresponded to the three drought events. The peaks of migration, however, often lagged behind the drought events about 1―2 years. The encourag-ing-migration policy, which was adopted to encourage cultivation in Northeast China, did not produce much migration into the region in the early Qing Dynasty. It did, however, provide a policy background, which ensured more than 10000 migrants per year to Northeast China when North China suffered from drought/flood disasters. As a response to the highest peak of migration induced by the severe droughts in North China during 1664―1667, a prohibiting-migration policy restricted further migration to Northeast China was carried out in 1668. Although the prohibiting-migration policy could not entirely stop the migrants fleeing from famine in North China to Northeast China, the migrants and cultivation were significantly reduced under the policy. The frequent changes of the policy on the years when taxation started after the land was cultivated were also related to climate events. The extreme climate events in North China, migration to Northeast China for cultivation

  11. [Cases of poisoning in Germany. Disease entity, documentation, and aspects of the event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A; Begemann, K; Stürer, A

    2014-06-01

    Cases of poisoning account for a distinct share of accidents in Germany, which is particularly high for accidents involving children. Cases of poisoning resulting from suicidal intent or abuse are not counted as accidents. Compared to other cases of disease and accidents, the numerical documentation of cases of poisoning is inadequate. Presently, there is no institution in Germany that could make available representative and meaningful data on the current state of poisoning. Owing to intensive scientific cooperation between the poison information centers (funded by the federal states) and the Poison and Product Documentation Center at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR DocCenter) as well as to international cooperation, harmonized and standardized tools have been developed for the appropriate documentation and reporting of procedures to account for poisoning accidents. The first evaluation for 2005-2012 based on published and processed figures for the Federal Republic of Germany yielded the following results: Of approximately 230,000 telephone inquiries received in 2012, about 207,000 involved exposure of humans to different noxae. An annual increase of 3-5 % was recorded. For 2011, analyses of subsets processed by means of standardized methods yielded the following results: Medicines were involved in about 39 % of the cases recorded (of these, medicinal products for humans in 99 %); chemical/physicochemical agents in about 26 % (of these, cleaning and maintenance products in 46 %); products of daily use in about 14 % (of these, cosmetics in 40 %); and plants in about 10 %. More than 90 % of cases were acute poisoning and less than 5 %, chronic poisoning. Regarding the degree of severity of poisoning, an asymptomatic course was reported for 44 % of the cases; minor manifestations were experienced in 30 %, moderate ones in 6 %, and severe manifestations in 2 % of the cases recorded. Fatal cases were rare (poisoning accidents

  12. Characterization of a Flood Event through a Sediment Analysis: The Tescio River Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the hydrological analysis and grain size characteristics of fluvial sediments in a river basin and their combination to characterize a flood event. The overall objective of the research is the development of a practical methodology based on experimental surveys to reconstruct the hydraulic history of ungauged river reaches on the basis of the modifications detected on the riverbed during the dry season. The grain size analysis of fluvial deposits usually requires great technical and economical efforts and traditional sieving based on physical sampling is not appropriate to adequately represent the spatial distribution of sediments in a wide area of a riverbed with a reasonable number of samples. The use of photographic sampling techniques, on the other hand, allows for the quick and effective determination of the grain size distribution, through the use of a digital camera and specific graphical algorithms in large river stretches. A photographic sampling is employed to characterize the riverbed in a 3 km ungauged reach of the Tescio River, a tributary of the Chiascio River, located in central Italy, representative of many rivers in the same geographical area. To this end, the particle size distribution is reconstructed through the analysis of digital pictures of the sediments taken on the riverbed in dry conditions. The sampling has been performed after a flood event of known duration, which allows for the identification of the removal of the armor in one section along the river reach under investigation. The volume and composition of the eroded sediments made it possible to calculate the average flow rate associated with the flood event which caused the erosion, by means of the sediment transport laws and the hydrological analysis of the river basin. A hydraulic analysis of the river stretch under investigation was employed to verify the validity of the proposed procedure.

  13. Memory effect triggered by exceptional event: the Rio Cordon study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainato, Riccardo; Mao, Luca; Picco, Lorenzo; Garcia-Rama, Adriana; Aristide Lenzi, Mario

    2016-04-01

    In the mountain environment, the steep channels play a key-role in the drainage networks. Notably, the sediment transport processes that here occur, can affect aspects as the geomorphic changes, channel evolution, reservoir management, infrastructure design and hazard assessment. Due to the complex and changeable hydraulic and morphological features that characterize the mountain environment, the steep channels can exhibit fluvial and/or debris-flow transport with magnitude of sediment delivery that, in the same basin, may strongly vary from event to event. In the light of these challenging conditions, appears clear as an accurate monitoring and investigation of sediment dynamics is of critical importance in the steep mountain channels. Such monitoring has even more significance if it is maintained over long-period, enabling to investigate even the role of high magnitude/low frequency events. Using a dataset 29 years-wide, this work aims to investigate the temporal trend of sediment dynamic in the Rio Cordon (Eastern Italian Alps). The Rio Cordon is a steep mountain channel (mean slope = 13%) characterized by step-pool and riffle-pool morphology. The basin (5 km2)exhibits a prevalent nivo-pluvial runoff regime. Since 1986, the catchment is equipped with a monitoring station, that continuously records water discharge, bedload and suspended load (at 1 hr intervals, and 5 min intervals during floods). In September 1994 an exceptional event (RI > 100 years) occurred in the study site, mobilizing about 4000 tons of material. Currently, the structure is managed by ARPA Veneto - Regional Department for Land Safety. In terms of magnitude, the 31 floods recorded by the monitoring station show a wide range of hydraulic forcing (i.e. peak discharge and effective runoff) and amount transported. Specifically, Qpeak ranges within one order of magnitude (1.02 - 10.42 m3 s-1), while the amount of bedload and suspended load varies by more than 3 orders (i.e. 0.9 t triggered a

  14. A method for reclassifying cause of death in cases categorized as "event of undetermined intent".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Evgeny; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Pridemore, William Alex; Nikitina, Svetlana Yu

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for reclassifying external causes of death categorized as "event of undetermined intent" (EUIs) into non-transport accidents, suicides, or homicides. In nations like Russia and the UK the absolute number of EUIs is large, the EUI death rate is high, or EUIs comprise a non-trivial proportion of all deaths due to external causes. Overuse of this category may result in (1) substantially underestimating the mortality rate of deaths due to specific external causes and (2) threats to the validity of studies of the patterns and causes of external deaths and of evaluations of the impact of interventions meant to reduce them. We employ available characteristics about the deceased and the event to estimate the most likely cause of death using multinomial logistic regression. We use the set of known non-transport accidents, suicides, and homicides to calculate an mlogit-based linear score and an estimated classification probability (ECP). This ECP is applied to EUIs, with varying levels of minimal classification probability. We also present an optional second step that employs a population-level adjustment to reclassify deaths that remain undetermined (the proportion of which varies based on the minimal classification probability). We illustrate our method by applying it to Russia. Between 2000 and 2011, 521,000 Russian deaths (15 % percent of all deaths from external causes) were categorized as EUIs. We used data from anonymized micro-data on the ~3 million deaths from external causes. Our reclassification model used 10 decedent and event characteristics from the computerized death records. Results show that during this period about 14 % of non-transport accidents, 13 % of suicides, and 33 % of homicides were officially categorized as EUIs. Our findings also suggest that 2011 levels of non-transport accidents and suicides would have been about 24 % higher and of homicide about 82 % higher than that reported by official vital statistics data. Overuse

  15. Stressful life events, psychopathology, and adolescent suicide: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, D A; Perper, J A; Moritz, G; Baugher, M; Roth, C; Balach, L; Schweers, J

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between stressful life events and adolescent suicide was assessed in 67 adolescent suicide victims and 67 matched community controls. In the year before death, suicide completers were more likely to have experienced: (1) interpersonal conflict with parents and with boy/girlfriends, (2) disruption of a romantic attachment, (3) legal or disciplinary problems. Legal or disciplinary problems were more commonly associated with suicide in conduct and substance abuse disordered youth. Interpersonal loss was more commonly associated with suicide in substance abuse as well. Even after controlling for psychopathology, legal and disciplinary problems in the past year were associated with an increased risk of suicide.

  16. Debris Flow Monitoring System and Observed Event in Taiwan: A Case Study at Aiyuzi River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HSIAO Taichung; LEE Bingjean; CHOU Tienyin; LIEN Huipain; CHANG Yinghuei

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau, which is responsible for the conservation and administrative management of hillside in Taiwan, has been cooperating with Feng Chia University. Together, they have successfully carried out the establishment and maintenance of 13 fixed debris flow monitoring stations over the island and 2 mobile debris flow monitoring stations. During July 2004, a powerful southwest air current brought by Mindulle Typhoon caused serious flood in central and southern Taiwan. This paper aims to describe the establishment of debris flow monitoring systems in Taiwan and the observation of the debris flow event during Mindulle Typhoon at Aiyuzi River in Shenmu Village, Nantou County by the monitoring station.

  17. Effect of database profile variation on drug safety assessment: an analysis of spontaneous adverse event reports of Japanese cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomura K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaori Nomura,1 Kunihiko Takahashi,2 Yasushi Hinomura,3 Genta Kawaguchi,4 Yasuyuki Matsushita,5 Hiroko Marui,6 Tatsuhiko Anzai,7 Masayuki Hashiguchi,8 Mayumi Mochizuki8 1Division of Molecular Epidemiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Department of Biostatistics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 3Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center, 4Global Pharmacovigilance, Kissei Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, Tokyo, 5Medical Affairs Department, Daiichi Sankyo Co Ltd, 6Drug Safety Division, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, 7Data Science Center, EPS Corporation, 8Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan Background: The use of a statistical approach to analyze cumulative adverse event (AE reports has been encouraged by regulatory authorities. However, data variations affect statistical analyses (eg, signal detection. Further, differences in regulations, social issues, and health care systems can cause variations in AE data. The present study examined similarities and differences between two publicly available databases, ie, the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER database and the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS, and how they affect signal detection.Methods: Two AE data sources from 2010 were examined, ie, JADER cases (JP and Japanese cases extracted from the FAERS (FAERS-JP. Three methods for signals of disproportionate reporting, ie, the reporting odds ratio, Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and Gamma Poisson Shrinker (GPS, were used on drug-event combinations for three substances frequently recorded in both systems.Results: The two databases showed similar elements of AE reports, but no option was provided for a shareable case identifier. The average number of AEs per case was 1.6±1.3 (maximum 37 in the JP and 3.3±3.5 (maximum 62 in the FAERS-JP. Between 5% and 57% of all AEs were signaled by three quantitative methods for etanercept, infliximab, and

  18. A comparison of five flood rain events over the New South Wales north coast and a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Milton S.; Leslie, Lance M.

    2000-04-01

    One of the most significant forecasting problems facing meteorologists in the Sydney office of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology is the prediction of the heavy to extreme rainfall amounts that occur on the subtropical north coast of New South Wales (NSW). The significance of the problem lies in the great intensity of the rainfall, the difficulty in predicting the formation, location and duration of the rainfall, and the impacts of flooding on both cities and communities. The forecasting difficulties arise because of the small scales often involved, the range of physical mechanisms responsible and the challenge involved in forecasting events of such short duration. In the case of flash floods, the intense rainfall is typically less than 6 h in duration. Operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) has not shown much success, mainly because of the reasons mentioned above, especially given that computational limitations restrict its model resolutions.In this paper, the synoptic situation is presented for the most severe flash flood on record to affect Coffs Harbour, a city which is located on the NSW mid-north coast. The event, which occurred on the evening of 23 November 1996, is rated approximately as a 1 in a 100-year intensity/duration event. A 25-year climatology subset of flood-producing systems that have affected Coffs Harbour is then presented, and is correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Finally, details are given for a numerical modelling case study of the flash flood. The model results reveal that a very accurate prediction of the amount and the spatial distribution of rainfall amounts can be made for an event of this type. The rainfall totals of over 500 mm in 24 h were accurately forecast using coarse resolution archived operational initial analyses. The success of the predictions is most likely owing to the dominance of large-scale dynamical processes, which were further focused by the steep topography.

  19. Managing Expectations: Results from Case Studies of US Water Utilities on Preparing for, Coping with, and Adapting to Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller-Simms, N.; Metchis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Water utilities, reeling from increased impacts of successive extreme events such as floods, droughts, and derechos, are taking a more proactive role in preparing for future incursions. A recent study by Federal and water foundation investigators, reveals how six US water utilities and their regions prepared for, responded to, and coped with recent extreme weather and climate events and the lessons they are using to plan future adaptation and resilience activities. Two case studies will be highlighted. (1) Sonoma County, CA, has had alternating floods and severe droughts. In 2009, this area, home to competing water users, namely, agricultural crops, wineries, tourism, and fisheries faced a three-year drought, accompanied at the end by intense frosts. Competing uses of water threatened the grape harvest, endangered the fish industry and resulted in a series of regulations, and court cases. Five years later, new efforts by partners in the entire watershed have identified mutual opportunities for increased basin sustainability in the face of a changing climate. (2) Washington DC had a derecho in late June 2012, which curtailed water, communications, and power delivery during a record heat spell that impacted hundreds of thousands of residents and lasted over the height of the tourist-intensive July 4th holiday. Lessons from this event were applied three months later in anticipation of an approaching Superstorm Sandy. This study will help other communities in improving their resiliency in the face of future climate extremes. For example, this study revealed that (1) communities are planning with multiple types and occurrences of extreme events which are becoming more severe and frequent and are impacting communities that are expanding into more vulnerable areas and (2) decisions by one sector can not be made in a vacuum and require the scientific, sectoral and citizen communities to work towards sustainable solutions.

  20. Biogeographical consequences of Cenozoic tectonic events within East Asian margins: a case study of Hynobius biogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping patterns and processes of extant animal distributions within East Asian margins. We select Hynobius salamanders (Amphibia: Hynobiidae as a model to examine biogeographical consequences of Cenozoic tectonic events within East Asian margins. First, we use GenBank molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships of Hynobius by bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. Second, we estimate the divergence time using the bayesian relaxed clock approach and infer dispersal/vicariance histories under the 'dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis' model. Finally, we test whether evolutionary history and biogeographical processes of Hynobius should coincide with the predictions of two major hypotheses (the 'vicariance'/'out of southwestern Japan' hypothesis. The resulting phylogeny confirmed Hynobius as a monophyletic group, which could be divided into nine major clades associated with six geographical areas. Our results show that: (1 the most recent common ancestor of Hynobius was distributed in southwestern Japan and Hokkaido Island, (2 a sister taxon relationship between Hynobius retardatus and all remaining species was the results of a vicariance event between Hokkaido Island and southwestern Japan in the Middle Eocene, (3 ancestral Hynobius in southwestern Japan dispersed into the Taiwan Island, central China, 'Korean Peninsula and northeastern China' as well as northeastern Honshu during the Late Eocene-Late Miocene. Our findings suggest that Cenozoic tectonic evolution plays an important role in shaping disjunctive distributions of extant Hynobius within East Asian margins.

  1. Cost–benefit analysis of sport events: The case of World Paddle Tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor V. Jiménez-Naranjo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays tourism is one of the most important sectors of our country, and no one has any doubt about importance of sport for the economy. Both concepts create “sports tourism”, and “sporting events” are its greatest exponent that is having special importance both at academic and at the economic and social levels. Taking into account the above, this research aims to analyze socioeconomic impact of the paddle tournament “Caceres International Open 2013”. The CBA methodology will be used; its main objective is to calculate a benefit/cost ratio analyzing the contribution made by two groups of respondents (attendees and participants. Among final conclusions of this study we establish different groups of stakeholders, and this methodology can be applied to these groups to value the impact of sporting events. It has also been found out that the contribution made by public institutions has economic effects in other sectors of the city; so sporting events can be considered a complement of the tourism sector.

  2. Loss of heterozygosity and carrier identification in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a familiar case with recombination event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca-Mendoza Dora Janeth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD/BMD is an X-linked recessive disease characterizedby muscular weakness. It is caused by mutations on the dystrophin gen. Loss of heterozygosityallows us to identify female carriers of deletions on the dystrophin gen. Objective: identifyfemale carriers in a family with a patient affected by DMD. Material and methods: nine familymembers and the affected child were analyzed using DNA extraction and posterior amplificationof ten STRs on the dystrophin gen. Haplotypes were constructed and the carrier status determinedin two of the six women analyzed due to loss of heterozygosity in three STRs. Additionally, weobserved a recombination event. Conclusions: loss of heterozygosity allows us to establish witha certainty of 100% the carrier status of females with deletions on the dystrophin gen. By theconstruction of haplotypes we were able to identify the X chromosome with the deletion in twoof the six women analyzed. We also determined a recombination event in one of the sisters of theaffected child. These are described with a high frequency (12%. A possible origin for the mutationis a gonadal mosaicism in the maternal grandfather or in the mother of the affected childin a very early stage in embryogensis. This can be concluded using the analysis of haplotypes.

  3. Development of case definitions for acute encephalopathy, encephalitis, and multiple sclerosis reports to the vaccine: Adverse Event Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Robert; Halsey, Neal; Braun, M Miles; Moulton, Lawrence H; Gale, Arnold D; Rammohan, Kottil; Wiznitzer, Max; Johnson, Richard; Salive, Marcel E

    2002-08-01

    The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), administered by the FDA and CDC, is the U.S. system for surveillance of vaccine adverse events (AE). Acute encephalopathy age or =18 months (EO > or = 18), encephalitis (EI), and multiple sclerosis (MS) after vaccination have been reported to VAERS, but reports often contain insufficient information to validate diagnoses. Standardized case definitions would enhance the utility of VAERS reports for AE surveillance. We developed practical case definitions for classification of VAERS reports, and three neurologists independently applied the definitions to reports submitted in 1993. Inter-observer agreement was assessed, and non-concordant classifications were reviewed in a follow-up conference call. Reports of EO or = 18 (n = 20), EI (n = 15), and MS (n = 16) were classified as "definite" in 7% to 30% of the cases, while 26% to 51% of reports were thought to have insufficient information to make a classification. Agreement among reviewers was good to excellent, (kappa: 0.65 to 0.85) except for EO Elsevier Science Inc.

  4. Severe rainfall events over the western Mediterranean Sea: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesco Martín, Jesús; Mora García, Manuel; de Pablo Dávila, Fernando; Rivas Soriano, Luis

    2013-06-01

    A study of severe rainfall (≥ 100 mm in 24 h) over the Spanish provinces of Malaga, Granada y Almeria (close to the Alboran Sea, the westernmost part of the Mediterranean Sea) has been performed using 5 years (2006-2010) of data. The episodes of heavy rainfall were classified using the moisture flux at the 850 hPa pressure level and the lifted index. This gave three types, associated with situations of intense moisture flux and little static instability, moderate moisture flux and static instability, and moderate moisture flux and strong static instability. Representative cases of each type were analyzed, and it was found that both non-convective (41% of cases) and convective (59% of cases) systems caused the episodes of severe precipitation considered in this study. The convective structures included isolated and persistent convective systems, multicellular convective systems, and mesoscale convective systems.

  5. Subdural Hematoma: An Adverse Event of Electroconvulsive Therapy—Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath R. Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is commonly used in the management of medication nonresponsive depressive disorder, with proven efficacy in psychiatric practice since many decades. A rare complication of intracranial bleed following this therapeutic procedure has been reported in sporadic case reports in the English literature. We report a case of such a complication in a 42-year-old male, a known case of nonorganic medication nonresponsive depressive disorder for the last two years who required ECT application. Presenting symptoms included altered mental state, urinary incontinence, and repeated episodes of vomiting; following ECT procedure with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain suggestive of bilateral acute subdural hematoma. Despite the view that it may be used in neurological conditions without raised intracranial tension, it will be worthwhile to be vigilant during post-ECT recovery for any emergent complications.

  6. Driving Student-Centred Calculus: Results of a Comprehensive Case Study for Kaizen Learning in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Bernhard; Rupp, Florian; Viet, Nils; Stockhausen, Paul v.; Gallenkämper, Jonas; Kreuzer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The art of teaching freshmen students is undergoing a rapid paradigm change. Classical forms of teaching are not applicable any more and an unmanageable offer of new multimedia tools and concepts is glutting the market. Moreover, compared to previous courses, the class size triples. In view of these challenges, we implemented a new teaching…

  7. Driving Student-Centred Calculus: Results of a Comprehensive Case Study for Kaizen Learning in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Bernhard; Rupp, Florian; Viet, Nils; Stockhausen, Paul v.; Gallenkämper, Jonas; Kreuzer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The art of teaching freshmen students is undergoing a rapid paradigm change. Classical forms of teaching are not applicable any more and an unmanageable offer of new multimedia tools and concepts is glutting the market. Moreover, compared to previous courses, the class size triples. In view of these challenges, we implemented a new teaching…

  8. Study on workloads of human care worker with the introduction of IT system - the characteristics of work loads by observational research and the suggestions for KAIZEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Matsuda, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Motegi, Nobuyuki; Ikegami, Thor; Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristic of workloads on human care worker with the introduction of IT system, and suggested the support measures for KAIZEN in Japan. The investigation method is workflow line and hearing with a focus on work observation. The objects were 8 human care workers of the acute hospital that introduced an electronic system. By the introduction of the electronic chart, the nurse station sojourn time decreased, sickroom sojourn time increased, and time about direct nursing care to a patient increased. In addition, access to patient information became easy, and the offer of the health care service based on correct information came to be possible in real time. By The point of workflow line, it was effect that moving lengths decreased in order to install the electronic chart in patients' rooms. Though, it was a problem that it hasn't formed where to place the instruments such as sphygmomanometer, clinical thermometer and others.

  9. The Crisis Response to a School-Based Hostage Event: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Summers, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past two decades there has been increased public, professional, and legislative interest in school crisis prevention and intervention. It is recommended that comprehensive crisis teams be established at the school, district, and community levels. A case study was conducted in which interviews were utilized to facilitate an increased…

  10. The Crisis Response to a School-Based Hostage Event: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Summers, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past two decades there has been increased public, professional, and legislative interest in school crisis prevention and intervention. It is recommended that comprehensive crisis teams be established at the school, district, and community levels. A case study was conducted in which interviews were utilized to facilitate an increased…

  11. Developing Practice Oriented Undergraduate Courses in a Quality Framework. A Case Study: Bachelor of Event Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Paul A.; Wrathall, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon the stakeholder, scholarly, academic and jurisdictional influences on course development for a vocationally oriented bachelor's degree. Design/methodology/approach: This paper takes the form of a case study. Findings: Vocationally oriented bachelor's courses can be developed, especially when…

  12. Potentially disruptive life events: what are the immediate impacts on chronic disease management? A case-crossover analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Julie C; Gagne, Joshua J; Song, Zirui; Brill, Gregory; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2016-08-04

    To explore the association between unexpected potentially disruptive life events in a patient or family member that may challenge an individual's ability to take medications as prescribed and the discontinuation of evidence-based medications for common, chronic conditions. Understanding the relationship between medication adherence and life stressors, especially those that can be identified using administrative data, may help identify patients at risk of non-adherence. Observational self-controlled case-crossover design. Individuals in a nationally representative US commercial health insurance database. Adult individuals who initiated an oral hypoglycaemic, antihypertensive and/or statin and subsequently stopped the medication for ≥90 days. Potentially disruptive life events among patients and their family members measured in the 30 days just before the medication was discontinued ('hazard period') compared with the 30 days before this period ('control period'). These events included personal injury, hospitalisation, emergency room visits, changes in insurance coverage, acute stress or acute anxiety. Among the 326 519 patients meeting study criteria who discontinued their chronic disease medications, 88 896 (27.2%) experienced at least one potentially disruptive life event. Newly experiencing an injury (OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.42), an emergency room visit (OR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.26) and acute stress (OR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.31) were associated with discontinuation. Life events among patients' family members did not appear to be associated with medication discontinuation or occurred less frequently just prior to discontinuation. Potentially disruptive life events among individuals identified using routinely collected claims data are associated with discontinuation of chronic disease medications. Awareness of these events may help providers or payers identify patients at risk of non-adherence to maximise patient outcomes. Published by the BMJ

  13. A Case Study of a Typical Dust Storm Event over the Loess Plateau of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Xiao-Lu; GUO Wei-Dong; ZHAO Qian-Fei; ZHANG Bei-Dou

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced observational meteorological elements, energy fluxes, and the concentration of dust aerosols collected from the Semi-Arid Climate Observatory and Laboratory (SACOL) during a typical dust storm period in March 2010 at Lanzhou were used in this paper to investigate the impact of dust aerosols on near surface atmospheric variables and energy budgets. The results show that the entire dust storm event was associated with high wind velocities and decreasing air pressure, and the air changed from cold and wet to warm and dry and then recovered to its initial state. The response of energy fluxes occurred behind meteorological elements. At high dust concentration periods, the net radiation was significantly less in the daytime and higher at night, while the heat fluxes displayed the same trend, indicating the weakening of the land-atmosphere energy exchange. The results can be used to provide verification for numerical model results in semi-arid areas.

  14. Qualitative Event-Based Diagnosis: Case Study on the Second International Diagnostic Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2010-01-01

    We describe a diagnosis algorithm entered into the Second International Diagnostic Competition. We focus on the first diagnostic problem of the industrial track of the competition in which a diagnosis algorithm must detect, isolate, and identify faults in an electrical power distribution testbed and provide corresponding recovery recommendations. The diagnosis algorithm embodies a model-based approach, centered around qualitative event-based fault isolation. Faults produce deviations in measured values from model-predicted values. The sequence of these deviations is matched to those predicted by the model in order to isolate faults. We augment this approach with model-based fault identification, which determines fault parameters and helps to further isolate faults. We describe the diagnosis approach, provide diagnosis results from running the algorithm on provided example scenarios, and discuss the issues faced, and lessons learned, from implementing the approach

  15. The Peculiar Light Curve of J1415+1320: A Case Study in Extreme Scattering Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, H. K.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Hovatta, T.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Pearson, T. J.; Blandford, R. D.; Gurwell, M. A.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Pavlidou, V.; Ravi, V.; Reeves, R. A.; Richards, J. L.; Tornikoski, M.; Zensus, J. A.

    2017-08-01

    The radio light curve of J1415+1320 (PKS 1413+135) shows time-symmetric and recurring U-shaped features across the centimeter-wave and millimeter-wave bands. The symmetry of these features points to lensing by an intervening object as the cause. U-shaped events in radio light curves in the centimeter-wave band have previously been attributed to Extreme scattering events (ESE). ESEs are thought to be the result of lensing by compact plasma structures in the Galactic interstellar medium, but the precise nature of these plasma structures remains unknown. Since the strength of a plasma lens evolves with wavelength λ as {λ }2, the presence of correlated variations at over a wide wavelength range casts doubt on the canonical ESE interpretation for J1415+1320. In this paper, we critically examine the evidence for plasma lensing in J1415+1320. We compute limits on the lensing strength and the associated free-free opacity of the putative plasma lenses. We compare the observed and model ESE light curves, and also derive a lower limit on the lens distance based on the effects of parallax due to the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. We conclude that plasma lensing is not a viable interpretation for J1415+1320's light curves and that symmetric U-shaped features in the radio light curves of extragalactic sources do not present prima facie evidence for ESEs. The methodology presented here is generic enough to be applicable to any plasma-lensing candidate.

  16. To a cultural perspective of mixed reality events: a case study of event overflow in operas and concerts in mixed reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jean-François; Cornish, Tracy; Margolis, Todd

    2012-12-01

    Mixed reality defines the sharing of a space-time between the real and the virtual world. The definition of this concept is further extended when virtual worlds such as Second Life® (SL) are included. Through cultural events such as concerts and operas, we will see that the main goal of these kinds of projects is not simply to offer a video and audio broadcast of these events in the digital dimension. The current challenge is to create interactions between the individuals who are in different shared spaces. By studying the unfolding of these events in its various phases-before, during, and after-we examine the culture of the event. We question how the culture of the event can be transposed in a mixed reality display, and how this kind of event can affect people on both sides of the "membrane" made by the technical configuration. Beyond the alignments and adjustments that we can see between the different individuals involved in these events, we examine more broadly the changes and mutations of the culture of the event in this specific configuration.

  17. Improvement of Tsukiji free fish market in Tokyo ("Kaizen" of work environment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, K; Ikegami, T; Maehara, N; Watanabe, A

    1996-06-01

    "TSUKIJI" is one of the biggest and most famous Free Fish Markets in the world, but there are many problems on the working condition because it was built about 60 years ago. Our investigation was held 1991 to 1993 to give some improvements regarding layout of buildings, working time, heat condition at refrigerator, working posture, and so on. We used a questionnaire on daily life and health care of workers, time study with measurement of heartbeats, and checklist (using Checklist for Improvement of Safety-Health and Working Conditions,' made by ILO). The main occupations in TSUKIJI were seller, buyer, delivery worker, and refrigerator maintenance worker. Their starting time was early in the morning, usually between 2:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m., but the hardest one was delivery workers starting at 9:00 p.m. They used auto cargo car for carrying to shops from refrigerator or from auction places many times. Sellers had two different types of work. First, the seller set up the auction, numbering the fish (or cases of seafood), arranging them in order, and so on. The rest of the work was transaction of invoices, sometimes using VDU with almost sitting. These works did not look well balanced. Buyer of tuna cut if like lumber by electric saws did not have guard for protection and there were more than 200 machines. Overlooking the market by checklist, some problems were clarified, and suggestions for improvement include restructuring the whole layout of the market or reforming buildings, standardization of the cases, adjustment of health facilities, safety protection on tools and machines, management of working system, working posture, health care, and so on.

  18. Sensitivity of the WRF model to the lower boundary in an extreme precipitation event - Madeira island case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, J. C.; Carvalho, A. C.; Carvalho, M. J.; Luna, T.; Rocha, A.

    2014-08-01

    The advances in satellite technology in recent years have made feasible the acquisition of high-resolution information on the Earth's surface. Examples of such information include elevation and land use, which have become more detailed. Including this information in numerical atmospheric models can improve their results in simulating lower boundary forced events, by providing detailed information on their characteristics. Consequently, this work aims to study the sensitivity of the weather research and forecast (WRF) model to different topography as well as land-use simulations in an extreme precipitation event. The test case focused on a topographically driven precipitation event over the island of Madeira, which triggered flash floods and mudslides in the southern parts of the island. Difference fields between simulations were computed, showing that the change in the data sets produced statistically significant changes to the flow, the planetary boundary layer structure and precipitation patterns. Moreover, model results show an improvement in model skill in the windward region for precipitation and in the leeward region for wind, in spite of the non-significant enhancement in the overall results with higher-resolution data sets of topography and land use.

  19. Events that lead university students to change their major to Information Systems: A retroductive South African case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Florence Seymour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of computing skills is a global concern as it affects national development and business success. Yet, despite high job availability and high salaries in computing professions, insufficient numbers of students are choosing to study the various computing disciplines. This South African study looks at the Information Systems (IS major which is misunderstood by high school students. This retroductive case study identifies the events which lead students to change their major to IS. The study confirms the importance of interest in a major as well as the perceived high value of a major, which feature as dominant factors in the literature. Yet these are not the initial events that lead to students changing their major to IS. Events that initiate the process include losing passion for a previous major, experiencing difficulty in a previous major as well as enjoying the introductory IS course. The paper has practical advice for IS Departments and argues for a generic first year for students as well as a focus on enjoyment and skills aligned to IS professional practice in introductory IS courses. These findings can be generalised to other majors and, hence, the theoretical contribution adds to the literature on career choice in general.

  20. Analytic Back Calculation of Debris Flow Damage Incurred to a Masonry Building: The Case of Scaletta Zanclea 2009 Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimankhani Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to do a back analysis of the damages caused to a nineteenth century masonry structure due to the October 2009 flash flood/debris flow event in Scaletta Zanclea, the flood discharge hydrograph is reconstructed in the ungauged conditions. The hydrograph for the solid discharge is then estimated by scaling up the liquid volume to the estimated debris volume. The debris flow diffusion is simulated by solving the differential equations for a single-phase 2D flow employing triangular mesh elements, taking into account also the channelling of the flow through the buildings. The damage to the building is modelled, based on the maximum hydraulic actions caused by the debris flow, using 2D finite shell elements to model the building, boundary conditions provided by the openings, floor slab, orthogonal wall panels, and the foundation. The reconstruction of the event and the damages to the case-study building confirms the location of the damages induced by the event.

  1. Impact of relative humidity on visibility degradation during a haze event: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; Tan, Haobo; Li, Fei; Cai, Mingfu; Chan, P W; Xu, Hanbing; Huang, Xiaoying; Wu, Dui

    2016-11-01

    Light scattering of aerosols depends on ambient relative humidity (RH) since hygroscopic particles absorb significant water at high RH, and this results in low visibility. This paper used custom-made parallel nephelometers (PNEPs) to measure aerosol light scattering enhancement factor ƒ(RH), and utilized data including visibility, PM2.5, black carbon, water-soluble ions mass concentrations and surface meteorological parameters, in conjunction with background weather conditions, to analyze a haze event in Guangzhou during 8th-15th Dec. 2013. Unfavorable weather conditions, such as high RH and low wind speed, were observed during the haze event. The hourly average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 127μg/m(3), with concentration of 192.4μg/m(3) on 9th and 196μg/m(3) on 13th. The ƒ(RH) did not exhibit significant changes during this haze process, with value of ƒ(80%)=1.58±0.07. Although the mass fraction of water-soluble ions to PM2.5 decreased after 12th Dec., the aerosol hygroscopicity might not have changed significantly since the mass fraction of nitrate became more dominant, which has stronger ability to take up water. The best-fitted parameterized function for ƒ(RH) is ƒ(RH)=0.731+0.1375∗(1-RH/100)(-1)+0.00719∗(1-RH/100)(-2). Combining the fixed parameterization of ƒ(RH) above, the visibility was calculated with the measured light scattering and absorption coefficient of particles and gas under dry condition, as well as ambient RH. The predicted visibility range agrees well with the measurements without precipitation. Using ISORROPIA II model, the calculated aerosol liquid water content (ALWC) at ambient RH varied consistently with the PM2.5 under lower RH, while it was more influenced by high RH. This work also show that high RH accompanied with precipitation will enhance aerosol hygroscopic growth effect, leading to further visibility degradation, even if PM2.5 mass decreased due to precipitation.

  2. Hydrological simulation of flood transformations in the upper Danube River: Case study of large flood events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitková Veronika Bačová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of understand natural processes as factors that restrict, limit or even jeopardize the interests of human society is currently of great concern. The natural transformation of flood waves is increasingly affected and disturbed by artificial interventions in river basins. The Danube River basin is an area of high economic and water management importance. Channel training can result in changes in the transformation of flood waves and different hydrographic shapes of flood waves compared with the past. The estimation and evolution of the transformation of historical flood waves under recent river conditions is only possible by model simulations. For this purpose a nonlinear reservoir cascade model was constructed. The NLN-Danube nonlinear reservoir river model was used to simulate the transformation of flood waves in four sections of the Danube River from Kienstock (Austria to Štúrovo (Slovakia under relatively recent river reach conditions. The model was individually calibrated for two extreme events in August 2002 and June 2013. Some floods that occurred on the Danube during the period of 1991–2002 were used for the validation of the model. The model was used to identify changes in the transformational properties of the Danube channel in the selected river reach for some historical summer floods (1899, 1954 1965 and 1975. Finally, a simulation of flood wave propagation of the most destructive Danube flood of the last millennium (August 1501 is discussed.

  3. Event-related potentials indicating impaired emotional attention in cerebellar stroke--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamaszek, M; Olbrich, S; Kirkby, K C; Woldag, H; Willert, C; Heinrich, A

    2013-08-26

    The cerebellum has been implicated in affective and attentional processes, but little is known about corresponding neural signatures. We investigated early and late components of event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotionally arousing pictures, with and without competing attentional tasks, in a patient with an ischemic right posterior cerebellar infarction, at two months post infarct and two year follow-up. The early posterior negativity (EPN) response to highly arousing emotional cues in the competing visual attention condition revealed that the augmentation over occipital areas, as typically seen in normals, was absent post-infarct but was restored after two years. The late positive potentials (LPP) response to highly arousing emotional cues showed augmentation over frontal areas post-infarct, and over centro-parietal regions after two years. These ERP findings suggest a specific pattern of disruption of neural function associated with emotional-behavioral disturbances following cerebellar lesions, which can revert to normal with long term recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cluster Headache as the Index Event in MS: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, Jonathan Benjamin; McCombe, Jennifer A; Kotylak, Trevor; Becker, Werner J

    2016-02-01

    We report a 42-year-old woman who presented with cluster headache (CH) in association with other neurological symptoms as the index event of new onset multiple sclerosis (MS). Her initial symptoms were left-sided headache with ipsilateral lacrimation and nasal congestion associated with ipsilateral facial numbness. A subsequent similar headache attack was also associated with ipsilateral arm ataxia and gait ataxia. She had many additional short headache attacks without focal neurological symptoms. Her cluster-like headache attacks have not recurred since intiation of dimethyl fumarate. Our patient illustrates that cluster-like headache attacks can occur as a first symptom of MS, in our patient in association with other neurological symptoms. A striking finding in our patient was a large demyelinating lesion in the brachium pontis ipsilateral to the headaches, although additional supratentorial demyelinating lesions were also present. Although CH associated with MS is rare, our patient and the two other reported patients with MS and CH with similar ipsilateral brachium pontis lesions suggest that the lesions in this location may have played a role in the generation of the cluster-like attacks.

  5. A Case Study of the Error Growth and Predictability of a Meiyu Frontal Heavy Precipitation Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雨; 张立凤

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Regional Eta-coordinate Model (AREM) is used to explore the predictability of a heavy rainfall event along the Meiyu front in China during 3-4 July 2003.Based on the sensitivity of precipitation prediction to initial data sources and initial uncertainties in different variables,the evolution of error growth and the associated mechanism are described and discussed in detail in this paper.The results indicate that the smaller-amplitude initial error presents a faster growth rate and its growth is characterized by a transition from localized growth to widespread expansion error.Such modality of the error growth is closely related to the evolvement of the precipitation episode,and consequcntly remarkable forecast divergence is found near the rainband,indicating that the rainfall area is a sensitive region for error growth.The initial error in the rainband contributes significantly to the forecast divergence,and its amplification and propagation are largely determined by the initial moisture distribution.The moisture condition also affects the error growth on smaller scales and the subsequent upscale error cascade.In addition,the error growth defined by an energy norm reveals that large error energy collocates well with the strong latent heating,implying that the occurrence of precipitation and error growth share the same energy source-the latent heat.This may impose an intrinsic predictability limit on the prediction of heavy precipitation.

  6. Multi-objective optimisation with stochastic discrete-event simulation in retail banking: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Scholtz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cash management of an autoteller machine (ATM is a multi-objective optimisation problem which aims to maximise the service level provided to customers at minimum cost. This paper focus on improved cash management in a section of the South African retail banking industry, for which a decision support system (DSS was developed. This DSS integrates four Operations Research (OR methods: the vehicle routing problem (VRP, the continuous review policy for inventory management, the knapsack problem and stochastic, discrete-event simulation. The DSS was applied to an ATM network in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, to investigate 90 different scenarios. Results show that the application of a formal vehicle routing method consistently yields higher service levels at lower cost when compared to two other routing approaches, in conjunction with selected ATM reorder levels and a knapsack-based notes dispensing algorithm. It is concluded that the use of vehicle routing methods is especially beneficial when the bank has substantial control over transportation cost.

  7. Drug adverse events and drop-out risk: a clinical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoyni, R M; Aiello, L; Trani, I; Felli, B; Masin, A M R; Camponi, V; Dignazio, L; Cortese, M; Pacitti, M T; Carratelli, D; Morocutti, C

    2007-01-01

    We report a brief discussion on a clinical case of a female patient, 85 years old, affected by severe cognitive impairment and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patient was not taking drugs at home (apart from promazine: 10 drops when necessary to control her behavioral diseases). A previous neuropsychological evaluation had shown a severe cognitive impairment MMSE=16/30; ADL=3/6; IADL=0/8) due to multiple brain ischemic areas (confirmed in 2003 by MRI neuroimaging). When the patient was admitted to our center she was able to perform some basic activities of daily living such as eating and walking and was not too confused. She was included in cognitive rehabilitation groups. Since she showed signs of Parkinsonism, a therapy based on omeprazol 20mg, acetylsalicylic acid, donepezil 10mg, pramipexol 0.18 mg, nimodipine 10 drops, levodopa+carbidopa 100/25mg was started. A few days later she became sleepy during daytime and, once, she lost her balance and fell. She was not self-sufficient any more. At first this was attributed to a lung infection that the patient had, but her state continue after the infection was completely cured with appropriate antibiotics therapy. At that point an adverse drug reaction was suspected and therapy with pramipexol 0.18 mg was interrupted. In a few days the patient regained her previous level of consciousness and self-sufficiency. We consider this a typical case of complex management in a patient with dementia and comorbidity in which adverse drug reactions can play an important role in lowering the level of cognitive functions. In this case the relationship with the family of the patient was made difficult by the attitude of the patient's daughter who decided, after the onset of the adverse drug reaction, to interrupt her mother's stay in our center even at risk of the worst consequences.

  8. Adverse events following 12 and 18 month vaccinations: a population-based, self-controlled case series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumanan Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Live vaccines have distinct safety profiles, potentially causing systemic reactions one to 2 weeks after administration. In the province of Ontario, Canada, live MMR vaccine is currently recommended at age 12 months and 18 months. METHODS: Using the self-controlled case series design we examined 271,495 12 month vaccinations and 184,312 18 month vaccinations to examine the relative incidence of the composite endpoint of emergency room visits or hospital admissions in consecutive one day intervals following vaccination. These were compared to a control period 20 to 28 days later. In a post-hoc analysis we examined the reasons for emergency room visits and the average acuity score at presentation for children during the at-risk period following the 12 month vaccine. RESULTS: Four to 12 days post 12 month vaccination, children had a 1.33 (1.29-1.38 increased relative incidence of the combined endpoint compared to the control period, or at least one event during the risk interval for every 168 children vaccinated. Ten to 12 days post 18 month vaccination, the relative incidence was 1.25 (95%, 1.17-1.33 which represented at least one excess event for every 730 children vaccinated. The primary reason for increased events was statistically significant elevations in emergency room visits following all vaccinations. There were non-significant increases in hospital admissions. There were an additional 20 febrile seizures for every 100,000 vaccinated at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: There are significantly elevated risks of primarily emergency room visits approximately one to two weeks following 12 and 18 month vaccination. Future studies should examine whether these events could be predicted or prevented.

  9. Countermeasures for increasing sequence continuous casting; Renchu kinosei taikabutsu zaishitsu, kozo kaizen ni yoru renrenchusu kojosaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Masato; Shinagawa, Hiroaki; Kamada, Ryuji; Hiraga, Yutaka; Hara, Takayasu [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    In the second continuous casting line of Kure Iron Works, Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. improvement of the continuous casting counts per tundish was attempted for a target of max. 20. The results are as follows: (1) Non-SiO{sub 2} conversion of material for the long nozzle immersed part: About 20% improvement of durability compared with a conventional material to clear 0.059 mm/min of the targeted erosion speed when 20 CCC/TD is realized, (2) Durability improvement of SN plate: About 20% durability improvement was attained compared with a conventional material by the adoption of a non-SiO{sub 2} material, (3) Erosion resistance improvement of the immersed nozzle slug line part: Castable period was extended to 1 ch life improvement by increasing zirconia content, (4) Rise of stopper full open position: The rise of the full open position produced less variation of melt level than the conventional structure without increase of the SN opening, enabling plugging prevention between the stopper head and the upper nozzle which was an objective of this improvement, (5) Structure improvement of the upper nozzle: This improvement successfully prevented leaks from damage of the casting stop nozzle metal case and enabled casting under low gas flow even in TD nozzle plugging. These improvements gave a possibility to achieve max. 20 CCC/TD. (NEDO)

  10. Mejoramiento de la calidad en el proceso Toyota Customer Service Workshop Management mediante kaizen en el área de mecánica automotriz del taller de importadora tomebamba S.A Quito.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Salgado, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Project Title: Quality Improvement in the Toyota Customer Service Workshop Management Process on Importadora Tomebamba S.A. Quito through Kaizen in the Automotive Mechanics Area. Identification of the context in which the study was carried out: the workshop is an authorized dealer of the Toyota brand in the country, in charge of providing after sales service to the population located in the Quito northwestern, Ecuador. It is important to comply with monthly management indicators, whose main o...

  11. [A systematic review of decided litigated cases on adverse drug events in Japan: classification of decided cases appearing in law reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Rika; Kato, Masahisa; Kaneko, Erina; Kusaba, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Manabu; Yamano, Toru; Seo, Takashi; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-01-01

    Much of the damage to health caused by drugs could be prevented by appropriate care. A well-defined duty of care and further information are required for healthcare professionals. Although there are many litigation cases to use as references, neither the extent of the duty of care nor the obligation to explain medication according to the type of drug prescribed has yet been fully established. Thus, we systematically collected decided cases of adverse drug events, and assessed the degree of the duties of care and information. Specifically, we collected decided cases in which physicians, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, or hospitals had been sued. Data were derived from Bessatsu Jurist Iryo-kago Hanrei Hyakusen, Hanrei Jihou, and Hanrei Times from 1989 to November 2013, and information on precedents in the records of the Supreme Court of Japan from 2001 to November 2013. We analyzed the cases, and assessed the following according to the type of drug: (1) standards and explanations when dealing with drugs that were critical issues in litigation, and (2) the degree of the physician's or pharmacist's duties of care and information. In total, 126 cases were collected. The number of drug categories classified was 27, and 9 were considered of practical importance. After this systematic review, we found a trend in the degree of the required level of care and information on several drugs. With respect to duties of care and information, the gap between the required level and actual practice suggests that healthcare professionals must improve their care and explanations.

  12. Case study of a mesospheric wall event over Ferraz station, Antarctica (62° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Denardini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On 16–17 July 2007 during an observational campaign at Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station (62° S, 58° W, a mesospheric wall was observed with an airglow all-sky imager. The wave appeared like an extensive dark region in the all-sky airglow images, with a large depletion in the OH emission. Simultaneous mesospheric winds measured with a MF radar at Rothera station and temperature profiles from SABER instrument, on board of TIMED satellite, were used to obtain the propagation condition of the wave. Wind measurements during four days, around the time of observation of the wave, are presented in order to discuss the type and consistence of the duct in which this wave was propagating. By using wavelet analysis and tidal amplitude components we found that 12 and 8 h components were the most important periodicities around the time interval of the wave observation. A collocated imaging spectrometer, for mesospheric temperature measurements, has been operated simultaneously with the all-sky imager. Direct effects of the mesospheric front have been seen in the spectrometric measurements, showing an abrupt decrease in both OH intensity and rotational temperature when the wave front passes overhead. The main contribution of the present work is the investigation of the type of duct in which the wall event was propagating. We found evidences for a thermal duct structure to support the mesospheric wall propagation. This result was obtained by two types of analysis: (a the tidal components analysis and winds filtering (harmonic analysis, and (b comparison between the terms of the m2 dispersion relation.

  13. A case of congenital afibrinogenemia complicated with thromboembolic events that required repeated amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Mehmet A; Işik, Bilgen; Patiroglu, Turkan; Karakukcu, Musa; Mutlu, Fatma T; Yilmaz, Ebru; Unal, Ekrem

    2015-04-01

    Although congenital afibrinogenemia is a rare autosomal recessive bleeding disorder, it can be more frequently encountered in countries where consanguineous marriages are common. Congenital afibrinogenemia is characterized by the undetectable low level of fibrinogen, which causes hemorrhagic diathesis. Paradoxically, arterial and venous thromboembolic complications can develop in patients with afibrinogenemia, which may cause a diagnostic problem to anyone unfamiliar with its clinical features. We report a case of congenital afibrinogenemia presenting with bilateral ischemic lesions of bilateral foot and ankle that required amputations. The patient was treated with fibrinogen concentrate, low-molecular-weight heparin, aspirin, and nifedipine. In conclusion, arterial and venous thromboembolic complications are rare, but severe complications of afibrinogenemia. The management of thromboembolic complications in patients with afibrinogenemia is a balance game. At one end of the scale, there is a bleeding disorder, and at the other end, there is a thrombosis. This fine adjustment is a job of mastery.

  14. Flood modelling with a distributed event-based parsimonious rainfall-runoff model: case of the karstic Lez river catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Coustau

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff models are crucial tools for the statistical prediction of flash floods and real-time forecasting. This paper focuses on a karstic basin in the South of France and proposes a distributed parsimonious event-based rainfall-runoff model, coherent with the poor knowledge of both evaporative and underground fluxes. The model combines a SCS runoff model and a Lag and Route routing model for each cell of a regular grid mesh. The efficiency of the model is discussed not only to satisfactorily simulate floods but also to get powerful relationships between the initial condition of the model and various predictors of the initial wetness state of the basin, such as the base flow, the Hu2 index from the Meteo-France SIM model and the piezometric levels of the aquifer. The advantage of using meteorological radar rainfall in flood modelling is also assessed. Model calibration proved to be satisfactory by using an hourly time step with Nash criterion values, ranging between 0.66 and 0.94 for eighteen of the twenty-one selected events. The radar rainfall inputs significantly improved the simulations or the assessment of the initial condition of the model for 5 events at the beginning of autumn, mostly in September–October (mean improvement of Nash is 0.09; correction in the initial condition ranges from −205 to 124 mm, but were less efficient for the events at the end of autumn. In this period, the weak vertical extension of the precipitation system and the low altitude of the 0 °C isotherm could affect the efficiency of radar measurements due to the distance between the basin and the radar (~60 km. The model initial condition S is correlated with the three tested predictors (R2 > 0.6. The interpretation of the model suggests that groundwater does not affect the first peaks of the flood, but can strongly impact subsequent peaks in the case of a multi-storm event. Because this kind of model is based on a limited

  15. Minimal Change Disease as a Secondary and Reversible Event of a Renal Transplant Case with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkrouzman, Elena; Kirou, Kyriakos A; Seshan, Surya V; Chevalier, James M

    2015-01-01

    Secondary causes of minimal change disease (MCD) account for a minority of cases compared to its primary or idiopathic form and provide ground for consideration of common mechanisms of pathogenesis. In this paper we report a case of a 27-year-old Latina woman, a renal transplant recipient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who developed nephrotic range proteinuria 6 months after transplantation. The patient had recurrent acute renal failure and multiple biopsies were consistent with MCD. However, she lacked any other features of the typical nephrotic syndrome. An angiogram revealed a right external iliac vein stenosis in the region of renal vein anastomosis, which when restored resulted in normalization of creatinine and relief from proteinuria. We report a rare case of MCD developing secondary to iliac vein stenosis in a renal transplant recipient with SLE. Additionally we suggest that, in the event of biopsy-proven MCD presenting as an atypical nephrotic syndrome, alternative or secondary, potentially reversible, causes should be considered and explored.

  16. Minimal Change Disease as a Secondary and Reversible Event of a Renal Transplant Case with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gkrouzman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary causes of minimal change disease (MCD account for a minority of cases compared to its primary or idiopathic form and provide ground for consideration of common mechanisms of pathogenesis. In this paper we report a case of a 27-year-old Latina woman, a renal transplant recipient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, who developed nephrotic range proteinuria 6 months after transplantation. The patient had recurrent acute renal failure and multiple biopsies were consistent with MCD. However, she lacked any other features of the typical nephrotic syndrome. An angiogram revealed a right external iliac vein stenosis in the region of renal vein anastomosis, which when restored resulted in normalization of creatinine and relief from proteinuria. We report a rare case of MCD developing secondary to iliac vein stenosis in a renal transplant recipient with SLE. Additionally we suggest that, in the event of biopsy-proven MCD presenting as an atypical nephrotic syndrome, alternative or secondary, potentially reversible, causes should be considered and explored.

  17. Ipilimumab and immune-mediated adverse events: a case report of anti-CTLA4 induced ileitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Olga; De Lisi, Delia; Caricato, Marco; Caputo, Damiano; Capolupo, Gabriella Teresa; Taffon, Chiara; Pagliara, Elisa; Battisi, Sofia; Frezza, Anna Maria; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Tonini, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele

    2015-03-01

    Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 , a key negative regulator of T-cell activation approved by the Food and Drug Administration as of March 2011 for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. As a result of the up-regulation of the immune system, several immune-mediated adverse effects have been reported including colitis, dermatitis, hepatitis and rarely hypophysitis. The most frequent immune-mediated adverse effects described in literature include gastrointestinal toxicity such as diarrhea, colitis and case of colitis and ileitis. In this paper we report an interesting case of immune-mediate ileitis without colitis in a 54 years old woman with metastatic melanoma treated with ipilimumab. We also discuss about case management and the possible pathological mechanisms considering also previous reports. The aim of this article is to support further investigations concerning epigenetic and genetic analysis in order to personalize biological therapy and to reduce immune related adverse events observed after ipilimumab administration.

  18. Developing an Event-Tree Probabilistic Tsunami Inundation Model for NE Atlantic Coasts: Application to a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omira, R.; Matias, L.; Baptista, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    This study constitutes a preliminary assessment of probabilistic tsunami inundation in the NE Atlantic region. We developed an event-tree approach to calculate the likelihood of tsunami flood occurrence and exceedance of a specific near-shore wave height for a given exposure time. Only tsunamis of tectonic origin are considered here, taking into account local, regional, and far-field sources. The approach used here consists of an event-tree method that gathers probability models for seismic sources, tsunami numerical modeling, and statistical methods. It also includes a treatment of aleatoric uncertainties related to source location and tidal stage. Epistemic uncertainties are not addressed in this study. The methodology is applied to the coastal test-site of Sines located in the NE Atlantic coast of Portugal. We derive probabilistic high-resolution maximum wave amplitudes and flood distributions for the study test-site considering 100- and 500-year exposure times. We find that the probability that maximum wave amplitude exceeds 1 m somewhere along the Sines coasts reaches about 60 % for an exposure time of 100 years and is up to 97 % for an exposure time of 500 years. The probability of inundation occurrence (flow depth >0 m) varies between 10 % and 57 %, and from 20 % up to 95 % for 100- and 500-year exposure times, respectively. No validation has been performed here with historical tsunamis. This paper illustrates a methodology through a case study, which is not an operational assessment.

  19. Developing an Event-Tree Probabilistic Tsunami Inundation Model for NE Atlantic Coasts: Application to a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omira, R.; Matias, L.; Baptista, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    This study constitutes a preliminary assessment of probabilistic tsunami inundation in the NE Atlantic region. We developed an event-tree approach to calculate the likelihood of tsunami flood occurrence and exceedance of a specific near-shore wave height for a given exposure time. Only tsunamis of tectonic origin are considered here, taking into account local, regional, and far-field sources. The approach used here consists of an event-tree method that gathers probability models for seismic sources, tsunami numerical modeling, and statistical methods. It also includes a treatment of aleatoric uncertainties related to source location and tidal stage. Epistemic uncertainties are not addressed in this study. The methodology is applied to the coastal test-site of Sines located in the NE Atlantic coast of Portugal. We derive probabilistic high-resolution maximum wave amplitudes and flood distributions for the study test-site considering 100- and 500-year exposure times. We find that the probability that maximum wave amplitude exceeds 1 m somewhere along the Sines coasts reaches about 60 % for an exposure time of 100 years and is up to 97 % for an exposure time of 500 years. The probability of inundation occurrence (flow depth >0 m) varies between 10 % and 57 %, and from 20 % up to 95 % for 100- and 500-year exposure times, respectively. No validation has been performed here with historical tsunamis. This paper illustrates a methodology through a case study, which is not an operational assessment.

  20. Inter-ethnic Cooperation Revisited: Why mobile phones can help prevent discrete events of violence, using the Kenyan case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Patrick Martin-Shields

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will critically explore why mobile phones have drawn so much interest from the conflict management community in Kenya, and develop a general set of factors to explain why mobile phones can have a positive effect on conflict prevention efforts generally. Focusing on theories of information asymmetry and security dilemmas, collective action problems, and the role of third party actors in conflict prevention, it aims to continue the discussion around Pierskalla and Hollenbach’s recent research on mobile phones and conflict risk. Given the successful, high profile uses of mobile phone-based violence prevention in Kenya I will identify a set of political and social factors that contribute to the success of crowdsourcing programs that use mobile phones, and explain what makes them transferable across cases for conflict prevention in other countries. The primary findings are that a population must prefer non-violence since technology is a magnifier of human intent, that the events of violence start and stop relative to specific events, the population knows to use their phones to share information about potential violence, and that there are third party actors involved in collecting and validating the crowdsourced data.

  1. Hepatotoxicity associated with sulfasalazine in inflammatory arthritis: A case series from a local surveillance of serious adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous reporting systems for adverse drug reactions (ADRs are handicapped by under-reporting and limited detail on individual cases. We report an investigation from a local surveillance for serious adverse drug reactions associated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs that was triggered by the occurrence of liver failure in two of our patients. Methods Serious ADR reports have been solicited from local clinicians by regular postcards over the past seven years. Patients', who had hepatotoxicity on sulfasalazine and met a definition of a serious ADR, were identified. Two clinicians reviewed structured case reports and assessed causality by consensus and by using a causality assessment instrument. The likely frequency of hepatotoxicity with sulfasalazine was estimated by making a series of conservative assumptions. Results Ten cases were identified: eight occurred during surveillance. Eight patients were hospitalised, two in hepatic failure – one died after a liver transplant. All but one event occurred within 6 weeks of treatment. Seven patients had a skin rash, three eosinophilia and one interstitial nephritis. Five patients were of Black British of African or Caribbean descent. Liver enzymes showed a hepatocellular pattern in four cases and a mixed pattern in six. Drug-related hepatotoxicity was judged probable or highly probable in 8 patients. The likely frequency of serious hepatotoxicity with sulfasalazine was estimated at 0.4% of treated patients. Conclusion Serious hepatotoxicity associated with sulfasalazine appears to be under-appreciated and intensive monitoring and vigilance in the first 6 weeks of treatment is especially important.

  2. UBICOMP-KAIZEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoch, Odilo

    This paper describes the successful development of a design supporting method called ‘Ubicomp-Kaizen’ for the design of computer-integrated ‘smart’ buildings. The tool uses known methods of quality-management of the car-manufacturing industry and integrates them into the architectural design...

  3. 飞跃KAIZEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    这期杂志我们开始与世界顶级发型时尚机构TONI&GUY共同合作推出本专栏,在以后的杂志中我将陆续给大家介绍世界上顶级的发型研发机构TONI&GUY推出的最新时尚前沿的发型设计作品,希望,众多时装设计师在这里能为您下一季的发布找到发型设计新的灵感,受到更多时尚人士喜爱。

  4. A case study of outlier event on solar irradiance forecasts from the two NWPs with different horizontal resolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohtake Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV power generation is directly effected by global horizontal irradiance (GHI and has also large variations in spatial and/or temporal scales. For a safety control of an energy management system (EMS, a day-ahead forecast or several hour forecast of solar irradiance by a numerical weather prediction model (NWP becomes important for a control of reserve capacity (thermal power generation, etc.. In particular, a large forecast error of PV power and/or GHI forecasts has to be prevented in the EMS. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA developed two NWPs with different horizontal resolutions. First one is a mesoscale model with horizontal grid spacing of 5 km and second one is a local forecast model with that of 2 km. The two NWPs have been used as an operational model in JMA. In this study, GHI forecasts obtained from the two models are validated and conducted a case study for large forecast error (outlier events case of GHI.

  5. The investigation of form and processes in the coastal zone under extreme storm events - the case study of Rethymno, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afentoulis, Vasileios; Mohammadi, Bijan; Tsoukala, Vasiliki

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a significant geographical and particular region, since it gathers a wide range of social-human's activities and appears to be a complex as well as fragile system of natural variables. Coastal communities are increasingly at risk from serious coastal hazards, such as shoreline erosion and flooding related to extreme hydro-meteorological events: storm surges, heavy precipitation, tsunamis and tides. In order to investigate the impact of these extreme events on the coastal zone, it is necessary to describe the driving mechanisms which contribute to its destabilization and more precisely the interaction between the wave forces and the transport of sediment. The aim of the present study is to examine the capability of coastal zone processes simulation under extreme wave events, using numerical models, in the coastal area of Rethymno, Greece. Rethymno city is one of the eleven case study areas of PEARL (Preparing for Extreme And Rare events in coastal regions) project, an EU funded research project, which aims at developing adaptive risk management strategies for coastal communities focusing on extreme hydro-meteorological events, with a multidisciplinary approach integrating social, environmental and technical research and innovation so as to increase the resilience of coastal regions all over the world. Within this framework, three different numerical models have been used: the MIKE 21 - DHI, the XBeach model and a numerical formulation for sea bed evolution, developed by Afaf Bouharguane and Bijan Mohammadi (2013). For the determination of the wave and hydrodynamic conditions, as well as the assessment of the sediment transport components, the MIKE 21 SW and the MIKE 21 FM modules have been applied and the bathymetry of Rethymno is arranged into a 2D unstructured mesh. This method of digitalization was selected because of its ability to easily represent the complex geometry of the coastal zone. It allows smaller scale wave characteristics to be

  6. Discrete-Event Simulation Modeling of the Repairable Inventory Process to Enhance the ARGCS Business Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Discrete-Event Simulation Modeling of the Repairable...TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Discrete-Event Simulation Modeling of the Repairable Inventory Process to...Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration; Agile Rapid Global Combat Support; Discrete- Event Simulation Modeling of the Repairable Inventory Process to

  7. Work-related psychosocial events as triggers of sick leave - results from a Swedish case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholm Christina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although illness is an important cause of sick leave, it has also been suggested that non-medical risk factors may influence this association. If such factors impact on the period of decision making, they should be considered as triggers. Yet, there is no empirical support available. The aim was to investigate whether recent exposure to work-related psychosocial events can trigger the decision to report sick when ill. Methods A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a Swedish cohort of 1 430 employees with a 3-12 month follow-up of new sick-leave spells. Exposure in a case period corresponding to an induction period of one or two days was compared with exposure during control periods sampled from workdays during a two-week period prior to sick leave for the same individual. This was done according to the matched-pair interval and the usual frequency approaches. Results are presented as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Most sick-leave spells happened in relation to acute, minor illnesses that substantially reduced work ability. The risk of taking sick leave was increased when individuals had recently been exposed to problems in their relationship with a superior (OR 3.63; CI 1.44-9.14 or colleagues (OR 4.68; CI 1.43-15.29. Individuals were also more inclined to report sick on days when they expected a very stressful work situation than on a day when they were not under such stress (OR 2.27; CI 1.40-3.70. Conclusions Exposure to problems in workplace relationships or a stressful work situation seems to be able to trigger reporting sick. Psychosocial work-environmental factors appear to have a short-term effect on individuals when deciding to report sick.

  8. Internal stakeholders perspectives in a cultural event: The Case of Noc Noc, Guimarães - Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa R. Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the significant impact that cultural events may have in local communities and their inherent organization complexity, it is important to understand their specificities. Most of the times cultural events disregard marketing and often marketing is distant from art. Thus an analysis of an internal marketing perspective might bring significant returns to the organization of such an event. This paper considers the three editions (2011, 2012 and 2013 of a cultural event – Noc Noc – organized by a local association in the city of Guimarães, Portugal. Its format is based in analogous events, as Noc Noc intends to convert everyday spaces (homes, commercial outlets and a number of other buildings into cultural spaces, organized and transformed by artists, hosts and audiences. By interviewing a sample of people (20 who have hosted this cultural event, sometimes doubling as artists, and by experiencing the three editions of the event, this paper analyses how the internal stakeholders understand this particular cultural event, analyzing specifically their motivations, ways of acting and participating, as well as their relationship with the public, with the organization of the event and with art in general. Results support that the motivations of artists and hosts must be identified in a timely and appropriate moment, as well as their views of this particular cultural event, in order to keep them participating, since low budget cultural events such as this one may have a key role in small cities.

  9. Cortical Auditory Disorders: A Case of Non-Verbal Disturbances Assessed with Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the auditory modality, there has been a considerable debate about some aspects of cortical disorders, especially about auditory forms of agnosia. Agnosia refers to an impaired comprehension of sensory information in the absence of deficits in primary sensory processes. In the non-verbal domain, sound agnosia and amusia have been reported but are frequently accompanied by language deficits whereas pure deficits are rare. Absolute pitch and musicians’ musical abilities have been associated with left hemispheric functions. We report the case of a right handed sound engineer with the absolute pitch who developed sound agnosia and amusia in the absence of verbal deficits after a right perisylvian stroke. His disabilities were assessed with the Seashore Test of Musical Functions, the tests of Wertheim and Botez (Wertheim and Botez, Brain 84, 1961, 19–30 and by event-related potentials (ERP recorded in a modified 'oddball paradigm’. Auditory ERP revealed a dissociation between the amplitudes of the P3a and P3b subcomponents with the P3b being reduced in amplitude while the P3a was undisturbed. This is interpreted as reflecting disturbances in target detection processes as indexed by the P3b. The findings that contradict some aspects of current knowledge about left/right hemispheric specialization in musical processing are discussed and related to the literature concerning cortical auditory disorders.

  10. Rheumatic immune-related adverse events of checkpoint therapy for cancer: case series of a new nosological entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, C; Kirchner, E; Kontzias, K; Velcheti, V; Calabrese, L H

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer with checkpoint inhibitors has been associated with a spectrum of autoimmune and systemic inflammatory reactions known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Rheumatic irAEs are infrequently reported and extensively described. Here, we report our experience over an 18-month period with 15 patients evaluated in the rheumatology department for rheumatic irAEs. We identified 13 patients without pre-existing autoimmune disease (AID) who subsequently developed rheumatic irAEs, and two with established AID referred pre-emptively. irAEs encountered included: inflammatory arthritis, sicca syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica-like symptoms and myositis. All cases required glucocorticoids, and three required a biological agent. Rheumatic irAEs led to temporary or permanent cessation of immunotherapy in all but five patients. One patient with pre-existing AID experienced a flare after starting immunotherapy. Our findings underscore that rheumatic irAEs are complex, at times require additional immunosuppressive therapy, and may influence ongoing immunotherapy regimens for the primary disease. Similar irAEs will be increasingly seen as checkpoint inhibitors adopted as standard of care in the community.

  11. EL KAIZEN COMO UN SISTEMA ACTUAL DE GESTIÓN PERSONAL PARA EL ÉXITO ORGANIZACIONAL EN LA EMPRESA ENSAMBLADORA TOYOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chirinos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La investigación propone estrategias kaizen para la mejora de estándares tecnológicos, gerenciales y operacionales en la empresa Toyota ubicada en Cumaná, estado Sucre. Es una investigación no experimental, de campo de carácter descriptivo. El análisis se enmarcó dentro de la estadística descriptiva, así como las proyecciones de la población en estudio, los encuestados revelaron tendencias y comportamiento de las opiniones emitidas en relación a las metodologías para diagnosticar las necesidades de aplicaciones de los ciclos PDCA/SDCA, como vehículo político para el mantenimiento y mejoramiento de los estándares empleados. Se concluye que es imprescindible efectuar una revisión de los indicadores que se encuentran en el nivel Requieren Atención, hasta que se logre indicadores definitivamente en otra escala positiva.

  12. Predictors of adverse events after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: A meta-analysis of case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlösser Felix JV

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is a life-saving intervention. Nevertheless, complications have a major impact. We review the evidence from case reports for risk factors of complications after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Case presentation We selected case reports from PubMed reporting original data on adverse events after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Extracted risk factors were: age, sex, aneurysm diameter, comorbidities, re-interventions, at least one follow-up visit being missed or refusal of a re-intervention by the patient. Extracted outcomes were: death, rupture and (non-device-related complications. In total 113 relevant articles were selected. These reported on 173 patients. A fatal outcome was reported in 15% (N = 26 of which 50% came after an aneurysm rupture (N = 13. Non-fatal aneurysm rupture occurred in 15% (N = 25. Endoleaks were reported in 52% of the patients (N = 90. In half of the patients with a rupture no prior endoleak was discovered during follow-up. In 83% of the patients one or more re-interventions were performed (N = 143. Mortality was higher among women (risk ratio 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.0, while the presence of comorbidities was strongly associated with both ruptures (risk ratio 1.6; 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 2.9 and mortality (risk ratio 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 4.7. Missing one or more follow-up visits (≥1 or refusal of a re-intervention by the patient was strongly related to both ruptures (risk ratio 4.7; 95% confidence interval 3.1 to 7.0 and mortality (risk ratio 3.8; 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 8.3. Conclusion Female gender, the presence of comorbidities and at least one follow-up visit being missed or refusal of a re-intervention by the patient appear to increase the risk for mortality after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Larger aneurysm diameter, higher age and multimorbidity at the time

  13. Psychosocial factors during the first year after a coronary heart disease event in cases and referents. Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Health Care Project (SUPRIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toss Henrik

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of studies have reported on the psychosocial risk factor pattern prior to coronary heart disease events, but few have investigated the situation during the first year after an event, and none has been controlled. We therefore performed a case-referent study in which the prevalence of a number of psychosocial factors was evaluated. Methods Three hundred and forty-six coronary heart disease male and female cases no more than 75 years of age, discharged from hospital within the past 12 months, and 1038 referents from the general population, matched to the cases by age, sex and place of living, received a postal questionnaire in which information on lifestyle, psychosocial and quality of life measures were sought. Results The cases were, as expected, on sick leave to a larger extent than the referents, reported poorer fitness, poorer perceived health, fewer leisure time activities, but unexpectedly reported better social support, and more optimistic views of the future than the referents. There were no significant case-referent differences in everyday life stress, stressful life events, vital exhaustion, depressive mood, coping or life orientation test. However, women reported less favourable situations than men regarding stressful life events affecting others, vital exhaustion, depressive mood, coping, self-esteem, sleep, and symptom reporting, and female cases reported the most unfavourable situation of all groups. Conclusion In this first controlled study of the situation during the first year after a CHD event disease and gender status both appeared to be determinants of psychological well-being, with gender status apparently the strongest. This may have implications for cardiac rehabilitation programmes.

  14. Leveraging Small-Scale Sport Events: Challenges of Organising, Delivering and Managing Sustainable Outcomes in Rural Communities, the Case of Gorski kotar, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Perić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports and events play an important role in local identity building and creating a sense of community that encourages participation and increases social capital. Rural communities are specific areas with special needs and can face challenges and restraints when it comes to event organisation. The purpose of this paper is to identify organisational challenges and analyse the potential to achieving long-term sustainable social and economic outcomes linked to small-scale sports events in rural communities. Organisational challenges of rural communities in terms of organising sport events are examined and discussed using the framework of event leveraging developed by O’Brien and Chalip. This methodology is applied and discussed to a case study focusing on small-scale winter sport events in rural Croatia. Semi-structured interviews with local organisers were conducted in order to collect data on the overall event organisation and management, local coordination, role of community stakeholders and challenges facing strategic planning, with the intent to identify objectives for future events. Results were discussed independently and in the context of the leverage framework, with reflection on its applicability to rural communities as the event organisers. Recommendations are provided based on critical insight from the literature and are oriented on how to streamline the process of organising, delivering and managing of events in remote rural communities. Finally, the idea of inter-community organisation is proposed to ensure long-term social and economic benefits and to address the existing issues of overlapping of stakeholder categories, mixed objectives, distrust among stakeholders and inefficiently used local resources.

  15. Identification of Adverse Drug Events from Free Text Electronic Patient Records and Information in a Large Mental Health Case Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtesham Iqbal

    Full Text Available Electronic healthcare records (EHRs are a rich source of information, with huge potential for secondary research use. The aim of this study was to develop an application to identify instances of Adverse Drug Events (ADEs from free text psychiatric EHRs.We used the GATE Natural Language Processing (NLP software to mine instances of ADEs from free text content within the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS system, a de-identified psychiatric case register developed at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK. The tool was built around a set of four movement disorders (extrapyramidal side effects [EPSEs] related to antipsychotic therapy and rules were then generalised such that the tool could be applied to additional ADEs. We report the frequencies of recorded EPSEs in patients diagnosed with a Severe Mental Illness (SMI and then report performance in identifying eight other unrelated ADEs.The tool identified EPSEs with >0.85 precision and >0.86 recall during testing. Akathisia was found to be the most prevalent EPSE overall and occurred in the Asian ethnic group with a frequency of 8.13%. The tool performed well when applied to most of the non-EPSEs but least well when applied to rare conditions such as myocarditis, a condition that appears frequently in the text as a side effect warning to patients.The developed tool allows us to accurately identify instances of a potential ADE from psychiatric EHRs. As such, we were able to study the prevalence of ADEs within subgroups of patients stratified by SMI diagnosis, gender, age and ethnicity. In addition we demonstrated the generalisability of the application to other ADE types by producing a high precision rate on a non-EPSE related set of ADE containing documents.The application can be found at http://git.brc.iop.kcl.ac.uk/rmallah/dystoniaml.

  16. A Regional Ensemble Forecast System for Stratiform Precipitation Events in Northern China.Part Ⅰ: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jiangshan; Fanyou KONG; LEI Hengchi

    2012-01-01

    A single-model,short-range,ensemble forecasting system (Institute of Atmospheric Physics,Regional Ensemble Forecast System,IAP REFS) with 15-km grid spacing,configured with multiple initial conditions,multiple lateral boundary conditions,and multiple physics parameterizations with 11 ensemble members,was developed using the Weather and Research Forecasting Model Advanced Research modeling system for prediction of stratiform precipitation events in northern China.This is the first part of a broader research project to develop a novel cloud-seeding operational system in a probabilistic framework.The ensemble perturbations were extracted from selected members of the National Center for Environmental Prediction Global Ensemble Forecasting System (NCEP GEFS) forecasts,and an inflation factor of two was applied to compensate for the lack of spread in the GEFS forecasts over the research region.Experiments on an actual stratiform precipitation case that occurred on 5-7 June 2009 in northern China were conducted to validate the ensemble system.The IAP REFS system had reasonably good performance in predicting the observed stratiform precipitation system.The perturbation inflation enlarged the ensemble spread and alleviated the underdispersion caused by parent forecasts.Centering the extracted perturbations on higher-resolution NCEP Global Forecast System forecasts resulted in less ensemble mean root-mean-square error and better accuracy in probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts (PQPF).However,the perturbation inflation and recentering had less effect on near-surface-level variables compared to the mid-level variables,and its influence on PQPF resolution was limited as well.

  17. Adverse Respiratory Events Associated With Hypnotics Use in Patients of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Sheng; Lai, Ching-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    Insomnia is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the effects of hypnotics on the risk of adverse respiratory events in patients with COPD.The case-control study was investigated using data retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with newly diagnosed adverse respiratory events (pneumonia, COPD with acute exacerbation, acute respiratory failure, and cardiopulmonary arrest) were included in the case group. Patients with COPD and no history of adverse respiratory events were randomly selected for the control group, which was frequency-matched with the case group according to index date, age (per 10 years), and sex. Patients who had used hypnotics within 1 month meant active users. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of were calculated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models.Most of the study participants were male (71.6%), and the mean ages of the participants in the case and control groups were 69.2 (±12.4) and 67.5 (±12.3) years, respectively. After potential confounding factors were adjusting for, the adjusted ORs of adverse respiratory events were 12.0 for active users of benzodiazepines (95% CI, 8.11-17.6) and 10.5 for active users of nonbenzodiazepines (95% CI, 7.68-14.2) compared with the adjusted ORs of those who never used hypnotics.The results of this epidemiological study suggested that hypnotics increased the risk of adverse respiratory events in patients with COPD.

  18. U.S. Marine Corps Communication-Electronics School Training Process: Discrete-Event Simulation and Lean Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    acknowledged that Continuous Improvement (CI), or Kaizen in Japanese, is practiced in some way, shape, or form by most if not all Fortune 500 companies...greater resistance in the individualistic U.S. culture. Kaizen generally involves methodical examination and testing, followed by the adoption of new...or streamlined procedures, including scrupulous measurement and changes based on statistical deviation formulas. Kaizen appears to be a perfect fit

  19. The microlensing events in Q2237+0305A no case against small masses\\/large sources

    CERN Document Server

    Haugan, S V H

    1995-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the 1988-90 microlensing events in image A of Q2237+0305 reported by Racine (1992) do not exclude microlensing models with very low average mass, making the source radius larger than the projected Einstein radius \\eta_0 (Refsdal and Stabell 1991 1993). This is contrary to what has been claimed by Witt and Mao (1994). Since these events are the best resolved microlensing events recorded in Q2237+0305, further work should not exclude the possibility of a large source when interpreting lightcurve data.

  20. Ownership of sporting events and their impact on the news: the case of Antena 3, La 1 and Telecinco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén GALLARDO PARRÓN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research has been concerned with the treatment given in the sports section of your information leading national TV channels hearing to consider whether prioritize information dew sporting events whose allowances have. There is also an interest in knowing about that sports are reported and confirm whether there is a difference between public television news and news of the private channels. It has been confirmed that there are clear differences in the coverage of sporting events offered by broadcasters, depending on whether the channel has ownership of the allowances of the event. It was also found that La 1 ofree more sports news in their news and is not limited to reporting on sports events that ratings hoard.

  1. The impact of the lookback period and definition of confirmatory events on the identification of incident cancer cases in administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czwikla, Jonas; Jobski, Kathrin; Schink, Tania

    2017-08-14

    This cohort study examined the impact of the lengths of lookback and confirmation periods as well as the definition of confirmatory events on the number of incident cancer cases identified and age-standardized cumulative incidences (ACI) estimated in administrative data using German cancer registry data as a benchmark. ACI per 100,000 insured persons for breast, prostate and colorectal cancer were estimated using BARMER Statutory Health Insurance claims data. Incident cancer cases were defined as having an in- or outpatient diagnosis in 2013, no diagnosis in a lookback period of 1 year and a second diagnosis (or death) in a confirmation period of 1 quarter. We varied lookback periods from 1 to 7 years, confirmation periods from 1 to 4 quarters as well as the definition of confirmatory events and compared ACI estimates to cancer registry data. ACI were higher for breast (138.7) and prostate (103.6) but lower for colorectal cancer (42.1) when compared to cancer registries (119.3, 98.0 and 45.5, respectively). Extending the lookback period to 7 years reduced ACI to 129.0, 95.1 and 38.3. An extended confirmation period of 4 quarters increased ACI to 151.3, 114.9 and 46.8. Including breast and colorectal surgeries as a confirmatory event reduced ACI to 114.9 and 37.1, respectively. The choice of lookback and confirmation periods and the definition of confirmatory events have considerable impact on the number of incident cancer cases identified and ACI estimated. Researchers need to be aware of potential misclassification when identifying incident cancer cases in administrative data. Further validation studies as well as studies using administrative data to estimate cancer incidences should consider several choices of the lookback and confirmation periods and the definition of confirmatory events to show how these parameters impact the validity and robustness of their results.

  2. Life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life in attempted suicide: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P. N. Suresh; George, Biju

    2013-01-01

    Background: Though deliberate self-harm encompasses a wide variety of medical and social disciplines some of the important psychosocial variable such as life events, social support, coping strategies, and quality of life have not yet been explored in depth in India. Aims: The aim was to analyze and compare the type and severity of life events, coping strategies, social support, and quality of life of suicide attempters versus matched normal controls, and to identify the risk factors leading t...

  3. Ownership of sporting events and their impact on the news: the case of Antena 3, La 1 and Telecinco

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén GALLARDO PARRÓN; Manuel MONTES VOZMEDIANO

    2015-01-01

    This research has been concerned with the treatment given in the sports section of your information leading national TV channels hearing to consider whether prioritize information dew sporting events whose allowances have. There is also an interest in knowing about that sports are reported and confirm whether there is a difference between public television news and news of the private channels. It has been confirmed that there are clear differences in the coverage of sporting events offered b...

  4. Special Considerations for Mass Violence Events in Senior Living Facilities: A Case Report on the Pinelake Health and Rehab Center Shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cody; Powell, David

    2017-02-01

    The 2009 Pinelake Health and Rehab Center shooting in Carthage, North Carolina, presents a unique case study for examining the specific considerations for mass violence events in senior living facilities. A variety of factors, including reduced sensory perception, reduced mobility, and cognitive decline, may increase the vulnerability of the populations of senior living facilities during mass violence events. Management of response aspects such as evacuation, relocation, and reunification also require special consideration in the context of mass violence at senior living facilities. Better awareness of these vulnerabilities and response considerations can assist facility administrators and emergency managers when preparing for potential mass violence events at senior living facilities. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:150-152).

  5. Improved understanding of an extreme rainfall event at the Himalayan foothills – a case study using COSMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Shrestha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an increased occurrence of loss and damage of property and human casualties over the southern rim area of the Himalayas, caused by landslides following intense rainfall events, has been reported. An analysis of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM-gridded rainfall data shows that events with an exceedance probability of 1.6% for 200 mm/d rainfall are common over this region during the monsoon season. An improved understanding of the mechanisms, which lead to such events, is important for their prediction and to estimate the impact of climate change on their recurrence. In this study, we analyse such an extreme precipitation event, which hit the Uttarakhand region of the central Himalayas on 13 September 2012. We use the operational regional weather forecast model COSMO at a convection-permitting resolution of 2.8 km to simulate this event. The spatial pattern of daily-accumulated precipitation and atmospheric state profiles simulated by the model compared well with the TRMM-gridded data and radiosonde observations, which adds confidence to our model results. Our analysis suggests a three-step mechanism leading to this event: (1 development of an easterly low-level wind along the Gangetic Plain caused by a low pressure system over the central Gangetic Plain; (2 convergence of moisture over the north-western part of India, leading to an increase of potential instability of the air mass along the valley recesses, which is capped by an inversion located above the ridgeline; and (3 strengthening of the north-westerly flow above the ridges, which supports the lifting of the potentially unstable air over the protruding ridge of the foothills of the Himalayas and triggers shallow convection, which on passing through adjacent folds initiates deep convection.

  6. Using Web Crawler Technology for Geo-Events Analysis: A Case Study of the Huangyan Island Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Social networking and network socialization provide abundant text information and social relationships into our daily lives. Making full use of these data in the big data era is of great significance for us to better understand the changing world and the information-based society. Though politics have been integrally involved in the hyperlinked world issues since the 1990s, the text analysis and data visualization of geo-events faced the bottleneck of traditional manual analysis. Though automatic assembly of different geospatial web and distributed geospatial information systems utilizing service chaining have been explored and built recently, the data mining and information collection are not comprehensive enough because of the sensibility, complexity, relativity, timeliness, and unexpected characteristics of political events. Based on the framework of Heritrix and the analysis of web-based text, word frequency, sentiment tendency, and dissemination path of the Huangyan Island incident were studied by using web crawler technology and the text analysis. The results indicate that tag cloud, frequency map, attitudes pie, individual mention ratios, and dissemination flow graph, based on the crawled information and data processing not only highlight the characteristics of geo-event itself, but also implicate many interesting phenomenon and deep-seated problems behind it, such as related topics, theme vocabularies, subject contents, hot countries, event bodies, opinion leaders, high-frequency vocabularies, information sources, semantic structure, propagation paths, distribution of different attitudes, and regional difference of net citizens’ response in the Huangyan Island incident. Furthermore, the text analysis of network information with the help of focused web crawler is able to express the time-space relationship of crawled information and the information characteristic of semantic network to the geo-events. Therefore, it is a useful tool to

  7. Use of a prescribed ephedrine/caffeine combination and the risk of serious cardiovascular events: a registry-based case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Jesper; Bjerrum, Lars; Støvring, Henrik; Andersen, Morten

    2008-10-15

    Ephedrine and herbal ephedra preparations have been shown to induce a small-to-moderate weight loss. Owing to reports on serious cardiovascular events, they were banned from the US market in 2004. There have been no large controlled studies on the possible association between prescribed ephedrine/caffeine and cardiovascular events in general. The authors linked data from four different sources within Statistics Denmark, using data on 257,364 users of prescribed ephedrine/caffeine for the period 1995-2002. The data were analyzed using a case-crossover technique with a composite endpoint: death outside of a hospital, myocardial infarction, or stroke. To account for effects of chronic exposure and effects in naïve users, the authors performed a secondary case-control study nested within the cohort of ephedrine/caffeine ever users. Among 2,316 case subjects, 282 (12.2%) were current users of ephedrine/caffeine. The case-crossover analysis yielded an odds ratio of 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.00); after adjustment for trends in ephedrine/caffeine use, it was 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.79, 1.16). Subgroup analyses revealed no strata with significantly elevated risk. In the case-control substudy, there was no increased risk among naïve users or users with large cumulative doses. Prescribed ephedrine/caffeine was not associated with a substantially increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in this study.

  8. Case Study of Particle Number Fluxes and Size Distributions during Nucleation Events in Southeastern Italy in the Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Conte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations, size distributions and particle number vertical turbulent fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance method at an urban background site in southeastern Italy during the summer. CO2/H2O concentrations and fluxes were also determined together with meteorological parameters. Time series show that particles could be divided into two size classes with negatively-correlated temporal trends in diurnal hours: nanoparticles (diameter Dp < 50 nm and larger particles (Dp > 50 nm. Larger particles include part of the Aitken mode and the accumulation mode. Nanoparticles peaked in diurnal hours due to the presence of several days with nucleation events when particles Dp > 50 nm were at minimum concentrations. Nucleation increased diurnal total particle concentration by a factor of 2.5, reducing mean and median diameters from Dmean = 62.3 ± 1.2 nm and Dmedian = 29.1 ± 1.3 nm on non-event days to Dmean = 35.4 ± 0.6 nm and Dmedian = 15.5 ± 0.3 nm on event days. During nucleation events, particle deposition increased markedly (i.e., downward fluxes, but no significant changes in CO2 concentrations and fluxes were observed. This is compatible with new particle formation above the measurement height and a consequent net transport towards the surface. Correlation with meteorology shows that the formation of new particles is correlated with solar radiation and favored at high wind velocity.

  9. Global sport mega-events and the politics of mobility: the case of the London 2012 Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Armstrong, Gary; Hales, Gavin; Hobbs, Dick

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the politics of mobility which surrounded the London 2012 Olympics. We provide a critical discussion of the mobility conflicts, problems and criticisms which emerged from our research with local people in the Stratford and wider Newham areas of London, where most Olympic events were located. The paper is divided into four broad parts. First, we identify and discuss the relevant components of the 'mobilities paradigm' in social science which underpin our analysis. Second, we briefly outline our research methods, centring particularly on fieldwork and interviews with different social groups. Third, we examine in detail the six main themes of mobility politics which were evident at London 2012, relating to social context, event construction, event mobility systems, commercial mobilities, the mobile politics of exclusion, and contested modes of mobility. In doing so, we seek to extend the mobilities paradigm by introducing various concepts and keywords - notably on the three-speed city, entryability, mobility panics, instrumental mobility, and corporate kettling - which may be utilized by social scientists to examine mobility systems in other social contexts. We conclude by reaffirming the significance of mobility-focused research at sport and other mega-events, and by indicating future lines of inquiry for social scientists.

  10. Risk factors and antecedent life events in the development of anorexia nervosa : A Portuguese case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia F.; Martins, Carla; Hoek, Hans W.; Machado, Paulo P.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveThe aetiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is considered to be multifactorial. This study aims to identify potential risk factors for AN and whether these factors are specific to AN or precede the development of psychiatric disorders in general and to identify specific life events in the 12mont

  11. Case study of extreme aerosol pollution events in the Paris area by synergy between optical measurements from multiple platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totems, Julien; Chazette, Patrick; Royer, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Major pollution events encountered in the Paris area are mainly due to anticyclonic conditions where air masses are blocked and recycled (horizontal wind speed less than 1 m.s-1) or advected from northestern Europe. Such events with aerosol optical thickness larger than 0.4 at 355 nm have been documented by in situ sensors (AirParif network), ground-based sunphotometers (Aeronet network) and fixed and mobile ground-based Rayleigh-Mie lidars. The first studied event occurred during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) summer experiment, on July 1st, 2009. Another favorable period for major pollution events is the spring season and we have highlighted two of them using the opportunity given by lidar experimental tests at LSCE in march 2011. Ground-based observations have been complemented by spaceborne measurements from MODIS and CALIPSO/CALIOP that give information on the spatial extent of the pollution plume in 3 dimensions. From this instrumental synergy we determine the aerosol optical properties (extinction coefficients in the atmospheric column, optical thickness, lidar ratio, ...). The probable aerosol sources have also been investigated using back-trajectories analyses computed by the HYSPLIT model (http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php) ; they lie in the French Lorraine, Benelux, and German Saarland and Ruhr industrialized regions.

  12. Using Web Crawler Technology for Text Analysis of Geo-Events: A Case Study of the Huangyan Island Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Ge, Y. J.

    2013-11-01

    With the social networking and network socialisation have brought more text information and social relationships into our daily lives, the question of whether big data can be fully used to study the phenomenon and discipline of natural sciences has prompted many specialists and scholars to innovate their research. Though politics were integrally involved in the hyperlinked word issues since 1990s, automatic assembly of different geospatial web and distributed geospatial information systems utilizing service chaining have explored and built recently, the information collection and data visualisation of geo-events have always faced the bottleneck of traditional manual analysis because of the sensibility, complexity, relativity, timeliness and unexpected characteristics of political events. Based on the framework of Heritrix and the analysis of web-based text, word frequency, sentiment tendency and dissemination path of the Huangyan Island incident is studied here by combining web crawler technology and the text analysis method. The results indicate that tag cloud, frequency map, attitudes pie, individual mention ratios and dissemination flow graph based on the data collection and processing not only highlight the subject and theme vocabularies of related topics but also certain issues and problems behind it. Being able to express the time-space relationship of text information and to disseminate the information regarding geo-events, the text analysis of network information based on focused web crawler technology can be a tool for understanding the formation and diffusion of web-based public opinions in political events.

  13. Spatially distributed modelling of surface water-groundwater exchanges during overbank flood events - a case study at the Garonne River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Brito, David; Sun, Xiaoling; Jauch, Eduardo; Neves, Ramiro; Sauvage, Sabine; Sánchez-Pérez, José-Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Exchanges between surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) are of considerable importance to floodplain ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. Flood events in particular are important for riparian water budget and element exchanges and processing. However SW-GW exchanges present complex spatial and temporal patterns and modelling can provide useful knowledge about the processes involved at the scale of the reach and its adjacent floodplain. This study used a physically-based, spatially-distributed modelling approach for studying SW-GW exchanges. The modelling in this study is based on the MOHID Land model, combining the modelling of surface water flow in 2D with the Saint-Venant equation and the modelling of unsaturated groundwater flow in 3D with the Richards' equation. Overbank flow during floods was also integrated, as well as water exchanges between the two domains across the entire floodplain. Conservative transport simulations were also performed to study and validate the simulation of the mixing between surface water and groundwater. The model was applied to the well-monitored study site of Monbéqui (6.6 km²) in the Garonne floodplain (south-west France) for a five-month period and was able to represent the hydrology of the study area. Infiltration (SW to GW) and exfiltration (SW to GW) were characterised over the five-month period. Results showed that infiltration and exfiltration exhibited strong spatiotemporal variations, and infiltration from overbank flow accounted for 88% of the total simulated infiltration, corresponding to large flood periods. The results confirmed that overbank flood events played a determinant role in floodplain water budget and SW-GW exchanges compared to smaller (below bankfull) flood events. The impact of floods on water budget appeared to be similar for flood events exceeding a threshold corresponding to the five-year return period event due to the study area's topography. Simulation of overbank flow during flood events was an

  14. Toward enhanced capability for detecting and predicting dust events in the western United States: the Arizona case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M.; Tong, D.; Lee, P.; Pan, L.; Tang, Y.; Stajner, I.; Pierce, R. B.; McQueen, J.; Wang, J.

    2015-11-01

    Dust aerosols affect human life, ecosystems, atmospheric chemistry and climate in various aspects. Some studies have revealed intensified dust activity in the western US during the past decades despite the weaker dust activity in non-US regions. It is important to extend the historical dust records, to better understand their temporal changes, and to use such information to improve the daily dust forecasting skill as well as the projection of future dust activity under the changing climate. This study develops dust records in Arizona in 2005-2013 using multiple observation data sets, including in situ measurements at the surface Air Quality System (AQS) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sites, and level 2 deep blue aerosol product by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The diurnal and inter-annual variability of identified dust events are shown related to observed weather patterns (e.g., wind and soil moisture) and surface conditions (e.g., land cover type and vegetation conditions), suggesting a potential for use of satellite soil moisture and land products to help interpret and predict dust activity. Backtrajectories computed using NOAA's Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model indicate that the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts are important dust source regions during identified dust events in Phoenix, Arizona. Finally, we assess the impact of a recent strong dust event on western US air quality, using various observational and modeling data sets, during a period with a stratospheric ozone intrusion event. The capability of the current US National Air Quality Forecasting Capability (NAQFC) Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to represent the magnitude and the temporal variability of aerosol concentrations is evaluated for this event. Directions for integrating observations to further improve dust emission modeling in CMAQ are also suggested.

  15. Case study of the Asian dust and pollutant event in spring 2006: source, transport, and contribution to Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fujung; Tu, Jien-Yi; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Nai

    2014-04-15

    Surface measurements and a regional dust model were used to analyze the source, transport, and contribution of a dust event transporting with aerosol pollutant over Taiwan from 16 to 19 March, 2006. During the event, the hourly aerosol concentrations reached close to 400 μg m(-3) in northern Taiwan, and approximately 300 μg m(-3) in other areas of the island. Trajectory and regional dust models show that the dust event originated in eastern Mongolia and northern China, and the dust layer can descend from 2 to 3 km in the source area to below 1.5 km over Taiwan. On the other hand, model results show that pollution was transported near the surface from coastal China to Taiwan. During this dust event, polluted aerosol was first observed over northern Taiwan right after a frontal passage, and the concentration was strongly enhanced following the passage of the light rainfall 12h later. The descent of dusty air from the free troposphere lagged the arrival of polluted air by 7h, and was partially mixed with polluted aerosol when the transport decelerated over Taiwan. During the event, dust particles accounted for up to 60% of observed particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM10) over Taiwan, but decreased to less than 35% for particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) over most areas of the island. On the other hand, the long-range transport of non-dust aerosols, mainly anthropogenic pollutants, accounted for close to 30% of observed PM10 concentration in northern and western Taiwan prior to dust arrival, and the contribution of PM2.5 increased to close to 40% over the same areas. Local emission of aerosols accounted for less than 25% of PM10 concentrations in northern Taiwan, but was about 60% for PM2.5 in central and southern Taiwan because these areas are less influenced by long-range transport.

  16. The impact of rapid recharge events on the evolution of magma chambers: Case studies of Santorini Volcano (Greece) and Volcan Quizapu (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degruyter, Wim; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Cooper, Kari; Kent, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Magma reservoirs in the crust are thought to be dominantly formed by episodic recharge events at rates that are much larger than the long-term average magma inflow rates. Hence, a better understanding of the evolution of a magma reservoir requires elucidating the mass change, pressurization, heating, deformation and the potential for an eruption associated with different recharge scenarios. Most importantly, the bifurcation in behavior between a recharge event that leads to eruption and one that will grow the chamber requires quantification for better volcanic hazard assessment. We use a numerical model to determine the change in pressure, temperature and volume of a magma chamber as it is exposed to a recharge event. The model is applied to the well-studied volcanic systems of Santorini Volcano (Greece) and Volcan Quizapu (Chile). We establish the rates and the duration of magma recharge events that will lead to an eruption. In doing so, we demonstrate the importance of the state of the magma chamber prior to the recharge event, i.e. its size and exsolved volatile content, on the subsequent evolution of the reservoir. In the case of Santorini, the model successfully reproduces the main features of the Minoan eruption and Nea Kameni activity, providing volume estimates for the active part of the current subvolcanic reservoir as well as information regarding the presence of exsolved volatiles. For Quizapu, we suggest that the change in eruptive style, from an effusive outpouring of lava in 1846-1847 to an explosive Plinian eruption in 1932, was controlled by a shift in the state of the magma chamber induced by the first eruption. These case studies show that thermo-mechanical models offer a new framework to integrate the historic eruption record with geodetic measurements and provide a context to understand the past, present and future of active volcanic centers.

  17. Medical intervention in case of nuclear or radiation event; Intervention medicale en cas d'evenement nucleaire ou radiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J.; Bourguignon, M.; Carli, P.; Carosella, E.; Challeton de Vathaire, C.; Court, L.; Ducousso, R.; Facon, A.; Fleutot, J.B.; Goldstein, P.; Gourmelon, P.; Herbelet, G.; Kolodie, H.; Lallemand, J.; Martin, J.C.; Menthonnex, P.; Masse, R.; Origny, S.; Pasnon, J.; Peton Klein, D.; Rougy, C.; Schoulz, D.; Romet, G.; Telion, C.; Vrousos, C

    2002-07-01

    This guide aims to be a practical tool for intervenors in case of nuclear or radiation accident. It proposes many sheets to favor the reactivity and the implementing of adapted measures. It concerns the course of action to take in case of irradiation accident or contamination and the reception in medical structure or a hospital. (A.L.B.)

  18. The Effect of Global Political Events in the Arab Spring on Stock Returns: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim BOZKURT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available International events or news have an effect on countries’ internal and external policies and since this effect is reflected on the markets, the decisions of domestic and foreign investors are revised continually. This study aims to analyze the effect of international good and bad news related to Iraq, Iran and Syria that are located in the Arab spring region and are border to Turkey, on the returns of ISE-100 index The study utilized event study methodology, international news related to Iraq, Iran and Syria between 2010-2013 and the daily closing price data of MSCI Emerging Markets Index and ISE-100 index between 2010-2013 constituted the dataset. At the end of the study, it was found that only the Iran-related news had effect on ISE-100 index.

  19. Coastal hypoxia diminished by intrusion of open ocean water after long El Nino Events: Case study of Hong Kong waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, H. K.; Chen, C. T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal regions suffer from increasing terrestrial inputs of nutrients and organic matter. Consequently, hypoxia (dissolved oxygen (DO) WPS) seawater. For instance, at station SM18 located south of Hong Kong, the summer DO minimum has generally decreased from a saturation state of about 60% to as low as 5% from 1990 to 2013. The almost anoxic condition occurred in 2011 after a La Nina event. On the other hand, the summer DO minimum reached a high value of 79% in 2004 after a long El Nino event. Meanwhile, seawater at the SEATS site also contained the highest proportion of the WPS water, reflecting the large intrusion of the WPS seawater into the SCS. Such a result illustrates a situation that coastal eutrophication and hypoxia could be worsened when the intrusion of open ocean water decreases, and vice versa.

  20. Application of a Key Events Dose-Response Analysis to Nutrients: A Case Study with Vitamin A (Retinol)

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, A. Catharine; Russell, Robert M.; Miller, Sanford A.; MUNRO, IAN C.; Rodricks, Joseph V.; Yetley, Elizabeth A; JULIEN, ELIZABETH

    2009-01-01

    The methodology used to establish tolerable upper intake levels (UL) for nutrients borrows heavily from risk assessment methods used by toxicologists. Empirical data are used to identify intake levels associated with adverse effects, and Uncertainty Factors (UF) are applied to establish ULs, which in turn inform public health decisions and standards. Use of UFs reflects lack of knowledge regarding the biological events that underlie response to the intake of a given nutrient, and also regardi...

  1. Extreme rainfall events in karst environments: the case study of September 2014 in the Gargano area (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Trabace, Maria; Marchesini, Ivan; Peruccacci, Silvia; Rossi, Mauro; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Parise, Mario; Brunetti, Maria Teresa

    2015-04-01

    In the first week of September 2014, the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, SE Italy) was hit by an extreme rainfall event that caused several landslides, floods and sinkholes. As a consequence of the floods, two people lost their lives and severe socio-economic damages were reported. The highest peaks of rainfall were recorded between September 3rd and 6th at the Cagnano Varano and San Marco in Lamis rain gauges with a maximum daily rainfall (over 230 mm) that is about 30% the mean annual rainfall. The Gargano Promontory is characterized by complex orographic conditions, with the highest elevation of about 1000 m a.s.l. The geological setting consists of different types of carbonate deposits affected by intensive development of karst processes. The morphological and climatic settings of the area, associated with frequent extreme rainfall events can cause various types of geohazards (e.g., landslides, floods, sinkholes). A further element enhancing the natural predisposition of the area to the occurrence of landslides, floods and sinkholes is an intense human activity, characterized by an inappropriate land use and management. In order to obtain consistent and reliable data on the effects produced by the storm, a systematic collection of information through field observations, a critical analysis of newspaper articles and web-news, and a co-operation with the Regional Civil Protection and local geologists started immediately after the event. The information collected has been organized in a database including the location, the occurrence time and the type of geohazard documented with photographs. The September 2014 extreme rainfall event in the Gargano Promontory was also analyzed to validate the forecasts issued by the Italian national early-warning system for rainfall-induced landslides (SANF), developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC). SANF compares rainfall measurements and

  2. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground nuclear explosion events – A case study for Baneberry site

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Singh; S K Sikka; Anil Kakodkar

    2014-02-01

    Seismic signals due to any underground nuclear explosion events are known to be influenced by the local geology of the test site and the yield level. In this paper, transient three-dimensional finite element code SHOCK-3D developed for the simulation of underground nuclear explosion events has been used to obtain synthetic acceleration signals for Baneberry site (Nevada) single and composite rock media. At this site an underground nuclear test of 10 kT conducted on 18th December 1970 at source depth of 278 m resulted into venting as reported by Terhune et al with 2D simulation results and later by us through 3D simulation in Ranjan et al. First, the reasons of the venting for this event are summarized. After the successful validation of the 3D numerical model for Baneberry site rock media, parametric studies are carried out for 1 and 8 kT yields at 100 m depth (Scaled Depths of Burst SDOB ∼ 100 and 50 m/kT1/3, respectively) for homogeneous and composite Paleozoic and Tuff media of Baneberry site. It is demonstrated that the near source local geological formations and associated nonlinear effects significantly influence the seismic signals. With this study the seismic decoupling of the source by an order of magnitude has been illustrated. Finally, it is concluded that the seismic signals alone, in the absence of in-depth information of the local geology of the specific test site, are not appropriate measures of the source strength.

  3. The role of media and the Internet on vaccine adverse event reporting: a case study of human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberth, Jan M; Kline, Kimberly N; Moskowitz, David A; Montealegre, Jane R; Scheurer, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the temporal association of print media coverage and Internet search activity with adverse events reports associated with the human papillomavirus vaccine Gardasil (HPV4) and the meningitis vaccine Menactra (MNQ) among United States adolescents. We used moderated linear regression to test the relationships between print media reports in top circulating newspapers, Internet search activity, and reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for HPV4 and MNQ during the first 2.5 years after Food and Drug Administration approval. Compared with MNQ, HPV4 had more coverage in the print media and Internet search activity, which corresponded with the frequency of VAERS reports. In February 2007, we observed a spike in print media for HPV4. Although media coverage waned, Internet search activity remained stable and predicted the rise in HPV4-associated VAERS reports. We demonstrate that media coverage and Internet search activity, in particular, may promote increased adverse event reporting. Public health officials who have long recognized the importance of proactive engagement with news media must now consider strategies for meaningful participation in Internet discussions. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Event Management

    OpenAIRE

    Havlenová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Event is an experience that is perceived by all the senses. Event management is a process involving the various activities that are assigned to staffers. Organizing special events became an individual field. If the manager understand the events as a communication platform gets into the hands of a modern, multifunctional and very impressive tool. The procedure to implement a successful event in a particular area is part of this work. The first part explains the issues of event management on th...

  5. RANTES/CCL5 and risk for coronary events: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort, Athero-Express and CARDIoGRAM studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted/CCL5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in mice, whereas less is known in humans. We hypothesised that its relevance for atherosclerosis should be reflected by associations between CCL5 gene variants, RANTES serum concentrations and protein levels in atherosclerotic plaques and risk for coronary events. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg studies. Baseline RANTES serum levels were measured in 363 individuals with incident coronary events and 1,908 non-cases (mean follow-up: 10.2±4.8 years. Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, metabolic factors and lifestyle factors revealed no significant association between RANTES and incident coronary events (HR [95% CI] for increasing RANTES tertiles 1.0, 1.03 [0.75-1.42] and 1.11 [0.81-1.54]. None of six CCL5 single nucleotide polymorphisms and no common haplotype showed significant associations with coronary events. Also in the CARDIoGRAM study (>22,000 cases, >60,000 controls, none of these CCL5 SNPs was significantly associated with coronary artery disease. In the prospective Athero-Express biobank study, RANTES plaque levels were measured in 606 atherosclerotic lesions from patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. RANTES content in atherosclerotic plaques was positively associated with macrophage infiltration and inversely associated with plaque calcification. However, there was no significant association between RANTES content in plaques and risk for coronary events (mean follow-up 2.8±0.8 years. CONCLUSIONS: High RANTES plaque levels were associated with an unstable plaque phenotype. However, the absence of associations between (i RANTES serum levels, (ii CCL5 genotypes and (iii RANTES content in carotid plaques and either coronary artery disease or incident coronary events in

  6. Keterlibatan Event Stakeholders pada Keberhasilan Event PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Wati Evelina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine how event organizers collaborate with stakeholders including the media, particular community, sponsors, participants, venue providers, accommodation providers, carteres, legal and finance personnel, production, local trade, transportation providers, government and associations for implementation Public Relations event. This paper discusses about the things that must be done for the cooperation and the benefits of cooperation undertaken. The method used in this paper is qualitative research method based on observations, literature and case studies. The results of this research note that the event organizers or companies can together with the stakeholders (the other party make an event as mutually beneficial Public Relations. This means that all parties can achieve through the event. At the conclusion of an event Public Relations, all stakeholders involved for their own purposes. Event organizer must ensure that all stakeholders work together effectively in accordance with the agreed schedule and budget. One important feature of the agreement is to maintain a good flow of communication according to the needs of its stakeholders. All information is documented to avoid misunderstandings. Collaboration between stakeholders continuously until the event is completed. Discussion of issues that arise during the event takes place between the committee with various stakeholders is an important thing for the evaluation and response to the events that occurred.

  7. Sensibility of GPS measurements and estimates during extreme meteorological events: the case study of mesoscale convective systems in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmani, S.; Bock, O.

    2013-12-01

    Six permanent GPS stations have been deployed in West Africa within the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) project in order to monitor precipitable water vapor (PWV). This quantity is indeed widely employed to compute water budgets and study atmospheric processes. But in Sahel, 90% of annual rainfalls are produced by Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) and PWV estimates tend to be less accurate during these extreme meteorological conditions: temperatures fall, GPS PWV estimates reach a local maximum and GPS phase residuals show strong variations that are spatially and temporally correlated. We observed that GPS phase residuals, which give insight into anomalies of the air refractivity, clearly reveal the passage of MCSs similarly as reflectivity measurements from C-band Doppler radar. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of the GPS PWV estimates during these events and possibly improve their estimation process. We carried out methodological and sensitivity tests on the parameterization of atmospheric delays and especially on the Gauss-Markov process which constrains the temporal variability of the GPS PWV estimates. During MCSs events, differences between GPS PWV estimates from GAMIT (2 cm.h-1/2 random walk for zenith tropospheric delays) and GIPSY (5 mm.h-1/2 random walk for zenith tropospheric delays) standard processing can for instance reach +/- 3.8 kg.m-2 . Standard GPS PWV estimates are thus subject to caution during these intense events. We therefore investigate an improved PWV estimation process which considers both zenith tropospheric delays and GPS phase residuals in order to account for the asymmetry of the air refractivity. This method leads to high-frequency PWV estimates for each GPS satellite which we compare with PWV estimates from a collocated microwave radiometer.

  8. The Spanish tourist sector facing extreme climate events: a case study of domestic tourism in the heat wave of 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, M. Belén; Armesto-López, Xosé A.; Martínez-Ibarra, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    This research explores, by means of a questionnaire-based survey, public knowledge and perception as well as the behaviour of young Spanish tourists before, during and after the summer holiday period affected by an episode of extreme heat in 2003. The survey was administered between November and December 2004. The extraordinary heat wave of the summer of 2003 can be seen as an example of a normal episode in terms of the predicted intensity and duration of European summers towards the end of the twenty-first century. It can therefore be used as the laboratory setting for this study. In this context, the use of the climate analogue approach allows us to obtain novel perspectives regarding the future impact that this type of event could have on tourist demand, based on a real experience. Likewise, such an approach allows the strategies of adaptation implemented by the different elements in the tourist system in order to cope with the atmospheric episode to be evaluated. Such strategies could prove useful in reducing vulnerability when faced with similar episodes in the future. The main results indicate that Spanish tourists (young segment market) are flexible in adapting to episodes of extremely high temperatures. Their personal perception of the phenomenon, their behaviour and the adaptation measures implemented to a greater or lesser extent before that time, reduce the vulnerability of the sector when faced with this type of event, at least from the point of view of this young segment of the internal national market. In Spain, the episode of extreme heat of 2003 has led to the implementation or improvement of some adaptive measures after the event, especially in the fields of management, policy and education.

  9. The Spanish tourist sector facing extreme climate events: a case study of domestic tourism in the heat wave of 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, M Belén; Armesto-López, Xosé A; Martínez-Ibarra, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    This research explores, by means of a questionnaire-based survey, public knowledge and perception as well as the behaviour of young Spanish tourists before, during and after the summer holiday period affected by an episode of extreme heat in 2003. The survey was administered between November and December 2004. The extraordinary heat wave of the summer of 2003 can be seen as an example of a normal episode in terms of the predicted intensity and duration of European summers towards the end of the twenty-first century. It can therefore be used as the laboratory setting for this study. In this context, the use of the climate analogue approach allows us to obtain novel perspectives regarding the future impact that this type of event could have on tourist demand, based on a real experience. Likewise, such an approach allows the strategies of adaptation implemented by the different elements in the tourist system in order to cope with the atmospheric episode to be evaluated. Such strategies could prove useful in reducing vulnerability when faced with similar episodes in the future. The main results indicate that Spanish tourists (young segment market) are flexible in adapting to episodes of extremely high temperatures. Their personal perception of the phenomenon, their behaviour and the adaptation measures implemented to a greater or lesser extent before that time, reduce the vulnerability of the sector when faced with this type of event, at least from the point of view of this young segment of the internal national market. In Spain, the episode of extreme heat of 2003 has led to the implementation or improvement of some adaptive measures after the event, especially in the fields of management, policy and education.

  10. Impacts of severe wave event to the coastal environment, east Taiwan: a case study of 2015 Typhoon Soudelor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Yi; Yen, Jiun-Yee; Wu, Bo-Lin; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Ting-Yi

    2017-04-01

    As an island surrounded by open water bodies, Taiwan faces associated challenges of oceanic events such as tidal, current and seasonsal wave cycles. In addition to the secular variations of the adjacent oceans, researchers have raised public awareness toward extreme wave events such as tsunamis and storm surges that may cause great damage to coastal infrastructures and loss of valuable lives. The east coast of Taiwan is prone to suffer from typhoons every year and records have shown that more than 30% of the low-pressure centers took the east coastline as their landing point. In year 2015, Typhoon Soudelor attacked the east coast of Taiwan and resulted in a great number of casualties and severe damage to the infrastructures all over the island. Soudelor is not the greatest typhoon of the year yet still brought in significant influences to the coastal topography due to its path and robust structure. In order to understand the impacts of typhoons like Soudelor, we investigated the coastal areas of Hualien, east Taiwan, to document how sediments and debris are transported along the shoreline under the extreme wave condition. Four coastal areas were surveyed to extract applicable information such as local relief profiles, grain size distribution of drifted sediments/debris, maximum inundation limit and so forth. Field observation suggests that the waves displayed great capability of transporting the sediments and redistributing the beach morphology. For instance, the beach of Qixing Lake (Chishingtan) has astonishing records like maximum volume of transported boulder around 3,000,000 cm3, maximum long axis of transported boulder around 144 cm, maximum distance of boulder transportation of 70 m, and maximum inundation distance of ca. 180 m. The composition and distribution of the drifted sediments in every areas vary with local geological conditions but in general all suggest similar characteristics: 1. the transported materials size down toward inland; 2. The sediments

  11. Febrile pleuropericarditis, a potentially life-threatening adverse event of balsalazide--case report and literature review of the side effects of 5-aminosalicylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Roxana M; Glover, Sarah C; Gjymishka, Altin

    2014-05-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the colonic mucosa. One class among the drugs used for its treatment is the 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASAs). While highly efficacious in treating mild-to-moderate UC, 5-ASAs are associated with rare but potentially life-threatening side effects such as pericarditis, myocarditis and pneumonitis. These adverse events appear to be caused by a hypersensitivity reaction and resolve after cessation of 5-ASA drugs. This article presents a case report of febrile pleuropericarditis in a UC patient treated with balsalazide, and provides a thorough literature review of the rare side effects of 5-ASAs, their incidence, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and treatment. In conclusion, the clinicians should be aware that this type of adverse events to 5-ASA compounds can be easily overlooked but it has significant morbidity if not promptly diagnosed.

  12. Predicting Event-Scale Floodplain Change with Coupled Hydrodynamic (ANUGA) and Landscape Evolution (CHILD) Models: a Case Study of the Rio Puerco Arroyo, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perignon, M. C.; Tucker, G. E.; Griffin, E. R.; Friedman, J. M.; Vincent, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    A powerful flood can alter channel geometry and conveyance capacity, erode or bury riparian vegetation, enhance or degrade the fertility of floodplain soils, and in extreme cases even change the entire channel pattern. A fundamental goal in fluvial hydrology and geomorphology is to understand these impacts at a quantitative and ultimately predictive level, yet our ability to forecast potential flood impacts is currently limited by our inability to both simulate the detailed hydraulics and the evolution of the topography during the flood through a numerical model. We present the first steps towards creating a predictive model of channel and floodplain evolution during a single flood event. We combined the hydrologic modules of the ANUGA software tool for 2D hydrodynamic modeling with the sediment transport and topographic evolution modules of the CHILD landscape evolution model to create a tool that can predict erosion and deposition on a model topography for short-period events. The resulting model solves the shallow-water equations using a finite volume method on a triangular mesh grid. The reliability of this new software was tested by performing a model run using the 2006 flood of the Rio Puerco in New Mexico as a case study. This event caused extensive erosion in a reach of the lower Rio Puerco where all vegetation had been removed by herbicides. This material was transported downstream, where it deposited across the channel and floodplain. LiDAR surveys were obtained for sections of the river in 2005 and then in 2010, providing a unique data set that brackets a major flood event and thereby making the Rio Puerco an ideal location for testing the performance of our model.

  13. Household and Community Assets and Farmers’ Adaptation to Extreme Weather Event:the Case of Drought in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang-jie; HUANG Ji-kun; WANG Jin-xia

    2014-01-01

    Under climate change, rising frequency and serious extreme weather events have challenged agricultural production. Designing appropriate adaptation measures to the extreme weather events require rigorous and empirical analysis. The overall goals of this study are to understand physical adaptation measures taken by farmers and the impacts of household and community assets on farmers’ adaptation when they face drought. The analyses are based on a unique data set collected from a household survey in three provinces in China. The survey results show that though not common on annual basis, some farmers did use physical adaptation measures to ifght drought. Regression analysis reveals that both household and community assets significantly affect farmers’ adaptation behaviors. Improving households’ social capital and wealth, communities’ network and access to government’s anti-drought service can facilitate farmers’ adaptation to drought. Results indicate that community’s irrigation infrastructure and physical adaptation taken by farmers can substitute each other. Further analysis shows that the households taking adaptation measures have higher crop yields than those without taking these measures. The paper concludes with several policy implications.

  14. Spatial Distribution of Integrated Impact Index of Mega-event A Case Study of Expo '99 Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Guangquan; BAO Jigang

    2008-01-01

    Taking the affinity between events and media as a conceptualization base,a total of 1032 related news reports of Expo '99 Kunming,gathered from the internet data bank of China INFOBANK from 1992 to 2003,ate used as data sources.After classifying them with a communication research method-the content analysis,a data bank for SPSS is set up,and a mathematic model called the Integrated Impact Index of Expo '99 Kunming is constituted.With the model,the spatial distribution of the total integrated impacts of Expo '99 Kunming on the regions or cities with different regional scales is analysed quantitatively.The conclusions are:1) the Expo '99 Kunming made obvious integrated impacts on the regions or cities of every scale,especially in the venue city and the region-Kunming City and Yunnan Province; 2) it had corresponding impacts on other provinces; 3) the spatial distribution of Integrated Impact Index had a disaggregation with both plane extension and spotted decentralization; and 4) there was a distance decay law in all three scales of regions (Kunming City,Yunnan Province and the whole China),which incarnated the spatial extension law of the integrated impact of a special mega-event.

  15. Application of a key events dose-response analysis to nutrients: a case study with vitamin A (retinol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A Catharine; Russell, Robert M; Miller, Sanford A; Munro, Ian C; Rodricks, Joseph V; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Julien, Elizabeth

    2009-09-01

    The methodology used to establish tolerable upper intake levels (UL) for nutrients borrows heavily from risk assessment methods used by toxicologists. Empirical data are used to identify intake levels associated with adverse effects, and Uncertainty Factors (UF) are applied to establish ULs, which in turn inform public health decisions and standards. Use of UFs reflects lack of knowledge regarding the biological events that underlie response to the intake of a given nutrient, and also regarding the sources of variability in that response. In this paper, the Key Events Dose-Response Framework (KEDRF) is used to systematically consider the major biological steps that lead from the intake of the preformed vitamin A to excess systemic levels, and subsequently to increased risk of adverse effects. Each step is examined with regard to factors that influence whether there is progression toward the adverse effect of concern. The role of homeostatic mechanisms is discussed, along with the types of research needed to improve understanding of dose-response for vitamin A. This initial analysis illustrates the potential of the KEDRF as a useful analytical tool for integrating current knowledge regarding dose-response, generating questions that will focus future research efforts, and clarifying how improved knowledge and data could be used to reduce reliance on UFs.

  16. Impact of Sea breeze event on air quality in tropical city: case of Greater Muscat city, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabi, Yassine

    2010-05-01

    Muscat is a tropical coastal city. In 2006, the population of the Muscat metropolitan witnessed a three-fold increase between 1970 and 2006 resulting in an enormous functional and spatial transition of land from agriculture to urban land uses. Muscat City had 797000 inhabitants. However, subsequent changes in the land-atmosphere energy balance relationships and air quality must have accompanied this urban transition as the case is in all other urban centers. One of the manifestations of these alterations is the "Urban heat island" in Muscat which is highly magnified by its topography of a narrow plane situated between mountain and sea. This configuration makes Muscat city a perfect trap for air pollutants advected by sea breeze from intense road traffic and their dispersion is blocked by steep mountain slopes. In Muscat city urban road system capacity is undergoing expansion, the pace of development of public transport facilities are not keeping up with improvements in car traffic facilities, and car use is in constant rising. A strategic project was developed in 2007 to observe, measure, model, and analyze the impact of this rapid growth of Muscat on the region's climate and air quality. Numerical simulations compared with field measurements are used to explain the effect of sea breezes on air quality in greater Muscat during summer and winter seasons. The sea breeze circulation is seen to develop early with larger strength and inland propagation in the summer case under the influence of moderate synoptic wind and strong heating conditions than in the NE monsoon and winter cases. The horizontal and vertical extents of thermal internal boundary layer are found to be larger in the summer case than in other cases. The analysis shows that air quality in greater Muscat is much more deteriorated in winter season than the summer cases. An analysis based on pollution amounts and sea breeze ventilation is carried out to divide Muscat into areas, each of which corresponds

  17. Reinitiating aspirin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in a patient post-aspirin-induced upper gastrointestinal bleed: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Gounathan; Plakogiannis, Roda

    2013-02-01

    To describe a case of continued aspirin use for primary prevention of a cardiovascular event in a patient post-aspirin-induced upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed and evaluate published evidence to determine whether reinitiating aspirin therapy for this patient was appropriate. A 65-year-old man had been taking chronic low-dose (81 mg/day) aspirin therapy since 2002 for primary prevention of a cardiovascular event. He developed an upper GI bleed with lowered hemoglobin (9 mg/dL) and hematocrit (26.3%) after concomitantly taking 2 doses of naproxen (220 mg each). An objective causality assessment with the Naranjo probability scale revealed a probable adverse reaction of an upper GI bleed associated with concomitant naproxen and aspirin use. No further naproxen was taken. Aspirin was discontinued and pantoprazole was started, with resolution of the bleeding. Aspirin was restarted 2.5 months after pantoprazole was initiated, and no further bleeding occurred. Upper GI bleeds associated with aspirin therapy are well described in the literature. The management of cardiovascular event prophylaxis after a GI bleed is often controversial; consensus in regard to the optimal method of management does not exist. We evaluated GI protection strategies for patients with a history of aspirin-induced GI bleeding requiring cardiovascular prophylaxis. We found that the benefit of aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events needs to be carefully balanced with the risks associated with its use. The current literature supports that the best approach to prevent recurrent aspirin-induced GI bleeding is to administer a proton pump inhibitor with aspirin therapy. The benefit of aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events needs to be carefully balanced with the risks associated with its use. Based on the current literature, the best approach to preventing recurrent aspirin-induced GI bleeds is to administer a proton pump inhibitor concomitantly with aspirin therapy.

  18. Feasibility of performing high resolution cloud-resolving simulations of historic extreme events: The San Fruttuoso (Liguria, italy) case of 1915.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Antonio; Boni, Giorgio; Ferraris, Luca; Gallus, William; Maugeri, Maurizio; Molini, Luca; Siccardi, Franco

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies show that highly localized and persistent back-building mesoscale convective systems represent one of the most dangerous flash-flood producing storms in the north-western Mediterranean area. Substantial warming of the Mediterranean Sea in recent decades raises concerns over possible increases in frequency or intensity of these types of events as increased atmospheric temperatures generally support increases in water vapor content. Analyses of available historical records do not provide a univocal answer, since these may be likely affected by a lack of detailed observations for older events. In the present study, 20th Century Reanalysis Project initial and boundary condition data in ensemble mode are used to address the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations with 1 km horizontal grid spacing of a historic extreme event that occurred over Liguria (Italy): The San Fruttuoso case of 1915. The proposed approach focuses on the ensemble Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model runs, as they are the ones most likely to best simulate the event. It is found that these WRF runs generally do show wind and precipitation fields that are consistent with the occurrence of highly localized and persistent back-building mesoscale convective systems, although precipitation peak amounts are underestimated. Systematic small north-westward position errors with regard to the heaviest rain and strongest convergence areas imply that the Reanalysis members may not be adequately representing the amount of cool air over the Po Plain outflowing into the Liguria Sea through the Apennines gap. Regarding the role of historical data sources, this study shows that in addition to Reanalysis products, unconventional data, such as historical meteorological bulletins, newspapers and even photographs can be very valuable sources of knowledge in the reconstruction of past extreme events.

  19. Event marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyze event-marketing activities of the small firm and propose new events. At first the theoretical part describes marketing and communication mix and then especially planning and development of event marketing campaign. Research data were collected by the method of survey to propose the new events. Randomly selected customers were asked to fill the questionnaire. Its results were integrated into the proposal of the new events. The interview was realized with the owner of...

  20. A Person-Centered Approach to Sustaining a Lean Environment - Job Design for Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    organizations are attempting to implement Lean principles and prac-tices through Kaizen events, Kaizen blitzes, accelerated improvement work-shops, action...CENTERED APPROACH TO SUSTAINING A LEAN ENVIRONMENT a Kaizen event, they may not want to do another. I believe this is why Parker (2003) drew her...times, or costs? Absolutely not. Does focusing on improving people mean we stop doing Kaizen events, accelerated improvement workshops, Lean events, or

  1. Earthquake triggering by slow earthquake propagation: the case of the large 2014 slow slip event in Guerrero, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiguet, M.; Perfettini, H.; Cotte, N.; Gualandi, A.; Kostoglodov, V.; Lhomme, T.; Walpersdorf, A.; Campillo, M.; Valette, B.

    2015-12-01

    Since their discovery nearly two decades ago, the importance of slow slip events (SSEs) in the processes of strain accommodation in subduction zones has been revealed. Nevertheless, the influence of slow aseismic slip on the nucleation of large earthquakes remains unclear. In this study, we focus on the Guerrero region of the Central American subduction zone in Mexico, where large SSEs have been observed since 1998, with a recurrence period of about 4 years, and produce aseismic slip in the Guerrero seismic gap. We investigate the large 2014 SSE (equivalent Mw=7.7), which initiated in early 2014 and lasted until the end of October 2014. During this time period, the 18 April Papanoa earthquake (Mw7.2) occurred on the western limit of the Guerrero gap. We invert the continuous GPS time series using the PCAIM (Principal Component Analysis Inversion Method) to assess the space and time evolution of slip on the subduction. To focus on the aseismic processes, we correct the cGPS time series from the co-seismic offsets. Our results show that the slow slip event initiated in the Guerrero gap region, as already observed during the previous SSEs. The Mw7.2 Papanoa earthquake occurred on the western limit of the region that was slipping aseismically before the earthquake. After the Papanoa earthquake, the aseismic slip rate increases. This geodetic signal consists of both the ongoing SSE and the postseismic (afterslip) response due to the Papanoa earthquake. The majority of the post-earthquake aseismic slip is concentrated downdip from the main earthquake asperity, but significant slip is also observed in the Guerrero gap region. Compared to previous SSEs in that region, the 2014 SSE produced a larger aseismic slip and the maximum slip is located downdip from the main brittle asperity corresponding to the Papanoa earthquake, a region that was not identified as active during the previous SSEs. Since the Mw 7.2 Papanoa earthquake occurred about 2 months after the onset of the

  2. Impact of agricultural management on pluvial flash floods - Case study of an extreme event observed in Austria in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumassegger, Simon; Achleitner, Stefan; Kohl, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Central Europe was affected by extreme flash floods in summer 2016 triggered by short, high-intensity storm cells. Besides fluvial runoff, local pluvial floods appear to increase recently. In frame of the research project SAFFER-CC (sensitivity assessment of critical condition for local flash floods - evaluating the recurrence under climate change) surface runoff and pluvial flooding is assessed using a coupled hydrological/2D hydrodynamic model for the severely affected municipality of Schwertberg, Upper Austria. In this small catchment several flooding events occurred in the last years, where the most severe event occurred during summer 2016. Several areas could only be reached after the flood wave subsided with observed flood marks up to one meter. The modeled catchment is intensively cultivated with maize, sugar beets, winter wheat and soy on the hillside and hence highly vulnerable to water erosion. The average inclination is relatively steep with 15 % leading to high flow velocities of surface runoff associated with large amounts of transported sediments. To assess the influence of land use and soil conservation on flash floods, field experiments with a portable irrigation spray installation were carried out at different locations. The test plots were subjected to rainfall with constant intensity of 100 mm/h for one hour. Consecutively a super intense, one hour lasting, rainfall hydrograph was applied after 30 minutes at the same plots, ranging from 50 mm/h to 200 mm/h. Surface runoff was collected and measured in a tank and water samples were taken to determine the suspended material load. Large differences of runoff coefficients were determined depending on the agricultural management. The largest discharge was measured in a maize field, where surface runoff occurred immediately after start of irrigation. The determined runoff coefficients ranged from 0.22 for soy up to 0.65 for maize for the same soil type and inclination. The conclusion that runoff is

  3. Cooling the intact loop of primary heat transport system using Shutdown Cooling System in case of LOCA events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icleanu Diana Laura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to model the operation of the Shutdown Cooling System (SDCS for CANDU 6 nuclear power plants in case of LOCA accidents, using Flowmaster calculation code, by delimiting models and setting calculation assumptions, input data for hydraulic analysis and input data for calculating thermal performance check for heat exchangers that are part of this system.

  4. Using Event-Related Brain Potentials to Assess Perceptibility: The Case of French Speakers and English [h

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jennifer; Goad, Heather; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    French speaking learners of English encounter persistent difficulty acquiring English [h], thus confusing words like eat and heat in both production and perception. We assess the hypothesis that the acoustic properties of [h] may render detection of this segment in the speech stream insufficiently reliable for second language acquisition. We use the mismatch negativity (MMN) in event-related potentials to investigate [h] perception in French speaking learners of English and native English controls, comparing both linguistic and non-linguistic conditions in an unattended oddball paradigm. Unlike native speakers, French learners of English elicit an MMN response only in the non-linguistic condition. Our results provide neurobiological evidence against the hypothesis that French speakers’ difficulties with [h] are acoustically based. They instead suggest that the problem is in constructing an appropriate phonological representation for [h] in the interlanguage grammar. PMID:27757086

  5. Using event-related brain potentials to assess perceptibility: The case of French speakers and English [h

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available French speaking learners of English encounter persistent difficulty acquiring English [h], thus confusing words like eat and heat in both production and perception. We assess the hypothesis that the acoustic properties of [h] may render detection of this segment in the speech stream insufficiently reliable for second language acquisition. We use the mismatch negativity (MMN in event-related potentials to investigate [h] perception in French speaking learners of English and native English controls, comparing both linguistic and non-linguistic conditions in an unattended oddball paradigm. Unlike native speakers, French learners of English elicit an MMN response only in the non-linguistic condition. Our results provide neurobiological evidence against the hypothesis that French speakers’ difficulties with [h] are acoustically based. They instead suggest that the problem is in constructing an appropriate phonological representation for [h] in the interlanguage grammar.

  6. Using Event-Related Brain Potentials to Assess Perceptibility: The Case of French Speakers and English [h].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jennifer; Goad, Heather; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    French speaking learners of English encounter persistent difficulty acquiring English [h], thus confusing words like eat and heat in both production and perception. We assess the hypothesis that the acoustic properties of [h] may render detection of this segment in the speech stream insufficiently reliable for second language acquisition. We use the mismatch negativity (MMN) in event-related potentials to investigate [h] perception in French speaking learners of English and native English controls, comparing both linguistic and non-linguistic conditions in an unattended oddball paradigm. Unlike native speakers, French learners of English elicit an MMN response only in the non-linguistic condition. Our results provide neurobiological evidence against the hypothesis that French speakers' difficulties with [h] are acoustically based. They instead suggest that the problem is in constructing an appropriate phonological representation for [h] in the interlanguage grammar.

  7. To Apply the Basic Framework of KAIZEN in the Budget Cost Control%在预算成本控制中应用持续改善的基本框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩

    2010-01-01

    持续改善理论,即KAIZEN,是近年流行的先进的管理思想,基本理论是通过查找和消除生产过程中各种各样的浪费现象达到彻底降低成本的目的,大大促进了日本工业的飞速发展.因此我们试图在预算成本控制当中,应用持续改善的理论,通过重新制定预算目标、编制预算过程等手段,达到成本控制的目的.

  8. Variability of extreme weather events over the equatorial East Africa, a case study of rainfall in Kenya and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongoma, Victor; Chen, Haishan; Omony, George William

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the variability of extreme rainfall events over East Africa (EA), using indices from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The analysis was based on observed daily rainfall from 23 weather stations, with length varying within 1961 and 2010. The indices considered are: wet days (R ≥1 mm), annual total precipitation in wet days (PRCPTOT), simple daily intensity index (SDII), heavy precipitation days (R ≥ 10 mm), very heavy precipitation days (R ≥ 20 mm), and severe precipitation (R ≥ 50 mm). The non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistical analysis was carried out to identify trends in the data. Temporal precipitation distribution was different from station to station. Almost all indices considered are decreasing with time. The analysis shows that the PRCPTOT, very heavy precipitation, and severe precipitation are generally declining insignificantly at 5 % significant level. The PRCPTOT is evidently decreasing over Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) as compared to other parts of EA. The number of days that recorded heavy rainfall is generally decreasing but starts to rise in the last decade although the changes are insignificant. Both PRCPTOT and heavy precipitation show a recovery in trend starting in the 1990s. The SDII shows a reduction in most areas, especially the in ASAL. The changes give a possible indication of the ongoing climate variability and change which modify the rainfall regime of EA. The results form a basis for further research, utilizing longer datasets over the entire region to reduce the generalizations made herein. Continuous monitoring of extreme events in EA is critical, given that rainfall is projected to increase in the twenty-first century.

  9. Developing an event-tree probabilistic tsunami inundation model for NE Atlantic coasts: Application to case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana; Matias, Luis

    2015-04-01

    This study constitutes the first assessment of probabilistic tsunami inundation in the NE Atlantic region, using an event-tree approach. It aims to develop a probabilistic tsunami inundation approach for the NE Atlantic coast with an application to two test sites of ASTARTE project, Tangier-Morocco and Sines-Portugal. Only tsunamis of tectonic origin are considered here, taking into account near-, regional- and far-filed sources. The multidisciplinary approach, proposed here, consists of an event-tree method that gathers seismic hazard assessment, tsunami numerical modelling, and statistical methods. It presents also a treatment of uncertainties related to source location and tidal stage in order to derive the likelihood of tsunami flood occurrence and exceedance of a specific near-shore wave height during a given return period. We derive high-resolution probabilistic maximum wave heights and flood distributions for both test-sites Tangier and Sines considering 100-, 500-, and 1000-year return periods. We find that the probability that a maximum wave height exceeds 1 m somewhere along the Sines coasts reaches about 55% for 100-year return period, and is up to 100% for 1000-year return period. Along Tangier coast, the probability of inundation occurrence (flow depth > 0m) is up to 45% for 100-year return period and reaches 96% in some near-shore costal location for 500-year return period. Acknowledgements: This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).

  10. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...... retrospective and prospective disease course histories are used. We examine two methods to correct for the selection depending on which data are used in the analysis. In the first case, the conditional distribution of the process given the pre-selection history is determined. In the second case, an inverse......-probability-of-selection weighting scheme is suggested. The ability of the methods to correct for the bias due to selection is investigated with simulations. Furthermore, the methods are applied to affective disease data from a register-based study (Kessing et al. Br J Psychiatry 185:372-377, 2004a) and from a long-term clinical...

  11. 基于精益生产的YL公司现场改善流程应用%Application of Process of Gemba Kaizen of YL Based on Lean Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章成燕; 李军

    2011-01-01

    Gemba Kaizen is an advanced management method of production site optimization,and it has been attached more and more attention from the world.Although there are various methods in production site optimization at present,there is little related research in specific process in Gemba Kaizen.This phenomenon results in the problem of "strike hard".Enterprises should make sure of implementing these activities under stable environment via the following 5 aspects: site assessment and time measurement,5S,improving target setting,improving program design implementation and project evaluation.%现场改善作为一种先进的生产现场优化的管理方法,越来越受到世界各国的重视。当前,生产现场改善的方法层出不穷,但是具体的现场改善流程的相关研究却涉及较少,因此企业出现了"下手难"的问题。企业应该从现场评估和时间测定、5S现场改善、改善目标的设定、改善方案的设计与实施以及效果评估这几方面入手,使得企业的改善能够有条不紊地进行下去,给企业带来一定的经济效益。

  12. FALLING OF SENILE AGE PATIENT AS AN ADVERSE EVENT ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF MEDICINES: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Ilina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case report of 86 years old patient S. (woman, hospitalized in the ophthalmology department of the hospital with a diagnosis of “complicated immature cataract of the left eye, open-angle glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration”. The patient experienced an episode of a fall with a short-term loss of consciousness, severe hypotension (blood pressure – 40/10 mmHg, and bradycardia (heart rate – 32 beats/min while receiving a local form of beta-blocker in combination with diuretics. In this clinical case, the development of serious adverse reaction is significantly associated with adverse drug interaction (according to Horn-Hansten scale.

  13. CALR exon 9 mutations are somatically acquired events in familial cases of essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Elisa; Harutyunyan, Ashot S; Pietra, Daniela; Milosevic, Jelena D; Casetti, Ilaria C; Bellini, Marta; Them, Nicole C C; Cavalloni, Chiara; Ferretti, Virginia V; Milanesi, Chiara; Berg, Tiina; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Boveri, Emanuela; Pascutto, Cristiana; Astori, Cesare; Kralovics, Robert; Cazzola, Mario

    2014-04-10

    Somatic mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene were recently discovered in patients with sporadic essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) lacking JAK2 and MPL mutations. We studied CALR mutation status in familial cases of myeloproliferative neoplasm. In a cohort of 127 patients, CALR indels were identified in 6 of 55 (11%) subjects with ET and in 6 of 20 (30%) with PMF, whereas 52 cases of polycythemia vera had nonmutated CALR. All CALR mutations were somatic, found in granulocytes but not in T lymphocytes. Patients with CALR-mutated ET showed a higher platelet count (P = .017) and a lower cumulative incidence of thrombosis (P = .036) and of disease progression (P = .047) compared with those with JAK2 (V617F). In conclusion, a significant proportion of familial ET and PMF nonmutated for JAK2 carry a somatic mutation of CALR.

  14. Media Event, Racial Ramblings, or Both? An Analysis of Media Coverage of the Tamworth Council Sudanese Refugees Resettlement Case (2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwamena Kwansah-Aidoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents our analysis of Australian media reporting of the 2006 Tamworth City Council’s decision to refuse the resettlement of five Sudanese families in Tamworth (NSW and subsequent reversal, supposedly due to the pressure brought to bear on the council as a result of the media “hype.” The question at the core of our analyses is as follows: Did the media play a role in the over-(representation of this case as racist or was it just a case of the media reporting racism? Informed by media framing theory, we examine print media reports for patterns of presentation as well as representations of both the council and the refugees who were the focus of the reporting. We conclude that while the media played a significant role in making visible a case built on racial stereotypes, their reporting also contained racializing and paternalistic stereotyping that contribute to the reproduction of both everyday and systemic racism.

  15. Warning and prevention based on estimates with large uncertainties: the case of low-frequency and large-impact events like tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2013-04-01

    Geoscientists deal often with hazardous processes like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, hurricanes, etc., and their research is aimed not only to a better understanding of the physical processes, but also to provide assessment of the space and temporal evolution of a given individual event (i.e. to provide short-term prediction) and of the expected evolution of a group of events (i.e. to provide statistical estimates referred to a given return period, and a given geographical area). One of the main issues of any scientific method is how to cope with measurement errors, a topic which in case of forecast of ongoing or of future events translates into how to deal with forecast uncertainties. In general, the more data are available and processed to make a prediction, the more accurate the prediction is expected to be if the scientific approach is sound, and the smaller the associated uncertainties are. However, there are several important cases where assessment is to be made with insufficient data or insufficient time for processing, which leads to large uncertainties. Two examples can be given taken from tsunami science, since tsunamis are rare events that may have destructive power and very large impact. One example is the case of warning for a tsunami generated by a near-coast earthquake, which is an issue at the focus of the European funded project NearToWarn. Warning has to be launched before tsunami hits the coast, that is in a few minutes after its generation. This may imply that data collected in such a short time are not yet enough for an accurate evaluation, also because the implemented monitoring system (if any) could be inadequate (f.i. one reason of inadequacy could be that implementing a dense instrumental network could be judged too expensive for rare events) The second case is the long term prevention from tsunami strikes. Tsunami infrequency may imply that the historical record for a given piece of coast is too short to capture a statistical

  16. Adverse Events of Afatinib as First-line Treatment for Five Cases of Advanced
Lung Adenocarcinoma and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong TAO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Afatinib is an irreversible ErbB-family blocker with a clinical activity in non-small cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations. The aim of this study is to assess the safety of afatinib in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Methods Patients with lung adenocarcinoma (stage IIIb or IV with EGFR mutations were first-line treated with an oral administration of afatinib (40 mg/d until disease progression. Adverse events, effects, and survival condition were observed. Results The most common adverse events were diarrhea (n=5, 100%, skin rash (n=4, 80%, and mucositis/stomatitis (n=4, 80%. Moderate toxicities not exceeding grade 3 were observed. Relatively, the most serious adverse reaction was mucositis/stomatitis. Mild diarrhea occurred in all patients. Three patients experienced temporary drug withdrawal and dose reduction because of adverse reaction. Among the four patients who were evaluated, partial response was observed in two patients (50%, one with stable disease (25% and one with progressive disease (25%. Median progression-free survival was 9.7 months, whereas median overall survival was 18.4 months. Conclusion Afatinib was approved as first-line treatment for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. The most common adverse events were diarrhea and skin rash. However, mucositis/stomatitis related to afatinib should also be considered. Considering the small number of cases, the conclusion requires more trials for confirmation.

  17. Debris flow reconstruction - geomorphologic and numerical approach. A case study from the Selvetta event in Valtellina, Italy, July 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahut, J.; Luna, B. Quan; Akbas, S. O.; van Westen, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    On Sunday morning of 13th July 2008, after more than two days of intense rainfall, several debris and mud flows were released in the central part of Valtellina valley between Morbegno and Berbenno. One of the largest debris flows occurred in Selvetta, a fraction of Colorina municipality. The debris flow event was reconstructed after extensive field work and interviews with local inhabitants and civil protection teams. At first several rock blocks about 2 m3 in size fell down from the direction of the torrent. The blocks were followed by a wave of debris and mud that immediately destroyed one building and caused damage to other nine houses. A stream flow following the debris flow consisting of fine mud with high water content that partially washed away the accumulation of deposits from the debris phase could also be distinguished. Geomorphologic investigations allowed identification of five main sections of the flow: 1) the proper scarp; 2) path in the forested area; 3) path on the alpine meadows; 4) accelerating section; 5) accumulation area. The initiation area of the flow is situated at 1760 m. a.s.l. (1480 m above the deposition zone) in a coniferous forest. The proper scarp consisted of an area of approximately 20 m2 in size, and a height of about 0.8 m. The final volume of the debris was estimated by field mapping to be between 12 000 and 15 000 m3. It was observed that erosion and entrainment played an important role in the development of the debris flow. The Selvetta event was modelled with the FLO2D program. FLO2D is an Eulerian formulation with a finite differences numerical scheme that requires the specification of an input hydrograph. The internal stresses are isotropic and the basal shear stresses are calculated using a quadratic model. Entrainment was modeled at each section of the flow, and different hydrographs were produced in agreement with the behavior of the debris flow during its course. The significance of calculated values of pressure and

  18. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts...

  19. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts and metho...

  20. DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN WELLS FROM AN AREA AFFECTED BY FLOOD EVENTS: CASE STUDY OF CURVATURE SUB-CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞENILĂ M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the chemical parameters (inorganic anions and metals of drinking water of twenty-four wells and the presence of Escherichia coli in ten selected wells located in two villages from Buzau and Prahova Counties, in Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania, a rural area frequently affected by flood events. Water samples were collected in July 2014. Concerntrations of fluorides, nitrites, chlorides and phosphates were below the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs for drinking water established by European legislation (Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE in all the analysed samples. Concentration of nitrates exceeded MAC (50 mg L-1 in five samples, while concentration of sulphates exceeded MAC (250 mg L-1 in two samples. Among the analysed metals, Mn exceeded MAC (50 μg L-1 in two samples, while Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and As concentrations did not exceeded the corresponding MACs. E. coli (over 2000 UFC 100 mL-1 was found in six water samples. The results show that majority of the studied parameters were below the threshold limits, however in some of the studied wells the water was found to be contaminated both by some chemical pollutants and by E. coli, which prepresent a risk for local population health.

  1. Influences of high-flow events on a stream channel altered by construction of a highway bridge: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of highway construction on streams in the central Appalachians are a growing concern as new roads are created to promote tourism and economic development in the area. Alterations to the streambed of a first-order stream, Sauerkraut Run, Hardy County, WV, during construction of a highway overpass included placement and removal of a temporary culvert, straightening and regrading of a section of stream channel, and armourment of a bank with a reinforced gravel berm. We surveyed longitudinal profiles and cross sections in a reference reach and the altered reach of Sauerkraut Run from 2003 through 2007 to measure physical changes in the streambed. During the four-year period, three high-flow events changed the streambed downstream of construction including channel widening and aggradation and then degradation of the streambed. Upstream of construction, at a reinforced gravel berm, bank erosion was documented. The reference section remained relatively unchanged. Knowledge gained by documenting channel changes in response to natural and anthropogenic variables can be useful for managers and engineers involved in highway construction projects.

  2. sEPCR Levels in Chronic Myeloproliferative Diseases and Their Association with Thromboembolic Events: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Atalay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Venous, arterial, and microcirculatory events are frequently encountered in the clinical course of essential thrombocytosis and polycythemia vera. We aimed to investigate the levels of soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR in myeloproliferative diseases to see whether there was a difference between the patients with and without history of thromboembolism. METHODS: The study included patients with polycythemia vera (n=12, patients with essential thrombocytosis (n=13, and controls (n=29. In all groups, we measured proteins C and S, antithrombin and sEPCR levels, and plasma concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragments 1+2, and D-dimer. RESULTS: Comparing the patients with and without history of thromboembolic attack, statistically significant differences were not observed in terms of sEPCR, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragments 1+2, and hematocrit levels (p=0.318, 0.722, 0.743, 0.324, and 0.065, respectively. CONCLUSION: Significant increase in the parameters that reflect activation of coagulation, such as sEPCR, thrombinantithrombin complex, prothrombin fragments 1+2, and D-dimer, reflects the presence of a basal condition that leads to a tendency toward thrombosis development in ET and PV when compared to healthy controls.

  3. Modeling Typhoon Event-Induced Landslides Using GIS-Based Logistic Regression: A Case Study of Alishan Forestry Railway, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for evaluating the hazard level of landslides at Alishan Forestry Railway, Taiwan, by using logistic regression with the assistance of a geographical information system (GIS. A typhoon event-induced landslide inventory, independent variables, and a triggering factor were used to build the model. The environmental factors such as bedrock lithology from the geology database; topographic aspect, terrain roughness, profile curvature, and distance to river, from the topographic database; and the vegetation index value from SPOT 4 satellite images were used as variables that influence landslide occurrence. The area under curve (AUC of a receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve was used to validate the model. Effects of parameters on landslide occurrence were assessed from the corresponding coefficient that appears in the logistic regression function. Thereafter, the model was applied to predict the probability of landslides for rainfall data of different return periods. Using a predicted map of probability, the study area was classified into four ranks of landslide susceptibility: low, medium, high, and very high. As a result, most high susceptibility areas are located on the western portion of the study area. Several train stations and railways are located on sites with a high susceptibility ranking.

  4. Study on effects of high pressure injection for DI diesel combustion. Koatsu funsha ni yoru chokufun diesel no nensho kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, T.; Sami, H. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)); Nakakita, K.; Osawa, K. (Toyota Centeral Research and Development Lab., Aichi (Japan))

    1990-08-01

    A study was conducted on properties of exhaust gas of diesel engine by using high pressure injection type diesel engine equipped with pressure-reservoir for changing injection pressure, together with improvement of combustion conditions by high pressure injection of fuel. Equipments for the experiments were explained by figures. As for experiment, effects of injection pressure and its timing on emission quantities of NO {sub x} and paticulate were measured. Based upon the obtained results, those were understood that NO {sub x} and particulate were to be reduced by adjusting injection pressure and injection timing, and that, by reducing initial injection pressure, trade-off effect between NO {sub x} and particulate were improved. Observation of combustion conditions by inside-visible engine, those were recognized that low injection pressure caused poor atomization and, by that, delay of vaporization, that propagation of flame rapid to whole combustion room in case of pressure-reservoir type, and that lower injection rate at initial stage suppressed combustion rate and reduced NO {sub x} generation. 4 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Performance of MODIS C6 Aerosol Product during Frequent Haze-Fog Events: A Case Study of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The newly released MODIS Collection 6 aerosol products have been widely used to evaluate fine particulate matter with a 10 km Dark Target aerosol optic depth (DT AOD product, a new 3 km DT AOD product and an enhanced Deep Blue (DB AOD product. However, the representativeness of MODIS AOD products under different air quality conditions remains unclear. In this study, we obtained all three types of MODIS Terra AOD from 2001 to 2015 and Aqua AOD from 2003 to 2015 for the Beijing region to study the performance of the different AOD products (Collection 6 under different air quality situations. The validation of three MODIS AOD products suggests that DB AOD has the highest accuracy with an expected error (EE envelope (containing at least 67% of the matchups on a scatter plot of 0.05 + 0.15τ, followed by 10 km DT AOD (0.08 + 0.2τ and 3 km DT AOD (0.35 + 0.15τ, specifically for Beijing. Near-surface PM2.5 concentrations during the passage of MODIS from 2013 to 2015 were also obtained to categorize air quality as unpolluted, moderately, and heavily polluted, as well as to analyze the performance of the different AOD products under different air quality conditions. Very few MODIS 3 km DT retrievals appeared on heavily polluted days, making it almost impossible to play an effective role in air quality applications in Beijing. While the DB AOD allowed for considerable retrievals under all air quality conditions, it had a coarse spatial resolution. These results demonstrate that the MODIS 3 km DT AOD product may not be the appropriate proxy to be used in the satellite retrieval of surface PM2.5, especially for those areas with frequent haze-fog events like Beijing.

  6. Introducing Communicative Event As A Tool To Communicate Via the Medium Of Language: The Case of Job Advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Pourfarhad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is going to investigate the language style of classified advertisements of job vacancies in order to understand how advertisers manipulate language in convincing the job-seekers to apply for the advertised jobs. Furthermore, the study tries to examine the ways that advertisements’ language may be concisely used to convey the meaning in the fewest words and avoid blurring the job seekers. To gain a clear picture of the form and content of job advertisements the views of (Lunde, 1974 and (Fairclough, 1989 are exploited to clarify how job advertisements may be perceived as a class of communicative events in order to communicate via the medium of language with potential job seekers and persuade them towards applying for the advertised jobs. The data for this qualitative study which came from the local English newspaper (Star in the month of August were analyzed through content analysis. Being grounded in Lund (1974, who believes that an advertisement should: attract attention, arouse interests, stimulate desires, create conviction and get action, the sample advertisements were examined and the results revealed that all are in accordance with Lund’s AIDEA formula. An analysis of the surface structure of the samples did not reveal how the basic structure of English sentences was adapted. The spaces allocated to these types of advertisements were so limited. Thus, the advertisers manipulate language in a way that they can convey their purposes with the use of minimum words. This may only be achieved by the use of the key words to convey the message and nominalizations.

  7. [Treatment in the event of antibiotic prophylaxis failure in gynecologic surgery. A retrospective study of 20 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparella, P; Zullo, M A; Astorri, A L; Bondì, M; Maglione, A; Oliva, C; Mancuso Bondì, S

    1994-09-01

    A retrospective study was performed of the type of treatment used in 20 patients undergoing gynecological surgery in whom antibiotic prophylaxis with Mezlocillin (2 g i.v.) had failed. Patients were subdivided into three groups: A) Initial therapy with Mezlocillin (8 patients, 2 g/die i.m.) or Cefotetan (2 patients, 2 g/die i.m.) and subsequent addition of Gentamicin (8 patients, 240 mg/die i.m.) or Tobramycin (2 patients, 200 mg/die i.m.) and subsequently Metronidazole (7 patients, 1.5 g/die per os). B) Therapy with Imipenem/Cilastatin (6 patients, 1.5 g/die i.m.). C) Therapy with Imipenem/Cilastatin (4 patients, 1.5 g/die i.m.) after a variety of antibiotics: Cotrimoxazole (Trimethoprim 160 mg/die and sulphamethoxazole 800 mg/die per os), Pefloxacin (800 mg/die per os), Cefotetan (2 g/die i.m.) and Mezlocillin (2 g/die i.m.). Time taken to lower temperature was shorter in Group B (3.5 days) compared to Group A (6.8 days) and Group C (10 days). Postoperative hospital stay was also shorter in Group B (9 days) compared to Group C (16.5 days) and Group A (11.1 days). The immediate administration of an antibiotic active against Gram+ and Gram- germs, aerobes and anaerobes is therefore useful in the event of failure of antibiotic prophylaxis, rather than the use in succession of associations of antibiotics with a limited spectrum.

  8. An adverse event following 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination: a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Teak Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that typically follows an infection or vaccination and has a favorable long-term prognosis. We describe the first reported case of ADEM after vaccination against novel influenza A (H1N1. A previously healthy 34-monthold boy who developed ADEM presented with a seizure and leftsided weakness 5 days after vaccination against novel influenza A (H1N1. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed elevated cell counts. T2-weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images revealed multiple patchy hyperintense lesions in the frontal and parietal subcortical white matter and the left thalamus. After the administration of intravenous corticosteroid, the patient’s clinical symptoms improved and he recovered completely without neurologic sequelae.

  9. Psychosis, Treatment Emergent Extrapyramidal Events, and Subsequent Onset of Huntington's Disease: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changqing; Yogaratnam, Jegan; Tan, Nigel; Sim, Kang

    2016-08-31

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by a triad of progressive motor dysfunction, cognitive decline and psychiatric disturbances. The hallmark of HD is the distinctive choreiform movement disorder that typically has a subtle, insidious onset in the fourth to fifth decade of life and gradually worsens over 10 to 20 years until death. Notably, two-thirds of HD patients present with chorea and one third with mental changes. The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms is significantly higher than in the general population, and is estimated to be around 66-73%. Here, we report a unique case of subsequent onset of HD in a patient previously treated for schizophrenia and complicated by the extrapyramidal side effects to antipsychotics.

  10. Sedimentary Characteristics of Marine Events from se Coast of India: Case Studies of 2004 Tsunami and 2013 Phailin Cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Tsunami has deposited a varied layer of sand sheets along the coast which depends upon on the coastal topography. Recognition Tsunami deposits were clearly observed as the sand sheets were laid over the soil which is distinctly different due to differences in the weathering and presence of organic material of vegetation. To understand the preservation potential of 2004 tsunami deposits we were studied a transect profile with seven pits sediments along Thiruvengadu coast , Nagapattinam. The study reveals that presence of sand sheets preserved a mínimum of 10 cm thickness to máximum of 22 cm and the distance is 300 from HTL. From the present study six sedimentary layers were identfied which are (a) Top sediments deposited after IOT, (b). Tsunami sand sheets (c) Silty sand (d). Erosional base and top (e) Silty sand (d) Lagoonal sediments. The 2013 Phailin cyclon with wind speed of 220 kmph which was remnant cyclonic circulation from south china; it had major impact on geomorphology and sedimentology of odisha coast. At rushikulya river mouth, Ganjam district, cyclone had produced washover sand sheets as described in eyewitness along the river mouth of both north and south bar. The study reveals that the washover sand sheets provides the inundation of the water level, and characteristics of sediments where storm deposit has a highly variable grain-size distribution with a marked coarsening at its landward extent, is better sorted, coarser, and has a sharp, non-erosional lower contact associated with buried vegetation and soil. Also, the thickness of cyclone deposits are about 5 cm with the distance from coast 80 m, heavy mineral percentage ranges between 9 % to 75% for entire pit and sandsheets lateral extent are about 45 m. The presence of the laminations and alternate layers of heavy minerals are indicative of the complexity of sedimentation on the coast. The recent marine event Phailin cylcone deposits and 2004 tsunami deposits characteristic and

  11. Adverse events in diabetic foot infections: a case control study comparing early versus delayed medical treatment after home remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cawich SO

    2014-11-01

    outcomes when patients delay conventional medical therapy in favour of home remedies to treat diabetic foot infections. These treatments need not be mutually exclusive. We encourage persons with diabetes who wish to try home remedies to seek medical advice in addition as a part of holistic care. Keywords: diabetic foot infections, adverse events, medical treatment, home remedies

  12. An Open-Source Strategy for Documenting Events: The Case Study of the 42nd Canadian Federal Election on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Ruest

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the tools, approaches, collaboration, and findings of the Web Archives for Historical Research Group around the capture and analysis of about 4 million tweets during the 2015 Canadian Federal Election. We hope that national libraries and other heritage institutions will find our model useful as they consider how to capture, preserve, and analyze ongoing events using Twitter. While Twitter is not a representative sample of broader society - Pew research shows in their study of US users that it skews young, college-educated, and affluent (above $50,000 household income – Twitter still represents an exponential increase in the amount of information generated, retained, and preserved from 'everyday' people. Therefore, when historians study the 2015 federal election, Twitter will be a prime source.On August 3, 2015, the team initiated both a Search API and Stream API collection with twarc, a tool developed by Ed Summers, using the hashtag #elxn42. The hashtag referred to the election being Canada's 42nd general federal election (hence 'election 42' or elxn42. Data collection ceased on November 5, 2015, the day after Justin Trudeau was sworn in as the 42nd Prime Minister of Canada. We collected for a total of 102 days, 13 hours and 50 minutes. To analyze the data set, we took advantage of a number of command line tools, utilities that are available within twarc, twarc-report, and jq. In accordance with the Twitter Developer Agreement & Policy, and after ethical deliberations discussed below, we made the tweet IDs and other derivative data available in a data repository. This allows other people to use our dataset, cite our dataset, and enhance their own research projects by drawing on #elxn42 tweets. Our analytics included: breaking tweet text down by day to track change over time; client analysis, allowing us to see how the scale of mobile devices affected medium interactions; URL analysis, comparing both to Archive

  13. Immunological and cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of type 2 diabetes and coronary events: MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study compares inflammation-related biomarkers with established cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes and incident coronary events in a prospective case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analyses for type 2 diabetes are based on 436 individuals with and 1410 individuals without incident diabetes. Analyses for coronary events are based on 314 individuals with and 1659 individuals without incident coronary events. Mean follow-up times were almost 11 years. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC, changes in Akaike's information criterion (ΔAIC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification index (NRI were calculated for different models. A basic model consisting of age, sex and survey predicted type 2 diabetes with an AUC of 0.690. Addition of 13 inflammation-related biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, IL-18, MIF, MCP-1/CCL2, IL-8/CXCL8, IP-10/CXCL10, adiponectin, leptin, RANTES/CCL5, TGF-β1, sE-selectin, sICAM-1; all measured in nonfasting serum increased the AUC to 0.801, whereas addition of cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, systolic blood pressure, ratio total/HDL-cholesterol, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, parental diabetes increased the AUC to 0.803 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.111 [0.092-0.149] and 0.113 [0.093-0.149], respectively, compared to the basic model. The combination of all inflammation-related biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk factors yielded a further increase in AUC to 0.847 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.044 [0.028-0.066] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model. Corresponding AUCs for incident coronary events were 0.807, 0.825 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.018 [0.013-0.038] compared to the basic model, 0.845 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.038 [0.028-0.059] compared to the basic model and 0.851 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.006 [0.003-0.021] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of multiple

  14. Identification and susceptibility to multipurpose disinfectant solutions of bacteria isolated from contact lens storage cases of patients with corneal infiltrative events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilvington, Simon; Shovlin, Joseph; Nikolic, Marina

    2013-12-01

    Corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) are being reported with increasing frequency in lens wearers and may be related to specific multipurpose disinfecting solution (MPDS), contact lens type or bacterial bio-burden. Here, the efficacy of MPDS's against bacteria from contact lens storage cases (CLSC) of patients with CIEs was investigated. Eighteen CLSC from patients with CIEs were cultured. All reported using the same MPDS based on PQ-1+Aldox+nonanoyl-EDTA prior to experiencing CIEs. Bacteria were identified and tested for sensitivity to MPDS-1 and three other MPSDs. 16/18 CLSC (89%) contained bacterial counts of ≥10(4)-10(8)/mL. Achromobacter spp. was most frequently identified and was found in 11/18 cases (61%). This was followed by 4/18 (22%) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 3/18 (17%) Serratia marcescens, 3/18 (17%) Delftia spp., 2/18 (11%) Elizabethkingia spp., 2/18 (11%) Chryseobacterium indologenes and 1/18 Sphingobacterium spiritivorum. Acanthamoeba was not isolated. All of the Achromobacter strains were resistant to MPDS-1 with CIEs in contact lens wearers remain unclear. However, the presence of significant bio-burden in the contact lens storage case and lens may initiate an immunological response resulting in CIEs either directly or through the release of endotoxins (e.g. lipopolysaccharides) from the bacterial outer cell membrane.

  15. Autonomous Adaptation to Extreme Hydrometeorological Events: A Case Study of the Coexistence of an Indigenous Territory with Climate Risk at the Sixaola Basin, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Montero Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous adaptation refers to the measures taken by a specific population as a self-managed response to an adverse climate event. The absence of government help or large-scale investments determines the local-scale nature of those initiatives. Observation and traditional knowledge are the basis of this kind of adaptation measures. In this text; we analyzed the process that led the indigenous community; dedicated to agriculture in Sixaola River’s Basin; to take actions for increasing their resilience and adaptation to continuous extreme climate events. A qualitative ethnographic method was used on the basis of a record research on databases and other secondary sources to develop participatory observations; two discussion groups; and a workshop. It was found that women producers of cocoa and their families took measures such as crops diversification; farmer’s associations; community organizations; and village relocation without governmental support. This case offers inputs and lessons learned relevant to the current topic; the adaptation and resilience measures in rural territories.

  16. A Framework of Knowledge Integration and Discovery for Supporting Pharmacogenomics Target Predication of Adverse Drug Events: A Case Study of Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqian; Wang, Chen; Zhu, Qian; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge-driven text mining is becoming an important research area for identifying pharmacogenomics target genes. However, few of such studies have been focused on the pharmacogenomics targets of adverse drug events (ADEs). The objective of the present study is to build a framework of knowledge integration and discovery that aims to support pharmacogenomics target predication of ADEs. We integrate a semantically annotated literature corpus Semantic MEDLINE with a semantically coded ADE knowledgebase known as ADEpedia using a semantic web based framework. We developed a knowledge discovery approach combining a network analysis of a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and a gene functional classification approach. We performed a case study of drug-induced long QT syndrome for demonstrating the usefulness of the framework in predicting potential pharmacogenomics targets of ADEs.

  17. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  18. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  19. Validation of electromagnetic and hadronic physical processes in the interaction of a proton beam with matter: A Solar Particle Events case study with an Al slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Filomena; Vardaci, Emanuele; Quarto, Maria; Roca, Vincenzo; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

    2017-01-01

    In the study of the effectiveness of shielding materials against radiations, one of the main steps concerns with the validation of models describing the interaction processes of the radiation of interest with the material chosen for the shielding. This paper shows the results of the validation of electromagnetic and hadronic processes with the aim to contribute to the study of protection for astronauts against the radiations due to the Solar Particle Events, in particular to the selection of the optimal material for radiation shielding. The physics case deals with the interaction of a proton beam with an aluminum slab about 20 g/cm2 thick. Two specific applications, STP and DOSE, were developed by using Geant4 package. STP computes the radiations produced in the interaction and their stopping power; DOSE computes the absorbed dose from the stopping power calculated by STP. The validation process was performed in two steps. In the first one, the output of the STP code is compared to data available on NIST database; in the second one, the absorbed dose computed with DOSE is compared to the dose gathered during an experiment performed at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory involving the bombardment of an aluminum slab with a 1 GeV proton beam. The computing model has allowed us to correlate the size of the impinging beam profile to the dose measured before and after an Al slab. The sharp increase of the dose in the position right after the slab might be due to the stochastic nature of the trajectories of charged ions in matter which makes the radiation to emerge with non-zero transverse linear momentum. From the case examined here, we conclude that aluminum is not an efficient material for Solar Particle Event shielding.

  20. Acute Cardiovascular Events after Herpes Zoster: A Self-Controlled Case Series Analysis in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Older Residents of the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Minassian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is common and can have serious consequences. Additionally, emerging data suggest an increased risk of acute cardiovascular events following herpes zoster. However, to our knowledge, existing association studies compare outcomes between individuals and are therefore vulnerable to between-person confounding. In this study, we used a within-person study design to quantify any short-term increased risk of acute cardiovascular events (stroke and myocardial infarction [MI] after zoster and to assess whether zoster vaccination modifies this association.The self-controlled case series method was used to estimate rates of stroke and acute MI in defined periods after herpes zoster compared to other time periods, within individuals. Participants were fully eligible Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥ 65 y with a herpes zoster diagnosis and either an ischemic stroke (n = 42,954 or MI (n = 24,237 between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011. Age-adjusted incidence ratios (IRs for stroke and MI during predefined periods up to 12 mo after zoster relative to unexposed time periods were calculated using conditional Poisson regression. We observed a marked increase in the rate of acute cardiovascular events in the first week after zoster diagnosis: a 2.4-fold increased ischemic stroke rate (IR 2.37, 95% CI 2.17-2.59 and a 1.7-fold increased MI rate (IR 1.68, 95% CI 1.47-1.92, followed by a gradual resolution over 6 mo. Zoster vaccination did not appear to modify the association with MI (interaction p-value = 0.44. We also found no evidence for a difference in the IR for ischemic stroke between vaccinated (IR 1.14, 95% CI 0.75-1.74 and unvaccinated (IR 1.78, 95% CI 1.68-1.88 individuals during the first 4 wk after zoster diagnosis (interaction p-value = 0.28. The relatively few vaccinated individuals limited the study's power to assess the role of vaccination.Stroke and MI rates are transiently increased after exposure to herpes zoster. We found no

  1. Dating of the late Quaternary volcanic events using Uranium-series technique on travertine deposit: A case study in Ihlara, Central Anatolia Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Tonguç Uysal, İ.; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi

    2016-04-01

    Dating of late Quaternary volcanism is crucial to understanding of the recent mechanism of crustal deformation and future volcanic explosivity risk of the region. However, radiometric dating of volcanic products has been a major challenge because of high methodological error rate. In most cases, there are difficulties on discrimination of the volcanic lava flow relations in the field. Furthermore, there would be unrecorded and unpreserved volcanoclastic layers by depositional and erosional processes. We present a new method that allows precise dating of late Quaternary volcanic events (in the time range of 0-500,000 years before present) using the Uranium-series technique on travertine mass, which is thought to be controlled by the young volcanism. Since the high pressure CO2 in the spring waters are mobilized during crustal strain cycles and the carbonates are precipitated in the fissures act as conduit for hot springs, thus, travertine deposits provide important information about crustal deformation. In this study we studied Ihlara fissure ridge travertines in the Central Anatolia Volcanic Province. This region is surrounded by many eruption centers (i.e. Hasandaǧı, Acıgöl and Göllüdaǧı) known as the late Quaternary and their widespread volcanoclastic products. Recent studies have suggested at least 11 events at around Acıgöl Caldera for the last 180 ka and 2 events at Hasandaǧı Stratovolcano for the last 30 ka. Active travertine masses around Ihlara deposited from hotwaters, which rise up through deep-penetrated fissures in volcanoclastic products of surrounding volcanoes. Analyses of the joint systems indicate that these vein structures are controlled by the crustal deformation due to young volcanism in the vicinity. Thus, the geological history of Ihlara travertine mass is regarded as a record of surrounding young volcanism. We dated 9 samples from 5 ridge-type travertine masses around Ihlara region. The age distribution indicates that the crustal

  2. Case Study on Influence Factor Trend Analysis of the Accidents and Events of Nuclear Power Plants by applying Nuclear Safety Culture Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. Y.; Park, Y. W.; Park, H.G. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study 1) established the standard based on frameworks of safety culture principles that show safety culture promotion goals, 2) analyzed the linkages with the frameworks that were established by analyzing each incident cause and weak point from selected 268 cases(rating over INES grade 1) among 4,088 cases (as of April 1, 2015). The 4,088 cases were selected as a result of database analysis from 702 accidents recorded in accident and rating evaluation reports that were published in the National Nuclear Safety Commission and overseas IRS (International Reporting System for operating Experience), and 3) finally conducted a trend analysis studies with these comprehensive results. From the investigations, followings were concluded. 1) In order to analyze the safety culture, analysis methodology is required. 2) Analytical methodology for building sustainable safety culture promoting a virtuous cycle system was developed 3) Among variety of process input data, 970 domestic and overseas incidents were selected as targets and 502 accidents were classified as safety culture related events by utilizing screen filter of IAEA GS-G-3.5 Appendix I and Framework (Nuclear Safety Culture Base Frame) developed by BEES, Inc. for safety culture analysis method. 4) As a result, complex safety culture influence factors for the one reason which was difficult to separate by conventional methods was able to be analyzed. 5) The cumulative data through the system was results of virtuous trend analysis rather than temporary results. Thus, it could be unique cultural factors of the domestic industry and could derive trend differences for domestic safety culture factors accordingly.

  3. Organizational learning in rare events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Beukel, Karin; Tyler, Beverly

    In this paper we build a theoretical framework for understanding whether and how firms learn from the rare event of litigating intellectual property cases. We draw on literature on organizational learning from rare events and examine the conditions under which firms can learn from rare events. We...

  4. Seismic hazard in low slip rate crustal faults, estimating the characteristic event and the most hazardous zone: study case San Ramón Fault, in southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estay, Nicolás P.; Yáñez, Gonzalo; Carretier, Sebastien; Lira, Elias; Maringue, José

    2016-11-01

    Crustal faults located close to cities may induce catastrophic damages. When recurrence times are in the range of 1000-10 000 or higher, actions to mitigate the effects of the associated earthquake are hampered by the lack of a full seismic record, and in many cases, also of geological evidences. In order to characterize the fault behavior and its effects, we propose three different already-developed time-integration methodologies to define the most likely scenarios of rupture, and then to quantify the hazard with an empirical equation of peak ground acceleration (PGA). We consider the following methodologies: (1) stream gradient and (2) sinuosity indexes to estimate fault-related topographic effects, and (3) gravity profiles across the fault to identify the fault scarp in the basement. We chose the San Ramón Fault on which to apply these methodologies. It is a ˜ 30 km N-S trending fault with a low slip rate (0.1-0.5 mm yr-1) and an approximated recurrence of 9000 years. It is located in the foothills of the Andes near the large city of Santiago, the capital of Chile (> 6 000 000 inhabitants). Along the fault trace we define four segments, with a mean length of ˜ 10 km, which probably become active independently. We tested the present-day seismic activity by deploying a local seismological network for 1 year, finding five events that are spatially related to the fault. In addition, fault geometry along the most evident scarp was imaged in terms of its electrical resistivity response by a high resolution TEM (transient electromagnetic) profile. Seismic event distribution and TEM imaging allowed the constraint of the fault dip angle (˜ 65°) and its capacity to break into the surface. Using the empirical equation of Chiou and Youngs (2014) for crustal faults and considering the characteristic seismic event (thrust high-angle fault, ˜ 10 km, Mw = 6.2-6.7), we estimate the acceleration distribution in Santiago and the hazardous zones. City domains that are under

  5. 453例疑似预防接种异常反应监测情况分析%Analysis of 453 Adverse Events Following Immunization cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯磊; 王艳玲; 范学彬

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the causes of AEFI so as to find ways to reduce the AEFI incidence .Methods:Statistical analysis was conducted for the 453 cases who had adverse events following immunization from 2008 to 2011 in Jilin city.Results:378 cases were commom,abnormal reaction were 53 cases,To DPT AEFI report the first number .Among them,targets aged≤1 year accounted for 82%;Aged from 2 to 6 account for 15.9%;136 AEFIs were cured and 312 were getting better.Conclusion:The surveillance of AEFI informa-tion management system has good sensitivity in Jilin city , the AEFI monitoring sensitivity and timeliness is better .The causes for the ad-verse events are various .The quality of vaccines should be improved , training for inoculators must be strengthened , in order to reduce the incidence of the adv erse events .%目的:探讨预防接种异常反应发生的规律,评价疫苗的安全性,改善预防接种的服务质量,增强公众对预防接种的信心。方法:对2008~2011年吉林市疑似预防接种异常反应监测系统报告的453例接种一类疫苗后发生异常反应的病例进行统计分析。结果:453例疫苗接种异常反应病例中一般反应378例,异常反应53例,无疫苗事故;百白破无细胞疫苗报告例数最多为213例,占47.0%;≤l岁组异常反应例数为216例,占总例数的82%,2~6岁组72例,占15.9%;就医后痊愈者136例,占30.0%;好转者312例,占68.9%。结论:吉林市疾病预防控制中心自2008年使用AEFI监测系统以来,AEFI检测的敏感性明显提高,异常反应的防治效果显著。由于异常反应的发生原因是多方面的,还应从加强疫苗质量的监管、提高接种人员的培训等方面入手,进一步降低异常反应的发生率。

  6. Predictability of prototype flash flood events in the Western Mediterranean under uncertainties of the precursor upper-level disturbance: the HYDROPTIMET case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Romero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The HYDROPTIMET case studies (9–10 June 2000 Catalogne, 8–9 September 2002 Cévennes and 24–26 November 2002 Piémont appear to encompass a sort of prototype flash-flood situations in the western Mediterranean attending to the relevant synoptic and mesoscale signatures identified on the meteorological charts. In Catalogne, the convective event was driven by a low-pressure system of relatively small dimensions developed over the mediterranean coast of Spain that moved into southern France. For Cévennes, the main circulation pattern was a synoptic-scale Atlantic low which induced a persistent southerly low-level jet (LLJ over the western Mediterranean, strengthened by the Alps along its western flank, which guaranteed continuous moisture supply towards southern France where the long-lived, quasistationary convective system developed. The long Piémont episode, very representative of the most severe alpine flash flood events, shares some similarities with the Cévennes situation during its first stage in that it was controlled by a southerly moist LLJ associated with a large-scale disturbance located to the west. However, these circulation features were transient aspects and during the second half of the episode the situation was dominated by a cyclogenesis process over the Mediterranean which gave place to a mesoscale-size depression at surface that acted to force new heavy rain over the slopes of the Alps and maritime areas. That is, the Piémont episode can be catalogued as of mixed type with regard to the responsible surface disturbance, evolving from a large-scale pattern with remote action (like Cévennes to a mesoscale pattern with local action (like Catalogne. A prominent mid-tropospheric trough or cut-off low can be identified in all events prior and during the period of heavy rain, which clearly served as the precursor agent for the onset of the flash-flood conditions and the cyclogenesis at low-levels. Being aware of the

  7. Susceptibility assessment of landslides under extreme-rainfall events using hydro-geotechnical model; a case study of Umyeonsan (Mt.), Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, Y. M.; Bae, D. H.

    2014-08-01

    The influence of climate change on patterns has the potential to alter stability of partially saturated soil slopes. Changes in rainfall patterns have a strong influence on stability of partially saturated soil slopes, which recently have resulted in shallow landslides. In this paper, a comprehensive case study on the 2011 Umyeonsan (Mt.) landslides was highlighted. The incident involves the collapse of a soil slope and the debris flow under extreme-rainfall event, causing 16 fatalities and serious damaged to 146 housings. A fundamental study was carried out on the cause and mechanism of landslide/debris flow. An analytical method is developed for determining the failure mechanism of unsaturated soil slopes under extreme-rainfall, the effect of groundwater flow; the downward velocity of wetting front, and the upward velocity of groundwater level. Based on this, we propose the conceptual methodology of landslide design based on experimental tests and numerical analyses which consider the important mechanism of the combined effects of both groundwater flow and rainfall infiltration into the slope.

  8. Susceptibility assessment of landslides under extreme-rainfall events using hydro-geotechnical model; a case study of Umyeonsan (Mt., Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Jeong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of climate change on patterns has the potential to alter stability of partially saturated soil slopes. Changes in rainfall patterns have a strong influence on stability of partially saturated soil slopes, which recently have resulted in shallow landslides. In this paper, a comprehensive case study on the 2011 Umyeonsan (Mt. landslides was highlighted. The incident involves the collapse of a soil slope and the debris flow under extreme-rainfall event, causing 16 fatalities and serious damaged to 146 housings. A fundamental study was carried out on the cause and mechanism of landslide/debris flow. An analytical method is developed for determining the failure mechanism of unsaturated soil slopes under extreme-rainfall, the effect of groundwater flow; the downward velocity of wetting front, and the upward velocity of groundwater level. Based on this, we propose the conceptual methodology of landslide design based on experimental tests and numerical analyses which consider the important mechanism of the combined effects of both groundwater flow and rainfall infiltration into the slope.

  9. [Death from dengue fever as a sentinel event for evaluation of quality of healthcare: a case study in two municipalities in Northeast Brazil, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró, Ana Cláudia; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araújo; Brito, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de; Samico, Isabella; Siqueira Filha, Noêmia Teixeira de; Cazarin, Gisele; Braga, Cynthia; Cesse, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa

    2011-12-01

    Despite the existing resources for adequate dengue patient care in the Brazilian healthcare system, the case-fatality rate for the disease is still high in the country. In order to identify factors associated with dengue-related death, this study evaluated quality of care according to the degree of implementation of specific measures, the technical and scientific quality of care, and access to health services in two municipalities (counties) in Northeast Brazil. An evaluative study of the implementation analysis type was performed, with death from dengue as the sentinel event for quality of care. To assess the degree of implementation and quality of care, the study scored the interview criteria and patient chart analysis; access was evaluated by thematic analysis. As for structure and process, the health services were found to be partially adequate (70%). No geographic or economic barriers were found to explain the occurrence of deaths. Technical and scientific quality failed to achieve adequate levels in the municipalities (46% and 30%) or in the specific services, and clinical management of dengue by the health services proved insufficient.

  10. Integrating data and mashup concepts in Hydro-Meteorological Research: the torrential rainfall event in Genoa (4th November 2011) case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrina, T.; Parodi, A.; Quarati, A.; Clematis, A.; Rebora, N.; Laiosa, D.

    2012-04-01

    One of the critical issues in Hydro-Meteorological Research (HMR) is a better exploitation of data archives according to a multidisciplinary perspective. Different Earth science databases offer a huge amount of observational data, which often need to be assembled, processed, combined accordingly HM scientists needs. The cooperation between scientists active in HMR and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is essential in the development of innovative tools and applications for manipulating, aggregating and re-arranging heterogeneous information in flexible way. In this paper it is described an application devoted to the collection and integration of HM datasets, originated by public or private sources, freely exposed via Web services API. This application uses the mashup, recently become very popular in many fields, (Chow S.-W., 2007) technology concepts. Such methodology means combination of data and/or programs published by external online sources into an integrated experience. Mashup seems to be a promising methodology to respond to the multiple data-related activities into which HM researchers are daily involved (e.g. finding and retrieving high volume data; learning formats and developing readers; extracting parameters; performing filtering and mask; developing analysis and visualization tools). The specific case study of the recent extreme rainfall event, occurred over Genoa in Italy on the 4th November 2011 is shown through the integration of semi-professional weather observational networks as free available data source in addition to official weather networks.

  11. Approaches to Process Performance Modeling: A Summary from the SEI Series of Workshops on CMMI High Maturity Measurement and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    learned during the adoption experience. The SIA consisted of a week- long Kaizen event.2 Less than 10 staff hours were required to create the simple...process performance model, called 2 Now widely used in Lean Six Sigma, Kaizen was first implemented in Japan after World War II. Kaizen focuses on

  12. Improving Fleet and Industrial Supply Center, Sigonella, Italy: Detachment Bahrain’s Ship Maintenance Contracts in Southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    Project Sponsor: CAPT Chris Ray Black/Green Belt: CDR Mike Ryan Business Impact ($) KAIZEN / Rapid Improvement Event The expected impacts of this...Availability Contracts Project Methodology: DMAIC DFSS Kaizen Project Plan—list planned dates for each DMAIC phase Kaizen start and end dates...Initial Plan of Action for Kaizen Week 1) List and quantify elements that make the Big X metrics; 2) Capture the current competition categories into which

  13. Unusual spine anatomy contributing to wrong level spine surgery: a case report and recommendations for decreasing the risk of preventable 'never events'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindley Emily M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wrong site surgery is one of five surgical "Never Events," which include performing surgery on the incorrect side or incorrect site, performing the wrong procedure, performing surgery on the wrong patient, unintended retention of a foreign object in a patient, and intraoperative/immediate postoperative death in an ASA Class I patient. In the spine, wrong site surgery occurs when a procedure is performed on an unintended vertebral level. Despite the efforts of national safety protocols, literature suggests that the risk for wrong level spine surgery remains problematic. Case Presentation A 34-year-old male was referred to us to evaluate his persistent thoracic pain following right-sided microdiscectomy at T7-8 at an outside institution. Postoperative imaging showed the continued presence of a herniated disc at T7-8 and evidence of a microdiscectomy at the level immediately above. The possibility that wrong level surgery had occurred was discussed with the patient and revision surgery was planned. During surgery, the site of the previous laminectomy was clearly visualized; however, we also experienced confusion when verifying the level of the previous surgery. We ultimately used the previous laminectomy site as a landmark for identifying and treating the correct pathologic level. Postoperative consultation with Musculoskeletal Radiology revealed the patient had two abnormalities in his spinal anatomy that made intraoperative counting of levels inaccurate, including a pair of cervical ribs at C7 and the absence of a pair of thoracic ribs. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of strict adherence to a preoperative method of vertebral labeling that focuses on the landmarks used to label a pathologic disc space, rather than simply relying on the reference to a particular level. That is, by designating the pathological level as the disc space associated with the fourth rib up from the last rib-bearing vertebrae, rather than

  14. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  15. HOW A TOURIST DESTINATION MAY BECOME A BRAND BY MEANS OF EVENTS – A CASE STUDY ON IASI AS A CANDIDATE FOR EUROPEAN CULTURAL CAPITAL 2021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta-Mihaela ZETIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis on the impact generated by hosting the International Festival of Education, 2013 edition, on Iasi’s image and its contribution in the competition for winning the title "European Capital of Culture 2021". The article reviews aspects related to culture, events and city branding, the strategy and the effects of hosting a cultural event on the host city. Cultural event was discussed as a tool used for urban regeneration and branding a tourist destination. Moreover, statistics show how the event contributed to increase tourism in Iasi.

  16. Kaizen koncept i njegova primena u logistici / Kaizen concept and its application in logistics / Применение практики Кайдзен при решении логистических задач

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag J. Pešić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kaizen je japanska filozofija koja se fokusira na kontinualno poboljšanje, pojednostavljenje i ubrzanje procesa, smanjenjem ili eliminisanjem rasipanja, trošeći minimum potrebnih resursa, a pri tome isporučuje najbolji mogući kvalitet proizvoda ili usluga. To je proces koji, kada se uradi pravilno, humanizuje radno mesto, eliminiše preterano težak rad i uči ljude kako da vrše ispitivanja sopstvenog rada (koristeći naučne metode, eliminišući škart u procesu poslovanja. Mnoge vojne organizacije prepoznale se prednosti Kaizena i implementirale ga u svoju praksu. Kaizen je jedna od najprihvatljivijih metoda kontinualnog unapređenja procesa u logistici. Omogućava inkrementalno poboljšanje procesa, jeftin je i fleksibilan. Istovremeno, pruža mogućnost organima logistike da brzo, efektno i efikasno reaguju na sve promene u njenom turbulentnom i složenom okruženju. / Kaizen is a Japanese philosophy that focuses on continuous improvement, simplification and acceleration of processes, by reducing or eliminating waste and by spending a minimum of resources needed, while delivering the best possible quality products and services. It is a process that, when done correctly, humanizes the workplace, eliminates overly hard work and teaches people how to perform tests of their own work (using scientific methods and eliminating scrap in the business process. Many military organizations have recognized the benefits of Kaizen and implemented it into their practice. Kaizen is one of the most acceptable methods of continuous process improvement in logistics. It is cost effective and flexible and allows incremental process improvement. At the same time, it provides logistics with quick, effective and efficient responses to any changes in its turbulent and complex environment. / Кайдзен, кайдзэн (яп. 改善 – японская философия или практика, которая фокусируется на не

  17. Plasma advanced glycation end products are associated with incident cardiovascular events in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a case-cohort study with a median follow-up of 10 years (EPIC-NL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Nordin M J; Beulens, Joline W J; van Dieren, Susan; Scheijen, Jean L J M; van der A, Daphne L; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data suggest a role for advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, epidemiological evidence of an association between high plasma AGEs and increased cardiovascular risk remains inconclusive. Therefore, in a case-cohort study comprising 134 cardiovascular case subjects and a random subcohort of 218 individuals (including 65 cardiovascular case subjects), all with T2DM and nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition in the Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study, plasma levels of protein-bound Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine, Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine, and pentosidine were measured with liquid chromatography. AGEs were loge-transformed, combined in a z-score, and the association with incident cardiovascular events was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard regression, adapted for case-cohort design (Prentice method). After multivariable adjustment (sex, age, cohort status, diabetes duration, total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio, smoking, systolic blood pressure, BMI, blood pressure-, cholesterol- and glucose-lowering treatment, prior cardiovascular events, and triglycerides), higher plasma AGE z-scores were associated with higher risk of incident cardiovascular events in individuals without prior cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 1.31 [95% CI: 1.06-1.61]). A similar trend was observed in individuals with prior cardiovascular events (1.37 [0.63-2.98]). In conclusion, high plasma AGEs were associated with incident cardiovascular events in individuals with T2DM. These results underline the potential importance of AGEs in development of CVD. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The paper demonstrates that a wide variety of event-based modeling approaches are based on special cases of the same general event concept, and that the general event concept can be used to unify the otherwise unrelated fields of information modeling and process modeling. A set of event......-based modeling approaches are analyzed and the results are used to formulate a general event concept that can be used for unifying the seemingly unrelated event concepts. Events are characterized as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms...... of information structures. The general event concept can be used to guide systems analysis and design and to improve modeling approaches....

  19. Scale Analysis of Blocking Events from 2002 to 2004: A Case Study of an Unusually Persistent Blocking Event Leading to a Heat Wave in the Gulf of Alaska during August 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Athar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatology of northern hemisphere blocking events is presented assessing the relative contributions of the planetary and synoptic scales to 500 hPa heights in order to determine the proportion of blocks dominated by a single-scale. The heights were averaged over a region encompassing the block, and then compared with corresponding monthly mean values. If planetary-scale or synoptic-scale heights are greater than the monthly mean, the block is called single-scale dominant. In the study, 79% of blocks were single-scale dominant, whereas the remaining 21% of events were alternating-scale prominent. This proportion varied by season with winter (summer events being synoptic (planetary scale dominant. The stability of blocks is also examined to determine if two stability indicators were useful in the assessment of the character of planetary and synoptic-scale flows. These quantities are area integrated enstrophy, and the maximum value of stream function gradients within the block region. The analysis of a prolonged block occurring in the Gulf of Alaska during August 2004 shows the planetary-scale is unstable during block onset and then stabilizes during the mature stage. The synoptic-scale played a dominant role in destabilizing the planetary-scale during the mature stage of the block initiating decay.

  20. Deliverable 6.2 - Software: upgraded MC simulation tools capable of simulating a complete in-beam ET experiment, from the beam to the detected events. Report with the description of one (or few) reference clinical case(s), including the complete patient model and beam characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    The ENVISION Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Deliverable 6.2 - Software: upgraded MC simulation tools capable of simulating a complete in-beam ET experiment, from the beam to the detected events. Report with the description of one (or few) reference clinical case(s), including the complete patient model and beam characteristics

  1. A retrospective streamflow ensemble forecast for an extreme hydrologic event: a case study of Hurricane Irene and on the Hudson River basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saleh, Firas; Ramaswamy, Venkatsundar; Georgas, Nickitas; Blumberg, Alan F; Pullen, Julie

    2016-01-01

      This paper investigates the uncertainties in hourly streamflow ensemble forecasts for an extreme hydrological event using a hydrological model forced with short-range ensemble weather prediction models...

  2. Case study of lean manufacturing application in a die casting manufacturing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Ng Tan; Hoe, Clarence Chan Kok; Hong, Tang Sai; Ghobakhloo, Morteza; Pin, Chen Kah

    2015-05-01

    The case study of lean manufacturing aims to study the application of lean manufacturing in a die casting manufacturing company located in Pulau Penang, Malaysia. This case study describes mainly about the important concepts and applications of lean manufacturing which could gradually help the company in increasing the profit by studying and analyzing their current manufacturing process and company culture. Many approaches of lean manufacturing are studied in this project which includes: 5S housekeeping, Kaizen, and Takt Time. Besides, the lean tools mentioned, quality tool such as the House of Quality is being used as an analysis tool to continuously improve the product quality. In short, the existing lean culture in the company is studied and analyzed, with recommendations written at the end of this paper.

  3. Long-range pollution transport during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign: a case study of a major Mexico City outflow event using free-floating altitude-controlled balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Voss

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major objectives of the Megacities Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO-2006 campaign was to investigate the long-range transport of polluted Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA outflow and determine its downwind impacts on air quality and climate. Six research aircraft, including the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C-130, made extensive chemical, aerosol, and radiation measurements above MCMA and more than 1000 km downwind in order to characterize the evolution of the outflow as it aged and dispersed over the Mesa Alta, Sierra Madre Oriental, Coastal Plain, and Gulf of Mexico. As part of this effort, free-floating Controlled-Meteorological (CMET balloons, commanded to change altitude via satellite, made repeated profile measurements of winds and state variables within the advecting outflow. In this paper, we present an analysis of the data from two CMET balloons that were launched near Mexico City on the afternoon of 18 March 2006 and floated downwind with the MCMA pollution for nearly 30 h. The repeating profile measurements show the evolving structure of the outflow in considerable detail: its stability and stratification, interaction with other air masses, mixing episodes, and dispersion into the regional background. Air parcel trajectories, computed directly from the balloon wind profiles, show three transport pathways on 18–19 March: (a high-altitude advection of the top of the MCMA mixed layer, (b mid-level outflow over the Sierra Madre Oriental followed by decoupling and isolated transport over the Gulf of Mexico, and (c low-level outflow with entrainment into a cleaner northwesterly jet above the Coastal Plain. The C-130 aircraft intercepted the balloon-based trajectories three times on 19 March, once along each of these pathways; in all three cases, peaks in urban tracer concentrations and LIDAR backscatter are consistent with MCMA pollution. In comparison with the transport models

  4. Study of resonant modes of the harbour of Siracusa, Italy, and of the effects of breakwaters in case of a tsunami event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    events. In this last case our attention was also focused on quantifying the role of the existing breakwaters in mitigating the incoming tsunami.

  5. Investigação da produção científica relacionada ao custeio-meta e custeio Kaizen no período de 2002 a 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Rocha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo busca investigar a produção científica por meio de um estudo bibliométrico sobre custeio meta e custeio kaizen. A amostra é composta por 23 artigos científicos publicados no Congresso Brasileiro de Custos no período de 2002 a 2009. Nesse sentido, trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, bibliométrica com abordagem quantitativa. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se da estatística descritiva e do software UNICET®. Entre os resultados, constatou-se que o tema custeio-alvo foi mais abordado pelos artigos; com relação aos autores das publicações analisadas, observou-se a participação de 49 autores no total; quatro autores apresentaram-se como mais prolíficos; quanto à quantidade de autores por artigo observou-se a predominância de dois autores por publicações; com relação à rede de cooperação, um autor apenas se destacou com maior número de laços: considera-se, nesse sentido, apresentação de laços fracos entre os autores; no que tange à metodologia utilizada, observou-se a predominância de casos práticos, ou seja, artigos que trabalharam estudos de casos, survey ou experimental; com relação às citações dos artigos analisados, observou-se a predominância de citações de livros com 246 destas num total de 430 abordadas, sendo o maior número delas nos artigos publicados em 2008.

  6. Advanced Melanoma Facebook Live Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    In case you missed it, watch this recent Facebook Live event about the current state of research and treatment for advanced stage melanoma. To learn more, see our evidence-based information about skin cancer, including melanoma.

  7. Organizational Learning in Rare Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst Andersen, Kristina; Beukel, Karin; Tyler, Beverly B.

    their intellectual property to court. We propose, that organizations can learn to litigate, although it is a rare event, by applying mechanisms in a current litigation case that have been successful in previous litigation cases. However, we also posit, that the usefulness of these learning mechanisms for a current......When organizations encounter rare events they often find it challenging to extract learning from the experience. We analyze opportunities for organizational learning in one such rare event, namely Intellectual Property (IP) litigation, i.e., when organizations take disputes regarding...... to litigate, although litigation is a relatively rare event, if they leverage what they have learned from previously successful litigations. However, learning is less likely to be applicable to contract cases than it will be in infringement cases....

  8. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriani, Nor Surayahani; Hussain, Aini; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf

    2013-01-01

    Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1) the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2) frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3) the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4) various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition. PMID:23921828

  9. Separating out the influence of climatic trend, fluctuations, and extreme events on crop yield: a case study in Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Zhao; Meng, Yongchang; Luan, Yibo; Wang, Jiwei

    2017-09-01

    Separating out the influence of climatic trend, fluctuations and extreme events on crop yield is of paramount importance to climate change adaptation, resilience, and mitigation. Previous studies lack systematic and explicit assessment of these three fundamental aspects of climate change on crop yield. This research attempts to separate out the impacts on rice yields of climatic trend (linear trend change related to mean value), fluctuations (variability surpassing the "fluctuation threshold" which defined as one standard deviation (1 SD) of the residual between the original data series and the linear trend value for each climatic variable), and extreme events (identified by absolute criterion for each kind of extreme events related to crop yield). The main idea of the research method was to construct climate scenarios combined with crop system simulation model. Comparable climate scenarios were designed to express the impact of each climate change component and, were input to the crop system model (CERES-Rice), which calculated the related simulated yield gap to quantify the percentage impacts of climatic trend, fluctuations, and extreme events. Six Agro-Meteorological Stations (AMS) in Hunan province were selected to study the quantitatively impact of climatic trend, fluctuations and extreme events involving climatic variables (air temperature, precipitation, and sunshine duration) on early rice yield during 1981-2012. The results showed that extreme events were found to have the greatest impact on early rice yield (-2.59 to -15.89%). Followed by climatic fluctuations with a range of -2.60 to -4.46%, and then the climatic trend (4.91-2.12%). Furthermore, the influence of climatic trend on early rice yield presented "trade-offs" among various climate variables and AMS. Climatic trend and extreme events associated with air temperature showed larger effects on early rice yield than other climatic variables, particularly for high-temperature events (-2.11 to -12

  10. Events diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  11. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  12. Psychological characteristics, stressful life events and deliberate self-harm: findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Nicola; Hawton, Keith; McMahon, Elaine M; Corcoran, Paul; De Leo, Diego; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; Ystgaard, Mette; Arensman, Ella

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest that both psychological characteristics and stressful life events are contributory factors in deliberate self-harm among young people. These links, and the possibility of a dose-response relationship between self-harm and both psychological health and life events, were investigated in the context of a seven-country school-based study. Over 30,000, mainly 15 and 16 year olds, completed anonymous questionnaires at secondary schools in Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Australia. Pupils were asked to report on thoughts and episodes of self-harm, complete scales on depression and anxiety symptoms, impulsivity and self-esteem and indicate stressful events in their lives. Level and frequency of self-harm was judged according to whether they had thought about harming themselves or reported single or multiple self-harm episodes. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the extent to which psychological characteristics and stressful life events distinguished between adolescents with different self-harm histories. Increased severity of self-harm history was associated with greater depression, anxiety and impulsivity and lower self-esteem and an increased prevalence of all ten life event categories. Female gender, higher impulsivity and experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, physical or sexual abuse and worries about sexual orientation independently differentiated single-episode self-harmers from adolescents with self-harm thoughts only. Female gender, higher depression, lower self-esteem, experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, and trouble with the police independently distinguished multiple- from single-episode self-harmers. The findings reinforce the importance of psychological characteristics and stressful life events in adolescent self-harm but nonetheless suggest that some factors are more likely than others to be implicated.

  13. Influential factors on debris flow events and hillslope-channel connectivity in Alpine regions: case studies from two Alpine regions in Styria, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traper, Sandra; Pöppl, Ronald; Rascher, Eric; Sass, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In recent times different types of natural disasters like debris flow events have attracted increasing attention worldwide, since they can cause great damage and loss of infrastructure or even lives is not unusual when it comes to such an event. The engagement with debris flows is especially important in mountainous areas like Austria, since Alpine regions have proved to be particularly prone to the often harmful consequences of such events because of increasing settlement of previously uninhabited regions. Due to those frequently damaging effects of debris flows, research on this kind of natural disaster often focuses on mitigation and recovery measures after an event and on how to restore the initial situation. However, a view on the situation of an area, where severe debris flows recently occurred and are well documented, before the actual event can aid in discovering important preparatory factors that contribute to initiating debris flows and hillslope-channel connectivity in the first place. Valuable insights into the functioning and preconditions of debris flows and their potential connectivity to the main channel can be gained. The study focuses on two geologically different areas in the Austrian Alps, which are both prone to debris flows and have experienced rather severe events recently. Based on data from debris flow events in two regions in Styria (Austria), the Kleinsölk and the Johnsbach valleys, the aim of the study is to identify factors which influence the development of debris flows and the potential of such debris flows to reach the main channel potentially clogging up the river (hillslope-channel connectivity). The degree of hillslope-channel coupling was verified in extensive TLS and ALS surveys, resulting in DEMs of different resolution and spatial extension. Those factors are obtained, analyzed and evaluated with DEM-based GIS- and statistical analyses. These include factors that are attributed to catchment topography, such as slope angle

  14. Organizational Learning in Rare Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst Andersen, Kristina; Beukel, Karin; Tyler, Beverly B.

    When organizations encounter rare events they often find it challenging to extract learning from the experience. We analyze opportunities for organizational learning in one such rare event, namely Intellectual Property (IP) litigation, i.e., when organizations take disputes regarding...... their intellectual property to court. We propose, that organizations can learn to litigate, although it is a rare event, by applying mechanisms in a current litigation case that have been successful in previous litigation cases. However, we also posit, that the usefulness of these learning mechanisms for a current...

  15. Turismo de Eventos na Serra Gaúcha: O Caso da Festa Nacional da Uva de Caxias do Sul, RS / Tourism Events in Serra Gaucha: The Case of Caxias do Sul, RS, National Grape Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Silva Barbosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eventos são, cada vez mais, utilizados como instrumentos de promoção de destinos e de localidades turísticas. O rápido crescimento do setor é considerado um fenômeno global, pois os eventos impulsionam a economia local, sendo uma alternativa para minimizar os efeitos da sazonalidade nos centros receptores de turismo. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar como ocorre o planejamento da Festa da Uva de Caxias do Sul, RS, tomando como base as fases do pré-evento, trans-evento e pós- evento propostas por Allen et al (2008. Trata-se de um estudo de caso, em pesquisa de viés qualitativo e descritivo. Os resultados da pesquisa apontam para a existência de um planejamento logístico do evento estruturado e organizado com divisão de tarefas e atividades que contribuem para o sucesso da festa. Palavras-chaves: Turismo. Turismo de Eventos. Festa Nacional da Uva. Caxias do Sul, RS. Tourism Events in Serra Gaucha: The Case of Caxias do Sul, RS, National Grape Festival - Events are increasingly being used to promoting tourism destinations and localities. Events help the local economy as alternative for decreasing the effects caused by seasonality in the major host centers of tourism. This article investigates the planning of the Grape Festival of Caxias do Sul, it’s pre-event, trans-event and post-event structure as proposed by Allen et al (2008. It’s a qualitative and exploratory study. The results point the presence of a logistic plan well-organized, with the division of tasks and activities that contribute to the success of the festival. Keywords: Tourism. Events Tourism.  National Grape Festival. Caxias do Sul, RS, Brasil.

  16. Causal Analysis and Management Countermeasures of Cases of Adverse Nursing Events in Oncology Department%肿瘤科护理不良事件的原因分析与管理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩兴平; 陶明珠; 周平; 陈卓园园

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the causes of adverse events in nursing and discuss the measures to decrease nursing badness events. Methods: There were 37 cases of nursing adverse events in the tumor-associated department, which were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The 3 main adverse events were administration of medications error, therapy-associated events, mistakes in the transmitting and receiving information. The staple causes of adverse events in nursing could be defect in system management,failure to implement strictly check regulations,the information technology lag and the safety control problem. Conclusion:Prevention of adverse events should improve system management,implement strictly check regulations,develop information technology comprehensively and strengthen the safety awareness.%目的 分析肿瘤科护理不良事件发生的原因,探讨减少不良事件的管理对策.方法对肿瘤科37例护理不良事件进行回顾性分析.结果护理不良事件前3位分别是给药错误、治疗相关事件、信息传递与接受错误.主要原因是系统管理缺陷、查对制度执行不力、信息化建设滞后与安全意识不到位.结论医院要改进系统管理,严格执行查对制度,全面信息化建设与管理,强化安全意识,以预防不良事件的发生.

  17. Dynamical freeze-out in event-by-event hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holopainen, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    In hydrodynamical modeling of the ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions the freeze-out is typically performed at a constant temperature or density. In this work we apply a dynamical freeze-out criterion, which compares the hydrodynamical expansion rate with the pion scattering rate. Recently many calculations have been done using event-by-event hydrodynamics where the initial density profile fluctuates from event to event. In these event-by-event calculations the expansion rate fluctuates strongly as well, and thus it is interesting to check how the dynamical freeze-out changes hadron distributions with respect to the constant temperature freeze-out. We present hadron spectra and elliptic flow calculated using (2+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics, and show the differences between constant temperature and dynamical freeze-out criteria. We find that the differences caused by different freeze-out criteria are small in all studied cases.

  18. Using long term synthetic time series to assess the impact of meteorological extreme events on renewable energy systems: a case study of wind and hydro power in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höltinger, Stefan; Schmidt, Johannes; Weterlund, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic time series of renewable energy generation provide important inputs for energy system models that study the transition to low carbon energy systems. The coverage of national energy statistics is usually too short or temporal resolution too low - in particular if meteorological extreme events should be assessed. These extreme events may put high stress on power systems with very high shares of renewables and therefore have to be studied in detail. We use simulated time series of Swedish wind energy generation for a 35 year period based on MERRA reanalysis datasets. The simulation of hydropower generation is more complex and requires hydrological models that combine precipitation data with spatially explicit information on soil type and land cover to simulate river discharge. For this purpose, we use time series of daily river discharge that have been simulated using the open source model HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment). We compared the derived time series for wind and hydropower generation in the four Swedish bidding areas with respect to their long-term correlation, patterns of seasonality, and length and duration of extreme events. Preliminary results show that expanding wind power capacities could significantly reduce the overall variability of renewable energy generation. Furthermore, the frequency and duration of extreme production events in a combined wind-hydropower system is lower than in a hydropower system only. Further work will study the need for backup capacities in a future Swedish power system with very high shares of hydro, wind and solar power (>90%).

  19. Effects of a 20 year rain event: a quantitative microbial risk assessment of a case of contaminated bathing water in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe Tanja; Erichsen, A. C.; Mark, O.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) often lack data on water quality leading to great uncertainty in the QMRA because of the many assumptions. The quantity of waste water contamination was estimated and included in a QMRA on an extreme rain event leading to combined sewer overflow (CS...

  20. 管理大型盛事策略:以鹿特丹为例%Managing Mega Event Strategy: the Case of Rotterdam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅薇

    2011-01-01

    利用大型盛事提高城市竞争力和在国际舞台的地位逐渐成为荷兰众多城市在后工业时代的重要策略.然而,大型盛事策略的实践以及这些大型盛事在多大程度上对主办城市的城市更新起到促进作用只是在近年来成为争论的一个主题.这篇文章引用鹿特丹为例研究了荷兰城市如何利用大型盛事策略进行形象重塑和城市转型,以及策划大型盛事的动机、管理策略和迄今为止的影响.%Using mega event to increase competitiveness and position cities on the world stage has been an important strategy for many Dutch cities in the post industrial era. However,how mega event works in the practice and to what extent these mega events stimulate urban transformation process of the host cities have only become a topic in debate in recent years. This paper uses Rotterdam as an example to examine how Dutch cities explored mega event strategy for their re-imaging process and urban transformation process as well as the motives behind hosting mega events, the following management strategies and the impacts so far.

  1. A retrospective streamflow ensemble forecast for an extreme hydrologic event: a case study of Hurricane Irene and on the Hudson River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Firas; Ramaswamy, Venkatsundar; Georgas, Nickitas; Blumberg, Alan F.; Pullen, Julie

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the uncertainties in hourly streamflow ensemble forecasts for an extreme hydrological event using a hydrological model forced with short-range ensemble weather prediction models. A state-of-the art, automated, short-term hydrologic prediction framework was implemented using GIS and a regional scale hydrological model (HEC-HMS). The hydrologic framework was applied to the Hudson River basin ( ˜ 36 000 km2) in the United States using gridded precipitation data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and was validated against streamflow observations from the United States Geologic Survey (USGS). Finally, 21 precipitation ensemble members of the latest Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS/R) were forced into HEC-HMS to generate a retrospective streamflow ensemble forecast for an extreme hydrological event, Hurricane Irene. The work shows that ensemble stream discharge forecasts provide improved predictions and useful information about associated uncertainties, thus improving the assessment of risks when compared with deterministic forecasts. The uncertainties in weather inputs may result in false warnings and missed river flooding events, reducing the potential to effectively mitigate flood damage. The findings demonstrate how errors in the ensemble median streamflow forecast and time of peak, as well as the ensemble spread (uncertainty) are reduced 48 h pre-event by utilizing the ensemble framework. The methodology and implications of this work benefit efforts of short-term streamflow forecasts at regional scales, notably regarding the peak timing of an extreme hydrologic event when combined with a flood threshold exceedance diagram. Although the modeling framework was implemented on the Hudson River basin, it is flexible and applicable in other parts of the world where atmospheric reanalysis products and streamflow data are available.

  2. Influence of distributary channels on sediment and organic matter supply in event-dominated coastal margins: the Po prodelta as a study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tesi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available From November 2008 through May 2009, the Po river (Italy experienced several floods exceeding 5000 m3 s−1. This long series of events ended with a large flood in early May 2009 (~8000 m3 s−1. An event-response sampling was carried out in the Po prodelta in April–May 2009 to characterize the preservation of this series of floods in the sediment record and to describe the event-supply and deposition of riverborne particulate material during the May 2009 flood. The water sampling was carried out early in the event under conditions of moderate river flow (~5000 m3 s−1 and 24 h later during the peak discharge (~8000 m3 s−1. Sediment cores were collected in the prodelta before and after the peak flood. At each station, profiles of conductivity, transmittance, and fluorescence were acquired. Surface and bottom waters were sampled to collect sediments in suspension. In addition, a few days before the May 2009 event, suspended sediments were collected at Pontelagoscuro gauging station, ~90 km upstream from the coast. Biogeochemical compositions and sedimentological characteristics of suspended and sediment samples were investigated using bulk and biomarker analyses. Furthermore, 7Be and radiographs were used to analyze the internal stratigraphy of sediment cores.

    During moderate flow, the water column did not show evidence of plume penetration. Stations re-occupied 24 h later exhibited marked physical and biogeochemical changes during the peak flood. However, the concentration of terrestrially-derived material in surface waters was still less than expected. These results suggested that, since material enters the Adriatic as buoyancy-driven flow with a reduced transport capacity, settling and flocculation processes result in trapping a significant fraction of land-derived material in shallow sediments and/or within distributary channels

  3. Influence of distributary channels on sediment and organic carbon supply in event-dominated coastal margins: the Po prodelta as a study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tesi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available From November 2008 through May 2009, the North Italy experienced the highest precipitation period recorded over the last century. As a result, a long series of flood events occurred in the Po river (North Italy. This series of events ended with a large flood in early May 2009. An event-response sampling was carried out in the Po prodelta in April–May 2009 to characterize this latter event and to investigate the strata preservation in the stratigraphy record as a result of this series of floods. The water sampling was carried out during two periods of the flood, including early in the event under conditions of moderate river flow (~5000 m3 s−1 and 24 h later during the peak discharge (~8000 m3 s−1. At each station, profiles of conductivity, transmittance, and fluorescence were acquired whereas surface and bottom waters were sampled to collect sediments in suspension. In addition, sediment cores were collected in the Po prodelta before and after the peak flood. Biogeochemical compositions and sedimentological characteristics of suspended and sediment samples were investigated using a multi-proxy approach that included bulk and biomarkers analyses. Furthermore, 7Be down-core profiles and radiographs were used to analyze the internal stratigraphy of sediment cores.

    During moderate discharge, the water column did not show evidence of plume penetration. In surface waters, suspended sediment concentrations were found to be similar to low river discharge periods whereas the main OC was autochthonous. After 24 h, during the peak flood, water column properties and biogeochemical parameters exhibited marked changes indicating significant penetration of the turbid plume. However, suspended sediment concentrations and terrigenous OC content in surface waters were still less then expected based on the discharge. These results suggested that, since material enters the Adriatic as buoyancy

  4. Investigation of Sea Surface Temperature and local topography effects on coastal fog: Case study of 21-22 January 2008 event on the west coast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Driss; Bergot, Thierry; El Khlifi, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    The life cycle of fog over coastal regions is very sensitive to the heterogeneity of the landform and to the vicinity to the Ocean. Thus, the influence of the sea surface temperature (SST) and local topography on the evolution of a coastal fog is assessed in this study by performing sensitivity experiments. To achieve this, the numerical simulations are performed with the three-dimensional research model Meso-NH. This fog event occurred at the Grand Casablanca region, in the northwest coast of Morocco, during the night of 21-22 January 2008 and last more than 12 hours. It was analyzed using standard meteorological observations from the two synoptic stations of the region, the observed radio-sounding at the coastal station, the MSG satellite imagery and the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis. The numerical simulation reproduced well the main features of this fog event since its formation to its dissipation. The numerical results demonstrated that this fog event was of a radiation type over land, due to the nocturnal radiative cooling and the turbulence. And one hour later near the coast, the fog was resulting from base lowering of Stratus low cloud, due to the cloud top cooling and the vertical turbulent mixing. The sensitivity experiments to SST demonstrate that varying SST in space and time affects the spatial distribution of the fog layer over an area of about 20km around the coast. Besides, the SST governs the thermodynamic fluxes at the air-sea interface, and then affects the life cycle of this fog event, in particular in the mature and dissipation phases. On the other hand, the sensitivity experiments to local coastal topography demonstrated its impact on the speed and direction of wind in the boundary layer during the different phases of the life cycle of this fog event. Then, it was found that the heterogeneities of terrain over the coastal regions affect the horizontal extension of this fog event during the mature phase and its evolution during the dissipation

  5. Analysis and countermeasures of the 282 cases of nursing adverse events with non-punitive network reported%282例非惩罚性网络上报护理不良事件的分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩美玲; 王芳; 徐淑华; 陈芹; 吴菲菲

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对282例非惩罚性网络上报护理不良事件的分析,了解护理不良事件发生的特点,并制定对策,以减少护理不良事件的发生。方法回顾性分析2013年6月—2014年6月网络上报的282例非惩罚性护理不良事件,对其进行总结、分析,探讨护理不良事件的发生特点、原因、年龄段与护士层级的关系。结果282例护理不良事件中无后果事件(Ⅲ级)占67.38%,隐患事件(Ⅳ级)占26.95%。23:00—8:00发生的护理不良事件占26.60%。警告事件(Ⅰ级)中33.3%发生在15:00—23:00、66.7%发生在23:00—8:00。发生不良事件的时间段主要集中在8:00—15:00,占52.84%(149/282)。护士层级发生不良事件的比例最高,占59.93%(169/282)。发生护理不良事件的患者年龄分布中,>60岁患者占49.29%。护理不良事件发生的原因中未严格执行查对制度占30.85%,缺乏责任心占24.11%,风险意识不强占23.76%。结论实行网络上报非惩罚性护理不良事件后,各护理单元不良事件的主动上报意识明显加强,护士层级发生不良事件的比例较高,>60岁住院患者发生率较高,警告事件(Ⅰ级)多在15:00—8:00发生。应加强年轻护士培训、老年住院患者管理及15:00—8:00的护士值班管理,以减少护理不良事件的发生。%Objective To understand the characteristics of the nursing adverse events through analysis the 282 cases of nursing adverse events, and make countermeasures to reduce the incidence of adverse events. Methods A total of 282 nursing adverse events of non-punitive network reported were collected from June 2013 to June 2014 with retrospective analysis, then we analyzed and summarized them, in order to find out the relationship between occurred characteristics, reasons, age group with the nurse hierarchy, etc. Results No consequence nursing adverse events (levelⅢ) accounted for 67. 38% of all events cases, while potential hazard

  6. Can repeating glacial seismic events be used to monitor stress changes within the underlying volcano? -Case study from the glacier overlain Katla volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, K.; Vogfjord, K. S.; Bean, C. J.; Martini, F.

    2013-12-01

    The glacier overlain Katla volcano in South Iceland, is one of the most active and hazardous volcano in Europe. Katla eruptions result in hazardous glacial floods and intense tephra fall. On average there are eruptions every 50 years but the volcano is long overdue and we are now witnessing the longest quiescence period in 1000 years or since the settlement. Because of the hazard the volcano poses, it is under constant surveillance and gets a good share of the seismic stations from the national seismic network. Every year the seismic network records thousands of seismic events at Katla with magnitudes seldom exceeding M3. The bulk of the seismicity is however not due to volcano tectonics but seems to be caused mainly by shallow processes involving glacial deformation. Katla's ice filled caldera forms a glacier plateau of several hundred meters thick ice. The 9x14 km oval caldera is surrounded by higher rims where the glacier in some places gently and in others abruptly falls off tens and up to hundred meters to the surrounding lowland. The glacier surface is marked with dozen depressions or cauldrons which manifest geothermal activity below, probably coinciding with circular faults around the caldera. Our current understanding is that there are several glacial processes which cause seismicity; these include dry calving, where steep valley glaciers fall off cliffs and movements of glacier ice as the cauldrons deform due to hydraulic changes and geothermal activity at the glacier/bedrock boundary. These glacial events share a common feature of containing low frequency (2-4 hz) and long coda. Because of their shallow origin, surface waves are prominent. In our analysis we use waveforms from all of Katla's seismic events between years 2003-2013, with the criteria M>1 and minimum 4 p-wave picks. We correlate the waveforms of these events with each other and group them into families of highly similar events. Looking at the occurrence of these families we find that

  7. Cluster Analysis of World's Airports on the Basis of Number of Passengers Handled (Case Study Examinning the Impact of Significant Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Žambochová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the air transportation is one of key means of transport. Unfortunately, there are many factors influencing its popularity and intensity of its use. There are many studies investigating these factors. The paper investigates the possibility of classifying the world's airports in terms of the trend in the number of handled passengers as it is one of the main economic indicators for airports. For this classification we chose cluster analysis. The paper focuses on an important aspect of the process, which chooses the appropriate number of clusters. It turned out that in terms of interpretation of the results, it may not always be the most efficient to set this number at the theoretically best and recommended value. As a result of our analysis, several groups of airports with similar trend of post-event reactions are found. Therefore, this may bring better understanding of the intensity and the range of the impact of particular events on air transportation.

  8. The CMS Event Builder

    CERN Document Server

    Brigljevic, V; Cano, E; Cittolin, Sergio; Csilling, Akos; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Magrans de Abril, Ildefons; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sphicas, Paris; ODell, V; Suzuki, I; Berti, L; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Ninane, A; Erhan, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G

    2003-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider will employ an event builder which will combine data from about 500 data sources into full events at an aggregate throughput of 100 GByte/s. Several architectures and switch technologies have been evaluated for the DAQ Technical Design Report by measurements with test benches and by simulation. This paper describes studies of an EVB test-bench based on 64 PCs acting as data sources and data consumers and employing both Gigabit Ethernet and Myrinet technologies as the interconnect. In the case of Ethernet, protocols based on Layer-2 frames and on TCP/IP are evaluated. Results from ongoing studies, including measurements on throughput and scaling are presented. The architecture of the baseline CMS event builder will be outlined. The event builder is organised into two stages with intelligent buffers in between. The first stage contains 64 switches performing a first level of data concentration by building super-fragments from fragmen...

  9. Use of a prescribed ephedrine/caffeine combination and the risk of serious cardiovascular events: a registry-based case-crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Jesper; Bjerrum, Lars; Støvring, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    Ephedrine and herbal ephedra preparations have been shown to induce a small-to-moderate weight loss. Owing to reports on serious cardiovascular events, they were banned from the US market in 2004. There have been no large controlled studies on the possible association between prescribed ephedrine...... risk among naïve users or users with large cumulative doses. Prescribed ephedrine/caffeine was not associated with a substantially increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in this study....

  10. 83例护理不良事件分析与对策%Analysis and countermeasures among 83 cases of nursing adverse events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪桂琴; 刘惠萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the categories, reasons and characteristics of nursing adverse events, and to provide references for drawing up nursing countermeasure. Methods:We analyzed 83 adverse events reported to nursing department in the past three years using nursing quality management tool. Results:We could reduce the occurrence of nursing adverse events by paying close attention to the main risk factors and events, strengthening the process supervision, and improving working lfow. Conclusion:We should pay more attention to the high-incidence period and crowd, put forward the pointed prevention measures, and to ensure nursing safety.%目的:了解护理不良事件发生的类别、原因及特点,为制定护理对策提供参考。方法:针对某医院3年内各护理单元上报护理部的83例护理不良事件,运用护理质量管理工具进行护理不良事件分析。结果:关注主要危险因素及事件,加强过程督导,完善流程与制度,减少护理不良事件的发生。结论:针对本院护理不良事件高发时段、高发人群,给予高度关注,提出针对性的防范措施,确保护理安全。

  11. Clinical analysis of the first demyelinating events in 46 cases with neuromyelitis optica%46例视神经脊髓炎首次临床脱髓鞘事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾红娟; 许鑫; 王彬; 王晓慧; 杨丽丽; 刘锲

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析视神经脊髓炎( NMO)临床出现首次脱髓鞘事件时脊髓、视神经、脑损害的表现,探讨NMO首次临床事件的特征。方法纳入2010年1月至2015年6月在神经内科住院的46例NMO病例,收集患者首次发作时的临床表现、脊髓及颅脑、视神经核磁共振检查结果等资料,进行病例对照分析研究。结果(1)46例确诊NMO病例分别以视神经炎(ON,16/46,34.8%)、脊髓炎(25/46,54.3%)、ON合并脊髓炎(3/46,6.5%)、脑部损害(2/46,4.4%)为首次临床脱髓鞘事件。(2)NMO首次临床脱髓鞘事件中:双眼ON 病例的视神经损害及神经功能缺损程度重于单眼 ON 病例(严重视力损害比例为66.7%∶14.3%、EDSS评分为2.0∶1.0,P≤0.05),且双眼ON病例的首次缓解期持续时间短、短期预后差(18.0个月∶40.0个月,完全恢复比例为22.2%∶86.0%,P≤0.05);脊髓炎事件中长节段脊髓损害多于短节段脊髓损害(68.0%∶32.0%),长节段横贯性脊髓炎(LETM)病例的神经功能缺损重、短期预后差于非LETM病例(EDSS评分为3.0∶1.2,完全恢复百分率为30.0%∶73.0%,P≤0.05),但非LETM病例的脊髓炎后缓解期短(10.1个月∶16.3个月,P≤0.05)、病例复发比例有增大趋势(60.0%∶30.0%)。结论视神经炎及脊髓炎是NMO病例最常见的临床首发脱髓鞘事件,也有个别病例以脑部损害为首发事件。首发事件中双侧ON及LETM病例的神经功能损害严重、短期预后不佳,要警惕非LETM病例发展为NMO的可能性。%Objective To analyze the clinical presentations of spinal cord, optic nerve and brain damages in the first demyelinating event of neuromyelitis optica ( NMO) , and to explore the characteristics of the first episode in NMO.Methods 46 cases were included from January 2010 to June

  12. Risk management on an alluvial fan: a case study of the 2008 debris-flow event at Villar Pellice (Piedmont, N-W Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arattano

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Piedmont Region (North-Western Italy, the regional authorities manage debris flow risk by following the ideal sequence of steps that are generally pursued in land planning and civil protection activities. Complex procedures and methods are elaborated and widely discussed with politicians, economists and the general public. On the contrary, in emergency situations, civil protection agencies generally prefer the adoption of simple and flexible criteria. In this paper, a catastrophic debris flow event, that occurred in 2008 in Villar Pellice, is described in this perspective, after an analysis of the triggering rainfalls and of the effects on human life and properties. The availability of a series of personal accounts coming from people who witnessed the occurrences before, during and after the event has allowed us to analyse, in detail, the dynamics of the event. Thanks to these accounts, it has been possible to propose new guidelines for the planning of the emergency activities in areas that are potentially prone to similar impulsive phenomena.

  13. A framework for collaborative review of candidate events in high data rate streams: The V-FASTR experiment as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Andrew F.; Cinquini, Luca; Khudikyan, Shakeh E.; Thompson, David R.; Mattmann, Chris A.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Lazio, Joseph; Jones, Dayton, E-mail: andrew.f.hart@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    “Fast radio transients” are defined here as bright millisecond pulses of radio-frequency energy. These short-duration pulses can be produced by known objects such as pulsars or potentially by more exotic objects such as evaporating black holes. The identification and verification of such an event would be of great scientific value. This is one major goal of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) Fast Transient Experiment (V-FASTR), a software-based detection system installed at the VLBA. V-FASTR uses a “commensal” (piggy-back) approach, analyzing all array data continually during routine VLBA observations and identifying candidate fast transient events. Raw data can be stored from a buffer memory, which enables a comprehensive off-line analysis. This is invaluable for validating the astrophysical origin of any detection. Candidates discovered by the automatic system must be reviewed each day by analysts to identify any promising signals that warrant a more in-depth investigation. To support the timely analysis of fast transient detection candidates by V-FASTR scientists, we have developed a metadata-driven, collaborative candidate review framework. The framework consists of a software pipeline for metadata processing composed of both open source software components and project-specific code written expressly to extract and catalog metadata from the incoming V-FASTR data products, and a web-based data portal that facilitates browsing and inspection of the available metadata for candidate events extracted from the VLBA radio data.

  14. Estimating regional long-term economic consequences of natural hazards - a case study of the 2005 flood event in Tyrol (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, C.; Lochner, B.; Brucker, A.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction of relief-driven alpine natural processes with the anthropogenic sphere often leads to natural disasters which significantly impact on remote alpine economies. When evaluating the effects of such events for future risk prevention strategies, it is essential to assess indirect losses. While the economic measurement of direct effects - the physical impact on structures and infrastructure - seems fairly manageable, less is known about the dimensions of indirect effects, especially on a local and regional scale within the Alps. The lack of standardized terminology, empirical data and methods to estimate indirect economic effects currently hampers profound decision support. In our study of the 2005 flood event in Tyrol, we surveyed companies from all sectors of the economy to identify the main drivers of indirect effects and interrupted economic flows. In collaboration with the Federal State administration, we extrapolate the total regional economic effects of this catastrophic event. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, we established and analysed a data pool of questionnaire and interview results as well as direct loss data. We mainly focus on the decrease in value creation and the negative impacts on tourism. We observed that disrupted traffic networks can have a highly negative impact, especially for the tourism sector in lateral alpine valleys. Within a month, turnover fell by approximately EUR 3.3 million in the investigated area. In the short run (until August 2006), the shortfall in touristic revenues in the Paznaun valley aggregated to approx. EUR 5.3 million. We observed that overnight stays rebound very quickly so that long-term effects are marginal. In addition, we tried to identify possible economical losers as well as winners of severe hazard impacts. In response to such flood events, high investments are made to improve disaster and risk management. Nearly 70% of the respondents specified the (re)construction sector and similar

  15. The severe zonda wind event of 11 July 2006 east of the Andes Cordillera (Argentine): a case study using the BRAMS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norte, Federico Augusto; Ulke, Ana Graciela; Simonelli, Silvia Carmen; Viale, Maximiliano

    2008-11-01

    The zonda is a wind that exhibits the so-called foehn effect: a warm, dry, strong wind related to adiabatic compression upon descending in the lee of the Andes. This phenomenon occurs mostly in winter and spring over the entire length of the extratropical Andes. It is frequently detected near the cities of Mendoza and San Juan, the most important urban regions of western Argentina. The aim of this work is to understand why a zonda wind event, occurring on 11 July 2006, reached and maintained the higher category Z4 during several hours. A secondary aim is to evaluate the ability of a Brazilian regional atmospheric modeling system (BRAMS) model to represent the features of this extreme episode and to explore if it can be used to predict a zonda event. The difference found with respect to other severe zonda wind episodes analyzed was that the wind registered the highest category (Z4) with extreme gusts during a long period. This condition was registered in particular on southern plain areas of San Juan province. The phenomenon had a great impact on the community, with residences and buildings being affected or destroyed, trees being felled, power supply and communications being shutdown, and several rural and urban fires being reported. The event was characterized through surface and upper-level information and model results. The synoptic surface and upper-air conditions were those typically associated with a severe zonda wind occurrence: a surface cold front approaching the region, driven by a 500 hPa trough, a strong upper-air jet stream, and a deep low-pressure surface system at higher latitudes over the Atlantic Ocean. The North West Argentine Low in central west Argentina during the following hours could be observed centered approximately at 31°S 66°W. in a few lower latitude than the location observed by National Center of Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis. On the other hand, it is the authors’ impression that the BRAMS model achieved an acceptable

  16. Extreme events in total ozone over the northern mid-latitudes: A case study based on long-term data sets from 5 ground-based stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Jancso, Leonhardt M.; Staehelin, Johannes; Maeder, Jörg A.; Ribatet, Mathieu; Peter, Thomas; Davison, Anthony C.

    2010-05-01

    In this study we analyze the frequency distribution of extreme events in low and high total ozone (termed ELOs and EHOs) for 5 long-term stations in the northern mid-latitudes in Europe (Belsk, Poland; Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; Hohenpeissenberg and Potsdam, Germany; and Uccle, Belgium). Further, the influence of these extreme events on annual and seasonal mean values and trends is analysed. The applied method follows the new "ozone extreme concept", which is based on tools from extreme value theory [Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007], recently developed by Rieder et al. [2010a, b]. Mathematically seen the decisive feature within the extreme concept is the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). In this analysis, the long-term trends needed to be removed first, differently to the treatment of Rieder et al. [2010a, b], in which the time series of Arosa was analysed, covering many decades of measurements in the anthropogenically undisturbed stratosphere. In contrast to previous studies only focusing on so called ozone mini-holes and mini-highs the "ozone extreme concept" provides a statistical description of the tails in total ozone distributions (i.e. extreme low and high values). It is shown that this concept is not only an appropriate method to describe the frequency and distribution of extreme events, it also provides new information on time series properties and internal variability. Furthermore it allows detection of fingerprints of physical (e.g. El Niño, NAO) and chemical (e.g. polar vortex ozone loss) features in the Earth's atmosphere as well as major volcanic eruptions (e.g. El Chichón, Mt. Pinatubo). It is shown that mean values and trends in total ozone are strongly influenced by extreme events. Trend calculations (for the period 1970-1990) are performed for the entire as well as the extremes-removed time series. The results after excluding extremes show that annual trends are most reduced at Hradec Kralove (about a factor of 3), followed by Potsdam

  17. Study on the performance improvement of multiblade fans. Effects of suction cones; Tayoku fan no seino kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu. Suction cone no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuratani, F.; Ogawa, T. [Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Hyogo (Japan); Yamamoto, S.

    1999-07-25

    In order to improve the performance of a multiblade fan, the effects of three types of suction cones of the fan casing on the fan efficiency and noise are investigated experimentally. The first type of the suction cone is the insertion type, which is inserted into the inside of the fan impeller. The second type is the extrusion type, which extrudes outside from the casing surface. The third type is the combination type of two types. The results of those three types are compared with those of the commonly used suction cone. The followings are made clear: (1) The insertion type and the extrusion type are effective in improving the efficiency and reducing noise. (2) The optimal lengths of the insertion and the extrusion exist. (3) The combination type is more effective in improving the efficiency. (4) The combination type with the skewed cutoff of the fan casing shows the best effect. (author)

  18. Ares Launch Vehicles Lean Practices Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Self, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    The Ares launch vehicles team, managed by the Ares Projects Office (APO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has completed the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle System Requirements Review and System Definition Review and early design work for the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. This paper provides examples of how Lean Manufacturing, Kaizen events, and Six Sigma practices are helping APO deliver a new space transportation capability on time and within budget, while still meeting stringent technical requirements. For example, Lean philosophies have been applied to numerous process definition efforts and existing process improvement activities, including the Ares I-X test flight Certificate of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process, risk management process, and review board organization and processes. Ares executives learned Lean practices firsthand, making the team "smart buyers" during proposal reviews and instilling the team with a sense of what is meant by "value-added" activities. Since the goal of the APO is to field launch vehicles at a reasonable cost and on an ambitious schedule, adopting Lean philosophies and practices will be crucial to the Ares Project's long-term SUCCESS.

  19. A Spiking Neural Simulator Integrating Event-Driven and Time-Driven Computation Schemes Using Parallel CPU-GPU Co-Processing: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveros, Francisco; Luque, Niceto R; Garrido, Jesús A; Carrillo, Richard R; Anguita, Mancia; Ros, Eduardo

    2015-07-01

    Time-driven simulation methods in traditional CPU architectures perform well and precisely when simulating small-scale spiking neural networks. Nevertheless, they still have drawbacks when simulating large-scale systems. Conversely, event-driven simulation methods in CPUs and time-driven simulation methods in graphic processing units (GPUs) can outperform CPU time-driven methods under certain conditions. With this performance improvement in mind, we have developed an event-and-time-driven spiking neural network simulator suitable for a hybrid CPU-GPU platform. Our neural simulator is able to efficiently simulate bio-inspired spiking neural networks consisting of different neural models, which can be distributed heterogeneously in both small layers and large layers or subsystems. For the sake of efficiency, the low-activity parts of the neural network can be simulated in CPU using event-driven methods while the high-activity subsystems can be simulated in either CPU (a few neurons) or GPU (thousands or millions of neurons) using time-driven methods. In this brief, we have undertaken a comparative study of these different simulation methods. For benchmarking the different simulation methods and platforms, we have used a cerebellar-inspired neural-network model consisting of a very dense granular layer and a Purkinje layer with a smaller number of cells (according to biological ratios). Thus, this cerebellar-like network includes a dense diverging neural layer (increasing the dimensionality of its internal representation and sparse coding) and a converging neural layer (integration) similar to many other biologically inspired and also artificial neural networks.

  20. The Impact of Ocean Data Assimilation on Seasonal-to-Interannual Forecasts: A Case Study of the 2006 El Nino Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Chih; Rienecker, Michele; Keppenne, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of four different ocean analyses on coupled forecasts of the 2006 El Nino event. Forecasts initialized in June 2006 using ocean analyses from an assimilation that uses flow-dependent background error covariances are compared with those using static error covariances that are not flow dependent. The flow-dependent error covariances reflect the error structures related to the background ENSO instability and are generated by the coupled breeding method. The ocean analyses used in this study result from the assimilation of temperature and salinity, with the salinity data available from Argo floats. Of the analyses, the one using information from the coupled bred vectors (BV) replicates the observed equatorial long wave propagation best and exhibits more warming features leading to the 2006 El Nino event. The forecasts initialized from the BV-based analysis agree best with the observations in terms of the growth of the warm anomaly through two warming phases. This better performance is related to the impact of the salinity analysis on the state evolution in the equatorial thermocline. The early warming is traced back to salinity differences in the upper ocean of the equatorial central Pacific, while the second warming, corresponding to the mature phase, is associated with the effect of the salinity assimilation on the depth of the thermocline in the western equatorial Pacific. The series of forecast experiments conducted here show that the structure of the salinity in the initial conditions is important to the forecasts of the extension of the warm pool and the evolution of the 2006 El Ni o event.

  1. Event Index - an LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    During LHC Run 1, the LHCb experiment recorded around 1011 collision events. This paper describes Event Index | an event search system. Its primary function is to quickly select subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or number of hits in a subdetector. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene [1] optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  2. A Step towards a Sharable Community Knowledge Base for WRF Settings -Developing a WRF Setting Methodology based on a case study in a Torrential Rainfall Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHU, Q.; Xu, Z.; Zhuo, L.; Han, D.

    2016-12-01

    Increased requirements for interactions between different disciplines and readily access to the numerical weather forecasting system featured with portability and extensibility have made useful contribution to the increases of downstream model users in WRF over recent years. For these users, a knowledge base classified by the representative events would be much helpful. This is because the determination of model settings is regarded as the most important steps in WRF. However, such a process is generally time-consuming, even if with a high computational platform. As such, we propose a sharable proper lookup table on WRF domain settings and corresponding procedures based on a representative torrential rainfall event in Beijing, China. It has been found that WRF's simulations' drift away from the input lateral boundary conditions can be significantly reduced with the adjustment of the domain settings. Among all the impact factors, the placement of nested domain can not only affect the moving speed and angle of the storm-center, but also the location and amount of heavy-rain-belt which can only be detected with adjusted spatial resolutions. Spin-up time is also considered in the model settings, which is demonstrated to have the most obvious influence on the accuracy of the simulations. This conclusion is made based on the large diversity of spatial distributions of precipitation, in terms of the amount of heavy rain varied from -30% to 58% among each experiment. After following all the procedures, the variations of domain settings have minimal effect on the modeling and show the best correlation (larger than 0.65) with fusion observations. So the model settings, including domain size covering the greater Beijing area, 1:5:5 downscaling ratio, 57 vertical levels with top of 50hpa and 60h spin-up time, are found suitable for predicting the similar convective torrential rainfall event in Beijing area. We hope that the procedure for building the community WRF knowledge

  3. Evaluation of the Titan2D two-phase flow model using an actual event: Case study of the 2005 Vazcún Valley Lahar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.; Stinton, A. J.; Sheridan, M. F.

    2008-11-01

    Titan2D is a depth-averaged, thin-layer computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, suitable for simulating a variety of geophysical mass flows. Titan2D output data include flow thickness and flow momentum at each time step for all cells traversed by the flow during the simulation. From this information the flow limit, run-out path, flow velocity, deposit thickness, and travel time can be calculated. Results can be visualized in the open-source GRASS GIS software or with the built-in Titan2D viewer. A new two-phase Titan2D version allows simulation of flows containing various mixtures of water and solids. The purpose of this study is to compare simulations by the two-phase flow version of Titan2D with an actual event. The chosen natural flow is a small ash-rich lahar (volume 50,000 m 3-70,000 m 3) that occurred on 12 February 2005 in the Vazcún Valley, located on the north-east flank of Volcán Tungurahua, Ecuador. Lahars and pyroclastic flows along this valley could potentially threaten the 20,000 inhabitants living in and near the city of Baños. A variety of data sources exist for this lahar, including: post-event meter-scale topography, and photographic, video, seismic and acoustic flow monitoring (AFM) records from during the event. These data permit detailed comparisons between the dynamics of the actual lahar and those of the Titan2D simulated flow. In particular, detailed comparisons are made between run-up heights, flow velocity, inundation area, and flow thickness. Simulations utilize a variety of data derived from field observations such as lahar volume, solid to pore-fluid ratio and pre-event topography. Titan2D is important in modeling lahars because it allows assessment of the impact of the flows on buildings and infrastructure lifelines located near drainages that descend from volcanoes.

  4. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  5. Research on Case Based Reasoning System of Stock Theme Events Based on Ontology%基于本体的股票主题事件案例推理系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何岩新; 倪丽萍; 曹琳; 马驰宇

    2016-01-01

    股票市场中一些事件容易影响股票的价格及收益。为辅助投资者积累经验性知识及快速做出决策,文中在收集主题事件的基本信息及市场波动数据的基础上,结合本体理论和案例推理方法,通过对事件案例的本体结构定义以及对金融事件类型本体的构建,开发了股票市场主题事件案例的推理系统原型。该系统用 OWL-DL 语言描述本体,采用Protégé4.2构建本体库;通过分析主题事件的特征属性,用相似性度量方法检索相似案例,进而对目标事件做出详细分析。通过特定事件对股票市场的走势分析,验证了用相似案例进行市场短期预测具有可行性,同时引入本体后在推理系统的查全率上有了明显的提高,从而说明该方法是合理的、有效的。%In stock markets there are some events that their occurrences will significantly affect stocks’ prices and profits. In order to help investors accumulate experimental wealth and quickly make decisions,in this paper a case-based reasoning system for subject events in stock markets was constructed with the combination of ontology theory and case-based reasoning method,then with information about subject events and data about market fluctuations,the ontology structures were defined for event cases and type ontologies were set for fi-nancial events. In this system,OWL-DL was used to describe ontology,and Protégé4. 2 was applied to build the ontology base. By stud-ying the feature properties and using similar measuring method to retrieve similar cases,a target event was finally analyzed in detail. In the end a trending analysis for a certain event to the stock markets was given,the results showed that using similar cases to predict short-term market effect was feasible,and meantime the recall ratio was obviously improved after introducing ontology into the reasoning system, which means that the proposed method is reasonable and

  6. Case study of the 19 October 1989 polar-cap-absorption event using the imaging riometer for ionospheric studies. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    A polar cap absorption (PCA) event, beginning on 19 October 1989, is examined using the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS) developed at the Univ. of Maryland. IRIS is a 49-beam (7 x 7) phased-array 38.2 MHz radiowave imaging system and operating at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. After applying a low-pass (>10 minute) filter, we perform a cross-correlation between the central beam and the other beams in the array. From the cross-correlation analysis, we attempt to determine whether there is any delay of effects during event onset and early main phase (plateau) within the array. For most of the period studied, no delay was detected; i.e. features of each beam's absorption time series were essentially simultaneous. However, significant delays (approx. 2 minutes) occurred at the equatorward edge during a local absorption peak occurring just prior to magnetic local noon. The peak is coincident with short-term energetic particle flux enhancements detected by GOES-7. Two possible mechanisms are proposed: a local time variation of cutoff rigidities possibly associated with the relative position of the dayside cusp, and a short-term change in energetic particle rigidity spectrum.

  7. Analysis and Predictability of the Hydrological Response of Mountain Catchments to Heavy Rain on Snow Events: A Case Study in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier G. Corripio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From 18 to 19 June 2013, the Ésera river in the Pyrenees, Northern Spain, caused widespread damage due to flooding as a result of torrential rains and sustained snowmelt. We estimate the contribution of snow melt to total discharge applying a snow energy balance to the catchment. Precipitation is derived from sparse local measurements and the WRF-ARW model over three nested domains, down to a grid cell size of 2 km. Temperature profiles, precipitation and precipitation gradient are well simulated, although with a possible displacement regarding the observations. Snowpack melting was correctly reproduced and verified in three instrumented sites, and according to satellite images. We found that the hydrological simulations agree well with measured discharge. Snowmelt represented 33% of total runoff during the main flood event and 23% at peak flow. The snow energy balance model indicates that most of the energy for snow melt during the day of maximum precipitation came from turbulent fluxes. This approach forecast correctly peak flow and discharge during normal conditions at least 24 h in advance and could give an early warning of the extreme event 2.5 days before.

  8. A case report of brief psychotic disorder with catalepsy associated with sequential life-threatening events in a patient with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Mayumi; Kawada, Satoshi; Onishi, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is commonly perceived as life-threatening and universally stressful; however, brief psychotic disorder, which occurs in response to extremely stressful events, has not been reported. A 63-year-old woman, who was diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis, became unresponsive with very little reaction to verbal contact after sequential life-threatening events, such as thrombosis of both pulmonary arteries and stenosis of the third portion of the duodenum, due to disease progression over 3 weeks beginning with oncological emergency hospital admission. Laboratory findings and electroencephalography were unremarkable. She maintained the position when the psycho-oncologist raised her hand (catalepsy). She had no medical history of psychiatric illness, or alcohol or drug abuse. From these findings, she was suspected of having a brief psychotic disorder with catalepsy and substupor, and 2.5 mg of haloperidol was administered. Her psychiatric symptoms disappeared in 4 days and the diagnosis of brief psychotic disorder was confirmed. Brief psychotic disorders can manifest in patients with cancer. Careful clinical assessment is needed to correctly diagnose patients with cancer who develop brief psychotic disorders and to identify those who will benefit from correct treatment.

  9. A flat-spectrum candidate for a track-type high-energy neutrino emission event, the case of blazar PKS 0723-008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, E.; Biermann, P. L.; Gergely, L. Á.

    2017-03-01

    By cross-correlating both the Parkes Catalogue and the Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources with the arrival direction of the track-type neutrinos detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, we find the flat-spectrum blazar PKS 0723-008 as a good candidate for the high-energy neutrino event 5 (ID5). Apart from its coordinates matching those of ID5, PKS 0723-008 exhibits further interesting radio properties. Its spectrum is flat up to high Planck frequencies, and it produced a fivefold-increased radio flux density through the last decade. Based upon these radio properties we propose a scenario of binary black hole evolution leading to the observed high-energy neutrino emission. The main contributing events are the spin-flip of the dominant black hole, the formation of a new jet with significant particle acceleration and interaction with the surrounding material, with the corresponding increased radio flux. Doppler boosting from the underlying jet pointing to the Earth makes it possible to identify the origin of the neutrinos, so the merger itself is the form of an extended flat-spectrum radio emission, a key selection criterion to find traces of this complex process.

  10. Creating Special Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  11. Annual Report to the Congressional Defense Committees: Status of the Department of Defense’s Business Transformation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-15

    it began employing LSS, the Department of the Navy (DON) has completed 1,700 Black Belt/Green Belt projects and over 2,000 Kaizen events (i.e...aircraft to an average of 210 days from 390 days. • An LSS Kaizen event for the Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) program, focused on reducing...GB Belt projects and over 2,000 Kaizen events. Initial projects were designed to build confidence and gain momentum for success in more complex High

  12. Misinterpretation of histopathological results as an important risk factor for unneeded surgery – case report of a "near miss" event in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løes Sigbjørn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The oral cavity may exhibit a vast number of pathologic conditions, often dealt with by different medical disciplines. Combined with a substantial variation in clinical appearance, an accurate diagnosis may provide difficult to establish in selected cases. Histopathological investigations are therefore mandatory for correct diagnosis and adequate treatment. We describe a common, truly benign condition in the oral cavity, which due to histopathological misinterpretation was planned for major surgery and subsequent chemotherapy. This was avoided by spontaneous regression of the lesion. The case illustrates that uncritical trust in laboratory diagnostic tests may lead to severe mistreatment.

  13. Stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan with end wall injection and suction; Hekimen fukidashi suidashi ni yoru han'yo jikuryu sofuki no shissoku kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, K.; Kuroda, H.; Obata, S.; Chimura, O. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-06-25

    The experimental studies are conducted to reveal the mechanism of stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan by injection or suction from the end wall. In case of injection, the largest improvement is obtained by the injection at about 0. 14 {approx} 0 .21 times axial chord length downstream from leading edge. The reason for large improvement is that stall vortex, shed intermittent separation vortex and tip leakage vortex are dissipated by this injection, and also that this blowing suppresses the separation of boundary layer. In case of suction, the largest improvement is found for the suction from the end wall near leading edge. The amplitude of periodic static pressure after stall inception becomes smaller in comparison with injection cases. These effects are increased with the increase of suction flow rate, because the discharge of the vortex occurs more easily. On the other hand, the suction from the upstream of leading edge reduces the axial velocity near rotor tip, and then it induces stall. Also we tried to visualize the tip region flow, The suppression mechanism is discussed based on the visualization. The suppression of stall is successfully photographed. (author)

  14. Event planning the ultimate guide to successful meetings, corporate events, fundraising galas, conferences, conventions, incentives and other special events

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This bestselling all–in–one guide to the event planning business is back and better than ever, fully updated and revised to reflect the very latest trends and best practices in the industry. This handy, comprehensive guide includes forms, checklists, and tips for managing events, as well as examples and case studies of both successful and unsuccessful events. Judy Allen (Toronto, ON, Canada) is founder and President of Judy Allen Productions, a full–service event planning production company.

  15. Evaluation of oxidative events and copper accumulatıon in oral tissues of patients wıth Wilson's disease: three case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Mustafa; Karacelebi, Ezgi; Gungor, Kahraman; Coskun, Sule; Boysan, Esma

    2015-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD), also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, was first described in 1912 by Kinnear Wilson. It is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene, a membrane-bound copper transporting ATPase. The disorder is caused by impairment of the copper transporting ATPase, ATP7B, in the liver, which disturbs copper transport, excretion into the bile, and incorporation into apoceruloplasmin. WD is an inherited copper metabolism disorder with pathological copper accumulation in many tissues, but especially in brain and liver. We conducted this study because copper accumulation in oral tissues in patients with WD have not been studied before. We think that copper accumulation and differences of oxidative events in oral tissues can cause tendency to periodontal diseases.

  16. A case study of a mesospheric bore event observed with an all-sky airglow imager at Tirunelveli (8.7°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, V. Lakshmi; Gurubaran, S.; Emperumal, K.

    2009-04-01

    A prominent front separating bright and dark regions of all-sky airglow images was recorded on the night of 22/23 March 2007, at the low-latitude Indian station Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E) and is attributed to a mesospheric bore. With the help of complementary wind information from the colocated MF radar and temperature and density data from the SABER instrument onboard TIMED mission, the parameters of the bore are calculated and discussed. Because the observed wind at the emission altitude was orthogonal to the direction of bore propagation, Doppler ducting was not likely to support the bore. The analysis that makes use of the square of buoyancy frequency profiles reveals a thermal duct that would provide favorable conditions for the propagation of the bore. This is the first report of a mesospheric bore event from the Indian sector.

  17. Erosion under extreme climatic events in tropical climates : the case of the storm Helena (1963) in the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles Arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, P.; Lajeunesse, E.; Devauchelle, O.; Delacourt, C.

    2012-04-01

    he volume of sediment exported from a tropical watershed is dramatically increased during extreme climatic events, such as storms and tropical cyclones (Dadson et al. 2004; Hilton et al. 2008). Indeed, the exceptionally high rainfall rates reached during these events generate runoff and trigger landslides which accumulate a significant amount of sediments in flooded rivers (Gabet et al., 2004; Lin et al., 2008). We estimate the volume of sediments mobilized by the storm Helena (26 to 28 October 1963) on Basse-Terre Island in the archipelago of Guadeloupe. This is achieved using images acquired by IGN (Institut Géographique National) a few weeks after the storm which produced numerous landslides. All the available images from this campaign have been pseudo-orthorectified and included in a GIS with a Digital Elevation Model with a resolution of 10 m. Two hundred fifty three landslides have been identified and mapped. Most of them are located in the center of the island, where the highest slopes are. The cumulated surface of the landslides is 0.5 km2. Field observations on Basse-Terre show that landslides mobilized the whole regolith layer, which is about 1m thick. Assuming an average landslide thickness of 1m, we find that the total volume of sediment mobilized by the storm Helena is 0.5 km3. The associated denudation averaged over all watersheds affected by landslides is 1.4 mm with a maximum of 5 mm for the watersheds of Vieux-Habitants and Capesterre. The impact of the storm Helena is then discussed with respect to 1) the erosion induced on the Capesterre catchment by the highest flood available in a two years survey record (less than 0.1 mm/y); 2) the long term denudation rate of the major watersheds of Basse-Terre estimated by reconstructing the initial volcanic topography (between 0.1 and 0.4 mm/y).

  18. Using Web-Based Search Data to Study the Public’s Reactions to Societal Events: The Case of the Sandy Hook Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Internet search is the most common activity on the World Wide Web and generates a vast amount of user-reported data regarding their information-seeking preferences and behavior. Although this data has been successfully used to examine outbreaks, health care utilization, and outcomes related to quality of care, its value in informing public health policy remains unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Internet search query data in health policy development. To do so, we studied the public’s reaction to a major societal event in the context of the 2012 Sandy Hook School shooting incident. Methods Query data from the Yahoo! search engine regarding firearm-related searches was analyzed to examine changes in user-selected search terms and subsequent websites visited for a period of 14 days before and after the shooting incident. Results A total of 5,653,588 firearm-related search queries were analyzed. In the after period, queries increased for search terms related to “guns” (+50.06%), “shooting incident” (+333.71%), “ammunition” (+155.14%), and “gun-related laws” (+535.47%). The highest increase (+1054.37%) in Web traffic was seen by news websites following “shooting incident” queries whereas searches for “guns” (+61.02%) and “ammunition” (+173.15%) resulted in notable increases in visits to retail websites. Firearm-related queries generally returned to baseline levels after approximately 10 days. Conclusions Search engine queries present a viable infodemiology metric on public reactions and subsequent behaviors to major societal events and could be used by policymakers to inform policy development. PMID:28336508

  19. Impacts of extreme climatic events on the energetics of long-lived vertebrates: the case of the greater flamingo facing cold spells in the Camargue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Anne-Sophie; Labaude, Sophie; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Béchet, Arnaud; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Porter, Warren; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Mathewson, Paul; Grémillet, David

    2014-10-15

    Most studies analyzing the effects of global warming on wild populations focus on gradual temperature changes, yet it is also important to understand the impact of extreme climatic events. Here we studied the effect of two cold spells (January 1985 and February 2012) on the energetics of greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) in the Camargue (southern France). To understand the cause of observed flamingo mass mortalities, we first assessed the energy stores of flamingos found dead in February 2012, and compared them with those found in other bird species exposed to cold spells and/or fasting. Second, we evaluated the monthly energy requirements of flamingos across 1980-2012 using the mechanistic model Niche Mapper. Our results show that the body lipids of flamingos found dead in 2012 corresponded to 2.6±0.3% of total body mass, which is close to results found in woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola) that died from starvation during a cold spell (1.7±0.1%), and much lower than in woodcocks which were fed throughout this same cold spell (13.0±2%). Further, Niche Mapper predicted that flamingo energy requirements were highest (+6-7%) during the 1985 and 2012 cold spells compared with 'normal' winters. This increase was primarily driven by cold air temperatures. Overall, our findings strongly suggest that flamingos starved to death during both cold spells. This study demonstrates the relevance of using mechanistic energetics modelling and body condition analyses to understand and predict the impact of extreme climatic events on animal energy balance and winter survival probabilities. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Angular momentum exchange among the solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans: A case study of the 1982-1983 El Nino event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, J. O.; Marcus, S. L.; Hide, R.; Eubanks, T. M.; Boggs, D. H.

    1994-01-01

    The 1982-1983 El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event was accompanied by the largest interannual variation in the Earth's rotation rate on record. In this study we demonstrate that atmospheric forcing was the dominant cause for this rotational anomaly, with atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) integrated from 1000 to 1 mbar (troposphere plus stratosphere) accounting for up to 92% of the interannual variance in the length of day (LOD). Winds between 100 and 1 mbar contributed nearly 20% of the variance explained, indicating that the stratosphere can play a significant role in the Earth's angular momentum budget on interannual time scales. Examination of LOD, AAM, and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data for a 15-year span surrounding the 1982-1983 event suggests that the strong rotational response resulted from constructive interference between the low-frequency (approximately 4-6 year) and quasi-biennial (approximately 2-3 year) components of the ENSO phenomenon, as well as the stratospheric Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Sources of the remaining LOD discrepancy (approximately 55 and 64 microseconds rms residual for the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasting (EC) and U.S. National Meteorological Center (NMC) analyses) are explored; noise and systematic errors in the AAM data are estimated to contribute 18 and 33 microseconds, respectively, leaving a residual (rms) of 40 (52) microseconds unaccounted for by the EC (NMC) analysis. Oceanic angular momentum contributions (both moment of inertia changes associated with baroclinic waves and motion terms) are shown to be candidates in closing the interannual axial angular momentum budget.

  1. Wireless mobile field-based GIS science and technology for crisis management process: A case study of a fire event, Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.H. EL-Gamily

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless GIS services have been evolving from scientific and technological perspectives through the last two decades. These services include both the location-based services (LBS and the mobile field-based GIS. Whereas the former provides the user with the capability to access and query the already established enterprise geo-database, the latter enables the end user not only to access and query but also to update the geo-database by a near real-time spatial and non-spatial data. However, to establish a mobile field-based GIS facility, a concise system architecture should be designed. This architecture includes client-side components, wireless communication facility, and server components. The integration and automation of these components can provide the capability to collect, update, validate, and query the enterprise geo-database remotely in a near real-time mode. One of the potential fields of applications for the mobile field-based GIS is the crisis management process. A prescribed system has been previously defined as emergency response cycle for managing both the natural and the man-made crises. Three phases of the emergency response cycle are outlined which are the response and rescue phase, the recovery and reconstruction phase, and mitigation and preparedness phase. In each phase, various tasks are undertaken based on the type of the event. Selective tasks of the response and the rescue phase of the fire event occurred in the Sheraton Exchange Center have been chosen to check the validity of using the mobile field-based GIS for enhancing the performance of these tasks. These tasks are path selection and quick damage estimates.

  2. Radar rainfall estimation for the post-event analysis of a Slovenian flash-flood case: application of the mountain reference technique at C-band frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bouilloud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to radar rainfall estimation for the post-event analysis of a Slovenian flash flood that occurred on 18 September 2007. The utility of the Mountain Reference Technique is demonstrated to quantify rain attenuation effects that affect C-band radar measurements in heavy rain. Maximum path-integrated attenuation between 15 and 20 dB were measured thanks to mountain returns for path-averaged rain rates between 10 and 15 mm h−1 over a 120-km path. The proposed technique allowed estimation of an effective radar calibration correction factor, assuming the reflectivity-attenuation relationship to be known. Screening effects were quantified using a geometrical calculation based on a digitized terrain model of the region. The vertical structure of the reflectivity was modelled with a normalized apparent vertical profile of reflectivity. Implementation of the radar data processing indicated that: (1 attenuation correction using the Hitschfeld Bordan algorithm allowed obtaining satisfactory radar rain estimates (Nash criterion of 0.8 at the event time scale; (2 due to the attenuation equation instability, it is however compulsory to limit the maximum path-integrated attenuation to be corrected to about 10 dB; (3 the results also proved to be sensitive on the parameterization of reflectivity-attenuation-rainrate relationships. The convective nature of the precipitation explains the rather good performance obtained. For more contrasted rainy systems with convective and stratiform regions, the combination of the vertical (VPR and radial (attenuation, screening sources of heterogeneity yields a still very challenging problem for radar quantitative precipitation estimation at C-band.

  3. The scaling of wild events in stochastic models: The Fisher limit, the Mandelbrot limit, and FARIMA as a model of the intermediate cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Nicholas

    2013-04-01

    Stochastic modelling is of increasing importance, both specifically in climate science and more broadly across the whole of nonlinear geophysics. Traditionally, the noise components of such models would be spectrally white (delta-correlated) and Gaussian in amplitude, and their variance (first named by Fisher in 1918) would well characterise the likely size of fluctuations. Integration, for example in autoregressive models like AR(1), would redden a noise spectrum, while multiplication in turbulent cascades could greatly increase the range of fluctuation amplitudes, but such processes would still inherit aspects of their finite variance building blocks. In the 60s and 70s, however, Mandelbrot and others [see e.g. Watkins, GRL Frontiers, 2013] began to present evidence in nature for much stronger departures from Gaussianity (via very heavy tailed, infinite variance, distributions) and from white noise (through long range dependence (LRD) in time). He also observed intermittency, defined here as correlations between absolute magnitudes in some time series, in, for example, finance and turbulence. He proposed various models, including self-similar ones for heavy tails and LRD, and multifractal cascades for intermittency. In this presentation we compare contrasting types of model by looking at the "wild" events that they produce. The notion of a "wild" event can be made more precise in many ways, including by its duration in time, peak amplitude, and spatial extent. Our chosen measure will be the "burst", defined as the area of a time series above a fixed threshold. We will compare burst scaling in a self-similar, LRD, heavy tailed model (LFSM, e.g. Watkins et al, PRE, 2009] with our newer results for multifractal random walks [with M. Rypdal and O. Lovsletten], and for the heavy tailed extended version of the FARIMA (1,d,0) process, which combines long range dependence with the high frequency structure familiar from AR(1). We will also discuss the physical meaning of

  4. CONFERENCES AS FIELD-CONFIGURING EVENTS – THE ROLE OF CSR EXPERT CONFERENCES IN CONSTRUCTING AND MAINSTREAMING THE BUSINESS CASE FOR CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Breitbarth; Donald Nordberg

    2013-01-01

    For many in academia and industry, corporate social responsibility (CSR) was long seen as a fad and fashion of transitory nature, similar to other management fashions (Abrahamson 1996). Results from empirical research into the business value of CSR were ambiguous (Weber 2008). During this time of widespread doubt, Academy of Business in Society (EABIS) president Gilbert Lenssen (2007) commented that the difficulty about the business case for CSR is a matter of ‘accepting’ the intrinsic link b...

  5. Misinterpretation of histopathological results as an important risk factor for unneeded surgery – case report of a "near miss" event in a pregnant woman

    OpenAIRE

    Løes Sigbjørn; Tornes Knut

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The oral cavity may exhibit a vast number of pathologic conditions, often dealt with by different medical disciplines. Combined with a substantial variation in clinical appearance, an accurate diagnosis may provide difficult to establish in selected cases. Histopathological investigations are therefore mandatory for correct diagnosis and adequate treatment. We describe a common, truly benign condition in the oral cavity, which due to histopathological misinterpretation was planned fo...

  6. Damage Assessment and Monitoring of Cultural Heritage Places in a Disaster and Post-Disaster Event - a Case Study of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafadari, A.; Philip, G.; Jennings, R.

    2017-08-01

    In recent decades, and in response to an increased focus on disastrous events ranging from armed conflict to natural events that impact cultural heritage, there is a need for methodologies and approaches to better manage the effects of disaster on cultural heritage. This paper presents the approaches used in the development of a Historic Environment Record (HER) for Syria. It describes the requirements and methodologies used for systematic emergency recording and assessment of cultural heritage. It also presents the type of information needed to record in the aftermath of disaster to assess the scale of damage and destruction. Started as a project at Durham University, the database is now being developed as part of the EAMENA (Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa) project. The core dataset incorporates information and data from archaeological surveys undertaken in Syria by research projects in recent decades and began life as a development of the Shirīn initiative1. The focus of this project is to provide a tool not only for the recording and inventory of sites and monuments, but also to record damage and threats, their causes, and assess their magnitude. It will also record and measure the significance in order to be able to prioritize emergency and preservation responses. The database aims to set procedures for carrying out systematic rapid condition assessment (to record damage) and risk assessment (to record threat and level of risk) of heritage places, on the basis of both on the ground and remote assessment. Given the large number of heritage properties damaged by conflict, the implementation of rapid assessment methods to quickly identify and record level of damage and condition is essential, as it will provide the evidence to support effective prioritization of efforts and resources, and decisions on the appropriate levels of intervention and methods of treatment. The predefined data entry categories, use of a data standard, and

  7. Spatiotemporal Variability of Surface Meteorological Variables During Fog and No-Fog Events in the Heber Valley, UT; Selected Case Studies From MATERHORN-Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bossche, Michael; De Wekker, Stephan F. J.

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the spatiotemporal variability of surface meteorological variables in the nocturnal boundary layer using six automatic weather stations deployed in the Heber Valley, UT, during the MATERHORN-Fog experiment. The stations were installed on the valley floor within a 1.5 km × 0.8 km area and collected 1-Hz wind and pressure data and 0.2-Hz temperature and humidity data. We describe the weather stations and analyze the spatiotemporal variability of the measured variables during three nights with radiative cooling. Two nights were characterized by the presence of dense ice fog, one night with a persistent (`heavy') fog, and one with a short-lived (`moderate') fog, while the third night had no fog. Frost-point depressions were larger preceding the night without fog and showed a continued decrease during the no-fog night. On both fog nights, the frost-point depression reached values close to zero early in the night, but ~5 h earlier on the heavy-fog night than on the moderate-fog night. Spatial variability of temperature and humidity was smallest during the heavy-fog night and increased temporarily during short periods when wind speeds increased and the fog lifted. During all three nights, wind speeds did not exceed 2 m/s. The temporal variability of the wind speed and direction was larger during the fog nights than during the no-fog nights, but was particularly large during the heavy-fog night. The large variability corresponded with short-lived (5-10 min) pressure variations with amplitudes on the order of 0.5 hPa, indicating gravity wave activity. These pressure fluctuations occurred at all stations and were correlated in particular with variability in wind direction. Although not able to provide a complete picture of the nocturnal boundary layer, our low-cost weather stations were able to continuously collect data that were comparable to those of nearby research-grade instruments. From these data, we distinguished between fog and no-fog events

  8. Improvement of prediction accuracy of large eddy simulation on colocated grids; Colocation koshi wo mochiita LES no keisan seido kaizen ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, M.; Abe, K. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-07-25

    With the recent advances in computers, large eddy simulation (LES) has become applicable to engineering prediction. However, most cases of the engineering applications need to use the nonorthgonal curvilimear coordinate systems. The staggered grids, usually used in LES in the orthgonal coordinates, don`t keep conservative properties in the nonorthgonal curvilinear coordinates. On the other hand, the colocated grids can be applied in the nonorthgonal curvilinear coordinates without losing its conservative properties, although its prediction accuracy isn`t so high as the staggered grid`s in the orthgonal coordinates especially with the coarse grids. In this research, the discretization method of the colocated grids is modified to improve its prediction accuracy. Plane channel flows are simulated on four grids of different resolution using the modified colocated grids and the original colocated grids. The results show that the modified colocated grids have higher accuracy than the original colocated grids. 17 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Sport tourism in Romania and the Romanian experience in organizing and hosting an international sport event. Case study: Bucharest International Marathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA CHIVU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sport and tourism are worldwide considered to be the modern niches for economic development, but only high developed countries have realized that to maximize their economic impact, sport and tourism must be considered as a whole. The tourism in Romania is currently under continuous development, due to several investments in general and touristic infrastructure and also due to the strategies of capitalization and promotion of the Romanian tourist potential. Different sports are practiced in Romania from ancient times and the Romanian sport made the country known worldwide through its legendary sportsmen, but only recently sport became also an element of tourist attraction. The rebirth of physical culture and Romania’s accession to European Union, offered to Romania the opportunity to exploit sport as a touristic product, generating tourist flows and tourist services consumption. Even if sport tourism is a new concept in Romania, in order to grow the economical impact of this new form of tourism, the development strategies are counting on the rehabilitation of general and specific (both touristic and sporting infrastructure and on the exploiting of the most efficient form of sport tourism, the one related to organizing and hosting a sport event with international participation.

  10. A flat spectrum candidate for a track-type high energy neutrino emission event, the case of blazar PKS 0723-008

    CERN Document Server

    Kun, E; Gergely, L Á

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter we present a model for consecutive emission of low frequency gravitational waves, high energy neutrinos, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, and luminous radio afterglow, all generated by the merger of two supermassive black holes acting as engine. The main contributing events are the spin-flip of the dominant black hole, gravitational wave burst, final coalescence, followed by formation of a new jet, particle acceleration and interaction with the surrounding material (leading to a radio flux density peak and the hardening at radio frequencies). Cross-correlating the Parkes Catalogue and the 2nd Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources with the arrival direction of the track-type neutrino detections by the IceCube, two flat spectrum radio sources emerge as possible origin in the framework of the proposed model. We discuss the blazar PKS 0723-008 as an excellent candidate exhibiting key elements of this complex process, with traces of a spin-flip, high-energy neutrino emission, and five-fold increased rad...

  11. Building Damage and Business Continuity Management in the Event of Natural Hazards: Case Study of the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Sugiura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami event on the 26 December 2004 has provided a unique and valuable opportunity to evaluate the performance of various structures, facilities and lifeline systems during the tsunami wave attacks. There are especially meaningful observations concerning the structural changes due to the tsunami forces, which open up a wide area of research to develop the mitigation procedure. The business restoration process of business companies in terms of buildings, facilities and lifelines have shown greater research interest. In this study, we investigated the restoration process of business sectors in East and South coastal region in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. A field survey was conducted in East and South coast of Sri Lanka, in order to study the affecting parameters to damage assessment in the restoration process of the business companies. The results of the questionnaire-based field survey are then compared with the statistical analysis results. Finally, the factors affecting the restoration process after the tsunami are identified. As a main conclusion, financial support could be the most important reason for delays in restoration. Moreover, it has been observed that the tsunami inundation level of higher than one meter may have had more effect concerning the damage to the structures and requires additional time for restoration than other areas.

  12. Soil erosion assessment and its correlation with landslide events using remote sensing data and GIS: a case study at Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Chaudhari, Amruta; Adinarayana, J; Buchroithner, Manfred F

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to assess, prognosis and observe dynamism of soil erosion by universal soil loss equation (USLE) method at Penang Island, Malaysia. Multi-source (map-, space- and ground-based) datasets were used to obtain both static and dynamic factors of USLE, and an integrated analysis was carried out in raster format of GIS. A landslide location map was generated on the basis of image elements interpretation from aerial photos, satellite data and field observations and was used to validate soil erosion intensity in the study area. Further, a statistical-based frequency ratio analysis was carried out in the study area for correlation purposes. The results of the statistical correlation showed a satisfactory agreement between the prepared USLE-based soil erosion map and landslide events/locations, and are directly proportional to each other. Prognosis analysis on soil erosion helps the user agencies/decision makers to design proper conservation planning program to reduce soil erosion. Temporal statistics on soil erosion in these dynamic and rapid developments in Penang Island indicate the co-existence and balance of ecosystem.

  13. Lessons from M 7.2 Seismic Event and How to Preserve Awareness Forty Years Later: The Case of the Vrancea, Romania, March 4, 1977 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craifaleanu, Iolanda-Gabriela; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin

    2016-10-01

    Almost four decades after the MG-R = 7.2 (Mw =7.4) catastrophic earthquake of March 4, 1977 hit Romania, the population fears a new strong earthquake; however, awareness on preparedness and mitigation measures is rather low. As the last Mw > 6 has occurred in 1990, there is an increasing percentage of young population that has not yet witnessed a strong earthquake, and which has a rather fuzzy representation of urban and geological earthquake effects. After each strong seismic event in the past, due to its specific attributions, the National Institute for Building Research, INCERC, collected a considerable amount of information about the earthquake effects on built environment and lifelines, geological effects etc. To this, information from various documentary sources about damage caused by historic earthquakes was added by the institute's specialists. Stored today in the archives of the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development, “URBAN-INCERC”, INCERC Bucharest Branch, this information is invaluable today for evaluating the present and future seismic risk of the country. Nonetheless, it could represent an essential educational resource for university students and young professionals in the field of civil engineering, seismology, geology, economy, sociology, history etc. and for raising population awareness on seismic risk mitigation measures. The paper presents new approaches for the dissemination and re-valuation of the March 4, 1977 earthquake data, from the perspective of present scientific knowledge.

  14. Swift J1644+57 gone MAD: the case for dynamically-important magnetic flux threading the black hole in a jetted tidal disruption event

    CERN Document Server

    Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Giannios, Dimitrios; Kelley, Luke Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    The unusual transient Swift J1644+57 likely resulted from a collimated relativistic jet powered by accretion onto a massive black hole (BH) following the tidal disruption (TD) of a star. Several mysteries cloud the interpretation of this event: (1) extreme flaring and `plateau' shape of the X-ray/gamma-ray light curve during the first 10 days after the gamma-ray trigger; (2) unexpected rebrightening of the forward shock radio emission months after trigger; (3) no obvious evidence for jet precession, despite misalignment typically expected between the angular momentum of the accretion disk and BH; (4) recent abrupt shut-off in jet X-ray emission after 1.5 years. Here we show that all of these seemingly disparate mysteries are naturally resolved by one assumption: the presence of strong magnetic flux Phi threading the BH. Initially, Phi is weak relative to high fall-back mass accretion rate, Mdot, and the disk and jets precess about the BH axis = our line of sight. As Mdot drops, Phi becomes dynamically importa...

  15. Considerations regarding the evolutions of atmospheric precipitations in the spring seasons in Iași area – Case Study: The meteorological event dated on 14 April 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machidon Ovidiu-Miron

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of atmospheric precipitations in spring seasons from the WMO reference periods (1961 - 1990, 1981 – 2010 compared with last 7 years (2010 – 2016. In 14 april 2016 a meteorological event was produced in the Iași area who have produced material damage, flooded streets and obstruction of traffic. In the spring seasons of the last 7 years (2010-2016 the atmospheric precipitation amounts were with 8% higher than during 1981 – 2010 and were apropiate on mean value of the 1961 – 1990. In the period of 1961 – 2016 were a continuous increase of the mean number of days with precipitation > 30 mm per day and the half of total number of days with more than 40 mm per day were recorded in the last 16 years. We consider that an increase of torrential character of precipitation in the spring season in Iași area.

  16. The role of SiO as a tracer of past star-formation events: The case of the high-mass protocluster NGC 2264-C

    CERN Document Server

    López-Sepulcre, Ana; Sakai, Nami; Furuya, Ryuta; Saruwatari, Osamu; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    NGC 2264-C is a high-mass protocluster where several star-formation events are known to have occurred. To investigate whether past protostellar activity has left a chemical imprint in this region, we mapped it in SiO($J = 2-1$), a shock tracer, and several other molecular lines with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. Our observations show the presence of a complex network of protostellar outflows. The strongest SiO emission lies beyond a radius of $\\sim 0.1$ pc with respect to the center of the clump, and is characterized by broad ($> 10$ km s$^{-1}$) lines and abundances of $\\sim 1.4 \\times 10^{-8}$ with respect to H$_2$. Interestingly, SiO appears relatively depleted ($\\chi_\\mathrm{SiO} \\sim 4 \\times 10^{-9}$) within this radius, despite it being affected by molecular outflow activity. We attribute this to fast condensation of SiO back onto dust grains and/or rapid gas-phase destruction of SiO, favored by the high density present in this area ($> 10^6$ cm$^{-3}$). Finally, we identify a peripheral, narrow-line ($...

  17. Investigating the association between weather conditions, calendar events and socio-economic patterns with trends in fire incidence: an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jonathan; Higgs, Gary; Rohde, David; Chhetri, Prem

    2011-06-01

    Fires in urban areas can cause significant economic, physical and psychological damage. Despite this, there has been a comparative lack of research into the spatial and temporal analysis of fire incidence in urban contexts. In this paper, we redress this gap through an exploration of the association of fire incidence to weather, calendar events and socio-economic characteristics in South-East Queensland, Australia using innovative technique termed the quad plot. Analysing trends in five fire incident types, including malicious false alarms (hoax calls), residential buildings, secondary (outdoor), vehicle and suspicious fires, results suggest that risk associated with all is greatly increased during school holidays and during long weekends. For all fire types the lowest risk of incidence was found to occur between one and six a.m. It was also found that there was a higher fire incidence in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods and there was some evidence to suggest that there may be a compounding impact of high temperatures in such areas. We suggest that these findings may be used to guide the operations of fire services through spatial and temporal targeting to better utilise finite resources, help mitigate risk and reduce casualties.

  18. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  19. Bayesian Event Tree (BET) approach to Near Real Time monitoring on active volcanoes within ASI-SRV project: Mt. Etna test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Malvina; Musacchio, Massimo; Taroni, Matteo; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Dini, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    ASI-Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) project is devoted to the development of a pre-operative integrated system managing different Earth Observation (EO) and Non EO data to respond to specific needs of the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) and improve the monitoring of Italian active volcanoes. The project provides the capability to maintain a repository where the acquired data are stored and generates products offering a support to risk managers during the different volcanic activity phases. All the products are obtained considering technical choices and developments of ASI-SRV based on flexible and scalable modules which take into account also the new coming space sensors and new processing algorithms. An important step of the project development regards the technical and scientific feasibility of the provided products that depends on the data availability, accuracy algorithms and models used in the processing and of course the possibility to validate the results by means of comparison with non-EO independent measurements. The multivariate analysis allows to perform multiple comparisons in order to have a first idea of which variables are largely preferentially or rather rarely distributed, also considering their geographic localization. The "Volcanic Parameter" cross correlation will allow to define the weight of each product that will be used as input in the BET-EF model (Bayesian Event Tree model for eruption forecasting ) which is an already developed algorithm for the eruption model, and will be adapt, as it is, to the ASI-SRV needs. The BET model represents a flexible tool to provide probabilities of any specific event at which we are interested in, by merging any kind of available and relevant information, such as theoretical models, a priori beliefs, monitoring measures, and past data. It is mainly based on a Bayesian procedure and it relies on the fuzzy approach to manage monitoring data. The method deals with short- and long-term forecasting

  20. Is these a link between eustatic variations, platform drowning, oceanic anoxic events, and ammonite faunal turnovers ? Case study of the Aptian sediments along the northern Tethyan margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pictet, Antoine; Föllmi, Karl; Spangenberg, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    The early Aptian witnessed an important episode of paleoenvironmental change, which has been linked to major marine volcanic activity related to the formation of the Ontong-Java large igneous province (e.g., Larson and Erba, 1999). This phase culminated in the formation of hemipelagic and pelagic organic-rich sediments, whereas profound changes are also observed in shallow-water settings, with the step-by-step disappearance of the northern Tethyan platform. Results show that the northern Tethyan platform has passed through three major crises in its evolution during the early Aptian. A first one started with an emersion phase, marked by a subaerial karstified discontinuity reported from the middle early Aptian (Deshayesites forbesi or early D. deshayesi zone). This is directly followed by the drowning of the Urgonian platform along the northern Tethyan margin, preceding the Selli Episode. The period following this drowning phase coincides with the negative and the following positive excursions in the δ13C records and went along with the deposition of the so-called Lower Grünten Member, which is the result of heterozoan carbonate production and characterized by increased detrital input. Ammonite fauna witnessed an important diversification of hemipelagic forms, especially inside the heteromorph Ancyloceratacea. This radiation is probably linked to the expansion of hemipelagic facies, one of the main habitats of ammonites. A second phase, reported from the late early Aptian (late D. deshayesi zone), started with a small drowning event, marked by a firmground and by a phosphatic enrichment. This stratigraphical layer also corresponds to the establishment of the anoxic Apparein level. Above, the Upper Grünten Member continues with heterozoan carbonate production or with glauconitic condensed sediments. The corresponding δ13C record is a the onset of a long-term decrease. The ammonite fauna is marked by a first turnover with the disappearance of Deshayesites, and the

  1. Improvement of output characteristics of a wind turbine generator by output current control. Shutsuryoku denryu seigyoho ni yoru furyoku hatsuden system no shutsuryoku tokusei kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahito, T. (Takamatsu National College of Technology, Kagawa (Japan)); Suzuki, T. (Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    Conformity was studied between the wind turbine and generator's output characteristics to effectively collect the wind energy which fluctuates with time. According to the theoretical analysis, it is necessary for the generator-driving torque to be proportional to the revolving speed (n) squared of wind turbine in order that the wind turbine may generate the highest output always regardless of wind velocity. In the output current control method by current controller, the generator's output current (i[sub a]) is controlled so as to satisfy i[sub a]=cn[sup 2], where c is the output current control coefficient, the optimized value of which is 2[alpha][sup 2]Kw/Kt if the generator loss is nil. Therefore, that value is fixed independently of the wind velocity. [alpha] and Kw are the characteristic constants of wind turbine while Kt is the torque coefficient of generator. In order to confirm the effect of the present control method, the output characteristics were studied through simulation with already known systems. In both cases of constant and variable wind velocity, the change in output is similar against the change in c. Different from the resistance load control method, the present control method improves the output characteristics in a wide range of wind velocity even if the c remains fixed. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Wavelet analysis for the study of the relations among soil radon anomalies, volcanic and seismic events: the case of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, Elisabetta; Giammanco, Salvatore; Cannata, Andrea; Montalto, Placido

    2013-04-01

    from those correlated with impending seismic or volcanic events.

  3. Thermochronological evolution of an intra-plate magmatic event inferred from an integrated modeling approach: A case study in the Westerwald, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirone, M.; Rokitta, K.; Schreiber, U.

    2016-09-01

    A lava sample from the Tertiary Westerwald volcanic field was selected for a detailed study using various analytical techniques in combination with petrological, thermodynamic and diffusion modeling to extract information related to the thermochronological evolution of a magmatic event before eruption. The lava sample contains large olivine phenocrysts which are compositionally zoned and two coexisting but chemically distinct melts, a host melt with basaltic composition and small spherical pockets of a less abundant trachytic melt (globules). The sample was analyzed by electron microprobe, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The primary melt of the host lava was determined using the program PRIMELT2.XLS. Partial fractional crystallization of olivine was modeled using the program alphaMELTS. Timescale and cooling rate were retrieved by fitting the measured Fe-Mg zoning along two directions in four olivine grains from the host lava using a 3-D numerical diffusion model. The measured variation of Ca is also consistent with a chemical diffusion process, while a numerical growth model applied to the same olivines does not appear to explain the Fe-Mg zoning. Chemical zoning of major elements in the melt globules were reproduced with a multicomponent diffusion model. The results of this study show that the host magma fractionated about 9% of olivine in a first stage, then the crystallization proceeded without further separation of mineral phases. Modeling of diffusion in the olivine crystals suggests that this second stage lasted at least 5 yrs and the temperature of the melt decreased from 1120-1150 °C to 1090 °C during this time. According to the results of the multicomponent diffusion model applied to the melt globules, the coexistence of the two melts was extremely short (less than few hours), possibly recording the assimilation of the globules during eruption or cooling of the whole system on the surface.

  4. CATASTROPHIC EVENTS MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the emergence and evolution of catastrophe models (cat models. Starting with the present context of extreme weather events and features of catastrophic risk (cat risk we’ll make a chronological illustration from a theoretical point of view of the main steps taken for building such models. In this way the importance of interdisciplinary can be observed. The first cat model considered contains three modules. For each of these indentified modules: hazard, vulnerability and financial losses a detailed overview and also an exemplification of a potential case of an earthquake that measures more than 7 on Richter scale occurring nowadays in Bucharest will be provided. The key areas exposed to earthquake in Romania will be identified. Then, based on past catastrophe data and taking into account present conditions of housing stock, insurance coverage and the population of Bucharest the impact will be quantified by determining potential losses. In order to accomplish this work we consider a scenario with data representing average values for: dwelling’s surface, location, finishing works. On each step we’ll make a reference to the earthquake on March 4 1977 to see what would happen today if a similar event occurred. The value of Bucharest housing stock will be determined taking firstly the market value, then the replacement value and ultimately the real value to quantify potential damages. Through this approach we can find the insurance coverage of potential losses and also the uncovered gap. A solution that may be taken into account by public authorities, for example by Bucharest City Hall will be offered: in case such an event occurs the impossibility of paying compensations to insured people, rebuilding infrastructure and public buildings and helping the suffering persons should be avoided. An actively public-private partnership should be created between government authorities, the Natural Disaster Insurance Pool, private

  5. Supplier Relationship Management at Army Life Cycle Management Commands: Gap Analysis of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    307–308) define kaizen as “continuous, incremental improvement of an activity to create more value with less muda.” They define muda as “any activity...approaches, kaizen events, Six Sigma, total quality management (TQM) for continuous improvement, kaikaku,6 process reengineering for discontinuous...them fix problems and develop capabilities. These efforts may include kaizen (i.e., continuous, incremental improvement) events, process mapping, work

  6. Holter and Event Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Holter and Event Monitors Also known as ambulatory EKG; continuous EKG; EKG event monitors. Holter and event monitors are small, portable electrocardiogram devices ...

  7. Improvement of combustion in a direct injection diesel engine by micro-hole nozzle; Micro hole nozzle wo mochiita chokusetsu funshashiki diesel kikan no nensho kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, M. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Kobori, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Iida, N. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    2000-07-25

    In an attempt to promote the atomization of fuel spray and the mixing of fuel and air in diesel engines, a micro-hole nozzle which has orifices with a diameter smaller than 0.10mm was developed. In this study, the combustion tests were carried out using a single cylinder diesel engine equipped with a micro-hole nozzle and a common rail type high-pressure fuel injection system. A comparison with the results of a conventional nozzle experiment showed that the peak of initial premixed combustion increased, but the peak of diffusion combustion decreased. As a result, when nozzle orifice diameter become small from {phi} 0.15 mm to {phi} 0.10 mm, the combustion was accompanied by smokeless with the same levels of NO{sub x} emission and fuel economy. And results of a comparison the toroidal type chamber with the shallow dish type chamber revealed that the optimization of combustion chamber is necessary for the increase of the injection stage with increasing of the number of nozzle orifice. If an orifice diameter becomes {phi} 0.06 mm, the diffusion combustion can not be observed and the combustion is formed of only premixed combustion. The combustion in the case of {phi} 0.06 mm was accompanied with the drastic deterioration of fuel economy, smoke and HC with all over load. But the micro-hole nozzle has a potential for the formation of the lean and homogeneous premixed mixture until the fuel-air mixture ignites. (author)

  8. Assessment of Hydraulic Conditions Supporting the Recruitment of Asian Carp in the Illinois Waterway - A Case Study Using Known Spawning Events of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, D. T.; Garcia, T.; Duncker, J.; Zhu, Z.; Butler, S.; Diana, M.; Wahl, D.

    2016-12-01

    The upstream movement of Asian carp in the Illinois Waterway poses a potential threat to the Great Lakes. If established within the Great Lakes, Asian carp may disrupt the food web and harm the ecosystems of the Great Lakes. Understanding the Asian carp reproduction, including the timing and locations of adult spawning and the transport and dispersal of eggs and larvae, is essential information for managing the Asian carp population in the Illinois Waterway. The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model, a Lagrangian particle tracking model, has been used to study the transport and dispersal of eggs and larvae. The FluEgg model inputs are water temperature and hydraulic properties. At present, field measured or modeled hydraulics from steady-state simulations have been used in FluEgg modeling and the applications have shown useful results for evaluating Asian carp reproduction in the Illinois Waterway. However, there is a need to use data based on more representative time-variable hydraulic conditions from spawning to the time larvae reach the Gas Bladder Inflation Stage (GBI). The GBI stage is critical because that is the stage when the young fish seek nursery habitat. In June 2015, Asian carp spawning was observed at two locations along the Illinois Waterway, one below Starved Rock Lock and Dam near Utica, and the one in the La Grange Pool near Havana, Illinois. This study analyzes how hydraulic modeling can improve the predictability of the FluEgg model. An unsteady HEC-RAS hydraulic model of the Illinois Waterway from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Grafton, Illinois was used to reproduce the June 2015 flood event. Hydraulic data from HEC-RAS modeling, including predicted spatial and temporal discharge, water depth, and shear velocity; and measured water temperature data were used as input to the FluEgg model. FluEgg simulation results illustrate the downstream drifting of eggs and larvae until reaching the GBI stage. These simulation results can be analyzed

  9. Integrating multidisciplinary science, modelling and impact data into evolving, syn-event volcanic hazard mapping and communication: A case study from the 2012 Tongariro eruption crisis, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Stewart, Carol; Wilson, Thomas M.; Procter, Jonathan N.; Scott, Bradley J.; Keys, Harry J.; Jolly, Gill E.; Wardman, Johnny B.; Cronin, Shane J.; McBride, Sara K.

    2014-10-01

    New Zealand's Tongariro National Park volcanoes produce hazardous eruptions every few years to decades. On 6 August 2012 the Te Maari vent of Tongariro Volcano erupted, producing a series of explosions and a fine ash of minor volume which was dispersed rapidly to the east. This manuscript presents a summary of the eruption impacts and the way these supported science communication during the crisis, particularly in terms of hazard map development. The most significant proximal impact was damage from pyroclastic surges and ballistics to the popular and economically-important Tongariro Alpine Crossing track. The only hazard to affect the medial impact zone was a few mms of ashfall with minor impacts. Field testing indicated that the Te Maari ash had extremely low resistivity when wetted, implying a very high potential to cause disruption to nationally-important power transmission networks via the mechanism of insulator flashover. This was not observed, presumably due to insufficient ash accumulation on insulators. Virtually no impacts from distal ashfall were reported. Post-event analysis of PM10 data demonstrates the additional value of regional air quality monitoring networks in quantifying population exposure to airborne respirable ash. While the eruption was minor, it generated a high level of public interest and a demand for information on volcanic hazards and impacts from emergency managers, the public, critical infrastructure managers, health officials, and the agriculture sector. Meeting this demand fully taxed available resources. We present here aspects of the New Zealand experience which may have wider applicability in moving towards improved integration of hazard impact information, mapping, and communication. These include wide use of a wiki technical clearinghouse and email listservs, a focus on multi-agency consistent messages, and a recently developed environment of collaboration and alignment of both research funding and technical science advice

  10. Cardiac event monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ECG) - ambulatory; Continuous electrocardiograms (EKGs); Holter monitors; Transtelephonic event monitors ... attached. You can carry or wear a cardiac event monitor up to 30 days. You carry the ...

  11. High resolution numerical simulation (WRF V3) of an extreme rainy event over the Guadeloupe archipelago: Case of 3-5 january 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Didier C.; Cécé, Raphaël; Dorville, Jean-François

    2013-04-01

    During the dry season, the Guadeloupe archipelago may be affected by extreme rainy disturbances which may induce floods in a very short time. C. Brévignon (2003) considered a heavy rain event for rainfall upper 100 mm per day (out of mountainous areas) for this tropical region. During a cold front passage (3-5 January 2011), torrential rainfalls caused floods, major damages, landslides and five deaths. This phenomenon has put into question the current warning system based on large scale numerical models. This low-resolution forecasting (around 50-km scale) has been unsuitable for small tropical island like Guadeloupe (1600 km2). The most affected area was the middle of Grande-Terre island which is the main flat island of the archipelago (area of 587 km2, peak at 136 m). It is the most populated sector of Guadeloupe. In this area, observed rainfall have reached to 100-160 mm in 24 hours (this amount is equivalent to two months of rain for January (C. Brévignon, 2003)), in less 2 hours drainage systems have been saturated, and five people died in a ravine. Since two years, the atmospheric model WRF ARW V3 (Skamarock et al., 2008) has been used to modeling meteorological variables fields observed over the Guadeloupe archipelago at high resolution 1-km scale (Cécé et al., 2011). The model error estimators show that meteorological variables seem to be properly simulated for standard types of weather: undisturbed, strong or weak trade winds. These simulations indicate that for synoptic winds weak to moderate, a small island like Grande-Terre is able to generate inland convergence zones during daytime. In this presentation, we apply this high resolution model to simulate this extreme rainy disturbance of 3-5 January 2011. The evolution of modeling meteorological variable fields is analyzed in the most affected area of Grande-Terre (city of Les Abymes). The main goal is to examine local quasi-stationary updraft systems and highlight their convective mechanisms. The

  12. Talking about Causing Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Vogel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Questions about the nature of the relationship between language and extralinguistic cognition are old, but only recently has a new view emerged that allows for the systematic investigation of claims about linguistic structure, based on how it is understood or utilized outside of the language system. Our paper represents a case study for this interaction in the domain of event semantics. We adopt a transparency thesis about the relationship between linguistic structure and extralinguistic cognition, investigating whether different lexico-syntactic structures can differentially recruit the visual causal percept. A prominent analysis of causative verbs like move suggests reference to two distinct events and a causal relationship between them, whereas non-causative verbs like push do not so refer. In our study, we present English speakers with simple scenes that either do or do not support the perception of a causal link, and manipulate (between subjects a one-sentence instruction for the evaluation of the scene. Preliminary results suggest that competent speakers of English are more likely to judge causative constructions than non-causative constructions as true of a scene where causal features are present in the scene. Implications for a new approach to the investigation of linguistic meanings and future directions are discussed.

  13. Fibrations of financial events

    CERN Document Server

    Carf\\i, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we shall prove that the plane of financial events, introduced and applied to financial problems by the author himself (see [2], [3] and [4]) can be considered as a fibration in two different ways. The first one, the natural one, reveals itself to be isomorphic to the tangent- bundle of the real line, when the last one is considered as a differentiable manifold in the natural way; the second one is a fibration induced by the status of compound interest capitalization at a given rate i in the interval ] - 1, \\rightarrow [. Moreover, in the paper we define on the first fibration an affine connection, also in this case induced by the status of compound interest at a given rate i. The final goal of this paper is the awareness that all the effects determined by the status of compound interest are nothing but the consequences of the fact that the space of financial events is a fibration endowed with a particular affine connection, so they are consequences of purely geometric properties, at last, depend...

  14. On the Effects of Gaps and Uses of Approximation Functions on the Time-Scale Signal Analysis: A Case Study Based on Space Geophysical Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Luciano A.; Domingues, Margarete O.; Mendes, Odim

    2017-02-01

    The presence of gaps is quite common in signals related to space science phenomena. Usually, this presence prevents the direct use of standard time-scale analysis because this analysis needs equally spaced data; it is affected by the time series borders (boundaries), and gaps can cause an increase of internal borders. Numerical approximations can be used to estimate the records whose entries are gaps. However, their use has limitations. In many practical cases, these approximations cannot faithfully reproduce the original signal behaviour. Alternatively, in this work, we compare an adapted wavelet technique (gaped wavelet transform), based on the continuous wavelet transform with Morlet wavelet analysing function, with two other standard approximation methods, namely, spline and Hermite cubic polynomials. This wavelet method does not require an approximation of the data on the gap positions, but it adapts the analysing wavelet function to deal with the gaps. To perform our comparisons, we use 120 magnetic field time series from a well-known space geophysical phenomena and we select and classify their gaps. Then, we analyse the influence of these methods in two time-scale tools. As conclusions, we observe that when the gaps are small (very few points sequentially missing), all the methods work well. However, with large gaps, the adapted wavelet method presents a better performance in the time-scale representation. Nevertheless, the cubic Hermite polynomial approximation is also an option when a reconstruction of the data is also needed, with the price of having a worse time-scale representation than the adapted wavelet method.

  15. On the Effects of Gaps and Uses of Approximation Functions on the Time-Scale Signal Analysis: A Case Study Based on Space Geophysical Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Luciano A.; Domingues, Margarete O.; Mendes, Odim

    2017-04-01

    The presence of gaps is quite common in signals related to space science phenomena. Usually, this presence prevents the direct use of standard time-scale analysis because this analysis needs equally spaced data; it is affected by the time series borders (boundaries), and gaps can cause an increase of internal borders. Numerical approximations can be used to estimate the records whose entries are gaps. However, their use has limitations. In many practical cases, these approximations cannot faithfully reproduce the original signal behaviour. Alternatively, in this work, we compare an adapted wavelet technique (gaped wavelet transform), based on the continuous wavelet transform with Morlet wavelet analysing function, with two other standard approximation methods, namely, spline and Hermite cubic polynomials. This wavelet method does not require an approximation of the data on the gap positions, but it adapts the analysing wavelet function to deal with the gaps. To perform our comparisons, we use 120 magnetic field time series from a well-known space geophysical phenomena and we select and classify their gaps. Then, we analyse the influence of these methods in two time-scale tools. As conclusions, we observe that when the gaps are small (very few points sequentially missing), all the methods work well. However, with large gaps, the adapted wavelet method presents a better performance in the time-scale representation. Nevertheless, the cubic Hermite polynomial approximation is also an option when a reconstruction of the data is also needed, with the price of having a worse time-scale representation than the adapted wavelet method.

  16. Westerly Wind Events in the Eastern Indian Ocean as a Precursor to El Nino: A Case Study for the 2002-03 El Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Gu, Guojun

    2003-01-01

    This paper extends the work of our previous study, which showed the potential of using precipitation in the eastern Indian Ocean to predict when an El Nino would begin. The paper begins by showing the successful prediction of the 2002-03 El Nino. However, precipitation is really used as a substitute for wind (storms are usually accompanied by heavy wind), because a popular hypothesis is that winds (especially % winds out of the West) stir up the ocean surface in the western Pacific sending currents of warm waters to the east Pacific where El Ninos form. This paper shows that it is typical for storms that produce strong winds in the western Pacific to have traveled from the Indian Ocean. We begin in the Indian Ocean looking at strong bursts of wind over several days. The number of windy days seems to increase in the months prior to El Nino. We examined these relationships in detail for November 2001 to April 2002, before the recent El Nino, using NASA's TRMM and QuikSCAT data. We found in one case that a warming of the eastern Indian Ocean occurred about 25 days before heavy rainfall formed. As the stormed moved eastward it was followed (6 days later) by strong winds out of the West. The entire storm system (and warming of the sea) moved eastward through a small strip of water between Indonesia and Australia, before reaching the western Pacific. Thus, this paper increases our understanding of the physical processes leading to the formation of El Nino.

  17. An integrated wave modelling framework for extreme and rare events for climate change in coastal areas – the case of Rethymno, Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki K. Tsoukala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal floods are regarded as among the most dangerous and harmful of all natural disasters affecting urban areas adjacent to the shorelines. Rapid urbanization combined with climate change and poor governance often results in significant increase of flood risk, especially for coastal communities. Wave overtopping and wave run-up are the key mechanisms for monitoring the results of coastal flooding and as such, significant efforts are currently focusing on their predicting. In this paper, an integrated methodology is proposed, accounting for wave overtopping and wave run-up under extreme wave scenarios caused by storm surges. By taking advantage of past and future climatic projections of wind data, a downscaling approach is proposed, utilizing a number of appropriate numerical models than can simulate the wave propagation from offshore up to the swash zone. The coastal zone of Rethymno in Greece is selected as a case study area and simulations of wave characteristics with the model SWAN for the period 1960–2100 in the offshore region are presented. These data are given as boundary conditions to further numerical models (MIKE21 PMS and HD in order to investigate the spatial evolution of the wave and the hydrodynamic field in intermediate and shallow waters. Finally, the calculated wave height serves as input to empirical formulas and time dependent wave propagation models (MIKE21 BW to estimate the wave run-up and wave overtopping (EurOtop. It is suggested that the proposed procedure is generic enough to be applicable to any similar region.

  18. Long-range pollution transport during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign: a case study of a major Mexico City outflow event using free-floating altitude-controlled balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Paul B.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Flocke, Frank M.; Mao, Huitimg; Hartley, Tom; DeAmicis, Pam; Deonandan, Indira; Contrerars-Jimenez, G.; Martinez-Antonio, O.; Figueroa Estrada, M.; Greenberg, David; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Montzka, DeeDee; Crounse, J. D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Apel, Eric; Madronich, Sasha; de Foy, B.

    2010-08-04

    One of the major objectives of the Megacities Initiative: Local And Global Research 3 Observations (MILAGRO 2006) campaign was to investigate the long-range transport of 4 Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) pollution outflow and its downwind impacts on air 5 quality and climate. Four aircraft (DOE G-1, NSF/NCAR C-130, NASA-J31, and NASA 6 DC-8) made extensive chemical, aerosol, and radiation measurements above MCMA and over 7 1000 km downwind in order to characterize the evolution of MCMA pollution as it aged and 8 dispersed over the central Mexican plateau and the Gulf of Mexico. As part of this effort, 9 free-floating Controlled-Meteorological (CMET) balloons, capable of changing altitude on 10 command via satellite, characterized the MCMA outflow by performing repeated soundings 11 during the transit. In this paper, we present an analysis based on the data from two CMET 12 balloons that were launched near Mexico City on the afternoon of 18 March 2006 and floated 13 downwind with the outflow for nearly 30 hours. Continuous profile measurements made by 14 the balloons show the evolving structure of the MCMA outflow in considerable detail: its 15 stability and stratification, interaction with other air masses, mixing episodes, and dispersion 16 into the regional background. Air parcel trajectories, computed directly from the balloon 17 wind profiles, show three different transport pathways for Mexico City outflow on 18-19 18 March: (a) high-altitude advection of the top of the MCMA mixed layer, (b) low-altitude flow 19 over the Sierra Madre Oriental followed by decoupling and isolated transport over the Gulf, 20 and (c) the same decoupling scenario with entrainment into a cleaner westerly jet below the 21 plateau. The C-130 intercepted the balloon-based trajectories three times on 19 March, once 22 along each transport pathway. In all three cases, distinct peaks in the urban tracer signature 23 and LIDAR backscatter imagery provided evidence for Mexico City air

  19. Long-range pollution transport during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign: a case study of a major Mexico City outflow event using free-floating altitude-controlled balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Voss

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major objectives of the Megacities Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO-2006 campaign was to investigate the long-range transport of polluted Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA outflow and determine its downwind impacts on air quality and climate. Six research aircraft, including the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C-130, made extensive chemical, aerosol, and radiation measurements above MCMA and more than 1000 km downwind in order to characterize the evolution of the outflow as it aged and dispersed over the Mesa Alta and Gulf of Mexico. As part of this effort, free-floating Controlled-Meteorological (CMET balloons, commanded to change altitude via satellite, made repeated profile measurements of winds and state variables within the advecting outflow. In this paper, we present an analysis based on the data from two CMET balloons that were launched near Mexico City on the afternoon of 18 March 2006 and floated downwind with the MCMA pollution for nearly 30 h. The repeating profile measurements show the evolving structure of the outflow in considerable detail: its stability and stratification, interaction with other air masses, mixing episodes, and dispersion into the regional background. Air parcel trajectories, computed directly from the balloon wind profiles, show three different transport pathways on 18–19 March: (a high-altitude advection of the top of the MCMA mixed layer, (b mid-level outflow over the Sierra Madre Oriental followed by decoupling and isolated transport over the Gulf, and (c low-altitude outflow with entrainment into a cleaner westerly jet below the plateau. The C-130 aircraft intercepted the balloon-based trajectories three times on 19 March, once along each of these pathways. In all three cases, distinct peaks in the urban tracer signatures and LIDAR backscatter imagery were consistent with MCMA pollution. The coherence of the high-altitude outflow was well preserved

  20. Possibilities of neighborhood evacuation within a district in the event of a large-scale flood in a low-lying area: A case study of Shinden district in Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the possibilities of neighborhood evacuation within a district in the event of a large-scale flood in a low-lying area, through a case study of Shinden district in Tokyo. Shinden district is highly vulnerable to flooding because it is surrounded by two large rivers, namely, the Arakawa River and Sumida River. In a part of the district, however, there is a large-scale super levee area that is apparently used as a safe evacuation area. In conclusion, in the event that the Arakawa River in Shinden district is breached, the number of estimated potential evacuees at night exceeds the number of estimated night-time evacuees, and the number of estimated potential evacuees in the daytime exceeds the number of estimated daytime evacuees. Therefore, it is possible for people in an inundated area to evacuate to safe places in the neighborhood on the condition that an appropriate evacuation system is established, taking into consideration possible routes to the evacuation areas and the possibility of making use of private apartments or other private buildings as evacuation spaces. In particular, the super levee project has contributed to the creation of a large-scale neighborhood evacuation area.

  1. Assessment of the Risk of Suicide-Related Events Induced by Concomitant Use of Antidepressants in Cases of Smoking Cessation Treatment with Varenicline and Assessment of Latent Risk by the Use of Varenicline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Hayato; Oshima, Shinji; Negishi, Akio; Ohara, Kousuke; Ohshima, Shigeru; Inoue, Naoko; Kobayashi, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Smoking Cessation Treatment (SCT) is a policy that has to be promoted for health economics, and expectations for the success of treatments with varenicline (VAR) are large. However, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have issued a warning on VAR-induced depression and suicide. In the present study, utilizing the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), we searched for antidepressants (ADs) used during SCT that cause fewer suicide-related events (SRE) (Study 1). We also investigated whether VAR concomitantly administered with ADs increases the risk of SRE (Study 2). In addition, we investigated whether the use of VAR alone is a latent risk factor of SRE. The backgrounds of cases with and without SRE were matched using the Propensity Score. In Study 1, the highest integrated Reporting Odds Ratio (iROR) was noted in concomitantly administered mirtazapine (iROR 6.98; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.57–30.99), while the lowest ratio was noted in concomitantly administered amitriptyline (iROR 0.59; iROR95%CI 0.23–1.50). Study 2 clarified that SCT increases the risk of SRE in AD-treated cases (iROR 8.02; iROR95%CI 5.47–11.76; not significance). Of ADs concomitantly used during SCT with VAR, amitriptyline and mirtazapine showed the lowest and highest risks, respectively (Study 1). It was clarified that concomitant use of VAR in the treatment of depression with ADs increased the risk of SRE (Study 2). The results of Studies 1 and 2 suggested that the use of VAR alone is a latent risk factor inducing suicide. PMID:27657721

  2. Resilience of aging populations after devastating earthquake event and its determinants - A case study of the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Hung-Chih

    2016-04-01

    1.Background Major portions of urban areas in Asia are highly exposed and vulnerable to devastating earthquakes. Many studies identify ways to reduce earthquake risk by concentrating more on building resilience for the particularly vulnerable populations. By 2020, as the United Nations' warning, many Asian countries would become 'super-aged societies', such as Taiwan. However, local authorities rarely use resilience approach to frame earthquake disaster risk management and land use strategies. The empirically-based research about the resilience of aging populations has also received relatively little attention. Thus, a challenge arisen for decision-makers is how to enhance resilience of aging populations within the context of risk reduction. This study aims to improve the understanding of the resilience of aging populations and its changes over time in the aftermath of a destructive earthquake at the local level. A novel methodology is proposed to assess the resilience of aging populations and to characterize their changes of spatial distribution patterns, as well as to examine their determinants. 2.Methods and data An indicator-based assessment framework is constructed with the goal of identifying composite indicators (including before, during and after a disaster) that could serve as proxies for attributes of the resilience of aging populations. Using the recovery process of the Chi-Chi earthquake struck central Taiwan in 1999 as a case study, we applied a method combined a geographical information system (GIS)-based spatial statistics technique and cluster analysis to test the extent of which the resilience of aging populations is spatially autocorrelated throughout the central Taiwan, and to explain why clustering of resilient areas occurs in specific locations. Furthermore, to scrutinize the affecting factors of resilience, we develop an aging population resilience model (APRM) based on existing resilience theory. Using the APRM, we applied a multivariate

  3. Superstatistics and renewal critical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, Paolo; Cesari, Rita; Grigolini, Paolo

    2009-09-01

    An approach to intermittent systems based on renewal processes is reviewed. The Waiting Times (WTs) between events are the main variables of interest in intermittent systems. A crucial role is played by the class of critical events, characterized by Non-Poisson statistics and non-exponential WT distribution. A particular important case is given by WT distributions with power tail. Critical events play a crucial role in the behavior of a property known as Renewal Aging. Focusing on the role of critical events, the relation between superstatistics and non-homogeneous Poisson processes is discussed, and the role of Renewal Aging is illustrated by comparing a Non-Poisson model with a Poisson one, both of them modulated by a periodic forcing. It is shown that the analysis of Renewal Aging is sensitive to the presence of critical events and that this property can be exploited to detect Non-Poisson statistics in a time series. As a consequence, it is claimed that, apart from the characterization of superstatistical features such as the distribution of the intensive parameter or the separation of the time scales, the Renewal Aging property can give some effort to better determine the role of Non-Poisson critical events in intermittent systems.

  4. TECHNOLOGY OF EDUCATIONAL EVENTS DESIGNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Volkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to prove and disclose the essence of the author’s technology of educational events designing.Methodology and methods of research. Methodological basis of work is humanitarian approach. The method of pedagogical modeling was used for the model development of educational events influence on pedagogical activity formation. The content analysis of texts descriptions, case-study method, expert estimations of event projects were applied as the main methods of efficiency confirmation of the technology of educational events design.Results and scientific novelty. The characteristics of an educational event are emphasized by means of an empirical way: opening (what a person opens for himself; generation (a result of a personal action; and participation in creation of something "new" (new communications, relations and experience. The structure of technology of educational events design including work with concepts (an educational event, substantial and procedural components is presented. The technology of educational events designing is considered as the process of the well-grounded choice of designing technologies, mutual activity, pedagogical communication, components of educational activity: contents, methods, means, and organizational forms depending on educational aims due to age-specific peculiarities of participants of the educational event. The main conditions providing successful use of the technology are the involvement into joint cognitive activity of all its participants and importance of the events for each of them that qualitatively change the nature of a cognitive process and generate real transformations of the reality.Practical significance. The author’s experience in teaching testifies to introduction of the module «Technology of Design of Educational Events» into the basic educational subject-module «Design Competence of the Teacher» (degree program «Pedagogical Education», considering this module as

  5. Achieving Success via Multi-Model Process Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Mellon University page 19 Lean Tactics: Kaizen Events Kaizen - Make people’s jobs easier by taking them apart, studying them, and making improvements...KAI” - take apart and make anew • “ZEN” - think, make good the actions of others, do good deeds and help others Kaizen tips (VAL, M&A, QPM, CAR...business - Requires firm understanding of the “before” state - “Just do it” Projects - Kaizen event with rollout plan • required use of Six Sigma

  6. Método para eventos Gembra kaizen

    OpenAIRE

    Hornburg, Sigfrid

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. A Manufatura Enxuta está baseada nas práticas do Sistema Toyota de Produção. O principal objetivo deste é reduzir e eliminar perdas a fim de deixar a organização mais ágil e flexível, conseqüentemente mais competitiva. É importante deixar claro que para a implantação das práticas de chão de fábrica da Manufatura Enxuta é necessário um sistema de gestão d...

  7. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  8. Creating social impact with sport events

    OpenAIRE

    Hover, P.; Van Dijk, B.; Breedveld, K.; van Eekeren, F.; Slender, H.

    2016-01-01

    All over the world, sport events are seen as significant tools for creating positive social impact. This is understandable, as sport events have the power to attract enthusiastic participants, volunteers and to reach large audiences of visitors and followers via (social) media. Outbursts of excitement, pleasure and feelings of camaraderie are experienced among millions of people in the case of mega events. Still, a fairly large section of the population does not care that much for sports. Som...

  9. Attributional style and life-events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, N; Williams, J M

    1983-06-01

    The study addressed the question of the significance of intervening life-events in linking attributional style and depression. Twenty male subjects who had experienced an uncontrollable event, job redundancy, were compared with 20 controls on measures of attributional style, depression and self-esteem. The reformulated helplessness hypothesis implies that attribution and depression should be correlated only after the uncontrollable event. This was found to be the case for internal--external dimension, providing tentative support for the reformulated helplessness model.

  10. The global event system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, J.

    1994-03-02

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different.

  11. Regular Event Structures and Finite Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Thiagarajan, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    We present the notion of regular event structures and conjecture that they correspond exactly to finite 1-safe Petri nets. We show that the conjecture holds for the conflict-free case. Even in this restricted setting, the proof is non-trivial and involves a natural subclass of regular event...

  12. Centauro- and anti-Centauro-type events

    CERN Document Server

    Martinis, M; Martinis, M; Mikuta-Martinis, V

    1994-01-01

    Assuming that leading particles in high-energy hadronic and nuclear collisions become sources of a classical pion field, we show that the direct production of pions favors Centauro ( mainly charged ) events and that the production of pions through the \\rho-type channel favors anti-Centauro ( mainly neutral ) events. We also observe a strong negative neutral-charged correlation in both cases.

  13. 10th Annual Small Business Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-02

    Lean Consultant Committed Ourselves Entirely Held Monthly “ Kaizen Events” 18 RED DOT LEAN JOURNEY 2002 To Date RED DOT “ LEAN ” PRODUCTION SYSTEM What...Events” 19 RED DOT LEAN JOURNEY 2002 To Date The “ Lean ” Journey 60 Kaizen Events since December 2001 20 RED DOT LEAN JOURNEY 2002 To Date The “ Lean ...Journey Over 1,000 Kaizen Ideas Implemented 21 RED DOT LEAN JOURNEY 2002 To Date The “ Lean ” Journey Assembly Lines Revamped

  14. Defense AT and L. Volume 37, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    maintenance system. This resulted in total productive maintenance becoming a part of the learning process during this exercise. TPM was the third Kaizen ...event (outside Lean and Six Sigma) that was held at Gay- ston to assist with improvements. Kaizen is Japanese for “continuous improvement” and is often...thinking and principles (value stream map- ping, TPM, JIT, 5S, Kaizen , and visual management). Each of these principles assisted the team in identifying

  15. Visual pattern discovery in timed event data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Matthias; Wanner, Franz; Mansmann, Florian; Scheible, Christian; Stennett, Verity; Hasselrot, Anders T.; Keim, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Business processes have tremendously changed the way large companies conduct their business: The integration of information systems into the workflows of their employees ensures a high service level and thus high customer satisfaction. One core aspect of business process engineering are events that steer the workflows and trigger internal processes. Strict requirements on interval-scaled temporal patterns, which are common in time series, are thereby released through the ordinal character of such events. It is this additional degree of freedom that opens unexplored possibilities for visualizing event data. In this paper, we present a flexible and novel system to find significant events, event clusters and event patterns. Each event is represented as a small rectangle, which is colored according to categorical, ordinal or intervalscaled metadata. Depending on the analysis task, different layout functions are used to highlight either the ordinal character of the data or temporal correlations. The system has built-in features for ordering customers or event groups according to the similarity of their event sequences, temporal gap alignment and stacking of co-occurring events. Two characteristically different case studies dealing with business process events and news articles demonstrate the capabilities of our system to explore event data.

  16. Solar Eruptive Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    It s long been known that the Sun plays host to the most energetic explosions in the solar system. But key insights into the forms that energy takes have only recently become available. Solar flares have been phenomena of both academic and practical interest since their discovery in 1859. From the academic point of view, they are the nearest events for studying the explosive release of energy in astrophysical magnetized plasmas. From the practical point of view, they disrupt communication channels on Earth, from telegraph communications in 1859 to radio and television signals today. Flares also wreak havoc on the electrical power grid, satellite operations, and GPS signals, and energetic charged particles and radiation are dangerous to passengers on high-altitude polar flights and to astronauts. Flares are not the only explosive phenomena on the Sun. More difficult to observe but equally energetic are the large coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the ejection of up to ten billion tons of magnetized plasma into the solar wind at speeds that can exceed 1000 km/s. CMEs are primarily observed from the side, with coronagraphs that block out the bright disk of the Sun and lower solar atmosphere so that light scattered from the ejected mass can be seen. Major geomagnetic storms are now known to arise from the interaction of CMEs with Earth's magnetosphere. Solar flares are observed without CMEs, and CMEs are observed without flares. The two phenomena often occur together, however, and almost always do in the case of large flares and fast CMEs. The term solar eruptive event refers to the combination of a flare and a CME. Solar eruptive events generate a lot of heat: They can heat plasma to temperatures as high at 50 million Kelvin, producing radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. But that s not all. A fascinating aspect of solar eruptive events is the acceleration of electrons and ions to suprathermal often relativistic energies. The accelerated particles are primarily

  17. Traumatic events and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stabbing of a person Sudden death of a parent or trusted caregiver Hospitalization Examples of traumatic events that your child experiences over and over are: Physical or emotional abuse Sexual abuse Gang violence War Terrorist events

  18. Advertising Effectiveness In Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sushilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...

  19. Event generators at BESⅢ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING Rong-Gang

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief remark and introduction to event generators for tau-charm physics currently used at BESⅢ,including KKMC,BesEvtGen,Bhlumi,Bhwide,Babayaga and inclusive Monte-Carlo event generators.This paper provides basic information on event generators for BESⅢ users.

  20. Estimation on Worst-Case Execution Time of Real-Time Complex Event Processing%实时复杂事件处理的最坏响应时间估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 范玉顺; 王宏安; 乔颖

    2012-01-01

    实时复杂事件处理系统(CEP系统)用于从原子事件流中检测出复杂事件,需要确保事件处理任务在截止期内完成.确保实时性的关键问题是如何估算系统中复杂事件处理程序(CEP程序)的最坏响应时间.现有针对一般程序的估算方法需要标注对象程序中子程序执行次数的取值范围.然而,CEP程序较为复杂,难以直接获知子程序执行次数的取值范围.虽然执行次数间存在关联关系,可以间接求解出取值范围,但这样得到取值范围不够严格,使估算精度较低,因此现有估算方法难以直接使用.提出一种CEP程序的最坏响应时间估算方法.采用新标注方式,通过对CEP程序的检测结构进行分析,归纳出子程序执行次数间的关联约束,并使用关联约束进行标注,替代了标注其取值范围,避免了标注困难.实验表明方法具有较高估算精度.%Real-time complex event processing (CEP) system is used to detect complex events from primitive event stream and must guarantee that the tasks of processing events can be completed in deadline. In order to guarantee that, a key problem is how to estimate the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the CEP program in a CEP system. In current WCET estimation methods for general programs, the range of the execution number of each sub-program needs to be annotated by developers. In a CEP program, however, ranges of execution numbers of sub-programs for detection of sub- event patterns are hard to directly obtain because of the complexity of CEP program. Although execution numbers of different sub-programs have relations and ranges can be solved from these relations, these ranges are still not strict enough, which will reduce the estimation accuracy. Thus current methods cannot accurately estimate the WCET of CEP programs. This paper presents a novel WCET estimation method for CEP program. In face of annotation difficulties, constraints among execution numbers of sub