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  1. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhara, R. P.; Jodhawat, R. L.; Devi, K. Bigyapati

    2012-04-01

    Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions - the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina ( Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten ( Amussiopecten) labadyei d'Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne') var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23°50'N; 68°47'E

  2. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R P Kachhara; R L Jodhawat; K Bigyapati Devi

    2012-04-01

    Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions – the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina (Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten (Amussiopecten) labadyei d’Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne’) var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23° 50′N; 68

  3. Some observations on the Miocene foraminifera from Kachchh, Western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhri, A.K.; Khare, N.

    in the absence of planktonic species. However, these species as well as other associated index forms need to be studied in different sections of Kachchh for their true stratigraphic ranges. The existing knowledge on the specific composition of foraminifera...

  4. Satellite image based quantification of invasion and patch dynamics of mesquite ( Prosopis juliflora) in Great Rann of Kachchh, Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, S. Vazeed; Satish, K. V.; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Prasada Rao, P. V. V.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-10-01

    The invasion of alien species is a significant threat to global biodiversity and the top driver of climate change. The present study was conducted in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India, which has been severely affected by invasion of Prosopis juliflora. The invasive weed infestation has been identified using multi-temporal remote sensing datasets of 1977, 1990, 1999, 2005 and 2011. Spatial analyses of the transition matrix, extent of invasive colonies, patchiness, coalescence and rate of spread were carried out. During the study period of three and half decades, almost 295 km2 of the natural land cover was converted into Prosopis cover. This study has shown an increment of 42.9% of area under Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of the Kachchh Biosphere Reserve during 1977 to 2011. Spatial analysis indicates high occupancy of Prosopis cover with most of the invasion (95.9%) occurring in the grasslands and only 4.1% in other land cover types. The process of Prosopis invasion shows high patch initiation, followed by coalescence, indicating aggressive colonization of species. The number of patches within an area of habitats by replacing the grasslands. The largest patch of Prosopis cover increased from 144 km2 in 1977 to 430 km2 in 2011. The estimated mean patch size was 7.8 km2 in 1977. The mean patch size was largest during 2011, i.e., 9 km2. The annual spread rate for Prosopis has been estimated as 2.1% during 2005-2011. The present work has investigated the long term changes in Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve. The spatial database generated will be useful in preparing strategies for the management of Prosopis juliflora.

  5. Satellite image based quantification of invasion and patch dynamics of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) in Great Rann of Kachchh, Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Vazeed Pasha; K V Satish; C Sudhakar Reddy; P V V Prasada Rao; C S Jha

    2014-10-01

    The invasion of alien species is a significant threat to global biodiversity and the top driver of climate change. The present study was conducted in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India, which has been severely affected by invasion of Prosopis juliflora. The invasive weed infestation has been identified using multi-temporal remote sensing datasets of 1977, 1990, 1999, 2005 and 2011. Spatial analyses of the transition matrix, extent of invasive colonies, patchiness, coalescence and rate of spread were carried out. During the study period of three and half decades, almost 295 km2 of the natural land cover was converted into Prosopis cover. This study has shown an increment of 42.9% of area under Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of the Kachchh Biosphere Reserve during 1977 to 2011. Spatial analysis indicates high occupancy of Prosopis cover with most of the invasion (95.9%) occurring in the grasslands and only 4.1% in other land cover types. The process of Prosopis invasion shows high patch initiation, followed by coalescence, indicating aggressive colonization of species. The number of patches within an area of > 1 km2 increased from 1977 to 2011, indicating the formation of new Prosopis habitats by replacing the grasslands. The largest patch of Prosopis cover increased from 144 km2 in 1977 to 430 km2 in 2011. The estimated mean patch size was 7.8 km2 in 1977. The mean patch size was largest during 2011, i.e., 9 km2. The annual spread rate for Prosopis has been estimated as 2.1% during 2005–2011. The present work has investigated the long term changes in Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve. The spatial database generated will be useful in preparing strategies for the management of Prosopis juliflora.

  6. Molluscan fauna from the Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat, India – Part 3. Gastropods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kantimati G Kulkarni; Satarupa Bhattacharjee Kapoor; Vidyadhar D Borkar

    2010-06-01

    Systematic description of 25 gastropod species from the Khari Nadi Formation (Aquitanian) and Chhasra Formation (Burdigalian) from the Kachchh District, Gujarat, India is given. A checklist of 116 forms including those reported by earlier researchers, emending taxonomic identifications wherever necessary, is also provided. Vredenburg had referred these two formations together as ‘the Gaj Beds of Kachchh’. He noticed the affinity of molluscs among the Miocene deposits of Kachchh and Kathiawar regions of Gujarat, and Sind province of Pakistan. He also observed that molluscs from his ‘Lower Gaj’ and ‘Upper Gaj’ Formations showed relationship respectively with the Rembang (Aquitanian) and Njalindung (Burdigalian) series of the East Indies. Aquitanian and Burdigalian ages assigned by him were later substantiated by Raju on the basis of foraminifera. Present studies corroborated that the molluscan assemblage from the Miocene rocks of Kachchh is closely related to that from the Gaj Beds of Sind and the Ashapura Clay Member of Kathiawar; besides revealing that the fauna from these three formations taken together is essentially endemic. Discovery of certain species from the Quilon Beds in the Miocene of Kachchh evinces a close affinity between these two formations. The present fauna includes five extant forms, while 29 forms have related species in the Recent fauna.

  7. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

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    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  8. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  9. Late Quaternary seismic sequence stratigraphy of the Gulf of Kachchh, northwest of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Michael, L.; Rao, D.G.; Krishna, K.S.; Vora, K.H.

    along the northwest coast of India), lies between the mainland of Kachchh in the north and the Saurashtra/Kathiawar peninsula in the south and is open to the Arabian Sea in the west (Figure 1). The nonhostile conditions, high 3-6 knots tidal currents... (Figure 2) and the macrotidal (semidiurnal with ~ 6 m maximum wave heights) regime of the gulf are unfavourable for conducting any underwater investigations in the area, and thus understanding of the geologic structure and origin of the gulf is elusive...

  10. Local Wave Propagation in the Kachchh Basin, India: Synergy With the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, C. A.; Kang, D.; Bodin, P.; Horton, S.

    2002-12-01

    Aftershocks of the Mw7.6 Bhuj earthquake are used to infer velocity structure and the nature of wave propagation within the Kachchh Basin, India. The data were collected from a joint MAEC/ISTAR deployment of seismographs within 3 weeks of the main event and from existing broadband stations in the region under the India Meteorological Department. Waveforms are available from events that span the entire thickness of the crust and display a variety of wave propagation effects due to low-velocity near-surface site structure and larger structure of the Mesozoic Kachchh basin. These effects include near-site, high frequency reverberations in P and S waves, Sp and Ps mode conversions, PL waves within the Mesozoic basin, basin S multiples, and surface waves. Surface wave group velocity dispersion yields estimates of basin shear wave velocity, and when coupled to analysis of large observed Sp conversions, give a migrated image of stratigraphy within the Banni plains that agrees favorably with published stratigraphy. Identification of basin structure effects allows constraints to be placed on aftershock source depths that are needed in evaluating standard earthquake locations. Structure models are used to construct Green's functions for determining source parameters through waveform modeling. Although stations of the aftershock network were situated on a variety of sites that varied from consolidated Mesozoic bedrock to unconsolidated recent sediments, all stations show major wave propagation effects due to basin fill that must be included in source parameter estimation. These effects seen in India have many similarities to wave propagation effects observed within the Mississippi embayment from microearthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) of the central U.S. Joint waveform studies are motivating new ways of understanding wave propagation and source processes within both areas.

  11. Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; Jayakumar, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Vethamony, P.

    Author version: Environ. Monit. Assess., vol.169(1-4); 2010; 639-645 Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India). C.Mohandass *, S. Jaya Kumar, N. Ramaiah...; Brookings et al. 1985), affect ambient nutrient concentrations as well as water quality. Understanding their influence is critical to both basic ecology of tidal creeks and for evolving sampling protocols and pollutant-mitigation advisories. Lindquist...

  12. Intraplate seismicity along the Gedi Fault in Kachchh rift basin of western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vishwa; Rastogi, B. K.; Kumar, Santosh

    2017-08-01

    The Kachchh rift basin is located on the western continental margin of India and has a history of experiencing large to moderate intraplate earthquakes with M ≥ 5. During the past two centuries, two large earthquakes of Mw 7.8 (1819) and Mw 7.7 (2001) have occurred in the Kachchh region, the latter with an epicenter near Bhuj. The aftershock activity of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake is still ongoing with migration of seismicity. Initially, epicenters migrated towards the east and northeast within the Kachchh region but, since 2007, it has also migrated to the south. The triggered faults are mostly within 100 km and some up to 200 km distance from the epicentral area of the mainshock. Most of these faults are trending in E-W direction, and some are transverse. It was noticed that some faults generate earthquakes down to the Moho depth whereas some faults show earthquake activity within the upper crustal volume. The Gedi Fault, situated about 50 km northeast of the 2001 mainshock epicenter, triggered the largest earthquake of Mw 5.6 in 2006. We have carried out detailed seismological studies to evaluate the seismic potential of the Gedi Fault. We have relocated 331 earthquakes by HypoDD to improve upon location errors. Further, the relocated events are used to estimate the b value, p value, and fractal correlation dimension Dc of the fault zone. The present study indicates that all the events along the Gedi Fault are shallow in nature, with focal depths less than 20 km. The estimated b value shows that the Gedi aftershock sequence could be classified as Mogi's type 2 sequence, and the p value suggests a relatively slow decay of aftershocks. The fault plane solutions of some selected events of Mw > 3.5 are examined, and activeness of the Gedi Fault is assessed from the results of active fault studies as well as GPS and InSAR results. All these results are critically examined to evaluate the material properties and seismic potential of the Gedi Fault that may be useful

  13. New Discovery of Coral Rubbings in the North-Western Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, Western India-GIS Based Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Sesh Serebiah; M. Rajkumar; SUN Jun; B. A. Venmathi Maran; A. Saravanakumar; G. A. Thivakaran

    2011-01-01

    The Gulf of Kachchh in western India, with its arid climate, large semi-diurnal tidal amplitudes, negative water balance and near-pristine water quality, is being extensively developed as oil importing bases for economic reasons in connection with its proximity to the oil exporting countries of the Middle East. Besides, new coral robbings were sighted in Jakhau, north-western Gulf of Kachchh. Dredging in Mandvi of the north Gulf covering 3.5 km2 revealed a similar assortment of live corals with their associated flora and fauna. These pioneering observations demonstrate that there exist live corals of young polyps-colony of Favia sp. belonging to the family Faviidae in the north-western Gulf of Kachchh. The environmental parameters there were carefully recorded as: surface water temperature (℃) varying from 29 to 31.8, salinity (ppt), pH, dissolved oxygen (mgL-l)and total suspended solids (mgL-1) in the ranges of 37- 43.5, 7.7- 8.45, 5.4 - 6.8 and 11- 31, respectively.

  14. SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED HERMATYPIC CORALS FROM GULF OF KACHCHH, INDIA

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    N. Ray Chaudhury

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hermatypic, scleractinian corals are the most important benthic substrates in a coral reef ecosystem. The existing, high (spatial resolution, broad-band, multi-spectral, space-borne sensors have limited capability to spatially detect and spectrally discriminate coral substrates. In situ hyperspectral signatures of eight coral targets were collected with the help of Analytical Spectral Devices FieldSpec spectroradiometer from Paga and Laku Point reefs of Gulf of Kachchh, India to study the spectral behaviour of corals. The eight coral targets consisted of seven live corals representing four distinct colony morphologies and one bleached coral target. The coral spectra were studied over a continuous range of 350 to 1350 nm. The corals strongly reflected in the NIR and MIR regions with regional central maximas located at 820 and 1070 nm respectively. In the visible region the live coral spectra conformed to "brown mode" of coral reflectance with triple-peaked pattern at 575, 600 and 650 nm. All coral spectra are characterized with two distinct absorption features: chlorophyll absorption at 675 nm and water absorption at 975 nm. The live and the bleached corals get distinguished in the visible region over 400 to 600 nm region. Water column over the targets modifies the spectral shape and magnitude. First and second-order derivatives help in identifying spectral windows to distinguish live and bleached corals.

  15. Estimation of carrying capacity of the Gulf of Kachchh, west coast of India in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon through oil spill modeling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Reddy, G.S.; Sudheesh, K.; Desa, E.; Zingde, M.D.

    The Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) is a semi-enclosed basin located in the northern part of the west coast of India, and opens to the Arabian Sea. GoK is about 170 km long and 75 km wide at the mouth, and encompasses several ecosystems. Besides major...

  16. Landform development in a zone of active Gedi Fault, Eastern Kachchh rift basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Rastogi, B. K.; Morthekai, P.; Dumka, Rakesh K.

    2016-02-01

    An earthquake of 2006 Mw 5.7 occurred along east-west trending Gedi Fault (GF) to the north of the Kachchh rift basin in western India which had the epicenter in the Wagad upland, which is approximately 60 km northeast of the 2001 Mw 7.7 earthquake site (or epicenter). Development of an active fault scarp, shifting of a river channel, offsetting of streams and uplift of the ground indicate that the terrain is undergoing active deformation. Based on detailed field investigations, three major faults that control uplifts have been identified in the GF zone. These uplifts were developed in a step-over zone of the GF, and formed due to compressive force generated by left-lateral motion within the segmented blocks. In the present research, a terrace sequence along the north flowing Karaswali river in a tectonically active GF zone has been investigated. Reconstructions based on geomorphology and terrace stratigraphy supported by optical chronology suggest that the fluvial aggradation in the Wagad area was initiated during the strengthening (at ~ 8 ka) and declining (~ 4 ka) of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). The presence of younger valley fill sediments which are dated ~ 1 ka is ascribed to a short lived phase of renewed strengthening of ISM before present day aridity. Based on terrace morphology two major phases of enhanced uplift have been estimated. The older uplift event dated to 8 ka is represented by the Tertiary bedrock surfaces which accommodated the onset of valley-fill aggradation. The younger event of enhanced uplift dated to 4 ka was responsible for the incision of the older valley fill sediments and the Tertiary bedrock. These ages suggest that the average rate of uplift ranges from 0.3 to 1.1 mm/yr during the last 9 ka implying active nature of the area.

  17. Offshore Extension of Deccan Traps in Kachchh, Central Western India: Implications for Geological Sequestration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, D. K., E-mail: pandey@ncaor.org [National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (India); Pandey, A. [IITM, Centre for Climate Change Research (India); Rajan, S. [National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (India)

    2011-03-15

    The Deccan basalts in central western India are believed to occupy large onshore-offshore area. Using geophysical and geological observations, onshore sub-surface structural information has been widely reported. On the contrary, information about offshore structural variations has been inadequate due to scarcity of marine geophysical data and lack of onshore-offshore lithological correlations. Till date, merely a few geophysical studies are reported that gauge about the offshore extent of Deccan Traps and the Mesozoic sediments (pre-Deccan). To fill this gap in knowledge, in this article, we present new geophysical evidences to demonstrate offshore continuation of the Deccan volcanics and the Mesozoic sediments. The offshore multi-channel seismic and onshore-offshore lithological correlations presented here confirm that the Mesozoic sedimentary column in this region is overlain by 0.2-1.2-km-thick basaltic cover. Two separate phases of Mesozoic sedimentation, having very distinctive physical and lithological characteristics, are observed between overlying basaltic rocks and underlying Precambrian basement. Using onshore-offshore seismic and borehole data this study provides new insight into the extent of the Deccan basalts and the sub-basalt structures. This study brings out a much clearer picture than that was hitherto available about the offshore continuation of the Deccan Traps and the Mesozoic sediments of Kachchh. Further, its implications in identifying long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} within sub-basalt targets are discussed. The carbon sequestration potential has been explored through the geological assessment in terms of the thickness of the strata as well as lithology.

  18. Coda Q in the Kachchh Basin, Western India Using Aftershocks of the Bhuj Earthquake of January 26, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S. C.; Kumar, Ashwani; Shukla, A. K.; Suresh, G.; Baidya, P. R.

    2006-08-01

    Q C -estimates of Kachchh Basin in western India have been obtained in a high frequency range from 1.5 to 24.0 Hz using the aftershock data of Bhuj earthquake of January 26, 2001 recorded within an epicentral distance of 80 km. The decay of coda waves of 30 sec window from 186 seismograms has been analysed in four lapse time windows, adopting the single backscattering model. The study shows that Q c is a function of frequency and increases as frequency increases. The frequency dependent Q c relations obtained for four lapse-time windows are: Q c =82 f 1.17 (20 50 sec), Q c =106 f 1.11 (30 60 sec), Q c =126f 1.03 (40 70 sec) and Q c =122f 1.02 (50 80 sec). These empirical relations represent the average attenuation properties of a zone covering the surface area of about 11,000, 20,000, 28,000 and 38,000 square km and a depth extent of about 60, 80, 95, 110 km, respectively. With increasing window length, the degree of frequency dependence, n, decreases marginally from 1.17 to 1.02, whereas Q 0 increases significantly from 82 to 122. At lower frequencies up to 6 Hz, Q c -1 of Kachchh Basin is in agreement with other regions of the world, whereas at higher frequencies from 12 to 24 Hz it is found to be low.

  19. Role of deep crustal fluids in the genesis of intraplate earthquakes in the Kachchh region, northwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Kumar, G.; Mahesh, P.; Nagar, Mehul; Mahender, E.; Kumar, Virendhar; Mohan, Kapil; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2017-05-01

    Fluids play a prominent role in the genesis of earthquakes, particularly in intraplate settings. In this study, we present evidence for a highly heterogeneous nature of electrical conductivity in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Kachchh rift basin of northwestern India, which is host to large, deadly intraplate earthquakes. We interpret our results of high conductive zones inferred from magnetotelluric and 3-D local earthquake tomography investigations in terms of a fluid reservoir in the upper mantle. The South Wagad Fault (SWF) imaged as a near-vertical north dipping low resistivity zone traversing the entire crust and an elongated south dipping conductor demarcating the North Wagad Fault (NWF) serve as conduits for fluid flow from the reservoir to the middle to lower crustal depths. Importantly, the epicentral zone of the 2001 main shock is characterized as a fluid saturated zone at the rooting of NWF onto the SWF.Plain Language SummaryFluids play a significant role in generation of earthquakes in intraplate and interplate settings. However, knowledge of the nature, origin, and localization of crustal fluids in stable continental interiors (intraplate) remains uncertain. The Kachchh rift basin of northwestern India is host to large, deadly intraplate earthquakes like those in 1819 (Mw7.8) and 2001 (Mw7.7). In the present study we carried out extensive geophysical investigations to understand the cause for seismic activity in the region. The study provides the evidence for the presence of fluids in the seismically active intraplate region of northwest India. This study demonstrates that the dynamics of mantle fluids controlled by geological faults could lead to large and moderate-sized earthquakes.

  20. Subsurface profiling along Banni Plains and bounding faults, Kachchh, Western India using microtremors method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Dhananjay A.; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rangarajan, Govindan; Patel, Satish J.; Bhatt, Madhuri N.; Sanoop Salam, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    The present article is a maiden attempt to map shallow subsurface rheological interfaces laterally across the Banni Plains and to decode geometry of the antecedent faults associated with the Kachchh Mainland Fault using the microtremor method. We conducted microtremor data acquisition for thirty-one sites along N-S transect from Loriya in Mainland Kachchh to Bhirandiara towards Patcham Island. Results from H/V spectral ratio technique show presence of two distinct rheological interfaces characterised by the resonant frequency (fr) ranges 0.23-0.27 Hz and 0.8252-1.5931 Hz respectively. The above frequency ranges are correlated with the depths of the Mesozoic-Basement (M-B) interface and the Quaternary-Tertiary (Q-T) interface. Using either the velocity (Vs) of seismic waves at the M-B and Q-T interfaces (calculated as 1830 m/s and 411 m/s respectively) or the standard non-linear regression relationship derived for the Banni Plains (h = 110.18fr-1.97) we estimate the depth range for M-B interface to be 1442-1965 m and for Q-T interface to be 44-160 m. The subsurface profile across the Banni Plains educe cluster of four faults that develop an array of imbricate faults at the forefront of the Kachchh Mainland Fault within the Banni Footwall Syncline. The geometry of the faults suggests a 'positive flower structure' indicating step-overs and strain restraining bends displaying push-ups resulting from localized shortening between converging bends of Kachchh Mainland Fault and the South Wagad Fault. The Banni Footwall Syncline preserves evidence of two episodes of deformations. The initial deformation event led to subsidence within the Kachchh Mainland Fault Zone bringing Mesozoic sequence juxtaposed to the basement rocks, whereas the later event is dominated by an uplift developing a positive flower structure in the Kachchh Mainland Fault Zone. Finally, the present study provides a mechanism to investigate faults and fault geometries correlating surface structural grains

  1. Fossil Steginoporellid (Cheilostomata: Neocheilostomina), Bryozoa from the Tertiary sediments of Western Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan A Sonar; Sharad G Gaikwad

    2013-02-01

    Five species of Steginoporella from the Palaeogene rocks of the Western Kachchh, Gujarat are described in this paper. Out of five steginoporellids, S. mathuri n.sp., S. murachbanensis n.sp. and S. chiplonkari n.sp. are new to science; S. bhujensis is already reported from this region; and Steginoporella sp. indet is reported for the first time in these rocks. All these species show Indo-Pacific affinities. The occurrence of Steginoporella from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene indicates that two stages of radiation had taken place in Kachchh. Phylogenetic analysis using PAST programme indicates that S. mathuri is very distinct from other species of Steginoporella; while S. murachbanensis and S. bhujensis form the same clade.

  2. ENVIRONMENTS AND FAUNAL PATTERNS IN THE KACHCHH RIFT BASIN, WESTERN INDIA, DURING THE JURASSIC

    OpenAIRE

    FRANZ THEODOR FÜRSICH; Callomon, John H.; DHIRENDRA K. PANDEY; ANAND K. JAITLY

    2004-01-01

    Marine Jurassic sediments (Bajocian-Tithonian) of the Kachchh Basin were deposited in a ramp setting. Except during the Middle and Late Bathonian, when a carbonate regime became established, the fill of the basin consists predominantly of siliciclastics. The sediments represent environments that range from coastal plains (rivers and associated flood plains with caliche nodules), deltas, brackish water lagoons, nearshore sand and iron-oolite bars of the inner ramp, generally situated above fai...

  3. Provenance discrimination and Source-to-Sink studies from a dryland fluvial regime:An example from Kachchh, western India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. P. PRIZOMWALA; Nilesh BHATT; N. BASAVAIAH

    2014-01-01

    Tracing the sediment delivery from its source terrain to its ultimate sink envisage multiple factors that play a vital role in understanding present day erosional engine. To accomplish this, it is significant to distinguish the variable end-members contributing to the basin. The findings from the study of dryland coastal fluvial regime in Kachchh (Western India), which is one of the end members contributing to the Gulf of Kachchh coast (partial sink) and finally to the Arabian Sea (ultimate sink) have been presented here. Multi-proxy sediment provenance proxies such as grain-size, clay minerals, geochemistry and magnetic minerals have been employed to evaluate the provenance discriminating characteristics of the Kachchh dryland fluvial system and factors influencing them. The results of different proxies indicate that the provenance signatures of uplands are quite characteristic with magnetic susceptibility (χ) values of<20 × 10-7 m3 kg-1 and smectite (S)/kaolinite (K) ratio between 0.26 and 0.49. The middle reaches show marked increase in magnetic mineral concentration withχvalues (140 × 10-7 m3 kg-1) and S/K ratio (4.92), while the estuarine tract shows χ values (80 × 10-7m3 kg-1), S/K ratio (1.90) and, characteristic heavy minerals (i.e. mica minerals), probably reflect the interplay between land and sea oscillations. Major sources of sediments within catchment scale were identified, viz., upland sedimentary rocks (Juran and Bhuj Formation sandstone-shale) and middle reaches volcanic (Deccan Trap Formation basalt) rocks. The present study draw cautions in provenance of sediment discrimination in areas influenced by Deccan basalt that has the overwhelming sediment delivery and a comparatively subdued effects of other provenance signatures. The studied proxies of mineralogy of clays, magnetic minerals and geochemistry of heavy and major elements serve as the potential for fingerprint of sediment source regions and hence behold a strong position in source to

  4. Shoreface to estuarine sedimentation in the late Paleocene Matanomadh Formation, Kachchh, western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, V. K.; Singh, B. P.

    2017-04-01

    Late Paleocene sedimentation in the pericratonic Kachchh Basin marks the initial marine transgression during the Cenozoic era. A 17 m thick sandstone-dominated succession, known as the clastic member (CM) of the Matanomadh Formation (MF), is exposed sporadically in the basin. Three facies associations are reconstructed in the succession in three different sections. Facies association-1 contains matrix-supported pebbly conglomerate facies, horizontally-laminated sandstone-mudstone alternation facies, hummocky- and swaley cross-bedded sandstone facies, wave-rippled sandstone facies and climbing ripple cross-laminated sandstone facies. This facies association developed between shoreface and foreshore zone under the influence of storms on a barrier ridge. Facies association-2 contains sigmoidal cross-bedded sandstone facies, sandstone-mudstone alternation facies, flaser-bedded sandstone facies, herringbone cross-bedded sandstone facies and tangential cross-bedded sandstone facies. This facies association possessing tidal bundles and herringbone cross-beds developed on a tidal flat with strong tidal influence. Facies association-3 comprises pebbly sandstone facies, horizontally-bedded sandstone facies, tangential cross-bedded sandstone facies exhibiting reactivation surfaces and tabular cross-bedded sandstone facies. This facies association represents sedimentation in a river-dominated estuary and reactivation surfaces and herringbone cross-beds indicating tidal influence. The bipolar paleocurrent pattern changes to unipolar up-section because of the change in the depositional currents from tidal to fluvial. The sedimentation took place in an open coast similar to the Korean coast. The presence of neap-spring tidal rhythmites further suggests that a semidiurnal system similar to the modern day Indian Ocean was responsible for the sedimentation. Here, the overall sequence developed during the transgressive phase where barrier ridge succession is succeeded by the tidal

  5. Inversions for earthquake focal mechanisms and regional stress in the Kachchh Rift Basin, western India: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. P.; Zhao, L.; Kumar, Santsoh; Mishra, Smita

    2016-03-01

    More than a decade after the 2001 MW 7.7 Bhuj earthquake in western India, aftershocks up to MW 5.0 are still continuing around the rupture zone in the Kachchh Rift Basin. Over the years, some surrounding faults in the region have been activated, and a transverse fault generated an MW 5.1 earthquake in 2012. Most of the earthquakes occur in the lower crust at depths between 15 and 35 km. We have determined focal mechanism solutions of 47 earthquakes (MW 3.2-5.1) that were recorded by a 60-station broadband network during 2007-2014 within an area of 50 km radius of the 2001 main shock. South dipping nodal planes in most of the solutions correlate well with the active faults. The earthquakes near the epicenter of the 2001 main shock primarily show reverse-faulting mechanisms. The surrounding earthquakes in the area, however, show predominantly strike-slip mechanisms. The P axes of the earthquakes mostly oriented in north-south, and the T axes in east-west. However, the orientations of the P and T axes exhibit more complexity near the source area of the main shock. Stress field inversion of the solutions yields a dominant north-south compression, which is consistent with the ambient tectonic stress field owing to the northward movement of the Indian Plate with respect to the Eurasian Plate. The geodetic measurements are in reasonable agreement with our results.

  6. Prevalence Of Traditional Medications Through Native Floral Elements Among Tribal Communities Of Kachchh Arid Ecosystem, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta B Joshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This communication deals with the documentation of 38 medicinal plant species used for indigenous medications by local villagers such as pastoralists (Maldharis and farmers of Tapkeshwari Hill Range (THR, Bhuj Taluka, Kachchh District, Gujarat, India. Traditional knowledge on medicinally important plant species has been recorded from tribal communities through semi-questionnaire survey using an open-ended questionnaire datasheets. The response from the people interviewed clearly indicated that most of the villagers were fully or partially dependent on the forest produce for their primary healthcare requirements as well as for curing chronic or acute disorders and ailments. Plant parts such as bark, flowers, fruits, gum, latex, leaves, roots, seeds, and spadix, were found to be used for the cure of bronchitis, cold, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dropsy, dysentery, earache, fever, fistula, gastric troubles, hypothermia, indigestion, piles, skin diseases, snake-bites, toothache, and ulcer. The most predominantly used 10 plant species in the area are Asparagus racemosus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Capparis cartilaginea, Cassia auriculata, Commiphora wightii, Enicostema axillare, Fagonia schweienfurthii, Maytenus emerginata, Tinospora cordifolia, and Tribulus terrestris. An enumeration of these 38 medicinal plant species is presented; each species is cited with correct scientific names, vernacular names, ailments treated for, mode of preparation and dosages. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 184-201 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9221

  7. Sediment Thicknesses and Qs vs. Qp Relations in the Kachchh Rift Basin, Gujarat, India Using Sp Converted Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Prantik

    2007-01-01

    Delineation of the top sedimentary structure and its Qs vs. Qp relationship using the travel-time difference of direct S and converted Sp phase is key to understanding the seismic hazard of any sedimentary basin area. We constructed filtered displacement waveforms from local ETNA Episensor acceleration recordings as well as local velocity recordings of aftershocks of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake recorded by the Kachchh seismological network of the National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI), Hyderabad, India during 2001 2004. Stations are within 15 70km of epicenters, and the resulting displacement waveforms are generally simple, displaying prominent P, Sp, and S wave pulses. Particle motion of P and S waves suggest near-vertical raypaths consistent with preliminary depth estimates. The direct S wave on the horizontal component is characterized by lower frequency content than the converted Sp phase on the vertical component. This difference in frequency content between S and Sp phases can be explained in terms of different attenuation effects for P and S waves in the unconsolidated sediments. The Sp phase is generated by S-to-P phase conversion at the base of Mesozoic sediments of the Kachchh basin. Travel-time inversion (VELEST) of 2565 P and 2380 S arrivals from 658 well located aftershocks recorded at 8 14 three-component local seismic stations led to 1 D velocity models indicated very slow sediments in the upper 0 2 km depth range (Vp: 2.92 km/s and Vs: 0.90 km/s) and an increasing trend of velocities with depth at 2 40 km depth. The estimated sediment thicknesses beneath 12 accelerograph and 6 seismograph sites from the estimated velocity model and the travel-time difference between S and converted Sp phases reaches a maximum of (1.534 ± 0.117) km beneath Bandri (near the location of 2001 Bhuj mainshock) and attains a minimum sediment thickness of (0.858 ± 0.104) km beneath Ramvav and Burudia. The spectral ratios between Sp and S from 159 three

  8. Interbasinal marker intervals——A case study from the Jurassic basins of Kachchh and Jaisalmer, western India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANDEY; Dhirendra; Kumar; FüRSICH; Franz; Theodor

    2009-01-01

    The Kachchh Basin and the Jaisalmer Basin are two neighboring Mesozoic sedimentary basins at the western margin of the Indian craton. The Jurassic succession of the Kachchh Basin is more complete and more fossiliferous than that of the Jaisalmer Basin. Consequently, intrabasinal correlation of the sedimentary units has been possible in the Kachchh Basin, but not in the Jaisalmer Basin. However, some marker beds existing in the Kachchh Basin can be recognized also in the Jaisalmer Basin. Ammonite evidence shows that they are time-equivalent. The following four units form marker intervals in both basins: (1) the pebbly rudstone unit with Isastrea bernardiana and Leptosphinctes of the Kaladongar Formation (Kachchh Basin) and the Isastrea bernardiana-bearing rudstone of the Jaisalmer Formation (Jaisalmer Basin) both represent transgressive systems tract deposits dated as Late Bajocian; (2) bioturbated micrites with anomalodesmatan bivalves within the Goradongar Yellow Flagstone Member (Kachchh Basin) and bioturbated units in the Fort Member (Jaisalmer Basin) represent maximum flooding zone deposits of the Middle to Late Bathonian; (3) trough-crossbedded, sandy packto grainstones of the Raimalro Limestone Member (Kachchh Basin) and the basal limestone-sandstone unit of the Kuldhar section of the Jaisalmer Formation (Jaisalmer Basin) correspond to Late Bathonain transgressive systems tract deposits; and (4) ferruginous ooid-bearing carbonates with hardgrounds of the Dhosa Oolite member (Kachchh Basin) and the middle part of the Jajiya Member (Jaisalmer Basin) are Oxfordian transgressive systems tract deposits. The fact that in both basins similar biofacies prevailed during certain time intervals demonstrates a common control of their depositional history. As the two basins represent different tectonic settings, the most likely controlling factors were the relative sea-level changes produced by eustatic processes, a common subsidence history of the northwestern margin of

  9. Fishery Resources in Arid Zone Mangroves in Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, Northwest Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Saravanakumar; M. Rajkumar; J. Sesh Serebiah; G. A. Thivakaran

    2009-01-01

    The finfish and shellfish resources were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively in regard to their abundance in creek waters at three sites within a period of two years, from January 1999 to December 2000, in the western mangrove areas of Kachchh.The catch rate varied from 0.69 to 6.99 kg h-1. It was low during monsoon (July to October), which could be due to the freshwater-flow-induced salinity reduction in all the sites. Among 38 species recorded, 5 were shellfish and 33 were finfish. The spawning period of fishes was found to be during summer and early monsoon period (May to August). Surface water temperatures varied from 17 ℃ to 37 ℃. Salinity values varied from 34 to 44 and the pH ranged between 7 and 8.9. Variation in dissolved oxygen content was from 3.42 to 5.85 mLL-1. The high fishery densities in these semi arid mangrove creek areas were recorded during monsoon and early winter season.

  10. ENVIRONMENTS AND FAUNAL PATTERNS IN THE KACHCHH RIFT BASIN, WESTERN INDIA, DURING THE JURASSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANZ THEODOR FÜRSICH

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine Jurassic sediments (Bajocian-Tithonian of the Kachchh Basin were deposited in a ramp setting. Except during the Middle and Late Bathonian, when a carbonate regime became established, the fill of the basin consists predominantly of siliciclastics. The sediments represent environments that range from coastal plains (rivers and associated flood plains with caliche nodules, deltas, brackish water lagoons, nearshore sand and iron-oolite bars of the inner ramp, generally situated above fair-weather wave-base, to the middle ramp influenced by storm-waves and by storm-generated currents, and finally to the outer ramp which is characterised by low energy, fine-grained sediments. Changes in relative sea level produced a cyclic sedimentation pattern. The rich benthic fauna of macroinvertebrates is dominated by bivalves, followed by brachiopods, gastropods, corals, serpulids, and sponges. The analysis of 370 statistical samples and more than 27, 000 specimens produced more than 40 benthic associations and assemblages. They show a relationship to several environmental parameters, two of which, salinity and climate, are briefly discussed. The spatial distribution of the facies and biota is outlined for two time slices, the Bathonian and the Callovian-Oxfordian, respectively.

  11. Response of a dryland fluvial system to climate–tectonic perturbations during the Late Quaternary: Evidence from Rukmawati River basin, Kachchh, western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archana Das; Falguni Bhattacharya; B K Rastogi; Gaurav Chauhan; Mamata Ngangom; M G Thakkar

    2016-08-01

    Dryland rivers, dominated by short-lived, localised and highly variable flow due to discrete precipitation events, have characteristic preservation potential, which serves as suitable archives towards understanding the climate–tectonic coupling. In the present study, we have investigated the fluvial records of a major, southerly-draining river – the Rukmawati River in the dryland terrain of southern Kachchh, in western India. The sediment records along the bedrock rivers of Kachchh register imprints of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), which is the major source of moisture to the fluvial system in western India. The Rukmawati River originates from the Katrol Hill Range in the north and flows towards the south, into the Gulf of Kachchh. The field stratigraphy, sedimentology, along with the optical chronology suggeststhat a braided-meandering system existed during 37 ka period due to an overall strengthened monsoon. A gradual decline in the monsoon strength with fluctuation facilitated the development of a braided channel system between 20 and 15 ka. A renewed phase of strengthened monsoon with seasonality after around 15 ka which persisted until around 11 ka, is implicated in the development of floodplain sequences. Two zones of relatively high bedrock uplift are identified based on the geomorphometry and morphology of the fluvial landform. These zones are located in the vicinity of the North Katrol Hill Fault (NKHF) and South Katrol Hill Fault (SKHF). Geomorphic expression of high bedrock uplift is manifested by the development of beveled bedrock prior to or around 20 ka during weak monsoon. The study suggests that the terrain in the vicinity of NKHF and SKHF is uplifting at around 0.8 and >0.3 mm/a, respectively. Simultaneously, the incision in the Rukmawati River basin, post 11 ka, is ascribed to have occurred due to lowered sea level during the LGM and early Holocene period.

  12. Response of a dryland fluvial system to climate-tectonic perturbations during the Late Quaternary: Evidence from Rukmawati River basin, Kachchh, western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Archana; Bhattacharya, Falguni; Rastogi, B. K.; Chauhan, Gaurav; Ngangom, Mamata; Thakkar, M. G.

    2016-08-01

    Dryland rivers, dominated by short-lived, localised and highly variable flow due to discrete precipitation events, have characteristic preservation potential, which serves as suitable archives towards understanding the climate-tectonic coupling. In the present study, we have investigated the fluvial records of a major, southerly-draining river - the Rukmawati River in the dryland terrain of southern Kachchh, in western India. The sediment records along the bedrock rivers of Kachchh register imprints of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), which is the major source of moisture to the fluvial system in western India. The Rukmawati River originates from the Katrol Hill Range in the north and flows towards the south, into the Gulf of Kachchh. The field stratigraphy, sedimentology, along with the optical chronology suggests that a braided-meandering system existed during 37 ka period due to an overall strengthened monsoon. A gradual decline in the monsoon strength with fluctuation facilitated the development of a braided channel system between 20 and 15 ka. A renewed phase of strengthened monsoon with seasonality after around 15 ka which persisted until around 11 ka, is implicated in the development of floodplain sequences. Two zones of relatively high bedrock uplift are identified based on the geomorphometry and morphology of the fluvial landform. These zones are located in the vicinity of the North Katrol Hill Fault (NKHF) and South Katrol Hill Fault (SKHF). Geomorphic expression of high bedrock uplift is manifested by the development of beveled bedrock prior to or around 20 ka during weak monsoon. The study suggests that the terrain in the vicinity of NKHF and SKHF is uplifting at around 0.8 and >0.3 mm/a, respectively. Simultaneously, the incision in the Rukmawati River basin, post 11 ka, is ascribed to have occurred due to lowered sea level during the LGM and early Holocene period.

  13. Some geological processes in the Macro-tidal regime of Gulf of Kachchh, Northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Chauhan, O.S.; Rao, B.R.

    Echosounding and subbottom profiling, supplemented by side scan sonar profiling have been carried out followed by sediment sampling in the inner gulf of Kachchh The results show the presence of sandwaves with a height of 3-6 m and wavelength...

  14. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during Late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India)

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, M.; W. E. Piller; M. Harzhauser; Kroh, A

    2013-01-01

    Important concerns about the consequences of climate change for India are the potential impact on tropical cyclones and the monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin) as an indicator of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the Late Oligocene warming period (~27–24 Ma). Direct proxies providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this ...

  15. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during Late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reuter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Important concerns about the consequences of climate change for India are the potential impact on tropical cyclones and the monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin as an indicator of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the Late Oligocene warming period (~27–24 Ma. Direct proxies providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system in the Early Miocene. The vast shell concentrations comprise a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deep to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished each recording a relative storm wave base depth. (1 A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore mollusks, corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2 an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclind foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinaceans; and (3 a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten–Schizaster echinoid assemblage. Vertical changes in these skeletal associations give evidence of gradually increasing tropical cyclone intensity in line with third-order sea level rise. The intensity of cyclones over the Arabian Sea is primarily linked to the strength of the Indian monsoon. Therefore and since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the Late Oligocene, the longer-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the Late Oligocene

  16. Feasibility of using the magnetotelluric method for sub- basalt imaging at Kachchh, India%利用大地电磁资料对玄武岩成像的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dhananjai Pandey; Lucy MacGregor; Martin Sinha; Satish Singh

    2008-01-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method has been among the favorite supporting tools for seismic imaging of sub-salt and sub-basalt targets. In this paper we present an example from Kachchh, India (where basaltic rocks overlie Mesozoic sedimentary rocks), and discuss the feasibility of using MT method as an exploration tool in this geological setting. Our results highlight the difference in magnetotelluric response caused by the thin intra-basalt layering. The key issue addressed in this paper is what MT can and cannot provide in such geological settings. First, we compute apparent resistivity and phase response curves using representative resistivity-depth models and borehole data from the study area. Later, we compare these results to assess the plausibility of using MT to image the sub-volcanic sediments at Kachchh. Finally, we substantiate our discussion through one-dimensional inversion of the field observed MT data from this region that exhibits poor sensitivity of MT for thin basalt layers.

  17. Petrography and geochemistry of Jurassic sandstones from the Jhuran Formation of Jara dome, Kachchh basin, India: Implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Periasamy; M Venkateshwarlu

    2017-04-01

    Sandstones of Jhuran Formation from Jara dome, western Kachchh, Gujarat, India were studied for major, trace and rare earth element (REE) geochemistry to deduce their paleo-weathering, tectonic setting, source rock characteristics and provenance. Petrographic analysis shows that sandstones are having quartz grains with minor amount of K-feldspar and lithic fragments in the modal ratio of Q89:F7:L4. On the basis of geochemical results, sandstones are classified into arkose, sub-litharenite, wacke and quartz arenite. The corrected CIA values indicate that the weathering at source region was moderate to intense. The distribution of major and REE elements in the samples normalized to upper continental crust (UCC) and chondrite values indicate similar pattern of UCC. The tectonic discrimination diagram based on the elemental concentrations and elemental ratios of Fe2O3+MgO vs. TiO2, SiO2 vs. log(K2O/Na2O), Sc/Cr vs. La/Y, Th–Sc–Zr/10, La–Th–Sc plots Jhuran Formation samples in continental rift and collision settings. The plots of Ni against TiO2, La/Sc vs. Th/Co and V–Ni–Th∗10 reveals that the sediments of Jhuran Formation were derived from felsic rock sources. Additionally, the diagram of (Gd/Yb)N against Eu/Eu∗ suggest the post-Archean provenance as source possibly Nagar Parkar complex for the studied samples.

  18. Predicting heat flow in the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw=7.7 region of Kachchh (Western India, using an inverse recurrence method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Dimri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial heat flow is considered an important parameter in studying the regional geotectonic and geodynamic evolutionary history of any region. However, its distribution is still very uneven. There is hardly any information available for many geodynamically important areas. In the present study, we provide a methodology to predict the surface heat flow in areas, where detailed seismic information such as depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB and crustal structure is known. The tool was first tested in several geotectonic blocks around the world and then used to predict the surface heat flow for the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region of Kachchh, India, which has been seismically active since historical times and where aftershock activity is still continuing nine years after the 2001 main event. Surface heat flow for this region is estimated to be about 61.3 mW m−2. Beneath this region, heat flow input from the mantle as well as the temperatures at the Moho are quite high at around 44 mW m−2 and 630 °C, respectively, possibly due to thermal restructuring of the underlying crust and mantle lithosphere. In absence of conventional data, the proposed tool may be used to estimate a first order heat flow in continental regions for geotectonic studies, as it is also unaffected by the subsurface climatic perturbations that percolate even up to 2000 m depth.

  19. Estimation of earthquake source parameters in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat, India, using three component S-wave spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamani, Durgada; Mandal, Prantik

    2017-07-01

    Earthquake source parameters and crustal Q0 values for the 138 selected local events of (Mw{:}2.5{-}4.4) the 2001 Bhuj earthquake sequence have been computed through inversion modelling of S-waves from three-component broadband seismometer data. SEISAN software has been used to locate the identified local earthquakes, which were recorded at least three or more stations of the Kachchh seismological network. Three component spectra of S-wave are being inverted by using the Levenberg-Marquardt non-linear inversion technique, wherein the inversion scheme is formulated based on ω 2 source model. SAC Software (seismic analysis code) is being utilized for calculating three-component displacement and velocity spectra of S-wave. The displacement spectra are used for estimating corner frequency (in Hz) and long period spectral level (in nm-s). These two parameters play a key role in estimating earthquake source parameters. The crustal {Q}0 values have been computed simultaneously for each component of three-component broadband seismograph. The estimated seismic moment (M0) and source radius ( r) using S-wave spectra range from 7.03E+12 to 5.36E+15 N-m and 178.56 to 565.21 m, respectively. The corner frequencies for S-wave vary from 3.025 to 7.425 Hz. We also estimated the radiated energy (ES) using velocity spectra, which is varying from 2.76E+06 to 4.07E+11 Joules. The estimated apparent stress drop and static stress drop values range from 0.01 to 2.56 and 0.53 to 36.79 MPa, respectively. Our study also reveals that estimated Q0 values vary from 119.0 to 7229.5, with an average Q0 value of 701. Another important parameter, by which the earthquake rupture process can be recognized, is Zuniga parameter. It suggests that most of the Kachchh events follow the frictional overshoot model. Our estimated static stress drop values are higher than the apparent stress drop values. And the stress drop values are quite larger for intraplate earthquakes than the interplate earthquakes.

  20. Estimation of earthquake source parameters in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat, India, using three component S-wave spectra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Durgada Nagamani; Prantik Mandal

    2017-07-01

    Earthquake source parameters and crustal $Q_{0}$ values for the 138 selected local events of ($\\hbox {M}_{\\mathrm{w}}{:}2.5{-}4.4$) the 2001 Bhuj earthquake sequence have been computed through inversion modelling of S-waves from three-component broadband seismometer data. SEISAN software has been used to locate the identified local earthquakes, which were recorded at least three or more stations of the Kachchh seismological network. Three component spectra of S-wave are being inverted by using the Levenberg–Marquardt non-linear inversion technique, wherein the inversion scheme is formulated based on $\\omega ^{2}$ source model. SAC Software (seismic analysis code) is being utilized for calculating three-component displacement and velocity spectra of S-wave. The displacement spectra are used for estimating corner frequency (in Hz) and long period spectral level (in nm-s). These two parameters play a key role in estimating earthquake source parameters. The crustal ${Q}_{0}$ values have been computed simultaneously for each component of three-component broadband seismograph. The estimated seismic moment (M0) and source radius (r) using S-wave spectra range from 7.03E+12 to 5.36E+15 N-m and 178.56 to 565.21 m, respectively. The corner frequencies for S-wave vary from 3.025 to 7.425 Hz. We also estimated the radiated energy ($E_{S}$) using velocity spectra, which is varying from 2.76E+06 to 4.07E+11 Joules. The estimated apparent stress drop and static stress drop values range from 0.01 to 2.56 and 0.53 to 36.79 MPa, respectively. Our study also reveals that estimated $Q_{0}$ values vary from 119.0 to 7229.5, with an average $Q_{0}$ value of 701. Another important parameter, by which the earthquake rupture process can be recognized, is Zuniga parameter. It suggests that most of the Kachchh events follow the frictional overshoot model. Our estimated static stress drop values are higher than the apparent stress drop values. And the stress drop values are quite larger

  1. Lithostratigraphic development and neotectonic significance of the Quaternary sediments along the Kachchh Mainland Fault (KMF) zone, western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Chowksey; D M Maurya; Parul Joshi; N Khonde; Archana Das; L S Chamyal

    2011-12-01

    The Kachchh Mainland Fault (KMF) is a major E–W trending seismically active fault of the Kachchh palaeorift basin whose neotectonic evolution is not known. The present study deals with the eastern part of the KMF zone where the fault is morphologically expressed as steep north facing scarps and is divisible into five morphotectonic segments. The Quaternary sediments occurring in a narrow zone between the E–W trending KMF scarps and the flat Banni plain to the north are documented. The sediments show considerable heterogeneity vertically as well as laterally along the KMF zone. (The Quaternary sediments for a northward sloping and are exposed along the north flowing streams which also show rapid decrease in the depth of incision in the same direction.) The deposits, in general, comprise coarse as well as finer gravelly deposits, sands and aeolian and fluvial miliolites. The Quaternary sediments of the KMF zone show three major aggradation phases. The oldest phase includes the colluvio-fluvial sediments occurring below the miliolites. These deposits are strikingly coarse grained and show poor sorting and large angular clasts of Mesozoic rocks. The sedimentary characteristics indicate deposition, dominantly by debris flows and sediment gravity flows, as small coalescing alluvial fans in front of the scarps. These deposits suggest pre-miliolite neotectonic activity along the KMF. The second aggradation phase comprises aeolian miliolites and fluvially reworked miliolites that have been previously dated from middle to late Pleistocene. The youngest phase is the post-miliolite phase that includes all deposits younger than miliolite. These are represented by comparatively finer sandy gravels, gravelly sands and sand. The sediment characteristics suggest deposition in shallow braided stream channels under reduced level of neotectonic activity along the KMF during post-miliolite time evidenced by vertical dips of miliolites and tilting of gravels near the scarps. The

  2. Paleo-earthquake signatures from the South Wagad Fault (SWF), Wagad Island, Kachchh, Gujarat, western India: A potential seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Javed N.; Gadhavi, Mahendrasinh S.; Kothyari, Girish Ch; Satuluri, Sravanthi

    2017-02-01

    In last 500 years, Kachchh experienced several large magnitude earthquakes (6.0 ≥ M ≤ 7.8), however, not all accompanied surface rupture. The 1819 Allah Bund earthquake (Mw7.8) accompanied surface rupture, whereas, the 2001 Bhuj event (Mw7.6) occurred at a depth of 23 km on E-W striking south dipping thrust fault remained blind. Discontinuities between the denser-brittle basement (?) and overlying ductile-softer Mesozoic-Tertiary-Quaternary succession resulted in a different geometry of faulting. Normal faults associated with rift were reactivated as reverse faults during inversion tectonics, propagated in sedimentary succession and arrested. Thrust-ramps developed along the discontinuities accompanied surface ruptures. Folded structures along the South Wagad Fault (SWF) - an active thrust, exhibits lateral-propagation of fold segments and linkage, suggestive of fault-related-fold growth. Paleoseismic investigations revealed evidence of at least three paleo-earthquakes. Event I occurred before BCE 5080; Event II between BCE 4820 and 2320, and was probably responsible for a massive damage at Dholavira - Harappan site. Event III was between BCE 1230 and 04, most likely caused severe damage to Dholavira. Archaeo-seismological Quality Factor (AQF) of 0.5 suggests that the Dholavira is vulnerable to earthquakes from nearby active faults. With 1500-2000 yr of recurrence interval, occurrence of a large magnitude earthquake on SWF cannot be ruled out.

  3. Magnetotelluric impedance tensor analysis for identification of transverse tectonic feature in the Wagad uplift, Kachchh, northwest India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Pavan Kumar; Virender Kumar; Mehul Nagar; Dilip Singh; E Mahendar; Pruthul Patel; P Mahesh

    2017-07-01

    The 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) occurred in northwestern region of Indian peninsula has reactivated a couple of transverse faults to its surroundings. Intermediate to moderate magnitude earthquakes are occurring along these faults which includes recent Dholavira earthquake (Mw 5.1, 2012) suggesting distinct tectonic scenario in the region. We present the results of magnetotelluric (MT) impedance tensors analyses of 18 sites located along a profile cutting various faults in the uplifted Wagad block of the Kachchh basin. The MT time series of 4–5 days recording duration have been processed and the earth response functions are estimated in broad frequency range (0.01–1000 s). The observed impedance tensors are analyzed by using three decomposition techniques as well as by the phase tensor method constraining with the induction arrows. The analyses suggest distinct tectonic feature within the block bounded by the South Wagad Fault (SWF) and the North Wagad Fault (NWF) particularly in the period band of 1–10 s. In the south of NWF, the telluric vectors and the major axes of the phase ellipses are aligned in the NNW–SSE to NW–SE direction where as a dominant E–W strike is obtained for northern side of the NWF. The transverse geo-electric strike coincides with the prominent clustering of seismicity after the Bhuj earthquake and trend of the Manfara transverse fault is located in close vicinity of the study area. We therefore suggest the presence NNW–SSE trending transverse structural feature in the Wagad uplift of the basin appears to play significant role in the current seismicity of the active intraplate region.

  4. Magnetotelluric impedance tensor analysis for identification of transverse tectonic feature in the Wagad uplift, Kachchh, northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Kumar, G.; Kumar, Virender; Nagar, Mehul; Singh, Dilip; Mahendar, E.; Patel, Pruthul; Mahesh, P.

    2017-07-01

    The 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) occurred in northwestern region of Indian peninsula has reactivated a couple of transverse faults to its surroundings. Intermediate to moderate magnitude earthquakes are occurring along these faults which includes recent Dholavira earthquake (Mw 5.1, 2012) suggesting distinct tectonic scenario in the region. We present the results of magnetotelluric (MT) impedance tensors analyses of 18 sites located along a profile cutting various faults in the uplifted Wagad block of the Kachchh basin. The MT time series of 4-5 days recording duration have been processed and the earth response functions are estimated in broad frequency range (0.01-1000 s). The observed impedance tensors are analyzed by using three decomposition techniques as well as by the phase tensor method constraining with the induction arrows. The analyses suggest distinct tectonic feature within the block bounded by the South Wagad Fault (SWF) and the North Wagad Fault (NWF) particularly in the period band of 1-10 s. In the south of NWF, the telluric vectors and the major axes of the phase ellipses are aligned in the NNW-SSE to NW-SE direction where as a dominant E-W strike is obtained for northern side of the NWF. The transverse geo-electric strike coincides with the prominent clustering of seismicity after the Bhuj earthquake and trend of the Manfara transverse fault is located in close vicinity of the study area. We therefore suggest the presence NNW-SSE trending transverse structural feature in the Wagad uplift of the basin appears to play significant role in the current seismicity of the active intraplate region.

  5. Seasonality in low latitudes during the Oxfordian (Late Jurassic) reconstructed via high-resolution stable isotope analysis of the oyster Actinostreon marshi (J. Sowerby, 1814) from the Kachchh Basin, western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Matthias; Fürsich, Franz T.; Pandey, Dhirendra K.

    2013-07-01

    A high-resolution stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) analysis of a specimen of the oyster Actinostreon marshi (J. Sowerby, 1814) from the Lower Oxfordian of the Kachchh Basin in western India was used to reconstruct average seasonal temperatures over a consecutive time interval of 10 years. The recorded temperatures during this period varied around a mean of 13 °C (maximum: 15.1 °C; minimum: 11.4 °C) with a generally low seasonality between 1 and 3 °C. Such weak seasonal changes can be expected from a subtropical palaeolatitude between 25° and 30°S. However, the low average temperatures are in contrast to studies on broadly contemporaneous fossils from Europe and the southern Malagasy Gulf which point to much warmer conditions in these areas. It is therefore proposed that the low temperatures in the Kachchh Basin are caused by upwelling currents which influenced the north-western coast of India during the Late Jurassic.

  6. Tectonic Framework of the Kachchh Rift Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwani, P.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.

    2001-05-01

    Evaluation of available geological data has allowed us to determine the tectonic framework of the Kachchh rift basin (KRB), the host to the 1819 Kachchh (MW 7.8), 1956 Anjar ( M 6.0) and the recent January 26, 2001 Bhachau (MW 7.6) earthquakes. The ~ 500 km x 200 km east-west trending KRB was formed during the Mesozoic following the break-up of Gondwanaland. It is bounded to the north and south by the Nagar Parkar and Kathiawar faults which separate it from the Precambrian granitic rocks of the Indian craton. The eastern border is the Radanpur-Barmer arch (defined by an elongate belt of gravity highs) which separates it from the early Cretaceous Cambay rift basin. KRB extends ~ 150 km offshore to its western boundary, the continental shelf. Following India's collision with Eurasia, starting ~ 50 MY ago, there was a stress reversal, from an extensional to the (currently N-S) compressional regime. Various geological observations attest to continuous tectonic activity within the KRB. Mesozoic sediments were uplifted and folded and then intruded by Deccan trap basalt flows in late Cretaceous. Other evidence of continuous tectonic activity include seismically induced soft sediment deformation features in the Upper Jurassic Katrol formation on the Kachchh Mainland and in the Holocene sequences in the Great Rann. Pleistocene faulting in the fluvial sequence along the Mahi River (in the bordering Cambay rift) and minor uplift during late Quaternary at Nal Sarovar, prehistoric and historic seismicity associated with surface deformation further attest to ongoing tectonic activity. KRB has responded to N-S compressional stress regime by the formation of east-west trending folds associated with Allah Bund, Kachchh Mainland, Banni, Vigodi, Katrol Hills and Wagad faults. The Allah Bund, Katrol Hill and Kachchh Mainland faults were associated with the 1819, 1956 and 2001 earthquakes. Northeast trending Median High, Bhuj fault and Rajkot-Lathi lineament cut across the east

  7. Influence of the macrotidal environment on the source to sink pathways of suspended flux in the Gulf of Kachchh, India: Evidence from the Ocean Colour Monitor (IRS-P4)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Jayakumar, S.; Malik, M.A.; Pradhan, Y.; Rajawat, A.S.; Nayak, S.R.; Bandekar, G.; Almeida, C.; Talaulikar, M.; Ramanamurty, M.V.; Subramanian, B.R.

    and sources of total suspended matter (TSM) in the Gulf of Kachchh, a macrotidal system with insignificant freshwater inputs. Strong alongshore currents are prevalent at the mouth that move in (out) clockwise during flood (ebb) and undergo cyclic, dynamic...

  8. Application of GPR in the study of shallow subsurface sedimentary architecture of Modwa spit, Gulf of Kachchh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S B Shukla; A K Patidar; Nilesh Bhatt

    2008-02-01

    The coastline constitutes a very sensitive geomorphic domain constantly subjected to dynamic coastal processes. The study of its ever-changing physiography and stratigraphy provides a wealth of information on its history and evolution, in many cases at decadal and annual scales. The present study was carried out on the Modwa beach complex between Rawal Pir and Modwa, about 10 km east of Mandvi on the northern coast of the Gulf of Kachchh. The Modwa spit is a 7-km long WNW-ESE trending prograding amalgamated beach ridge complex that is about 0.5 km wide at its western end and 1.5 km wide at its eastern end. This Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey delineated a variety of the radar surfaces and radar facies which reflects not only large scale sedimentary architecture, but depositional facies of the beach ridge complex. These are bounding surfaces separating the radar facies outline beach ridge (br), washover (wo), coastal dune (cd) and swale (sw) depositional environments. The internal sedimentary structures like tangential, parallel, concave and convex upward stratifications could also be visualized from the GPR profiles. The architecture suggests the formation of this complex due to a combined process of eastward littoral drift of locally derived sediments and its onshore deposition by storms and eolian activities.

  9. Late Pleistocene-Holocene uplift driven terrace formation and climate-tectonic interplay from a seismically active intraplate setting: An example from Kachchh, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizomwala, S. P.; Das, Archana; Chauhan, G.; Solanki, T.; Basavaiah, N.; Bhatt, Nilesh; Thakkar, M. G.; Rastogi, B. K.

    2016-07-01

    Fluvial terrace formation is often regulated by external forcings like climate, tectonic and eustatic changes. These terraces, particularly in a dryland environment, preserves the discrete signatures of these external forcings, thus enabling us to reconstruct the fluvial response to the late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental changes and factors governing them. The present study focuses on reconstructing the aggradation/incision phases in the Lotia River which is located in the eastern segment of the Northern Hill Range (NHR) of the Kachchh Peninsula. The Lotia river drains through Mesozoic rocks before cutting across the Kachchh Mainland Fault (KMF) and finally debouch in the Banni Plains. Reconstruction based on tectonic geomorphology, sedimentology, sediment geochemistry, mineral magnetic, and OSL chronology suggests the fluvial response to monsoon variability archived during the last 15 ka. The time frame was also marked by incision enhanced by uplift along the KMF, which led to strath terrace formation. The accommodation space thus created was filled by an aggradational event between 14.8 ka and 10.6 ka. Sedimentological and geochemical parameters have also suggested that the time period between 12.5 ka and 11.5 ka showed a decline in the monsoon strength, which coincides with 'Younger Dryas'. It has been observed that the sediments spanning between 10.6 ka and 7.8 ka are absent from the archive, which is most likely the manifestation of the early Holocene optimum that led to severe erosional processes. The period between 7.8 ka and 3.3 ka is marked as another aggradational phase with fluctuating climatic conditions. At 3.3 ka, the region has experienced an incision of 4 m, which led to the formation of Holocene terrace T1, most likely due to tectonic uplift. During the last 3.3 ka, another pulsative uplift has occurred, which led to the formation of unpaired Holocene terrace T2, along with tilting of the Lotia basin. Based on the OSL chronology of bedrock strath

  10. Postseismic deformation and stress changes following the 1819 Rann of Kachchh, India earthquake: Was the 2001 Bhuj earthquake a triggered event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, A.; Burgmann, R.; Pollitz, F.

    2004-01-01

    The 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake occurred in an intraplate region with rather unusual active seismicity, including an earlier major earthquake, the 1819 Rann of Kachchh earthquake (M7.7). We examine if static coseismic and transient postseismic deformation following the 1819 earthquake contributed to the enhanced seismicity in the region and the occurrence of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, ???100 km away and almost two centuries later. Based on the Indian shield setting, great rupture depth of the 2001 event and lack of significant early postseismic deformation measured following the 2001 event, we infer that little viscous relaxation occurs in the lower crust and choose an upper mantle effective viscosity of 1019 Pas. The predicted Coulomb failure stress (DCFS) on the rupture plane of the 2001 event increased by more than 0.1 bar at 20 km depth, which is a small but possibly significant amount. Stress change from the 1819 event may have also affected the occurrence of other historic earthquakes in this region. We also evaluate the postseismic deformation and ??CFS in this region due to the 2001 event. Positive ??CFS from the 2001 event occur to the NW and SE of the Bhuj earthquake rupture. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    Fishery potential of the interior Gulf of Kachchh and adjacent creek regions was reported for the first time as baseline data for future ecological assessment. The experimental trawling and gill netting indicated that the inner Gulf (av. 7.8 kg...

  12. Status, Distribution, and Diversity of Birds in Mining Environment of Kachchh, Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Gajera, Nikunj B.; Arun Kumar Roy Mahato; V Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Opencast mining is one of the major reasons for the destruction of natural habitats for many wildlife including birds. The Kachchh region belongs to the arid part of India and is one of the rich areas of mineral resources in the country. In the recent time and after the 2001 earthquake, mining and other developmental activities are increased, and as a result, the natural habitats of birds are disturbed and fragmented. So, this study was conducted to assess the impact of mining and associated ...

  13. Status, Distribution, and Diversity of Birds in Mining Environment of Kachchh, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj B. Gajera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opencast mining is one of the major reasons for the destruction of natural habitats for many wildlife including birds. The Kachchh region belongs to the arid part of India and is one of the rich areas of mineral resources in the country. In the recent time and after the 2001 earthquake, mining and other developmental activities are increased, and as a result, the natural habitats of birds are disturbed and fragmented. So, this study was conducted to assess the impact of mining and associated activities on the diversity and distribution of birds. Birds were studied by surveying 180 transects along 9 zones around three selected major mines, and each zone is made in every 2 km radius from the mine. Based on the record, it was found that the density and diversity of birds are highest in zone 5 and lowest in zone 1 and zone 2, respectively. The result indicates that the diversity and abundance of birds were less in zones which are located close to the mines in comparison to the zones far from the mines. In conclusion, mining and its associated activities have some impacts on the diversity and distribution of birds in Kachchh region in India.

  14. UNBIASED MOMENT-RATE SPECTRA AND ABSOLUTE SITE EFFECTS IN THE KACHCHH BASIN, INDIA, FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTERSHOCKS OF THE 2001 Mw 7.6 BHUJ EARTHQUAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagnini, L; Bodin, P; Mayeda, K; Akinci, A

    2005-05-04

    What can be learned about absolute site effects on ground motions and about earthquake source spectra from recordings at temporary seismic stations, none of which could be considered a 'reference' (hard rock) site, for which no geotechnical information is available, in a very poorly instrumented region? This challenge motivated our current study of aftershocks of the 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake, in Western India. Crustal attenuation and spreading relationships based on the same data used here were determined in an earlier study. In this paper we decouple the ambiguity between absolute source radiation and site effects by first computing robust estimates of moment-rate spectra of about 200 aftershocks in each of two depth ranges. Using these new estimates of sourcespectra, and our understanding of regional wave propagation, we extract the absolute site terms of the sites of the temporary deployment. Absolute site terms (one for each component of the ground motion, for each station) are computed in an average sense, via an L{sub 1}-norm minimization, and results for each site are averaged over wide ranges of azimuths and takeoff angles. The Bhuj deployment is characterized by a variable shallow geology, mostly of soft sedimentary units. Vertical site terms in the region were observed to be almost featureless and slightly < 1.0 within wide frequency ranges. As a result, H/V spectral ratios mimic the absolute behaviors of absolute horizontal site terms, and they generally overpredict them. On the contrary, with respect to the results for sedimentary rock sites (limestone, dolomite) obtained by Malagnini et al. (2004), H/V spectral ratios in their study did not have much in common with absolute horizontal site terms. Spectral ratios between the vector sum of the computed horizontal site terms for the temporary deployment with respect to the same quantity computed at the hardest rock station available, BAC1, are seriously biased by its non-flat, non

  15. Directional wave measurements off Navinal, Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; KrishnaKumar, V.; Suryanarayana, A.; Antony, M.K.; Swamy, G.N.

    traced. An exercise was carried out to see if any relationship exists between these long period waves and various stages of tides, but no pattern could be noticed. As this study is meant for coastal development activities, occurrence of cyclone is also...

  16. Sediment dispersal in the macro tidal Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    of the inner gulf is marked with U and V shaped cuttings extending in the parallel clays, deposited in an earlier phase of deposition. In the outer gulf, there exists a palaeo-channel, buried under 18 m thick sediments (in the central region). Existence...

  17. A fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat and its bearing on palaeoclimatic interpretation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anumeha Shukla; J S Guleria; R C Mehrotra

    2012-02-01

    A new fossil fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat. It resembles best the extant species Shorea macroptera Dyer, which is a prominent member of the tropical evergreen forests of the Malayan Peninsula. The present finding, along with the other megafossil records described from the same area, indicates a typical tropical vegetation with a warm and humid climate at the time of deposition in contrast to the present day xeric vegetation in the area. As the family Dipterocarpaceae no longer exists in western India, it is essential to discuss the time of its extinction and possible causes, which may include drastic changes in the climate of the region. The present finding also supports the theory of a Malaysian origin for the family in contrast to the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin.

  18. Subtidal micro and meiobenthic community structure in the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Goltekar, R.

    Community structure of the micro- and meiobenthos of subtidal sediment from the Gulf of Kachchh were investigated during April 2002 (premonsoon season). Sediment samples were collected from 23 stations representing the entire Gulf area. A total...

  19. Was the Rann of Kachchh navigable during the Harappan times (Mid-Holocene)? An archaeological perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.; Sundaresh; ManiMurali, R.; Jayakumar, S.

    in the island, the Harappan people may have been facing acute water problem. They dug out about 10 tanks at different places of habitation to meet water require- ment during the summer season. One of the most per- fectly planned cities has many distinguishable...22. Merh23 remarked that the Indus Valley people navigated to Kachchh along the major river and to Saurashtra through the shallow connecting sea. Archaeological studies in Kachchh clearly demon- strated the existence of a prosperous dynamic...

  20. Population Genetic Structure of Golden Jackal, Canis aureus in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Negi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of Golden Jackal, Canis aureus was estimated to understand the role of Rann of Kachchh in their movement between Kachchh region and the mainland of Gujarat, a western state in India. A total of 30 samples were collected and genotyped with 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. The analysis was done within and between the Golden Jackal populations in Bhal and Kachchh region of the state. Altogether, 78 distinct alleles were found with mean allelic number of 8.8 (±2.33. Out of 10 microsatellite loci used, 9 loci showed PIC value higher than 0.5 and considered informative for population genetic studies. Mean observed heterozygosity (Ho was found to be 0.812 (±0.233 while mean expected heterozygosity (He was 0.815 (±0.083. No evidence of linkage disequilibrium was observed among pair of loci. Mean Fis value approaching zero (0.018±0.235 was found for this population. Pairwise Fst-Rst values of 0.0182-0.026 indicate little genetic differentiation between Golden Jackal populations. Further, the structure showed only one cluster of Golden Jackal population. The study revealed that Rann of Kachchh is not a barrier for the movement of Golden Jackal and the population across the region of Kachchh and the mainland of Gujarat is continuous.

  1. A new tool for predicting drought: an application over India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M N

    2015-01-08

    This is the first attempt of application of atmospheric electricity for rainfall prediction. The atmospheric electrical columnar resistance based on the model calculations involving satellite data has been proposed as a new predictor. It is physically sound, simple to calculate and not probabilistic like the standardized precipitation index. After applying this new predictor over India, it has been found that the data solely over the Bay of Bengal (BB) are sufficient to predict a drought over the country as a whole. Finally, two independent new methods to predict drought conditions and a preliminary forecast of the same for India for year 2014 have been given. Unlike the existing drought prediction techniques, the identification of drought conditions in a pre-drought year during 1981-1990 and 2001-2013 over India has been achieved 100% successfully using the suggested new methods. The association between rainfall and this new predictor has also been found on the sub-regional scale. So, the present predictor is expected to get global application and application in climate models. From the analysis, generally, a long period rising trend in aerosol concentration over the BB causes weak monsoon over India but that for a short time i.e. in pre-monsoon period strengthens it.

  2. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  3. Residence time of pollutants discharged in the Gulf of Kachchh, northwestern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patgaonkar, R.S.; Vethamony, P.; Lokesh, K.S.; Babu, M.T.

    A 2D Hydrodynamic-Particle Analysis model was applied to the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) to estimate the residence time of pollutants. The tidal currents in the Gulf have a strong E-W component, which prevents the material in the north being transported...

  4. Geodetic constraints on the Bhuj 2001 earthquake and surface deformation in the Kachchh Rift Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K.; Bilham, R.; Blume, F.; Gaur, V. K.; Gahalaut, V.

    2006-05-01

    GPS measurement of historic survey points in the region of the Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake of 26 January 2001 reveal a rupture area 25 km × 15 km, with the top of the rupture located at least 9 km beneath the surface. The geodetic data also reveal north-south convergence of ~18 mm/yr across the Rann of Kachchh since 1856. Convergence and the occurrence of south-dipping reverse earthquakes on the northern edge of the Kachchh mainland suggest that the region is one of incipient or ongoing tectonic uplift. The small rupture of the Bhuj earthquake indicates that other earthquakes are likely to occur in the region, although few clues exist to indicate the progression of future ruptures.

  5. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment Based on Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: State of Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2017-03-01

    The Gujarat state of India is one of the most seismically active intercontinental regions of the world. Historically, it has experienced many damaging earthquakes including the devastating 1819 Rann of Kachchh and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The effect of the later one is grossly underestimated by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP). To assess a more adequate earthquake hazard for the state of Gujarat, we apply Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation taking into account naturally fractal distribution of earthquake loci. USLE has evident implications since any estimate of seismic hazard depends on the size of the territory considered and, therefore, may differ dramatically from the actual one when scaled down to the proportion of the area of interest (e.g. of a city) from the enveloping area of investigation. We cross-compare the seismic hazard maps compiled for the same standard regular grid 0.2° × 0.2° (1) in terms of design ground acceleration based on the neo-deterministic approach, (2) in terms of probabilistic exceedance of peak ground acceleration by GSHAP, and (3) the one resulted from the USLE application. Finally, we present the maps of seismic risks for the state of Gujarat integrating the obtained seismic hazard, population density based on India's Census 2011 data, and a few model assumptions of vulnerability.

  6. GIS based application tool -- history of East India Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phophaliya, Sudhir

    The emphasis of the thesis is to build an intuitive and robust GIS (Geographic Information systems) Tool which gives an in depth information on history of East India Company. The GIS tool also incorporates various achievements of East India Company which helped to establish their business all over world especially India. The user has the option to select these movements and acts by clicking on any of the marked states on the World map. The World Map also incorporates key features for East India Company like landing of East India Company in India, Darjeeling Tea Establishment, East India Company Stock Redemption Act etc. The user can know more about these features simply by clicking on each of them. The primary focus of the tool is to give the user a unique insight about East India Company; for this the tool has several HTML (Hypertext markup language) pages which the user can select. These HTML pages give information on various topics like the first Voyage, Trade with China, 1857 Revolt etc. The tool has been developed in JAVA. For the Indian map MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) is used. MOJO is developed by ESRI. The major features shown on the World map was designed using MOJO. MOJO made it easy to incorporate the statistical data with these features. The user interface was intentionally kept simple and easy to use. To keep the user engaged, key aspects are explained using HTML pages. The idea is that pictures will help the user garner interest in the history of East India Company.

  7. Active fault research in India: achievements and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithila Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the progress made towards active fault research in India. An 8 m high scarp running for more than 80 km in the Rann of Kachchh is the classical example of the surface deformation caused by the great earthquake (1819 Kachchh earthquake. Integration of geological/geomorphic and seismological data has led to the identification of 67 active faults of regional scale, 15 in the Himalaya, 17 in the adjoining foredeep with as many as 30 neotectonic faults in the stable Peninsular India. Large-scale trenching programmes coupled with radiometric dates have begun to constraint the recurrence period of earthquakes; of the order of 500–1000 years for great earthquakes in the Himalaya and 10,000 years for earthquakes of >M6 in the Peninsular India. The global positioning system (GPS data in the stand alone manner have provided the fault parameters and length of rupture for the 2004 Andaman Sumatra earthquakes. Ground penetration radar (GPR and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR techniques have enabled detection of large numbers of new active faults and their geometries. Utilization of modern technologies form the central feature of the major programme launched by the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India to prepare geographic information system (GIS based active fault maps for the country.

  8. Modelling tide-driven currents and residual eddies in the Gulf of Kachchh and their seasonal variability: A marine environmental planning perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.; Desa, E.

    Tide-driven currents in the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) have been studied using MIKE21 hydrodynamic model. The results are validated with measured currents for three different periods characterized by different wind fields. Comparison of model results...

  9. Evaluation of a convective downburst prediction application for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Kenneth L.; Johny, C. J.; Prasad, V. S.

    2016-05-01

    During the month of June 2015, the South Asian (or Southwest) monsoon advanced steadily from the southern to the northwestern states of India. The progression of the monsoon had an apparent effect on the relative strength of convective storm downbursts that occurred during June and July 2015. A convective downburst prediction algorithm, involving the Microburst Windspeed Potential Index (MWPI) and a satellite-derived three-band microburst risk product, and applied with meteorological geostationary satellite (KALPANA-1 VHRR and METEOSAT-7) and MODIS Aqua data, was evaluated and found to effectively indicate relative downburst intensity in both pre-monsoon and monsoon environments over various regions of India. The MWPI product, derived from T574L64 Global Forecast System (NGFS) model data, is being generated in real-time by National Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), Ministry of Earth Sciences, India. The validation process entailed direct comparison of measured downburst-related wind gusts at airports and India Meteorological Department (IMD) observatories to adjacent MWPI values calculated from GFS and India NGFS model datasets. Favorable results include a statistically significant positive correlation between MWPI values and proximate measured downburst wind gusts with a confidence level near 100%. Case studies demonstrate the influence of the South Asian monsoon on convective storm environments and the response of the downburst prediction algorithm.

  10. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India)

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, M.; W. E. Piller; M. Harzhauser; Kroh, A

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has an unknown impact on tropical cyclones and the Asian monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin) as a recorder of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the late Oligocene warming period (~ 27–24 Ma). Proxy data providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorga...

  11. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, M.; Piller, W. E.; Harzhauser, M.; Kroh, A.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change has an unknown impact on tropical cyclones and the Asian monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin) as a recorder of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the late Oligocene warming period (~ 27-24 Ma). Proxy data providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. The vast shell concentrations are comprised of a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deeper to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished, each recording a relative storm wave base. (1) A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore molluscs, reef corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2) an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclinid foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinacean algae; and (3) a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten bivalve-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. These wave base depth estimates were used for the reconstruction of long-term tropical storm intensity during the late Oligocene. The development and intensification of cyclones over the recent Arabian Sea is primarily limited by the atmospheric monsoon circulation and strength of the associated vertical wind shear. Therefore, since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the late Oligocene, the reconstructed long-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~ 26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the late Oligocene global warming (~ 24 Ma).

  12. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reuter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has an unknown impact on tropical cyclones and the Asian monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin as a recorder of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the late Oligocene warming period (~ 27–24 Ma. Proxy data providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system at the Oligocene–Miocene boundary. The vast shell concentrations are comprised of a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deeper to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished, each recording a relative storm wave base. (1 A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore molluscs, reef corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2 an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclinid foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinacean algae; and (3 a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten bivalve-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. These wave base depth estimates were used for the reconstruction of long-term tropical storm intensity during the late Oligocene. The development and intensification of cyclones over the recent Arabian Sea is primarily limited by the atmospheric monsoon circulation and strength of the associated vertical wind shear. Therefore, since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the late Oligocene, the reconstructed long-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~ 26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the late Oligocene global warming (~ 24 Ma.

  13. Occurrences of large-magnitude earthquakes in the Kachchh region, Gujarat, western India: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Prosanta Kumar; Mohanty, Sarada Prasad; Sinha, Sushmita; Singh, Dhananjay

    2016-06-01

    Moderate-to-large damaging earthquakes in the peninsular part of the Indian plate do not support the long-standing belief of the seismic stability of this region. The historical record shows that about 15 damaging earthquakes with magnitudes from 5.5 to ~ 8.0 occurred in the Indian peninsula. Most of these events were associated with the old rift systems. Our analysis of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake and its 12-year aftershock sequence indicates a seismic zone bound by two linear trends (NNW and NNE) that intersect an E-W-trending graben. The Bouguer gravity values near the epicentre of the Bhuj earthquake are relatively low (~ 2 mgal). The gravity anomaly maps, the distribution of earthquake epicentres, and the crustal strain-rate patterns indicate that the 2001 Bhuj earthquake occurred along a fault within strain-hardened mid-crustal rocks. The collision resistance between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate along the Himalayas and anticlockwise rotation of the Indian plate provide the far-field stresses that concentrate within a fault-bounded block close to the western margin of the Indian plate and is periodically released during earthquakes, such as the 2001 MW 7.7 Bhuj earthquake. We propose that the moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes in the deeper crust in this area occur along faults associated with old rift systems that are reactivated in a strain-hardened environment.

  14. Quantification of changes in seabed topography with special reference to Hansthal Creek, Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattanshetti, S.S.; Chauhan, O.S.; Sivakholundu, K.M.

    of 1984 and 1950 have been modelled. The profile wise comparison along the transects indicates a dynamic deformation due to distinct alteration in the shoreline and a shift in the channel course. The shoreline has retreated 650 and 450 m on the northern...

  15. Coastal sensitivity mapping of Gulf of Kachchh and Gulf of Cambay, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Boora, P.; Vethamony, P.

    and managers of coastal zones are also useful for identifying sensitive resources before a spill occurs (Jenson, 1998). In this way, protection priorities could be identified and established and cleanup strategies could be designed in advance. To deal... by using different techniques of digital image processing. This study demonstrates the use of GIS approach to identify the area and resources that are likely to be affected due to an oil spill in the study area. Qualitative assessment of risk...

  16. Fish larval transport in a macro-tidal regime: Gulf of Kachchh, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, G.; Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; Babu, M.T.

    are considered as ‘poor swimmers’ (Leis et al., 2006) when the hydrodynamic forcing on the larvae exceeds its swimming ability, but there are proven cases where larval behaviour has influenced dispersal trajectories (Chia et al., 1984; James et al., 2002... on particle tracking studies. During NE monsoon, eggs are retained in the southern gulf due to predominant winds from NNW (340 0 ) (Fig. 5) ruling out the importance of spawning sites at E and F. Our field surveys also indicated higher egg abundance...

  17. Foraminiferal study from Kharo Creek, Kachchh (Gujarat), north west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.

    species recorded (in alphabetical order) were - Ammonia sobrina, A. tepida, Asterorotalia dentata, A. inflata, Bolivina kuriani, B. limbatum, B. variabilis, Brizalina striatula, Bulimina exilis, B. marginata, Cancris auaricula, Cibicides lobatulus, C... to be in living state viz. Ammonia sobrina, A. tepida, Rosalina leei, Brizalina siriatula, Bulimina exils, B. marginata and Nonionoides elongatum. None of the living species (like Textulariidae) was agglutinated which indicates the absence of hyposaline...

  18. Anomalous inland influx of the River Indus, Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Jayakumar, S.; Menezes, A.A.S.; Rajawat, A.S.; Nayak, S.R.

    (Fig. 2). We have, therefore, presented depth and time averaged magnitude and direction of currents from the half-hourly results of the simulation studies for HT, LT and MT conditions, which match well with the 2D and 3D modeling results of other... studies (Kunte et al., 2005, Vethamony et al., 2005). However, the magnitude of the currents derived from the models was found to be underestimated. Though matches well with the result of models, the direction of the measured currents at two instances...

  19. Tidal currents as feeders of the river Indus flux into the macrotidal Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Jayakumar, S.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Suneethi, J.; Shradha, N; Rajawat, A.S.; Nayak, S.R.; Ramanamurthy, M.V.; Subramanian, B.R.

    stream_size 66967 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name INCHOE_Proc_2004_1_174.pdf.txt stream_source_info INCHOE_Proc_2004_1_174.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 G49G55... G52 G84G73G68G65G76G32G67G85G82G82G69G78G84G83G32G65G83G32G70G69G69G68G69G82G83G32G79G70G32G84G72G69G32G82G73G86G69G82G32G73G78G68G85G83 G70G76G85G88G32G73G78G84G79G32G84G72G69G32G77G65G67G82G79G84G73G68G65G76G32G71G85G76G70G32G79G70G32G75G65G67G72G...

  20. Reflection seismic studies in the macrotidal Gulf of Kachchh, India: Evidence of physiographic evolution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Vora, K.H.

    using a small fishing craft fitted with an Atlas Deso 10 dual frequency echo sounder, an ORE Mud Profiler, an EG & G Uniboom system and an EG & G Side Scan Sonar to obtain bathymetry, sub- bottom physiography and plan views of the sea floor. The echo... sounder can be operated at dual frequencies, 210 and 30 kHz, for providing resolution of the sea floor and penetration in soft sediments. The ORE Mud Profiler was operated at a frequency of 3.5 kHz with 4-5 kW power output. The EG & G Uniboom system...

  1. 75 FR 74001 - Application Deadline Extended; Secretarial Business India High Technology Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... International Trade Administration Mission Statement Application Deadline Extended; Secretarial Business India High Technology Mission AGENCY: Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke will lead a senior-level business development trade mission to New Delhi, Mumbai and...

  2. Status of NDE research and applications for life management of nuclear power plants in india

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, B.; Shyamsunder, M.T.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Group

    1999-08-01

    The development and application of various nondestructive evaluation techniques and methodologies for the life management of nuclear power plants in India are described. The indigenous development carried out to meet the stringent quality requirements in evaluation of fabricated components and innovative methodologies using multidisciplinary approaches and advances for assessment of inservice performance of plants are highlighted. (orig.)

  3. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... other Internet Web sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct mail, notices by industry... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To Participate Changed to First-Come First- Serve Basis AGENCY: International Trade...

  4. Estimation of Sedimentary Thickness in Kachchh Basin, Gujarat Using SP Converted Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Sumer; Rao, K. M.; Rastogi, B. K.

    2010-10-01

    An inexpensive method using natural earthquake data is utilized for determining the sedimentary thickness in Kachchh. The Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) is operating a network of broadband seismographs and strong motion accelerographs in Gujarat. We used data from 13 broadband seismographs and two strong motion accelerographs in the study. The stations are within 5 to 80 km from the epicenters. In this study the S-to-P converted phase, SP, is used. This phase is generated due to large impedance contrast between sediments and basement. This phase is clear in the vertical component. The difference in the travel times of S and SP phases and velocities of P and S waves is used for determining the sedimentary layer thickness. The thickness of sediments beneath each of these 15 stations was determined covering an area of 23,500 sq km.

  5. Benthic Macrofaunal Assemblage in the Arid Zone Mangroves of Gulf of Kachchh - Gujarat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The total benthic macrofauna consisting of 62 species in 5 groups, viz. crustaceans (18), gastropods (17), bivalves (16), polychaetes (9) and fishes (2), was recorded in western Kachchh mangroves near Gujarat. The population densities of benthic macrofauna ranged from 424 to 2393 ind.m-2, the diversity ranged from 1.84 to 2.45 bits ind.-1, the richness varied between 0.82 and 0.98, and the evenness varied between 0.64 and 0.81. Two maximum diversity values were recorded during winter and summer. The salinity ranged from 34 to 44, temperature varied between 17 and 37 ℃, and the acidity ranged from 7 to 8.9.

  6. Electrical Conductance Map for the Kachchh Rift Basin: Constraint on Tectonic Evolution and Seismotectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, P. B. V.; Arora, B. R.; Singh, A. K.

    2014-09-01

    Geomagnetic field variations recorded by an array of magnetometers spread across the Kachchh Rift basin are reduced to a set of induction arrows as a diagnostic of lateral electrical conductivity variations. A non-uniform thin-sheet electrical conductance model is developed to account for the salient induction patterns. It indicates that the imaged conductivity anomalies can be related to the sediment-filled structural lows in between the fault bounded uplifts. It is suggested that sagging structural lows preserved the marine sediments deposited during the Mesozoic sea transgression and later developed into first order embayment basins for the deposition of sediments in association with Late Eocene transgression. Depth integrated electrical conductance helped in mapping two depo-centres: along the ENE-WSW trending Banni half-Graben bounded by the Kachchh Main fault on the south and, second, along the Vinjan depression formed in response to the subsidence between the Vigodi fault and westward extension of the Katrol Hill fault together with the westward bending of the Median High. Presence of metamorphosed graphite schist clasts in shale dominated Mesozoic sequence and/or thin films of carbon resulting from the thermal influence of Deccan activity on Carbonate-rich formations can account for the high electrical conductivity anomalies seen in the depo-centres of thick Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments. Additionally two high conductivity zones are imaged encompassing a block defined by the 2001 Bhuj earthquake and its aftershocks. In agreement with gravity, magnetic and seismic velocity signatures, aqueous fluids released by recrystallizing magmatic bodies intruded in association with Deccan trap activity account for mapped high conductivity zones. High fluid pressure in such a fractured domain, surrounding the intruded magmatic plugs, perturb the regional stress concentrations to produce frequent and low magnitude aftershocks in the shallow section of the epicentral

  7. Bedrock gorges in the central mainland Kachchh: Implications for landscape evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G Thakkar; B Goyal; A K Patidar; D M Maurya; L S Chamyal

    2006-04-01

    Kachchh possesses a fault-controlled first-order topography and several geomorphic features indicative of active tectonics.Though coseismic neotectonic activity is believed to be the major factor in the evolution of the landscape,detailed documentation and analysis of vital landscape features like drainage characteristics,bedrock gorges and terraces are lacking.The present study is a site-speci fic documentation of gorges developed in the central part of the mainland Kachchh.We analyzed and interpreted four gorges occurring on either side of Katrol Hill Fault (KHF).The Khari river gorge is endowed with six levels of bedrock terraces,some of which are studded with large potholes and flutings.Since no active development of potholes is observed along the rivers in the present day hyper-arid conditions,we infer an obvious linkage of gorges to the humid phases,which provided high energy runoff for the formation of gorges and distinct bedrock terraces and associated erosional features.Development of gorges within the miliolites and incision in the fluvial deposits to the south of the KHF indicates that the gorges were formed during Early Holocene.However,ubi-quitous occurrence of gorges along the streams to the south of KHF,the uniformly N40°E trend of the gorges,their close association with transverse faults and the short length of the exceptionally well developed Khari river gorge in the low-relief rocky plain to the north of KHF suggests an important role of neotectonic movements.

  8. Study of Sediment Transportation in the Gulf of Kachchh, using 3D Hydro-dynamic Model Simulation and Satellite Data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

    . Modeling is, therefore, the integrated development of mathematical equations, logical rules and constraints and a computer program embodying the equations, the logical rules and the solutions to them. Simulation on the other hand, is the experimental... in the Gulf of Kachchh without considering influence of other factors except M2 tide components. It seems that surface current velocity in the Gulf is mainly controlled by the tide system. The COSMOS numerical modeling results also confirmed this conclusion...

  9. Evidence for interventions to prevent and control obesity among children and adolescents: its applicability to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevatsava, Meghana; Narayan, K M Venkat; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2013-03-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise worldwide and its increasing prevalence in low and middle income countries is well-known. Obesity interventions have the potential to prevent adverse health outcomes; however, large gaps in research and knowledge about the efficacy and sustainability of such interventions remain. The objectives of this article were to review the evidence for interventions to prevent and control obesity among children and adolescents, evaluate their applicability in India, and discuss the challenges to sustain such interventions. The authors reviewed published research focusing on childhood obesity interventions, especially in India and other lower-resource countries. Nine observational and 10 interventional studies were reviewed. Most studies identified were from developed countries and took place at day-care settings, schools, and after school programs. Nineteen reported studies were grouped into categories: diet (2), physical activity (4), childcare programs (2), media-based programs (2), parental involvement (2), multi-component studies (1), and screen time (6). Most interventions were effective in reducing BMI, decreasing sedentary behaviors, and increasing physical activity. Sustainability of these interventions was not evaluated. While there is no one method or simple intervention to address obesity, multi-component approaches involving home and school environments are promising and warrant evaluation in India. Literature on obesity prevention and control in India and in lower-resource countries, however, is sparse. Existing gaps in knowledge about obesity should be addressed by conducting research in India and carrying out interventions to determine what strategies will be successful and sustainable locally.

  10. Potential of Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems Applicable to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitesh Arora

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate sanitation facilities are still a challenge in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries. With regard to almost 950 million people defecating in the open, the question arises whether the existing treatment facilities are sufficient to provide for a healthy sanitation in the world. This paper mainly emphasizes on developing countries (particularly, India where cost is generally a very important parameter of judgment for choosing the appropriate system. This makes decentralized treatment systems much more suitable for installation as they are easier to build and operate, both financially and technically. This paper includes basic differences and fundamental explanations about the processes involved in different decentralized treatment systems and their comparison on the basis of installation cost carried out by using a technology ranking method. It is concluded that waste stabilisation ponds would be most cost effective solution from capital investment point of view. However, Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA should be carried out for appropriate technology selection in different scenarios on the basis of different criteria. New developments in sanitation technologies can play an important role in selecting appropriate sanitation technology for a particular scenario.

  11. Causative Mechanisms of the Intraplate Earthquakes Occurring in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, B. K.

    2011-07-01

    A new homogenized catalog of earthquakes in the Stable Continental Region (SCR) of India of moment magnitude Mw ≥ 4 for past 200 years and more indicates two earthquakes of Mw 7-8, seven of Mw 6-6.9, about hundred of Mw 5-5.9, and about 500 other M 4.0-4.9 or felt earthquakes. The ancient rift regions of Kachchh and Narmada, and also the West Coast region have given larger moment release compared with East Coast, southern, and NW regions. Seven earthquakes of Mw ≥ 6 in 74 years during 1927-2001 give a repeat time of about 10 years for magnitude 6 earthquake in SCR, India. However, at an individual site such earthquakes may recur after thousands of years as the strain rate is as low as 10-9 with a deformation of 2mm/year as estimated from GPS measurements. As most parts of Peninsular India experience seismicity; thus, it is critically stressed. The pre-existing faults get reactivated due to strain accumulation or fault weakening. Although most of the areas show strike slip, large earthquakes are associated with reverse faulting along nearly E-W planes in the Kachchh rift, the Narmada rift, and elsewhere due to tectonic inversion from tensile to compressive stress after continent-continent collision in Early Eocene at 40Ma. Strike-slip faults trend NW or NE; the former are older of Gondwana time, whereas the latter are generated after India-Eurasia collision. The compressive stress direction changes from NNW to N and then to NE direction from western to central part and then to eastern part of the Peninsula indicating rotational tendency of the Peninsula. Although a majority of the shocks are shallower than 13 km and are associated with subterranean sounds, the focal depths of the order of 35 km are also reported along the rifts and southern shear zones, where the lower crust could be brittle due to underplating, pillow lavas, mafic intrusion, or dehydration of lower crustal rocks. The Bhuj earthquake nucleated from a fluid-filled zone at depths of 15-25 km. Low

  12. Teaching Unplugged: Applications of Dogme ELT in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeqa Ghazal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The socio-political changes across the world indicate that it is, increasingly, becoming a questioning world. It is simple common sense that this change must also be reflected in the education system. A critical pedagogy that foregrounds dialogue and encourages questioning is therefore more relevant in the present times. The top-down approach of teaching only hampers the development of learners by silencing their voice and agency. In this respect, this paper focuses on the Dogme, or unplugged teaching, approach in English language teaching (ELT in Indian context. The paper explores theoretical reasons, based upon the views of Lev Vygotsky, Paulo Freire, and Charles Taylor, in support of adopting Dogme in ELT for radically changing the face of prevalent second language teaching scenario in India. An analysis of existing literature and empirical evidences strongly suggest that implementing this approach would be appropriate for multiple reasons. Being a dialogue based approach, it gives the learner, as well as the teacher, a chance to grow and learn together. It creates a zone of proximal development which helps learners to recognize their own voice and leads to self-discovery. Dogme in ELT can be motivating and empowering. As it is a pedagogy, of bare essentials, it is pro-poor and can be used even in under-equipped classrooms. Moreover, as it is grounded in the personal experience of the learner, it can fit well into a multicultural context. Therefore, it is implied and assumed that this approach would work very well in Indian context which is multicultural and economically diverse.

  13. Spatial variation of the aftershock activity across the Kachchh Rift Basin and its seismotectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.; Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Santosh; Yadav, R. B. S.

    2012-04-01

    We analyzed 3365 relocated aftershocks with magnitude of completeness ( Mc) ≥1.7 that occurred in the Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB) between August 2006 and December 2010. The analysis of the new aftershock catalogue has led to improved understanding of the subsurface structure and of the aftershock behaviour. We characterized aftershock behaviour in terms of a-value, b-value, spatial fractal dimension ( D s ), and slip ratio (ratio of the slip that occurred on the primary fault and that of the total slip). The estimated b-value is 1.05, which indicates that the earthquake occurred due to active tectonics in the region. The three dimensional b-value mapping shows that a high b-value region is sandwiched around the 2001 Bhuj mainshock hypocenter at depths of 20-25 km between two low b-value zones above and below this depth range. The D s -value was estimated from the double-logarithmic plot of the correlation integral and distance between hypocenters, and is found to be 2.64 ± 0.01, which indicates random spatial distribution beneath the source zone in a two-dimensional plane associated with fluid-filled fractures. A slip ratio of about 0.23 reveals that more slip occurred on secondary fault systems in and around the 2001 Bhuj earhquake ( Mw 7.6) source zone in KRB.

  14. Spatial variation of the aftershock activity across the Kachchh Rift Basin and its seismotectonic implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Singh; O P Mishra; Dinesh Kumar; Santosh Kumar; R B S Yadav

    2012-04-01

    We analyzed 3365 relocated aftershocks with magnitude of completeness () ≥ 1.7 that occurred in the Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB) between August 2006 and December 2010. The analysis of the new aftershock catalogue has led to improved understanding of the subsurface structure and of the aftershock behaviour. We characterized aftershock behaviour in terms of -value, -value, spatial fractal dimension (s), and slip ratio (ratio of the slip that occurred on the primary fault and that of the total slip). The estimated -value is 1.05, which indicates that the earthquake occurred due to active tectonics in the region. The three dimensional -value mapping shows that a high -value region is sandwiched around the 2001 Bhuj mainshock hypocenter at depths of 20–25 km between two low -value zones above and below this depth range. The s-value was estimated from the double-logarithmic plot of the correlation integral and distance between hypocenters, and is found to be 2.64 ± 0.01, which indicates random spatial distribution beneath the source zone in a two-dimensional plane associated with fluid-filled fractures. A slip ratio of about 0.23 reveals that more slip occurred on secondary fault systems in and around the 2001 Bhuj earhquake (Mw 7.6) source zone in KRB.

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea risk for driving license applicants in India - A community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Abhishek; Bajaj, Darshan K; Mishra, Apurva; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Gupta, Vinay; Kant, Surya; Dixit, Swati

    2017-08-31

    To determine the risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) for male permanent driving license (DL) applicants of Lucknow, India. In this cross-sectional community based, study body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure of each subject were determined as an anthropometric parameter along with the history of habit of smoking, tobacco chewing, alcohol consumption. STOP-Bang (Snoring, Tired or sleepy, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck, Gender) Questionnaire - a scoring risk assessment tool - was applied for assessment of OSA risk (high OSA risk defined by score ≥ 3) for 542 male DL recipients at 2 Regional Transport Office (RTO) centers in Lucknow, India. The statistical software SPSS 17.0 was applied to the testing. In total 23% (N = 125) of participants were found with the risk of OSA. High blood pressure (≥ 140/90 mm Hg) was found for the maximum number of participants (40.5%) followed by neck circumference > 40 cm (17.1%), age (> 50 years old) (15.3%), snoring (12.3%) and tired/sleepy (10.5%). Mean values of age, anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were observed significantly higher (p 45 years old). In view of findings of this study a high number of male driving license applicants were observed with the risk of OSA. Therefore efforts should be made to develop a national screening guideline/protocol for the OSA risk assessment for driving license applicants in India. This may reduce the possibility of road traffic accidents due to the OSA-associated fatigue and drowsiness behind the wheels. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1).

  16. Earthquakes in India and the Himalaya: tectonics, geodesy and history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bilham

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The record of earthquakes in India is patchy prior to 1800 and its improvement is much impeded by its dispersal in a dozen local languages, and several colonial archives. Although geological studies will necessarily complement the historical record, only two earthquakes of the dozens of known historical events have resulted in surface ruptures, and it is likely that geological data in the form of liquefaction features will be needed to extend the historical record beyond the most recent few centuries. Damage from large Himalayan earthquakes recorded in Tibet and in Northern India suggests that earthquakes may attain M = 8.2. Seismic gaps along two-thirds of the Himalaya that have developed in the past five centuries, when combined with geodetic convergence rates of approximately 1.8 m/cy, suggests that one or more M = 8 earthquakes may be overdue. The mechanisms of recent earthquakes in Peninsular India are consistent with stresses induced in the Indian plate flexed by its collision with Tibet. A region of abnormally high seismicity in western India appears to be caused by local convergence across the Rann of Kachchh and possibly other rift zones of India. Since the plate itself deforms little, this deformation may be related to incipient plate fragmentation in Sindh or over a larger region of NW India.

  17. Evaluating clinicians' user experience and acceptability of LearnTB, a smartphone application for tuberculosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Tripti; Saravu, Kavitha; Temesgen, Zelalem; Seyoum, Al; Rai, Shipra; Rao, Raghavendra; Mahadev, Deekshith; Pai, Madhukar; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious killer, and India accounts for 2.8 of the 10.4 million TB cases that occur each year, making it the highest TB burden country worldwide. Poor quality of TB care is a major driver of the epidemic in India. India's large private, unregulated sector manages over 50% of the TB patients, with studies showing suboptimal diagnosis and treatment in the private sector. Better education of doctors using mobile applications (apps) is a possible solution. While India has seen an explosion of mobile phone services, and while the use of mobile health interventions has been gaining interest, little is known about mHealth around tuberculosis in India. Our study aimed to understand the user experience and acceptability of a smartphone application, LearnTB, amongst private sector academic clinicians in India. This study was conducted amongst 101 clinicians at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India. The user experience of participants (part 1) and acceptability (part 2) were evaluated with the use of two valid, English, paper-based questionnaires. The first questionnaire was based on the System Usability Scale (SUS); the second questionnaire was based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Data were collected during February and March 2017 and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple linear regression as well as logistic regression analysis. A response rate of 99% was achieved; 100 participants responded to the second questionnaire and 100% of the participants responded to the first questionnaire. User experience was very high [mean SUS score =94.4 (92.07-96.76)]. Perceived usefulness (PU) was significantly correlated to intention to use (IU) (r=0.707, Puser experience of the LearnTB application. The TAM questionnaire (second part) explained a significant portion of the variance in clinicians' IU the LearnTB application. The PU of the application has the highest impact on the clinicians' IU the Learn TB application. This study

  18. The “Essential Practice of Religion” Doctrine in India and its application in Pakistan and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rita Scotti

    2016-02-01

    Therefore, the present essay discusses the interpretation of constitutional provisions by the Supreme Court of India in order to introduce the essential elements doctrine as well as its application by the Pakistani and Malaysian Courts with the aim to asses, relying on the theory of cross-fertilization, whether they merely imported the doctrine or adapted it to the national contexts

  19. 77 FR 7132 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Forum AGENCY: Market Access and Compliance, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce....-India CEO Forum. This notice announces membership opportunities for appointment or reappointment as representatives to the U.S. Section of the Forum's private sector Committee. DATES: Applications should be...

  20. Evaluating clinicians’ user experience and acceptability of LearnTB, a smartphone application for tuberculosis in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Tripti; Saravu, Kavitha; Temesgen, Zelalem; Seyoum, Al; Rai, Shipra; Rao, Raghavendra; Mahadev, Deekshith; Pai, Madhukar

    2017-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious killer, and India accounts for 2.8 of the 10.4 million TB cases that occur each year, making it the highest TB burden country worldwide. Poor quality of TB care is a major driver of the epidemic in India. India’s large private, unregulated sector manages over 50% of the TB patients, with studies showing suboptimal diagnosis and treatment in the private sector. Better education of doctors using mobile applications (apps) is a possible solution. While India has seen an explosion of mobile phone services, and while the use of mobile health interventions has been gaining interest, little is known about mHealth around tuberculosis in India. Methods Our study aimed to understand the user experience and acceptability of a smartphone application, LearnTB, amongst private sector academic clinicians in India. This study was conducted amongst 101 clinicians at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India. The user experience of participants (part 1) and acceptability (part 2) were evaluated with the use of two valid, English, paper-based questionnaires. The first questionnaire was based on the System Usability Scale (SUS); the second questionnaire was based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Data were collected during February and March 2017 and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple linear regression as well as logistic regression analysis. Results A response rate of 99% was achieved; 100 participants responded to the second questionnaire and 100% of the participants responded to the first questionnaire. User experience was very high [mean SUS score =94.4 (92.07–96.76)]. Perceived usefulness (PU) was significantly correlated to intention to use (IU) (r=0.707, Puser experience of the LearnTB application. The TAM questionnaire (second part) explained a significant portion of the variance in clinicians’ IU the LearnTB application. The PU of the application has the highest impact on the clinicians’ IU the

  1. Petrographic studies on a newly discovered Indo-Arabian stone anchor from the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat: Implications for source area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Mudholkar, A.; Khedekar, V.

    CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 102, NO. 9, 10 MAY 2012 1309 *For correspondence. (e-mail: sila@nio.org) resulted in either underestimation or overestimation of SOC stock for a farm scale. This is because most of the previous studies on SOC stock assessment were... accepted 5 April 2012 Petrographic studies on a newly discovered Indo-Arabian stone anchor from the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat: implications for source area Sila Tripati*, Abhay Mudolkar and Vijay Khedekar National Institute of Oceanography...

  2. Petrofacies, provenance and diagenesis of the dhosa sandstone member (Chari Formation) at Ler, Kachchh sub-basin, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A. H. M.; Bhat, G. M.

    2006-10-01

    The sandstones of the Dhosa Sandstone Member of Late Callovian and Early Oxfordian age exposed at Ler have been analyzed for their petrofacies, provenance, tectonic setting and diagenetic history. These sandstones are fine to medium grained and poorly- to well sorted. The constituent mineral grains are subangular to subrounded. These sandstones were derived from a mixed provenance including granites, granite-gneisses, low- and high-grade metamorphic and some basic rocks of the Aravalli Range and Nagarparkar Massif. The petrofacies analysis reveals that these sandstones belong to the continental block-, recycled orogen- and rifted continental margin tectonic regime. The imprints of early and deep burial diagenesis of these sandstones include different stages of compaction, cementation, change in crystal boundaries, cement-cement boundaries, chertification and neomorphism. The sequence of cementation includes precipitation of calcite and its subsequent replacement by Fe calcite and silica cements. The typical intermediate burial (2-3 km depth) diagenetic signatures of these sandstones are reflected in the formation of suture and straight-line boundaries, and triple junctions with straight-line boundaries. The depositional environment, relatively low-energy environment that was below storm wave base but subjected to gentle currents, of the Dhosa Sandstone Member controlled the early diagenesis, which in turn influenced the burial diagenesis of these sandstones.

  3. Sediment distribution study in the Gulf of Kachchh, India, from 3D hydrodynamic model simulation and satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Zhao, C.; Osawa, T.; Sugimori, Y.

    temperatures also exist in the middle part. The detailed structures of sea surface temperatures differ as satellites measure the skin temperature of water the body, whereas the model considers the entire first layer. The river discharge effect is not clearly...

  4. Active fault traces along Bhuj Fault and Katrol Hill Fault, and trenching survey at Wandhay, Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michio Morino; Javed N Malik; Prashant Mishra; Chandrashekhar Bhuiyan; Fumio Kaneko

    2008-06-01

    Several new active fault traces were identified along Katrol Hill Fault (KHF).A new fault (named as Bhuj Fault,BF)that extends into the Bhuj Plain was also identified.These fault traces were identified based on satellite photo interpretation and field survey.Trenches were excavated to identify the paleoseismic events,pattern of faulting and the nature of deformation.New active fault traces were recognized about 1 km north of the topographic boundary between the Katrol Hill and the plain area.The fault exposure along the left bank of Khari River with 10 m wide shear zone in the Mesozoic rocks and showing displacement of the overlying Quaternary deposits is indicative of continued tectonic activity along the ancient fault.The E-W trending active fault traces along the KHF in the western part changes to NE-SW or ENE-WSW near Wandhay village. Trenching survey across a low scarp near Wandhay village reveals three major fault strands F1, F2,and F3.These fault strands displaced the older terrace deposits comprising Sand,Silt and Gravel units along with overlying younger deposits from units 1 to 5 made of gravel,sand and silt. Stratigraphic relationship indicates at least three large magnitude earthquakes along KHF during Late Holocene or recent historic past.

  5. Ecological response of foraminiferal component in the sediments of Kharo Creek, Kachchh (Gujarat), west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Nigam, R.; Khare, N.

    A total of seven surface sediment samples collected within 4.4 m to 13.9 m water depth (below chart datum) from Kharo Creek were studied for their foraminiferal content. The study reveals forty seven foraminiferal species of which forty four...

  6. Macrobenthos in anthropogenically influenced zones of a coralline marine protected area in the Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sukumaran, S.; Vijapure, T.; Mulik, J.; Rokade, M.A.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    in the MNPS. Okha has an all weather port with direct berthing facilities handling coke, coal, wheat, fertilizers, clinker, chemicals and soda ash. Two oil terminals, a refinery, two crude oil tank farms, three Single Point Moorings (SPMs) and numerous...

  7. Virtual reality applications in remote handling development for tokamaks in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Pramit, E-mail: pramitd@ipr.res.in; Rastogi, Naveen; Gotewal, Krishan Kumar

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Evaluation of Virtual Reality (VR) in design and operation phases of Remote Handling (RH) equipment for tokamak. • VR based centralized facility, to cater RH development and operation, is setup at Institute for Plasma Research, India. • The VR facility system architecture and components are discussed. • Introduction to various VR applications developed for design and development of tokamak RH equipment. - Abstract: A tokamak is a plasma confinement device that can be used to achieve magnetically confined nuclear fusion within a reactor. Owing to the harsh environment, Remote Handling (RH) systems are used for inspection and maintenance of the tokamak in-vessel components. As the number of in-vessel components requiring RH maintenance is large, physical prototyping of all strategies becomes a major challenge. The operation of RH systems poses further challenge as all equipment have to be controlled remotely within very strict accuracy limits with minimum reliance on the available camera feedback. In both design and operation phases of RH equipment, application of Virtual Reality (VR) becomes imperative. The scope of this paper is to introduce some applications of VR in the design and operation cycle of RH, which are not available commercially. The paper discusses the requirement of VR as a tool for RH equipment design and operation. The details of a comprehensive VR facility that has been established to support the RH development for Indian tokamaks are also presented. Further, various cases studies are provided to highlight the utilization of this VR facility within phases of RH development and operation.

  8. Emergency preparedness in the case of Makran tsunami: a case study on tsunami risk visualization for the western parts of Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Patel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The west coast of India is affected by tsunamigenic earthquake along the Makran subduction zone. On 28 November 1945 at 21:56 coordinated universal time (UTC, a massive Makran earthquake (M8.0 generated a destructive tsunami that propagated across the Northern Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. This tsunamigenic earthquake was responsible for the loss of life and great destruction along the coasts of India, Pakistan, Iran and Oman. Modelling of tsunami stages has been made for the coasts of Pakistan, Iran, India and Oman using NAMI-DANCE computer code. The fault parameters of the earthquakes for the generation of tsunami are epicentre (25.15° N, 63.48° E, fault area (200 km length and 100 km width, angle of strike, dip and rake (246°, 7° and 90°, focal depth (15 km, slip magnitude (7 m. The bathymetry data are taken from General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO and land topography data were collected using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM. The present simulation is carried out for a duration of 360 min. It is observed that the maximum calculated tsunami run-ups were about 0.7–1.1 m along the coast of Oman, 0.5 m near Muscat, 0.1 m near Sur, 0.7–1.35 m along the western coast of India, 0.5–2.3 m along the southern coast of Iran and 1.2–5.8 m along the southern coast of Pakistan. After the tsunamigenic earthquake, the tsunami wave reached the Gulf of Kachchh in about 240 min, Okha in about 185 min, Dwarka in about 150 min, Porbandar in about 155 min, Mumbai in about 300 min and Goa in about 210 min. The calculated 2-hr tsunami travel time to the Indian coast is in good agreement with the available reports and published data. If the tsunami strikes during high tide, we should expect more serious hazards which would impact local coastal communities. The results obtained in this study are converted to be compatible with the geographic information system based applications for display and spatial analysis of

  9. A novel risk assessment method for landfill slope failure: Case study application for Bhalswa Dumpsite, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanfar, Ali; Amirmojahedi, Mohsen; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-03-01

    Rapid population growth of major urban centres in many developing countries has created massive landfills with extraordinary heights and steep side-slopes, which are frequently surrounded by illegal low-income residential settlements developed too close to landfills. These extraordinary landfills are facing high risks of catastrophic failure with potentially large numbers of fatalities. This study presents a novel method for risk assessment of landfill slope failure, using probabilistic analysis of potential failure scenarios and associated fatalities. The conceptual framework of the method includes selecting appropriate statistical distributions for the municipal solid waste (MSW) material shear strength and rheological properties for potential failure scenario analysis. The MSW material properties for a given scenario is then used to analyse the probability of slope failure and the resulting run-out length to calculate the potential risk of fatalities. In comparison with existing methods, which are solely based on the probability of slope failure, this method provides a more accurate estimate of the risk of fatalities associated with a given landfill slope failure. The application of the new risk assessment method is demonstrated with a case study for a landfill located within a heavily populated area of New Delhi, India.

  10. Neo-deterministic definition of earthquake hazard scenarios: a multiscale application to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peresan, Antonella; Magrin, Andrea; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rastogi, Bal K.; Vaccari, Franco; Cozzini, Stefano; Bisignano, Davide; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.; Ashish, Mr; Mir, Ramees R.

    2014-05-01

    performed to understand the influence of the model characteristics on the computed ground shaking scenarios. For massive parametric tests, or for the repeated generation of large scale hazard maps, the methodology can take advantage of more advanced computational platforms, ranging from GRID computing infrastructures to HPC dedicated clusters up to Cloud computing. In such a way, scientists can deal efficiently with the variety and complexity of the potential earthquake sources, and perform parametric studies to characterize the related uncertainties. NDSHA provides realistic time series of expected ground motion readily applicable for seismic engineering analysis and other mitigation actions. The methodology has been successfully applied to strategic buildings, lifelines and cultural heritage sites, and for the purpose of seismic microzoning in several urban areas worldwide. A web application is currently being developed that facilitates the access to the NDSHA methodology and the related outputs by end-users, who are interested in reliable territorial planning and in the design and construction of buildings and infrastructures in seismic areas. At the same, the web application is also shaping up as an advanced educational tool to explore interactively how seismic waves are generated at the source, propagate inside structural models, and build up ground shaking scenarios. We illustrate the preliminary results obtained from a multiscale application of NDSHA approach to the territory of India, zooming from large scale hazard maps of ground shaking at bedrock, to the definition of local scale earthquake scenarios for selected sites in the Gujarat state (NW India). The study aims to provide the community (e.g. authorities and engineers) with advanced information for earthquake risk mitigation, which is particularly relevant to Gujarat in view of the rapid development and urbanization of the region.

  11. Environmental magnetism and application in the continental shelf sediments of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    Mineral magnetic and geochemical analyses were carried out on surface sediments from the continental shelf of India. The purpose of this study is to examine the environmental assessment of heavy metal concentrations and its impact in the coastal...

  12. Application of SVM on satellite images to detect hotspots in Jharia coal field region of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, R.S.; Singh, D.; Mittal, A.; Sajin, P. [Indian Institute for Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper deals with the application of Support Vector Machine (SVM) and image analysis techniques on NOAA/AVHRR satellite image to detect hotspots on the Jharia coal field region of India. One of the major advantages of using these satellite data is that the data are free with very good temporal resolution; while, one drawback is that these have low spatial resolution (i.e., approximately 1.1 km at nadir). Therefore, it is important to do research by applying some efficient optimization techniques along with the image analysis techniques to rectify these drawbacks and use satellite images for efficient hotspot detection and monitoring. For this purpose, SVM and multi-threshold techniques are explored for hotspot detection. The multi-threshold algorithm is developed to remove the cloud coverage from the land coverage. This algorithm also highlights the hotspots or fire spots in the suspected regions. SVM has the advantage over multi-thresholding technique that it can learn patterns from the examples and therefore is used to optimize the performance by removing the false points which are highlighted in the threshold technique. Both approaches can be used separately or in combination depending on the size of the image. The RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernel is used in training of three sets of inputs: brightness temperature of channel 3, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI), respectively. This makes a classified image in the output that highlights the hotspot and non-hotspot pixels. The performance of the SVM is also compared with the performance obtained from the neural networks and SVM appears to detect hotspots more accurately (greater than 91% classification accuracy) with lesser false alarm rate. The results obtained are found to be in good agreement with the ground based observations of the hotspots.

  13. India's "Democracy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Dao: After independence, India basically inherited the political system set up by British colonial rule. After half century's transformation, a "democratic" political system with "India's characteristics" has gradually taken shape in India.

  14. Application of geoinformatics for landscape assessment and conserving forest biodiversity in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; Gautam Talukdar; P.S. Roy

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we summarize our work, within forest ecosystems of Garo Hills in northeast India, on mapping vegetation and land cover conditions, delineating wildlife habitat corridors among protected areas, evaluating forest conservation values of influence zones bordering protected areas, analyzing dispersion patterns of native forests, and determining potential effects of...

  15. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    of Kamataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard of erosion, making erosion the most prevalent coastal hazard. The hazards of flooding and salt water intrusion are also relatively widespread as 39 percent of Karnataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard for both of these hazard......This paper presents the application of a new Methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard...... screening in areas with limited data availability, and covers the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The application makes use of published geophysical data and remote sensing information and is showcasing how the CHW framework can be applied...

  16. Associations between psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders: application to the IT profession in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Parijat, Prakriti

    2012-01-01

    The exponential growth of the information technology (IT) industry in India has been accompanied with a substantial increase in the reporting of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The purpose of the current study was to identify and assess the contributions of prevalent psychosocial factors on perceived WMSD outcomes among IT professionals from India. About 77 IT professionals from India completed a survey set consisting of 26 question items from the Job Content Questionnaire and 3 separate question items pertaining to WMSD outcomes (pain/discomfort and psychological stress scores). The findings suggest prevalence of existing pain (shoulder/neck and low back) in more than one-fourth of the respondents. Additionally two-thirds of the respondents had never had any ergonomics awareness training. Co-worker support and psychological work demands were found to be the strongest contributors of psychosocial risk factors towards pain/discomfort and psychological stress outcomes. Findings from this study highlight the influence of certain psychosocial traits of the Indian IT workplace on perceived WMSD outcomes. There is a need to develop and implement intervention strategies to address these factors that may help lower the risk of work-related musculoskeletal pain.

  17. 78 FR 65290 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-India CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Forum AGENCY: Global Markets, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In 2005, the Governments of the United States and India established the U.S.-India CEO Forum. On... the United States-India CEO Forum'' (FR Doc. 2012-3158), announcing membership opportunities for...

  18. THE COMPOSITE INTERNATIONAL DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEW (CIDI): ITS RELIABILITY AND APPLICABILITY IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF NORTHERN INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Kapoor, Vinay; Reddaiah, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    To study the reliability and applicability of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in a rural community of India, a two steps sampling procedure was adopted, Step I: A clinical diagnosis based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-Ill-Revised (DSM-IIIR) criteria was administered to 218 persons aged 18-60 years who consulted the Primary Health Centre (PHC); Step II: Of these persons, 71 were selected for detailed examination with the CIDI Hindi version in their home environment. The current diagnoses produced by the CIDI (scored two ways DSM-III-R and ICD-10) were evaluated against the DSM-III-R clinical diagnoses. The kappa values were 0.43 and 0.64. The likelihood ratios of positive CIDI-DSM-III-R and CIDI-ICD-10 were found to be 13.11 and 17.23; the specificity rates were 95.4% in each; the positive predictive values were 96.6% and 97.4% and the sensitivity rates were 59.2% and 77.5%. A significant longer time was faken for coding one CIDI. Only 8% of the 71 CIDI interviewed required more than one sitting. 96% of those interviewed were receptive for future interviews with CIDI. The study findings emphasize the good reliability and acceptability of the CIDI in a rural community of India. PMID:21430810

  19. Evidence for a fluid flow triggered spatio-temporal migration of seismicity in the 2001 M$^w$ 7.7 Bhuj earthquake region, Gujarat, India, during 2001–2013

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prantik Mandal; Manish Kumar; Koushik Biswas

    2016-08-01

    We studied the variations in spatial and temporal clustering of earthquake activity (during 2001–2013) in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat, India, by precisely relocating 3478 events using a joint hypocentral determination (JHD) relocation technique, and high-quality arrival times of 21032 P- and 20870 S-waves.Temporal disposition of estimated station corrections of P- and S-waves suggests that the fluid flow in the causative fault zone of the 2001 Bhuj mainshock increased during 2001–2010, while it reduced during 2011–2013, due to the healing process associated with the perturbed Kachchh fault zone. We also estimated the isotropic seismic diffusivities from epicentral growth patterns, which are found to bemuch lower than those observed for reservoir-induced seismicity sites in the world. Finally, we analysed the spatial and temporal evolution of this earthquake sequence by solving the diffusion equation of pore-pressure relaxation caused by co- and post-seismic stress changes associated with earthquakes. The value of the isotropic diffusivity is estimated to be 100 m2/s for the Kachchh rift zone. This gives a higher permeability (after a lapse time of 14 years from the occurrence of the 2001 Bhuj mainshock) in comparison to those observed for other intraplate regions in the world. Our results suggest that the observed spatio-temporal migration of seismicity is consistent with the shallow (meteoric water circulationat 0–10 km depths) and deeper (metamorphic fluid and volatile CO2 circulation at 10–40 km depths) fluid flows in the permeable and fractured causative fault zone of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake.

  20. Women’s Education, Family Planning, or Both? Application of Multistate Demographic Projections in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiwen Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Is education the best contraceptive? Using the multistate human capital projection model, our analysis shows that the projected changes in India population vary depending on investments in education and helping women reduce unwanted fertility rates, that investments in both education and helping women in each education category—but particularly less educated women—meet their wanted fertility will have the largest impacts on India’s population projections, and that the impact from investment in reducing unwanted fertility will be much more immediate and significant than only investments in education. Our analysis also reveals that an increasing education transition rate in India will not only help to achieve a population age structure that is favorable for economic growth, but also result in a larger share of skilled labor force that help to achieve higher economic growth rate. More importantly, investment in girls’ education and achieving gender equality in education will be the most effective measure to increase India’s population education level and improve its overall values of human capital.

  1. Late Quaternary sea level and environmental changes from relic carbonate deposits of the western margin of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Purnachandra Rao; G Rajagopalan; K H Vora; F Almeida

    2003-03-01

    Relic carbonate deposits along the western margin of India occur as dolomite crusts, aragonite sands (pelletal / oolitic) and aragonite-cemented limestones, oyster shells, corals, encrusted coralline algal and foraminiferal-dominated nodules. The petrology and mineralogy of the deposits indicate that except for aragonite sands and foraminiferal nodules, the others were formed in shallow marine conditions and serve as sea level indicators. Radiocarbon dates were measured for 62 relic deposits covering the entire margin. The age of these deposits on the continental shelf off Cape Comorin and Mangalore, between 110 and 18m depth, ranges between 12, 610 14C yr BP and 6,390 14C yr BP. On the northwestern margin of India, especially on the carbonate platform (between 64 and 100 m), the age ranges from 17,250 to 6,730 14C yr BP. The relic deposits of the Gulf of Kachchh at depths between 35 and 25m are dated at 12,550-9,630 14C yr BP. The age vs. depth plot of the relic deposits further indicates that the Gulf of Kachchh was inundated much early, atleast by 15 ka, after the Last Glacial Maximum, and was subjected to uplift and subsidence during the Holocene. The carbonate platform subsided during the early Holocene. Some of the relic deposits between Cape Comorin and Mangalore plot on or, closely follow the glacio-eustatic sea level curve. Despite abundant siliciclastic flux discharged by the Narmada and Tapti during the early Holocene, the platform off these rivers is largely devoid of this flux and carbonate sedimentation continued until 6,700 14C yr BP. We suggest that the river-derived ediment flux diverted southwards under the influence of the SW monsoon current and, thereby, increased the turbidity on the shelf and slope southeast of the carbonate platform and facilitated the formation of deeper water foraminiferal nodules off Vengurla-Goa.

  2. Analyzing Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in India: Application of CAMEL Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Mohi-ud-Din Sangmi

    Full Text Available Sound financial health of a bank is the guarantee not only to its depositors but is equally significant for the shareholders, employees and whole economy as well. As a sequel to this maxim, efforts have been made from time to time, to measure the financial position of each bank and manage it efficiently and effectively. In this paper, an effort has been made to evaluate the financial performance of the two major banks operating in northern India .This evaluation has been done by using CAMEL Parameters, the latest model of financial analysis. Through this model, it is highlighted that the position of the banks under study is sound and satisfactory so far as their capital adequacy, asset quality, Management capability and liquidity is concerned.

  3. Effect of long-term application of treated sewage water on heavy metal accumulation in vegetables grown in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amlan Kr; Bhatt, M A; Agrawal, H P

    2012-01-01

    Use of industrial and wastewater for irrigation is on the rise in India and other developing countries because of scarcity of good-quality irrigation water. Wastewaters contain plant nutrients that favour crop growth but leave a burden of heavy metals which can enter the food chain and is a cause of great concern. The present study was undertaken on the long-term impact of irrigation with treated sewage water for growing vegetables and the potential health risk associated with consumption of such vegetable. Treated sewage water (TSW), groundwater (GW), soil and plant samples were collected from peri urban vegetable growing areas of Northern India (Varanasi) and analysed to assess the long-term effect of irrigation with TSW on Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb build-up in soils and its subsequent transfer into commonly grown vegetable crops. Results indicate that TSW was richer in essential plant nutrients but contained Cd, Cr and Ni in amounts well above the permissible limits for its use as irrigation water. Long-term application of TSW resulted in significant build-up of total and DTPA extractable Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb over GW irrigated sites. TSW also resulted in slight lowering in pH, increase in organic carbon (1.6 g kg(-1)) and cation exchange capacity (5.2 cmol kg(-1)). The tissue metal concentration and relative efficiency of transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant (transfer factor) for various groups of vegetables were worked out. Radish, turnip and spinach were grouped as hyper accumulator of heavy metals whereas brinjal and cauliflower accumulated less heavy metals. Health risk assessment by consumption of vegetables grown with TSW indicated that all the vegetables were safe for human consumption. However, significant accumulation of these heavy metals in soil and plant needs to be monitored.

  4. Application of Handheld Tele-ECG for Health Care Delivery in Rural India

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    Meenu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Telemonitoring is a medical practice that involves remotely monitoring patients who are not at the same location as the health care provider. The purpose of our study was to use handheld tele-electrocardiogram (ECG developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC to identify heart conditions in the rural underserved population where the doctor-patient ratio is low and access to health care is difficult. The objective of our study was clinical validation of handheld tele-ECG as a screening tool for evaluation of cardiac diseases in the rural population. ECG was obtained in 450 individuals (mean age 31.49 ± 20.058 residing in the periphery of Chandigarh, India, from April 2011 to March 2013, using the handheld tele-ECG machine. The data were then transmitted to physicians in Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh, for their expert opinion. ECG was interpreted as normal in 70% individuals. Left ventricular hypertrophy (9.3% was the commonest abnormality followed closely by old myocardial infarction (5.3%. Patient satisfaction was reported to be ~95%. Thus, it can be safely concluded that tele-ECG is a portable, cost-effective, and convenient tool for diagnosis and monitoring of heart diseases and thus improves quality and accessibility, especially in rural areas.

  5. Probabilistic mapping of urban flood risk: Application to extreme events in Surat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jorge; Rajasekar, Umamaheshwaran; Coulthard, Tom; Keiler, Margreth

    2016-04-01

    Surat, India is a coastal city that lies on the banks of the river Tapti and is located downstream from the Ukai dam. Given Surat's geographic location, the population of five million people are repeatedly exposed to flooding caused by high tide combined with large emergency dam releases into the Tapti river. In 2006 such a flood event occurred when intense rainfall in the Tapti catchment caused a dam release near 25,000 m3 s-1 and flooded 90% of the city. A first step towards strengthening resilience in Surat requires a robust method for mapping potential flood risk that considers the uncertainty in future dam releases. Here, in this study we develop many combinations of dam release magnitude and duration for the Ukai dam. Afterwards we use these dam releases to drive a two dimensional flood model (CAESAR-Lisflood) of Surat that also considers tidal effects. Our flood model of Surat utilizes fine spatial resolution (30m) topography produced from an extensive differential global positioning system survey and measurements of river cross-sections. Within the city we have modelled scenarios that include extreme conditions with near maximum dam release levels (e.g. 1:250 year flood) and high tides. Results from all scenarios have been summarized into probabilistic flood risk maps for Surat. These maps are currently being integrated within the city disaster management plan for taking both mitigation and adaptation measures for different scenarios of flooding.

  6. Isolation, screening and identification of novel isolates of Actinomycetes from India for antimicrobial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeta Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for novel bioactive compounds from the natural environment has been rapidly increased with the increase in multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogens. In the present study, the antimicrobial potential of novel actinomycetes has been evaluated by initial screening of six soil samples. Primary and secondary screening was performed against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Trichophyton rubrum, and other MDR bacterial and fungal test strains, and at the end thirteen active isolates were selected for further study. Microbial strains were identified on the basis of growth conditions and other biochemical characters. Five most active microbial strains were identified using 16S rRNA sequence homology and designated as Streptomyces xanthophaeus MTCC 11938, Streptomyces variabilis MTCC 12266, Streptomyces xanthochromogenes MTCC 11937, Streptomyces levis EU 124569 and Streptomyces sp. NCIM 5500. Four antibacterial and three antifungal compounds isolated from the above five isolates were purified and partially characterized using UV absorption and IR spectra. Two antibacterial metabolites, belong to chromone and peptide antibiotic, respectively. The antifungal compounds were found to be of non-polyene nature. In conclusion, we study the isolation of novel bacterial strains of actinomycetes for producing novel compounds having antibacterial and antifungal activities from the unexplored agro-ecological niches of India. Also, this study paves the way for further characterization of these isolates of Streptomyces sp. for their optimum utilization for antimicrobial purposes.

  7. Assessment of applicability index for better management of municipal solid waste: a case study of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pooja; Samadder, S R

    2017-06-01

    Selection of suitable municipal solid waste management (MSWM) options is one of the major challenges in urban areas of the developing countries. Success of MSWM requires accurate data of generation rate, composition and physico-chemical characteristics of solid wastes. Improper handling of solid waste can have significant environmental and aesthetical impacts. The present study proposes a new method (applicability index - Pik values) for identifying the most appropriate disposal option with the help of applicability values of Composting-CP, Incineration-IP and Landfill-LP for individual components of MSW based on the results of the physico-chemical analysis of the collected representative solid waste samples from the study area, Dhanbad, India. The mean values of moisture content, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, volatile organic carbon, fixed carbon, ash content, density and calorific values (CV) of individual components were used as input values in this process. Based on the proposed applicability index (Pik), the highest Pik values were obtained for incineration (IP) for plastics, polythene, paper, coconut shell, wood, cardboard, textile, thermocol (polystyrene), rubber, sugarcane bagasse, cow dung and leather wastes (IP > CP > LP) due to high CV of these solid waste components; the highest Pik values were obtained for composting (CP) of kitchen waste (CP > IP > LP); and the highest Pik values for inert wastes were obtained for landfill option (LP > IP > CP). The highest Pik value for a particular waste for a specific treatment option signifies that the waste is suitable for treatment/disposal using that option.

  8. Applicability of Proposed Diagnostic Criteria of Pityriasis Rosea: Results of a Prospective Case-Control Study in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay; Chuh, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of pityriasis rosea (PR) is generally clinical. Previous studies usually recruited relatively small numbers of patients and control subjects, leading to low power of study results. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses cannot be readily performed, as the inclusion and exclusion criteria of these studies were not uniform. We have previously validated a set of diagnostic criteria (DC) in Chinese patients with PR. Aim: Our aim is to evaluate the validity and applicability of the DC of PR in Indian patients with PR. Study Design: Prospective unblinded pair-matched case-control study. Materials and Methods: The setting is a dermatology clinic in India served by one board-certified dermatologist. We recruited all 88 patients seen by us during five years diagnosed to have PR to join our study. For each study subject, we recruited the next patient who consulted us with differential diagnoses of PR as control subjects. We applied the DC of PR on all study and control subjects. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the DC were all 100%. Two-tailed Fisher's exact probability test result was 0.036. Φ was 1.00. Conclusion: The set of DC can be validly applied to Indian patients with PR. PMID:24249894

  9. Accelerated Failure Time Shared Frailty Models: Application to HIV/AIDS Patients on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Delhi, India

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    Prafulla Kumar SWAIN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present paper demonstrates the applications of Accelerated Failure Time (AFT model with gamma and inverse Gaussian frailty distributions to estimate the effect of prognostic factors on the survival of HIV/AIDS patients undergoing Antiretroviral Therapy (ART in Delhi, India. Material and Methods: The results of both these models have been compared to without frailty model. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and Bayesian Information criterion (BIC have been used to select best model for HIV/AIDS data. Results: The prognostic factors sex, mode of transmission, baseline hemoglobin and weight are found to be statistically significant (P-value <0.05 for HIV/AIDS patients on ART. Gamma shared frailty model with lognormal as baseline distribution is found to be the best model for HIV/AIDS patients. The model also reflected there is strong evidence of high degree of heterogeneity in the HIV/AIDS patients. Conclusion: Therefore shared frailty model is an appropriate approach for analyzing the HIV/AIDS data than without frailty model.

  10. Applicability of the Moyers mixed dentition probability tables and new prediction aids for a contemporary population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Nebu Ivan; Prabhakar, Manisha; Arora, Deepak; Chopra, Saroj

    2010-09-01

    The Moyers mixed dentition space analysis method is among the most commonly used in clinical practice for detecting tooth size-arch length discrepancies. In view of reported secular trends, racial, and sex differences in tooth sizes, the purposes of this study were to evaluate the applicability of Moyers probability tables in a contemporary orthodontic population of India and to formulate more accurate mixed dentition prediction aids. Odontometric data were collected from 300 male and 300 female subjects of Indian descent, who had fully erupted mandibular permanent incisors and maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars. We measured the mesiodistal crown widths with vernier scale dial calipers. The odontometric values obtained were then subjected to statistical and linear regression analysis. All tooth groups showed significant differences (P Moyers pattern. Significant differences (P Moyers tables at almost all percentile levels, including the recommended 75% and 50% levels. We believe that these new prediction aids could be considered for a more precise mixed dentition space analysis in Indian children. 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Applicability of Two Universally Accepted Mixed Dentition Analysis on a Sample from Southeastern Region of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobha, M B; Ajs, Sai; Manoj, Kmg; Srideevi, E; Sridhar, M; Pratap, Gmjs

    2016-01-01

    Most of the universally accepted mixed dentition analyses are based on the data derived from northwestern European descent. However, the accuracy of these methods when applied to different ethnic population is questionable. The present study is aimed to evaluate the applicability of Tanaka and Johnston (TJ) and Moyers (50(th) and 75(th) percentile) mixed dentition analysis in a sample from south-eastern region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Study models were prepared from a sample of 100 patients (50 males and 50 females) in the age range of 13-15 years. The mesio-distal dimension of the teeth was measured using a Digital Vernier calipers. The actual values of permanent canine and premolars on the casts were compared with the predicted values from TJ and Moyers analysis. The values derived from this study were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 (IBM, Chicago, USA). Pearson's coefficients were used to evaluate the correlations between the groups of teeth. Overestimated values were noticed in males and females of both arches with TJ equation; Males showed no significant difference at Moyers 50(th) percentile (50/100), in both the arches where as females showed higher values in mandibular arch and underestimated values in maxillary arch. At Moyers 75(th) percentile, overestimated values were noticed in males for both the arches whereas in females lesser values were observed. As the values showed significant deviation from TJ and Moyers both at 50 and 75 percentile, its applicability to the present population is limited. So, new regression equations were derived.

  12. Application of R&D competitiveness and research in coastal engineering in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    The Research and Development (R&D) in any field of application provides simulation or first hand information about the work to be practically undertaken The better development of the work is dependent on how good the outcome of R&D With the rapid...

  13. PV opportunities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  14. Do inverted depositional sequences and allochthonous foraminifers in sediments along the Coast of Kachchh, NW India, indicate palaeostorm and/or tsunami effects?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.

    .P., sediments ranging in age from approx. 10,000 to approx. 12,000 years B.P. were eroded from deeper offshore deposits by storm/tsunami(s), and were subsequently transported and redeposited in shallow regions, resulting in an inverted sequence, followed by a...

  15. Habitat use by the Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps (Gruiformes: Otididae in breeding and non-breeding seasons in Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Munjpara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps, a threatened and endemic species of the Indian subcontinent, is declining in its natural habitats. The Great Indian Bustard is a bird of open land and was observed using the grasslands habitat (73%, followed by areas covered with Prosopis (11%. In the grasslands, the communities dominated with Cymbopogon martinii were utilized the highest, while those dominated by Aristida adenemsoidis were least utilized. As Cymbopogon martinii is non-palatable, we infer that it does not attract livestock and herdsmen resulting in minimum movement and trampling that favors the Great Indian Bustard.

  16. Application of a household-based molecular xenomonitoring strategy to evaluate the lymphatic filariasis elimination program in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan Subramanian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and evaluation of lymphatic filariasis (LF has largely relied on the detection of antigenemia and antibodies in human populations. Molecular xenomonitoring (MX, the detection of parasite DNA/RNA in mosquitoes, may be an effective complementary method, particularly for detecting signals in low-level prevalence areas where Culex is the primary mosquito vector. This paper investigated the application of a household-based sampling method for MX in Tamil Nadu, India.MX surveys were conducted in 2010 in two evaluation units (EUs: 1 a hotspot area, defined as sites with community microfilaria prevalence ≥1%, and 2 a larger area that also encompassed the hotspots. Households were systematically selected using a sampling interval proportional to the number of households in the EU. Mosquito pools were collected and analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Two independent samples were taken in each EU to assess reproducibility of results. Follow-up surveys were conducted in 2012.In 2010, the proportion of positive pools in the hotspot EU was 49.3% compared to 23.4% in the overall EU. In 2012, pool positivity was significantly reduced to 24.3% and 6.5%, respectively (p<0.0001. Pool positivity based on independent samples taken from each EU in 2010 and 2012 were not significantly different except for the hotspot EU in 2012 (p = 0.009. The estimated prevalence of infection in mosquitoes, measured by PoolScreen, declined from 2.2-2.7% in 2010 to 0.6-1.2% in 2012 in the hotspot area and from 0.9-1.1% to 0.2-0.3% in the larger area.The household-based sampling strategy for MX led to mostly reproducible results and supported the observed LF infection trends found in humans. MX has the potential to be a cost-effective, non-invasive monitoring and evaluation tool with sensitive detection of infection signals in low prevalence settings. Further investigation and application of this sampling strategy for MX are recommended to support

  17. High power CO II lasers and their material processing applications at Centre for Advanced Technology, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, A. K.; Paul, C. P.; Rao, B. T.; Kau, R.; Raghu, T.; Mazumdar, J. Dutta; Dayal, R. K.; Mudali, U. Kamachi; Sastikumar, D.; Gandhi, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed high power transverse flow (TF) CW CO II lasers up to 15kW, a high repetition rate TEA CO II laser of 500Hz, 500W average power and a RF excited fast axial flow CO II laser at the Centre for Advanced Technology and have carried out various material processing applications with these lasers. We observed very little variation of discharge voltage with electrode gap in TF CO II lasers. With optimally modulated laser beam we obtained better results in laser piercing and cutting of titanium and resolidification of 3 16L stainless steel weld-metal for improving intergranular corrosion resistance. We carried out microstructure and phase analysis of laser bent 304 stainless steel sheet and optimum process zones were obtained. We carried out laser cladding of 316L stainless steel and Al-alloy substrates with Mo, WC, and Cr IIC 3 powder to improve their wear characteristics. We developed a laser rapid manufacturing facility and fabricated components of various geometries with minimum surface roughness of 5-7 microns Ra and surface waviness of 45 microns between overlapped layers using Colmonoy-6, 3 16L stainless steel and Inconel powders. Cutting of thick concrete blocks by repeated laser glazing followed by mechanical scrubbing process and drilling holes on a vertical concrete with laser beam incident at an optimum angle allowing molten material to flow out under gravity were also done. Some of these studies are briefly presented here.

  18. Application of ESP for gas cleaning in cement industry--with reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, J D

    2001-02-16

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are used for gas cleaning in almost every section of cement manufacture. Application of ESP is studied, keeping in view Indian conditions. The characterisation of dust emissions has been done for different units, such as rotary kiln and raw mill, alkali by-pass, clinker cooler, cement and coal mill, in terms of exit gas quantity, temperature, dew point, dust content and particle size. It is seen that all these characteristics have a wide range of variance. The ESP system must effectively deal with these variations. The fundamental analytical expression governing the performance of ESP, i.e. the Deutsch equation, and that for particle migration velocity, were analysed to predict the effect of major operating parameters, namely particle size, temperature and applied voltage. Whereas the migration velocity (and the efficiency) varies directly with the particle size, it is proportional to the square and square root of applied voltage and absolute temperature of the gas, respectively. The increase in efficiency due to temperature is not seen in dc based ESP, perhaps due to more pronounced negative effect on the applied voltage due to the increase in dust resistivity at higher temperatures. The effect of gas and dust characteristics on the collection efficiency of ESP, as seen in the industrial practice, is summarised. Some main process and design improvements effectively dealing with the problem of gas and dust characteristics have been discussed. These are gas conditioning, pulse energization, ESP-fabric filter (FF) combination, improved horizontal flow as well as open top ESP.Generally, gas conditioning entails higher operating and maintenance costs. Pulse energization allows the use of hot gas, besides reducing the dust emission and power consumption. The improved horizontal flow ESP has been successfully used in coal dust cleaning. The open top or vertical flow ESP has a limitation on collection efficiency as it provides for only

  19. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Need for Research & Potential Applications. It’s status in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad D. Banavali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that through replications have the capabilities of both self-renewal and differentiation into mature specialized cells. Broadly, there are two types of stem cells, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cell biology has been associated with ethical controversy and also their growth is difficult to control. Adult stem cells are located in tissues throughout the body and function as a reservoir to replace damaged or aging cells. Embryonic stem cells are by definitions, the master cells capable of differentiating into every type of cells either in-vitro or in-vivo. Several lines of evidence suggests, however, that adult stem cells and even terminally differentiated somatic cells under appropriate micro-environmental cues are able to be reprogrammed and contribute to a much wider spectrum of differentiated progeny than previously anticipated. Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs, for example, from different sources have been shown to cross the tissue boundaries and give rise to the cells of the other germ layers.In the past few years, the plasticity of adult cells in several post-natal tissues has attracted special attention in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies represent a new field of biomedical science which could provide in the future the cure for diseases until now considered incurable. The reconstitution of adult stem cells may be promising source for the regeneration of damaged tissues and for the resolution of organ dysfunction. However, there are two major limitations to the use of such cells:- (i They are rare and (ii Only a few types exist that can be isolated without harming the patient.Due to the inability to efficiently and safely harvest or expand stem cells from most adult organs (e.g. liver, gastrointestinal tract, heart, brain, the majority of human stem cell trials have focused on clinical applications for HSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, or both, which can be easily

  20. The Cause of the Republic Day Earthquake of India: Intraplate or Plate Boundary Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.

    2001-12-01

    The Mw 7.6 Republic Day (1/26/2001) earthquake of India killed at least 14,000 people and destroyed tens of thousands of homes. The cause of this earthquake and other historic earthquakes in the surrounding region, all thrust faults with roughly N-S compression, has been the subject of intensive debate. Some workers argued that this earthquake, located ~400 km from the plate boundary, is an intraplate event that may bear important implications for other intraplate earthquakes such as those in the New Madrid seismic zone. Others, however, recognize the diffuse plate boundary in western India and regard this earthquake as part of the plate boundary activity. We have developed a viscoelastic finite element model to address the question of why this and other historic earthquakes concentrated in this part of the India plate. The computer model includes relevant boundary conditions and first-order rheologic variations as indicated by geological and seismic data. We calculated the stresses within the India plate using displacement boundary conditions as indicated by the GPS data and compared the predicted stresses with the theoretical crustal strengths. Our results indicate that the change of plate boundary conditions (from transform fault along the Owen Fracture zone in the India ocean to continental thrusting and shearing along northwestern India) causes stress to accumulate in a broad zone near the junction of the Indian, the Arabian, and the Eurasian plates. Crustal weakening by diffuse seismicity along the northwestern Indian plate boundary may cause further inland migration of stress accumulation. With additional factors, including the contrasts of the crustal strength between the continental and oceanic Indian plate, the presence of the Kachchh rift zone, and the pronounced thinning of the lithosphere in this region as indicated by seismic tomography, the model predict an earthquake-prone belt extending hundreds of kilometers into the interior of the India plate

  1. Determinants of Educational Continuation Decisions of Higher Secondary School Students in India: An Application of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edannur, Sreekala; Firsad, Samsu

    2016-01-01

    The determinants of educational and occupational continuation of younger people in India are still attributed to their socio economic background (primary effects). This deters the government from taking steps to bring the disadvantaged youngsters' higher education, since there is not much one can do to improve the social origin factors. The…

  2. Determinants of Educational Continuation Decisions of Higher Secondary School Students in India: An Application of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edannur, Sreekala; Firsad, Samsu

    2016-01-01

    The determinants of educational and occupational continuation of younger people in India are still attributed to their socio economic background (primary effects). This deters the government from taking steps to bring the disadvantaged youngsters' higher education, since there is not much one can do to improve the social origin factors. The…

  3. Fellowships in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to encourage stronger research ties between India and the United States, the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture is offering 12 long-term and 9 short-term research fellowships in India in 1985 and 1986. The only requirement is that the applicants be U.S. citizens at the postdoctoral or equivalent postdoctoral level. The awards have no restrictions as to field of study, and because the program seeks to open new channels of communication between academic and professional groups in the two countries, those who have had little or no experience in India are especially encouraged to apply.The long-term fellowships are for 6 to 10 months, with a monthly allowance of $1500. Long-term fellows will also receive travel money and allowances for dependents. The short-term awards, for periods of 2 to 3 months, also offer a monthly payment of $1500. Funding for these fellowships is provided by the U.S. Information Agency, the National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Government of India.

  4. Internet India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  5. A qualitative inquiry into the application of verbal autopsy for a mortality surveillance system in a rural community of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mony, Prem K; Vaz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify operational and ethical issues encountered in the application of verbal autopsy (VA) in a rural community in south India. A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews was conducted with 183 bereaved caregivers in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Simple descriptive analysis was undertaken. Only 16% of adult deaths and 27% of child deaths occurred in healthcare settings. Healthcare utilization for the terminal illness was reported in two thirds of medical (non-injury) causes of death. Supporting medical evidence was available in <10% of cases to supplement the interpretation of verbal autopsies. About 14% of bereaved caregivers refused to give written consent but provided oral consent. Additional ethical concerns included inability to ensure privacy in 15% of interviews and unsolicited information from unauthorized neighbours in 5% of cases. Such methodological, logistical and ethical issues operate to impact on the quality of VAs. Consideration of these issues would strengthen ongoing efforts in the harmonization of VA procedures.

  6. Reimbursement for critical care services in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Jayaram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are significant variations in critical care practices, costs, and reimbursements in various countries. Of note, there is a paucity of reliable information on remuneration and reimbursement models for intensivists in India. This review article aims to analyze the existing reimbursement models in United States and United Kingdom and propose a frame-work model that may be applicable in India.

  7. Lime muds and their genesis off-Northwestern India during the late Quaternary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Purnachandra Rao; A Anil Kumar; S W A Naqvi; Allan R Chivas; B Sekar; Pratima M Kessarkar

    2012-06-01

    Two sediment types were found in five gravity cores collected from water depths between 56 m and 121 m along the northwestern continental margin of India: lime muds were abundant in the lower section while siliciclastic sediments dominated the upper section. Lime mud-dominated sediments in shelf cores contained 60%–75% carbonate, 0.3%–0.6% Sr and terrigenous minerals, whereas those at the shelf break were found to have < 90% carbonate, 0.6%–0.8% Sr and traces of terrigenous minerals. Aragonite needles showing blunt edges, jointed needles and needles wrapped in smooth aragonite cement were found to be common. Stable (O and C) isotopes of lime mud indicate a potentially freshwater contribution for shelf cores and purely marine contribution for those at the shelf break. Calibrated radiocarbon ages of the lime muds ranged from 17.6–11.9 ka in different cores. The results reported here suggest that the lime muds in the shallow shelf are probably reworked from the Gulf of Kachchh, whereas those at the shelf break were biodetrital, initially formed on the carbonate platform during low stands of sea level and then exported. The change in lime mud-dominated to siliciclastic-dominated sediments in the cores may be due to climate change and rapid rise in sea level during the early Holocene.

  8. Inclusive human machine interaction for India a case study of developing inclusive applications for the Indian population

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Pradipta

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advancement of interactive technologies during the past two decades has made access to information easier though at the expense of a clear digital divide. There is a generation who grew up with these technologies and another generation who find many modern electronic systems counter intuitive and have no use for them in their daily life. This digital divide becomes more prominent in developing countries as state-of-the-art interactive systems were not and are still not affordable to a large number of users.Inclusive Human Machine Interaction for India presents an end-to-end case study of

  9. Distribution of the Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps (Gruiformes: Otididae in Gujarat State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Munjpara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The last surviving population of the Indian Bustard (IB of Gujarat State was found to be distributed in the coastal grasslands of the Abdasa and Mandvi talukas of Kachchh District. The major part of the present distribution range of IB falls in the Abdasa Taluka and a small portion of this range falls in the Mandvi Taluka of Kachchh District in Gujarat. Geographically, this distribution of the IB is located on the northern coast of the Gulf of Kachchh. The total area of this distribution range of the IB in Gujarat covers a total of 996.4km2 area. The entire area of the distribution range is more or less flat as compared to the surrounding typical topography of Kachchh District. The area within the distribution range of IB is mainly composed of grassland followed by open flat land.

  10. Filaria monitoring visualization system: a geographical information system-based application to manage lymphatic filariasis in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Kumaraswamy, Sriram; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao; Pabbisetty, Sampath Kumar; Yellepeddi, Venkata Suryanarayana Murthy

    2012-05-01

    Among various public health diseases, filariasis constitutes a major public health problem in India, wherein an estimated 553.7 million people are at risk of infection. The aim of this article is to present a spatial mapping and analysis of filariasis data over a 3-year period (2004-2007) from Karimnagar, Chittoor, East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. The data include epidemiological and entomological studies (i.e., infection rate, infectivity rate, mosquito per man hour, and microfilaria rate). These parameters were customized on Geographical Information System (GIS) platform and developed filaria monitoring visualization system (FMVS) for identifying the endemic/risk areas of filariasis among these four districts. GIS map for filariasis transmission from the study areas was created and stratified into different spatial entities like low, medium, and high risk zones. On the basis of the data and FMVS maps, it was demonstrated that filariasis remained unevenly distributed within the districts. Balancing the intervention coverage in different villages with overall mass drug administration and continued promotion of the proper use of control measures are necessary for further reduction of filarial cases in these districts.

  11. Impact of reduction dose, time and method of application of chemical fertilizer on mung bean under old alluvial soil, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted with mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek consecutively for three years (2009, 2010, and 2011 in the Crop Research and Seed Multiplication Farm, Burdwan University, West Bengal, India. In the first two years, varietals screening of mung bean under recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (20:40:20 were performed with five varieties with a local variety of mung bean during February to May of 2009. In the second year, one experiment was conducted with six different reduced dose of chemical fertilizer. In the third year, five different method and time of application of biofertilizer were applied to study the effects on agronomic traits and growth attributes of mung bean. The variety PDM-54 a significant higher seed yield along with other yield contributing factors, which was found to be superior to other varieties. In 2010, seed yield was found to be the best for 30% less nitrogenous and 25% less phosphate fertilizer along with recommended dose of chemical fertilizer. In 2011, the best yield was given by the treatment of basal @ 0.75 kg ha-1 + 1.5 kg ha-1 soil application after 21 days + 0.75 kg ha-1 as soil application + best dose of previous year.

  12. Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data--or tears: an application to educational enrollments in states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, D; Pritchett, L H

    2001-02-01

    Using data from India, we estimate the relationship between household wealth and children's school enrollment. We proxy wealth by constructing a linear index from asset ownership indicators, using principal-components analysis to derive weights. In Indian data this index is robust to the assets included, and produces internally coherent results. State-level results correspond well to independent data on per capita output and poverty. To validate the method and to show that the asset index predicts enrollments as accurately as expenditures, or more so, we use data sets from Indonesia, Pakistan, and Nepal that contain information on both expenditures and assets. The results show large, variable wealth gaps in children's enrollment across Indian states. On average a "rich" child is 31 percentage points more likely to be enrolled than a "poor" child, but this gap varies from only 4.6 percentage points in Kerala to 38.2 in Uttar Pradesh and 42.6 in Bihar.

  13. Bias correction of satellite precipitation products for flood forecasting application at the Upper Mahanadi River Basin in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beria, H.; Nanda, T., Sr.; Chatterjee, C.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution satellite precipitation products such as Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), etc., offer a promising alternative to flood forecasting in data scarce regions. At the current state-of-art, these products cannot be used in the raw form for flood forecasting, even at smaller lead times. In the current study, these precipitation products are bias corrected using statistical techniques, such as additive and multiplicative bias corrections, and wavelet multi-resolution analysis (MRA) with India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded precipitation product,obtained from gauge-based rainfall estimates. Neural network based rainfall-runoff modeling using these bias corrected products provide encouraging results for flood forecasting upto 48 hours lead time. We will present various statistical and graphical interpretations of catchment response to high rainfall events using both the raw and bias corrected precipitation products at different lead times.

  14. A proposed method of bank erosion vulnerability zonation and its application on the River Haora, Tripura, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Shreya; Ghosh, Kapil; De, Sunil Kumar

    2014-11-01

    In this paper a new RS-GIS based simple method has been proposed for estimating bank erosion. This method does not need intense field investigation and can provide erosion vulnerability zonation for the entire river. The method uses eight parameters, i.e., rainfall erosivity, lithological factor, bank slope, meander index, river gradient, soil erosivity, vegetation cover, and anthropogenic impact. Meteorological data, GSI maps, SRTM DEM (30-m horizontal resolution), LISS III (23.5-m resolution), and Google Images have been used to determine rain erosivity, lithological impact, bank slope, meander index, river gradient, vegetation cover, and anthropogenic activities. Soil map of the NBSSLP (National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land-use Planning, India) has been used for assessing soil erosivity index. By integrating the individual values of those six parameters out of those eight parameters (the first two parameters remained constant for the particular study area), a bank erosion vulnerability zonation map of the River Haora, Tripura, India (23°37‧-23°53‧ N. and 91°15‧-91°37‧ E.) has been prepared. The values have been compared with the existing BEHI-NBS method of 60 spots and also with field data of 30 cross sections (covering the 60 spots) taken along a 51-km stretch of the river within Indian Territory, and we found that the estimated values are matching with the existing method as well as with field data. The whole stretch has been divided into five hazard zones, i.e. very high, high, moderate, low and very low hazard zones; and they are cover 5.66, 16.81, 40.82, 29.67, and 9.04 km, respectively.

  15. Are sanitation interventions a threat to drinking water supplies in rural India? An application of tryptophan-like fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J P R; Sadhu, A; Sampath, G; Sugden, S; Dutta Gupta, S; Lapworth, D J; Marchant, B P; Pedley, S

    2016-01-01

    Open defecation is practised by over 600 million people in India and there is a strong political drive to eliminate this through the provision of on-site sanitation in rural areas. However, there are concerns that the subsequent leaching of excreta from subsurface storage could be adversely impacting underlying groundwater resources upon which rural populations are almost completely dependent for domestic water supply. We investigated this link in four villages undergoing sanitary interventions in Bihar State, India. A total of 150 supplies were sampled for thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms (TTC) and tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF): an emerging real-time indicator of faecal contamination. Sanitary risk inspections were also performed at all sites, including whether a supply was located within 10 m of a toilet, the recommended minimum separation. Overall, 18% of water supplies contained TTCs, 91% of which were located within 10 m of a toilet, 58% had TLF above detection limit, and sanitary risk scores were high. Statistical analysis demonstrated TLF was an effective indicator of TTC presence-absence, with a possibility of TTCs only where TLF exceeded 0.4 μg/L dissolved tryptophan. Analysis also indicated proximity to a toilet was the only significant sanitary risk factor predicting TTC presence-absence and the most significant predictor of TLF. Faecal contamination was considered a result of individual water supply vulnerability rather than indicative of widespread leaching into the aquifer. Therefore, increasing faecal contamination of groundwater-derived potable supplies is inevitable across the country as uptake of on-site sanitation intensifies. Communities need to be aware of this link and implement suitable decentralised low-cost treatment of water prior to consumption and improve the construction and protection of new supplies.

  16. India: modernization and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Rudenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of reconciling the socio-economic modernization priorities and sustainable development pur-poses in India with the accent on programs and concepts implemented during 1970-1980’s. The special attention is drawn towards the applica-tion of technical progress achievements in India with a view of envi-ronment protection, as well as environmental education. Also under consideration is the question of India’s international cooperation in the nature conservation sphere.

  17. Application of artificial neural network, fuzzy logic and decision tree algorithms for modelling of streamflow at Kasol in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, A R; Goyal, Manish Kumar; Ojha, C S P; Singh, R D; Swamee, P K

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of streamflow is required in many activities associated with the planning and operation of the components of a water resources system. Soft computing techniques have proven to be an efficient alternative to traditional methods for modelling qualitative and quantitative water resource variables such as streamflow, etc. The focus of this paper is to present the development of models using multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN), fuzzy logic and decision tree algorithms such as M5 and REPTree for predicting the streamflow at Kasol located at the upstream of Bhakra reservoir in Sutlej basin in northern India. The input vector to the various models using different algorithms was derived considering statistical properties such as auto-correlation function, partial auto-correlation and cross-correlation function of the time series. It was found that REPtree model performed well compared to other soft computing techniques such as MLR, ANN, fuzzy logic, and M5P investigated in this study and the results of the REPTree model indicate that the entire range of streamflow values were simulated fairly well. The performance of the naïve persistence model was compared with other models and the requirement of the development of the naïve persistence model was also analysed by persistence index.

  18. Crop Identification Using Time Series of Landsat-8 and Radarsat-2 Images: Application in a Groundwater Irrigated Region, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. K.; Hubert-Moy, L.; Betbederet, J.; Ruiz, L.; Sekhar, M.; Corgne, S.

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring land use and land cover and more particularly irrigated cropland dynamics is of great importance for water resources management and land use planning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined use of multi-temporal optical and radar data with a high spatial resolution in order to improve the precision of irrigated crop identification by taking into account information on crop phenological stages. SAR and optical parameters were derived from time- series of seven quad-pol RADARSAT-2 and four Landsat-8 images which were acquired on the Berambadi catchment, South India, during the monsoon crop season at the growth stages of turmeric crop. To select the best parameter to discriminate turmeric crops, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied on all the time-series parameters and the most discriminant ones were classified using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique. Results show that in absence of optical images, polarimetric parameters derived from SAR time-series can be used for the turmeric area estimates and that the combined use of SAR and optical parameters can improve the classification accuracy to identify turmeric.

  19. Application of remote sensing and geographical information system in mapping forest fire risk zone at Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, S V; Somashekar, R K

    2010-11-01

    Fire is the most spectacular natural disturbance that affects the forest ecosystem composition and diversity. Fire has a devastating effect on the landscape and its impact is felt at every level of the ecosystem and it is possible to map forest fire risk zone and thereby minimize the frequency of fire. There is a need for supranational approaches that analyze wide scenarios of factors involved and global fire effects. Fires can be monitored and analyzed over large areas in a timely and cost effective manner by using satellite imagery. Also Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used effectively to demarcate the fire risk zone map. Bhadra wildlife Sanctuary located in Kamataka, India was selected for this study. Vegetation, slope, distance from roads, settlements parameters were derived for a study area using topographic maps and field information. The Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS)-based forest fire risk model of the study area appeared to be highly compatible with the actual fire-affected sites. The temporal satellite data from 1989 to2006 have been analyzed to map the burnt areas. These classes were weighted according to their influence on forest fire. Four categories of fire risk regions such as Low, Moderate, High and Very high fire intensity zones were identified. It is predicted that around 10.31% of the area falls undermoderate risk zone.

  20. Application of remote sensing and GIS analysis for identifying groundwater potential zone in parts of Kodaikanal Taluk, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagyaraj, Murugesan; Ramkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Venkatramanan, Senapathi; Gurugnanam, Balasubramanian

    2013-03-01

    Groundwater potential zones were demarcated with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The study area is composed rocks of Archaean age and charnockite dominated over others. The parameters considered for identifying the groundwater potential zone of geology slope, drainage density, geomorphic units and lineament density were generated using the resource sat (IRS P6 LISS IV MX) data and survey of India (SOI) toposheets of scale 1:50000 and integrated them with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) model based on GIS data to identify the groundwater potential of the study area. Suitable weightage factors were assigned for each category of these parameters. For the various geomorphic units, weightage factors were assigned based on their capability to store ground-water. This procedure was repeated for all the other layers and resultant layers were reclassified. The reclassified layers were then combined to demarcate zones as very good, good, moderate, low, and poor. This groundwater potentiality information could be used for effective identification of suitable locations for extraction of potable water for rural populations.

  1. Application of remote sensing and GIS analysis for identifying groundwater potential zone in parts of Kodaikanal Taluk,South India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murugesan BAGYARAJ; Thirunavukkarasu RAMKUMAR; Senapathi VENKATRAMANAN; Balasubramanian GURUGNANAM

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater potential zones were demarcated with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques.The study area is composed rocks of Archaean age and chamockite dominated over others.The parameters considered for identifying the groundwater potential zone of geology slope,drainage density,geomorphic units and lineament density were generated using the resource sat (IRS P6 LISS IV MX) data and survey of India (SOI) toposheets of scale 1∶50000and integrated them with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) model based on GIS data to identify the groundwater potential of the study area.Suitable weightage factors were assigned for each category of these parameters.For the various geomorphic units,weightage factors were assigned based on their capability to store ground-water.This procedure was repeated for all the other layers and resultant layers were reclassified.The reclassified layers were then combined to demarcate zones as very good,good,moderate,low,and poor.This groundwater potentiality information could be used for effective identification of suitable locations for extraction of potable water for rural populations.

  2. Trace metal enrichments in core sediments in Muthupet mangroves, SE coast of India: Application of acid leachable technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaki-Raman, D. [Department of Geology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025 (India); Jonathan, M.P. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo, C. Postal. 42184 (Mexico)]. E-mail: mp_jonathan7@yahoo.com; Srinivasalu, S. [Department of Geology, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India); Armstrong-Altrin, J.S. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo, C. Postal. 42184 (Mexico); Mohan, S.P. [Department of Geology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025 (India); Ram-Mohan, V. [Department of Geology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025 (India)

    2007-01-15

    Core sediments from Mullipallam Creek of Muthupet mangroves on the southeast coast of India were analyzed for texture, CaCO{sub 3}, organic carbon, sulfur and acid leachable trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd). Textural analysis reveals a predominance of mud while CaCO{sub 3} indicates dissolution in the upper half of the core, and reprecipitation of carbonates in reduction zones. Trace metals are diagenetically modified and anthropogenic processes control Pb and, to some extent, Ni, Zn and Fe. A distinct event is identified at 90 cm suggesting a change in deposition. Strong relationship of trace metals with Fe indicates that they are associated with Fe-oxyhydroxides. The role of carbonates in absorbing trace metals is evident from their positive relationship with trace metals. Comparison of acid leachable trace metals indicates increase in concentrations in the study area and the sediments act as a sink for trace metals contributed from multiple sources. - Natural and anthropogenic trace metals afeecting mangrove sediments.

  3. Gasification and combustion technologies of agro-residues and their application to rural electric power systems in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Anshu

    Biomass based power generation has the potential to add up to 20,000 MW of distributed capacity in India close to the rural load centers. However, the present production of biomass-based electricity is modest, contributing a mere 300 MW of installed capacity. In this thesis, we shall examine some of the scientific, technological and policy issues concerned with the generation and commercial viability of biomass-based electric power. We first consider the present status of biomass-based power in India and make an attempt to understand the reasons for low utilization. Our analysis suggests that the small-scale biomass power plants (Factor (PLF) that adversely affects their economic viability. Medium Scale units (0.5 MW--5 MW) do not appear attractive because of the costs involved in the biomass transportation. There is thus a merit in considering power plants that use biomass available in large quantities in agro-processing centers such as rice or sugar mills where power plants of capacities in excess of 5 MW are possible without biomass transportation. We then simulate a biomass gasification combustion cycle using a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine since it can run totally on biomass gas. The gasifier and engine are modeled using the chemical equilibrium approach. The simulation is used to study the impact of fuel moisture and the performance of different biomass feedstock. Biomass power plants when used for decentralized power generation; close to the rural load centers can solve some of the problems of rural power supply: provide voltage support, reactive power and peak shaving. We consider an innovative option of setting up a rural electricity micro-grid using a decentralized biomass power plant and selected a rural feeder in Tumkur district, Karnataka for three-phase AC load flow studies. Our results suggest that this option significantly reduces the distribution losses and improves the voltage profiles. We examine a few innovative policy options for

  4. An application of PIXE technique to Proto Crustal Rocks: Geo chemical evaluation of Granulitic Charnockites of Eastern Ghats, Andhrapradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V.S. SATYANARAYANA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, PIXE has been used for a variety of Precambrian proto crustal rocks in the form of granulitic charnockites,Eastern Ghats AP,India. In previous study of exterior part of the charnockite hill elemental analysis using electron microprobe analysis, the elements in host charnockites no Na, traces of Mn,Ca and high Ti,Cl,F (Biotite, no Mn, low Na,and high K,Cl (Hastingsite, and Cl, Fe (Apatite were only detected, but by using PIXE technique in addition to the above twenty two trace elements are identified. PIXE is highly sensitive and non-destructive method for multi elemental analysis in a variety of Precambrian charnockite rocks down to levels of a few parts per million. The samples chosen for analysis from the central portion of a charnockite hill near Visakhapatnam airport. A big reticular mass of relict litho logical body which is compositionally and physically different from host chatnockite was observed in the central portion of the hill. These experiments are carried out using a 3MV pelletron accelerator facility at the Institute of physics, Bhubaneswar. A collimated proton beam of 2mm diameter is made to fall on to the sample, and the beam current is kept at 20na. A high resolution Si(Li detector(160ev FWHM at 5.9kev energy is employed in the present experiments and the Guelph PIXE (GUPIX software package is used to analyze the spectra. The elements identified in this Precambrian charnockite rock are Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Ag, Pb..From this study these rocks are early crust(proto crust rocks. These samples are to belong to a very important geological phase and further work on petrography and REE (Rare Earth Elements in Geologyof the rock is indeed to firmly establish its exact parentage.

  5. All India Seminar on Biomedical Engineering 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatele, Mukta

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles presented by researchers and practitioners, including engineers, biologists, health professionals and informatics/computer scientists, interested in both theoretical advances and applications of information systems, artificial intelligence, signal processing, electronics and other engineering tools in areas related to biology and medicine in the All India Seminar on Biomedical Engineering 2012 (AISOBE 2012), organized by The Institution of Engineers (India), Jabalpur Local Centre, Jabalpur, India during November 3-4, 2012. The content of the book is useful to doctors, engineers, researchers and academicians as well as industry professionals.

  6. Compulsory licensing of patents in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with compulsory licensing scenarios in India, provides a background of relevant provisions in the Patents Act and examines how these provisions are Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights compliant. This article further discusses the procedure followed by India in granting a compulsory license, provides an overview of compulsory license applications filed in India to date and judicial precedence regarding the same. This article also highlights how compulsory licensing is a great safeguard that balances the interests of the innovators and the public at large.

  7. Review: Satellite-based remote sensing and geographic information systems and their application in the assessment of groundwater potential, with particular reference to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Ismail; Mallikarjuna, P.

    2011-06-01

    Various hydrological, geological and geomorphological factors play a major role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater in different terrains. With advances in space technology and the advent of powerful personal computers, techniques for the assessment of groundwater potential have evolved, of which remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) are of great significance. The application of these methods is comprehensively reviewed with respect to the exploration and assessment of groundwater potential in consolidated and unconsolidated formations in semi-arid regions, and specifically in India. The process of such assessment includes the collection of remotely sensed data from suitable sensors and the selection of thematic maps on rainfall, geology, lithology, geomorphology, soil, land use/land cover, drainage patterns, slope and lineaments. The data are handled according to their significance with the assignment of appropriate weights and integrated into a sophisticated GIS environment. The requisite remote sensing and GIS data, in conjunction with necessary field investigations, help to identify the groundwater potential zones effectively.

  8. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajpai Shrish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases. Electromagnetism has played a vital role in the progress of human kind ever since it has been understood. Electromagnets are found everywhere. One can find them in speakers, doorbells, home security systems, anti-shoplifting systems, hard drives, mobiles, microphones, Maglev trains, motors and many other everyday appliances and products. Before diving into the education system, it is necessary to reiterate its importance in various technologies that have evolved over time. Almost every domain of social life has electromagnetic playing its role. Be it the mobile vibrators you depend upon, a water pump, windshield wipers during rain and the power windows of your car or even the RFID tags that may ease your job during shopping. A flavor of electromagnetics is essential during primary level of schooling for the student to understand its future prospects and open his/her mind to a broad ocean of ideas. Due to such advancements this field can offer, study on such a field is highly beneficial for a developing country like India. The paper presents the scenario of electromagnetic education in India, its importance and numerous schemes taken by the government of India to uplift and acquaint the people about the importance of EM and its applications.

  9. The India Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  10. The India Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  11. Foreign Direct Investment in India modelled on Globerman & Shapiro Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Aman

    2008-01-01

    India one of the emerging giants of the world, growing at almost 9% per year. This paper starts with being historical view on government's policy towards investment and then particularly towards its foreign investment. But the main objective of this paper is to test the applicability of the Globerman & Shapiro's FDI model in India. Further we give account of the impact of the pricnciple factors of this model to FDI in India and various countries.

  12. Landscaping biostatistics education in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjana; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Sharma, Kavya; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Ughade, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Biostatistics plays an important role in measuring, understanding, and describing the overall health and well-being of a population. Biostatistics as a subject evolved from the application of statistics in various research aspects of biology, biomedical care, and public health. However, with a recent increase in number of health and pharmacy related research, the demand for trained biostatisticians is also increasing. The present paper is an attempt to undertake a situational analysis of biostatistics education in India. A systematic, predefined approach, with three parallel strategies was used to collect and assemble the data regarding training in biostatistics in India. Our study results show that there is paucity of programs providing specialized training in biostatistics in India. Only about 19 institutions in India are offering various courses in biostatistics/medical statistics/health statistics/biometry. It is important to look into the current capacity building initiatives in this domain. Some other means for giving importance to biostatistics could be by making it a separate branch/specialization in a majority of the institutions, particularly in medical colleges.

  13. Identification of chlorophyll ( with application of IRS-P4 OCM data and Geographical Information System - a case study of part of Bay of Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Dayaker, T.

    2002-05-01

    As 60 - 70 % of the world's population live within 20 - 30 km of the coastline, coastal zone management and optimisation of ocean resources have grown in of importance. The study of the ocean encompasses its physical chemical, biological properties and its interaction with land and biological productivity. Mapping of coastal zone gives us insight about how to conserve its eco-balance and implement effective coastal zone management. Effective Coastal Zone Management will need accurate and comprehensive scientific data, on which decisions can be based. In the present study Ocean Color Monitor ( OCM ) data is used for identification of chlorophyll, which inturn indicates the presence of phytoplankton, which is the primary producer in the food chain, and also to fish . The study area is part of Bay of Bengal Sea near the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Remote sensing in optical region is found useful in understanding the spatial distribution of ocean water constituents, in which phytoplankton pigment which impart a green colour to the sea water, has a definite response in the visible region, which enables plant material to be distinguished from the other suspended matter. Normalised Differential Vegetative Index ( NDVI ), which is mainly used on land applications for the identification of vegetation based on chlorophyll absorption, is used on water surface in the present study. The positive value of NDVI is an indication of the presence of pigment concentration / chlorophyll / phytoplankton / fish. The successful launch of the IRS - P4 satellite which provides us a challenging opportunity to study ocean resources and its characteristics and see how best we can benefit, over a period of time, in several areas of human survival specifically related to food security on a sustained basis. This study is first of its kind in utilising the latest technology to explore the marine resources for mapping the fishing zones and the results, clearly indicate that NDVI can

  14. China's India Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, with the improvement of relationship between India and China, the scope of India studies in China's IR research has been broadened and the new areas of studies are being explored. The research agenda of India studies has already extended to the areas like economy, society, culture, security, national strategy and their impact on both bilateral and international relations. In this situation, the focuses of India studies in China's IR research can be mainly identified as follows: reviews on India's social, political and economic systems; analysis on the national strategy and foreign policy; Sino-Indian relations; India's relations with some international organizations. However, even though many fresh progresses have been made in India studies, the India studies in China's IR research still lag far behind the study of other important countries like the U.S., UK, Russia and Japan, and more problems and challenges will face in the coming future. The paper believes that a fuller understanding of India probably will not make China and India close friends, but it definitely will help to prevent them from becoming fierce enemies.

  15. Coseismic displacements from SAR image offsets between different satellite sensors: Application to the 2001 Bhuj (India) earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng

    2015-09-05

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image offset tracking is increasingly being used for measuring ground displacements, e.g., due to earthquakes and landslide movement. However, this technique has been applied only to images acquired by the same or identical satellites. Here we propose a novel approach for determining offsets between images acquired by different satellite sensors, extending the usability of existing SAR image archives. The offsets are measured between two multiimage reflectivity maps obtained from different SAR data sets, which provide significantly better results than with single preevent and postevent images. Application to the 2001 Mw7.6 Bhuj earthquake reveals, for the first time, its near-field deformation using multiple preearthquake ERS and postearthquake Envisat images. The rupture model estimated from these cross-sensor offsets and teleseismic waveforms shows a compact fault slip pattern with fairly short rise times (<3 s) and a large stress drop (20 MPa), explaining the intense shaking observed in the earthquake.

  16. Estimating Wealth Effects without Expenditure Data--or Tears: An Application to Educational Enrollments in States of India. Policy Research Working Papers No. 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, Deon; Pritchett, Lant

    The relationship between household wealth and educational enrollment of children can be estimated without expenditure data. A method for doing this uses an index based on household asset ownership indicators. To estimate the relationship between household wealth in India and the probability that a child aged 6-14 would be enrolled in school, data…

  17. Energy for rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be We use t

  18. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  19. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  20. 48th Annual Convention of Computer Society of India

    CERN Document Server

    Avadhani, P; Udgata, Siba; Lakshminarayana, Sadasivuni; ICT and Critical Infrastructure

    2014-01-01

      This volume contains 85 papers presented at CSI 2013: 48th Annual Convention of Computer Society of India with the theme “ICT and Critical Infrastructure”. The convention was held during 13th –15th December 2013 at Hotel Novotel Varun Beach, Visakhapatnam and hosted by Computer Society of India, Vishakhapatnam Chapter in association with Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant, the flagship company of RINL, India. This volume contains papers mainly focused on Data Mining, Data Engineering and Image Processing, Software Engineering and Bio-Informatics, Network Security, Digital Forensics and Cyber Crime, Internet and Multimedia Applications and E-Governance Applications.

  1. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and productivity of two cultivars of wheat in India using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Supriya; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Manning, William J

    2005-11-01

    Three rates of ethylenediurea were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth and productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars "Malviya 533" (M 533) and "Malviya 234" (M 234) at a suburban site near Varanasi, India, beginning in December. Wheat plants were treated with EDU at 0, 150, 300 and 450 ppm as soil drenches at 10-day intervals. EDU treatment affected plant growth, with effects varying with cultivar, age, and EDU concentration. Seed yield was improved for M 533 at 150 ppm EDU, while yield improved for M 234 at 300 and 450 ppm EDU. M 533 appears to be more resistant to ozone than M 234. Overall results confirmed that EDU is very useful in assessing the effect of ambient ozone in India.

  2. Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Indradip Mitra; Kaushal Chhatbar; Ashvini Kumar; Godugunur Giridhar; Ramdhan Vashistha; Richard Meyer; Marko Schwandt

    2014-01-01

    India launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission in 2009, which aims to set up 20 000 MW of grid connected solar power, besides 2 000 MW equivalent of off-grid applications and cumulative growth of solar thermal collector area to 20 million m2 by 2022. Availability of reliable and accurate solar radiation data is crucial to achieve the targets. As a result of this initiative, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) of Government of India (GoI) has awarded a project to Centre for Win...

  3. Robotic surgery: India is not ready yet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelivigi, Girish G

    2007-07-01

    Robotic surgery is one of the most significant advances in urology in recent years. It promises to make urological surgeries safer with far superior results as compared to laparoscopic or open surgeries. It holds great promise for the surgeons and patients alike. However like any other technological advance, it too comes with a heavy price tag. Aggressive marketing by the manufacturers and urologists may lead to unethical practices. This article analyses the applicability of robotics to urology and India in particular taking into consideration the financial aspects involved. At present, the scope for robotics in India is limited because of cost considerations. The future of robotic surgery in India also will depend on the same factor.

  4. Robotic surgery: India is not ready yet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish G Nelivigi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic surgery is one of the most significant advances in urology in recent years. It promises to make urological surgeries safer with far superior results as compared to laparoscopic or open surgeries. It holds great promise for the surgeons and patients alike. However like any other technological advance, it too comes with a heavy price tag. Aggressive marketing by the manufacturers and urologists may lead to unethical practices. This article analyses the applicability of robotics to urology and India in particular taking into consideration the financial aspects involved. At present, the scope for robotics in India is limited because of cost considerations. The future of robotic surgery in India also will depend on the same factor.

  5. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  6. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashis Mukhopadhya

    2008-11-01

    Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India and an important pathogen causing liver disease in India. The high risk of chronicity of this blood-borne infection and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma underscores its public health importance. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic interventions by infected needles are two preventable modalities of spread of hepatitis C infection. In addition, risk factor modification by reducing the number of intravenous drug users will help curtail the prevalence of this infection. This review summarizes the extent, nature and implications of this relatively new pathogen in causing disease in India.

  7. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    2013-01-01

    India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance in internati......India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance...... in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates has been almost totally absent in the case of India. Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From...

  8. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    India is still the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement in its ranking in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates is seemingly totally absent in the case of India....... Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From this stylized fact follows the hypothesis that 'above/below average' growth rates lead to relative improvements....../deterioration of elite sport results (with a time lag)’. However, this has not previously been tested, and the contingencies explaining the seemingly widely different developments in countries such as China and India have not been explored. This paper tests the above hypothesis by means of a study of the correlation...

  9. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    2013-01-01

    India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance in internati......India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance...... in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates has been almost totally absent in the case of India. Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From...

  10. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai.

  11. Looking ahead in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, P

    1986-03-01

    India and China contain more than 40% of the world's population, yet in India it is painfully clear that the political commitment necessary to tackle India's greatest problem is not there in full measure. India's present per capita income is less than $300, and nearly 65% of the people live below the poverty line. The average Indian woman produces 5 children; even if the Indian government's efforts to reduce family size to 2 children is successful by the year 2040, India will have a population of 2.5 billion. The possibility that India will succeed in reducing average family size to 2 children appears remote. 30 years ago, India became the 1st developing country to formally make family planning a matter of national policy. In the early years of the national family planning programs, practitioners had access mostly to sterilization and condoms. Over the years, theIndian government persuaded the US and other western donors to give $2 billion to population control programs. Still, the population continues to grow annually at the rate of 2.1%. Government statistics reflect the ups and downs of national population control policies; thenumber of new family planning users increased from 4.3 million in 1974-1975 to 12.5 million in 1976-1977, due largely to a dramatic increase in vasectomies. Tge number of new contraceptive users fell to 4.5 million after the "emergency" was lifted in 1977. The present Indian generation is far more receptive culturally as well as sociologically to the concept of population control than most other developing countries. What is needed now is renewed political committment by the Gandhi adminiostration. India cannot afford to replicate the Chinese way of tackling overpopulation without inflicting human abuses and without undermining its painstakingly cultivated democratic system.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FACING INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.J.P.Semwal

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raised the urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradation of the environmel condition. For India besides land and soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibility of water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestion are the major environmental issues of priority. The industries that generate huge quantities of waste are thermal power station, Iron and Steel Plants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FACING INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.J.P.Semwal

    2004-01-01

    India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raisedthe urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradationof the environmel condition. For India besides landand soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibilityof water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestionare the major environmental issues of priority. Theindustries that generate huge quantities ofwaste are thermal power station, Iron and SteelPlants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.

  14. Unleashing science in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2009-04-01

    With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in India are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in India.

  15. My Relations With India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Cheng Youshu was born in 1924. She worked for newspapers between 1946 and 1952. In 1953 she was transferred to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and worked twice at the Chinese Embassy to India and undertook work involving India, in particular many significant events involving the Sino-Indian frontier dispute. She has also worked with the Chinese permanent delegation to the United Nations and Chinese embassies to Denmark and Iceland.

  16. Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Mark; Garthwaite, Craig; Goyal, Aparajita

    2016-01-01

    In 2005, as the result of a World Trade Organization mandate, India began to implement product patents for pharmaceuticals that were compliant with the 1995 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). We combine pharmaceutical product sales data for India with a newly gathered dataset of molecule-linked patents issued by the Indian patent office. Exploiting variation in the timing of patent decisions, we estimate that a molecule receiving a patent experienced an average pri...

  17. History of Nuclear India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  18. Socio-economic rehabilitation programmes of LEPRA India--methodology, results and application of needs-based socio-economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V P; Rao, I R; Palande, D D

    2000-12-01

    There is now a better understanding of the scope and process of rehabilitation. The approach recognizes the impact of leprosy on the individual, aims to understand the needs and concerns of those affected, their families and community in the rehabilitation process, and that aims to restore the person to normal social life. LEPRA India has undertaken socio-economic rehabilitation (SER) activities in its projects in Andrah Pradesh and Orissa States in India with a holistic approach that has been evolutionary, developmental and participatory. A SER Officer (SERO) was posted to each project. A plan was formulated by the SERO with participation of all project staff. The main emphasis of the programme was on active participation of the affected person in the rehabilitation process. A needs-assessment study was conducted in the target population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Information was elicited about social and economic status, before and after the disease, and the current rehabilitation needs of the persons affected. The next step was meeting the needs through interventions by the SER staff. The impact of the programme on restoration of social and economic status of the affected persons was analysed. The paper stresses the importance of assessing the needs of persons affected by leprosy, structuring a rehabilitation programme with the active participation of the affected person and evaluating the impact of the interventions in restoring normal social and economic life.

  19. Application of dimensions of learning organization questionnaire in a dental institution in national capital region of India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jishnu Krishna Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The research knowledge translation along with evidence-based learning in health systems has increased during the last decade, particularly because of the recognition of its importance for achieving many of the Millennium Development Goals. Till now, no studies have highlighted the learning atmosphere in dental learning institutions. Aim: To assess learning culture in a dental institution in National Capital Region of India applying the dimensions of the learning organization questionnaire (DLOQ. Materials and Methods: DLOQ pro forma was distributed among 236 employees at all levels of the dental institution. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 19.0; Chicago; IL, USA and was subjected to quantitative analysis and nonparametric tests. Results: The dimension “embedded system” scored the lowest mean of 2.36, while the dimension “systems connection” scored the highest mean of 4.02 in general. A significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 between the means of the different professions was noted, whereas on comparison of the relation between each of the professions were performed and a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 with respect to all the seven dimensions was also noted. Conclusion: The results provided sufficient inputs about the multidimensional learning organization capacity of a dental school in a rapidly developing country like India. This tool can be used as a reliable assessment technique in a dental learning setting to inculcate a wave of individual and organizational learning.

  20. Generalized models for estimation of diffuse solar radiation based on clearness index and sunshine duration in India: Applicability under different climatic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Basharat; Siddiqui, Abid T.

    2017-05-01

    Generalized models for assessment of monthly average diffuse solar radiation over India were established using long-term solar radiation data available for 15 years (1986-2000) obtained from Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Pune. Regression analysis was employed to correlate the diffuse fraction (K̅d) with clearness index (K̅t) and relative sunshine period (S̅/S̅o) together. Seven new models (with two input variables i.e. global solar radiation and relative sunshine period) were developed using data of the measurement sites. Well-established models from literature were also compared with the proposed models. Statistical tests used to evaluate the accuracy of models were mean bias error, root mean square error, mean percentage error, coefficient of determination, t-statistics and normalized median absolute deviation. Global performance indicator (GPI) was used to rank the models. Further, the empirical models were applied on the five representative locations under diverse climatic zones (i.e. Hot & Dry, Warm & Humid, Temperate, Cold and Composite climates) prescribed by the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) for India. Proposed models were also compared within each climatic zone and best model was recommended. Developed models were found to have good performance on collective data as well as under each climatic zone individually.

  1. Beyond the Thumbrule Approach: Regulatory Innovations for Bioprospecting in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Sanjay Bavikatte and Morten Walløe Tvedt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS, there is unprecedented attention on good Green Governance, which implies the development of resource efficient, rights based and effective domestic frameworks to regulate bioprospecting. India has been pioneering in this regard due to its ABS legislation in 2002 that long preceded the Nagoya Protocol. However much has changed since 2002 and while India has learnt a great deal from its ‘learning by doing’ method, there are valuable lessons that can be learnt from innovations in the ABS frameworks of other countries. The innovations of these countries are a great resource for National Biodiversity Authority (NBA in India that is seeking to make the processing of the bioprospecting applications in India more optimal. The current paper highlights the challenges faced by the NBA in processing the high volumes of bioprospecting applications, analyses the reasons for such challenges and proposes solutions for the same.

  2. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  3. Coral reef research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    exploration programme. These indicate the scientific competence and self-reliance which the country has achieved during the 40th Anniversary of India's Independence. India is the only developing country to have qualified for the Pioneer Status...

  4. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  5. Application of thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) technique to study the ancient potteries from Vellore dist, Tamilnadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R.; Naseerutheen, A.; Rajalakshmi, A.; Raja Annamalai, G.; Chandrasekaran, A.

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of archeological ceramic and pottery can be studied for the determination of firing temperature and the presence of raw materials by thermal analysis. Clay minerals are the main material for the production of ceramic and pottery and show some characteristic reactions such as dehydration, dehydroxylation and transformation. This is key point of criteria for the elucidation of firing temperature and raw material analysis. In the present work, DTA-TG, XRD and EDXRF technique are applied on representative potsherds from Vellore dist., Tamilnadu, India to derive the information about the production technology, raw materials and firing temperature. From the analysis, all the samples were considered to be fired from 800 °C to 900 °C and organic material might be added intestinally as a binder in the preparation of pottery.

  6. ICT and agriculture in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balasubramanian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have contributed in one way or the other to many transformations in contemporary society. The contexts and the impacts of such transformations are particularly significant for developing societies like India. The relevance of new computing technologies and their effective implementation in developing countries is widely debated, both at policy and community level. Needless to say, FOSS (Free Open Source Software has encouraged the participation of civil society, creating potential for developing specific information technology tools. In this context, the OSCAR-project (Open Source Simple Computer for Agriculture in Rural Areas is an initiative from European and South Asian Institutions to assist decision making in agriculture. OSCAR developed a weed identification system for the major weed species in rice-wheat cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGPs covering Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. An integral part of the OSCAR-project is its applicability to three categories of potential users: farmers, extension officers, and, scientists and students in agricultural sciences. OSCAR was evaluated through extensive interactions with farmer groups, extension personnel, IT specialists, NGO and UN staff, government officials, scientific researchers and PhD students in various disciplines and MSc students from various programs in all the four IGP countries. The experience from OSCAR is helpful in understanding the larger contexts and the impact of ICT interventions in an interdisciplinary framework.

  7. Impact assessment and cost-effectiveness of m-health application used by community health workers for maternal, newborn and child health care services in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Nimesh, Ruby; Gupta, Aditi; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Gupta, Madhu; Singh, Tarundeep

    2016-01-01

    An m-health application has been developed and implemented with community health workers to improve their counseling in a rural area of India. The ultimate aim was to generate demand and improve utilization of key maternal, neonatal, and child health services. The present study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of this project. A pre-post quasi-experimental design with a control group will be used to undertake difference in differences analysis for assessing the impact of intervention. The Annual Health Survey (2011) will provide pre-intervention data, and a household survey will be carried out to provide post-intervention data.Two community development blocks where the intervention was introduced will be treated as intervention blocks while two controls blocks are selected after matching with intervention blocks on three indicators: average number of antenatal care checkups, percentage of women receiving three or more antenatal checkups, and percentage of institutional deliveries. Two categories of beneficiaries will be interviewed in both areas: women with a child between 29 days and 6 months and women with a child between 12 and 23 months. Propensity score matched samples from intervention and control areas in pre-post periods will be analyzed using the difference in differences method to estimate the impact of intervention in utilization of key services.Bottom-up costing methods will be used to assess the cost of implementing intervention. A decision model will estimate long-term effects of improved health services utilization on mortality, morbidity, and disability. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed in terms of incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year averted and cost per unit increase in composite service coverage in intervention versus control groups. The study will generate significant evidence on impact of the m-health intervention for maternal, neonatal, and child services and on the cost of scaling up m-health technology for

  8. Orientalism and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Jouhki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article Orientalism, a special hegemonic discourse about "the Orient" by Europeans is discussed by focusing on how it is manifested in a "Western" view of India. Orientalism as a discourse about the Orient is a concept first coined by Edward Said in his book Orientalism (1978 and contains a long history of European way of relating to the Orient as a counterpart of European/Western culture. In this article Orientalist discourses about India by hegemonically Western (and particularly Anglo-Saxon sources are portrayed and the so-called Indo-Orientalist essentialism defining Indianness from the outside analyzed. Moreover, a Indo-Orientalism as an imported ideology to be used in Indian nationalist discourses to emphasize a dichotomy between India and "the West" is discussed.

  9. The paleoposition of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  10. Woman's lot in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S K

    1980-01-26

    I read Dr. Rao's article on attitudes to women and nutrition programmes in India (Dec. 22/29, p. 1357) with considerable interest. In India parents have to save a lot of money to be able to give a dowry when a daughter marries. In addition they are expected to spend considerable sums when their daughters' children are born and when the grandchildren in turn marry. The task of looking after elderly parents--and of discharging their responsibilities if they themselves are unable to do so--falls upon the sons. In India daughters rarely help out their parents in this way, and the parents will not usually agree to accept help from daughters if they have a son who is prepared to discharge the sacred duty of helping parents in time of need. Once she marries, a daughter's obligations to her parents cease while their obligations to her extend even further to include her husband, children, and in-laws. No wonder the birth of a girl is rarely a cause of celebration in India. The main cause for the plight of women in India is poverty. In most Indian families, the woman of the house will consume less than anyone of nutritious items such as milk, cheese, meat, fish, and butter. Whenever the family's meagre resources are shared out, whether for food, for education, for medical care, it is the males who are given preference. This unequal distribution takes place with the full approval of the woman of the house. Food is normally allocated by the woman, and when food is scarce they tend to favour sons over daughters. Readers in the West may feel that women get the worst possible deal in India. However, although parents do not normally spend as much on the education of their daughters as they do on their sons, in the long run daughters very often get more than their fair share of the family's fortunes because of the dowry system and other social customs.

  11. Future Scenario of Renewable Energy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review about future scenario of renewable energy in India.Energy is a vital input for economic and social development of any country. With increasing industrialand agricultural activities in the country, the demand for energy is also rising. Solar, wind and biomassare accepted as dependable and widely available renewable sources of energy. To meet the energy requirement for such a fast growingeconomy, India will require an assured supply of 3–5 times more energy than the total energy consumedtoday. The renewable energy is one of the options to meet this requirement Energy is the prime mover of economic growth and is vital to the sustenance of a modern economy. Future economic growth crucially depends on the long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly. India has obtained application of a variety of renewable energy technologies for use in different sectors too. This paper presents current status, major achievements and future aspects of renewable energy in India. In this paper evaluation of current energy policies for conquering the obstructions and implementing renewables for the future is also been presented.

  12. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  13. India's African Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    was addressed. This kicked off a quest among donor agencies, think tanks and researchers alike to identify and establish the doings of these ‘emerging’ donors. To date, however, China has received most attention while the doings of other donors like India, Brazil and South Africa have remained virtually......The exceptionally fast growth of big economies like China and India has resulted in a new-found interest in the economic and political consequences of this growth for the developed economies. Recently, traditional donors’ concern that ‘emerging’ donors were re-emerging on the development scene...

  14. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  15. CPAFFC Delegation Visits India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A CPAFFC delegation headed by Wang Wenyuan,former vice chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese Peo-ple’s Political Consultative Conference and adviser to the CPAFFC,paid a goodwill visit to India from December 19 to 28,2007 at the invitation of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations(ICCR).Also on the delegation were CPAFFC President Chen Haosu and Vice President Feng Zuoku.It was the highest-level delegation the CPAFFC has sent to India over the last decade.

  16. From Hair in India to Hair India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  17. India's hydrogen energy program - a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, M.V.C. (Madras Univ. (IN). Dept. of Energy)

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen energy research in India started in 1976 on the initiative of the Government of India and covers almost all areas of technical relevance to the deployment of hydrogen as an energy vector. Specifically, these include its production from water by electrolysis, photoelectrolysis, photo-catalysis and biophotolysis, its storage as liquid hydrogen and metal hydrides, its consumptive use as engine fuel and thermal fuel and nonconsumptive application in metal hydrides-based chemical heat pumps. All this research is sponsored and supported by the Government of India. The genesis of hydrogen energy research in India and its growth during the first 10 years have already been reviewed at the VI-WHEC (Vienna, 1986). The present review is an update of the previous report. (author).

  18. Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography of Gujarat region, Western India and its implications to mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Michele, Maddalena; Emolo, Antonio; Tallarico, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, fundamental Rayleigh waves with varying period from 10 to 80 s are used to obtain group velocity maps in the northwest Deccan Volcanic Province of India. About 350 paths are obtained using 53 earthquakes (4.8 ≤ M ≥ 7.9) recorded by the SeisNetG (Seismic Network of Gujarat). Individual dispersion curves of group velocity of Rayleigh wave for each source-station path are estimated using multiple filter technique. These curves are used to determine lateral distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocity by tomographic inversion method. Our estimated Rayleigh group velocity at varying depths showed conspicuous corroboration with three tectonic blocks [Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB), Saurashtra Horst (SH), and Mainland Gujarat (MG)] in the region. The seismically active KRB with a thicker crust is characterized as a low velocity zone at a period varying from 10 to 30 s as indicative of mantle downwarping or sagging of the mantle beneath the KRB, while the SH and MG are found to be associated with higher group velocities, indicating the existence of the reduced crustal thickness. The trend of higher group velocity was found prevailed adjacent to the Narmada and Cambay rift basins that also correspond to the reduced crust, suggesting the processes of mantle upwarping or uplifting due to mantle upwelling. The low velocities at periods longer than 40 s beneath the KRB indicate thicker lithosphere. The known Moho depth correlates well with the observed velocities at a period of about 30 s in the Gujarat region. Our estimates of relatively lower group velocities at periods varying from 70 to 80 s may correspond to the asthenospheric flow beneath the region. It is interesting to image higher group velocity for the thinner crust beneath the Arabian Sea adjacent to the west coast of Gujarat at the period of 40 s that may correspond to the upwarped or upwelled mantle beneath the Arabian Sea. Our results have better resolution estimated by a radius of equivalent

  19. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  20. The Impact of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Mario M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

  1. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  2. Development of an artificial neural network based multi-model ensemble to estimate the northeast monsoon rainfall over south peninsular India: an application of extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Nachiketa; Shrivastava, Nitin Anand; Panigrahi, B. K.; Mohanty, U. C.

    2014-09-01

    The south peninsular part of India gets maximum amount of rainfall during the northeast monsoon (NEM) season [October to November (OND)] which is the primary source of water for the agricultural activities in this region. A nonlinear method viz., Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been employed on general circulation model (GCM) products to make the multi-model ensemble (MME) based estimation of NEM rainfall (NEMR). The ELM is basically is an improved learning algorithm for the single feed-forward neural network (SLFN) architecture. The 27 year (1982-2008) lead-1 (using initial conditions of September for forecasting the mean rainfall of OND) hindcast runs (1982-2008) from seven GCM has been used to make MME. The improvement of the proposed method with respect to other regular MME (simple arithmetic mean of GCMs (EM) and singular value decomposition based multiple linear regressions based MME) has been assessed through several skill metrics like Spread distribution, multiplicative bias, prediction errors, the yield of prediction, Pearson's and Kendal's correlation coefficient and Wilmort's index of agreement. The efficiency of ELM estimated rainfall is established by all the stated skill scores. The performance of ELM in extreme NEMR years, out of which 4 years are characterized by deficit rainfall and 5 years are identified as excess, is also examined. It is found that the ELM could expeditiously capture these extremes reasonably well as compared to the other MME approaches.

  3. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  4. The new patent regime and disease priorities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Guin, Pradeep; Trivedi, Mayur

    2013-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which made product patents compulsory for countries to follow, meant that the entire market for generic drugs was out of bounds for manufacturing till the time the products went off-patent. The TRIPS has generated widespread discussions and debates around the costs and benefits of new patent regimes on countries such as India. This article analyses whether the post-WTO system was consistent with, and conducive to, improved public health in India. It is a first-of-its-kind effort in which the data on pharmaceutical patents applications were collected, collated, cleaned and classified according to IPC codes, to enable preliminary understanding of the nature and type of the applications. The patent applications that are filed in India are not found to be consistent with the disease burden of the country.

  5. India dokfilmide paremik jõuab taaralinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tartus täna algavatest India dokumentaalfilmide päevadest, mida korraldavad Maailmafilmi festival, Eesti Rahva Muuseum ja organisatsioon Films For Freedom India. Lisatud nimekiri "India dokfilmi päevad"

  6. India dokfilmide paremik jõuab taaralinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tartus täna algavatest India dokumentaalfilmide päevadest, mida korraldavad Maailmafilmi festival, Eesti Rahva Muuseum ja organisatsioon Films For Freedom India. Lisatud nimekiri "India dokfilmi päevad"

  7. Development of the SAFE Checklist Tool for Assessing Site-Level Threats to Child Protection: Use of Delphi Methods and Application to Two Sites in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa S Betancourt

    Full Text Available The child protection community is increasingly focused on developing tools to assess threats to child protection and the basic security needs and rights of children and families living in adverse circumstances. Although tremendous advances have been made to improve measurement of individual child health status or household functioning for use in low-resource settings, little attention has been paid to a more diverse array of settings in which many children in adversity spend time and how context contributes to threats to child protection. The SAFE model posits that insecurity in any of the following fundamental domains threatens security in the others: Safety/freedom from harm; Access to basic physiological needs and healthcare; Family and connection to others; Education and economic security. Site-level tools are needed in order to monitor the conditions that can dramatically undermine or support healthy child growth, development and emotional and behavioral health. From refugee camps and orphanages to schools and housing complexes, site-level threats exist that are not well captured by commonly used measures of child health and well-being or assessments of single households (e.g., SDQ, HOME.The present study presents a methodology and the development of a scale for assessing site-level child protection threats in various settings of adversity. A modified Delphi panel process was enhanced with two stages of expert review in core content areas as well as review by experts in instrument development, and field pilot testing.Field testing in two diverse sites in India-a construction site and a railway station-revealed that the resulting SAFE instrument was sensitive to the differences between the sites from the standpoint of core child protection issues.

  8. Development of sandwich dot-ELISA for specific detection of Ochratoxin A and its application on to contaminated cereal grains originating from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. eVenkataramana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, generation and characterization of a highly specific monoclonal antibody (mAb against Ochratoxin A (OTA was undertaken. The generated mAb was further used to develop a simple, fast and sensitive sandwich dot-ELISA (s-dot ELISA method for detection of OTA from contaminated food grain samples. The LOD (limit of detetion of the developed ELISA method was determined as 5.0 ng/mL of OTA. Developed method was more specific towards OTA and no cross reactivity was observed with the other tested mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 or aflatoxin B1. To assess the utility and reliability of the developed method, several field samples of maize, wheat and rice (n=195 collected from different geographical regions of southern Karnataka region of India were evaluated for the OTA occurrence. Seventy two out of 195 samples (19 maize, 38 wheat and 15 rice were found to be contaminated by OTA by s-dot ELISA. The assay results were further co-evaluated with conventional analytical HPLC method. Results of the s-dot ELISA are in concordance with HPLC except for 3 samples that were negative for OTA presence by s-dot ELISA but found positive by HPLC. Although positive by HPLC, the amount of OTA in the three samples was found to be lesser than the accepted levels (>5 µg/kg of OTA presence in cereals. Therefore, in conclusion, the developed s-dot ELISA is a better alternative for routine cereal based food and feed analysis in diagnostic labs to check the presence of OTA over existing conventional culture based, tedious analytical methods.

  9. Application of Archimedean copulas to the impact assessment of hydro-climatic variables in semi-arid aquifers of western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wable, Pawan S.; Jha, Madan K.

    2017-08-01

    The effects of rainfall and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on groundwater in a semi-arid basin of India were analyzed using Archimedean copulas considering 17 years of data for monsoon rainfall, post-monsoon groundwater level (PMGL) and ENSO Index. The evaluated dependence among these hydro-climatic variables revealed that PMGL-Rainfall and PMGL-ENSO Index pairs have significant dependence. Hence, these pairs were used for modeling dependence by employing four types of Archimedean copulas: Ali-Mikhail-Haq, Clayton, Gumbel-Hougaard, and Frank. For the copula modeling, the results of probability distributions fitting to these hydro-climatic variables indicated that the PMGL and rainfall time series are best represented by Weibull and lognormal distributions, respectively, while the non-parametric kernel-based normal distribution is the most suitable for the ENSO Index. Further, the PMGL-Rainfall pair is best modeled by the Clayton copula, and the PMGL-ENSO Index pair is best modeled by the Frank copula. The Clayton copula-based conditional probability of PMGL being less than or equal to its average value at a given mean rainfall is above 70% for 33% of the study area. In contrast, the spatial variation of the Frank copula-based probability of PMGL being less than or equal to its average value is 35-40% in 23% of the study area during El Niño phase, while it is below 15% in 35% of the area during the La Niña phase. This copula-based methodology can be applied under data-scarce conditions for exploring the impacts of rainfall and ENSO on groundwater at basin scales.

  10. Improving Security Ties with India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Mohammed Ali Jinnah , with it being split between East (today’s Bangladesh) and West Pakistan. India, although predominantly Hindu, has a large Muslim...population. At partition , most Muslims elected to live in East and West Pakistan. India wanted to grow as an independent state and Nehru did not want...bilateral relations between these states. 19 Pakistan is the greatest immediate concern to India in South Asia. Ever since partition , the two have been

  11. Marine geology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    the western continental margin of India indicate evidences of late Quaternary neo-tectonic activity in the Gulf of Kachchh and carbonate platform. Provenance studies have been carried out on the Ayeyarwady continental shelf, Andaman Sea and western margin...

  12. Hemovigilance Program-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Bisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A centralized hemovigilance program to assure patient safety and to promote public health has been launched for the first time in India on Dec 10, 2012 in 60 medical colleges in the first phase along with a well-structured program for monitoring adverse reactions associated with blood transfusion and blood product administration. National Institute of Biologicals (NIB will be the National Coordinating Centre for Hemovigilance. This program will be implemented under overall ambit of Pharmacovigilance Program of India (PvPI, which is being coordinated by Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC. All medical colleges of the country will be enrolled in this program by the year 2016 in order to have a National Centre of Excellence for Hemovigilance at NIB, which will act as a global knowledge platform.

  13. Cartagena de Indias (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Quintero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza la diversificación de la oferta turística de Cartagena de Indias como destino turístico a partir de sus recursos culturales, dada su condición como Patrimonio Histórico y Cultural de la Humanidad (UNESCO, 1985, y se estudia hasta qué punto las propuestas de diversificación de la oferta y de inclusión de la cultura se reflejan en la promoción y en el producto que ofrece Cartagena de Indias y algunos de sus competidores internacionales. A su vez se presenta la situación actual de Cartagena en cuanto al uso turístico y la comercialización de los bienes patrimoniales inmuebles Finalmente, se identifican las dificultades que enfrenta el destino en el proceso de valorización turística de los recursos patrimoniales inmuebles.

  14. Impact assessment and cost-effectiveness of m-health application used by community health workers for maternal, newborn and child health care services in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: An m-health application has been developed and implemented with community health workers to improve their counseling in a rural area of India. The ultimate aim was to generate demand and improve utilization of key maternal, neonatal, and child health services. The present study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of this project. Methods/design: A pre–post quasi-experimental design with a control group will be used to undertake difference in differences analysis for assessing the impact of intervention. The Annual Health Survey (2011 will provide pre-intervention data, and a household survey will be carried out to provide post-intervention data.Two community development blocks where the intervention was introduced will be treated as intervention blocks while two controls blocks are selected after matching with intervention blocks on three indicators: average number of antenatal care checkups, percentage of women receiving three or more antenatal checkups, and percentage of institutional deliveries. Two categories of beneficiaries will be interviewed in both areas: women with a child between 29 days and 6 months and women with a child between 12 and 23 months. Propensity score matched samples from intervention and control areas in pre–post periods will be analyzed using the difference in differences method to estimate the impact of intervention in utilization of key services.Bottom-up costing methods will be used to assess the cost of implementing intervention. A decision model will estimate long-term effects of improved health services utilization on mortality, morbidity, and disability. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed in terms of incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year averted and cost per unit increase in composite service coverage in intervention versus control groups. Conclusions: The study will generate significant evidence on impact of the m-health intervention for maternal, neonatal, and child

  15. Cancer notification in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmaiah, K. C.; Guruprasad, B.; Lokesh, K. N.; Veena, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common et...

  16. Educational Radio in India

    OpenAIRE

    VYAS, R. V.; R. C. Sharma; Kumar, Ashwini

    2002-01-01

    There are a good number of research studies, which indicate that radio has been a good medium of education delivery. Many experiments have been conducted in different countries on the use of radio in education. Radio has been used in conventional education, non-formal education, for agricultural education, for community development, in distance education, so on and so forth. This paper explains various educational radio projects undertaken in India

  17. El Archivo de Indias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Ortíz

    1961-05-01

    Full Text Available De todos es sabido, y no por ello es inoportuno recordarlo, que el Archivo General de Indias figura entre los tres más grandes depositarios de papeles del mundo y como el primero en su clase para la documentación histórica de lo que constituyó el imperio español entre fines del siglo XV y primer tercio del XIX.

  18. Medical tourism in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  19. Strategic Estimate: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-16

    est.): 26% urban, 74% rural. Annual growth (1989): 2.2% Official language: Hindi. Major religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism , Buddhism...as part of India’s goal of developing a modern defense structure. IMET builds on the Indian armed forces’ tradition of respect for democracy and...least as low as the base force, if not lower. * Traditional national and intrastate rivalries, previously held in check by the Cold War superpowers

  20. The seagrasses of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Komarpant, D.S.; Rodrigues, R.

    kinds of biota, and produce a considerable amount of organic matter, a major energy source in the coastal marine food web; they playa significant role in nutrient regeneration and shore stabilization processes. The major seagrass meadows in India exist... of awareness, limited distribution and rising anthropo genic pressures, it is imperative to deveLop a national educationaL and conservation management pLan for the seagrass ecosystem with the following objectives: a quantification, mapping and regular...

  1. High-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy applications and the difference in the bladder and rectum doses: A study from rural centre of Maharashatra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Vandana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To report the difference in the bladder and rectum doses with different applications by the radiotherapists in the same patient of the carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated by multiple fractions of high-dose-rate (HDR intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT. Materials and Methods : Between January 2003 to December 2004, a total of 60 cases of the carcinoma uterine cervix were selected randomly for the retrospective analyses. All 60 cases were grouped in six groups according to the treating radiotherapist who did the HDR-ICBT application. Three radiotherapists were considered for this study, named A, B and C. Ten cases for each radiotherapist in whom all three applications were done by the same radiotherapist. And 10 cases for each radiotherapist with shared applications in the same patient (A+B, A+C and B+C. The bladder and rectal doses were calculated in reference to point "A" dose and were limited to 80% of prescribed point "A" dose, as per ICRU-38 recommendations. Received dose grouped in three groups- less then 80% (< 80%, 80-100% and above 100% (>100%. A total of 180 applications for 60 patients were calculated for the above analyses. Results : There is a lot of difference in the bladder and rectal doses with the application by the different radiotherapists, even in the same patient with multiple fractions of HDR-ICBT. Applications by ′A′ radiotherapist were within the limits in the self as well as in the shared groups more number of times, by ′B′ radiotherapist was more times exceeding the limit and by ′C′ radiotherapist doses were in between the A and B. Discussion and Conclusion : For the rectal and bladder doses most important factors are patient′s age, disease stage, duration between EBRT and HDR-ICRT and patient anatomy, but these differences can be minimized to some extent by careful application, proper packing and proper fixation.

  2. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-08-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

  3. Carbon taxes and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  4. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  5. DATABASES DEVELOPED IN INDIA FOR BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Yadav

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of biological systems requires use of a variety of experimental methods with ever increasing sophistication to probe various cellular processes at molecular and atomic resolution. The availability of technologies for determining nucleic acid sequences of genes and atomic resolution structures of biomolecules prompted development of major biological databases like GenBank and PDB almost four decades ago. India was one of the few countries to realize early, the utility of such databases for progress in modern biology/biotechnology. Department of Biotechnology (DBT, India established Biotechnology Information System (BTIS network in late eighties. Starting with the genome sequencing revolution at the turn of the century, application of high-throughput sequencing technologies in biology and medicine for analysis of genomes, transcriptomes, epigenomes and microbiomes have generated massive volumes of sequence data. BTIS network has not only provided state of the art computational infrastructure to research institutes and universities for utilizing various biological databases developed abroad in their research, it has also actively promoted research and development (R&D projects in Bioinformatics to develop a variety of biological databases in diverse areas. It is encouraging to note that, a large number of biological databases or data driven software tools developed in India, have been published in leading peer reviewed international journals like Nucleic Acids Research, Bioinformatics, Database, BMC, PLoS and NPG series publication. Some of these databases are not only unique, they are also highly accessed as reflected in number of citations. Apart from databases developed by individual research groups, BTIS has initiated consortium projects to develop major India centric databases on Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rice and Mango, which can potentially have practical applications in health and agriculture. Many of these biological

  6. India Co2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has

  7. India's Trade in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  8. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  9. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  10. Environment and Culture in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  11. India hiilgav viletsus / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Hiinat nimetatakse maailma töökojaks, Indiat aga bürooks (back office), võrdlus põhineb India IT-firmade edul - kõik tegevused, mida saab teha arvutite abil, kipuvad kolima Indiasse. Tulevikuriik India on hädas keskaegsete tavadega

  12. India hiilgav viletsus / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Hiinat nimetatakse maailma töökojaks, Indiat aga bürooks (back office), võrdlus põhineb India IT-firmade edul - kõik tegevused, mida saab teha arvutite abil, kipuvad kolima Indiasse. Tulevikuriik India on hädas keskaegsete tavadega

  13. Teledermatology in India: Practical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroze Kaliyadan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Teledermatology is considered to be one of the solutions to the problem of inadequate number of dermatologists in remote parts of India. We present a brief account of the technological components involved in teledermatology in India, and an evaluation of the advantages and limitations of the use of teledermatology as a clinical tool.

  14. A Tale of Two Indias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  15. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  16. India's Trade in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  17. An indirect method for forecasting the annual food production of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    The green revolution which increased the annual food production of India drastically was made possible by the application of science and technology to agriculture. The total technological inputs to the farming sector has been growing steadily...

  18. Viewing India from Religious Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yonghui

    2004-01-01

    @@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.

  19. Status of women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxi, L S

    The status of women in India can only be improved through a joint program between the media and the community in providing Indian women with the power of literacy. Women in India are divided into unequal halves. Of 368 million women in India, 278 reside in rural areas, and most are illiterate. The majority of illiterate women number 75%, 25% are semi-literate, and only 5% may be considered educated. In an effort to integrate women into the mainstream of Indian social life, a campaign of providing literacy to all women has been undertaken. The welfare state of India has taken up the responsibility of providing education, and maternity and child welfare to these women. It has gone further in incorporating the media in educating people regarding these various programs. This approach will help integrate women more fully into the economic, political, and social mainstream of independent India.

  20. Mathematics in India

    CERN Document Server

    Plofker, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Based on extensive research in Sanskrit sources, Mathematics in India chronicles the development of mathematical techniques and texts in South Asia from antiquity to the early modern period. Kim Plofker reexamines the few facts about Indian mathematics that have become common knowledge--such as the Indian origin of Arabic numerals--and she sets them in a larger textual and cultural framework. The book details aspects of the subject that have been largely passed over in the past, including the relationships between Indian mathematics and astronomy, and their cross-fertilizations with Islamic sc

  1. A Passage to India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    theoretical model that combines resource-based theory and international business network theory. It aims to investigate how determinants of the offshore outsourcing process contribute to the resource stocks of client firms. Based on two longitudinal case studies of offshore outsourcing to India, the study...... are lacking. This paper suggests a detailed, activity-based approach to the study of the process of offshore outsourcing of high-value, advanced service activities. While earlier research has considered either firm-internal or firm-external sources of resource building, this study offers a more comprehensive...

  2. Family (oikos Evangelism for reaching forward caste Hindus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DW Fowlkes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article acknowledges the need for Church Planting Movements among the unreached peoples of India. Of particular concern to this study is the application of Church Planting Movement strategy to forward caste Hindus of India. It is shown that evangelizing households (family or �oikos� evangelism is a New Testament strategy and the most appropriate strategy for reaching forward caste Hindus. It is concluded that Christian disciples remaining within Hindu culture and familial systems hold the potential for the most indigenous approach to evangelizing forward caste Hindus.

  3. Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    /h) was three times more productive than the creek (av. 2.3 kg/h). The number of species found in the Gulf and creek were respectively 34 and 20 suggesting good biodiversity of the living resources of the area....

  4. Analysis of Solar Irradiation Anomalies in Long Term Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cony, M.; Polo, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, A.; Serra, I.

    2012-04-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of global hemispheric irradiation measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of solar irradiation in India using anomalies techniques and trends in ten places over India. Most of the places have exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. This observation is also consequent with

  5. Study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In newly HIV-diagnosed patients, the CD4+ lymphocyte count is measured to determine the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa have shown that patients who are ART ineligible at the first assessment have poor retention in care, but data from other low- or middle-income countries are scarce. In this study we describe the retention in pre-ART care of 1696 patients who were ineligible for ART after being diagnosed with HIV in a cohort study in India. More than one-third of ART ineligible patients had poor retention in care, and the attrition was higher in those with longer follow-up periods. Of those patients with poor retention, only 10% came back to the clinics, and their CD4 cell counts were lower than the ones of patients retained in care. After 4.5 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up was 50%. Factors associated with attrition were being homeless, being illiterate, belonging to a disadvantaged community, being symptomatic at the time of the HIV diagnosis, male gender, and not living near a town. Widows were given nutritional support and, therefore, had better retention in care. The results of this study highlight the need to improve the retention in care of ART ineligible patients in India.

  6. Neuropsychology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Keshav; Sadasivan, Akila

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue with the objective to provide information on neuropsychology in India. Information was gathered from a literature search and personal communication with professionals working in the field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology as a specialization started in India approximately 40 years ago. The early years witnessed the use of Western tools for assessing patients with organic brain damage. Subsequent years saw the development of indigenous tools for use with the vast majority of the Indian population and also a few Western tests adapted to suit the needs of the unique Indian clientele. The starting of the Neuropsychology unit at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore in 1975 resulted in changing of the course of training and practice of Neuropsychology. The field of assessments has witnessed indigenous tests being developed, while rehabilitation programs have brought about a decline in cognitive deficits in several clinical conditions. Currently, work within the field of neuropsychology has focused on child, geriatric, acquired brain injury, and forensic populations with a development of unique rehabilitations to suit needs of several clinical conditions. However, there are very few neuropsychologists in the country, and only one nodal training center, which limits the availability of training to the large population of the country. Despite the shortcomings, the field of neuropsychology has received much attention in the recent years with the number of referrals and professionals increasing.

  7. Cancer notification in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Guruprasad, B; Lokesh, K N; Veena, V S

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  8. Cancer notification in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Lakshmaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  9. Holocene aridification of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Holocene aridification of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  11. Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

    2014-10-01

    In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25 000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care.

  12. Field application of a multi-frequency acoustic instrument to monitor sediment for silt erosion study in Pelton turbine in Himalayan region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Kumar, A.; Hies, T.; Nguyen, H. H.

    2016-11-01

    High sediment load passing through hydropower components erodes the hydraulic components resulting in loss of efficiency, interruptions in power production and downtime for repair/maintenance, especially in Himalayan regions. The size and concentration of sediment play a major role in silt erosion. The traditional process of collecting samples manually to analyse in laboratory cannot suffice the need of monitoring temporal variation in sediment properties. In this study, a multi-frequency acoustic instrument was applied at desilting chamber to monitor sediment size and concentration entering the turbine. The sediment size and concentration entering the turbine were also measured with manual samples collected twice daily. The samples collected manually were analysed in laboratory with a laser diffraction instrument for size and concentration apart from analysis by drying and filtering methods for concentration. A conductivity probe was used to calculate total dissolved solids, which was further used in results from drying method to calculate suspended solid content of the samples. The acoustic instrument was found to provide sediment concentration values similar to drying and filtering methods. However, no good match was found between mean grain size from the acoustic method with the current status of development and laser diffraction method in the first field application presented here. The future versions of the software and significant sensitivity improvements of the ultrasonic transducers are expected to increase the accuracy in the obtained results. As the instrument is able to capture the concentration and in the future most likely more accurate mean grain size of the suspended sediments, its application for monitoring silt erosion in hydropower plant shall be highly useful.

  13. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  14. Second China-India Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The Second China-India Forum sponsored by the CPAFFC and the China-India Friendship Association(CIFA) was held in Beijing May 15-16.CIFA President Jiang Zheng-hua,CIFA Advisor Wang Maolin,CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku,and Indian Ambassador to China S.Jaishankar attended the opening ceremony.Over 200 officials,scholars,businessmen from the political,economic,cultural and environmental sectors of China,India and some other countries as well as reporters were present at the forum.

  15. The nutrition transition in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1St John's Institute of Population Health and Clinical Research, Bangalore, India, and. 2Population ... more 'Western' diets rich in saturated fat, refined foods and sugar ... heart disease. .... accounts for 17% of global cardiovascular mortality,17.

  16. International Nurse Recruitment in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khadria, Binod

    2007-01-01

    ... of a “business process outsourcing” of comprehensive training‐cum‐recruitment‐cum‐placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Findings...

  17. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    has undertaken the exploration and excavation of submerged ports and shipwrecks in Indian waters. The paper highlight the objectives, methodology, tools, findings and the progress made in India in the field of marine archaeology during the 50 years...

  18. East India Company Logbooks - Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of images of 1,235 ship logbooks created during British East India Company voyages. Period of record 1786-1834, peaking in 1804. The...

  19. (Coal utilization in India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, R.P.

    1991-01-15

    Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

  20. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  1. Seasonal variability in aerosol optical and physical characteristics estimated using the application of the Ängström formula over Mohal in the northwestern Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Paul Guleria; Jagdish Chandra Kuniyal; Nand Lal Sharma; Pitamber Prasad Dhyani

    2012-06-01

    Investigations of aerosol optical and physical characteristics using the application of Ängström formula and second order polynomial fit were carried out from April 2006 to March 2009 at Mohal in the Kullu valley. The measurements of spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) were conducted using multiwavelength radiometer (MWR). The AOD at 0.5 m wavelength on daily basis (mean ± standard deviation) for the entire three-year study period is obtained as 0.24 ± 0.08. Seasonal variations show the highest AOD at 0.5 m wavelength with ∼0.34 ± 0.08 during pre-monsoon (April–July), followed by ∼0.26 ± 0.08 during monsoon (August–September), ∼0.21 ± 0.05 during post-monsoon (October–November) and ∼0.20 ± 0.07 during winter (December–March). The seasonal values indicate that the AOD at 0.5 m wavelength is decreasing from pre-monsoon to winter with a notable reduction around 41%. The Ängström parameters using least square method is not found appropriate for size distribution particularly when coarse mode aerosols dominate. The coefficients of second order polynomial fit are more appropriate for the discrimination of aerosol size or irrespective to the dominance of either of the aerosols size. The difference in coefficient of polynomial fit is used to get confirmation on the dominant mode during different seasons. Study reveals that about 93%, 72% and 59% of AOD spectra are dominated by a wide range of fine mode fractions or mixture of modes during post-monsoon, winter and monsoon, respectively. On the other hand, during pre-monsoon, 72% of AOD spectra are found to be dominated by coarse mode aerosols.

  2. India and The Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Ivanovich Lounev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that Indian-Arab relations are very complex and are affected by many positive and negative factors. From a political point of view, the Middle East does not rank high in the priorities of India’s modern foreign policy. In the bipolar period, India tried to strengthen ties with all developing countries with the aim of becoming a leader of the South. In this respect, the region (especially Egypt in the 1950-1970s played a special role. Now India pays attention mainly to vital actors. Policy of non-interference in regional conflicts is typical for India. Delhi has focused on the developing of ties with the countries of the Persian Gulf, due mainly to economic reasons that are of primary importance to India. This subregion is a major supplier of hydrocarbons to India, that is extremely vital for further rapid economic growth of the country (oil and gas account for about a third of India’s imports. In addition to this, millions of Indian citizens live in the Persian Gulf, and India (due to them has become the world leader by the volume of migrant remittances. The largest semi-peripheral countries, among which India should be mentioned particularly, began to play a special role in the new world system. However, the politics of balancing is characteristic for India both on global level as well as on regional one. But a real great power (and the desire to obtain such high status was always the main goal for an Asian giant should demonstrate a clear vision of global and regional issues, play an active role and offer its own solution of different conflicts and contradictions.

  3. India-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-30

    border terrorism” in both Kashmir and major Indian cities . In the interests of regional stability, the United States strongly endorses an existing, but...continued) Hindu ( Chennai ), November 6, 2008; “Is Barack Obama Good for India...Afghanistan, see “M.K. Bhadrakumar, “U.S. Draws India Into the Afghan War” (op-ed), Hindu ( Chennai ), December 25, 2008. 12 See, for example, Ijaz

  4. The Posture of India's Rise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jiali

    2006-01-01

    @@ India, a large developing country with a population of 1.1 billion,has experienced robust economic growth in recent years. As its economic power steadily builds, its military might, diplomatic the ac-tivities and even its cultural influence are expanding, resulting in its strategic rise. The international community universally believes that India has set foot on the path to become a major power.

  5. Seasonal Drought Prediction in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the most costly natural disasters in India. Seasonal prediction of drought can assist planners to manage agriculture and water resources. Such information can be valuable for a country like India where 60% of agriculture is rain-fed. Here we evaluate precipitation and temperature forecast from the NCEP's CFSV2 for seasonal drought prediction in India. We demonstrate the utility of the seasonal prediction of precipitation and temperature for drought forecast at 1-2 months lead time at a high spatial resolution. Precipitation from CFSv2 showed moderate correlations with observed up to two months lead. For one month lead, we found a significant correlation between CFSv2 and observed precipitation during winter season. Air temperature from the CFSv2 showed a good correlation with observed temperature during the winter. We forced the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with the CFSv2 forecast of precipitation and air temperature to generate forecast of hydrologic variables such as soil moisture and total runoff. We find that errors of the prediction reduce for the two month lead time in the majority of the study domain except the northern India. Skills of Initial Hydrologic Conditions combined with moderate skills of forcings based on the CFSv2 showed ability of drought prediction in India. The developed system was able to successfully predict observed top layer soil moisture and observed drought based on satellite remote sensing in India.

  6. India's Trade Intensity with ASEAN Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Rekha Acharya; Dr. Haldhar Sharma

    2012-01-01

    India is a growing economy and ASEAN is a fastest developing trade block. India’s trade relations with ASEAN substantially have been changed after the “Look-East†policy of India in 1991. To strengthen the economic relation with ASEAN; India became full dialogue partner of ASEAN in December 1995 at Bangkok. More recently a Free Trade Agreement in goods was signed between India and ASEAN, in Bangkok on August 13th 2009. In this context, this paper is an attempt to measure the India’s tr...

  7. Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies

  8. Health problems among Thai tourists returning from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Poovorawan, Kittiyod; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Wichainprasast, Pongdej; Tantawichien, Terapong

    2017-07-01

    The number of Thai tourists visiting India is increasing each year. Most studies investigating health problems among international travellers to India have focused on travellers from Europe or North America, and the applicability of these studies to Asian travellers is unknown. This cross-sectional study used data collected from Thai tourists who had recently completed a trip to India. A questionnaire on demographic data, travel characteristics, pre-travel health preparation, and health problems during the trip to India was administered. All participants were also invited to answer a follow-up questionnaire 15 days after their arrival. The study included 1,304 Thai tourists returning from India between October 2014 and March 2015. Sixty-two percent were female. Overall median age was 49 years, and the median length of stay was 10.6 days. Most were package tourists, and 52% (675) reported health problems during their trip. Common health problems were cough, runny nose, and sore throat (31.1%), followed by musculoskeletal problems (21.7%), fever (12.7%), diarrhea (9.8%) and skin problems (6.6%). Other reported problems were related to the eyes/ears (2.1%), animal exposure (1.9%) and accidents (0.8%). We found that several factors may be associated with the incidence of health problems among these tourists, including travelling style and travel health preparation. In the follow-up questionnaire, 16.8% of the participants reported new or additional symptoms that developed after their return to Thailand. Respiratory symptoms were still the most common health problems during this 15-day period. Over half (52%) of Thai tourists experienced health problems during their trip to India. The most common health problem was not travellers' diarrhoea, as would be expected from published studies. Rather, respiratory and musculoskeletal problems were common symptoms. This information will be useful in pre-travel assessment and care. Our findings may indicate that health risks among

  9. Resources of Renewable Energy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surmadhur Pant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources sector growth in India has been significant, even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished. Even for the decentralized systems, the growth for solar home lighting systems has been 300%, solar lanterns 99% and solar photovoltaic water pumps 196%. This is a phenomenal growth in the renewable energy sector mainly for applications that were considered to be supplied only through major electricity utilities. Some large projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 km2 area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 to 2,100 giga watts. Renewable energy systems are also being looked upon as a major application for electrification of 20,000 remote and unelectrified villages and hamlets by 2007 and all households in such villages and hamlets by 2018.

  10. Performance Analysis of Microfinance Institutions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azhar Ikram Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of Microfinance Institutions-MFIs of India. It includes analysis of MFIs of India. This study includes analysis of performance of microfinance institutions with reference to both financial and non-financial ways. Performance of microfinance institutions is measured using four parameters, which are sustainability/profitability, outreach, operational and financial efficiency. Data is taken of 99 Microfinance Institutions of India from the Microfinance Information Exchange for a period of 11 years. Variables of this study are both in absolute and relative terms. The endogenous variables are Return on Assets and Return on Equity for sustainability, Number of Borrowers per Staff Member for operational efficiency, Cost per Borrower for financial efficiency, and Number of Active Borrowers for outreach. Panel data analysis is done after checking the assumptions of the model. Hausman Test is applied to find out the suitability of Fixed or Random Effect Model. Both random and fixed effect were found suitable for application. In addition to this descriptive analysis of the variables is also done. The results show that most of the variables used in the study are significant in outreach model; other than rank, financial revenue to assets ratio, portfolio at risk, deposits, and capital to assets ratio all other variables are significant in case of sustainability using ROA model and same variables are found insignificant in ROE model except financial expense to assets ratio; in financial efficiency model both significant and insignificant variables are found; and in case of operational efficiency all variables are found significant.

  11. Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indradip Mitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available India launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission in 2009, which aims to set up 20 000 MW of grid connected solar power, besides 2 000 MW equivalent of off-grid applications and cumulative growth of solar thermal collector area to 20 million m2 by 2022. Availability of reliable and accurate solar radiation data is crucial to achieve the targets. As a result of this initiative, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE of Government of India (GoI has awarded a project to Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET, Chennai in the year 2011 to set up 51 Solar Radiation Resource Assessment (SRRA stations using the state-of-the-art equipment in various parts of the country, especially the sites with high potential for solar power. The GoI project has synergy with SolMap project, which is implemented by the Deutsche GesellschaftfürInternationaleZusammenarbeit (GIZ in cooperation with the MNRE. SolMap project is contributing to SRRA project in establishing quality checks on the data obtained as per International protocols and helping data processing to generate investment grade data. The paper highlights the details of SRRA stations and an attempt has been made to present some of the important results of quality control and data analysis with respect to GHI and DNI. While our analysis of the data over one year finds that intensity and profile of the insolation are not uniform across the geographic regions, the variability in DNI is particularly high. Strong influence of monsoon is also identified. SRRA infrastructure aims to develop investment grade solar radiation resource information to assist project activities under the National Solar Mission of India.

  12. 49th Annual Convention of the Computer Society of India CSI

    CERN Document Server

    Govardhan, A; Raju, K; Mandal, J

    2015-01-01

    Volume 1 contains 73 papers presented at CSI 2014: Emerging ICT for Bridging the Future: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Convention of Computer Society of India. The convention was held during 12-14, December, 2014 at Hyderabad, Telangana, India. This volume contains papers mainly focused on Fuzzy Systems, Image Processing, Software Engineering, Cyber Security and Digital Forensic, E-Commerce, Big Data, Cloud Computing and ICT applications.

  13. Falling standards of research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Some points related to falling standards of research in India are discussed. The necessity for scientists to compete by publishing in international journals of high I. F.s (Impact Factor) is stressed. India lacks pioneers in science. Scientific...

  14. India: An Ideal Partner in Tanzanian agriculture?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    India's effective engagement in Tanzanian agriculture that include the need for ... developing world (e.g. India) through enhanced links in trade, investments, ..... Nations University Press, New York, pp 106-127. Escorts. (2010). News and.

  15. Exploration of the continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Vora, K.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    In mid 1970's the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India prepared a plan for systematic regional, geological and geophysical surveys of the continental margins of India. This involved over 75,000 km of underway (bathymetric, side scan sonar...

  16. Indias keelati maal / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2000-01-01

    Dehlis kõrvaldati näituselt "Uue sajandi hääled" Surendran Nairi maal, millel Ikarose aktifiguur istub India rahvussümbolil - Ashoka sambal. Kuu varem katkestati moedemonstratsioon, mille kollektsiooni kuulus India riigilipust valmistatud kleit.

  17. India`s nuclear weapons posture: The end of ambiguity. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis examines the future of India`s nuclear weapons posture. Since testing a nuclear device in 1974, India been able to produce weapons material within its civilian nuclear power program. Despite having this nuclear weapons capability, India prefers to maintain an ambiguous nuclear posture. New pressures in the post-cold war era -- the loss of the Soviet Union as a strategic ally, the indefinite extension of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty, the rise of Hindu nationalism, and India`s growing participation in the global economy -- have the potential to derail India`s current nuclear policy. This thesis identifies the domestic and international pressures on India, and assesses the prospects for India to retain its ambiguous policy, renounce the nuclear option, or assemble an overt nuclear arsenal.

  18. Quantifying India's HFC emissions from whole-air samples collected on the UK-India Monsoon campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Daniel; Ganesan, Anita; O'Doherty, Simon; Bauguitte, Stephane; Rigby, Matt; Lunt, Mark

    2017-04-01

    With a population exceeding 1 billion and a rapidly expanding economy, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from India are of global significance. As of 2010, India's anthropogenic GHG emissions accounted for 5.6% of the global total, with this share predicted to grow significantly in the coming decades. We focus here on hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), a diverse range of potent GHGs, whose role as replacements for ozone-depleting CFCs and HCFCs in air-conditioning and refrigeration applications (among others) has led to rapid atmospheric accumulation. Recent efforts to reduce their consumption (and subsequent emission) culminated in an amendment to the Montreal Protocol; member states are now required to phase-down their use of HFCs, with the first cuts planned for 2019. Despite the potential climate implications, atmospheric measurements of HFCs in India, required for quantifying their emissions using top-down inverse methods, have not previously existed. Here we present the first Indian hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) observations, obtained during two months of low altitude (<2000 m) flights. Of the 176 whole air samples collected on board the UK's NERC-FAAM (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements) research aircraft, the majority were obtained above the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Northern India, where population density is greatest. Using a small subset of samples filled above the Arabian Sea, we derive compound specific baselines, to which the remaining samples are compared. Significant mole fraction enhancements are observed for all major HFCs, indicating the presence of regional emissions sources. Little enhancement is observed in the concentration of various HFC predecessors, including CFCs, suggesting India's success in phasing out the majority of ozone depleting substances. Using these atmospheric observations and the NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) atmospheric transport model, we present the first regional HFC flux estimates for India.

  19. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship.

  20. Delhi: India's urban example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, B

    1988-06-01

    Demography, migration, economy, employment, education, planning, housing and transportation in the Delhi Union Territory are described. The Territory is an administrative district that includes Old Delhi, the site of the ancient walled city, the New Delhi Municipal Corporation, the center of government, the Delhi Cantonment, a military center, and 27 smaller towns, many of which are rural in character. The Delhi Territory is notable for its relatively high per capita income ($321), high sex ratio (124), high proportion of recent migrants (over half), but also high employment rate and educational status of these migrants. Much of the economy is based on government service, retail trade and services. School enrollment is high, nearly 100% of primary school age children, 77% of middle school, and 50% of secondary school. Rapid growth has stressed the public health, sanitation, housing, electric power systems. Transportation is coping relatively well, considering that 20% of all motor vehicles in India are in Delhi. 50% of daily trips are made by bus, 22% by bicycle, 10% by motorcycles, and 4% by cars. Accommodations for tourists in Delhi's old center are good in both expensive and inexpensive hotels.

  1. Judicial Productivity in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Walsh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential thesis of this paper is that the practices and associated expectations of participants in the Indian court system are significantly different from most other countries that have inherited their legal systems from the British. An examination of those differences can help to identify strategies that may be pursued in overcoming a significant case backlog and delay problem in Indian courts. International comparisons with courts in other jurisdictions are not only useful and appropriate, but offer new opportunities for reforming the Indian court system that may hitherto have been overlooked. If the reader agrees with the author’s arguments and conclusions, then this paper offers a novel range of areas in which reforms may be advanced. If, on the other hand, the effect of this paper is to provoke a contradictory response from Indian commentators by reference to practices in other countries, then it will have achieved its purpose in seeking to gain recognition of the value of international comparisons as a means of identifying court system reform strategies in India and, hopefully, elsewhere.

  2. The United States -- India Strategic Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    mandala , or circle of countries, or enemies. 22 The Arthashastra translates to “The Science of Polity” and is the finest, fullest and most cogently...September 2009): 216. 22 Cohen, India: Emerging Power, 11. 23 Wolpert, A New History of India, 57. 9 day northern India. Mandala was based on a

  3. Migration from India to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, S P; Chandra, A

    1994-01-01

    "The article examines the contemporary trends and future prospects of migration from India to Australia. The focus is on Indian Settlers and Temporary Entrants admitted to Australia for employment and Indian students admitted to Australia for higher studies. The volume of emigration for permanent residence during the early 1990s has made India one of the leading source countries of migration to Australia. A majority of Indians admitted as Settlers every year join the labor force. Recent data indicate that, among Indian Settlers, there is a preponderance of unsponsored Independent Skilled Migrants. Given the anticipated growth in the number of Indian students, the coming years are likely to witness a spurt in Skilled Temporary Workers from India." excerpt

  4. India joins the ISOLDE collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    On 18 April India signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the ISOLDE collaboration, thus strengthening its links with CERN. Three experiments led by Indian scientists at ISOLDE have been recommended by the Research Board and will be performed in the coming months, and more projects are being designed for the future HIE-ISOLDE scientific programme.   Shaking hands: Rüdiger Voss (left), adviser for India in CERN’s International Relations Office, and SINP Director Milan Kumar Sanyal (right). Also photographed: ISOLDE spokesperson Yorick Blumenfeld, (centre left) and Sunanda Banerjee, head of high-energy at SINP (centre right).  The new Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed in Kolkata at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP). India thus becomes the 15th member of the ISOLDE collaboration, after having signed similar collaboration documents with the CMS and ALICE experiments. “This agreement will a...

  5. Use of plant extracts for tea pest management in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah

    2016-06-01

    India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic

  6. Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikid, T; Jain, S K; Sharma, A; Kumar, A; Narain, J P

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors. In the recent past, India has seen outbreaks of eight organisms of emerging and re-emerging diseases in various parts of the country, six of these are of zoonotic origin. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will increasingly require the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, changes in human behaviour, a national policy on early detection of and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action. WHO has made several recommendations for national response mechanisms. Many of these are in various stages of implementation in India. However, for a country of size and population of India, the emerging infections remain a real and present danger. A meaningful response must approach the problem at the systems level. A comprehensive national strategy on infectious diseases cutting across all relevant sectors with emphasis on strengthened surveillance, rapid response, partnership building and research to guide public policy is needed.

  7. Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Dikid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors. In the recent past, India has seen outbreaks of eight organisms of emerging and re-emerging diseases in various parts of the country, six of these are of zoonotic origin. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will increasingly require the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, changes in human behaviour, a national policy on early detection of and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action. WHO has made several recommendations for national response mechanisms. Many of these are in various stages of implementation in India. However, for a country of size and population of India, the emerging infections remain a real and present danger. A meaningful response must approach the problem at the systems level. A comprehensive national strategy on infectious diseases cutting across all relevant sectors with emphasis on strengthened surveillance, rapid response, partnership building and research to guide public policy is needed.

  8. Genetically modified cotton in India and detection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the largest cotton-growing countries. Cotton is a fiber crop with varied applications from making tiny threads to fashionable clothing in the textile sector. In the near future, cotton crop will gain popularity as a multipurpose crop in India. The commercialization of Bt cotton in 2002 and consequently the fast adoption of Bt cotton hybrids by cotton farmers have enhanced the cotton production in India. Presently, genetically modified (GM) cotton has occupied 21.0 million hectares (mha) that comprise 14% of the global area under GM cultivation. In the coming years, improved cotton hybrids, with stacked and multiple gene events for improved fiber quality, insect resistance, drought tolerance, and herbicide tolerance, would further significantly improve the cotton production in India. With the dramatic increase in commercialization of GM crops, there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and robust GM detection methods for effective risk assessment and management, post release monitoring, and to solve the legal disputes. DNA-based GM diagnostics are most robust assays due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and stability of DNA molecule.

  9. Mechatronics Engineering Education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bajpai Shrish; Khare Sushant

    2015-01-01

    Present paper aims to give an insight in the field of Mechatronics, specifically its standard of education in India. We have investigated this field right from its origin. We have analyzed how it expanded as a proper discipline of engineering and in which direction the development in this field is going now and, at the same time, its status of education in India and where we are in addressing the industry’s need both in terms of quality and quantity of students. We have also assessed why Mech...

  10. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.

  11. India emerging: New financial architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarshan Basu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis of 2007–2008 highlighted the need to re-evaluate several well established tenets in the world of finance. Questions have been raised the world over about the existing paradigm, leading to an acceptance that new financial architecture needed to be evolved and that new models need to emerge, keeping in mind the multiplicity of socio-economic realities that exist round the globe. In this context, the imperative for a new financial architecture in India is quite evident, and the ensuing panel discussion throws up some India-specific issues that need to be explored by the various stakeholders involved in this attempt.

  12. Incredible India: the inconvenient truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundkur, Bal

    2011-01-01

    The author's objective is to correct many of the misconceptions about India and to combat mistaken analysis. He highlights the hundreds of millions who live in poverty, the rampant corruption and the incompetence of the administration. He asserts that comparisons with China are always to the disadvantage of India, except in the field of democracy, and suggests that the Indian Space Programme is symptomatic of a wide-spread misallocation of resources. And to suggest that the traffic problems in Delhi and Mumbai are being caused by more motor vehicles is a misdiagnosis. The real cause is an increase in the number of bullock carts.

  13. India RE Grid Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-08

    The use of renewable energy (RE) sources, primarily wind and solar generation, is poised to grow significantly within the Indian power system. The Government of India has established a target of 175 gigawatts (GW) of installed RE capacity by 2022, including 60 GW of wind and 100 GW of solar, up from 29 GW wind and 9 GW solar at the beginning of 2017. Thanks to advanced weather and power system modeling made for this project, the study team is able to explore operational impacts of meeting India's RE targets and identify actions that may be favorable for integration.

  14. Girl prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  15. Cholera outbreaks in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae.

  16. A unique late bronze age copper fish-hook from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, west coast of India: Evidence on the advance fishing technology in ancient India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    . These records i n dicate that Hara p pans were more familiar wit h marine fishing. The distribution of shell bangles and other shell artifacts in every Hara p pan site is also indicative of a well - organized marine fis h ing activity. There are several..., buff ware and grey ware. The important shapes include jars, car i nated dishes, bowl with featureless and shar p- ened rim. A sherd of stud ha n dle bowl is also noticed, a charact eristic fe a ture of Saurashtra and Kachchh Hara p pans...

  17. India - Mahabharata. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, Carole; DeVito, Pasquale

    This lecture is accompanied by slides of India. The lecture is used an introduction to the first of the three videotapes of Peter Brook's "Mahabharata," providing students with preliminary background on Hinduism and on the Hindu epic. The objective is also to have students think about the basic values of ancient and modern Hindus. (EH)

  18. Teleophthalmology: A Model for Eye Care Delivery in Rural and Underserved Areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan Prathiba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tamilnadu and can be replicated at the national level. This community outreach programme using telemedicine facilities has increased awareness of eye diseases, improved access to specialized health care, helped in local community empowerment, and provided employment opportunities. Early detection of sight threatening disorders by teleophthalmology and prompt treatment can help decrease visual impairment. Conclusion. Teleophthalmology can be a very effective model for improving eye care delivery system in rural and underserved areas of India.

  19. Access to medicine and the dangers of patent linkage: lessons from Bayer Corp v. Union of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mabel

    2011-03-01

    In February 2010, the Delhi High Court delivered its decision in Bayer Corp v Union of India in which Bayer had appealed against an August 2009 decision of the same court. Both decisions prevented Bayer from introducing the concept of patent linkage into India's drug regulatory regime. Bayer appealed to the Indian Supreme Court, the highest court in India, which agreed on 2 March 2010 to hear the appeal. Given that India is regarded as a global pharmaceutical manufacturer of generic medications, how its judiciary and government perceive their international obligations has a significant impact on the global access to medicines regime. In rejecting the application of patent linkage, the case provides an opportunity for India to further acknowledge its international human rights obligations.

  20. Climate change, zoonoses and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Banga, H S

    2011-12-01

    Economic trends have shaped our growth and the growth of the livestock sector, but atthe expense of altering natural resources and systems in ways that are not always obvious. Now, however, the reverse is beginning to happen, i.e. environmental trends are beginning to shape our economy and health status. In addition to water, air and food, animals and birds play a pivotal role in the maintenance and transmission of important zoonotic diseases in nature. It is generally considered that the prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne zoonoses is likely to increase in the coming years due to the effects of global warming in India. In recent years, vector-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India. Vector-borne zoonoses now occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. New reservoir areas of cutaneous leishmaniosis in South India have been recognised, and the role of climate change in its re-emergence warrants further research, as does the role of climate change in the ascendancy of waterborne and foodborne illness. Similarly, climate change that leads to warmer and more humid conditions may increase the risk of transmission of airborne zoonoses, and hot and drier conditions may lead to a decline in the incidence of disease(s). The prevalence of these zoonotic diseases and their vectors and the effect of climate change on important zoonoses in India are discussed in this review.

  1. India: From SITE to INSAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhri, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies core of India's illiteracy problem and describes use of educational technology to educate rural children. Highlights include descriptions of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) project; motivation behind low-cost educational aids development in rural areas; an educational radio pilot project; and development and…

  2. India: een keizer zonder kleren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieten, K.

    2011-01-01

    Kristoffel Lieten concentrates on India, which since the 1990s has been referred to as the rising giant in Asia, together with China. The GNP growth indeed has accelerated and ICT-related exports have risen sharply. At the same time, however, many of the problems which have disturbed the Indian econ

  3. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Klaauw (Bas); L. Wang (Lihong)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated

  4. India: From SITE to INSAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhri, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies core of India's illiteracy problem and describes use of educational technology to educate rural children. Highlights include descriptions of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) project; motivation behind low-cost educational aids development in rural areas; an educational radio pilot project; and development and…

  5. Mechatronics Engineering Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Khare, Sushant

    2015-01-01

    Present paper aims to give an insight in the field of Mechatronics, specifically its standard of education in India. We have investigated this field right from its origin. We have analyzed how it expanded as a proper discipline of engineering and in which direction the development in this field is going now and, at the same time, its status of…

  6. History of Cardiology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Poverty among Elderly in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  8. ICT Innovation in Contemporary India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sudhanshu; Chatterjee, Sutirtha; Sarker, Suprateek

    2010-01-01

    The paper we present here discusses ICT innovation in India using a narrative framework. We argue that ICT innovation has not really been a subject matter sufficiently researched in information systems from the perspective of innovation in developing countries. We use a grounded theory inspired...

  9. ICT Innovation in Contemporary India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sudhanshu; Chatterjee, Sutirtha; Sarker, Suprateek

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses ICT innovation in India using a narrative framework. We argue that ICT innovation has not been a subject sufficiently researched in information systems from the perspective of innovation in developing countries. We use a grounded theory inspired approach. There are three...

  10. Computer Science Research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-07

    This paper begins with a discussion of the nature of Computer Science Research in India. The type of institutions in which Computer Science research...Finally we study the influence on Indian Computer Science research of the phenomenal growth in exports by the Indian software industry and the arrival

  11. Production Engineering Education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khare Sushant

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Present paper deals with the field of Production Engineering specifically its standard of education in India. This discipline of engineering focuses on the capability of an engineer not just as a technician but also as a manager. As a result industry is also favoring the development of this field. This paper reviews the educational structure followed in India for engineering education. It aims to give a clear idea of standard of this discipline's courses being run in India at different levels of engineering, considering both centrally funded and private institutions. It also covers the necessary simulation tools used to train the students during these courses and inspects over available web-resources related to the subject. In the epilogue it discusses the future prospects for this field's development as a discipline and concludes with a brief comparison of India's status from other regions of world. In the end we have made some suggestions to decision-makers based on our findings to improve the existing model.

  12. International nurse recruitment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadria, Binod

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes the practice of international recruitment of Indian nurses in the model of a "business process outsourcing" of comprehensive training-cum-recruitment-cum-placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Despite the extremely low nurse to population ratio in India, hospital managers in India are not concerned about the growing exodus of nurses to other countries. In fact, they are actively joining forces with profitable commercial ventures that operate as both training and recruiting agencies. Most of this activity is concentrated in Delhi, Bangalore, and Kochi. Gaps in data on nursing education, employment, and migration, as well as nonstandardization of definitions of "registered nurse," impair the analysis of international migration of nurses from India, making it difficult to assess the impact of migration on vacancy rates. One thing is clear, however, the chain of commercial interests that facilitate nurse migration is increasingly well organized and profitable, making the future growth of this business a certainty.

  13. Education and Caste in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

  14. History of Cardiology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  15. Maritime archaeological studies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    India with more than 7000 km long coastline and about 5000 years old maritime history is dotted with several ancient ports. Marine archaeological research during last two and half decades has revealed a number of sites along the Indian coast, which...

  16. Mechatronics Engineering Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Khare, Sushant

    2015-01-01

    Present paper aims to give an insight in the field of Mechatronics, specifically its standard of education in India. We have investigated this field right from its origin. We have analyzed how it expanded as a proper discipline of engineering and in which direction the development in this field is going now and, at the same time, its status of…

  17. Designing Citizens in Transnational India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Lilly Christine

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the politics of design practice in urban India through an ethnography of a Delhi-based design and innovation studio. The dissertation focuses on the ideological continuities between the profession of design and middle class Indian citizenship post-liberalization, twinning arts of governance through the shaping of the…

  18. Fusion research programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shishir Deshpande; Predhiman Kaw

    2013-10-01

    The fusion energy research program of India is summarized in the context of energy needs and scenario of tokamak advancements on domestic and international fronts. In particular, the various technologies that will lead us to ultimately build a fusion power reactor are identified along with the steps being taken for their indigenous development.

  19. India in the urban revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nijman

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, India’s development has featured rapid economic growth and unprecedented urbanization. Using preliminary results from the 2011 Census and recent macro-economic data, this paper analyses the relationship between urbanization and economic development in India. While urbanization is

  20. Renewable energy scenario in India: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Souvik; Ganguly, Sourav; Das, Ayanangshu; Sen, Joyjeet; Dey, Sourav

    2016-10-01

    Majority of the power generation in India is carried out by conventional energy sources, coal and fossil fuels being the primary ones, which contribute heavily to greenhouse gas emission and global warming. The Indian power sector is witnessing a revolution as excitement grips the nation about harnessing electricity from various renewable energy sources. Electricity generation from renewable sources is increasingly recognized to play an important role for the achievement of a variety of primary and secondary energy policy goals, such as improved diversity and security of energy supply, reduction of local pollutant and global greenhouse gas emissions, regional and rural development, and exploitation of opportunities for fostering social cohesion, value addition and employment generation at the local and regional level. This focuses the solution of the energy crisis on judicious utilization of abundant the renewable energy resources, such as biomass, solar, wind, geothermal and ocean tidal energy. This paper reviews the renewable energy scenario of India as well as extrapolates the future developments keeping in view the consumption, production and supply of power. Research, development, production and demonstration have been carried out enthusiastically in India to find a feasible solution to the perennial problem of power shortage for the past three decades. India has obtained application of a variety of renewable energy technologies for use in different sectors too. There are ample opportunities with favorable geology and geography with huge customer base and widening gap between demand and supply. Technological advancement, suitable regulatory policies, tax rebates, efficiency improvement in consequence to R&D efforts are the few pathways to energy and environment conservation and it will ensure that these large, clean resource bases are exploited as quickly and cost effectively as possible. This paper gives an overview of the potential renewable energy resources

  1. Epidemiology of Bluetongue in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P P; Hegde, N R; Reddy, Y N; Krishnajyothi, Y; Reddy, Y V; Susmitha, B; Gollapalli, S R; Putty, K; Reddy, G H

    2016-04-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is an insectborne endemic disease in India. Although infections are observed in domestic and wild ruminants, the clinical disease and mortality are observed only in sheep, especially in the southern states of the country. The difference in disease patterns in different parts of the country could be due to varied climatic conditions, sheep population density and susceptibility of the sheep breeds to BT. Over the five decades after the first report of BT in 1964, most of the known serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been reported from India either by virus isolation or by detection of serotype-specific antibodies. There have been no structured longitudinal studies to identify the circulating serotypes throughout the country. At least ten serotypes were isolated between 1967 and 2000 (BTV-1-4, 6, 9, 16-18, 23). Since 2001, the All-India Network Programme on Bluetongue and other laboratories have isolated eight different serotypes (BTV-1-3, 9, 10, 12, 16, 21). Genetic analysis of these viruses has revealed that some of them vary substantially from reference viruses, and some show high sequence identity with modified live virus vaccines used in different parts of the world. These observations have highlighted the need to develop diagnostic capabilities, especially as BT outbreaks are still declared based on clinical signs. Although virus isolation and serotyping are the gold standards, rapid methods based on the detection of viral nucleic acid may be more suitable for India. The epidemiological investigations also have implications for vaccine design. Although only a handful serotypes may be involved in causing outbreaks every year, the combination of serotypes may change from year to year. For effective control of BT in India, it may be pertinent to introduce sentinel and vector traps systems for identification of the circulating serotypes and to evaluate herd immunity against different serotypes, so that relevant strains can be included in vaccine

  2. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological

  3. Introducing Waqf Based Takaful Model in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmed Salman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Waqf is a unique feature of the socioeconomic system of Islam in a multi- religious and developing country like India. India is a rich country with waqf assets. The history of waqf in India can be traced back to 800 years ago. Most of the researchers, suggest how waqf can be used a tool to mitigate the poverty of Muslims. India has the third highest Muslim population after Indonesia and Pakistan. However, the majority of Muslims belong to the low income group and they are in need of help. It is believed that waqf can be utilized for the betterment of Indian Muslim community. Among the available uses of waqf assets, the main objective of this paper is to introduce waqf based takaful model in India. In addition, how this proposed model can be adopted in India is highlighted.Methods – Library research is applied since this paper relies on secondary data by thoroughlyreviewing the most relevant literature.Result – India as a rich country with waqf assets should fully utilize the resources to help the Muslims through takaful.Conclusion – In this study, we have proposed waqf based takaful model with the combination of the concepts mudarabah and wakalah for India. We recommend this model based on the background of the  country and situations. Since we have not tested the viability of this model in India, future research should be continued on this testing.Keywords : Wakaf, Takaful, Kemiskinan dan India

  4. Marine fishery possibilities of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, N.K.

    Marine fishery activity of the west coast of India is discussed. Sea fish production from the west coast of India makes three fourths of total fish production from Indian coasts. Kerala accounts for the largest production of fish in India...

  5. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  6. A Journey through India beyond the Textbook. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawierucha, Christina F. M.

    This unit is designed to accompany a video presentation that focuses on India from the perspective of a participant in the Fulbright-Hays Seminar Abroad Program. This unit can be incorporated with a study of India's land, history, and geography. The text provides a narrative as students view contemporary pictures of India and is intended to…

  7. Prospects of Sino-India Relations 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Cambodia, Vietnam, Sumatra, Java , and Sri Lanka as regions that received strong influences from India in the domains of religion, language, art, and... Islamic state remains India. From the Chinese perspective, an India less hassled by Pakistan might be more assertive against China. Moreover, ―to...own concerns with Islamic fundamentalism originating from Pakistan, and the threat of a nuclear exchange that could vitiate the environment within

  8. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Bangladesh, India and Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Bang-ladesh-China People’s Friendship Association (BCPFA), the Unity International Foundation of India (UIFI), the India-China Society and the Thai-Chinese Friendship Association (TCFA), from November 7 to 22, 2005, a CPAFFC delegation led by its Vice President Wang Yunze paid a visit to Bangladesh, India and Thailand, where they were accorded warm and friendly reception. The BCPFA attached great importance to the CPAFFC delegation’s visit.

  9. Education and Economic Development in India

    OpenAIRE

    Monojit Chatterji

    2008-01-01

    This brief survey examines the returns to education in India , and then examines the role of education on both economic growth and economic development with particular reference to India. Throughout, the objective is to draw out the implications of the empirical results for education policy. The results suggest that female education is of particular importance in India. They also suggest that perhaps because of the externalities it generates, primary education is more important than might be ...

  10. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  11. Environmental policy in India. Umweltpolitik in Indien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyska, B.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of its strict environmental protection legislation, India is faced with a disastrous level of environmental destruction. The national ecological problems must be faced with great determination if India's ever-growing population is to survive. India's environmental policy is discussed and analyzed in theory and practice. Legal measures and their implementation in reality are discussed for the following examples: Destruction of vegetation, pollution of water and air, nuclear pollution. (orig.).

  12. Epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M K; John, T J; Keusch, G T

    1994-01-01

    India is the second most populous country in the world, with more than 880 million people in 1993. With less than 1% of the global land mass, India has more than 16% of the world's population, more than that of South America, Africa, and Australia combined. The population will exceed one billion by 2000, surpassing even China. By then, India will have more new cases of HIV infection per year than any single country, and probably the largest number of HIV-infected people as well. Whatever happens in India will therefore have a major impact upon the global pandemic of HIV and AIDS. The paper considers the history of the HIV epidemic in India, the probable routes of entry of HIV into India, trends in prevalence in population samples, the geographic distribution of HIV in India, AIDS in India, clinical problems in India, projections of HIV/AIDS cases, and how to control HIV/AIDS. The HIV epidemic has grown silently in India over the past decade, with the virus spread mainly through heterosexual intercourse. All known routes of transmission are, however, known in India, and increasing seroprevalence has been noted among prostitutes, STD clinic patients, blood donors, and IV drug users. The population has been largely ignorant of the advance of HIV, with public officials and the media at a loss to adequately inform the public about what is taking place. Greater energy and resources are now being devoted to the problem, but it may be too late to stop a major epidemic. The authors reviewed all available published and unpublished data to present an overview of the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in India.

  13. Cognitive Access to TVWS in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kishor P.; Skouby, Knud Erik; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    performed spectrum measurements of TV band in Pune, India. Our result shows poor spectrum utilization in TV band, and good potential for Cognitive radio operation. Digital switchover in India will generate golden opportunity for empowering rural India. As majority of India’s population lives in rural part...... of India, we have proposed wireless broadband access to rural areas using TV White Spaces (TVWSs). This will help in bridging the digital divide by offering governance, banking, and health services online in the rural areas....

  14. Thyroid disorders in India: An epidemiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases are common worldwide. In India too, there is a significant burden of thyroid diseases. According to a projection from various studies on thyroid disease, it has been estimated that about 42 million people in India suffer from thyroid diseases. This review will focus on the epidemiology of five common thyroid diseases in India: (1 hypothyroidism, (2 hyperthyroidism, (3 goiter and iodine deficiency disorders, (4 Hashimoto′s thyroiditis, and (5 thyroid cancer. This review will also briefly cover the exciting work that is in progress to ascertain the normal reference range of thyroid hormones in India, especially in pregnancy and children.

  15. The practice of telepathology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruah M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Telepathology in India is still in the evolving stages. Although, much progress has been made around the world specially in the field of digital imaging and virtual slides, the practice of telepathology in India still revolves around static telepathology, be it in telelearning or distance learning, or in remote diagnosis. Websites such as telepathology.org.in have been very successful in popularizing telepathology through quizzes of interesting and rare cases. The only study of teleconsultation from India, has shown that a good concordance with glass slide and static telepathology images. The reasons for the relative delay in acceptance of telepathology in India are manifold.

  16. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, P; Singh, M; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik

    2001-01-01

    , India. Three alleles APOE*E2, APOE*E3 and APOE*E4 were observed in Ramgarhia and Ramdasia with the frequencies of 0.031, 0.913, 0.056 and 0.043, 0.886 and 0.071, respectively. Higher heterozygosity (20.8%) in Ramdasia reflects greater variation at the APOE locus. The APOE*E3 allele is found...

  17. Urban Air Pollution in India

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Urvashi

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the main efforts undertaken to stem the growth of air pollution in Indian cities. We begin by examining trends in air quality across the country. This is followed by a description of the legal and institutional framework and policies for controlling air pollution in India. Next we report on efforts to improve air quality in Delhi. We conclude by describing recent actions to control air pollution in cities other than Delhi.

  18. Wealth Management Models in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mody, Riddhi

    2007-01-01

    High performance levels and accelerating economic indicators worldwide has led to an increase in the number of high net worth individuals (HNWIs) and the amount of wealth they hold in recent years. After the economic reforms of 1991, the Indian economy has opened up gradually and there has been an increase in the inflow of foreign funds. As a result, investors in India and worldwide are worried about managing their wealth and looking at alternative ways to maintaining and creating wealth. Wea...

  19. India in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    still are limited but are expanding. Reminiscent of India’s precolonial relationship with coastal Africa , New Delhi’s key connections today are with some...Central Asia to Japan. Finally, and most of all, the rise of India will have consequences in the broad belt of nations from South Africa to Austra...Hormuz and from the coast of Africa to the western shores of Australia. For some Indians, the emphasis is on the northern Indian Ocean, but for others the

  20. Comparisons between China and India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ArvinderSingh

    2005-01-01

    Comparisons between China and India abound. However, the usual comparisons are based on the GDP growth rates, exports, or FDI etc., and thus have not taken us analytically far. An appreciation of the so far understated dissimilarities between the two economies,especially the social settings in which they work, would not only help in understanding better the nature of profound transformation that the both are going through, but would enhance our theoretical understanding of other developing/transitional economies as well.

  1. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  2. History of Cardiology in India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga a...

  3. Clean Coal Initiatives in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Availability of, and access to, coal is a crucial element of modern economies and it helps pave the way for human development. Accordingly, the thermal power sector and steel industries have been given a high priority in the national planning processes in India and a concerted focus on enhancing these sectors have resulted in significant gain in generation and availability of electricity and steel in the years since independence. To meet the need of huge demand of power coal is excavated. The process of excavation to the use of coal is potential enough to degrade the environment. Coal Mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities directly and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coal field in India have become derelict due to abandoned and active opencast and underground mines. The study is pursued to illustrate the facts which show the urgent need to clean coal mining in India.

  4. Can India Overtake China Economically?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓

    2007-01-01

    The China-India comparison has grabbed the attention of overseas scholars in recent years.The importance of this article is that,in addition to comparing Chinese and Indian economies in terms of economic growth rate,economic size,financial system,social development benchmark and infrastructure,etc.,the author also carries out an in.depth analysis of China’s and India’s rapid economic growth sustainability-which is the most important evidence to be considered in judging whether India can overtake China. More significantly,the author analyzes the economic meaning of the China-India economic comparison from a broader macro-perspective:is software infrastructure or hardware infrastructure the core driver of economic growth in developing countries? What kind of government is more conducive to the economic growth of post-developing counties? What kind of political system is more favourable to economic growth? This article deepens our understanding and knowledge of the factors affecting the economic growth of developing countries.

  5. A Comparative Study between The Marketing Concepts of Chain-Hotels and Family Operated Hotels In India.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Nishit

    2009-01-01

    In the age of globalization, India is one of the fastest growing economies of the world, successfully positioning itself as a major services provider. The hospitality industry of India is witnessing a boom and provides a vast range of tourism products for catering the needs of diverse sets of global and domestic customers. The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the effectiveness and application of the core marketing concepts in the hotel industry. In Particular, concerned with the...

  6. Future Recommendations for School Dental Health Program in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorakkal SHAMIM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental Surgeons working in public sector have an important role to play in school dental health pro-gram to reinstitute the oral and dental health of growing population of India. Even though the oral health policy was drafted in India in 1995, it was not implemented till this date (1. It is im-portant to enhance the knowledge about good oral health in teachers and parents by caring out workshops and seminars on oral and dental health by dental Surgeons working in public health sector. Dental surgeons working in public health sector should carry out oral screening to improve the future of oral health care in India (2. Mobile den-tal unit is an effective method to render oral and dental health-care in the public sector and it should be implemented in school set up in multi-ple situations such as educating school children regarding oral and dental health, screening of school children for various oral diseases, school and community dental health program(3.In an interventional study conducted among rural school children in Nalgonda district to assess the oral health promotion, it was interfered that the School teachers may be utilized as good medium for oral health promotion among school children in India and other developing countries(4.The following recommendations should be incor-porated in school health program in India. The government should incorporate dental surgeons in school health programs to give lecture on oral health, oral hygiene, plaque control, oral and den-tal diseases, oral cancer or smokeless tobacco use and hazards counseling and topical fluoride appli-cation. The government should incorporate oral and dental health related topic in School curric-ulum. Compulsory fitness regarding oral and den-tal health should be made mandatory for class promotion. Dental Surgeons play an important role in recognizing child abuse in school set up (5. Dentists should evaluate child abuse cases and child abuse cases will present clinically as

  7. India`s achievements in energy efficiency and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, R.k.; Sharma, S. [Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India)

    1999-08-01

    Energy plays a central role in India`s development efforts and its mandate to alleviate poverty. For this reasons, promoting energy efficiency, conservation, and renewable energy technologies are key aspects of India`s development objectives. Although overall energy use is expected to continue to rise along with India`s population and GDP, government initiatives and policies, particularly since 1990, are affecting India`s CO{sub 2} emission intensity (emission from energy use per unit GDP), which has levelled off and shows signs of declining. Energy efficiency has shown improvement as well, in large part because of a change in pricing structures and a reduction of energy subsidies. India`s promotion of renewable energy, especially for rural areas, represents another significant action to limit greenhouse gases (GHGs). Though India, like other developing countries, has not taken on specific commitments to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions, it is making progress in this direction. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Wetland assessment, monitoring and management in India using geospatial techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, J K

    2015-01-15

    Satellite remote sensing and GIS have emerged as the most powerful tools for inventorying, monitoring and management of natural resources and environment. In the special context of wetland ecosystems, remotely sensed data from orbital platforms have been extensively used in India for the inventory, monitoring and preparation of action plans for conservation and management. First scientific inventory of wetlands in India was carried out in 1998 by Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad using indigenous IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) data of 1992-93 timeframe, which stimulated extensive use of geospatial techniques for wetland conservation and management. Subsequently, with advances in GIS, studies were carried out for development of Wetland Information System for a state (West Bengal) and for Loktak lake wetland (a Ramsar site) as a prelude to National Wetland Information System. Research has also been carried out for preparation of action plans especially for Ramsar sites in the country. In a novel research, use of the geospatial technology has also been demonstrated for biodiversity conservation using landscape ecological metrics. A country-wide estimate of emission of methane, a Green House Gas, from wetlands has also been made using MODIS data. Present article critically reviews the work carried out in India for wetland conservation and management using geospatial techniques.

  9. Regulatory guidelines for medical devices in India: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadimpalli Radhadevi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study offers an overview of regulatory guidelines for medical devices in India. Medical devices are now a pervasive part of modern medical care. They are in many cases associated with quality of care. In some cases, the use of devices has certainly improved quality. In other cases, devices have been associated with many problems. The approach to quality of devices has depended largely on regulation .Recently introduced guidelines and the amendment in the law will provide adequate guidance for both the manufacturers and competent authorities to manage cases efficiently and appropriately. While these regulations and reforms promise to clarify, unify, and expedite the process of manufacturing and importing medical devices into India, they also pose their own challenges and complications. Understanding the regulatory reforms imminent in India will be crucial for foreign companies looking to enter or expand their business in India′s medical markets. It is hoped that the guidelines are implemented and regulated properly with effective outcome. This article highlights current regulations pertaining to applications for medical device registration certificates, medical device clinical trials, and medical device manufacturing/importation licenses.

  10. India's "nowhere" girls. Voices of girls 1: India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S

    1998-01-01

    In India, a 12-year-old girl rises before dawn to complete household chores before heading off to work in the fields herding animals or plucking weeds. When this work is unavailable, she migrates to quarries or brick kilns with her landless parents. This scenario is not unusual, as millions of Indian girls are denied schooling so they can contribute to their family's income. Child agricultural laborers are invisible in official statistics, and girls have a harder life than their brothers who have no household duties and are given more to eat. A large number of girls work in factories or homes producing matches, incense, cigarettes, locks, or brassware or polishing gems. There are no statistics describing how many girls are domestic servants in Bombay or rag-pickers, fish-cleaners, or beggars, but an estimated 500,000 girls under age 15 work as prostitutes. Child labor is defined as work that is detrimental to a child's growth and development, and there are 20-100 million child laborers in India. In Bombay, most girl laborers live and work in conditions that threaten their health, and they experience malnutrition and its attendant diseases as well as occupational hazards. Girls also suffer from the son preference that reduces the amount of time girls are breast fed, the amount of health care they receive, their access to education, and their marriage age. Legislation against child labor has proved ineffectual and will continue to be useless until poverty is reduced in India, educational statutes are enforced, and other policy issues are addressed.

  11. Benthos of the EEZ of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 13 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name India_EEZ_1996_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info India_EEZ_1996_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. Linear Collider partners woo newly opened India

    CERN Multimedia

    Bagla, Pallava

    2006-01-01

    "With the wheels of Air Force One barely off the tarmac following U.S. President George W. Bush's visit, which ended India's 3 decades as a nuclear pariah state, a delegation of U.S. and European physicists arrived here last week to discuss India's involvement in the International Linear Collider."

  13. Area Handbook Series. India: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Congress (Congress) founded 1892 .............. India Councils Act 1905 ............ Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon, viceroy 1906 .............. All...reversal of partition of Bengal; transfer of imperial capital to New Delhi from Calcutta 1916 .............. Lucknow Pact between Congress and League...Gandhi holds talks with Mohammad Ali Jinnah 1945 ............ Labour government in Britain announces intention ofearly independence in India 1946

  14. The "Countrywide Classroom": Reaching India's Rural Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Connie

    1992-01-01

    Describes the coproduction by Indiana University of Pennsylvania and the University of Poona (India) of educational videos for use in India's Countrywide Classroom, which presents educational programing via national television hook-ups. Some of the topics of the productions to date are summarized, reflecting an effort to provide variety and…

  15. India's Urban war: Through the Smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2008-01-01

    The assimilation of India's urban terror attacks into a global narrative of Islamist violence carries the danger that their domestic social and historical roots will be missed, says Ravinder Kaur.......The assimilation of India's urban terror attacks into a global narrative of Islamist violence carries the danger that their domestic social and historical roots will be missed, says Ravinder Kaur....

  16. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream…

  17. Teaching India. Footnotes. Volume 11, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    On March 11-12, 2006 the FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 16 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about India. Sessions included: (1) Why It's Important to Know about India (Ainslie T. Embree); (2) Early Indian History (Richard H. Davis); (3) Modern Indian History (Marc…

  18. Genetic Diversity of Enterovirus A71, India

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Vinay K.; Sane, Sudhir; Nadkarni, Sushma S.; Sharma, Deepa K.; Deshpande, Jagadish M.

    2015-01-01

    We have identified circulation of 3 genogroups of enterovirus (EV) A71 in India. A new genogroup (proposed designation G) was discovered during this study. We isolated genogroups D and G in wide geographic areas but detected subgenogroup C1 only in 1 focus in western India. A systematic nationwide search for EV-A71 is warranted.

  19. Frequency Usage and Digital Dividend in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kishor P.; Prasad, Ramjee; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2013-01-01

    services particularly, GSM from the spectrum occupancy measurement campaign conducted in Pune, India. We observed the highest occupancy rate in the 2G cellular telecom services band. This shows the demand for mobile telecom services is high in India, and so for the spectrum. The International...... Telecommunication Union (ITU) has shown a huge demand for the spectrum in its future projection. There is an urgent need of spectrum allocation for the cellular telecom services in India. The results of our measurement campaign endorses the decision of India to identify the 698–806 MHz band (700 MHz band......) for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) services which is also in the line of ITU initiative of global harmonization in IMT band. Further, we discuss about the switchover plan from analogue to digital Television (TV) in India, and resulting digital dividend spectrum (700 MHz band) from spectrum refarming...

  20. Rheumatology in India--quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Rohini

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatology has been a neglected subspecialty in India. A staggering patient load, a severely inadequate number of trained rheumatology specialists, therapeutic nihilism and limited advocacy are some of the critical challenges that confront rheumatology care, and possibly explain the high rates of reliance on complementary and alternative medicines in India. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns are not remarkably different from those in other countries, but biologic agents have limited use and are administered for short periods only. Consequently, outcomes in India do not yet match those reported in developed countries. Furthermore, the high prevalence of infectious diseases continues to be a major contributor to mortality in patients with rheumatic disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Several tropical diseases with rheumatic manifestations are relevant in India, including chikungunya, brucellosis, leptospirosis, dengue and melioidosis. To address the many problems with rheumatology care in India, curricular reforms, capacity building, patient education and political support are sorely needed.

  1. Worksite health and wellness programs in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; Madan, Kushal; Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Mehra, Rahul; Maiya, Arun G

    2014-01-01

    Worksite health and wellness (WH&W) are gaining popularity in targeting cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among various industries. India is a large country with a larger workforce in the unorganized sector than the organized sector. This imbalance creates numerous challenges and barriers to implementation of WH&W programs in India. Large scale surveys have identified various CV risk factors across various industries. However, there is scarcity of published studies focusing on the effects of WH&W programs in India. This paper will highlight: 1) the current trend of CV risk factors across the industrial community, 2) the existing models of delivery for WH&W in India and their barriers, and 3) a concise evidence based review of various WH&W interventions in India.

  2. Present and Future Energy Scenario in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Gupta, V. K.

    2014-09-01

    India's energy sector is one of the most critical components of an infrastructure that affects India's economic growth and therefore is also one of the largest industries in India. India has the 5th largest electricity generating capacity and is the 6th largest energy consumer amounting for around 3.4 % of global energy consumption. India's energy demand has grown at 3.6 % pa over the past 30 years. The consumption of the energy is directly proportional to the progress of manpower with ever growing population, improvement in the living standard of the humanity and industrialization of the developing countries. Very recently smart grid technology can attribute important role in energy scenario. Smart grid refers to electric power system that enhances grid reliability and efficiency by automatically responding to system disturbances. This paper discusses the new communication infrastructure and scheme designed to integrate data.

  3. Evaluating emergency ultrasound training in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Amit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In countries with fully developed emergency medicine systems, emergency ultrasound (EUS plays an important role in the assessment and treatment of critically ill patients. Methods : The authors sought to introduce EUS to a group of doctors working in the emergency departments (EDs in India through an intensive 4-day adult and pediatric ultrasound course held at the Apex Trauma Center and EM division of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi. The workshop was evaluated with a survey questionnaire and a hands-on practical test. The questionnaire was designed to assess the current state of EUS in India′s EDs, and to identify potential barriers to the incorporation of EUS into current EM practice. The EUS course consisted of a general introductory didactic session followed by pediatric, abdominal and trauma, cardiothoracic, obstetrical and gynecologic, and vascular modules. Each module had a didactic session followed by hands-on applications with live models and/or simulators. A post-course survey questionnaire was given to the participants, and there was a practical test on the final day of the course. The ultrasound images taken by the participants were digitally recorded, and were subsequently graded for their accuracy by independent observers, residency, and/or fellowship trained in EUS. Results : There were a total of 42 participants who completed the workshop and took the practical examination; 32 participants filled in the course evaluation survey. Twenty-four (75% participants had no prior experience with EUS, 5 (16% had some experience, and 3 (9% had significant experience. During the practical examination, 38 of 42 participants (90% were able to identify Morison′s pouch on the focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST examination, and 32 (76% were able to obtain a parasternal long axis cardiac view and identify the left ventricle. The inferior vena cava was identified as it crosses the diaphragm into

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from India only under the following conditions: (a) The mangoes must be treated in India with irradiation...

  5. India's "Look East" Policy: Geopolitical,Historical and Perceptional Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiaoqiang

    2004-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the India-ASEAN relations since India advanced and implemented the "Look East" strategy after the Cold War. India became ASEAN's sectoral dialogue partner in January 1992 and full dialogue partner in 1995, and joined ARF in July 1996. With the establishment of India-ASEAN Summit regime in 2002, the fourth "Ten Plus One" formally kicked off.

  6. X-ray fluorescence activities at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoranjan Sarkar

    2011-02-01

    This paper covers different aspects related to X-ray fluorescence activities at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India. In its first part, experiments on basic physical problems are illustrated and in the second part, some applications related to X-ray fluorescence are discussed.

  7. India's rich musical heritage has a lot to offer to modern psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanivarapu, Sravanti L.

    2015-01-01

    Music with its instantaneous pleasing effect can be an answer to misery. It is a form of art that is easily accessible anytime and anywhere. This article gives an overview of music therapy practiced in ancient India, its influence on emotion and mind, and speculates its possible clinical applications in the modern era based on the available scientific literature. PMID:26124532

  8. Finding a Plausible Option for Revitalising Agricultural Higher Education in India: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to explore the existing status of agricultural higher education in India, application of marketing concepts in similar institutions and to find the most appropriate marketing concept to make agricultural higher education more competitive. Extensive searches of relevant agricultural education, business management…

  9. India's rich musical heritage has a lot to offer to modern psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanivarapu, Sravanti L

    2015-01-01

    Music with its instantaneous pleasing effect can be an answer to misery. It is a form of art that is easily accessible anytime and anywhere. This article gives an overview of music therapy practiced in ancient India, its influence on emotion and mind, and speculates its possible clinical applications in the modern era based on the available scientific literature.

  10. India's rich musical heritage has a lot to offer to modern psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Music with its instantaneous pleasing effect can be an answer to misery. It is a form of art that is easily accessible anytime and anywhere. This article gives an overview of music therapy practiced in ancient India, its influence on emotion and mind, and speculates its possible clinical applications in the modern era based on the available scientific literature.

  11. What Can the United States Learn from India to Counter Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    13 1. Sikhism ...This chapter begins with a brief background on Sikhism , Sikh separatism, and the rise of the Sikh terrorist threat in India. It then presents...applicable to U.S. forces and policy makers as they encounter similar terrorist threats and counterterrorism challenges. B. BACKGROUND 1. Sikhism

  12. Girl child in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  13. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Newborn healthcare in urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, J; Osrin, D; Patil, B; Neogi, S B; Chauhan, M; Khanna, R; Kumar, R; Paul, V K; Zodpey, S

    2016-01-01

    The rapid population growth in urban India has outpaced the municipal capacity to build essential infrastructures that make life in cities safe and healthy. Local and national governments alike are grappling with the challenges of urbanization with thousands migrating from villages to cities. Thus, urbanization in India has been accompanied by a concentration of poverty and urban public healthcare has emerged as one of the most pressing priorities facing our country. Newborn mortality rates in urban settings are lower than rural areas, early neonatal deaths account for greater proportion than late neonatal deaths. The available evidence suggests that socio-economic inequalities and poor environment pose major challenges for newborn health. Moreover, fragmented and weak public health system, multiplicity of actors and limited capacity of public health planning further constrain the delivery of quality and affordable health care service. Though healthcare is concentrated in urban areas, delay in deciding to seek health care, reaching a source of it and receiving appropriate care affects the health outcomes disproportionately. However, a few city initiatives and innovations piloted in different states and cities have brought forth the evidences of effectiveness of different strategies. Recently launched National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) provides an opportunity for strategic thinking and actions to improve newborn health outcomes in India. There is also an opportunity for coalescence of activities around National Health Mission (NHM) and Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health+Adolescent (RMNCH+A) strategy to develop feasible and workable models in different urban settings. Concomitant operational research needs to be carried out so that the obstacles, approaches and response to the program can be understood. PMID:27924107

  15. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McNeil, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-30

    Integrated economic models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios at the country and the global level. Results of these scenarios are typically presented at the sectoral level such as industry, transport, and buildings without further disaggregation. Recently, a keen interest has emerged on constructing bottom up scenarios where technical energy saving potentials can be displayed in detail (IEA, 2006b; IPCC, 2007; McKinsey, 2007). Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, require detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. However, the limit of information available for developing countries often poses a problem. In this report, we have focus on analyzing energy use in India in greater detail. Results shown for the residential and transport sectors are taken from a previous report (de la Rue du Can, 2008). A complete picture of energy use with disaggregated levels is drawn to understand how energy is used in India and to offer the possibility to put in perspective the different sources of end use energy consumption. For each sector, drivers of energy and technology are indentified. Trends are then analyzed and used to project future growth. Results of this report provide valuable inputs to the elaboration of realistic energy efficiency scenarios.

  16. EFFECT OF DEMONETISATION IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Reshma S

    2017-01-01

    Demonetization means that Reserve Bank of India has withdrawn the old ₹500 and ₹1000 notes as an official mode of payment. According to Investopedia, demonetization is the act of stripping a currency unit of its status as legal tender. Demonetization is the act of stripping a currency unit of its status as legal tender. Demonetization is essential whenever there is a change of national currency. The old unit of currency must be retired and replaced with a new currency unit. The demonetisation...

  17. Yoga en la India antigua

    OpenAIRE

    Román López, María Teresa

    1998-01-01

    Las orientaciones precisas de la religión hindú para desarrollar las capacidades del hombre se hallan bajo el nombre de Yoga. El yoga es un conjunto de técnicas de dominio de sí mismo y meditación, que en el hinduismo adopta distintas modalidades; se puede hablar del yoga hindú, budista, jainista, etc. En sentido más restringido, el término se refiere a una de las seis escuelas ortodoxas de la filosofía india. Asimismo, se designa con la palabra yoga tod...

  18. India-based Neutrino Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naba K Mondal; for the INO Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The current status of the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is summarized. The main physics goals are described followed by the motivation for building a magnetized iron calorimetric (ICAL) detector. The charge identification capability of ICAL would make it complementary to large water Cerenkov and other detectors worldwide. The status of the design of the 50 kt magnet, the construction of a prototype ICAL detector, the experience with resistive plate chambers which will be the active elements in ICAL and the status of the associated electronics and data acquisition system are discussed.

  19. Yoga en la India antigua

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa Román López

    1998-01-01

    Las orientaciones precisas de la religión hindú para desarrollar las capacidades del hombre se hallan bajo el nombre de Yoga. El yoga es un conjunto de técnicas de dominio de sí mismo y meditación, que en el hinduismo adopta distintas modalidades; se puede hablar del yoga hindú, budista, jainista, etc. En sentido más restringido, el término se refiere a una de las seis escuelas ortodoxas de la filosofía india. Asimismo, se designa con la palabra yoga toda instrucción o disciplina encaminada h...

  20. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    CERN Document Server

    Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

  1. Aspergillus keratitis: A cause of blindness in Tropical India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafil Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotic keratitis is a fungal infection of the cornea, which constitute an important eye problem in outdoor workers. This infection is difficult to treat, and it can lead to severe visual impairment or blindness. Trauma is the major predisposing factor, followed by ocular and systemic defects, prior application of corticosteroids and prolonged use of antibiotic eye-drops. We report this case because of the rarity of endogenous Aspergillosis presenting as blindness in tropical India and review of the relevant literature.

  2. Mechatronics Engineering Education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajpai Shrish

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present paper aims to give an insight in the field of Mechatronics, specifically its standard of education in India. We have investigated this field right from its origin. We have analyzed how it expanded as a proper discipline of engineering and in which direction the development in this field is going now and, at the same time, its status of education in India and where we are in addressing the industry’s need both in terms of quality and quantity of students. We have also assessed why Mechatronics is an essential branch considering its multi-disciplinary nature. The pount is that it holds blatant importance for time to come. Life’s most complicated problems cannot be addressed by the knowledge of only one engineering science. In today’s world we need professionals who are “good jack(s of all trades and master(s of one” changing the old saying. For implementing this edited saying students will need to address real-world problems, so laboratory-based learning should be even more emphasized in this branch. Consequently, we have also looked on the laboratory works that are included in these courses, considering what aspects should be covered in them. Skillsets required by students such as implementation of hardware, coding, system modeling have been also discussed. Future prospects in this discipline have also been explored. The epilogue consists in recommendations to educational institutions based on our findings.

  3. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L.; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  4. Aeromagnetic study of peninsular India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Harikumar; Mita Rajaram; T S Balakrishnan

    2000-09-01

    The degree sheet Aeromagnetic maps up to 17°N, acquired from the Geological Survey of India, have been manually redigitised at 6 minute intervals to study the long wavelength anomalies over peninsular India. These data have been collected at different survey altitude, epochs, flight line directions, etc. Great care has been taken to correct the total field map and remove the contribution due to the core field and prepare an accurate crustal anomaly map. For the first time, a regional map, depicting the NW-SE structural features north of the orthopyroxene isograd with the essentially E-W features to the south of it and revealing several well known structures, is presented. The analytical signal is calculated to delineate the source fields of these anomalies. It dramatically maps the charnockites and is able to delineate the orthopyroxene isograd. In the Dharwar region the magnetic signatures are associated with the intrusives/ iron ore bodies. Thus, we find that the source rocks of the aeromagnetic anomalies are the host province of charnockites in the SGT and the intrusives/iron ore bodies in the Dharwar belt. Gravity residuals are calculated and a tectonic map of the region is presented from the combined geopotential data.

  5. Globalisation and women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, M

    1999-11-01

    Globalization arrived in India through an external and internal alignment of political and economic forces that led to the opening of the country to the outside world. The five processes under globalization are: 1) commercialism wherein more services become monetized and incomes are received in money rather than in kind; 2) more capitalization; 3) foreign trade becomes important for the production and distribution process; 4) greater financialization develops; and 5) international capital moves freely. These changes affect women more than men in different ways. Capitalization results in more self-employed marginal farmers becoming wage workers, making it less possible for women to manage domestic duties alongside their productive work. In general, macro-economic policies affect women through the household, market, and gender relations. In countries like India where women suffer from serious discrimination, whatever affects the household will worsen women's position. Thus, the process of liberalization, privatization, and globalization will put the clock back for women and for the poor in general.

  6. Providing India with Internet access anywhere there is electricity - and Canada with commercial opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Access to high-speed Internet service is booming all over the world but the cost of optic cable installation and other related broadband delivery technology is still too high for many developing countries to afford. A Canada-India R & D group is working on a broadband technology delivered over the power line in order to provide internet access wherever there is electricity. Moreover, the application of such a technology in rural India could also improve the distribution and management of India's national electrical grid, as the risk of electricity theft can be monitored by power assumption tracking. Since the required infrastructure is already in place across the country, this project could be deployed rapidly and in a cost-efficient manner, providing thousands of potential opportunities for rural dwellers as well as for Indian and international companies.

  7. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  8. ICT USAGE BY DISTANCE LEARNERS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar AWADHIYA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Open Universities across the world are embracing ICT based teaching and learning process to disseminate quality education to their learners spread across the globe. In India availability and access of ICT and learner characteristics are uneven and vary from state to state. Hence it is important to establish the facts about ICT access among learners, their ICT usage patterns and their readiness to use ICT for educational purpose. In view of this, a study was conducted with the objective to find out the access level of ICT among distance learners. The analysis indicates that maximum learners have desktop/laptops and most of them are accessing internet very frequently from their home. The analysis also indicates that maximum respondents are browsing social networking sites followed by educational and e-mail service providing websites. Findings suggest that there is a need to generate ICT based tutorials complemented with social networking tools and mobile applications. Study also shows that learners are equipped with mobile phones and they are browsing internet through it and also availing support services offered by the university. Hence possibility of integrating mobile phone services may be used for providing learner support services and content delivery.

  9. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Mohanty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. RESULTS: The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. CONCLUSION: Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  10. India's Computational Biology Growth and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-09-01

    India's computational science is growing swiftly due to the outburst of internet and information technology services. The bioinformatics sector of India has been transforming rapidly by creating a competitive position in global bioinformatics market. Bioinformatics is widely used across India to address a wide range of biological issues. Recently, computational researchers and biologists are collaborating in projects such as database development, sequence analysis, genomic prospects and algorithm generations. In this paper, we have presented the Indian computational biology scenario highlighting bioinformatics-related educational activities, manpower development, internet boom, service industry, research activities, conferences and trainings undertaken by the corporate and government sectors. Nonetheless, this new field of science faces lots of challenges.

  11. TB control: challenges and opportunities for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Madhukar; Daftary, Amrita; Satyanarayana, Srinath

    2016-03-01

    India's TB control programme has treated over 19 million patients, but the incidence of TB continues to be high. TB is a major killer and drug-resistant TB is a growing threat. There are several likely reasons, including social conditions and co-morbidities that fuel the TB epidemic: under-investment by the government, weak programme implementation and management, suboptimal quality of care in the private sector, and insufficient advocacy around TB. Fortunately, India possesses the technical know-how, competence and resources to address these challenges. The End TB Strategy by WHO offers India an excellent blueprint to advance the agenda of TB control.

  12. Future of Cloud Computing in India

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Kumar Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the future of cloud computing in India. This paper also help to understand of future of cloud computing in Indian market .This paper also show the benefits of cloud computing .Cloud computing is not very buzz in India. This paper give the new idea to understand cloud computing and cloud computing future in India. This paper also show the importance of cloud computing. Ito show the growth rate of cloud computing. This paper not only show the cloud computing market it also show...

  13. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Sathwara, Jignasa; Jain, Aanchal; Balasubramaniam, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cytology (Pap smear), and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on visual screening test

  14. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA, magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI, cytology (Pap smear, and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on

  15. LESSONS FOR THE SADC FROM THE INDIAN CASE OF NOVARTIS AG V UNION OF INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lonias Ndlovu

    2015-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical context, many Southern African Development Community (SADC) members grant patents on drugs without substantially reviewing applications first, thus routinely granting patents for new versions of old medicines, thus extending patent life beyond the normal 20-year period. In contrast, Brazil and India, homes to major generic drug manufacturers in the BRICS grouping, examine each application before a patent is granted. It has been argued by health activists and academics th...

  16. Lessons for the SADC from the Indian case of Novartis AG v Union of India

    OpenAIRE

    Ndlovu, Lonias

    2015-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical context, many Southern African Development Community (SADC) members grant patents on drugs without substantially reviewing applications first, thus routinely granting patents for new versions of old medicines, thus extending patent life beyond the normal 20-year period. In contrast, Brazil and India, homes to major generic drug manufacturers in the BRICS grouping, examine each application before a patent is granted. It has been argued by health activists and academics th...

  17. Why are clinical trials necessary in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Poongothai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are emerging as an important activity in India as it is an essential component of the drug discovery and development program to which India is committed. The only robust way to evaluate a new medicine is by doing properly designed clinical trials. In addition to advancing science, clinical trials offer myriad benefits to the participants. The recent hue that created in India about clinical trials is probably an exaggeration of facts. However, these points to the need for ensuring proper compliance with the regulatory norms and proper training of concerned personnel in good clinical practice (GCP. This will ensure that India continues to reap the benefits of clinical trials and also become a world leader in this field.

  18. China and India: Bridging the Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE HAILIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The simultaneous rise of China and India, the world's two most popu-lous nations, is rightly regarded as one of the most eye-catching devel-opments in the international arena over the past two decades.

  19. Health, education and employment in India

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    a land of opulence, tragedy and hope. Rajan Gupta is a theoretical physicist at Los Alamos Laboratory. He has developed lectures on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention aimed at students, health workers, industrialists parents, and industrial workers in India.

  20. Maritime archaeology of Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.

    route from Europe to Asia before the opening of the Suez Canal In order to delineate the earliest human habitation and maritime contacts of Lakshadweep Islands, archaeological explorations was carried on by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI...

  1. India's Perspective of Information and Communication Technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    India's Perspective of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for ... Information is a vital resource for the national development and ensuring ... manner and the role of ICT in the rapid growth of economic transactions over the past ...

  2. Chronic pancreatitis in India: the changing spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Udayakumar, N; Jayanthi, V

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of chronic pancreatitis in India is changing, with increased occurrence in older patients, incidence of milder disease including milder diabetes, increasing longevity, and increasing association with alcoholism and smoking

  3. Nearshore processes along Tikkavanipalem Beach, Visakhapatnam, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Raju, N.S.N.

    Directional wave data collected at 12 m water depth, at 1 km distance off Tikkavanipalem, Andhra Pradesh, India from December 1997 to November 1998, was used to estimate the longshore currents and longshore sediment transport rate considering...

  4. Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N. Kameswara

    2005-12-01

    Some archeoastronomical aspects regarding the development of observational astronomy in India during prehistoric times are described. A plea is made for the preservation of megalithic monuments of possible astronomical significance.

  5. Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Pingree

    2014-01-01

    ... scholar to the erroneous conclusion that Sasanian Iran played a crucial role in the introduction of Greek and Babylonian astronomy and astrology to India and in the development of Indian planetary theory...

  6. AN OVERVIEW OF MOBILE COMMERCE IN INDIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vivek Rajbahadur Singh

    2014-01-01

      Mobile commerce (M-Commerce) is a buzz today in India. With half a billion mobile subscribers, emerging competition, innovative ways to attracts customer's way of doing business has undergone sea change by the use of mobile...

  7. 523 India's Perspective of Information and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    India like many developing countries has embarked seriously on the information ..... poor in rural areas (there are over 300 million of them in South Asia) in .... operationalising NII and multi-media information highway, proposed by the.

  8. Social marketing of condoms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R

    1994-01-01

    Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed.

  9. History of marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    . Over the years the National Institute of Oceanography has undertaken the exploration and excavation of submerged ports and shipwrecks in Indian waters. The paper highlight the sources, findings and the progress made in India in the field of marine...

  10. A Changing India and Its Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao Shulin; Su Jingxiang; Hu Shisheng; Fu Xiaoqiang; Ma Jiali; Zhang Siqi

    2004-01-01

    The political situation in India marked a dramatic turn. The Bharatiya Janata Party that was universally expected to win failed in the general election while the Indian National Congress resumed power after years of disappearance.

  11. Meliolales of India - Volume III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work, is the continuation of my preceding two works on Meliolales of India, gives an account of 123 fungal species belonging to five genera, Amazonia (3, Appendiculella (1, Asteridiella (22, Ectendomeliola (1, Irenopsis (8 and Meliola (88, infecting 120 host plants belonging to 49 families. Generic key, digital formula, synoptic key to the species is provided. In the key, all the species are arranged under their alphabetically arranged host families. Description of the individual species is provided with the citation, detailed description, materials examined and their details including their herbarium details. Each species is supplemented with line drawings. Host and the species index is provided at the end. This work includes five new species: Meliola arippaensis, M. calycopteridis, M. cariappae, M. harpullicola and M. mutabilidis; a new variety: Irenopsis hiptages Yamam. Var. indica and two new names: Asteridiella micheliifolia (based on A. micheliae and Meliola strombosiicola (based on Meliola strombosiae

  12. The Immunization Programme In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhey J

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunization Programme was started in India in 1978 with the objective of reducing the mortality due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage levels in infants and pregnant women have increased substantially over the last decade. Immunization coverage levels of 69 to 82% with various vaccines were reported in 1989-90. There is however, a wide disparity in the coverage levels in states and in the districts. While the priority to remains to increase immunization coverage levels, surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases is receiving high priority to identify weak pockets for intensification of immunization services and to document impact. Besides completeness of reporting., emphasis of the surveillance system in many areas has shifted to obtaining information on cases as early as possible to allow epidemiological investigations and effective follow-up action. The achievements in a large number of districts show that the goal of universal immunization, while difficult and challenging, is attainable.

  13. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  14. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V N Misra

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar–Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500–1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide

  15. Diagnosis and treatment outcome of mycotic keratitis at a tertiary eye care center in eastern india

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rautaraya Bibhudutta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycotic keratitis is an important cause of corneal blindness world over including India. Geographical location and climate are known to influence the profile of fungal diseases. While there are several reports on mycotic keratitis from southern India, comprehensive clinico-microbiological reports from eastern India are few. The reported prevalence of mycotic keratitis are 36.7%,36.3%,25.6%,7.3% in southern, western, north- eastern and northern India respectively. This study reports the epidemiological characteristics, microbiological diagnosis and treatment outcome of mycotic keratitis at a tertiary eye care center in eastern India. Methods A retrospective review of medical and microbiology records was done for all patients with laboratory proven fungal keratitis. Results Between July 2006 and December 2009, 997 patients were clinically diagnosed as microbial keratitis. While no organisms were found in 25.4% (253/997 corneal samples, 23.4% (233/997 were bacterial, 26.4% (264/997 were fungal (45 cases mixed with bacteria, 1.4% (14/997 were Acanthamoeba with or without bacteria and 23.4% (233/997 were microsporidial with or without bacteria. Two hundred fifteen of 264 (81.4%, 215/264 samples grew fungus in culture while 49 corneal scrapings were positive for fungal elements only in direct microscopy. Clinical diagnosis of fungal keratitis was made in 186 of 264 (70.5% cases. The microscopic detection of fungal elements was achieved by 10% potassium hydroxide with 0.1% calcoflour white stain in 94.8%(238/251 cases. Aspergillus species (27.9%, 60/215 and Fusarium species (23.2%, 50/215 were the major fungal isolates. Concomitant bacterial infection was seen in 45 (17.1%, 45/264 cases of mycotic keratitis. Clinical outcome of healed scar was achieved in 94 (35.6%, 94/264 cases. Fifty two patients (19.7%, 52/264 required therapeutic PK, 9 (3.4%, 9/264 went for evisceration, 18.9% (50/264 received glue application with bandage

  16. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  17. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Indian partition on 14 August 1947. Mohammed Ali Jinnah , the father of Pakistan, had proposed an Islamic nation within India in the All India...taken less than three years to cause the total disintegration of Pakistan. People started to point fin- gers at Mohammed Ali Jinnah even when he was...which even the Mogul emperors have praised, and which has been the capital of many kingdoms. However, Pakistan’s creator, Mohammed Ali Jinnah , decided

  18. Caste and wealth inequality in India

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharias, Ajit; Vakulabharanam, Vamsi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct the novel exercise of analyzing the relationship between overall wealth inequality and caste divisions in India using nationally representative surveys on household wealth conducted during 1991–92 and 2002–03. According to our findings, the groups in India that are generally considered disadvantaged (known as Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes) have, as one would expect, substantially lower wealth than the "forward" caste groups, while the Other Backward Classes an...

  19. Improved Gridded Aerosol Data for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueymard, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Using point data from ground sites in and around India equipped with multiwavelength sunphotometers, as well as gridded data from space measurements or from existing aerosol climatologies, an improved gridded database providing the monthly aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) and Angstrom exponent (AE) over India is produced. Data from 83 sunphotometer sites are used here as ground truth tocalibrate, optimally combine, and validate monthly gridded data during the period from 2000 to 2012.

  20. Medical tourism private hospitals: focus India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Billie Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines demand factors for sophisticated medical treatments offered by private hospitals operating in India. Three types of medical tourism exist: Outbound, Inbound, and Intrabound. Increased profitability and positive growth trends by private hospital chains can be attributed to rising domestic income levels within India. Not all of the chains examined were financially solvent. Some of the hospital groups in this sample that advertised directly to potential Inbound medical tourists appear to be experiencing negative cash flows.

  1. On the Demand for Education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberg, Mary BM

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine the impacts of market forces and government programs on households' demand for human capital in India. The first chapter examines the impact of ITES Centers on school enrollment using administrative enrollment data from three states in India, and finds that when these centers open, enrollment in primary school increases significantly. The effects are very localized, and using supplementary survey evidence we argue that this is driven by limited information diff...

  2. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operat...

  3. Outward Foreign Direct Investment from India

    OpenAIRE

    Saikia, Dilip

    2009-01-01

    India has been continually attracting massive foreign investments since the opening up of its economy with a series of liberalization policies in the early 1990s. This inward FDI plays an important role in the Indian economy as a financier of her BOP. However in recent years, India has been fast emerging as an exporter of large foreign direct investment. An increasing number of Indian firms are resorting to outward investment in order to access new technologies, skills and managerial expertis...

  4. Branding to treat jaundice in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Selva Inita; Balekuduru, Ainash; Zachariah, Uday; Eapen, C E; Chandy, George

    2009-01-01

    Jaundice is regarded as a mysterious disease rather than a symptom of disease in several parts of India. We describe 8 cases that underwent branding to treat jaundice and subsequently presented to our centre. The causes for jaundice in these patients included a variety of benign and malignant disorders. Our report suggests that despite being literate, strong cultural beliefs lead people to seek potentially harmful procedures like branding to treat jaundice in parts of India.

  5. Landscape, water and religion in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Shaw

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available As Buddhism spread into central and western India from its centre of origin in the central Gangetic Plain, how did this change the ways in which the landscape was perceived and organized? In this study of the regional setting of the great site of Sanchi and of other important sites in central and western India, religious, political, economic and agricultural changes are integrated in an holistic approach to archaeological landscapes.

  6. Development of zij literature in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghori, S. A. Khan

    Muslim astronomy, or to be more precise, Graeco-Arabic astronomy in Medieval India had its origin in West-Central Asia whence it passed to this country. Valuable contributions were made to it by Arabic and Persian knowing scholars. Hence in order to evaluate these contributions it is essential to know the nature, origin and development of this system, to examine important zijes prepared in West-Central Asia and to understand how they influenced the preparation of their counterparts in India.

  7. Renewable Energy Development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, K.M.

    2007-07-01

    India has done a significant progress in the power generation in the country. The installed generation capacity was 1300 megawatt (MW) at the time of Independence i.e. about 60 years back. The total generating capacity anticipated at the end of the Tenth Plan on 31-03-2007, is 1, 44,520 MW which includes the generation through various sectors like Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear. Emphasis is given to the renewable energy programme towards gradual commercialization. This programme is looked after by the Ministry of Non-Conventional Sources of energy. Since the availability of fossil fuel is on the decline therefore, in this backdrop the norms for conventional or renewable sources of energy (RSE) is given importance not only in India but has attracted the global attention. The main items under RSE are as follows: (i) Hydro Power (ii) Solar Power (iii) Wind Power (iv) Bio-mass Power (v) Energy from waste (vi) Ocean energy, and (vii) Alternative fuel for surface transportation. Evolution of power transformer technology in the country during the past five decades is quite impressive. There are manufacturers in the country with full access to the latest technology at the global level. Some of the manufacturers have impressive R&D set up to support the technology. Renewable energy is very much promoted by the Chinese Government. At the same time as the law was passed, the Chinese Government set a target for renewable energy to contribute 10% of the country's gross energy consumption by 2020, a huge increase from the current 1%. It has been felt that there is rising demand for energy, food and raw materials by a population of 2.5 billion Chinese and Indians. Both these countries have large coal dominated energy systems in the world and the use of fossil fuels such as coal and oil releases carbon dioxide (CO2) into the air which adds to the greenhouse gases which lead to global warming. (auth)

  8. India.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained were expressed as mean ... induced writhing test were expressed as .... PGE2 and PGF20: in peritoneal fluids which ... receptors [15-16]. .... 33"25(1960129543 10. 1 [148] “110215thHJESaseme}Hf-Sussmanand. EP.

  9. Adult immunization in India: Importance and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent infectious diseases and their sequelae. Vaccines are crucial to prevent mortality in that >25% of deaths are due to infections. Vaccines are recommended for adults on the basis of a range of factors. Substantial improvement and increases in adult vaccination are needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Incomplete and inadequate immunization in India against these communicable diseases results in substantial and unnecessary costs both in terms of hospitalization and treatment. The government of India as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) consider childhood vaccination as the first priority, but there is not yet focus on adult immunization. Adult immunization in India is the most ignored part of heath care services. The Expert Group recommended that data on infectious diseases in India should be updated, refined, and reviewed periodically and published regularly. This group suggested that the consensus guidelines about adult immunization should be reviewed every 3 years to incorporate new strategies from any emerging research from India. There is an immediate need to address the problem of adult immunization in India. Although many issues revolving around efficacy, safety, and cost of introducing vaccines for adults at the national level are yet to be resolved, there is an urgent need to sensitize the health planners as well as health care providers regarding this pertinent issue.

  10. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD control in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant S Pandav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a "mission approach" with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic, providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India.

  11. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ∼ 8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India.

  12. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  13. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  14. Malaria elimination in India and regional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Kinley; Gatton, Michelle L; Kelly, Gerard C; Banwell, Cathy; Dev, Vas; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-10-01

    The malaria situation in India is complex as a result of diverse socio-environmental conditions. India contributes a substantial burden of malaria outside sub-Saharan Africa, with the third highest Plasmodium vivax prevalence in the world. Successful malaria control in India is likely to enhance malaria elimination efforts in the region. Despite modest gains, there are many challenges for malaria elimination in India, including: varied patterns of malaria transmission in different parts of the country demanding area-specific control measures; intense malaria transmission fuelled by favourable climatic and environment factors; varying degrees of insecticide resistance of vectors; antimalarial drug resistance; a weak surveillance system; and poor national coordination of state programmes. Prevention and protection against malaria are low as a result of a weak health-care system, as well as financial and socioeconomic constraints. Additionally, the open borders of India provide a potential route of entry for artesunate-resistant parasites from southeast Asia. This situation calls for urgent dialogue around tackling malaria across borders-between India's states and neighbouring countries-through sharing of information and coordinated control and preventive measures, if we are to achieve the aim of malaria elimination in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple sclerosis in India: Iceberg or volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Insha; Haq, Ehtishamul

    2017-06-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS)(1) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease involving destruction of the myelin sheath around axons of the brain, spinal cord and optic nerve. There has been a tremendous transformation in its perspective across globe. In recent years, its prevalence has changed dramatically worldwide and India is no exception. Initially, MS was believed to be more common in the Caucasians of Northern Europe and United States; however, it has been found to be present in Indian subcontinent as well. There has been a considerable shift in MS prevalence in India and this has really changed the notion of considering India as a low risk zone for MS. In this review, a concise overview and latest update on changing scenario of MS in India is presented along with some major challenges regarding it persisting across globe even today. In India, remarkable upsurge is needed in carrying out large scale population-based epidemiological studies to get an idea about the true incidence and prevalence rates of MS viz a viz disease burden. Through this review, we have probably tried to identify the actual picture of MS prevalence in India and this could serve as harbinger for upcoming research and at the same time it would definitely aid in working out future strategies for MS management in the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A survey of epilepsy surgery in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramshekhar N; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2015-03-01

    Epilepsy surgery (ES) not only remains one of the most underutilized of all accepted medical interventions, but there has also been a decrease in referrals for ES in recent years in high-income countries. We undertook this study to determine the temporal trends of ES and its current state in India. We asked the directors of epilepsy centers across India to complete an online questionnaire about the number and type of ES procedures carried out from 1995 or commencement of the program till December 2012. During the 18-year period, a total of 4252 ES have been undertaken. On an average, 420 ES were being carried out each year in India. Three-fourths of resective surgeries involved the temporal lobe. Although majority of patients were selected for ES by noninvasive strategies, 13 centers had performed long-term invasive EEG monitoring to select complex cases. In between 1995-2000 and 2007-2012, the number of ES carried out in India registered an increase by three-fold. A steadily increasing number of eligible patients with drug-resistant epilepsy in India are undergoing ES in recent years. This temporal trend of ES in India is in contrast to the recent experience of high-income countries. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Elementary Education in Rural India: A Grassroots View. Strategies for Human Development in India, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, A., Ed.; Nair, P. R. Gopinathan, Ed.

    There are wide variations in educational attainment and literacy rates across the regions and social classes of India. A national project examined participation in and the quality of elementary education in nine states of India, focusing on rural areas and the situation of disadvantaged persons, especially girls and the scheduled castes and…

  18. Textile Arts of India, Curriculum Project. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Barbara

    This interdisciplinary unit focuses on five techniques found in the textile arts of India: tie-dye, embroidery, applique, block printing, and weaving. The unit is designed for students in third through sixth grades but could be adapted to other levels. This unit could be incorporated with a study of India's land, history, and geography. The…

  19. Hinduism and the Culture of India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winikur, Ilene

    This packet contains sixth and seventh grade level interdisciplinary lesson outlines about India. Concepts to be developed include: (1) "Geography and Its Impact upon the Development of India's Different Cultures"; (2) "Religion and Philosophy Focusing on Hinduism and Festivals"; (3) "Literature using the Ramayana and…

  20. Violence against women in India: evidence from rural Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, D; Sanon, S; Sadowski, L; Hunter, W

    2004-01-01

    In recent years violence against women has emerged as an important social problem in India. It has attracted the attention of a wide spectrum of agencies, from healthcare providers to law enforcement authorities. This study attempted to determine the characteristics and the magnitude of physical and psychological violence against women in rural Maharashtra, central India. The study initially undertook focus group activities. This was followed by the formulation of the survey instrument in English, which focused on partner violence and child disciplinary practices. After pre-testing the instrument in 25 households, the actual study was conducted by trained interviewers in five randomly selected villages of rural Maharashtra. The study included 500 households (sample size = 500 women, eligible if they had at least one child less than 18 years of age). The results revealed that of the women interviewed, almost one-third (30.4%) had no formal education and the women's husbands were better educated. More than half the women lived in one-room dwellings and were at or above the clinical cut-off point for depression on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). 38% of the women were verbally insulted by their husband with a median of 11 times in past 6 months. Almost half the women said they had been slapped, hit, kicked or beaten by their husbands at some time. 24% of the women reported having been kicked by their husbands at some point during their married life, and 44% were reportedly kicked during pregnancy. 12% were specifically threatened by their husbands with having kerosene oil poured on them to set them on fire. 30% of the physically assaulted victims required medical care. Considering the prevalence of domestic violence, health-care providers should screen for domestic violence in routine practice. In addition, protocols should be developed for referral of abused women to appropriate community resources. In the present Indian rural setting

  1. Scope of Building Information Modeling (BIM in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Mukherjee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design communication is gradually being changed from 2D based to integrated 3D digital interface. Building InformationModeling (BIM is a model-based design concept, in which buildings will be built virtually before they get built outin the field, where data models organized for complete integration of all relevant factors in the building lifecycle whichalso manages the information exchange between the AEC (Architects, Engineers, Contractors professionals, to strengthenthe interaction between the design team. BIM is a shared knowledge about the information for decisions making during itslifecycle. There’s still much to be learned about the opportunities and implications of this tool.This paper deals with the status check of BIM application in India, to do that a survey has been designed to check the acceptanceof BIM till date, while this application is widely accepted throughout the industry in many countries for managingproject information with capabilities for cost control and facilities management.

  2. Pharmacy education in India: strategies for a better future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jishnu, V; Gilhotra, Rm; Mishra, Dn

    2011-10-01

    In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education in India is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. There is an urgent need to initiate an academic exercise aimed at attaining revamping of curriculum, keeping in pace with current and emerging trends in the field of pharmacy. Unfortunately all these years, enough emphasis was not laid on strengthening the components of Community Pharmacy, Hospital and Clinical pharmacy, while designing curriculum at diploma and degree levels of teaching. The curriculum followed by almost all universities in India are no were up to the world standards and students are still getting the 20-30 yrs older compounding practical exposure in labs during the graduation level. The article emphasises the concept of innovation ecosystems and quality management. Application of TQM to the educational system improves the present situation. The counseling system which serves to be the gateway of the students for entry into the profession should be brought under the scanner. Introducing specializations at the graduation level will result in professional expertise and excellence. Education is a customer focused industry and every student should be capable of evaluating themselves for continuously improving their quality and professionalism. Teacher focused mastery learning should give away to student focused smart learning. An educational institution should provide the student with a stress-free atmosphere for learning and developing his intellectual capabilities. Every college should have a counseling centre to address the problems of students in their academic and personal life. An emphasis on the concept of quality teacher is included. Revival of the pharmacy education in India is the need of the hour which in turn will pave the way for the up gradation of the pharmacy profession in the country.

  3. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  4. CIFA Delegation Led by Its President Jiang Zhenghua Visits India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the India Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR), Jiang Zhenghua, president of the China-India Friendship Association (CIFA) and former vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National

  5. India, CERN sign agreement in LHC research; Kalam happy

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaul, Sumir

    2005-01-01

    India and European Organisation for Nuclear Research, popularly known as CERN, have signed a Statement of Intent under which the existing scientific and technical cooperation between India and Nuclear Centre would be further extended

  6. India laulja ja eesti poetess esinevad koos / Ilona Martson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martson, Ilona, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    India lauljatari Kakoli Sengupta kontsertidel Eestis saab sõna Doris Kareva, kes kannab ette Põhja-India pühaku Kabiri 15. sajandil loodud poeesiat; vt. ka fotod Kroonika (2003) nr. 40, 30. sept., lk. 54

  7. India laulja ja eesti poetess esinevad koos / Ilona Martson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martson, Ilona, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    India lauljatari Kakoli Sengupta kontsertidel Eestis saab sõna Doris Kareva, kes kannab ette Põhja-India pühaku Kabiri 15. sajandil loodud poeesiat; vt. ka fotod Kroonika (2003) nr. 40, 30. sept., lk. 54

  8. Determinants of Foreign Institutional Investors’ Investment in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjinder KAUR

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at exploring the determinants of Foreign Institutional Investors’ (FIIs investment in India. Returns on Indian stock market have positive impact whereas US stock market returns have no significant influence on FIIs investment to India. Stock market risk has negative influence on FIIs inflows to India. Market capitalization and stock market turnover of India have significant positive influence only in short-run. Among macroeconomic determinants, economic growth of India has positive impact on FIIs investment both in long-run and shortrun. But all other macroeconomic factors have significant influence only in long-run like inflation in US has positive influence whereas inflation in India has negative influence on FIIs investment. Further, US interest rate has adverse impact on FIIs investment while liberalization policies of India exhibited significant contribution to FIIs inflows. Study concludes that FIIs inflows in India are determined by both stock market characteristics and macroeconomic factors.

  9. Mercury exposure and Alzheimer's disease in India: An imminent threat?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.

    India is an industrial giant with one of the fastest growing major economies in the world. Primary energy consumption in India is third after China and the USA. Greater energy production brings the burden of increasing emissions of mercury (Hg...

  10. New developments in India-Myanmar bilateral relations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gottschlich, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with bilateral relations between India and Myanmar. It argues that the current transformation processes offer a unique opportunity for a major readjustment of India's foreign policy towards Myanmar...

  11. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chanda, Rupa

    2011-01-01

    .... This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration...

  12. Deteriorating food security in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, C.; Samanta, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kumar, K.; Ganguly, S.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Srivastava, A. N.; Nemani, R. R.; Myneni, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    One of the major challenges we face on our planet is increasing agricultural production to meet the dietary requirements of an additional 2.5 billion people by the mid of the century while limiting cropland expansion and other damages to natural resources. This problem is even more so challenging given that nearly all the population growth will take place where the majority of the hungry live today and where ongoing and future climate changes are projected to most negatively impact agricultural production, the semi-arid tropics (SAT). The SAT contain 40% of the global irrigated and rainfed croplands in over 50 developing countries and a growing population of over a billion and half people, many of which live in absolute poverty and strongly depend on agriculture that is constrained by chronic water shortages. Rates of food grain production in many of the countries of the SAT have progressively increased since the mid 1960s aided by the Green Revolution and relatively favourable climatic conditions. However, aggregated agricultural production statistics indicate that the rate of food grain production has recently stalled or declined in several of the countries in this region, escalating the concerns over matters of food security, that is availability of food and one’s access to it, in a region where many people live in extreme poverty, depend on an agrarian economy and are expected to face increasingly worse climatic conditions in the near future. In this paper we analyze the agricultural deceleration and its drivers over the country of India, which faces the daunting challenge of needing a 50-100% increase in yields of major crops by the middle to the 21st century to feed its growing population. We analyze the long term (1982-2006) record of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) together with climate, land use, and crop production

  13. Treatment of leprosy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of multi-drug therapy (MDT into the National Leprosy Eradication Program (NLEP of India has brought a decline in both the burden of the disease and the detection of new cases in the country. Despite this success, MDT has had many problems like remarkable relapse rate, non-adherence to the MDT and the emergence of drug resistance associated with it. Moreover, there is no new MDT regimen at present, which could solve all these problems. The current situation suggests that we should look for alternative solutions in the delivery of leprosy-related services. With the introduction of Accredited Social Health Activists under the National Rural Health Mission, there is an opportunity to control some of these problems associated with MDT. Besides, District Nucleus should take initiatives and actively participate in establishment of coordination between departments of Health, Social welfare and justice, education and various non-governmental agencies working in the field of leprosy and disability in order to deliver the best of services to the persons affected by leprosy.

  14. Epilepsy surgery: Recommendations for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article recommends guidelines for epilepsy surgery for India. This article reviews the indications, the various surgical options available and the outcome of surgery for drug resistant epilepsy based on current evidence. Epilepsy surgery is a well-established option for patients who have been diagnosed to have drug resistant epilepsy (DRE (on at least two appropriate, adequate anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs (either in monotherapy or in combination with continuing seizures, where the presurgical work-up has shown concordance of structural imaging (magnetic resonance imaging and electrical mapping data (electroencephalography (EEG, video EEG. There may be a requirement of functional imaging techniques in a certain number of DRE like positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission tomography, (SPECT. Invasive monitoring should be restricted to a few when all noninvasive investigations are inconclusive, there is a dual pathology or there is a discordance of noninvasive data. The types of surgery could be curative (resective surgeries: amygdalo hippocampectomy, lesionectomy and multilobar resections; functional surgeries: hemispherotomy and palliative (multiple subpial transaction, corpus callosotomy, vagal nerve stimulation. Epilepsy surgery in indicated cases has a success range from 50 to 86% in achieving seizure freedom as compared with < 5% success rate with AEDs only in persons with DRE. Centers performing surgery should be categorized into Level I and Level II.

  15. HIV and tuberculosis in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumya Swaminathan; G Narendran

    2008-11-01

    The global impact of the converging dual epidemics of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the major public health challenges of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports 9.2 million new cases of TB in 2006 of whom 7.7% were HIV-infected. Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients as well as the leading cause of death. Further, there has been an increase in rates of drug resistant tuberculosis, including multi-drug (MDRTB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB), which are difficult to treat and contribute to increased mortality. The diagnosis of TB is based on sputum smear microscopy, a 100-year old technique and chest radiography, which has problems of specificity. Extra-pulmonary, disseminated and sputum smear negative manifestations are more common in patients with advanced immunosuppression. Newer diagnostic tests are urgently required that are not only sensitive and specific but easy to use in remote and resource-poor settings. Treatment of HIV-TB co-infection is complex and associated with high pill burden, overlapping drug toxicities, risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and challenges related to adherence. From a programmatic point of view, screening of all HIV-infected persons for tuberculosis and vice-versa will help identify co-infected patients who require treatment for both infections. This requires good coordination and communication between the TB and AIDS control programs, in India.

  16. Tobacco and health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a well-acknowledged social and health evil. The history of tobacco use traces back to the dawn of human civilization and has been deeply entrenched into the human society since time immemorial. The social, economic, and health impact of tobacco has been a subject of intense debate over the recent decades. For India, this problem has been a unique one, with the consumption patterns either largely influenced by the socioeconomic backgrounds or dictated by the cultural diversity. With more than 200 million tobacco consumers in the country at present, it becomes imperative to address this health hazard and stir up strong measures toward damage control. This article addresses the tobacco problem, its evolution, and the factors that have affected the growth of Indian tobacco industry. It also highlights the current legislative measures against tobacco, fiscal gains to the government, and the serious health and economic impact to the consumer, compounded by the increasing cost of private health care in the present era of consumerism.

  17. The Energy Strategy of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surmadhur Pant

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related with the importance of the energy policy and renewable energy which play a important role in the development of the environmental benefits. India has a vast supply of renewable energy resources and it is one of the largest countries in the world for deploying renewable energy. This paper attempts to review the policies and planning measures undertaken by the Indian government for promotion of renewable energy. Low impact renewable energy (LIRE technologies offer important benefits compared to conventional energy sources, such as fossil fuels or nuclear power. However due to their uncertainty different kinds of renewableenergy resources need to be operated in an integrated way, which complement each other. Global electricity demand is expected to increase considerably during the next decade and at the same time environmental pollution is also increasing with the development of conventional energy source. To meet the challenges for global energy demand various support schemes, policies and planning to promote use of renewable energy sources are discussed in this paper.

  18. Seismic microzonation of Bangalore, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Anbazhagan; T G Sitharam

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic hazard considering local site effects by carrying out detailed geotechnical and geophysical site characterization in Bangalore, India to develop microzonation maps. An area of 220 km2, encompassing Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BMP) has been chosen as the study area. Seismic hazard analysis and microzonation of Bangalore are addressed in three parts: in the first part, estimation of seismic hazard is done using seismotectonic and geological information. Second part deals with site characterization using geotechnical and shallow geophysical techniques. In the last part, local site effects are assessed by carrying out one-dimensional (1-D) ground response analysis (using the program SHAKE 2000) using both standard penetration test (SPT) data and shear wave velocity data from multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) survey. Further, field experiments using microtremor studies have also been carried out for evaluation of predominant frequency of the soil columns. The same has been assessed using 1-D ground response analysis and compared with microtremor results. Further, the Seed and Idriss simplified approach has been adopted to evaluate the soil liquefaction susceptibility and liquefaction resistance assessment. Microzonation maps have been prepared with a scale of 1:20,000. The detailed methodology, along with experimental details, collated data, results and maps are presented in this paper.

  19. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-12-28

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. vivax varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. vivax malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha.

  20. STIL2 in India - Pilot study 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Sweden and India have a bilateral agreement regarding energy issues and during the spring of 2011 a number of projects were launched by the Swedish Energy Agency. One of them was the implementation of STIL2 in India. The STIL2 in India report prepared by AaF consultant for the Swedish Energy Agency aims to launch a project 'Implementation of STIL2 in India' under BEE-STEM cooperation. BEE stands for the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency and STEM stands for the Swedish Energy Agency. The report presents the energy use in a specific building category on national level in India. The STIL2 project as such does not render any quantifiable energy savings, rather a baseline of the energy use with objective and harmonised data output. Reference values constitute a prerequisite for quantifying change over time and full scale STIL2 implementation provides a strong set of reference values. Since the data is presented on national level it allows to show estimated and calculated energy saving potentials for the whole building stock. These results can be used to support energy efficiency, monitor progress and as a base for policy development. This is the first project of several within the BEE-STEM cooperation.

  1. AIDS in position to ravage India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, K S

    1996-09-01

    The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV.

  2. Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project: International Partnerships in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Alix

    The Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project (CIICP) is a joint venture by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges and the governments of India and Canada designed to contribute to human resource development in India's polytechnic system. Specifically, the project seeks to develop replicable models of institutional development in 13…

  3. 76 FR 18248 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Sulfanilic Acid From China and India AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on sulfanilic acid from India and the antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and India. SUMMARY: The Commission...

  4. 76 FR 62843 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... COMMISSION Sulfanilic Acid From China and India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order on sulfanilic acid from India and antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and India would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry...

  5. 76 FR 50756 - Sulfanilic Acid From China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Sulfanilic Acid From China and India Scheduling of expedited five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order and antidumping duty orders on sulfanilic acid from China and India. AGENCY: United... on sulfanilic acid from China and India would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  6. Human Capital, HRD and VET: The Case of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Eduardo; Goyal, Apoorva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the role of human capital (HC), human resource development (HRD) and vocational educational and training (VET) in the emerging Indian economy. How may we define the HC, HRD and VET in India? To what extent and how as HRD investments in India contributed to India's recent economic development? What were the…

  7. 76 FR 11203 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Water Technology Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Water Technology Trade Mission to India from February 28 to March 4, 2011. The purpose of the mission is to expose U.S. firms to India's rapidly expanding water and waste water market and to assist...

  8. The lichen genera Dictyomeridium and Polymeridium (Trypetheliales: Trypetheliaceae in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Kumar INGLE

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic account of Dictyomeridium and Polymeridium are presented from India. Polymeridium cinereonigricans (Vain. R.C. Harris, P. pleurothecium R.C. Harris and P. submuriforme Aptroot are reported as new records for India. An artificial key to all the species known so far from India along with notes on their distribution and ecology is also presented.

  9. Structure and tectonics of the southwestern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.; Ramana, M.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, M.G.

    , V., 1987. A note on the occurrence of ortho-amphibolites on the inner shelf off Bhatkal, west coast of India. J. Geol. Soc. India, 30: 499-506. Subrahmanyam, V., 1992. Structure and tectonics of part of the western continental margin of India...

  10. The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Christopher; De, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. International commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and…

  11. [Global Studies]. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Susan Strong

    This unit contains a sampling of lessons from a unit on India designed for ninth-grade students. Sections of the unit include: (1) "Geography of India"; (2) "Comparison of Major Religions"; (3) "The Caste System"; (4) "Empires of India"; (5) "Gandhi and Independence"; (6) "Division of the…

  12. Human Capital, HRD and VET: The Case of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Eduardo; Goyal, Apoorva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the role of human capital (HC), human resource development (HRD) and vocational educational and training (VET) in the emerging Indian economy. How may we define the HC, HRD and VET in India? To what extent and how as HRD investments in India contributed to India's recent economic development? What were the…

  13. New records of opisthobranchs from Lakshadweep, India (Mollusca: Heterobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Apte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available All India Coordinated Project on Taxonomy (AICOPTAX, an initiative of Ministry of Environment and Forests allowed the authors to study opisthobranch fauna of the west coast of India. During the present study, nine species of opisthobranchs are reported for the first time from Lakshadweep of which six are new records to India.

  14. Farmer-suicide in India: debating the role of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gigesh; De Tavernier, Johan

    2017-12-01

    Indian Biotech opponents have attributed the increase of suicides to the monopolization of GM seeds, centering on patent control, application of terminator technology, marketing strategy, and increased production costs. The contentions of the biotech opponents, however, have been criticized for a lack of transparency in their modus operandi i.e. the use of methodology in their argumentation. The fact is, however, that with the intention of getting the attention of those capable of determining the future of GM cotton in India, opponents resorted to generating controversies. Therefore, this article will review and evaluate the multifaceted contentions of both opponents and defenders. Although the association between seed monopolization and farmer-suicide is debatable, we will show that there is a link between the economic factors associated with Bt. cultivation and farmer suicide. The underlying thesis of biotech opponents becomes all the more significant when analysed vis-à-vis the contention of the globalization critics that there has been a political and economic marginalization of the Indian farmers. Their accusation assumes significance in the context of a fragile democracy like India where market forces are accorded precedence over farmers' needs until election time.

  15. Geo-Informatics in India: Major Milestones and Present Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Karnatak, H.; Raju, P. L. N.

    2016-06-01

    Geo-informatics has emerged globally as a useful tool to address spatial problems with significant societal implications that require integrative and innovative approaches for analysis, modelling, managing, and archiving of extensive and diverse data sets. Breakneck technological development and availability of satellite based data and information services in public domain along with real time geo-data n through participatory approaches, in the two last decades have led to a sea-change in our know-how of our natural resources and their effective management at various levels. It has led to a realization that every phenomena and requirement in our day to day life has some spatial, or geographic component that can be predicted and governed more effectively through geoinformatics tool. India also has come a long way in effective utilization of geoinformatics for various applications. This quantum leap owes its foundation in a humble beginning about half century back and almost parallel developments in the country's space programme to a current level where it touches almost all areas of life and living. Though geoinformatics technology (GIT) is believed to reach satisfactory level in the country, Indian geospatial community faces critical challenges with respect to research, education and training along with enhanced the access to the stakeholders and mobilization of the workforce, that are crucial in further penetration of this technology in context to India's development. In this paper we have critically reviewed milestones of GI development and its current utilization status in Indian context.

  16. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J. Aaron; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  17. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Adlakha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2% from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2% with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99. The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  18. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-04-02

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2-3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48-0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  19. Application of hybrid techniques (self-organizing map and fuzzy algorithm) using backscatter data for segmentation and fine-scale roughness characterization of seepage-related seafloor along the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Dandapath, S.; Fernandes, W.A.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Haris, K.; Gokul, G.S.

    (involving pockmarks and faulted structures) subjected to strong bottom currents and seasonal upwelling. Index Terms ─ Multi-beam backscatter, Seafloor classification and characterizations, Self-Organizing map (SOM), Fuzzy C- means (FCM), Power spectral..., ANN techniques were proposed for hydro-acoustic data classification [10]. The SOM exercises unsupervised competitive learning on the unknown dataset (input) onto coarser clusters i.e., primary classifications [11]. For real time survey applications...

  20. Reorienting India's financial system: In conversation with Dr Duvvuri Subbarao, Governor, Reserve Bank of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Moorthy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Confronted by a slowing economy, the Reserve Bank of India has undertaken steps to revive it. These measures, however, run the risk of worsening current high levels of inflation. This paper examines certain aspects of India's financial system that have contributed to this situation. It argues that unduly low yields on Government bonds have prevented a healthy financial system from developing, with adverse impact upon inflation and other macroeconomic outcomes. It suggests that India should focus far more on domestic, and less on external, financial liberalisation. Specifically, yields on non-market borrowing, such as Provident Fund deposits, should be benchmarked to a low frequency measure of consumer price inflation.