WorldWideScience

Sample records for ka mid ah

  1. Reconstruction of sea surface water dynamics in the North Atlantic during the Mid-Pleistocene (~540-400 ka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Marta; Flores, José-Abel; Palumbo, Eliana; Alonso-García, Montserrat; Sierro, Francisco-Javier; Ornella Amore, Filomena

    2014-05-01

    . Sierro, José A. Flores, Arctic front shifts in the subpolar North Atlantic during the Mid-Pleistocene (800-400ka) and their implications for ocean circulation, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology,Volume 311, Issues 3-4, 15 November 2011, Pages 268-280, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.09.004. F.O. Amore, J.A. Flores, A.H.L. Voelker, S.M. Lebreiro, E. Palumbo, F.J. Sierro, A Middle Pleistocene Northeast Atlantic coccolithophore record: Paleoclimatology and paleoproductivity aspects, Marine Micropaleontology, Volumes 90-91, June 2012, Pages 44-59, , http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2012.03.006. E. Palumbo, J.A. Flores, C. Perugia, Z. Petrillo, A.H.L. Voelker, F.O. Amore, Millennial scale coccolithophore paleoproductivity and surface water changes between 445 and 360ka (Marine Isotope Stages 12/11) in the Northeast Atlantic, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volumes 383-384, August 2013, Pages 27-41, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.04.024.

  2. The environment of the Ethiopian highlands at the Mid Pleistocene Transition: Fauna, flora and hominins in the 850-700 ka sequence of Gombore II (Melka Kunture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussi, M.; Altamura, F.; Bonnefille, R.; De Rita, D.; Melis, R. T.

    2016-10-01

    Environment, climatic change and human evolution have been debated over the last 50 years giving special attention to the Plio-Pleistocene sites of the Rift Valley. In this paper we discuss the environment and the limits of hominin adaptability based on evidence from Melka Kunture, at 2000 m asl on the Ethiopian highlands, and specifically on the ∼850 ka to ∼700 ka sequence at sub-site Gombore II. Human fossils and multiple Acheulean occurrences, as well as hippo remains and footprints, combined with palynological analysis, provide a highly detailed chronological resolution of the changing local environmental conditions during the last ∼150 ka of the MPT (Mid Pleistocene Transition), including the sequence of events after a volcanic eruption. Layers containing footprints and fossils are evidence of near-continuous occupation by hippos and their recolonization of the area after a disruptive volcanic eruption. Conversely, Acheulean implements and human fossils suggest that peopling by hominins occurred at a different and discontinuous pace even when the flora and fauna were re-established and the environment was rather stable. Most notably, the assembled evidence points to the limits of Homo erectus s.l. adaptability. Apparently, this hominin could no longer live at 2000 m asl when the climate deteriorated during glacial isotopic stage 20, becoming markedly colder than it is today, but re-colonized the area when the climate turned warmer again during isotopic stage 19.

  3. Environment and paleoecology of a 12 ka mid-North American Younger Dryas forest chronicled in tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyushkina, Irina P.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Thompson, Todd A.; Schneider, Allan F.; Lange, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Until now, availability of wood from the Younger Dryas abrupt cooling event (YDE) in N. America ca. 12.9 to 11.6 ka has been insufficient to develop high-resolution chronologies for refining our understanding of YDE conditions. Here we present a multi-proxy tree-ring chronology (ring widths, “events” evidenced by microanatomy and macro features, stable isotopes) from a buried black spruce forest in the Great Lakes area (Liverpool East site), spanning 116 yr at ca. 12,000 cal yr BP. During this largely cold and wet period, the proxies convey a coherent and precise forest history including frost events, tilting, drowning and burial in estuarine sands as the Laurentide Ice Sheet deteriorated. In the middle of the period, a short mild interval appears to have launched the final and largest episode of tree recruitment. Ultimately the tops of the trees were sheared off after death, perhaps by wind-driven ice floes, culminating an interval of rising water and sediment deposition around the base of the trees. Although relative influences of the continental ice sheet and local effects from ancestral Lake Michigan are indeterminate, the tree-ring proxies provide important insight into environment and ecology of a N. American YDE boreal forest stand.

  4. Vegetation and climate in Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes since 210 ka: new insights from marine and terrestrial pollen records from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. T.; Dunbar, G. B.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Neil, H. L.; Hannah, M. J.; Newnham, R. M.; Bostock, H.; Alloway, B. V.

    2012-08-01

    Paleo-vegetation records developed from marine sedimentary sequences offer considerable potential for examining changes in terrestrial climate beyond the range of 14C dating because they can be independently dated by δ18O stratigraphy. Here we present the first pollen record of vegetation from a marine core site in the Tasman Sea, TAN0513-14 (42°18'S, 169°53'E), ˜110 km west of New Zealand's South Island. An independent chronology provided by correlating the Globigerina bulloides δ18O record at TAN0513-14 to a global isotope stack shows that the record extends back to 210 ka. Glacial to interglacial changes in palynomorph content are characterised by shrub and podocarp-broadleaf forest taxa respectively and are correlated with similar changes in the ca 150 kyr-long terrestrial pollen record from Okarito Pakihi (bog), 110 km to the south southeast. Both records are placed on the same timescale by matching variations in Dacrydium cupressinum and Fuscospora between sites, with a unique tie point provided by the ca 25.4 ka Kawakawa Tephra. Our Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude vegetation records show forest extent is greatest during periods of low ice volume, high mean annual sea surface temperature (MASST) and anti-phased with local insolation intensity. However, there are several features not attributable to changes in mean annual temperature. First, a fundamental change in forest composition occurred at Termination II (TII), with a loss of southern beech (Nothofagus) from the study area. Second, the amplitude of MASST change through MIS 5 is not reflected in corresponding changes in forest extent, suggesting other feature(s) of regional climate (seasonality, frostiness, ice cover) exert important controls over vegetation patterns at these latitudes.

  5. A coccolithophore based view on paleoenvironmental changes in the open ocean mid-latitude North Atlantic between 130 and 48ka BP with special emphasis on MIS 5e

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, C.; Kinkel, Hanno; Weinelt, M.

    2013-01-01

    past changes in productivity and hydrography from a new sediment core (MD08-3179Cq) taken in the open ocean mid-latitude North Atlantic in the vicinity of the Azores Current System. Concomitant to the reorganizations of environmental conditions in the North Atlantic between 130 and 48ka BP, changes......As oceanographic changes in the North Atlantic are known to modulate global climate, they are key to the understanding of past and future climate changes. Especially the mid-latitudes of the open ocean North Atlantic may be of interest, regarding the large area covered. We therefore reconstructed...

  6. Mid-Season Estimates of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness against Influenza A(H3N2 Hospitalization in the Elderly in Quebec, Canada, January 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Gilca

    Full Text Available The 2014/15 influenza season in Canada was characterized by an early epidemic due to vaccine-mismatched influenza A(H3N2 viruses, disproportionately affecting elderly individuals ≥65-years-old. We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE against A(H3N2 hospitalization among elderly individuals during the peak weeks of the 2014/15 epidemic in Quebec, Canada.Nasal specimens and clinical/epidemiological data were collected within 7 days of illness onset from elderly patients admitted with respiratory symptoms to one of four participating hospitals between November 30, 2014 and January 13, 2015. Cases tested RT-PCR positive for influenza A(H3N2 and controls tested negative for any influenza. VE was assessed by test-negative case-control design.There were 314 participants including 186 cases (62% vaccinated and 128 controls (59% vaccinated included in primary VE analysis. Median age was 81.5 years, two-thirds were admitted from the community and 91% had underlying comorbidity. Crude VE against A(H3N2 hospitalization was -17% (95%CI: -86% to 26%, decreasing to -23% (95%CI: -99 to 23% with adjustment for age and comorbidity, and to -39% (95%CI: -142 to 20% with additional adjustment for specimen collection interval, calendar time, type of residence and hospital. In sensitivity analyses, VE estimates were improved toward the null with restriction to participants admitted from the community (-2%; 95%CI: -105 to 49% or with specimen collection ≤4 days since illness onset (- 8%; 95%CI: -104 to 43% but further from the null with restriction to participants with comorbidity (-51%; 95%CI: -169 to 15%.The 2014/15 mismatched influenza vaccine provided elderly patients with no cross-protection against hospitalization with the A(H3N2 epidemic strain, reinforcing the need for adjunct protective measures among high-risk individuals and improved vaccine options.

  7. Mid-Season Estimates of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness against Influenza A(H3N2) Hospitalization in the Elderly in Quebec, Canada, January 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilca, Rodica; Skowronski, Danuta M; Douville-Fradet, Monique; Amini, Rachid; Boulianne, Nicole; Rouleau, Isabelle; Martineau, Christine; Charest, Hugues; De Serres, Gaston

    2015-01-01

    The 2014/15 influenza season in Canada was characterized by an early epidemic due to vaccine-mismatched influenza A(H3N2) viruses, disproportionately affecting elderly individuals ≥65-years-old. We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against A(H3N2) hospitalization among elderly individuals during the peak weeks of the 2014/15 epidemic in Quebec, Canada. Nasal specimens and clinical/epidemiological data were collected within 7 days of illness onset from elderly patients admitted with respiratory symptoms to one of four participating hospitals between November 30, 2014 and January 13, 2015. Cases tested RT-PCR positive for influenza A(H3N2) and controls tested negative for any influenza. VE was assessed by test-negative case-control design. There were 314 participants including 186 cases (62% vaccinated) and 128 controls (59% vaccinated) included in primary VE analysis. Median age was 81.5 years, two-thirds were admitted from the community and 91% had underlying comorbidity. Crude VE against A(H3N2) hospitalization was -17% (95%CI: -86% to 26%), decreasing to -23% (95%CI: -99 to 23%) with adjustment for age and comorbidity, and to -39% (95%CI: -142 to 20%) with additional adjustment for specimen collection interval, calendar time, type of residence and hospital. In sensitivity analyses, VE estimates were improved toward the null with restriction to participants admitted from the community (-2%; 95%CI: -105 to 49%) or with specimen collection ≤4 days since illness onset (- 8%; 95%CI: -104 to 43%) but further from the null with restriction to participants with comorbidity (-51%; 95%CI: -169 to 15%). The 2014/15 mismatched influenza vaccine provided elderly patients with no cross-protection against hospitalization with the A(H3N2) epidemic strain, reinforcing the need for adjunct protective measures among high-risk individuals and improved vaccine options.

  8. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  9. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  10. The paleoclimate of the Eastern Mediterranean during the transition from early to mid Pleistocene (900 to 700 ka) based on marine and non-marine records: An integrated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almogi-Labin, Ahuva

    2011-04-01

    Climate change is frequently considered an important driver of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. The role of climate change in the last phase (900-700 ka) of the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT) in the Levant and northeast Africa was examined, using marine and non-marine records. During the MPT the global climate system shifted from a linear 41 k.yr. into a highly non-linear 100 k.yr. system, considerably changing its global modulation. Northeast Africa aridity further intensified around 950ka, as indicated by a sharp increase in dust flux, and a jump to overall higher levels thereafter, coinciding with a lack of sapropels in the deep eastern Mediterranean (930-690ka). The increased dust flux centering at ∼800ka corresponds to the minima in 400 k.yr. eccentricity, a minima in 65 °N solar forcing and in the weakest African monsoon precession periodicity. This resulted in expansion of hyper-arid conditions across North Africa, the lowest lake levels in eastern Africa and the lowest rainfall in the Nile River headwaters. In the eastern Mediterranean an increasing continental signature is seen in glacial stages 22 (∼880ka) and 20 (∼800ka). Lower arboreal pollen values also indicate arid conditions during these glacial stages. The southern and eastern parts of the Negev Desert, unlike its northern part, were hyper-arid during the MPT, making them highly unsustainable. The fluctuations in the stands of Lake Amora follow global climate variability but were more moderate than those of its last glacial Lake Lisan successor. In the northern Jordan-Valley Hula Lake, frequent fluctuations in lake level coincide with both global climate changes and minor changes in water salinity varying from fresh to oligohaline. It appears therefore that the most pronounced and widespread deterioration in climate occurred in northeast Africa from 900 to 700ka, whereas in the Levant the corresponding climatic changes were more moderate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Kuulus dress ka Evelinile!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kinkis Eestis esinenud popstaar Madonnale eesti rahvusmotiividega dressid. Sarnased spordirõivad tulevad müügile ka Tallinnas Viru keskuses Bastioni esinduskaupluses. Proua Evelin Ilvesele valmistatakse ainulaadsed valgest kangast dressid

  12. Kuulus dress ka Evelinile!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kinkis Eestis esinenud popstaar Madonnale eesti rahvusmotiividega dressid. Sarnased spordirõivad tulevad müügile ka Tallinnas Viru keskuses Bastioni esinduskaupluses. Proua Evelin Ilvesele valmistatakse ainulaadsed valgest kangast dressid

  13. REVIEW OF STUDIES ON THE MID-PLEISTOCENE CLIMATIC TRANSITION AND THE 100 ka CYCLE%中更新世气候转型与100 ka周期研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬光剑; 潘保田; 管清玉; 高红山

    2002-01-01

    中更新世气候转型是第四纪气候变化中最重要的特征之一,它是指全球气候的主导周期在中更新世时从41 ka转变为100 ka,且气候波动的幅度也加大.经典的Milankovitch假说不能完全解释中更新世气候转型的原因以及100 ka周期在气候记录中的强烈表现,因为太阳辐射与气候记录之间存在着相当的差异,尤其是二者在变化幅度上不匹配.近年来围绕这一转型过程的时代和原因获得了一些新的进展,主要是针对中更新世气候转型的时间、对气候记录中100 ka周期的重新检讨以及非太阳辐射因素在这一转型过程中所起的作用.其它可能的转型原因包括大冰盖、温室气体、地球轨道面倾角、冰盖基底、构造隆升等.

  14. AH-64E Apache Remanufacture (AH-64E Remanufacture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    strike, armed reconnaissance, Manned-Unmanned Teaming, security and vertical maneuver missions across the full spectrum of warfare from Stability and...Jan 2008 LUT Nov 2009 Nov 2009 May 2010 Nov 2009 Milestone C Jul 2010 Jul 2010 Jan 2011 Sep 2010 IOT &E Mar 2012 Mar 2012 Sep 2012 Mar 2012 FRP Jul...Acronyms and Abbreviations IOT &E - Initial Operational Test and Evaluation LUT - Limited User Test AH-64E Remanufacture December 2015 SAR March 21, 2016

  15. Simulation studies for wells AH-4bis/AH-17 and AH-18, Ahuachapan Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterrosa, Manuel Ernesto

    1996-01-24

    Well AH-4bis, at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field is planned to be drilled on the same pad as the former AH-4. A simulation study was carried out for two casing dameters 13 5/8 and 9 5/8” in order to estimate its production and to know its economic feasibility. The simulation results indcate a high probability of production in the range of 7 Mwe, equivalent to 120 kg/s total mass flow rate, 1250 kJ/kg at 6 bar-a for the new well AH-4bis. Well AH- 17 is good producer, during 1991 after ten years of production, the well was shut-in due to silica scaling problems. A wellbore simulation was carried out in order to predict the new production conditions after the work-over, mainly to estimate the water flow rate in order to reduce the silica scaling. The results indicate a very low water flow rate. The match between the simulated and measured production curves after the work-over was successful. The well AH-18 is located at the southern part of the actual bore field. CEL is planning to expand the borefield at this area and it is neccessary to estimate the possible production condtions at that zone. The results indicate a high probabilty of production at that area. The power potential is estimated at 3.5 Mwe per well at WHP 6 bar-a and the wells will not require induction.

  16. Peran Dokter sebagai Saksi Ahli Di Persidangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Susanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPemanfaatan ilmu kedokteran forensik dalam penegakan hukum serta keadilan membutuhkan dokter sebagai saksi ahli medis di persidangan. Saksi ahli pada dasarnya adalah seseorang yang memiliki pengetahuan, pengalaman dan keahlian khusus sebagai dasar dalam memberikan keterangan ahli suatu perkara pidana. Kewajiban dokter untuk membuat keterangan ahli diatur dalam Kitab Undang-undang Acara Pidana dan dalam etika kedokteran. Kehadiran dokter sebagai saksi ahli dapat diminta oleh jaksa penuntut ataupun penasehat hukum tersangka atas persetujuan hakim. Dokter dapat menjadi saksi fakta (dokter yang merawat atau saksi pendapat (ahli independen tergantung keterangan yang dibutuhkan pengadilan. Dalam memberikan keterangan ahli, dokter harus mengikuti ketentuan yang berlaku di persidangan Indonesia, sehingga penting bagi dokter untuk mengetahui tata cara dan sikap dokter sebagai saksi ahli dan mengikuti pedoman menjadi saksi ahli kedokteran.Kata kunci: Dokter sebagai aksi ahli, dasar hukum, persidangan, pedoman saksi ahliAbstractThe utilization of forensic medical science in law enforcement and justice requires a medical doctor as an expert medical witness in court. An expert witness is basically a person who has knowledge, experience and special skill as a basis in providing expertise which is caused a criminal. The obligation of the doctor to make expert explanation is arranged in the book of the law in the crime and in medical ethics.The presence of the doctor as an expert witness can be requested by the prosecutor or the lawyer of the suspect upon approval the judge. Doctors can be as a witness of fact (the treating doctor or as a witness of opinion (the independent expert witness, depending on the information needed at the court. In providing expert information, the doctor should follow the applicable provisions in Council of Indonesia, so it is important for the doctor to know the ordinances and the attitude of doctors acting as medical

  17. Prunskiene tahab lepet ka Keskerakonnaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Leedu Rahvaerakonna (LLP) juht Kazimira Prunskeine käis Moskvas Ühtse Venemaa kongressil ning allkirjastas leppe oma erakonna ja Ühtse Venemaa vahel, samasuguse leppe kavatseb ta allkirjastada ka Eesti Keskerakonnaga, Kasahstanis võimul oleva Nur Otani partei ja Kreeka erakonnaga Uus Demokraatia

  18. Ajateenistust alustab ka viis neidu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Tuleval nädalal alustab ajateenistust üle 1600 noormehe, lisaks alustab juulis Kuperjanovi jala­väepataljonis vabatahtlikuna ajateenistust ka viis neidu. Juulikuise teenistusse kutsumisega alustavad teenistust ajateenijad, kelle ametikoht eeldab 11-kuulist ajateenistust ehk autojuhid, erialaspet­sialistid, allohvitserid ja reservrühmaülemad

  19. The Terrestrial NPP Simulation in China since 6ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; DONG Wenjie; JI Jinjun; DAN Li

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the long-term global carbon cycle required estimate of the changes in terrestrial carbon storage after the last glacial period. The results of simulation at mid-Holocene (MH) from PMIP (Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project) and the modern data from CRU (Climate Research Unit,East Anglia University, UK) allow us to use the Atmosphere-Vegetation Interaction Model (AVIM) to simulate the Chinese terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) at 6ka BP and present time. The change of NPP and total NPP in China from now to mid-Holocene are about 54 g m-2yr-1 and 0.63 Pg yr-1,respectively, mainly due to the build-up of temperate forest and tropical rainforest. Chinese terrestrial NPP variation from MH to now is closely related to the variation in intensity of Asian monsoon, which controlled the climate-vegetation pattern change.

  20. KaVA ESTEMA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyadomari, Miyako; Imai, Hiroshi; Cho, Se-Hyung; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Choi, Yoon-Kyong; Kim, Jaeheon; Yun, Youngjoo; Matsumoto, Naoko; Min, Cheul-Hong; Oyama, Tomoaki; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Jin; Dodson, Richard; Rioja, Maria; Burns, Ross; Orosz, Gabor; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Chibueze O, James; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Sobolev, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    The ESTEMA (Expanded Study on Stellar Masers) project is one of three Large Programs of the KaVA (the combined array of the Korean VLBI Network and Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry), and conducted in 2015-2016. It aims to publish a database of the largest sample of VLBI images of circumstellar water (H2O) and silicon-monoxide (SiO) maser sources towards circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of 80 evolved stars in late AGB to early post-AGB phase. Here we present the specifications of the ESTEMA observations and the planned scientific goals in order to share the basic information of the ESTEMA with astronomical community and encourage future collaborations with the ESTEMA and future follow-up observations for the targeted stars.

  1. Maqashidusy Syari'ah Dan Kloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asymuni Abdurrahman

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available MASALAH kloning ini, merupakan masalah yang baru timbul sekalipun embrio masalah ini sudah lama dikenal ilmuan, terutama dikalangan ahli botani atau ilmu tumbuh-tumbuhan dan ilmu biologi. Pengertian kloning bersifat umum, tidak terbatas pada tumbuhan dan hewan saja. Tetapi juga dalam perkembangan ilmu rekayasa genetika dimungkinkan untuk dapat diterapkan pada manusia. Kloning dalam batas pelaksanaannya untuk tumbuh-tumbuhan dan hewan tidaklah menjadi permasalahan, tetapi akan menjadi permasalahan kalau sampai kloning ini diterapkan pada manusia yang dapat memproduksi manusia tanpa pernikahan. Sekalipun sampai sekarang belum berhasil kloning terhadap manusia, namun perlu mendapat antisipasi pemikiran dari segi syari'ah, khususnya dari segi maqashidusy syari'ah.

  2. Fade Mitigation Techniques at Ka-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Asoka (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Rain fading is the dominant propagation impairment affecting Ka-band satellite links and rain fade mitigation is a key element in the design of Ka-band satellite networks. Some of the common fade mitigation techniques include: power control, diversity, adaptive coding, and resource sharing. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides an excellent opportunity to develop and test Ka-band rain impairment amelioration techniques. Up-link power control and diversity are discussed in this paper.

  3. SISTEM LEMBAGA KEUANGAN SHARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Dewianty

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lembaga Keuangan Shari’ah merupakan embrio kekuatan ekonomi di negara ini, di zamannya ia mampu menjadi sistem yang bisa mensejahterakan umatnya. Di masa krisis, ia mampu lolos dari kebangkrutan, sekalipun tidak mendapat bantuan dana BLBI. Konsep yang mengandung keshari’ahan ini harus menjadi kekuatan baru dalam membangkitkan kembali perekonomian negeri ini. Sistem lembaga Keuangan Shari’ah ini berkembang pesat memainkan peranan penting dalam mengalokasikan sumber daya dan meningkatkan pembangunan ekonomi. Tulisan ini merupakan studi pustaka dimana penulis mencoba menjelaskan bagaimana sistem lembaga keuangan islam di berbagai Negara, dan kemudian di bandingkan dengan penerapan sistem lembaga keuangan di Indonesia.

  4. Ka Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) for Interplanetary CubeSat Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ka Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) for Interplanetary CubeSat Communications allowing moving up from UHF, S or X to get higher gain for a given diameter.

  5. Ka-band MMIC subarray technology program (Ka-Mist)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, W.

    1995-09-01

    Ka-band monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) arrays have been considered as having high potential for increasing the capability of space, aircraft, and land mobile communication systems in terms of scan performance, data rate, link margin, and flexibility while offering a significant reduction in size, weight, and power consumption. Insertion of MMIC technology into antenna systems, particularly at millimeter wave frequencies using low power and low noise amplifiers in closed proximity to the radiating elements, offers a significant improvement in the array transmit efficiency, receive system noise figure, and overall array reliability. Application of active array technology also leads to the use of advanced beamforming techniques that can improve beam agility, diversity, and adaptivity to complex signal environments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the 'tile' array packaging architecture at EHF via the insertion of 1990 MMIC technology into a functional tile array or subarray module. The means test of this objective was to demonstrate and deliver to NASA a minimum of two 4 x 4 (16 radiating element) subarray modules operating in a transmit mode at 29.6 GHz. Available (1990) MMIC technology was chosen to focus the program effort on the novel interconnect schemes and packaging requirements rather than focusing on MMIC development. Major technical achievements of this program include the successful integration of two 4 x 4 subarray modules into a single antenna array. This 32 element array demonstrates a transmit EIRP of over 300 watts yielding an effective directive power gain in excess of 55 dB at 29.63 GHz. The array has been actively used as the transmit link in airborne/terrestrial mobile communication experiments accomplished via the ACTS satellite launched in August 1993.

  6. AL-KAFA’AH FI AL-NIKAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmah Sayuti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Kafa'ah in marriage is basically equality, suitability and proportionality between the prospective couples getting married. Humans are required to kafa'ah in religion and religiosity. Non-Muslims can't kafa'ah with Muslims because of inequalities in beliefe. Some kafa'ah that should be considered in marriage is nasab, religion, belief or religiosity, profession, liberty and property.

  7. 12 CFR Appendixes A-H to Subpart A... - Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 A Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification Pt. 702, Apps. Appendixes A-H...

  8. In-flight AHS MTF measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallefont-Robinet, Françoise; Fontanilles, Guillaume; de Miguel, Eduardo

    2008-10-01

    The disposal of couples of images of the same landscape acquired with two spatial resolutions gives the opportunity to assess the in-flight Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the lower resolution sensor in the common spectral bands. For each couple, the higher resolution image stands for the landscape so that the ratio of the spectra obtained by FFT of the two images, gives the lower resolution sensor MTF. This paper begins with a brief recall of the method including the aliasing correction. The next step presents the data to be processed, provided by the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA). The model of the AHS MTF is described. The presentation of the corresponding AHS results naturally follows. Last part of the paper consists in a comparison with other measurements: measurements obtained with the edge method and laboratory measurements.

  9. Doktrin Shi’ah Membelenggu Ukhuwwah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Hasyim Afandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ukhuwah is a basic necessity for every human being. Either in religious life or society, man needs ukhuwah. Ukhuwah does not have to force someone equal in all respects. Ukhuwah principle is tolerance, mutual respect, mutual appriciation and not force. Indonesia is a diverse country, whether ethnic, religious, cultural or others. With Bhineka Tunggal Ika, diversity can be tied in a single container NKRI. This republic can be realized thanks to the struggle of leaders who promote ukhuwah. The emergence of Shi’ah ideology ukhuwah disturbing in this country. With the doctrine of takfir (which really only understand Shia’ah, the others infidels and leaders (believe that the imam is the supreme authority in religion and world. If this kind of ideology is left, the disintegration will happen. Because of the belief that they will not tolerate, respect, and appreciate other philosophies.

  10. Mengangkat "Sing Liyan" Untuk Formulasi Nilai Tambah Syari'ah

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Triyuwono

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Making Use “Sing Liyan”/ “The Other” to Formulate Shari’ah Value Added: This study attempts to formulate Shari’ah value-added as consequence of adopting Shari’ah Enterprise Theory (SET) as a basic theory of Shari’ah Accounting. The issue emerges as a result of a conflicting idea of whether Shari’ah accounting utilizes SET or Entity Theory (ET). For some reasons, this study implicitly prefers to SET than ET. Hence, the study is only concerned with value-added instead of income in the...

  11. Southeast Asian Sharī‘ahs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Hooker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Southeast Asian materials show that the sharī‘ah’s providing various pathways (through time and place for individual Muslims to follow when doing their duty to God, which is fidelity to Revealed Truth. There are many paths and it is pointless to insist upon an historical ‘purist’ mono-legacy, however attractive this might appear theoretically. The realities of life (economics, social structure, alternative philosophies, and so on dictate otherwise. Local sharī‘ahs adapt realities to Revelation irrespective of whether sources of legislation or forms of government are Muslim or non-Muslim this was never an issue in Southeast Asia. The localized sharī‘ahs were achieved via an acceptance of legal pluralism and hybridization of laws. The result is that Revealed obligations are phrased in local terms, change over time is allowed for, and the end result is a truly original and unique set of ‘Southeast Asian’ sharī‘ahs.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i2.387

  12. The constitutively active Ah receptor (CA-AhR) mouse as a model for dioxin exposure - effects in reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnberg, Sara; Andersson, Patrik; Poellinger, Lorenz; Hanberg, Annika

    2011-12-01

    The dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates most toxic effects of dioxins. In utero/lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) impairs fetal/neonatal development and the developing male reproductive tract are among the most sensitive tissues. TCDD causes antiestrogenic responses in rodent mammary gland and uterus and in human breast cancer cell lines in the presence of estrogen. Also, more recently an estrogen-like effect of TCDD/AhR has been suggested in the absence of estrogen. A transgenic mouse expressing a constitutively active AhR (CA-AhR) was developed as a model mimicking a situation of constant exposure to AhR agonists. Male and female reproductive tissues of CA-AhR mice were characterized for some of the effects commonly seen after dioxin exposure. Sexually mature CA-AhR female mice showed decreased uterus weight, while an uterotrophic assay in immature CA-AhR mice resulted in increased uterus weight. In immature mice, both TCDD-exposure and CA-AhR increased the expression of the estrogen receptor target gene Cathepsin D. When co-treated with 17β-estradiol no increase in Cathepsin D levels occurred in either TCDD-exposed or CA-AhR mice. In sexually mature male CA-AhR mice the weights of testis and ventral prostate were decreased and the epididymal sperm reserve was reduced. The results of the present study are in accordance with previous studies on dioxin-exposed rodents in that an activated AhR (here CA-AhR) leads to antiestrogenic effects in the presence of estrogen, but to estrogenic effects in the absence of estrogen. These results suggest the CA-AhR mouse model as a useful tool for studies of continuous low activity of the AhR from early development, resembling the human exposure situation.

  13. AltiKa in-flight performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Francois; Desjonquères, Jean-Damien; Steunou, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    The SARAL/AltiKa satellite has been launched the 25th of February 2013 from the launch pad of Sriharikota (India). Since this date, AltiKa provides measurements and affords the first altimetry results in Ka band. This paper recalls the instrument design and assesses the in-flight performance. The SARAL/AltiKa mission has been developed in the frame of a cooperation between CNES (French Space Agency) and ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization). AltiKa is a single frequency Ka-band altimeter with a bi-frequency radiometer embedded. Both altimeter and radiometer share the same antenna. Altimeter expertise and routine calibrations performed during assessment phase demonstrate the stability of the instrument. Moreover the performance assessed over ocean are noteworthy such as 0.9 cm on epoch 1 Hz noise for 2 m of SWH, which is fully consistent with simulations and ground pre-flight tests results. The data availability is also very good and very few altimeter measurements are lost due to rain attenuation. Radiometer data analysis shows that the instrument is very stable and its performances are consistent with pre-flight tests results.

  14. Ionization constants pKa of cardiolipin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Olofsson

    Full Text Available Cardiolipin is a phospholipid found in the inner mitochondrial membrane and in bacteria, and it is associated with many physiological functions. Cardiolipin has a dimeric structure consisting of two phosphatidyl residues connected by a glycerol bridge and four acyl chains, and therefore it can carry two negative charges. The pKa values of the phosphate groups have previously been reported to differ widely with pKa1 = 2.8 and pKa2 = 7.5-9.5. Still, there are several examples of experimental observations from cardiolipin-containing systems that do not fit with this dissociation behavior. Therefore, we have carried out pH-titration and titration calorimetric experiments on two synthetic cardiolipins, 1,1',2,2'-tetradecanoyl cardiolipin, CL (C14:0, and 1,1',2,2'-tetraoctadecenoyl cardiolipin, CL (C18:1. Our results show that both behave as strong dibasic acids with pKa1 about the same as the first pKa of phosphoric acid, 2.15, and pKa2 about one unit larger. The characterization of the acidic properties of cardiolipin is crucial for the understanding of the molecular organization in self-assembled systems that contain cardiolipin, and for their biological function.

  15. A 600-ka Arctic sea-ice record from Mendeleev Ridge based on ostracodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; Polyak, L.V.; Reed, D.; Kandiano, E. S.; Marzen, R. E.; Council, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic paleoceanography and sea-ice history were reconstructed from epipelagic and benthic ostracodes from a sediment core (HLY0503-06JPC, 800 m water depth) located on the Mendeleev Ridge, Western Arctic Ocean. The calcareous microfaunal record (ostracodes and foraminifers) covers several glacial/interglacial cycles back to estimated Marine Isotope Stage 13 (MIS 13, ∼500 ka) with an average sedimentation rate of ∼0.5 cm/ka for most of the stratigraphy (MIS 5–13). Results based on ostracode assemblages and an unusual planktic foraminiferal assemblage in MIS 11 dominated by a temperate-water species Turborotalita egelida show that extreme interglacial warmth, high surface ocean productivity, and possibly open ocean convection characterized MIS 11 and MIS 13 (∼400 and 500 ka, respectively). A major shift in western Arctic Ocean environments toward perennial sea ice occurred after MIS 11 based on the distribution of an ice-dwelling ostracode Acetabulastoma arcticum. Spectral analyses of the ostracode assemblages indicate sea ice and mid-depth ocean circulation in western Arctic Ocean varied primarily at precessional (∼22 ka) and obliquity (∼40 ka) frequencies.

  16. Monsoonal response to mid-holocene orbital forcing in a high resolution GCM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.H.C.; Drijfhout, S.S.; Tuenter, E.; Lourens, L.J.; Hilgen, F.J.; Weber, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we use a sophisticated high-resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, EC-Earth, to investigate the effect of Mid-Holocene orbital forcing on summer monsoons on both hemispheres. During the Mid-Holocene (6 ka), there was more summer insolation on the Northern Hemisphere than

  17. Monsoonal response to mid-holocene orbital forcing in a high resolution GCM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.H.C.; Drijfhout, S.S.; Tuenter, E.; Lourens, L.J.; Hilgen, F.J.; Weber, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we use a sophisticated high-resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, EC-Earth, to investigate the effect of Mid-Holocene orbital forcing on summer monsoons on both hemispheres. During the Mid-Holocene (6 ka), there was more summer insolation on the Northern Hemisphere than t

  18. Newspapers and Newspaper Ink Contain Agonists for the Ah Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohonowych, Jessica E. S.; Zhao, Bin; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Denison, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Ligand-dependent activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway leads to a diverse array of biological and toxicological effects. The best-studied ligands for the AhR include polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the most potent of which is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, as new AhR ligands are identified and characterized, their structural and physiochemical diversity continues to expand. Our identification of AhR agonists in crude extracts from diverse materials raises questions as to the magnitude and extent of human exposure to AhR ligands through normal daily activities. We have found that solvent extracts of newspapers from countries around the world stimulate the AhR signaling pathway. AhR agonist activity was observed for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, and water extracts of printed newspaper, unprinted virgin paper, and black printing ink, where activation of luciferase reporter gene expression was transient, suggesting that the AhR active chemical(s) was metabolically labile. DMSO and ethanol extracts also stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, and also competed with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR. In addition, DMSO extracts of printed newspaper induced cytochrome P450 1A associated 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Although the responsible bioactive chemical(s) remain to be identified, our results demonstrate that newspapers and printing ink contain relatively potent metabolically labile agonists of the AhR. Given the large amount of recycling and reprocessing of newspapers throughout the world, release of these easily extractable AhR agonists into the environment should be examined and their potential effects on aquatic organisms assessed. PMID:18203687

  19. Intracellular Localization and Trafficking of Serine Proteinase AhSub and Cysteine Proteinase AhCP of Acanthamoeba healyi

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, E.-K.; Lee, S.-T.; Chung, D.-I.; Kong, H.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Proteinases have been proposed to play important roles in pathogenesis and various biologic actions in Acanthamoeba. Although genetic characteristics of several proteases of Acanthamoeba have been reported, the intracellular localization and trafficking of these enzymes has yet to be studied. In the present study, we analyzed the intracellular localization and trafficking of two proteinases, AhSub and AhCP, of Acanthamoeba healyi by transient transfection. Full-length AhSub-enhanced green flu...

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1KA4A-1WGZA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1KA4A-1WGZA 1KA4 1WGZ A A EVFQNETIKQILAKYRRIWAIGHAQSVLGWDLEVNMPKE...confEVID> 0 1KA4 A 1KA4A...tryChain> 1KA4 A 1KA4A FPLGTRARLD... CA 334 SER CA 255 1KA4 A 1KA4A LEEGKVPREHP HH

  1. Evaluation of 20 Ah Li Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Huang, Charles K.; Surampudi, S.; Hill, Carole; Radzykewycz, Dan T.; Marsh, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Lithium ion cells of 20 Ah capacity were fabricated by Bluestar Advanced Technology Corporation, Canada under a developmental contract from US Air Force. In this paper, we report our studies on the evaluation of these cells under various test conditions. These include generic test conditions such as discharges and charges at different temperatures to understand the rate-limiting processes in the discharge/charge processes as a function of temperature, and cycle life under standard cycling conditions (100% DOD) at ambient temperature. In addition, tests are being done to ascertain the performance of the cells in the Mars 2001 Lander application, which includes pulse testing of the cells at 60 A and 40 A loads for 100 mS and 1 min., respectively at different states of charge and temperatures, and cycling at low temperature at partial depths of discharge.

  2. Ah receptor agonist activity in frequently consumed food items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de W.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Kok, de T.M.C.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) receives much attention for its role in the toxicity of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls. However, many other compounds have also been reported to bind and activate AhR, of which natural food components are of special interest from a human health

  3. Ah receptor agonist activity in frequently consumed food items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de W.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Kok, de T.M.C.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) receives much attention for its role in the toxicity of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls. However, many other compounds have also been reported to bind and activate AhR, of which natural food components are of special interest from a human health

  4. Evolusi Sharî‘ah dan Wacana Fiqih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Yasid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sharî‘ah has always been deemed as an integral part of Muslims life. As a binding and commanding divine law, Sharî‘ah has in other words been internalized in the being and existence of Muslims through their obedience and regular practice. The question that this paper tries to answer is whether Sharî‘ah is divine and transcendent, or is it evolving from being transcendent to becoming mere ideas and legal dictum of the ulama? To delve on this question the paper begins by saying that any legal formulation does stem from observation of social reality. Given the changing nature of social reality –we argue- the product of legal extrapolation does exhibit some form of evolution. We further argue that so long as the heart of the divine law is human interest (maşlahah both worldly and heavenly, Sharî‘ah cannot escape from the law of evolution considering that the interest of the vast span of humanity differs from one setting to another. That is why many jurists speak of the Maqasid al-Sharî‘ah (the aims of Sharî‘ah implying that Sharî‘ah does evolve given the multiplicity of these aims. Simply speaking, the paper is directed toward proving that Sharî‘ah cannot be seen as stagnant and that it is subjected–like any other forms of knowledge–to the law of evolution.

  5. Development of a platoon driving AHS; AHS jikkensha ni okeru gunsoko seigyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Y.; Inoue, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nissan and the Public Work Research Institute of the Ministry of Construction are developing an Automated Highway System. We are investigating a longitudinal control system in AHS. In this paper, a vehicle control method using two actuators an engine and a brake, is described. Experimental and simulated results are shown. A Platoon driving control method using road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle communication is described. And the influence of the communication on the control performance is shown by experiments and simulation. The effects of the communication device and control device mentioned above are verified by experimental results in an AHS field test conducted in September 1996 on a dosed highway. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  6. RASIONALITAS KONVERSI BANK KONVENSIONAL KE BANK SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Damanuri

    2016-02-01

    Aji Damanuri   Abstract: Shari>’ah banking, for the last ten years, has increased in prosperity not only at the quantity of conventional banks but also at the count of assets and customers. This economical opportunity drives amount of conventional banks both to convert their institutions to be shari>’ah banks and to open officially shari>’ah platform units with their own assets. This system takes a significant question, is the conversion effected by both banker ideological factor and capitalists or pure economical rational calculation? Is a religious consideration linked to economical rationality? This paper is to elaborate the conversion using not only ‘choice theory’ (teori pilihan but also ‘rational action’ (tindakan rasional to seek religious action possibility in a reasonable way of shari>’ah banking.   Keywords: shari>’ah bank, conversion, rational action, religiosity.

  7. Induction of AhR-mediated gene transcription by coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Okinaga, Hiroko; Teramoto, Tamio

    2014-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is classically known to be activated by xenobiotics such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although it has been reported that PAHs are contained in roasted coffee beans, in general coffee beverages are not considered to be AhR activators. We tested whether exposure to coffee would activate AhR in cultured cells. HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene were treated with coffee samples. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was quantitated by RT-PCR and Western blotting in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells, after treatment with coffee. In order to obtain sensitive and reproducible results, all the experiments were performed with the cells placed in either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or pure serum, instead of routinely-used culture medium, whose intrinsic AhR-stimulating activity turned out to be so strong as to interfere with the analyses. All the coffee samples tested robustly stimulated AhR-mediated transcription in the reporter gene assays. Of note, to what extent coffee and other AhR agonists activated AhR was different, depending on whether the experiments were done in PBS or serum. CYP1A1 mRNA was induced by coffee, in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells placed in either PBS or serum. CYP1A1 protein expression, which was not detected in these cells incubated in PBS, was also increased by coffee in cells placed in serum. By using culture medium-free experimental settings, we have shown that coffee is a strong AhR activator. Our observation may help elucidate as-yet-unrecognized effects of coffee on human health.

  8. Induction of AhR-mediated gene transcription by coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is classically known to be activated by xenobiotics such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Although it has been reported that PAHs are contained in roasted coffee beans, in general coffee beverages are not considered to be AhR activators. We tested whether exposure to coffee would activate AhR in cultured cells.HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene were treated with coffee samples. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was quantitated by RT-PCR and Western blotting in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells, after treatment with coffee. In order to obtain sensitive and reproducible results, all the experiments were performed with the cells placed in either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS or pure serum, instead of routinely-used culture medium, whose intrinsic AhR-stimulating activity turned out to be so strong as to interfere with the analyses.All the coffee samples tested robustly stimulated AhR-mediated transcription in the reporter gene assays. Of note, to what extent coffee and other AhR agonists activated AhR was different, depending on whether the experiments were done in PBS or serum. CYP1A1 mRNA was induced by coffee, in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells placed in either PBS or serum. CYP1A1 protein expression, which was not detected in these cells incubated in PBS, was also increased by coffee in cells placed in serum.By using culture medium-free experimental settings, we have shown that coffee is a strong AhR activator. Our observation may help elucidate as-yet-unrecognized effects of coffee on human health.

  9. The Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Link Experiment (MGS/KaBLE-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4-GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-m-diameter parabolic antenna on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) research and development (R&D) 34-meter a ntenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. This Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE-II) allows the performances of the Ka-band and X-band signals to be compared under nearly identical conditions. The two signals have been regularly tracked during the past 2 years. This article presents carrier-signal-level data (P_c/N_o) for both X-band and Ka-band acquired over a wide range of station elevation angles, weather conditions, and solar elongation angles. The cruise phase of the mission covered the period from launch (November 7, 1996) to Mars orbit capture (September 12, 1997). Since September 12, 1997, MGS has been in orbit around Mars. The measurements confirm that Ka-band could increase data capacity by at least a factor of three (5 dB) as compared with X-band. During May 1998, the solar corona experiment, in which the effects of solar plasma on the X-band and Ka-band links were studied, was conducted. In addition, frequency and difference frequency (f_x - f_(Ka)/3.8), ranging, and telemetry data results are presented. MGS/KaBLE-II measured signal strengths (for 54 percent of the experiments conducted) that were in reasonable agreement with predicted values based on preflight knowledge, and frequency residuals that agreed between bands and whose statistics were consistent with expected noise sources. For passes in which measured signal strengths disagreed with predicted values, the problems were traced to known deficiencies, for example, equipment operating under certain conditions, such as a cold Ka-band solid-state power amplifier (SSPA

  10. Mid-Wisconsinan environments on the eastern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. G.; Bettis, E. A., III; Mandel, R. D.; Dorale, J. A.; Fredlund, G. G.

    2009-05-01

    Few sites on the eastern Great Plains contain paleobotanical records for the mid-Wisconsin. We report on four sites, two stream cutbanks and two quarry exposures, ranging in age from >50 to ˜23.4 ka. The oldest site at >50 ka contains a suite of macrofossils from prairie and disturbed ground habitats, with no representation of trees, indicating an open prairie. By ˜38 ka the assemblages include aquatic, wetland, mudflat, and prairie elements with rare specimens of Populus, Betula cf. papyrifera, Salix and at the most northerly site, Picea. This assemblage suggests a prairie/parkland with interspersed marshes, cooler temperatures and increased moisture. Populus and Salix continued to be represented from ˜36 to ˜29 ka, but the only other taxon was Carex. A hiatus may be present at some time during this interval. After ˜29 ka, Picea became dominant on the uplands and it was joined by sedges in local wetlands. At sites near riverine loess sources, loess accumulation began to fill in the wetlands and organic deposition ceased some time after 29 ka.

  11. 35 ka BP climate simulations in East Asia and probing the mechanisms of climate changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ge; ZHENG Yiqun; KE Xiankun

    2005-01-01

    Paleoclimate modeling has become an important tool to detect the future climate of the global warming that is difficult to be validated. The paleoclimate modeling has to be evaluated by regionally geological data in order to determine if it is able to reproduce a reality of climate states. Geological evidence shows that there was a warm-wet interstadial at 35000±3000 a BP in China, which provides an important climate period to be historical analogue for the future climate changes induced by greenhouse gas emissions. Integrated geological records of later phase of the MSI3 from China also provide basements for evaluation of 35 ka BP climate modeling. This paper reports the paleoclimate experiments applied by various forces, and validates the outputs by geological data, consequently improving the boundary conditions in the experiments and making the paleoclimates more approach the reality. The simulations show an increased temperature in the mid-low latitudes and an extended rain-belt northwards in East Asia, while a decreased temperature in high latitudes and a strong exchange of the N-S atmospheric circulation. As there is only ca. 10-15 ka from 35 ka BP to the LGM (21 ka BP) during which climate rapidly changed from a warm-wet interstadial to a typical ice age, this simulation provides scientific basis to recognize the criteria of global warming and trends of natural climate development.

  12. Lake-Level Responses to Abrupt Climate Changes in North-Central Pennsylvania since >16 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, T. M.; Shuman, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    Water levels in small lakes and ponds have widely responded to late-Quaternary climate changes, and we use a combination of geophysical surveys and sediment cores to reconstruct the hydrologic history of Sunfish Pond near Leroy, Pennsylvania (41°38'N 76°41'W). The small lake sits atop Barclay Mountain, a narrow ridge of the Appalachian Mountains near the southern limit of the Wisconsin glaciation. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and a transect of three sediment cores indicate that the shoreline position of the lake has shifted over time with sandy littoral sediments extending outward into the lake stratigraphy, which is primarily composed of organic-rich muds. Calibrated radiocarbon ages from a sediment core collected in 2.25 m of water indicate that the lake formed by ca. 16.1 ka. Deposition of organic-rich muds in the near-shore core indicates moderately high water levels during the period of Heinrich Event 1, the Younger Dryas, and portions of the early Holocene. Sand layers and exceptionally low sediment accumulation rates indicate low water, however, from <16-12.5 ka and again from 5.5-2.8 ka. The water level has been near its modern high level since 2.8 ka based on extensive deposition of rapidly accumulating, organic-rich muds across the basin. The changes coincide with major changes in regional pollen records, and confirm the hydrologic significance of late-Pleistocene abrupt events in the Mid-Atlantic region.

  13. The crystal structure of the AhRR/ARNT heterodimer reveals the structural basis of the repression of AhR-mediated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shunya; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Ohto, Umeharu

    2017-09-13

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds (TCDDs) are extraordinarily potent environmental toxic pollutants. Most of the TCDD toxicities are mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix-Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family. Upon ligand binding, AhR forms a heterodimer with AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and induces the expression of genes involved in various biological responses. One of the genes induced by AhR encodes AhR repressor (AhRR), which also forms a heterodimer with ARNT and represses the activation of AhR-dependent transcription. The control of AhR activation is critical for managing AhR-mediated diseases, but the mechanisms by which AhRR represses AhR activation remain poorly understood, due to the lack of structural information. Here, we determined the structure of the AhRR/ARNT heterodimer by X-ray crystallography, which revealed an asymmetric intertwined domain organization presenting structural features that are both conserved and distinct among bHLH-PAS family members. The structures of AhRR/ARNT and AhR/ARNT were similar in the bHLH-PAS-A region, while the PAS-B of ARNT in the AhRR/ARNT complex exhibited a different domain arrangement in this family reported so far. The structure clearly disclosed that AhRR competitively represses AhR binding to ARNT and target DNA, and further suggested the existence of an AhRR/ARNT-specific repression mechanism. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the mechanism by which AhRR represses AhR-mediated gene transcription. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. Modulation transfer functions at Ka band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesany, Vahid; Sistani, Bita; Salam, Asif; Haimov, Samuel; Gogineni, Prasad; Moore, Richard K.

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) is often used to describe the modulation of the radar signal by the long waves. MTFs were measured at 35 GHz (Ka band) with a switched-beam vector slope gauge/scatterometer on the research platform NORDSEE as part of the SAXON-FPN experiment. Three independent measurements of the scattering were available for each height measurement. This provided the opportunity to average the time series to reduce the effects of fading noise and sea spikes, or, alternatively, to append the time series to achieve more degrees of freedom in the spectral estimates. For upwind measurements, the phase of the VV-polarized Ka-band MTF was always positive, which implies that the maximum of the radar return originates from the forward face of the long-scale waves. This phase increases with increasing wind speed. The magnitude of the MTF decreases with increasing wind speed.

  15. KaKa带你杀大网

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昊月

    2005-01-01

    上期和大家一起漫步dust2,体会了其中的妙处,这期KaKa带你去inferno这张地图探个究竟。inferno是一张对于警匪都比较平衡的地图,攻守都有各自的优势,如何利用这些优势让自己在大网里的杀人数剧增,是KaKa这期要告诉大家的重点。上次KaKa教大家如果做匪徒在大网里杀人,这次咱做警察,练练如何在大网里防守,这次我们进一个开局金钱数16000的大网里,免得初期还要手枪肉搏。一切准备就绪,开局买上M4,炸宙,闪光再带把拆包器,可能会有人有疑问。”又不是打比赛,要买拆包器干吗?杀光敌人不就得了吗。”KaKa在这里还要提醒你一点.1.5版和1.6版其中的一个小区别就是如果警察成功拆除炸弹的话,可以增加3个杀人数,所以只要有机会就奋不顾身去抢拆包,这也算是提高自己在大网里杀人数一个“歪门邪道”,可比你和3个匪徒周旋半天划得来哦。

  16. PERDA Sharî‘ah antara Legalitas dan Prospek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudzakir Mudzakir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many have been done to study the problem of Sharî‘ah and other related issues. But little has been done to investigate the notion of the application of Sharî‘ah in Indonesia in the form of regional law, otherwise known as Perda Sharî‘ah. Apart from its importance and sensitivity, the Perda Sharî‘ah is quite ignored by the academic circle in this country. It is toward filling this gap that this paper is written. It is interested first in discussing the nature of Syariah, its values, history, and sources. Then it moves to the currents of thought and modes of interpretation as far as Sharî‘ah is concerned. It finally discusses the ways Sharî‘ah is applied in daily live and how a country like Indonesia –or rather certain districts in it- are involved in formalizing Sharî‘ah as their regional law. The main argument of this paper is that, Islam is not solely about law. Islam is a religion of ethics, morality, belief, and spirituality. Islam is also a way of life, the consequence of which being that it should be comprehended universally as comprehensive system of living. Hence, we argue, that the application of Islam in the form of regional law would mean a simplification of the more universal form of Islam, and a reduction of the more holistic message of the religion.

  17. Women and Shari‘ah Law: Lessons from Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asna Husin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study surveys the role of women in the development of shari`ah from the introduction of Islam to Aceh in the 12th centurydown to the modern erawith the formal adoption of Islamic law by an Indonesian parliamentary Bill on Aceh’s Special Status in 1999. After briefly exploring this history, we examine contemporary debates on the current implementation of Islamic law by means of five women of differing backgrounds in this Indonesian province. We review historical documents and existing literature as well as qanuns of Aceh (local regulations which stipulate shari`ah requirements. We also interview the five women, including one whose husband and another who herself were subjected to shari`ah punishment. The results are complex reflecting the intricacy of contemporary understandings of the shari`ah and the issues surrounding rights of women in Islamic law. One voice represents her agreement to the shari`ah punishment of her husband on account of its positive outcome for her family. The other four are critical of the current implementation of the shari`ah in Aceh, yet are not opposed to it; these ladies argue for women-friendly shari`ah.

  18. EDUKASI MARKETING BANK SYARÎ’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhan Wadhan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Marketing is a significant aspect to increase consumer trust. Hence, it is essential to educate the consumer with the lesson of the importance of syarî’ah products concerning the marketing aspects. In fact, many banks serves the customer with syariah service in Indonesia.  The basic concept of spiritual marketing is the managements of creation, taste, heart and work (the implementation. Those concepts are under the guidence of faith integrity, obidience, and loyality to Allâh swt. The key of ethics and moral of business is truly placed on the doers. A Muslim busines manager must hold tightly the ethic and moral of business that cope –khusn al-huluq, trusty, dan tolerant. There are three marketing strategies of syariah banking; marker driven strategic, viral marketing way, and fish net strategy. Element of  mega marketing that had been intruduced by Rasûlullâh since the fifteenth century, and now can be adopted to any kinds of businesses including syariah banking. Key Words: Marketing, Marketer, dan Mega Marketing  

  19. Pollen-recorded climate changes between 13.0 and 7.0 14C ka BP in southern Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN AiZhi; MA YuZhen; FENG ZhaoDong; LI Fei; WU HuiNing

    2007-01-01

    A pollen record from Haiyuan section in the southern part of Ningxia revealed a detailed history of vegetation variation and associated climate changes during the period from ~13.0 to ~7.0 14C ka BP. A steppe landscape under a moderately dry (and probably cool) condition (~12.7-~12.1 14C ka BP) was replaced by a coniferous forest dominating the landscape under a generally wet climate from ~12.1 to ~11.0 14C ka BP. This generally wet period, corresponding to the European B(o)lling/All(e)rod period, can be divided into three stages: a cool and wet stage between ~12.1 and ~11.4 14C ka BP, a mild and relatively dry stage between ~11.4 and ~11.2 14C ka BP, and a mild and wet stage between ~11.2 and ~11.0 14C ka BP. The coniferous forest-dominated landscape was then deteriorated into steppe landscape (~11.0-~10.6 14C ka BP) and further into a desert steppe landscape from ~10.6 to ~9.8 14C ka BP, being correspondent to the European Younger Dryas period. After a brief episode of a cool and wet climate (~9.8-~9.6 14C ka BP), a relatively mild and dry condition prevailed during the early Holocene (~9.6-~7.6 14C ka BP) and then a warm and humid climate started the mid-Holocene (~7.6-~7.2 14C ka BP).

  20. Validation of GPM Ka-Radar Algorithm Using a Ground-based Ka-Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kaneko, Yuki; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Furukawa, Kinji; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    GPM led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of US (NASA) aims to observe global precipitation. The core satellite is equipped with a microwave radiometer (GMI) and a dual-frequency radar (DPR) which is the first spaceborne Ku/Ka-band dual-wavelength radar dedicated for precipitation measurement. In the DPR algorithm, measured radar reflectivity is converted to effective radar reflectivity by estimating the rain attenuation. Here, the scattering/attenuation characteristics of Ka-band radiowaves are crucial, particularly for wet snow. A melting layer observation using a dual Ka-band radar system developed by JAXA was conducted along the slope of Mt. Zao in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. The dual Ka-band radar system consists of two nearly identical Ka-band FM-CW radars, and the precipitation systems between two radars were observed in opposite directions. From this experiment, equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) and specific attenuation (k) were obtained. The experiments were conducted for two winter seasons. During the data analyses, it was found that k estimate easily fluctuates because the estimate is based on double difference calculation. With much temporal and spatial averaging, k-Ze relationship was obtained for melting layers. One of the results is that the height of the peak of k seems slightly higher than that of Ze. The results are compared with in-situ precipitation particle measurements.

  1. Evidence of a humid mid-Holocene in the western part of Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Chengbang; FENG Zhaodong; TANG Lingyu

    2003-01-01

    Field works show that the wetland/swamp layers were distributed ubiquitously in the western part of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Universality of the wetland/swampy layer and the consistency of the age reveal that the layer was developed under the humid climatic condition. Dated between 9 and 3.8 kaBP, the wetland/swampy layer is full of aquatic mollusks and has the highest tree and shrub pollen, indicating a humid mid-Holocene. Variations of grain size suggest that winter monsoon weakened during 9-3.8 kaBP while climate change to humid and vegetation cover increased from 9 kaBP onward. After 5.9 kaBP, the humidity declined gradually. In 3.8 kaBP, summer monsoon sharply retreated, and the climate changed to dry.

  2. Influence of paragenetic factors on production and chemical composition of Paška sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the produced Paška sheep milk is entirely processed in Pag cheese, it is of great importance to ensure a uniform milk production of prescribed chemical composition and hygienic quality. In addition to genotype, as the most important factor, the production and quality of sheep milk is affected by numerous physiological factors, so the aim of this research was to determine the influence of paragenetic factors (stage and number of lactation on daily milk yield and chemical composition (total solids, milk fat, protein, casein, lactose, total solids non fat of Paška sheep milk. Three herds were chosen by random selection within the areas of Kolan and Caska, and survey was conducted on a total of 213 Paška sheep. Stage of lactation was divided to: the beginning (to 50th-day, the middle (from 51st till 100thday and the end (101st -day till dry out of lactation. Depending on the number of lactation, sheep were grouped into five groups (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and others. A significant influence of stage and number of lactation on average daily milk yield and analysed chemical composition parameters was determined. The Paška sheep had the highest daily milk production in the mid lactation (773 g, and the third lactation (712 g recorded. At the end of lactation, total solids, milk fat, protein, casein, total solids non fat in milk were significantly higher than at the beginning and middle of lactation. The highest share of total solids, milk fat, protein and casein was determined in Paška sheep milk at 5th lactation and other lactations. Between the individual parameters significantcorrelation coefficients were determined.

  3. Shari’ah Compliant Finance: Toward Economic Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    not definitively possess the said item. 21 Murabaha: A Cost-Plus Financing Methodology Similarly, a shepherd cannot sell an unborn calf, even if the...denying Islam as the one true religion is an apostate and subject to a death penalty. The Shari’ah law provides a legal context for killing non-believers...under Allah’s guidance. Again, Westerners show surprise when individuals are put to death under Shari’ah law for seemingly everyday missteps and

  4. Språka och lek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylander, Helle Iben; Thomsen, Inge Benn

    Språka och Lek innehåller mer än 100 språklekar och idéer. Bokens aktiviteter är noggrant beskrivna med tydliga mål och anvisningar, så att den pedagogiska personalen i förskolan kan erbjuda spännande och värdefulla språkliga upplevelser med hjälp av vardagsföremål och massor av fantasi. Boken är...

  5. Ka-band waveguide rotary joint

    KAUST Repository

    Yevdokymov, Anatoliy

    2013-04-11

    The authors present a design of a waveguide rotary joint operating in Ka-band with central frequency of 33 GHz, which also acts as an antenna mount. The main unit consists of two flanges with a clearance between them; one of the flanges has three circular choke grooves. Utilisation of three choke grooves allows larger operating clearance. Two prototypes of the rotary joint have been manufactured and experimentally studied. The observed loss is from 0.4 to 0.8 dB in 1.5 GHz band.

  6. Fatal intoxications associated with the designer opioid AH-7921.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronstrand, R; Thelander, G; Lindstedt, D; Roman, M; Kugelberg, F C

    2014-10-01

    AH-7921 (3,4-dichloro-N-[(1-dimethylamino)cyclohexylmethyl]benzamide) is a designer opioid with ∼80% of morphine's µ-agonist activity. Over a 6-month period, we encountered nine deaths where AH-7921 was involved and detected in blood from the deceased. Shortly after the last death, on August 1 2013, AH-7921 was scheduled as a narcotic and largely disappeared from the illicit market in Sweden. AH-7921 was measured by a selective liquid chromatography-MS-MS method and the concentrations of AH-7921 ranged from 0.03 to 0.99 µg/g blood. Six of our cases had other drugs of abuse on board and most had other medications such as benzodiazepines, antidepressants and analgesics. However, the other medicinal drugs encountered were present in postmortem therapeutic concentrations and unlikely to have contributed to death. In addition to the parent compound, we identified six possible metabolites where two N-demethylated dominated and four mono-hydroxylated were found in trace amounts in the blood. In conclusion, deaths with AH-7921 seem to occur both at low and high concentrations, probably a result of different tolerance to the drug. Hence, it is reasonable to assume that no sharp dividing line exists between lethal and non-lethal concentrations. Further, poly-drug use did not seem to be a major contributing factor for the fatal outcome.

  7. Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus re-emerges in China in winter 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E; Chen, Y; Fu, L; Chen, Z; Gong, Z; Mao, H; Wang, D; Ni, M Y; Wu, P; Yu, Z; He, T; Li, Z; Gao, J; Liu, S; Shu, Y; Cowling, B J; Xia, S; Yu, H

    2013-10-24

    Through a national surveillance system for unexplained pneumonia, a severe case of influenza A(H7N9) in a man in his mid-30s was identified in Zhejiang Province, China on 14 October 2013. Epidemiological and clinical findings were consistent with the patterns reported during the outbreak in spring 2013, and laboratory findings showed that the virus had 99.6% identity with earlier H7N9 viruses identified in humans in the spring except for five mutations in the NA gene.

  8. SYARI’AH DALAM PERSPEKTIF PELAKU BISNIS MLM SYARI’AH AHADNET INTERNASIONAL ( Studi Kasus di Kota Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choirul Huda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PT. Ahadnet International, a business Multi Level Marketing (MLM Syariah, is a MLM business operations based on the principles of syari'ah . The business attracted many people from among Muslims because it offers businesses with marketing Islamic halal products and toyyib. No doubt, many Muslims were later merged into the Ahadnet MITRANIAGA. Nevertheless, the Muslims interests of this business does not mean not raising the issue. Labeling the word “Syariah” is attached to the naming MLM International Syari’ah Ahadnet it needs proper interpretation. Wrong interpretation of the word shariah for the Ahadnet International MLM syari’ah business will bring counterproductive, both for the company, MITRANIAGA and for Islam itself. Seeing this phenomenon, it is through this study, researchers are trying to see how far the understanding of the actors (MITRANIAGA International Ahadnet the term shari’ah. Their understanding of Shari’ah will affect the way they work on the syariah business in genera,  particularly MLM syari’ah business

  9. Antibacterial efficacy of AH Plus and AH26 sealers mixed with amoxicillin, triple antibiotic paste and nanosilver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangarlou, Ali; Neshandar, Rojin; Matini, Negin; Dianat, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Background. Elimination of bacteria from the root canal system is one of the aims of endodontic treatment; hence the incorporation of antibiotics into sealers can increase their antimicrobial efficacy. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial effects of AH26 and AH Plus sealers mixed with amoxicillin, triple antibiotic paste and nanosilver on Enterococcus faecalis. Methods. In this experiment, amoxicillin, triple antibiotic paste and nanosilver powder were added at 10% of the total sealer weight to AH26 and AH Plus sealers and then cultured freshly or after 1, 3, and 7 days with suspension of E. faecalis for 24 hours. The zones of growth inhibition for E. faecalis were evaluated in each group. Results. Incorporation of nanosilver did not increase antibacterial effects of the sealers. Sealers combined with amoxicillin exhibited the highest antibacterial efficacy in fresh condition. In the set specimens, the results demonstrated that the mixture of sealers and triple antibiotic pastes exhibited the greatest antibacterial efficacy. Conclusion. Amoxicillin and triple antibiotic paste significantly improved the antibacterial properties of AH Plus and AH26 sealers. Such properties decreased with time, but the use of sealer-amoxicillin/triple paste combination was still superior to using sealers alone or in combination with nanosilver. PMID:28096947

  10. Initiation of the Mekong River delta at 8 ka: evidence from the sedimentary succession in the Cambodian lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toru; Saito, Yoshiki; Sieng, Sotham; Ben, Bunnarin; Kong, Meng; Sim, Im; Choup, Sokuntheara; Akiba, Fumio

    2009-02-01

    Modern deltas are understood to have initiated around 7.5-9 ka in response to the deceleration of sea-level rise. This episode of delta initiation is closely related to the last deglacial meltwater events and eustatic sea-level rises. The initial stage of the Mekong River delta, one of the world's largest deltas, is well recorded in Cambodian lowland sediments. This paper integrates analyses of sedimentary facies, diatom assemblages, and radiocarbon dates for three drill cores from the lowland to demonstrate Holocene sedimentary evolution in relation to sea-level changes. The cores are characterized by a tripartite succession: (1) aggrading flood plain to natural levee and tidal-fluvial channel during the postglacial sea-level rise (10-8.4 ka); (2) aggrading to prograding tidal flats and mangrove forests around and after the maximum flooding of the sea (8.4-6.3 ka); and (3) a prograding fluvial system on the delta plain (6.3 ka to the present). The maximum flooding of the sea occurred at 8.0 ± 0.1 ka, 2000 years before the mid-Holocene sea-level highstand, and tidal flats penetrated up to 20-50 km southeast of Phnom Penh after a period of abrupt ˜5 m sea-level rise at 8.5-8.4 ka. The delta progradation then initiated as a result of the sea-level stillstand at around 8-7.5 ka. Another rapid sea-level rise at 7.5-7 ka allowed thick mangrove peat to be widely deposited in the Cambodian lowland, and the peat accumulation endured until 6.3 ka. Since 6.3 ka, a fluvial system has characterized the delta plain, and the fluvial sediment discharge has contributed to rapid delta progradation. The uppermost part of the sedimentary succession, composed of flood plain to natural-levee sediments, reveals a sudden increase in sediment accumulation over the past 600-1000 years. This increase might reflect an increase in the sediment yield due to human activities in the upper to middle reaches of the Mekong, as with other Asian rivers.

  11. Comparing introduction to Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A(H5N8) in 2014 and A(H5N1) in 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adlhoch, C.; Gossner, C.; Koch, G.; Brown, I.; Bouwstra, R.J.; Verdonck, F.; Penttinen, P.; Harder, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of November 2014, nine outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N8) in poultry have been detected in four European countries. In this report, similarities and differences between the modes of introduction of HPAIV A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) into Europe are descri

  12. High Efficiency Ka-Band Spatial Combiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Passi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Ka-Band, High Efficiency, Small Size Spatial Combiner (SPC is proposed in this paper, which uses an innovatively matched quadruple Fin Lines to microstrip (FLuS transitions. At the date of this paper and at the Author's best knowledge no such FLuS innovative transitions have been reported in literature before. These transitions are inserted into a WR28 waveguide T-junction, in order to allow the integration of 16 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC Solid State Power Amplifiers (SSPA's. A computational electromagnetic model using the finite elements method has been implemented. A mean insertion loss of 2 dB is achieved with a return loss better the 10 dB in the 31-37 GHz bandwidth.

  13. p Ka calculation of poliprotic acid: histamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Abreu, Heitor A.; De Almeida, Wagner B.; Duarte, Hélio A.

    2004-01-01

    Various theoretical studies have been reported addressing the performance of solvation models available to estimate p Ka values. However, no attention has been paid so far to the role played by the electronic, thermal and solvation energy individual contributions to the Gibbs free energy of the deprotonation process. In this work, we decompose the total Gibbs free energy into three distinct terms and then evaluate the dependence of each contribution on the level of theory employed for its determination using different levels of theory. The three possible p Kas of histamine have been estimated and compared with available experimental data. We found that the electronic energy term is sensitive to the level of theory and basis set, and, therefore, could be also a source of error in the theoretical calculation of p Kas.

  14. KaKa带你杀大网

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昊月

    2005-01-01

    前两期的Dust2和Inferno相信大家杀得一定很过瘾吧?这期KaKa继续向大家介绍杀大网的奥妙,这次我们转战Train这张地图。这张地图的特点是阴人的特点是掩体多、整体的颜色比较暗,可以到处阴人。Train的空间感也比较强,上下移动的频率比较多,所以大家在玩这种地图的时候枪口上下移动会很频繁。对鼠标垫比较好的玩家来说,是比较耗损好的鼠标垫哦,希望大家不要心疼。

  15. AhR-mediated and antiestrogenic activity of humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosek, J; Bittner, M; Hilscherová, K; Bláha, L; Giesy, J P; Holoubek, I

    2007-04-01

    Humic substances (HS) were for decades regarded as inert in the ecosystems with respect to their possible toxicity. However, HS have been recently shown to elicit various adverse effects generally attributed to xenobiotics. In our study, we used MVLN and H4IIE-luc cell lines stably transfected with luciferase gene under control of estrogen receptor (ER) and Ah receptor (AhR; receptor connected with so-called dioxin-like toxicity) for assessment of anti/estrogenic and AhR-mediated effects of 12 commercially available humic substances. Out of those, five humic acids were shown to induce AhR-mediated activity with relative potencies related to TCDD 2.6 x 10(-8)-7.4 x 10(-8). Organic extracts of HS solutions also elicited high activities what means that lipophilic molecules are responsible for a great part of effect. However, relatively high activity remaining in extracted solution suggests also presence of polar AhR-agonists. Contribution of persistent organic compounds to the observed effects was ruled out by H(2)SO(4) treatment. Eight out of twelve HS elicited significant antiestrogenic effects with IC(50) ranging from 40 to 164 mg l(-1). The possible explanations of the antiestrogenic effect include sorption of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) on HS, changes in membrane permeability for E2 or another specific mechanism.

  16. Aeronautical applications of steerable K/Ka-band antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmken, Henry; Prather, Horton

    1995-01-01

    The expected growth of wideband data and video transmission via satellite will press existing satellite Ku-band services and push development of the Ka-band region. Isolated ground based K/Ka-band terminals can experience severe fading due to rain and weather phenomena. However, since aircraft generally fly above the severe weather, they are attractive platforms for developing commercial K/Ka-band communication links.

  17. DARHT 2 kA Cathode Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, E.; Houck, T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Miram, G.; Prichard, B.; Roy, P.K.; Waldron, W.; Westenskow, G.; Yu, S.; Bieniosek, F.M.

    2009-03-09

    In the campaign to achieve 2 kA of electron beam current, we have made several changes to the DARHT-II injector during 2006-2007. These changes resulted in a significant increase in the beam current, achieving the 2 kA milestone. Until recently (before 2007), the maximum beam current that was produced from the 6.5-inch diameter (612M) cathode was about 1300 A when the cathode was operating at a maximum temperature of 1140 C. At this temperature level, the heat loss was dominated by radiation which is proportional to temperature to the fourth power. The maximum operating temperature was limited by the damage threshold of the potted filament and the capacity of the filament heater power supply, as well as the shortening of the cathode life time. There were also signs of overheating at other components in the cathode assembly. Thus it was clear that our approach to increase beam current could not be simply trying to run at a higher temperature and the preferred way was to operate with a cathode that has a lower work function. The dispenser cathode initially used was the type 612M made by SpectraMat. According to the manufacturer's bulletin, this cathode should be able to produce more than 10 A/cm{sup 2} of current density (corresponding to 2 kA of total beam current) at our operating conditions. Instead the measured emission (space charge limited) was 6 A/cm{sup 2}. The result was similar even after we had revised the activation and handling procedures to adhere more closely to the recommend steps (taking longer time and nonstop to do the out-gassing). Vacuum was a major concern in considering the cathode's performance. Although the vacuum gauges at the injector vessel indicated 10{sup -8} Torr, the actual vacuum condition near the cathode in the central region of the vessel, where there might be significant out-gassing from the heater region, was never determined. Poor vacuum at the surface of the cathode degraded the emission (by raising the work function

  18. Photometric data analysis of the eclipsing binary system AH Tauri

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sadek, M A; Essam, A; Rassem, M A

    2014-01-01

    Two sets of photometric observations of the system AH Tauri have been analyzed using the latest version of the Wilson-Devinney code. The results show that AH Tauri may classified as A-type of W-UMa eclipsing binary. The mass ratio of q = 0.81, an over-contact degree of f = 0.095, and a slightly temperature difference between the two components have been obtained. The asymmetry of its light curve explained by the presence of a dark spot on the massive component. The physical, geometrical, and absolute parameters have been derived and compared with previous work.

  19. Briti korruptsioonivastane seadus kehtib ka Eestis / Tõnis Tamme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamme, Tõnis, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Suurbritannias jõustub 1. juulil 2011 uus korruptsioonivastane seadus (Bribery Act 2010), mis kehtib ühtmoodi nii Briti ettevõtetele kui ka mujal maailmas asutatud äriühingutele, kelle äritegevus või ka osa sellest omab puutumust Suurbritanniaga

  20. Assigning the pKa's of Polyprotic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses (1) polyproptic acids for which the difference between K-a's is large; (2) the Henderson-Hasselbach equation; (3) polyprotic acids for which the difference between K-a's is small; (4) analysis of microscopic dissociation constants for cysteine; and (5) analysis of pK-a data. (JN)

  1. High power Ka band TWT amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkowski, C.; Ivers, J.D.; Nation, J.A.; Wang, P.; Schachter, L.

    1999-07-01

    Two high power 35 GHz TWT amplifiers driven by a relativistic pencil, 850 kV, 200A electron beam have been assembled and tested. The first had a dielectric slow wave structure and was primarily used to develop diagnostics, and to gain experience in working with high power systems in Ka band. The source of the input power for the amplifier was a magnetron producing a 30 kW, 200ns long pulse of which 10 kW as delivered to the experiment. The 30 cm long dielectric (Teflon) amplifier produced output power levels of about 1 MW with a gain of about 23 dB. These results are consistent with expectations from PIC code simulations for this arrangement. The second amplifier, which is a single stage disk loaded slow wave structure, has been designed. It consists of one hundred uniform cells with two sets of ten tapered calls at the ends to lower the reflection coefficient. The phase advance per cell is {pi}/2. The amplifier passband extends from 28 to 40 GHz. It is designed to increase the output power to about 20 MW. The amplifier is in construction and will be tested in the near future. Details of the design of both systems will be provided and initial results from the new amplifier presented.

  2. TOWARDS LOCATING THE NIGERIAN SHARI'AH PENAL CODES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alfa

    State adopted Sharī'ah as its legal system and eleven other states later followed suit. .... He shall pay the blood money where the heirs consent to pardon him iv. .... the heirs remit the death penalty and pardoning for homicide punishable.

  3. Modifications to Optimize the AH-1Z Human Machine Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    The AH-1Z incorporates a Helmet Mounted System Display (HMSD). It consists of the Optimized TopOwl Version II ( OTO V2) helmet and helmet mounted...The OTO HMD display technology relies upon a monochromatic depiction of information in the display color schemes. Providing color to a heads up

  4. Ekonomi Sharî‘ah dan Ketidakadilan Kapitalisme Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MN Harisudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper understands that the Sharî‘ah Economics is a serious contender for the modern global capitalistic economic system. Capitalism has been responsible for the collapse of not only the global economic system but also the moral deterioration of human being. Injustice is the main mark of capitalism. Hence, in a capitalistic society, no law of the game is upheld economically speaking. The strong and the rich rule. The weak is always a victim. This is the main concern of this paper, vis-à-vis which it introduces the Sharî‘ah perspective as providing a good alternative. The paper first speaks of the sources of this “Islamic” system -namely the Qur’an, the Sunna, Ijma and Qiyas- and then delves into its heart, namely justice. The study holds that the main imprint ot Syari’ ah economic system is justice. Being divinely revealed, this system is always in line with the very nature of man as a social being whose responsibility it is to do something beneficial for his fellow human being. Man is not created solely to accumulate wealth, but to serve God, his religion, his community by using wealth among others. Hence, wealth is not the goal, but the means. The goal that every man wants to acquire is happiness. Sharî‘ah Economics–the paper argues- is ordained to provide a practical guideline toward happiness.

  5. CCD Photometric Study and Period Investigation of AH Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu; Yu, Yun-Xia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present new CCD photometric observations of AH Tauri in the R band observed in 2006 at the Yunnan Observatory. Two new times of light minima were derived from these observations. We modeled the light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney program. The results show that the variations of the light curves can be expained by a cool spot on the primary star. The fill-out factor is about 6.6%, indicating that AH Tauri is a shallow-contact system. The mass ratio was determined to be about 0.505. In addition, the orbital period variations of AH Tauri were investigated based on all of the photoelectric and CCD light minimum times, including our two new data. It was found that the orbital period exhibits a possible periodic variation with a period of {P}{mod}=54.62\\(+/- 0.20) years and a secular period decrease of {dP}/{dt}=-(1.823+/- 0.215)× {10}-7 {days} {{yr}}-1. Since AH Tauri is an overcontact solar-like system, we discuss three mechanisms of the mass transfer, the light-time effect of the third body, and magnetic activity responsible for the orbital period changes.

  6. On ENSO suppression during the mid-Holocene in PMIP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Soon-Il

    2016-04-01

    Using the Paleoclimate Modeling Inter-comparison Project Phase 3 (PMIP3), we investigated change in characteristics of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) during the mid-Holocene period (6,000 years before present; 6ka run) compared to pre-industrial period (0ka run). In 6ka run, the overall cooling over tropical Pacific and the suppressed convection were observed, and the enhanced hemispheric discrepancy in the tropical Pacific surface temperature intensified the cross-equatorial surface winds. The multi-model ensemble of PMIP3 models showed that the ENSO activity in the 6ka run was slightly reduced. In particular, in 6ka run in PMIP3, the intensified damping by the mean currents primarily works for the reduction of ENSO activity, while the thermodynamical damping actually was reduced in 6ka run. Therefore, the two opposite effects are slightly compensated for by each other, which results in a small reduction in the ENSO activity during the 6ka in the PMIP3. Furthermore, details in the feedback processes are addressed as well.

  7. PEMIKIRAN ISLAM DALAM PERSPEKTIF SUNNI DAN SYI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Shohibul Itmam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available THE ISLAMIC THINKING IN SUNNI AND SYI’AH PERSPECTIVES. This paper attempts to describe the problems associated with Islam in particular with regard to Sunni and Syi’ah teachings. The number of  streams that developed in Islam today has resulted Islam got claims from various clerical community, such as terrorism and others, resulting in the ruination image of  Islam in the constellation of  the religions of  man. As the flow and the teachings of  the most dominating civilization of  the world religions, Sunni and Syiah, including the Wahhabi, are necessary to clarify the existence or clarified the diversity in the constellation of  Islam, considering the number of streams that are currently claiming truth on themselves. Iran as the country becoming a reference in the world of  developing Syi’ah should be used as a reference in the study of  understanding associated with Sunni and Syi’ah. From this country, the world of  Islam knows the concept ofgoverning “Wilayatul Faqih”. The concept was pioneered by the government of Imam Khomeini who became known after Islamic Revolution in Iran 1979 and continues to be developed up to now. Every year Iran is celebrated with a huge demonstration with the slogan in Persian, “Islam Pyruz ast, ast Nabud Istikbar”, Islam is victorious, crushed the vanity of the islam enemy. keywords: Islam, Sunni, Syi’ah, Perspective, Differences, Similarities. Tulisan ini mencoba mengurai persoalan yang berhubungan dengan Islam secara khusus yang berkaitan dengan ajaran Sunni dan Syi’ah. Banyaknya aliran yang berkembang dalam Islam dewasa ini telah mengakibatkan Islam mendapat klaim dari berbagai komunitas agamawan, seperti teroris dan lainnya, yang mengakibatkan redupnya citra Islam dalam percaturan agama-agama manusia. Sebagai aliran dan ajaran yang paling mendominasi peradaban agama dunia, Sunni dan  Syi’ah,  termasuk  Wahabi,  perlu  memperjelas  eksistensinya atau diperjelas

  8. The sensitivity of the Late Saalian (140 ka) and LGM (21 ka) Eurasian ice sheets to sea surface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleoni, Florence [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); UJF, CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockhlom (Sweden); Liakka, Johan [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Krinner, Gerhard; Peyaud, Vincent [UJF, CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Jakobsson, Martin [Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockhlom (Sweden); Masina, Simona [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    This work focuses on the Late Saalian (140 ka) Eurasian ice sheets' surface mass balance (SMB) sensitivity to changes in sea surface temperatures (SST). An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), forced with two preexisting Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka) SST reconstructions, is used to compute climate at 140 and 21 ka (reference glaciation). Contrary to the LGM, the ablation almost stopped at 140 ka due to the climatic cooling effect from the large ice sheet topography. Late Saalian SST are simulated using an AGCM coupled with a mixed layer ocean. Compared to the LGM, these 140 ka SST show an inter-hemispheric asymmetry caused by the larger ice-albedo feedback, cooling climate. The resulting Late Saalian ice sheet SMB is smaller due to the extensive simulated sea ice reducing the precipitation. In conclusion, SST are important for the stability and growth of the Late Saalian Eurasian ice sheet. (orig.)

  9. Isolation of AhDHNs from Arachis hypogaea L. and evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home ... 100 μM ABA enhanced AhDHNs expression in peanut leaves. When peanut ... AhDHNs expressions increased greatly in peanut leaves treated with 30% polyethylene glycol (PEG). Sodium ...

  10. The inhibition of lung cancer cell migration by AhR-regulated autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chi-Hao; Li, Ching-Hao; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Lee, Chen-Chen; Liao, Po-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2017-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is highly expressed in multiple organs and tissues. Whereas AhR mediates the metabolism of xenobiotic and endogenous compounds, its novel function in cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains controversial. Autophagy also participates in tumour progression through its functions in cell homeostasis and facilitates adaptation to EMT progression. In the present study, we found that AhR-regulated autophagy positively modulates EMT in non-small cell lung cancer cells. The motility of A549, H1299, and CL1-5 cells were correlated with different AhR expression levels. Invasive potential and cell morphology also changed when AhR protein expression was altered. Moreover, AhR levels exerted a contrasting effect on autophagy potential. Autophagy was higher in CL1-5 and H1299 cells with lower AhR levels than in A549 cells. Both AhR overexpression and autophagy inhibition decreased CL1-5 metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, AhR promoted BNIP3 ubiquitination for proteasomal degradation. AhR silencing in A549 cells also reduced BNIP3 ubiquitination. Taken together, these results provide a novel insight into the cross-linking between AhR and autophagy, we addressed the mechanistic BNIP3 modulation by endogenous AhR, which affect cancer cell EMT progression. PMID:28195146

  11. Guiding outbreak management by the use of influenza A(H7Nx) virus sequence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonges, M.; Meijer, A.; Fouchier, R.A.M.; Koch, G.; Li, J.; Pan, J.C.; Shu, Y.L.; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Chen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The recently identified human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China raise important questions regarding possible source and risk to humans. Sequence comparison with an influenza A(H7N7) outbreak in the Netherlands in 2003 and an A(H7N1) epidemic in Italy in 1999–2000 suggests that

  12. Guiding outbreak management by the use of influenza a(H7NX) virus sequence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jonges (Marcel); A. Meijer (Adam); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); G. Koch (Guus); J. Li; J.C. Pan; H. Chen (Hong); Y.L. Shu (Yue-Long); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe recently identified human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China raise important questions regarding possible source and risk to humans. Sequence comparison with an influenza A(H7N7) outbreak in the Netherlands in 2003 and an A(H7N1) epidemic in Italy in 1999-2000 s

  13. Mid-frequency readers

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, Ian Stephen Paul; Anthony, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new free extensive reading resource for learning the mid-frequency words of English and for reading well known texts with minor vocabulary adaptation. A gap exists between the end of graded readers at around 3,000 word families and the vocabulary size needed to read unsimplified texts at around 8,000 word families. Mid-frequency readers are designed to fill this gap. They consist of texts from Project Gutenberg adapted for learners with a vocabulary size of 4,000 word...

  14. NASA SCaN Overview and Ka-Band Actvities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, James D.; Midon, Marco Mario; Davarian, Faramaz; Geldzahler, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The Ka- and Broadband Communications Conference is an international forum attended by worldwide experts in the area of Ka-Band Propagation and satellite communications. Since its inception, NASA has taken the initiative of organizing and leading technical sections on RF Propagation and satellite communications, solidifying its worldwide leadership in the aforementioned areas. Consequently, participation in this conference through the contributions described below will maintain NASA leadership in Ka- and above RF Propagation as it relates to enhancing current and future satellite communication systems supporting space exploration.

  15. Onboard Interferometric SAR Processor for the Ka-Band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Peral, Eva; Clark, Duane I.; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    An interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard processor concept and algorithm has been developed for the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn) instrument on the Surface and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. This is a mission- critical subsystem that will perform interferometric SAR processing and multi-look averaging over the oceans to decrease the data rate by three orders of magnitude, and therefore enable the downlink of the radar data to the ground. The onboard processor performs demodulation, range compression, coregistration, and re-sampling, and forms nine azimuth squinted beams. For each of them, an interferogram is generated, including common-band spectral filtering to improve correlation, followed by averaging to the final 1 1-km ground resolution pixel. The onboard processor has been prototyped on a custom FPGA-based cPCI board, which will be part of the radar s digital subsystem. The level of complexity of this technology, dictated by the implementation of interferometric SAR processing at high resolution, the extremely tight level of accuracy required, and its implementation on FPGAs are unprecedented at the time of this reporting for an onboard processor for flight applications.

  16. Comparing introduction to Europe of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A(H5N8) in 2014 and A(H5N1) in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhoch, C; Gossner, C; Koch, G; Brown, I; Bouwstra, R; Verdonck, F; Penttinen, P; Harder, T

    2014-12-18

    Since the beginning of November 2014, nine outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N8) in poultry have been detected in four European countries. In this report, similarities and differences between the modes of introduction of HPAIV A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) into Europe are described. Experiences from outbreaks of A(H5N1) in Europe demonstrated that early detection to control HPAIV in poultry has proven pivotal to minimise the risk of zoonotic transmission and prevention of human cases.

  17. Detection of avian influenza A/H7N9/2013 virus by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoping; Wu, Weili; Zhang, Chuntao; Liu, Licheng; Feng, Huahua; Xu, Lizhi; Zheng, Xin; Yang, Honglei; Jiang, Yongqiang; Xu, Bianli; Xu, Jin; Yang, Yinhui; Chen, Weijun

    2014-09-01

    The first case of avian influenza A/H7N9 infection was reported in Shanghai in mid-February, 2013; by May 1, 2013, it had infected 127 people and caused 26 deaths in 10 provinces in China. Therefore, it is important to obtain reliable epidemiological data on the spread of this new infectious agent, a need that may be best met by the development of novel molecular methods. Here, a new method was described for the detection of avian influenza A/H7N9 using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Using serial dilutions of avian influenza A H7N9 cultures, the detection limit of the assay was determined to be approximately 3.2×10(-4) HAUs (hemagglutination units) for the H7 gene and 6.4×10(-4) HAUs for N9 gene. In tests of serial dilutions of in vitro-transcribed avian influenza A H7 and N9 gene RNA, positive results were obtained for target RNA containing at least three copies of the H7 gene and six copies of the N9 gene. Thirteen throat swabs from H7N9 patients were tested; all tested positive in the assay. Specificity was evaluated by testing 18 other subtypes of influenza viruses; all tested negative. A total of 180 throat swabs from patients infected with influenza virus, including 60 from patients infected with seasonal influenza A/H1N1 virus, 60 from patients infected with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus, 30 from patients infected with seasonal influenza A/H3N2 virus and 30 from patients infected with influenza B virus, were also tested; all tested negative.

  18. Under tõi kirjanduse juurde ka Ilvese / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    Sirje Kiini raamatust "Marie Under : elu, luuletaja identiteet ja teoste vastuvõtt" (Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2009), mille esitlus toimus 10. dets. Kirjanike Majas Tallinnas. Sõnavõtuga esines ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  19. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  20. Key Science Observations of AGNs with KaVA Array

    CERN Document Server

    Kino, Motoki; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Sohn, Bong Won

    2015-01-01

    KaVA (KVN and VERA Array) is a new combined VLBI array with KVN (Korean VLBI Network) and VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). First, we briefly review the imaging capabilities of KaVA array which actually achieves more than three times better dynamic range than that achieved by VERA alone. The KaVA images clearly show detailed structures of extended radio jets in AGNs. Next, we represent the key science program to be led by KaVA AGN sub working group. We will conduct the monitoring observations of Sgr A* and M87 because of the largeness of their central super-massive black hole angular sizes. The main science goals of the program are (i) testing magnetically-driven-jet paradigm by mapping velocity fields of the M87 jet, and (ii) obtaining tight constraints on physical properties of radio emitting region in Sgr A*.

  1. Autorid ja esitajad tahavad maksu ka mobiiltelefonidelt / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Esitajate liidu arvates tuleks maksu alla minevate seadmete hulka arvata ka blu-ray plaadid, MP3-mängijad ja pleieriga mobiiltelefonid, millel on mälumahtu üle 128 MB. Elisa pressiesindaja Marika Raiski arvamus

  2. Rahvasaadik Pikhof toetab nii Tiibetit kui ka Hiinat / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige Heljo Pikhof on kirjas nii Riigikogu Tiibeti toetusrühmas kui ka Hiina parlamendirühmas, samuti Taiwani toetusrühmas. TÜ sinoloogiateaduri Märt Läänemetsa arvamus, H. Pikhofi selgitus

  3. Ka-Band MMIC T/R Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is specifically written to address the need for improved Ka-band T/R modules. The solicitation calls for investigation and development of core...

  4. Under tõi kirjanduse juurde ka Ilvese / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    Sirje Kiini raamatust "Marie Under : elu, luuletaja identiteet ja teoste vastuvõtt" (Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2009), mille esitlus toimus 10. dets. Kirjanike Majas Tallinnas. Sõnavõtuga esines ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  5. Autorid ja esitajad tahavad maksu ka mobiiltelefonidelt / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Esitajate liidu arvates tuleks maksu alla minevate seadmete hulka arvata ka blu-ray plaadid, MP3-mängijad ja pleieriga mobiiltelefonid, millel on mälumahtu üle 128 MB. Elisa pressiesindaja Marika Raiski arvamus

  6. Kindralpolkovnik Maiorov : "Teie mured on ka meie mured!" / Tiit Tambi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tambi, Tiit

    1993-01-01

    President Lennart Meri kohtumine Venemaa relvajõudude loode väegrupi ülemjuhataja kindralpolkovnik Leonid Majoroviga, 9. veebruar 1993. Ka kindralpolkovniku kohtumistest Eestis elavate sõjaveteranidega

  7. Võitlus terrorismiga on ka meie kohus / Ando Leps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leps, Ando, 1935-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Kesknädal 25. september lk. 4 (lühendatult). Septembri alguses Toledo Ülikoolis toimunud Euroopa Kriminoloogia Assotsiatsiooni II konverentsist. Autori ettekandest "Rahvusvaheline terrorism ja Eesti". Autor: Keskerakond. Parlamendisaadik

  8. Ka-Band MMIC T/R Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II proposal is presented as the follow on to the Phase I SBIR contract number NNC06CB21C entitled "Ka-band MMIC T/R Module" For active microwave...

  9. PERKEMBANGAN HOTEL SYARI’AH DI INDONESIA; MENGONSEP PARIWISATA ISLAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahruddin Ali Sabri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fahruddin Ali Sabri (Penulis, dosen STAIN Pamekasan, Jl. Raya Panglegur Km. 04 Pamekasan. Kontak 08521346464, e-mail didin021@yahoo.com     Abstract Indonesian tourism sector has been developed rapidly and significantly. Hotels sector high income contribution indicates the significant development, so it influences public prosperity. Syari’ah Hotel is one of the hotel models offering certain facilities that matches Islamic values.  Its  development opens promising market chance that must be grounded on non-alcohol, drug-abused free and adultery prohibition concept. It facilitates the guests to have comfortable and safe stay. Kata-kata kunci Hotel, Pariwisata dan Syarî’ah

  10. A comparative study of RADAR Ka-band backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, D.; Pierdicca, N.; Guerriero, L.; Ferrazzoli, Paolo; Calleja, Eduardo; Rommen, B.; Giudici, D.; Monti Guarnieri, A.

    2014-10-01

    Ka-band RADAR frequency range has not yet been used for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from space so far, although this technology may lead to important applications for the next generation of SAR space sensors. Therefore, feasibility studies regarding a Ka-band SAR instrument have been started [1][2], for the next generation of SAR space sensors. In spite of this, the lack of trusted references on backscatter at Ka-band revealed to be the main limitation for the investigation of the potentialities of this technology. In the framework of the ESA project "Ka-band SAR backscatter analysis in support of future applications", this paper is aimed at the study of wave interaction at Ka-band for a wide range of targets in order to define a set of well calibrated and reliable Ka-band backscatter coefficients for different kinds of targets. We propose several examples of backscatter data resulting from a critical survey of available datasets at Ka-band, focusing on the most interesting cases and addressing both correspondences and differences. The reliability of the results will be assessed via a preliminary comparison with ElectroMagnetic (EM) theoretical models. Furthermore, in support of future technological applications, we have designed a prototypal software acting as a "library" of earth surface radar response. In our intention, the output of the study shall contribute to answer to the need of a trustworthy Ka-Band backscatter reference. It will be of great value for future technological applications, such as support to instrument analysis, design and requirements' definition (e.g.: Signal to Noise Ratio, Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero).

  11. Pollen-based continental climate reconstructions at 6 and 21 ka: A global synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlein, P.J.; Harrison, S.P.; Brewer, S.; Connor, S.; Davis, B.A.S.; Gajewski, K.; Guiot, J.; Harrison-Prentice, T. I.; Henderson, A.; Peyron, O.; Prentice, I.C.; Scholze, M.; Seppa, H.; Shuman, B.; Sugita, S.; Thompson, R.S.; Viau, A.E.; Williams, J.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Subfossil pollen and plant macrofossil data derived from 14C-dated sediment profiles can provide quantitative information on glacial and interglacial climates. The data allow climate variables related to growing-season warmth, winter cold, and plant-available moisture to be reconstructed. Continental-scale reconstructions have been made for the mid-Holocene (MH, around 6 ka) and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, around 21 ka), allowing comparison with palaeoclimate simulations currently being carried out as part of the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The synthesis of the available MH and LGM climate reconstructions and their uncertainties, obtained using modern-analogue, regression and model-inversion techniques, is presented for four temperature variables and two moisture variables. Reconstructions of the same variables based on surface-pollen assemblages are shown to be accurate and unbiased. Reconstructed LGM and MH climate anomaly patterns are coherent, consistent between variables, and robust with respect to the choice of technique. They support a conceptual model of the controls of Late Quaternary climate change whereby the first-order effects of orbital variations and greenhouse forcing on the seasonal cycle of temperature are predictably modified by responses of the atmospheric circulation and surface energy balance. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

  12. Reconstructing Hydrothermal Activity on the Juan de Fuca Ridge over the Last 25ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmel, N.; Costa, K.; McManus, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity on mid-ocean ridges plays a unique role in biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Hydrothermal vents are a significant source of dissolved Fe, a critical micronutrient in the ocean that supports primary productivity and can modulate the carbon cycle. Little is known about hydrothermal activity in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but new evidence suggests lower sea levels may generate enhanced hydrothermal activity. If hydrothermal activity was higher during the LGM, an Fe fertilized biological pump could have contributed to lower atmospheric CO2 levels. In this study we investigate sediment cores from the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) to reconstruct hydrothermal activity over the past 25 ka. Five multicores were examined from a spatial array, covering a depth transect along the ridge flank and crest, with a temporal resolution of between 500 and 1000 years. Fe and Cu concentrations were measured by flux fusion, corrected for lithogenic inputs, and normalized to 230Th to calculate hydrothermal fluxes. Hydrothermal flux of Fe and Cu was observed at all times from all sites, suggesting persistent hydrothermal activity on the JdFR. Furthermore, Fe flux into the sediment increases with proximity to the ridge, consistent with a hydrothermal source. The sediment record indicates a stable flux of Fe during the Holocene, compared to flux variations that change by up to 100% between 15 and 20ka. Averaged over 5-7kyr time slices, Cu flux is greater in all 5 records during the LGM than during the Holocene, but in contrast, Fe flux overall appears slightly lower during the LGM than the Holocene. These are the first records from the JdFR to cover the last deglaciation at millennial timescales, and they suggest a more complicated hydrothermal response to glacial sea level changes than observed at other mid-ocean ridges.

  13. Functional conservation and divergence of four ginger AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes revealed by analysis of their expression and protein-protein interaction, and ectopic expression of AhFUL gene in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Li

    Full Text Available Alpinia genus are known generally as ginger-lilies for showy flowers in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and their floral morphology diverges from typical monocotyledon flowers. However, little is known about the functions of ginger MADS-box genes in floral identity. In this study, four AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes were cloned from Alpinia hainanensis, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs and roles of the four genes in floral homeotic conversion and in floral evolution are surveyed for the first time. AhFUL is clustered to the AP1 lineage, AhSEP4 and AhSEP3b to the SEP lineage, and AhAGL6-like to the AGL6 lineage. The four genes showed conserved and divergent expression patterns, and their encoded proteins were localized in the nucleus. Seven combinations of PPI (AhFUL-AhSEP4, AhFUL-AhAGL6-like, AhFUL-AhSEP3b, AhSEP4-AhAGL6-like, AhSEP4-AhSEP3b, AhAGL6-like-AhSEP3b, and AhSEP3b-AhSEP3b were detected, and the PPI patterns in the AP1/AGL9 lineage revealed that five of the 10 possible combinations are conserved and three are variable, while conclusions cannot yet be made regarding the other two. Ectopic expression of AhFUL in Arabidopsis thaliana led to early flowering and floral organ homeotic conversion to sepal-like or leaf-like. Therefore, we conclude that the four A. hainanensis AP1/AGL9 genes show functional conservation and divergence in the floral identity from other MADS-box genes.

  14. Generalized mid dermal elastolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mid-dermal elastolysis (MDE is a rare skin disorder clinically characterized by the appearance of diffuse fine wrinkling, most often of the trunk and arms. This entity is distinguished from other elastolytic disorders by its characteristic selective loss of elastic fibers of the mid dermis. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is still unclear as well as the effective treatment. Half of the cases described in the literature are associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure. Other reported triggering conditions such as urticaria, eczema and granuloma annulare suggests different eliciting inflammatory pathways. The authors describe the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed an urticarial eruption during months which progressed to generalized and severe fine wrinkling.

  15. Identification of TMPRSS2 as a Susceptibility Gene for Severe 2009 Pandemic A(H1N1) Influenza and A(H7N9) Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Zhongshan; Zhou, Jie; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chu, Hin; Li, Cun; Wang, Dong; Yang, Dong; Zheng, Shufa; Hao, Ke; Bosse, Yohan; Obeidat, Ma'en; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Song, You-Qiang; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Li, Lanjuan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The genetic predisposition to severe A(H1N1) 2009 (A[H1N1]pdm09) influenza was evaluated in 409 patients, including 162 cases with severe infection and 247 controls with mild infection. We prioritized candidate variants based on the result of a pilot genome-wide association study and a lung expressi

  16. Characterization of the transgenic CA-AhR mouse - cell specific expression of the CA-AhR using CYP1A1 as a marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnberg, S.; Lindstam, M.; Andersson, P.; Hanberg, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Poellinger, L. [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    The risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs performed by WHO and EU lead to major concerns. The tolerable daily intake for humans has been assessed to be within the range of human exposures occurring in the general population today. Dioxins are known to adversely impair reproduction and affect development of reproductive organs, as well as the early development of the immune and the nervous systems. The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) mediates most toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and PCBs. In order to study the mechanisms of toxicity of ligands of the Ah receptor we have created a transgenic mouse model expressing a constitutively active Ah receptor (CA-AhR). The mutant Ah receptor is expressed and functionally active in most (or all) organs. Consequently, the CA-AhR mice show several of the well-known effects of dioxin exposure. Since the CA-AhR is continuously active at a relatively low level and from early development, this model resembles the human exposure scenario and is thus suitable for studies on mechanisms of action of Ah receptor ligands.

  17. Intervention Strategies in a Saudi English Classroom at Majma'ah University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sadig Yahya Ezza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Verbal reports and English teachers’ classroom experience at   Community College of Majma'ah University (MU warn that underachievement is an educational crisis in the making. And in the paucity of research findings to raise the institutional awareness of the phenomenon, coupled with the lack of relevant professional training programs to deal with the situation, the crisis could be further aggravated. This study is an attempt to address underachievement among English students at Community College; it particularly reports a tripartite teaching strategy comprising three intervention methods: orientation, use of the students' first language (L1 and multiple mid-term exams. This teaching strategy has been devised to achieve two objectives: to motivate the students to improve their performance; and to help them acquire new (college-related study skills. In the light of what has so far been done, it can be concluded that the majority of the students are able to excel academically provided that they are properly informed   and guided to discover these abilities.

  18. Žumberačka Gora – Transformation from a Refuge to an Exodus Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Crkvenčić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the problem of immigration from Žumberačka gora, a highland region that lies on the border between Croatia and Slovenia. Due consideration is given to its border-zone character, basic features and later colonization during the mid-sixteenth century. A dual social organization and even social relations emerged in the region, reflecting the contrast between the Military Frontier and the civilian portion. The consequences of long settlement and secondary colonization led to agrarian overpopulation and difficult living conditions. Social and overriding economic changes throughout the country by the mid-nineteenth century compelled the population of Žumberačka gora to begin departing from the region. Intense immigration gradually caused negative natural growth, i.e. a natural decline in the population. Natural decline (number of deaths exceeding the number of live births and emigration were gradually reflected in the lower numbers and advanced age of the population. These processes were particularly marked in the military frontier portion of the region – in Žumberak – which accounts for almost three fourths of this highland region’s territory. In this part of the region the population has been numerically declining since 1931, but particularly since 1971. Today only one fifth of the population recorded in 1953 (just after World War II lives in Žumberak. This drop is a result of both natural decline and immigration. The age structure of the region’s remaining population is dominated by the elderly, which is shown by demographic aging indicators. Such a population is not a sound prerequisite for the region’s economic revival. The basic features of Žumberak’s landscape are deserted or devastated villages with many abandoned tracts of once arable land. A formerly densely populated region that could not feed its own residents has become a zone marked by a population exodus, an area lacking a labor

  19. Assessing Antigenic Drift of Seasonal Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewawong, Nipaporn; Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Vichiwattana, Preeyaporn; Korkong, Sumeth; Klinfueng, Sirapa; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Under selective pressure from the host immune system, antigenic epitopes of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) have continually evolved to escape antibody recognition, termed antigenic drift. We analyzed the genomes of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strains circulating in Thailand between 2010 and 2014 and assessed how well the yearly vaccine strains recommended for the southern hemisphere matched them. We amplified and sequenced the HA gene of 120 A(H3N2) and 81 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus samples obtained from respiratory specimens and calculated the perfect-match vaccine efficacy using the pepitope model, which quantitated the antigenic drift in the dominant epitope of HA. Phylogenetic analysis of the A(H3N2) HA1 genes classified most strains into genetic clades 1, 3A, 3B, and 3C. The A(H3N2) strains from the 2013 and 2014 seasons showed very low to moderate vaccine efficacy and demonstrated antigenic drift from epitopes C and A to epitope B. Meanwhile, most A(H1N1)pdm09 strains from the 2012-2014 seasons belonged to genetic clades 6A, 6B, and 6C and displayed the dominant epitope mutations at epitopes B and E. Finally, the vaccine efficacy for A(H1N1)pdm09 (79.6-93.4%) was generally higher than that of A(H3N2). These findings further confirmed the accelerating antigenic drift of the circulating influenza A(H3N2) in recent years.

  20. Sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean from 30ka to 10ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Kerr; Greenop, Rosanna; Burke, Andrea; Barker, Stephen; Chalk, Thomas; Crocker, Anya

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most striking features of the Late Pleistocene interval are the rapid changes in climate between warmer interstadial and cold stadial periods which, when coupled, are termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. This shift between warm and cold climates has been interpreted to result from changes in the thermohaline circulation (Broecker et al., 1985) triggered by, for instance, freshwater input from the collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet (Zahn et al., 1997). However, a recent study suggests that major ice rafting events cannot be the 'trigger' for the centennial to millennial scale cooling events identified over the past 500kyr (Barker at al., 2015). Polar planktic foraminiferal and lithogenic/terrigenous grain counts reveal that the southward migration of the polar front occurs before the deposition of ice rafted debris and therefore the rafting of ice during stadial periods. Based upon this evidence, Barker et al. suggest that the transition to a stadial state is a non-linear response to gradual cooling in the region. In order to test this hypothesis, our study reconstructs sea surface temperature across D-O events and the deglaciation in the North Atlantic between 30ka and 10ka using Mg/ Ca paleothermometry in Globigerina bulloides at ODP Sites 980 and 983 (the same sites as used in Barker et al., 2015) with an average sampling resolution of 300 years. With our new record we evaluate the timing of surface ocean temperature change, frontal shift movement, and ice rafting to investigate variations in the temperature gradient across the polar front over D-O events. References: Barker, S., Chen, J., Gong, X., Jonkers, L., Knorr, G., Thornalley, D., 2015. Icebergs not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events. Nature, 520(7547), pp.333-336. Broecker, W.S., Peteer, D.M., Rind, D., 1985. Does the ocean-atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation? Nature, 315 (6014), pp.21-26. Zahn, R., Schönfeld, J., Kudrass, H.-R., Park, M

  1. THE CURRENT STAR FORMATION RATE OF K+A GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Danielle M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ridgway, Susan E.; De Propris, Roberto [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Goto, Tomotsugu, E-mail: nielsen@astro.wisc.edu [Dark Cosmology Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

    2012-12-20

    We derive the stacked 1.4 GHz flux from the FIRST survey for 811 K+A galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. For these objects we find a mean flux density of 56 {+-} 9 {mu}Jy. A similar stack of radio-quiet white dwarfs yields an upper limit of 43 {mu}Jy at a 5{sigma} significance to the flux in blank regions of the sky. This implies an average star formation rate of 1.6 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for K+A galaxies. However, the majority of the signal comes from {approx}4% of K+A fields that have aperture fluxes above the 5{sigma} noise level of the FIRST survey. A stack of the remaining galaxies shows little residual flux consistent with an upper limit on star formation of 1.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Even for a subset of 456 'young' (spectral ages <250 Myr) K+A galaxies, we find that the stacked 1.4 GHz flux is consistent with no current star formation. Our data suggest that the original starburst has been terminated in the majority of K+A galaxies, but that this may represent part of a duty cycle where a fraction of these galaxies may be active at a given moment with dusty starbursts and active galactic nuclei being present.

  2. Late Quaternary erosion events in lowland and mid-altitude Tasmania in relation to climate change and first human arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, P. D.; Price, D. M.; Eberhard, R.; Slee, A. J.

    2009-05-01

    The establishment of a chronology of landscape-forming events in lowland and mid-altitude Tasmania, essential for assessing the relative importance of climatic and human influences on erosion, and for assessing present erosion risk, has been limited by the small number of ages obtained and limitations of dating methods. In this paper we critically assess previous Tasmanian studies, list published radiocarbon ages considered to be dependable, present new radiocarbon and thermoluminescence (TL) ages for 25 sites around Tasmania, and consider the evidence for the hypotheses that erosion processes at low and mid altitudes have been: (1) purely climatically controlled; and (2) influenced both by climatic and anthropogenic (increased fire frequency) effects. A total of 94 dependable finite ages (calibrated for radiocarbon and 'as measured' for TL and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) determinations) are listed for deposits comprising dunes, colluvium, alluvium and loess-like aeolian deposits. Two fall in the >100 ka period, 15 fall in the period 65-35 ka, and 77 fall in the period 35-0.3 ka. There was a sustained increase in erosion recorded in the period 35-15 ka, as reflected by a greater number of dated aeolian deposits during this period. We considered three possible biases that may have affected the age distribution obtained: the limitations of radiocarbon dating, sampling bias, and preservation bias. Sampling bias may have favoured more recent dune strata, but radiocarbon dating and preservation biases are unlikely to have significantly distorted the age distribution obtained. Long but intermittent aeolian deposition is recorded at two sites (Southwood B; c. 59-28 ka and Dunlin Dune; c. 29-14 ka) but there is no evidence of regional loess deposits such as found in New Zealand. The timing of increased erosion in Tasmania between 35 and 30 ka approximately coincides with the intermittent ten-fold increase of dust accumulation between 33 and 30 ka in the

  3. 18 Ka BP records of climatic changes, Bay of Bengal: Isotopic and sedimentological evidences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Suneethi, J.

    arid climate between 18 and 15 14C Ka BP, a variable climate between 15 and 13 Ka BP, and again an arid climate at 12.5 Ka BP. The negative d18O, reduced C/I and higher smectite document a humid phase culminating at 12 Ka BP. Arid climate phases...

  4. Calorimetry of 25 Ah lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. J.; Dawson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Heat flow measurements of 25-Ah lithium thionyl chloride cells provided a method to calculate an effective thermal potential, E(TP) of 3.907 V. The calculation is useful to determine specific heat generation of this cell chemistry and design. The E(TP) value includes heat generation by electrochemical cell reactions, competitive chemical reactions, and resistance heating at the tabs, connectors, and leads. Heat flow was measured while applying electrical loads to the cell in an isothermal calorimeter set at 0, 20, and 60 C.

  5. Calorimetry of 25 Ah lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. J.; Dawson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Heat flow measurements of 25-Ah lithium thionyl chloride cells provided a method to calculate an effective thermal potential, E(TP) of 3.907 V. The calculation is useful to determine specific heat generation of this cell chemistry and design. The E(TP) value includes heat generation by electrochemical cell reactions, competitive chemical reactions, and resistance heating at the tabs, connectors, and leads. Heat flow was measured while applying electrical loads to the cell in an isothermal calorimeter set at 0, 20, and 60 C.

  6. ATLAS distributed computing operations in the GridKa cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckeck, Guenter; Serfon, Cedric; Walker, Rodney [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Garching (Germany); Harenberg, Torsten; Kalinin, Sergey; Schultes, Joachim [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany); Kawamura, Gen [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Leffhalm, Kai [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Meyer, Joerg [Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Petzold, Andreas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Sundermann, Jan Erik [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The ATLAS Grid Computing resources in Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, and Switzerland consist of a cloud of 12 Tier-2 computing centers grouped around the Tier-1 center GridKa at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing at KIT. While the Tier-1 center serves as a hub for data management in the cloud and is the principal resource for reprocessing and custodial storage of raw ATLAS data, the Tier-2 centers provide the resources for user analysis and production of simulated events. During the first full year of data taking at the LHC, the GridKa cloud has successfully contributed to the overall ATLAS computing effort, enabling physicists to quickly analyze the large volume of new incoming data and the corresponding simulated events. This talk covers the computing operations in the GridKa cloud with focus on performance and experiences at both the Tier-1 and Tier-2 centers.

  7. Ka-band MMIC microstrip array for high rate communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. Q.; Raquet, C. A.; Tolleson, J. B.; Sanzgiri, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    In a recent technology assessment of alternative communication systems for the space exploration initiative (SEI), Ka-band (18 to 40 GHz) communication technology was identified to meet the mission requirements of telecommunication, navigation, and information management. Compared to the lower frequency bands, Ka-band antennas offer higher gain and broader bandwidths; thus, they are more suitable for high data rate communications. Over the years, NASA has played an important role in monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array technology development, and currently, has an ongoing contract with Texas Instrument (TI) to develop a modular Ka-band MMIC microstrip subarray (NAS3-25718). The TI contract emphasizes MMIC integration technology development and stipulates using existing MMIC devices to minimize the array development cost. The objective of this paper is to present array component technologies and integration techniques used to construct the subarray modules.

  8. 12 kaBP lake environment on the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炳元; 王苏民; 朱立平; 李元芳

    2001-01-01

    The systemic analyses have been carried out in this paper to the paleolake shorelines, paleolake sediments and paleoclimatic proxies of 20 lakes, in which there were 12 kaBP dating data on the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that the paleolake level had apparently risen during 14-11 kaBP, the glaciers melting period, in the Tibetan area and Northwest China. Especially, much more increasing amplitude supplied by thawy glaciers water occurred than in the best period of Holocene. The temperate-humid climate around 12 kaBP appeared in the Tibetan area and even in the whole China. This event may be compared with the Bolling/Allerod warm period which was reflected by Europe and Greenland ice core records. It showed that the B/A event was not a regional one in the North Atlantic area.

  9. Kažun kao prepoznatljiv element identiteta Istre

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Temeljem terenskih istraživanja provedenih posljednjih desetljeća te prikupljene literature u članku se analizira pojam, funkcija i značaj građevine koja se u Istri označava najčešće imenom kažun, također casita (u nekoliko lokaliteta istroromanskoga govornog područja) te hižica, hiška, koča, kućica na sjevernom dijelu poluotoka. Konstrukcija kažuna podrazumijeva način građenja suhozidom na kružnoj osnovi: kameni prstenovi podižu se u kružni zid, a zatim sužavaju u „lažni svod“ koji se zasipa...

  10. Predicting pKa for proteins using COSMO-RS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Jensen, Jan Halborg; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2013-01-01

    We have used the COSMO-RS implicit solvation method to calculate the equilibrium constants, pKa, for deprotonation of the acidic residues of the ovomucoid inhibitor protein, OMTKY3. The root mean square error for comparison with experimental data is only 0.5 pH units and the maximum error 0.8 p......H units. The results show that the accuracy of pKa prediction using COSMO-RS is as good for large biomolecules as it is for smaller inorganic and organic acids and that the method compares very well to previous pKa predictions of the OMTKY3 protein using Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics. Our approach...

  11. X-/Ka-band dichroic plate noise temperature reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, W.; Lee, P.

    1994-11-01

    The X-/Ka-band (8.4 GHz/32.0 GHz) dichroic plate installed as DSS 13 contributes an estimated 3 K to the system noise temperature at 32.0 GHz. Approximately 1 percent of the Ka-band incident field is reflected by the plate into the 300-K environment of the DSS-13 pedestal room. A low-cost, easily implemented method of reducing the noise temperature is presented. Using a curved reflector, the reflected field can be re-focused into an 80-K cold load, reducing the noise temperature contribution of the dichroic plate by about 2 K.

  12. Identiteto paieška šeimos fotografijose

    OpenAIRE

    Kniškaitė, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Darbe nagrinėjamas identitetas ir jo paieška šeimos fotografijose. Keliamas tikslas išanalizuoti identitetą ir jo vizualumą formuojančius faktorius. Kadangi darbo tema susijusi su savęs paieška, analizės objektu tampa tapatumas, o šeima pasirinkta kaip priemonė jam atskleisti. Albuminės fotografijos šiame darbe naudojamos kaip giminės istorinis šaltinis, kaip paveldas, kurio pagalba ne tik vizualiai atkuriamas šeimos genealoginis medis, bet ir pereinama prie interpretacinio požiūrio į albumi...

  13. Pollen-climate relationships in time (9 ka, 6 ka, 0 ka) and space (upland vs. lowland) in eastern continental Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Cao, Xianyong; Dallmeyer, Anne; Zhao, Yan; Ni, Jian; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Temporal and spatial stability of the vegetation-climate relationship is a basic ecological assumption for pollen-based quantitative inferences of past climate change and for predicting future vegetation. We explore this assumption for the Holocene in eastern continental Asia (China, Mongolia). Boosted regression trees (BRT) between fossil pollen taxa percentages (Abies, Artemisia, Betula, Chenopodiaceae, Cyperaceae, Ephedra, Picea, Pinus, Poaceae and Quercus) and climate model outputs of mean annual precipitation (Pann) and mean temperature of the warmest month (Mtwa) for 9 and 6 ka (ka = thousand years before present) were set up and results compared to those obtained from relating modern pollen to modern climate. Overall, our results reveal only slight temporal differences in the pollen-climate relationships. Our analyses suggest that the importance of Pann compared with Mtwa for taxa distribution is higher today than it was at 6 ka and 9 ka. In particular, the relevance of Pann for Picea and Pinus increases and has become the main determinant. This change in the climate-tree pollen relationship parallels a widespread tree pollen decrease in north-central China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We assume that this is at least partly related to vegetation-climate disequilibrium originating from human impact. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration may have permitted the expansion of moisture-loving herb taxa (Cyperaceae and Poaceae) during the late Holocene into arid/semi-arid areas. We furthermore find that the pollen-climate relationship between north-central China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau is generally similar, but that regional differences are larger than temporal differences. In summary, vegetation-climate relationships in China are generally stable in space and time, and pollen-based climate reconstructions can be applied to the Holocene. Regional differences imply the calibration-set should be restricted spatially.

  14. Astronomically-induced Mid-Brunhes Transition in the Southern and Deep Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiuzhen

    2013-04-01

    The interglacials after 430 ka (ka: 1000 years) ago were characterized by warmer climates and higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations than the interglacials before, but the cause of this climatic transition (the so-called Mid-Brunhes Event, MBE) is unknown. Based on model simulations, my results show that, in response to insolation changes only, feedbacks between sea ice, temperature, evaporation and salinity caused vigorous pre-MBE Antarctic Bottom Water formation and Southern Ocean ventilation. My results also show that strong Westerlies increased the pre-MBE overturning in the Southern Ocean via an increased latitudinal insolation gradient created by changes in eccentricity during austral winter and in obliquity during austral summer. The stronger bottom water formation led to a cooler deep ocean during the older interglacials. These insolation-induced differences in the deep-sea temperature and in the Southern Ocean ventilation between the more recent interglacials and the older ones were not expected, because there is no straightforward visible systematic difference in the astronomical parameters between the interglacials before and after 430 ka ago. Rather than being a real "event", the apparent MBE (i.e. the difference in the interglacial intensity before and after 430 ka BP) appears in my results to come from the complex response of the climate system to the astronomical and insolation forcings prevailing before and after 430 ka BP. This does not mean that nothing could have happened between MIS-13 and MIS-11 which might have amplified such difference. Given the important roles of the Southern and Deep Oceans on the carbon cycle, these findings are a first step towards understanding the magnitude change of the interglacial CO2 concentration around 430 ka. Reference: Yin Q.Z., 2013. Insolation-induced Mid-Brunhes Transition in the Southern and Deep Oceans. Nature, DOI 10.1038/nature11790. Acknowledgement: This work is supported by the European Research Council

  15. Transcript variations, phylogenetic tree and chromosomal localization of porcine aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AGNIESZKA SADOWSKA; LUKASZ PAUKSZTO; ANNA NYNCA; IZABELA SZCZERBAL; KARINA ORLOWSKA; SYLWIA SWIGONSKA; MONIKA RUSZKOWSKA; TOMASZ MOLCAN; JAN P. JASTRZEBSKI; GRZEGORZ PANASIEWICZ; RENATA E. CIERESZKO

    2017-03-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor best known for mediating xenobiotic-induced toxicity. AhR requires aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) to form an active transcription complex and promote the activation of genes which have dioxin responsive element in their regulatory regions. The present study was performed to determine the complete cDNA sequences of porcine AhR and ARNT genes and their chromosomal localization. Total RNA from porcine livers were used to obtain the sequence of the entire porcine transcriptome by next-generation sequencing (NGS;lllumina HiSeq2500). In addition, both, in silico analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to determine chromosomal localization of porcine AhR and ARNT genes. In silico analysis of nucleotide sequences showed that there were two transcript variants of AhR and ARNT genes in the pig. In addition, computer analysis revealed that AhR gene in the pig is located on chromosome 9 and ARNT on chromosome 4. The results of FISH experiment confirmed the localization of porcine AhR and ARNT genes. In the present study, for the first time, the full cDNAs of AhR and ARNT were demonstrated in the pig.In future, it would be interesting to determine the tissue distribution of AhR and ARNT transcript variants in the pig and to test whether these variants are associated with different biological functions and/or different activation pathways.

  16. AH-64 IHADSS aviator vision experiences in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harris, Eric S.; McGilberry, William H.

    2004-09-01

    Forty AH-64 Apache aviators representing a total of 8564 flight hours and 2260 combat hours during Operation Iraqi Freedom and its aftermath were surveyed for their visual experiences with the AH-64's monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display in a combat environment. A major objective of this study was to determine if the frequencies of reports of visual complaints and illusions reported in the previous studies, addressing mostly benign training environments, differ in the more stressful combat environments. The most frequently reported visual complaints, both while and after flying, were visual discomfort and headache, which is consistent with previous studies. Frequencies of complaints after flying in the current study were numerically lower for all complaint types, but differences from previous studies are statistically significant only for visual discomfort and disorientation (vertigo). With the exception of "brownout/whiteout," reports of degraded visual cues in the current study were numerically lower for all types, but statistically significant only for impaired depth perception, decreased field of view, and inadvertent instrumental meteorological conditions. This study also found statistically lower reports of all static and dynamic illusions (with one exception, disorientation). This important finding is attributed to the generally flat and featureless geography present in a large portion of the Iraqi theater and to the shift in the way that the aviators use the two disparate visual inputs presented by the IHADSS monocular design (i.e., greater use of both eyes as opposed to concentrating primarily on display imagery).

  17. Multi-Step Ka/Ka Dichroic Plate with Rounded Corners for NASA's 34m Beam Waveguide Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, Watt; Khayatian, Behrouz; Hoppe, Daniel; Long, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    A multi-step Ka/Ka dichroic plate Frequency Selective Surface (FSS structure) is designed, manufactured and tested for use in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas. The proposed design allows ease of manufacturing and ability to handle the increased transmit power (reflected off the FSS) of the DSN BWG antennas from 20kW to 100 kW. The dichroic is designed using HFSS and results agree well with measured data considering the manufacturing tolerances that could be achieved on the dichroic.

  18. Multi-Step Ka/Ka Dichroic Plate with Rounded Corners for NASA's 34m Beam Waveguide Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, Watt; Khayatian, Behrouz; Hoppe, Daniel; Long, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    A multi-step Ka/Ka dichroic plate Frequency Selective Surface (FSS structure) is designed, manufactured and tested for use in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas. The proposed design allows ease of manufacturing and ability to handle the increased transmit power (reflected off the FSS) of the DSN BWG antennas from 20kW to 100 kW. The dichroic is designed using HFSS and results agree well with measured data considering the manufacturing tolerances that could be achieved on the dichroic.

  19. Improvisatsioonilised filmietendus-kontserdid "Kas kino ka saab?"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi ja Eesti Film 100 poolt Suurgildi hoones korraldatud koostöönäitust "Elavad ja laulvad pildid" täiendab filmietenduste-kontsertide sari "Kas kino ka saab?", kus täna on kinoklassiku Georges Meliesi (1861-1938) filmiprogramm Jaak Lõhmuse kommenteeriva sõnavõtuga

  20. Che legend elab ka 40 aastat hiljem / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 9. okt. lk. 10. Argentinas sündinud ja 1967. aastal hukatud revolutsionääri Ernesto Che Guevara poliitikukarjäärist, tema panusest Kuuba revolutsiooni ja poliitikasse. Ernesto Che Guevara mälestamisest Ladina-Ameeerika riikides. Lisa: Kuuba revolutsioon; Che Guevara elu

  1. Additive manufacturing of Ka-band antennas for wireless communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armendariz, Unai; Rommel, Simon; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of WR-28 waveguide horn antennas operating in the Ka-band frequency range between 26.5 GHz and 40 GHz through 3D printing. Three different antennas are fabricated from polylactide acid filaments in conductive and non-conductive variants; the latter...

  2. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  3. Aju rehkendab pingsalt ka unelemise ajal / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2011-01-01

    Siiani arvati, et kui inimene ei tegutse, siis ei tegutse ka aju. Nüüdseks on selge, et aju on aktiivne alati. Ja matemaatiliste ülesannete lahendamisega seotud ajupiirkonnad on ühed, mis inimese ajus alati valvel püsivad

  4. Eesti Energia emissioonis on koht ka rahvaaktsiatel / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia võimaliku aktsiaemissiooni korral tagatakse võimalus soetada aktsiaid ka jaeinvestoritel. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul tugevdaks see Eesti inimeste huvi energeetika vastu, samuti võimaldaks see paigutada oma sääste Eesti arenguga seotud ettevõttesse

  5. Suhkruturu reform : [ka teiste toiduainete turu reformist] / Ants Laansalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laansalu, Ants, 1938-2011

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk. 83-86. Euroopa Komisjon esitles 2004. a juuli keskel suhkruturu reformikava, mille eesmärgiks on muuta sektor konkurentsivõimelisemaks, turu nõudlustele vastavaks, tarbija- ja keskkonnasõbralikumaks ning lõpetada ületootmine

  6. Eesti Energia emissioonis on koht ka rahvaaktsiatel / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia võimaliku aktsiaemissiooni korral tagatakse võimalus soetada aktsiaid ka jaeinvestoritel. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul tugevdaks see Eesti inimeste huvi energeetika vastu, samuti võimaldaks see paigutada oma sääste Eesti arenguga seotud ettevõttesse

  7. Ehitusala tõus jätkus ka mullu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti, 3. nov. 2004, lk. 14-15. Ehitusfirmade TOP 95 aastal 2003. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe TOP 40. TOP-i koostamise metoodika. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Omakapitali tootluse TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Ehitusettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed

  8. Ottis osales ka ise kahtlases riigihankes / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Riigi Kinnisvara juht Tiit Ottis palus 2005. aasta mais keskkriminaalpolitseil algatada Kärdla piirivalvekordoni hangete uurimiseks kriminaalasi. Antud hankel osales ka Ottise loodud AS Gustaf, mis pakkus küll odavaimat hinda, kuid konkursi võitis AS Pameron. Vt. samas: Kriminaalasi algatati teo suhtes

  9. Che legend elab ka 40 aastat hiljem / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 9. okt. lk. 10. Argentinas sündinud ja 1967. aastal hukatud revolutsionääri Ernesto Che Guevara poliitikukarjäärist, tema panusest Kuuba revolutsiooni ja poliitikasse. Ernesto Che Guevara mälestamisest Ladina-Ameeerika riikides. Lisa: Kuuba revolutsioon; Che Guevara elu

  10. Kas läheb ka Ruudi tapmiseks? / Kati Murutar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murutar, Kati, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Lastefilm "Ruudi" : stsenaristid Katrin Laur, Aare Toikka, Aarne Mägi : režissöör Katrin Laur : nimiosas lapsnäitleja Paul Oskar Soe : Allfilm - MRP Matila Röhr Productions - Schmidtz Katze Filmkollektiv 2006. Võetud kõne alla ka Peeter Simmi "Kõrini!" ja Peeter Urbla "Stiilipeo" arvustaja meelest teenimatult mahategevad retsensioonid

  11. Ehitusala tõus jätkus ka mullu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti, 3. nov. 2004, lk. 14-15. Ehitusfirmade TOP 95 aastal 2003. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe TOP 40. TOP-i koostamise metoodika. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Omakapitali tootluse TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Ehitusettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed

  12. Experimental radio frequency link for Ka-band communications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Conray, Martin J.; Saunders, Alan L.; Pope, Dale E.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental radio frequency link has been demonstrated to provide two-way communication between a remote user ground terminal and a ground-based Ka-band transponder. Bit-error-rate performance and radio frequency characteristics of the communication link were investigated.

  13. High Througput pKa Prediction Using Semi Empirical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of organic molecules relevant to medicine and biotechnology contain one or more ionizable groups, which means that fundamental physical and chemical properties (e.g. the charge of the molecule) depend on the pH of the surroundings via the corresponding pKa values of the molecules. As drug- and material design increasingly is being done through high throughput screens, fast - yet accurate - computational pKa prediction methods are becoming crucial to the design process. Current empirical pKa predictors are increasingly found to fail because they are being applied to parts of chemical space for which experimental parameterization data is lacking. We propose to develop a pKa predictor that, due its quantum mechanical foundation, is more generally applicable but still fast enough to be used in high throughput screening. The method has the potential to impact virtually any biotechnological design process involving organic molecules as we will demonstrate for metabolic engineering and organic bat...

  14. Tõnu Talve "Ka" tuuritab Kadrinas ja Rakveres / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2005-01-01

    Tõnu Talve maalidest. Kadrinas esitatud trio Fragile performance'st ja näitusest tsüklist "Ka" Rakveres. Rakvere näitusel Teele Tuuna ja kolmeaastase tütre Anneliise tööd. Trio Fragile koosseisus on kitarrist Robert Jürjendal, trummar Arvo Urb ja maalija Tõnu Talve

  15. Holland soovib Maailmapanga juhi kohale ka teisi kandidaate / Kalev Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Kalev

    2005-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush nimetas Iraagi sõja peamise planeerija Paul Wolfowitzi Maailmapanga presidendi kandidaadiks. See valik on Euroopas põhjustanud vastuolusid, kuna temast kardetakse Bushi senise välispoliitilise stiili jätkajat ka Maailmapangas. Bill Clintonit peetakse üheks võimalikuks kandidaadiks ÜRO peasekräri kohale

  16. Improvisatsioonilised filmietendus-kontserdid "Kas kino ka saab?"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi ja Eesti Film 100 poolt Suurgildi hoones korraldatud koostöönäitust "Elavad ja laulvad pildid" täiendab filmietenduste-kontsertide sari "Kas kino ka saab?", kus täna on kinoklassiku Georges Meliesi (1861-1938) filmiprogramm Jaak Lõhmuse kommenteeriva sõnavõtuga

  17. Terahertz and Mid Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Shulika, Oleksiy; Detection of Explosives and CBRN (Using Terahertz)

    2014-01-01

    The reader will find here a timely update on new THz sources and detection schemes as well as concrete applications to the detection of Explosives and CBRN. Included is a method to identify hidden RDX-based explosives (pure and plastic ones) in the frequency domain study by Fourier Transformation, which has been complemented by the demonstration of improvement of the quality of the images captured commercially available THz passive cameras. The presented examples show large potential for the detection of small hidden objects at long distances (6-10 m).  Complementing the results in the short-wavelength range, laser spectroscopy with a mid-infrared, room temperature, continuous wave, DFB laser diode and high performance DFB QCL have been demonstrated to offer excellent enabling sensor technologies for environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, industrial and security applications.  From the new source point of view a number of systems have been presented - From superconductors to semiconductors, e.g. Det...

  18. Mid-Infrared Lasers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mid Infrared DIAL systems can provide vital data needed by atmospheric scientists to understand atmospheric chemistry. The Decadal Survey recommended missions, such...

  19. Revisiting Shari’ah, democracy and human rights in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams O. Mbamalu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that in a pluralistic and complex society such as Nigeria the invocation of Shari’ah (Islamic law does not augur well for the survival of democracy. The traditional belief of every Muslim is that fundamentalism has been and must continue to be rooted in the concept of theocracy upon which the medieval institution of the Caliphate actually rested. Muslim political leaders challenge the agitation for a secular state in Nigeria as an inspiration by Christian theology based on Western European thought. This article argued that political and social progress in Nigeria is unrealistic without the separation of religion and politics. It was identified in this article that the separation of religion and politics does not go down well with Islamic eschatology and cosmology, because Islam’s main theological drive is toward an Islamic world empire. The solution offered in this article was that emphasis should be on ensuring that any legal framework or constitutional arrangement should be one that safeguards the interests of all citizens.’n Blik op Shari’ah, demokrasie en menseregte in Nigerië. Hierdie artikel argumenteer dat, in ’n pluralistiese en komplekse samelewing soos Nigerië, die aanroeping van Shari’ah (Islamitiese wet niks goeds voorspel vir die oorlewing van die demokrasie is nie. Die radisionele geloof van elke Moslem is dat fundamentalisme in die konsep van teokrasie, wat sy oorsprong in die  Middeleeuse instelling van die Kalifaat het, gewortel is en so moet bly. Politieke Moslemleiers beskuldig die Christelike teologie (wat op die Wes-Europese gedagte gebaseer is as die oorsaak van die onrus as gevolg van die poging om ‘n sekulere staat in Nigerie tot stand te bring. In hierdie artikel is is ook geargumenteer dat politieke en sosiale vooruitgang in Nigerië nie moontlik is sonder die skeiding van godsdiens en politiek nie. Daar is ook bevind dat die skeiding tussen godsdiens en politiek nie by die

  20. ASURANSI SYARI’AH ANTARA AJARAN SYARA’ DAN PEMBENARAN BUDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aziz Muslim

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Islam sebagai agama universal harus tampil elegan dalam mengurai permasalahan kehidupan manusia. Meskipun ia hadir sebagai blue print dari Tuhan, kehadirannya tidak bisa lepas dari budaya. Meskipun kehadiran budaya sebagai sesuatu yang berada di luar blue print Tuhan, keberadaan budaya kerap kali memengaruhi diundangkannya suatu ketentuan hukum Dalam masalah mu’âmalah (ekonomi syari’ah misalnya, asuransi yang merupakan hasil karya manusia harus direspon secara positif karena tidak ada larangan terhadapnya dan ia sejalan dengan prinsip universal ajaran  Islam, yakni saling menolong, saling melindungi, dan saling menanggung. Karena itu, memasukkan asuransi sebagai entry dalam ensiklopedi Islam merupakan keharusan, karena dalam Islam adat juga dapat digunakan sebagai sumber hukum Islam. Pertimbangan ini dikuatkan dengan adanya kemaslahatan yang ada di dalam asuransi itu sendiri bagi umat Islam. Meskipun tidak bisa dipungkiri adanya tarik ulur tentang halal atau tidaknya asuransi masih mewarnai ijtihad para ulama yang mempunyai otoritas tentang masalah itu, namun seyogyanya yang perlu dipertimbangkan juga adalah adanya sentimen positif dari masyarakat tentang keberadaan asuransi syari’ah dengan pertumbuhannya dari tahun ketahun yang menunjukkan pertumbuhan yang sangat fantastis. Abstract: As a universal religion, Islam should appears elegantly in describing social problems. Islam as a norms are the blue print of God, however, its implementation is not free from the influence of culture, as the out sider of God blue print. Culture often influences the enactment of Islamic legal provision. In case of mu’âmalah (Islamic economy, insurance for instant, is a man made system of economy that should be regarded positively since there is no prohibition on it  and it is in accordance with the universal Islamic teaching; helping each other, guarding one another and taking risk together. Therefore, taking it as an entry in Islamic

  1. The new Ford Ka: a design for the future; Der neue Ford Ka: Ein Konzept fuer die Zukunftt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Bietz, T.; Castro, P.; Cole, S.; Jansen, K.H.; McColm, A.

    1996-09-01

    One of the factors of success in the competitive world of today`s automotive industry is the ability to adapt quickly to changing customer requirements. Surveys in all European countries indicate an increasing demand for cars that are below the established small cars in terms of size and price. Ford is offering with the new Ford Ka a product in the Sub-B class, which gains new ground by a fascinating design as well as matches the B-class for safety and noise comfort. The Ka is fun-to-drive with lively, safe handling to `best in class` standard at an outstanding price/performance ratio. (orig.) [Deutsch] Befragungen in ganz Europa signalisieren einen steigenden Bedarf an Fahrzeugen, die in Groesse und Preis unterhalb der etablierten Kleinwagen positioniert sind. Ford bietet mit dem neuen Ka in der Sub-B-Klasse ein Produkt, das nicht nur durch wegweisendes Design besticht, sondern gleichzeitig Fahrvergnuegen durch agiles und sicheres Handling garantiert. Der Ka bietet Sicherheit und Geraeuschkomfort auf dem Niveau der naechsthoeheren Klasse und dies bei einem guten Preis-Leistungsverhaeltnis. (orig.)

  2. An Exploratory Study of the Rhetoric in CSR Reports: A Comparison of Shari’ah Compliant Company and Non –Shari’ah Compliant Company in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Razak Rafizan

    2017-01-01

    This paper advances previous research in corporate social reporting (CSR) by using a taxonomy of five distinct rhetorical strategies to examine any differences in term of type of ethical categories and to identify moral attitudes towards different societal activities between Shari’ah compliant company Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) and Non-Shari’ah compliant company Malayan Banking Berhad (Maybank). The data is analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that there are different...

  3. Hydrologic and climatic implications of a multidisciplinary study of the mid to late Holocene Lake Eastern Juyanze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Mischke; D. Demske; M. E. Schudack

    2003-01-01

    A mid to late Holocene exposure in a recently desiccated lake basin inwestern Inner Mongolia was investigated with regard to palaeoenvironmental changes and the overall climatic conditions in NW China between 2.7 and 5.4 cal. ka BP. High lake levels of Lake Eastern Juyanze were recorded by ostracod assemblages, shell geochemistry and sedimentology between 5.1 and 4.1 cal. ka BP. Relatively humid conditions and a relatively strong influence of the Asian monsoon are indicated by palynological data for the corresponding period. Lake levels decreased afterwards and short-term regressive events occurred at about 4.1, 3.8 and 3.4 cal. ka BP. The overall trend towards lower lake levels culminated in repeated episodes of desiccation of Lake Eastern Juyanze between 3.2 and 2.9 cal. ka BP, in phase with very arid conditions inferred from the palynological record. Individual regressive events as well as the rapid environmental fluctuations of Lake Eastern Juyanze at about 3.0 cal. ka BP were regarded as driven by mid to lateHolocene summer monsoon fluctuations, supported by the Dunde ice core record.

  4. HUBUNGAN HUKUM KEMITRAAN DALAM LINKAGE PROGRAM PERBANKAN SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Arifin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Linkage program is a strategy that aims to empower and provide access to capital for small and medium enterprises (UMKM through the involvement of participation in the financial industry. It is based on the fact that BPR/S or Shari'ah microfinance institutions like Baitul Maal Wa Tamwil (BMT sometimes have problems in mobilizing public sector funds. While commercial banks on the other hand tend to have excess funds that the public sector (over liquidity but space is limited to micro business reach its movement.In other words, that the benefits of this program, commercial banks have easy access to UMKM and BMT benefit from the availability of funds to be distributed to the debtor, with due regard to the risk management process so as not to encourage an increase in the ratio of financing problems (non-performing financing.

  5. A Southern Ocean terrestrial record of global climate change for the past 130 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergoes, M.; Newnham, R.; Hendy, C.; Lowell, T.; Preusser, F.; Almond, P.; Fitzsimons, S.

    2003-04-01

    The coastal plain of South Westland, New Zealand, is characterised by a complex pattern of Late Quaternary moraines and outwash surfaces formed form the advance and retreat of successive piedmont glaciers originating from the adjacent Southern Alps ice centre. Associated with the glacial landforms are numerous bogs and lakes, whose accumulated sedimentary sequences serve as rich natural archives for subsequent climate change. At one such site, Okarito Pakihi, 15 cores have been taken to depths of up to 10 m, without reaching bottom. The generalised stratigraphy from the top consists of a 2-4 m peat layer extending back to 12.0 14C ka, overlying 2-3 m of massive blue-grey silt, often with a zone of greater organic content in its midst. Towards the top of this unit is a layer of glass shards from the Kawakawa Tephra (22.5 14C ka), whilst optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating indicates the age of this unit ranges from 28 ka near the top to 75 ka near the base. At its base, the blue-grey silt changes abruptly to a 3-4 m thick brown organic-rich silt which in turn changes abruptly to massive blue-grey silt grading into a finely laminated silt. Preliminary OSL results suggest an age of >130 ka for the laminated silts. This chronostratigraphy thus indicates a continuous sedimentary record extending from near present back to at least the penultimate glaciation, whilst the palynology of this record shows a sequence of vegetation and climate change that corresponds broadly to the marine isotope (MI) record for this interval. The upper organic unit (Holocene) is dominated by lowland temperate (podocarp) rainforest pollen which is near absent in the underlying blue-grey silts, deposited during MI Stages 2-4, when long periods of sub-alpine shrubland were punctuated by short intervals of grassland expansion. There appears to be good correspondence between these palynologically determined grassland intervals and other records of glacier movement during the last

  6. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4 GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-in diameter parabolic high gain antenna (HGA) on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) R&D 34-meter antenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. The projected 5-dB link advantage of Ka-band relative to X-band was confirmed in previous reports using measurements of MGS signal strength data acquired during the first two years of the link experiment from December 1996 to December 1998. Analysis of X-band and Ka-band frequency data and difference frequency (fx-fka)/3.8 data will be presented here. On board the spacecraft, a low-power sample of the X-band downlink from the transponder is upconverted to 32 GHz, the Ka-band frequency, amplified to I-W using a Solid State Power Amplifier, and radiated from the dual X/Ka HGA. The X-band signal is amplified by one of two 25 W TWTAs. An upconverter first downconverts the 8.42 GHz X-band signal to 8 GHz and then multiplies using a X4 multiplier producing the 32 GHz Ka-band frequency. The frequency source selection is performed by an RF switch which can be commanded to select a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) or USO (Ultra-Stable Oscillator) reference. The Ka-band frequency can be either coherent with the X-band downlink reference or a hybrid combination of the USO and VCO derived frequencies. The data in this study were chosen such that the Ka-band signal is purely coherent with the X-band signal, that is the downconverter is driven by the same frequency source as the X-band downlink). The ground station used to acquire the data is DSS-13, a 34-meter BWG antenna which incorporates a series of mirrors inside beam waveguide tubes which guide the energy to a subterranean pedestal room, providing a stable environment

  7. Subclinical avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in human, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Horby, Peter; Fox, Annette; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Le Nguyen, Hang Khanh; Hoang, Phuong Mai Vu; Nguyen, Khanh Cong; de Jong, Menno D; Jeeninga, Rienk E; Rogier van Doorn, H; Farrar, Jeremy; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and the true number of these cases is unknown. We describe the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investigation in northern Vietnam.

  8. Activation of arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in T lineage cells inhibits cellular growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohara, K.; Tomohiro, I.; Chiharu, T. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins, including the most toxic congener, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), exert their toxic effects by binding and activating the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a liganddependent transcription factor. Upon binding dioxins, the AhR in the cytoplasm is activated and translocated to the nucleus, where it heterodimerizes with another transcription factor, ARNT. The AhR/ARNT heterodimer modulates expressions of various genes by binding xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs) in their enhancer regions or modifies cellular functions through protein-protein interactions. The AhR activation by TCDD exposure induces various immunotoxic reactions including thymus involution and suppression of T cell-dependent antibody production. We have investigated the roles of AhR activation in T lineage cells and their underlying mechanisms by generating transgenic (Tg) mice expressing a constitutively active AhR (CA-AhR) mutant specifically in T cells and by transiently expressing the CA-AhR mutant in Jurkat T cells.

  9. Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus - China

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biorisk reduction Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China Disease outbreak news 18 January 2017 ... laboratory-confirmed human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus and on 12 January 2017, the Health ...

  10. Novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in tree sparrow, Shanghai, China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baihui; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Wenfei; Teng, Zheng; Yu, Xuelian; Gao, Ye; Wu, Di; Pei, Enle; Yuan, Zhengan; Yang, Lei; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong; Wu, Fan

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2013, influenza A(H7N9) virus was isolated from an apparently healthy tree sparrow in Chongming Dongping National Forest Park, Shanghai City, China. The entire gene constellation of the virus is similar to that of isolates from humans, highlighting the need to monitor influenza A(H7N9) viruses in different species.

  11. Hydrological variability in northern Levant over the past 250 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gasse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Levant features sharp climatic gradients from North to South and from West to East resulting in a large environmental diversity. The lack of long-term record from the northern Levant limits our understanding of the regional response to glacial-interglacial boundary conditions in this key area. The 250 ka paleoenvironmental reconstruction presented here is a first step to fill this geographical gap.

    The record comes from a 36 m lacustrine-palustrine sequence cored in the small intra-mountainous karstic basin of Yammoûneh (northern Lebanon. The paper combines times series of sediment properties, paleovegetation, and carbonate oxygen isotopes, to yield a comprehensive view of paleohydrologic-paleoclimatic fluctuations in the basin over the two last glacial-interglacial cycles. Efficient moisture was higher than today during interglacial peaks around 240, 215–220, ~130–120 ka and 11–9 ka (although under different Precipitation minus Evaporation balance. Moderate wetting events took place around 170, 150, 105–100, 85–75, 60–55 and 35 ka. The penultimate glacial period was generally wetter than the last glacial stage. Local aridity culminated from the LGM to 15 ka, possibly linked to water storage as ice in the surrounding highlands. An overall decrease in local water availability is observed from the profile base to top. Fluctuations in available water seem to be primarily governed by changes in local summer insolation controlled by the orbital eccentricity modulated by the precession cycle, and by changes in precipitation and temperature seasonality.

    Our record is roughly consistent with long-term climatic fluctuations in northeastern Mediterranean lands, except during the penultimate glacial phase. It shares some features with speleothem records of western Israel. Conversely, after 130 ka, it is clearly out of phase with hydrological changes in the Dead Sea basin. Potential causes of these spatial heterogeneities

  12. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the epoxy resin-based root canal sealer AH plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyhausen, G; Heil, J; Reifferscheid, G; Waldmann, P; Geurtsen, W

    1999-02-01

    Previous studies with four rapid in vitro and in vivo test systems have shown that the epoxy resin-based root canal sealer AH26 may be genotoxic and cytotoxic (9). The purpose of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the new resinous root canal sealer AH Plus by means of the growth inhibition test with primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts and permanent 3T3 monolayers, the procaryotic umu test, the eucaryotic DNA synthesis inhibition test, and the in vivo alkaline filter elution test. In addition, Ames tests were performed with extracts from AH Plus. AH Plus caused only slight or no cellular injuries. Furthermore, no genotoxicity and mutagenicity were revealed by AH Plus. These data should be taken into consideration when deciding about a root canal sealer.

  13. Effects of currently used pesticides in the AhR-CALUX assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Laier, Peter; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    to be a rapid and sensitive assay for assessing the potency of AhR-activating compounds. We have used the AhR-CALUX assay to investigate the AhR-mediated activity of the persistent organochlorine insecticide dieldrin and twenty-two pesticides currently used in Denmark by employing the rat H4IIE and the human TV......101L hepatoma cell lines. In comparison the results indicated that the rat H4IIE cell line is more sensitive than the human TV101L for detection of TCDD inducing AhR-CALUX activity. The pesticides iprodione, chlorpyrifos and prochloraz showed dose-dependent AhR agonistic effects in both cell lines...... at concentrations above 10, 1 and 1 microM, respectively. However, some pesticides (methiocarb, chlorothalonil, tribenuron-methyl, paclobutrazol and tolchlofos-methyl) elicited differential responses in the two cell lines....

  14. Novel archaeal plasmid pAH1 and its interactions with the lipothrixvirus AFV1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, Tamara; Smyth, John; Forterre, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    to establish a system for studying plasmid-virus interactions we characterized the genome of pAH1 which closely resembles those of the Sulfolobus conjugative plasmids pARN3 and pARN4. pAH1 integrates site specifically into, and excises from, the host chromosome indicating a dynamic interaction with the latter....... Although nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed extensive intergenomic exchange during the evolution of archaeal conjugative plasmids, pAH1 was shown to be stably maintained suggesting that the host system is suitable for studying plasmid-virus interactions. AFV1 infection and propagation leads to a loss...... of the circular form of pAH1 and this effect correlates positively with the increase in the intracellular quantity of AFV1 DNA. We infer that the virus inhibits plasmid replication since no pAH1 degradation was observed. This mechanism of archaeal viral inhibition of plasmid propagation is not observed...

  15. Forskolin inhibits the Gs-stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat ascites hepatoma AH66F cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R; Matsunaga, T; Hasegawa, T; Takagi, K; Satake, T

    1989-09-01

    Forskolin increased intracellular cyclic AMP and augmented cyclic AMP formation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in normal rat hepatocytes and ascites hepatoma AH66 cells. However, in AH66F cells which were derived from the AH66 cell line, the diterpene only slightly increased the cyclic AMP level, and dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation caused by PGE1. Forskolin dose-dependently activated adenylate cyclase in these membranes, and the magnitude of activation by forskolin was largest in the following order: hepatocytes, AH66 cells, and AH66F cells. This difference may be based on the number of forskolin-binding sites. The binding affinity of forskolin for each cell membrane was similar. The number and affinity of forskolin-binding sites in these cells were not influenced by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p]. In hepatocytes and AH66 cells, forskolin and other adenylate cyclase activators such as PGE1, GTP, Gpp(NH)p, F-, and Mn2+ synergistically increased the enzyme activity. In AH66F cells, the forskolin-stimulated activity was hardly influenced by the GTP analog, and forskolin diminished the activities induced by the GTP analog in a manner similar to that of diterpene alone. Forskolin (10 microM) also significantly inhibited the activities induced by PGE1, GTP, and F-. The effect of forskolin with Mn2+ was additive in AH66F cells. The data suggest that forskolin promotes the interaction between the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and the catalytic unit in the membrane of normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, but it interferes with the coupling in AH66F cells.

  16. 13 kA Superconducting Busbars Manufacturing Process

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, R; Fornasiere, E

    2012-01-01

    In the LHC, the superconducting Main Bending magnets and Quadrupole magnets are series-connected electrically in different excitation circuits by means of superconducting busbars, carrying a maximum current of 13 kA. These superconducting busbars consist of a superconducting Rutherford cable thermally and electrically coupled to a copper section all along the length. The function of the copper section is essentially to provide an alternative path for the magnet current in case of resistive transition. The production of these components was originally outsourced. The decision to import the technology at CERN led to a global re-engineering of the standard process. Although based on the procedures adopted during the LHC construction, a few modifications and improvements have been implemented, profiting of the experience gained in the last few years. This document details the manufacturing process of the 13 kA busbars as it is actually performed at CERN, emphasizing the new solutions adopted during the first mon...

  17. NOVEL MLANTJARAN KA SASAK: FROM DILLEMATIC TEACHERS TO HUMOROUS ONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Tingkat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the representation of the image of teachers in the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak written by Gde Srawana. Using the theory of literary sociology and the theory of representation as the basis of analysis, it was found that teachers were  imaged of being dilemmatic, humanistic idealistic, caring about the Balinese culture, and being humorous. Sociologically, the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak pictured the life background of the Balinese society during 1930s, indicated by the critical attitude of the intellectuals through I Made Sarati and Ida Ayu Priya, the characters who played a role as teachers, towards the caste feudalism in marriage. Such a critical attitude was expressed in such an inciting way that the ethic and aesthetic values needed to educate society were not neglected.

  18. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka

    OpenAIRE

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L.; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-marie

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the ...

  19. Riigikogus tehakse ka tööd / Vilja Savisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Vilja, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Sakala, 13. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Harju Ekspress, 15. juuni 2007, lk. 8; Järva Teataja, 16. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 6. Parlamendiliige Keskerakonna fraktsiooni poolt parlamendis algatatud eelnõudest

  20. Kui suudab Steve, suudab ka Apple / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla

  1. Euroopa Liit toetab ka väiketalupidajaid / Rein Aidma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aidma, Rein, 1950-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vali Uudised 12. nov. lk. 4, Harjumaa, Hiiu Leht, Sakala 14. nov. lk. 3,2,2, Koit 18. nov. lk. 6, Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje 21. nov. lk. 4, Järva Teataja 25. nov. lk. 2. Väiksematel põllumajandusega tegelevatel ettevõtetel on võimalus saada ajutist abi paremaks toimetulekuks võimalike muutuste korral, mis leiavad aset liitumisjärgsel perioodil

  2. Ka omavalitsus vastutab palkade eest / Aivar Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Aivar, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline, Koit 11. nov. lk.4,6, Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje, Hiiumaa, Järva Teataja 11. nov. lk. 2, Pärnu Postimees 12. nov. lk. 15, Vali Uudised 14. nov. lk. 2, Valgamaalane 18. nov. lk. 2, Vooremaa 25. nov. lk. 2. Kohalike omavalitsuste võimalustest õpetajate ja kultuuritöötajate palkade täiendavaks tõstmiseks 2004. aastal

  3. Riigikogus tehakse ka tööd / Vilja Savisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Vilja, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Sakala, 13. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Harju Ekspress, 15. juuni 2007, lk. 8; Järva Teataja, 16. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 6. Parlamendiliige Keskerakonna fraktsiooni poolt parlamendis algatatud eelnõudest

  4. Ka omavalitsus vastutab palkade eest / Aivar Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Aivar, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline, Koit 11. nov. lk.4,6, Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje, Hiiumaa, Järva Teataja 11. nov. lk. 2, Pärnu Postimees 12. nov. lk. 15, Vali Uudised 14. nov. lk. 2, Valgamaalane 18. nov. lk. 2, Vooremaa 25. nov. lk. 2. Kohalike omavalitsuste võimalustest õpetajate ja kultuuritöötajate palkade täiendavaks tõstmiseks 2004. aastal

  5. Eestil on Euroopas ka oma tee / Jürgen Ligi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ligi, Jürgen, 1959-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 17. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 17. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Koit,17. apr. 2004, lk. 6; Meie Maa, 17. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 20. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Virumaa Nädalaleht, 23. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Sakala, 23. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 8. mai 2004, lk. 2. Maksu- ja sotsiaalpoliitika otsustusõigusest ning kaitsmisest EL-i riikides

  6. Kui suudab Steve, suudab ka Apple / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla

  7. Precision Deployable Mast for the SWOT KaRIn Instrument Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design and prototype a lightweight, precision-deployable mast for the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn) antennas in the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT)...

  8. Use of Roud Wood in Kaingáng Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has the purpose of describing and analyzing the evolutionary habitation process of the Kaingáng. Its main focus is the typological reading of the shelters as well as the registration of the wooden building system used in the construction of the houses in the “Äpucaraninha” Reserve, located in a district of Londrina. The research proceeds with the elaboration of the genealogy of the kaingáng’s habitation through the consultation to the published historical reports and their chronological organization. The data collection within the group was accomplished through informal interviews, photographic survey and in loco observations. Aspects related to the use of the round wood as well as the other elements that are part of the construction, were verified at this stage. The raw material used in every building system is obtained in the Reserve itself, being the wood used not only in the structure but also in the sealing. The connections are made through fittings and fastenings with liana. In spite of the mixture of values and meanings that the Kaingáng community experiences through the contact with other cultures, traditional aspects related to the building of the “traditional house” are preserved, with no domain of other techniques by most of the group. The registration intends to contribute towards the identification and understanding of important issues related to the spaces built by the man.

  9. Rain Fade Compensation Alternatives for Ka Band Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.

    1997-01-01

    Future satellite communications systems operating in Ka-band frequency band are subject to degradation produced by the troposphere which is much more severe than those found at lower frequency bands. These impairments include signal absorption by rain, clouds and gases, and amplitude scintillation's arising from refractive index irregularities. For example, rain attenuation at 20 GHz is almost three times that at 11 GHz. Although some of these impairments can be overcome by oversizing the ground station antennas and high power amplifiers, the current trend is using small (less than 20 inches apertures), low-cost ground stations (less than $1000) that can be easily deployed at user premises. As a consequence, most Ka-band systems are expected to employ different forms of fade mitigation that can be implemented relatively easily and at modest cost. The rain fade mitigation approaches are defined by three types of Ka-band communications systems - a low service rate (less than 1.5 Mb/s), a moderate service rate (1.5 to 6 Mb/s) system and a high service rate (greater than 43 Mb/s) system. The ACTS VSAT network, which includes an adaptive rain fade technique, is an example of a moderate service rate.

  10. ATLAS computing operations within the GridKa Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J; Walker, R [LMU Munich (Germany); Olszewski, A [Institute of Nuclear Physics Krakow (Poland); Nderitu, S [University of Bonn (Germany); Serfon, C; Duckeck, G

    2010-04-01

    The organisation and operations model of the ATLAS T1-T2 federation/Cloud associated to the GridKa T1 in Karlsruhe is described. Attention is paid to Cloud level services and the experience gained during the last years of operation. The ATLAS GridKa Cloud is large and divers spanning 5 countries, 2 ROC's and is currently comprised of 13 core sites. A well defined and tested operations model in such a Cloud is of the utmost importance. We have defined the core Cloud services required by the ATLAS experiment and ensured that they are performed in a managed and sustainable manner. Services such as Distributed Data Management involving data replication,deletion and consistency checks, Monte Carlo Production, software installation and data reprocessing are described in greater detail. In addition to providing these central services we have undertaken several Cloud level stress tests and developed monitoring tools to aid with Cloud diagnostics. Furthermore we have defined good channels of communication between ATLAS, the T1 and the T2's and have pro-active contributions from the T2 manpower. A brief introduction to the GridKa Cloud is provided followed by a more detailed discussion of the operations model and ATLAS services within the Cloud.

  11. Utjecaj materijala za pakiranje na kvalitetu Kačkavalja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce Talevski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available U ovom radu ispitivan je utjecaj različitog ambalažnog materijala (A - kontrolni uzorak, B - polimerna emulzija, C - vosak i D - polimerna folija na kvalitetu Kačkavalja. Najnižu pH vrijednost imao je uzorak zaštićen voskom, što je rezultat zadržavanja nastalih organskih kiselina i plinova od strane ambalažnog materijala. Statistički značajan utjecaj ambalažnih materijala (p<0.01 bio je utvrđen kod sadržaja suhe tvari, proteina i pepela, dok statistička značajnost nije bila utvrđena kod sadržaja masti kod Kačkavalja. Proteolitički procesi bili su izraženiji kod uzorka zaštićenog voskom i polimernom folijom, s višim razinama topljivog dušika, primarnih i sekundarnih dušičnih spojeva i koeficijenta zrelosti u odnosu na kontrolni uzorak i uzorak zaštićen polimernom emulzijom.

  12. Mid to late Holocene sea-level reconstruction of Southeast Vietnam using beachrock and beach-ridge deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattegger, Karl; Tjallingii, Rik; Saito, Yoshiki; Michelli, Maximiliano; Trung Thanh, Nguyen; Wetzel, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Beachrocks, beach ridge, washover and backshore deposits along the tectonically stable south-eastern Vietnamese coast document Holocene sea level changes. In combination with data from the final marine flooding phase of the incised Mekong River valley, the sea-level history of South Vietnam could be reconstructed for the last 8000 years. Connecting saltmarsh, mangrove and beachrock deposits the record covers the last phase of deglacial sea-level rise from - 5 to + 1.4 m between 8.1 to 6.4 ka. The rates of sea-level rise decreased sharply after the rapid early Holocene rise and stabilized at a rate of 4.5 mm/year between 8.0 and 6.9 ka. Southeast Vietnam beachrocks reveal that the mid-Holocene sea-level highstand slightly above + 1.4 m was reached between 6.7 and 5.0 ka, with a peak value close to + 1.5 m around 6.0 ka. This highstand is further limited by a backshore and beachridge deposit that marks the maximum springtide sea-level just below the base of the overlying beach ridge. After 5.0 ka sea level dropped below + 1.4 m and fell almost linearly at a rate of 0.24 mm/year until 0.63 ka and + 0.2 m as evidenced by the youngest beachrocks.

  13. AhR transcriptional activity in serum of Inuits across Greenlandic districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonefeld-Jorgensen Eva C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/PCDFs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticide is ubiquitous. The individual is exposed to a complex mixture of POPs being life-long beginning during critical developmental windows. Exposure to POPs elicits a number of species- and tissue-specific toxic responses, many of which involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The aim of this study was to compare the actual level of integrated AhR transcriptional activity in the lipophilic serum fraction containing the actual POP mixture among Inuits from different districts in Greenland, and to evaluate whether the AhR transactivity is correlated to the bio-accumulated POPs and/or lifestyle factors. Methods The study included 357 serum samples from the Greenlandic districts: Nuuk and Sisimiut (South West Coast, Qaanaaq (North Coast and Tasiilaq (East Coast. The bio-accumulated serum POPs were extracted by ethanol: hexane and clean-up on Florisil columns. Effects of the serum extract on the AhR transactivity was determined using the Hepa 1.12cR mouse hepatoma cell line carrying an AhR-luciferase reporter gene, and the data was evaluated for possible association to the serum levels of 14 PCB congeners, 10 organochlorine pesticide residues and/or lifestyle factors. Results In total 85% of the Inuit samples elicited agonistic AhR transactivity in a district dependent pattern. The median level of the AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ of the separate genders was similar in the different districts. For the combined data the order of the median AhR-TEQ was Tasiilaq > Nuuk ≥ Sisimiut > Qaanaaq possibly being related to the different composition of POPs. In overall, the AhR transactivity was inversely correlated to the levels of sum POPs, age and/or intake of marine food. Conclusion i We observed that the proportion of dioxin like (DL compounds in the

  14. Aminoflavone, a ligand of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), inhibits HIF-1α expression in an AhR-independent fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzuoli, Erika; Puppo, Maura; Rapisarda, Annamaria; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Cao, Liang; Burger, Angelika M.; Ziche, Marina; Melillo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Aminoflavone (AF), the active component of a novel anticancer agent (AFP464) in phase I clinical trials, is a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR dimerizes with HIF-1β/ARNT, which is shared with HIF-1α, a transcription factor critical for the response of cells to oxygen deprivation. To address whether pharmacological activation of the AhR pathway might be a potential mechanism for inhibition of HIF-1, we tested the effects of AF on HIF-1 expression. AF inhibited HIF-1α transcriptional activity and protein accumulation in MCF-7 cells. However, inhibition of HIF-1α by AF was independent from a functional AhR pathway. Indeed, AF inhibited HIF-1α expression in AhR100 cells, in which the AhR pathway is functionally impaired, yet did not induce cytotoxicity, providing evidence that these effects are mediated by distinct signaling pathways. Moreover, AF was inactive in MDA-MB-231 cells, yet inhibited HIF-1α in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with the SULT1A1 gene. AF inhibited HIF-1α mRNA expression by approximately 50%. Notably, actinomycin-D completely abrogated the ability of AF to down-regulate HIF-1α mRNA, indicating that active transcription was required for the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. Finally, AF inhibited HIF-1α protein accumulation and the expression of HIF-1-target genes in MCF-7 xenografts. These results demonstrate that AF inhibits HIF-1α in an AhR-independent fashion and they unveil additional activities of AF that may be relevant for its further clinical development. PMID:20736373

  15. Reef core insights into mid-Holocene water temperatures of the southern Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, James; Webb, Gregory E.; Leonard, Nicole D.; Nothdurft, Luke D.; Clark, Tara R.

    2016-10-01

    The tropical and subtropical oceans of the Southern Hemisphere are poorly represented in present-day climate models, necessitating an increased number of paleoclimate records from this key region to both understand the Earth's climate system and help constrain model simulations. Here we present a site-specific calibration of live collected massive Porites Sr/Ca records against concomitant in situ instrumental water temperature data from the fore-reef slope of Heron Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The resultant calibration, and a previously published Acropora calibration from the same site, was applied to subfossil coral material to investigate Holocene water temperatures at Heron Reef. U-Th-dated samples of massive Porites suggest cooler water temperatures with reduced seasonal amplitude at 5.2 ka (2.76-1.31°C cooler than present) and 7 ka (1.26°C cooler than present) at Heron Reef. These results contrast the previous suggestion of a mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum in the central GBR around 5.35 ka and 4.48 ka, yet may be explained by differences in temperature of the shallow ponded reef flat (central GBR) and the deeper reef slope waters (this study) and potential large reservoir correction errors associated with early radiocarbon dates. Combining coral-based water temperature anomaly reconstructions from the tropical and subtropical western Pacific indicates a coherent temperature response across the meridional gradient from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea down to the southern GBR. This similarity in reconstructed temperature anomalies suggests a high probability of an earlier expression of a mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum on the GBR between 6.8 and 6.0 ka.

  16. Functional variants regulating LGALS1 (Galectin 1) expression affect human susceptibility to influenza A(H7N9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yu; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zhongshan; Yang, Shigui; Chu, Hin; Fan, Yanhui; Li, Cun; Wong, Bosco Ho-Yin; Zheng, Shufa; Zhu, Yixin; Yu, Fei; Wang, Yiyin; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hainv; Yu, Liang; Tang, Linglin; Cui, Dawei; Hao, Ke; Bosse, Yohan; Obeidat, Maen; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Song, You-Qiang; Kai-Wang, Kelvin; Sham, Pak Chung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    The fatality of avian influenza A(H7N9) infection in humans was over 30%. To identify human genetic susceptibility to A(H7N9) infection, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 102 A(H7N9) patients and 106 heavily-exposed healthy poultry workers, a sample size critically restri

  17. Functional variants regulating LGALS1 (Galectin 1) expression affect human susceptibility to influenza A(H7N9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yu; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zhongshan; Yang, Shigui; Chu, Hin; Fan, Yanhui; Li, Cun; Wong, Bosco Ho-Yin; Zheng, Shufa; Zhu, Yixin; Yu, Fei; Wang, Yiyin; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hainv; Yu, Liang; Tang, Linglin; Cui, Dawei; Hao, Ke; Bosse, Yohan; Obeidat, Maen; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Song, You-Qiang; Kai-Wang, Kelvin; Sham, Pak Chung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    The fatality of avian influenza A(H7N9) infection in humans was over 30%. To identify human genetic susceptibility to A(H7N9) infection, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 102 A(H7N9) patients and 106 heavily-exposed healthy poultry workers, a sample size critically restri

  18. AltiKa: a Ka-band Altimetry Payload and System for Operational Altimetry during the GMES Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Patrick; Steunou, Nathalie; Caubet, Eric; Phalippou, Laurent; Rey, Laurent; Thouvenot, Eric; Verron, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Ka-band altimetry payload and system that has been studied for several years by CNES, ALCATEL SPACE and some science laboratories. Altimetry is one of the major elements of the ocean observing system to be made sustainable through the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) and GMES (Global Monitoring of the Environment and Security) programs. A short review of some mission objectives to be fulfilled in terms of mesoscale oceanography in the frame of the GEOSS and GMES programs is performed. To answer the corresponding requirements, the approach consisting in a constellation of nadir altimeter is discussed. A coupled Ka-band altimeter-radiometer payload is then described; technical items are detailed to explain how this payload shall meet the science and operational requirements, and expected performances are displayed. The current status of the payload development and flight perspectives are given.

  19. AltiKa: a Ka-band Altimetry Payload and System for Operational Altimetry during the GMES Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Verron

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Ka-band altimetry payload and system that has beenstudied for several years by CNES, ALCATEL SPACE and some science laboratories.Altimetry is one of the major elements of the ocean observing system to be madesustainable through the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems and GMES(Global Monitoring of the Environment and Security programs. A short review of somemission objectives to be fulfilled in terms of mesoscale oceanography in the frame of theGEOSS and GMES programs is performed. To answer the corresponding requirements, theapproach consisting in a constellation of nadir altimeter is discussed. A coupled Ka-bandaltimeter-radiometer payload is then described; technical items are detailed to explain howthis payload shall meet the science and operational requirements, and expectedperformances are displayed. The current status of the payload development and flightperspectives are given.

  20. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A.; Passmore, Brandon Scott

    2017-07-11

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  1. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-04-28

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  2. Precise dating of East-Asian-Monsoon D/O events during 95―56 ka BP: Based on stalagmite data from Shanbao Cave at Shennongjia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA ZhiFeng; KONG XingGong; JIANG XiuYang; CHENG Hai

    2007-01-01

    Based on 23 U/Th analyses and 532 oxygen isotopic data, an averaged 80-a stalagmite oxygen isotopic composition series was established through 95 to 56 thousand years before present (ka BP) from two speleothems in Shanbao Cave, Shennongjia, central China. Shanbao Cave record (referred to as SB record) replicates well with Hulu Cave record, extending the characteristics of millennial oscillations in East-Asian-Summer-Monsoon (EASM) to the past 95 ka. The trend of the SB record generally follows mid-July solar insolation at 65°N, suggesting that mid-high northern latitude insolation, in the first order, controls changes of EASM intensity. Millennial oscillations of EASM recorded in the stalagmites are well related to the Greenland interstadials referred to as Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events from 1 to 22, indicating that rapid ocean-atmosphere reorganization in North Atlantic has a remote effect in EASM. The well-dated D/O events by stalagmites probably provide an absolute calibration for chronologies of Greenland ice cores. The timings of D/O events in the SB record are different variously from those in Greenland ice cores. For D/O 19 and 20, the age offsets between the stalagmites' and the Greenland ice cores' record are significant, larger than the uncertainties of uranium-series dating. The two events in the SB record are younger than those in North GRIP time scale by 1―2 ka, and older than the counterparts in GISP2 by approximately 3―4 ka. A comparison between the SB and Brazil stalagmite record shows an anti-phase relation in millennial-scale monsoon precipitation between the two localities. This supports a mode for the coupled ocean-atmosphere "See-saw".

  3. Precise dating of East-Asian-Monsoon D/O events during 95―56 ka BP: Based on stalagmite data from Shanbao Cave at Shennongjia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on 23 U/Th analyses and 532 oxygen isotopic data, an averaged 80-a stalagmite oxygen isotopic composition series was established through 95 to 56 thousand years before present (ka BP) from two speleothems in Shanbao Cave, Shennongjia, central China. Shanbao Cave record (referred to as SB record) replicates well with Hulu Cave record, extending the characteristics of millennial oscillations in East-Asian-Summer-Monsoon (EASM) to the past 95 ka. The trend of the SB record generally follows mid-July solar insolation at 65°N, suggesting that mid-high northern latitude insolation, in the first or- der, controls changes of EASM intensity. Millennial oscillations of EASM recorded in the stalagmites are well related to the Greenland interstadials referred to as Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events from 1 to 22, indicating that rapid ocean-atmosphere reorganization in North Atlantic has a remote effect in EASM. The well-dated D/O events by stalagmites probably provide an absolute calibration for chro- nologies of Greenland ice cores. The timings of D/O events in the SB record are different variously from those in Greenland ice cores. For D/O 19 and 20, the age offsets between the stalagmites’ and the Greenland ice cores’ record are significant, larger than the uncertainties of uranium-series dating. The two events in the SB record are younger than those in North GRIP time scale by 1―2 ka, and older than the counterparts in GISP2 by approximately 3―4 ka. A comparison between the SB and Brazil stalag- mite record shows an anti-phase relation in millennial-scale monsoon precipitation between the two localities. This supports a mode for the coupled ocean-atmosphere "See-saw".

  4. BALANCED SCORE CARD APPROACH FOR BETTER SHARI’AH CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Nu Nu Htay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic financial institutions have emerged due to the non-Shari’ah compliant nature of conventional financial from interest, uncertainty, gambling and prohibited activities from the Islamic perspective. In order to achieve the mission of Shari’ah compliance, organizations such as Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions, Islamic Financial Services Board and countries like Malaysia have provided Shari’ah governance guidelines. However, there are some court-cases regarding non-Shari’ah compliant issues and consequently, this has tarnished the reputation of the Islamic financial institutions. There is no guideline on Shari’ah performance measures available to find out to what extent Islamic financial institutions meet its mission. This study tries to fulfill the needs of the industry by providing the balanced score card for Shari’ah governance. This proposed score card is designed based on the concepts of accountability, responsibility, independence and competency of the Shari’ah board members. It suggests measures how any Islamic financial institutions discharge their fiduciary duty towards shareholders, depositors, participants of Islamic industry. The main drive towards Islamic financial institutions is to provide fair and just financial system free insurance, borrowers and society with the expectation of long-term success of the institutions within the Shari’ah framework. The proposed balanced score card is developed based on the opinions of 7 representatives from Islamic banks and 5 representatives from Takaful (Islamic Insurance Operators. It is expected that this score card can be used as a platform for improving the Shari’ah corporate governance of Islamic financial institutions.

  5. Novel influenza A(H1N1) 2009 in vitro reassortant viruses with oseltamivir resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Michèle; Duchamp, Maude Bouscambert; Casalegno, Jean-Sébastien; Frobert, Emilie; Moulès, Vincent; Ferraris, Olivier; Valette, Martine; Escuret, Vanessa; Lina, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    With the recent emergence of the novel A(H1N1) virus in 2009, the efficacy of available drugs, such as neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, is of great concern for good patient care. Influenza viruses are known to be able to acquire resistance. In 2007, A(H1N1) viruses related to A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) (A[H1N1] Brisbane-like virus), which are naturally resistant to oseltamivir, emerged. Resistance to oseltamivir can be acquired either by spontaneous mutation in the NA (H275Y in N1), or by reassortment with a mutated NA. It is therefore crucial to determine the risk of pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus acquiring resistance against oseltamivir by reassortment. We estimated the capacity of reassortment between the A(H1N1) 2009 virus and an oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1) Brisbane-like virus by in vitro coinfections of influenza-permissive cells. The screening and the analysis of reassortant viruses was performed by specific reverse transcriptase PCRs and by sequencing. Out of 50 analysed reassortant viruses, two harboured the haemagglutinin (HA) segment from the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus and the mutated NA originated from the A(H1N1) Brisbane-like virus. The replicating capacities of these viruses were measured, showing no difference as compared to the two parental strains, suggesting that acquisition of the mutated NA segment did not impair viral fitness in vitro. Our results suggest that the novel A(H1N1) 2009 virus can acquire by in vitro genetic reassortment the H275Y mutated NA segment conferring resistance to oseltamivir.

  6. Identification and analysis of novel flavonoid agonists and antagonists for the AH and estrogen receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, B.; Nagy, S.; Rogers, J.; Denison, M. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California, Davis (United States); Nantz, M.; Kurth, M.; Springsteel, M. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of California, Davis (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates many of the biological and toxicological effects in a diverse range of species, tissues, and cell types. The most studied effect is induction of gene expression, and, the majority of AhR responsive genes, such as cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), utilize AhR dependent mechanism of action. While halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the prototypical ligands of the Ah receptor, it has recently identified that the AhR is activated by a structurally diverse array of hydrophobic natural and synthetic chemicals. Given the structural diversity in AhR ligands, the physiochemical characteristics for high and low affinity ligands seems to be established. Environmental contaminants that can disrupt the endocrine homeostasis of an organism have also gained widespread attention in recent years and numerous chemicals have been identified as having either hormone or anti-hormone properties. However, like the AhR, the structural diversity and characteristics of endocrine disrupters that exert their action via nuclear receptors also seems to be depended on the estrogen receptor (ER). The flavonoids are a diverse family of chemicals commonly found in fruits and vegetables. Members of this family exert cytostatic, apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities. In addition, several flavonoids are potent modulators of both the expression and activities of specific cytochrome P450 genes/proteins and somel others have estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Accordingly flavonoids have attracted attention as possible chemoprotective or chemotherapeutic agents. We have previously developed and analyzed a novel chemical library of flavonoids which contained {proportional_to}200 compounds. The ability of these compounds to activate and/or inhibit AhR- and ER- dependent gene expression was examined by using our recently developed AhR- and ER

  7. Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a nationwide effort to survey waterfowl in areas of major concentration on their wintering grounds and provide winter distribution...

  8. [The formulation of the current management of patients with atypical hyperplasia (AH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchev, G; Milkov, V; Popov, I; Rachev, E

    1993-01-01

    The authors study is the receptor status of 16 patients with AH. The amount of ER and PR in patients with AH is compared to the amount of the same receptors in patients with highly differentiated adenocarcinoma. A progestin treatment is proposed for AH together with dynamic evaluation of the amount of ER and PR. In patients ER, PR, even if they have not complete their reproduction, hysterectomy is proposed. The cases ER+, PR+ are actively followed up. Every patients should undergo complex investigation and evaluation in which together with the receptor status extremely important is the routine biopsy.

  9. Kontroversi Produk Bank Sharî‘ah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rokhim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the views of Muslims on the nature and legitimacy of bank interest as far as Syari’ah law is concerned. Three views are presented here. First is the view of the neo-revivalists who argue that bank interest is legally illegitimate and that it is a form of riba. Second is the view of—among others—Fazlur Rahman who believes that bank interest is not riba. And third is the view that bank interest is in the state of legal doubtfulness (shubhat. We do not support particular view in this paper. But in principle it seems particularly legitimate to argue that Islam is a religion of social wellbeing in which any transaction should be free from such illegitimate practices as riba, gharar (cheating, and financial speculation. However, we also argue that bank interest is too complicated to be equated with riba. There are no accepted standards and qualifications by which the two can be said as the same. To this complex issue we dedicate our paper as a contribution to the issue at hand.

  10. Regional mid-Pleistocene glaciation in central Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Andrew S.; Cogez, Antoine; Darvill, Christopher M.; Mendelova, Monika; Kaplan, Michael R.; Herman, Frédéric; Dunai, Tibor J.; Norton, Kevin; Xu, Sheng; Christl, Marcus; Rodés, Ángel

    2017-05-01

    Southern South America contains a glacial geomorphological record that spans the past million years and has the potential to provide palaeoclimate information for several glacial periods in Earth's history. In central Patagonia, two major outlet glaciers of the former Patagonian Ice Sheet carved deep basins ∼50 km wide and extending over 100 km into the Andean plain east of the mountain front. A succession of nested glacial moraines offers the possibility of determining when the ice lobes advanced and whether such advances occurred synchronously. The existing chronology, which was obtained using different methods in each valley, indicates the penultimate moraines differ in age by a full glacial cycle. Here, we test this hypothesis further using a uniform methodology that combines cosmogenic nuclide ages from moraine boulders, moraine cobbles and outwash cobbles. 10Be concentrations in eighteen outwash cobbles from the Moreno outwash terrace in the Lago Buenos Aires valley yield surface exposure ages of 169-269 ka. We find 10Be inheritance is low and therefore use the oldest surface cobbles to date the deposit at 260-270 ka, which is indistinguishable from the age obtained in the neighbouring Lago Pueyrredón valley. This suggests a regionally significant glaciation during Marine Isotope Stage 8, and broad interhemispheric synchrony of glacial maxima during the mid to late Pleistocene. Finally, we find the dated outwash terrace is 70-100 ka older than the associated moraines. On the basis of geomorphological observations, we suggest this difference can be explained by exhumation of moraine boulders.

  11. Early and mid-Holocene age for the Tempanos moraines, Laguna San Rafael, Patagonian Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Stephan; Glasser, Neil F.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Jansson, Krister N.

    2012-01-01

    Data about the nature and timing of Holocene events from the Southern Hemisphere, especially in southern South America, are required to provide insight into the extent and nature of past climate change in a region where land-based records are restricted. Here we present the first use of single grain Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of a moraine sequence recording glacial advance along the western side of the Patagonian Icefields. Dates from the Tempanos moraines at Laguna San Rafael (LSR) show that the San Rafael Glacier (SRG) advanced to maximum Holocene positions during the period 9.3 to 9.7 ka and at 5.7 ka. Outwash lying beneath the moraine in its northern portion, dated to 7.7 ka, indicates that the glacier front was also advanced at this time. Since these advances span both the regional early Holocene warm-dry phase (11.5 ka to 7.8 ka) and the subsequent cooling and rise in precipitation in the mid-late Holocene (since 6.6 ka) we infer that the advances of the SRG are not simply climate-driven, but that the glacier has also probably responded strongly to non-climatic stimuli such as internal ice dynamics and the transition between calving and non-calving. Many westwards-flowing glaciers in Patagonia were probably calving during much of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, so we conclude that establishing robust glacial chronologies where climatic and non-climatic factors cannot be distinguished is likely to remain a challenge.

  12. Functional Spectral Analysis of Paleoclimatic Evolution in Lanzhou Area over the Last 15 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂芳; 殷鸿福; 李长安; 陈中原

    2003-01-01

    In this paper,we make use of the functional spectral analysis to infer the periodicity of paleoclimate in the Hongzuisi section since about 15 ka. Through combined analysis of organic carbon isotope and CaCO3 content,the law of paleoclimatic evolution of the Hongzuisi section is obtained. There were climatic changes from 10 ka to about 0.1 ka over the last 15 ka. Among these cycles,the cycle of several ka is most remarkable. The result indicates that functional spectral analysis is helpful for paleoclimatic study,which can provide useful information about paleoclimatic reconstruction and future forecast.

  13. High speed transfer switch with 50 kA and 50 kV ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reass, W. A.; Kasik, R. J.; Wilds, W. A.

    This paper gives the mechanical design and electrical parameters of a pneumatically operated transfer switch. This design is used to switch 3-second 50-kA current pulses, and is easily capable of 75 kA operation, with water-cooled versions capable of 20 kA continuously. Although the switch is not specifically designed to make or break 50 kA, it is provided with auxiliary Elkonite arcing contacts that have proven their value in protecting the main electrodes even under repetitive (50 kA) fault conditions. Included in this presentation will be the results of extensive life testing and associated criteria.

  14. Cloning and Characterization of AhFT in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea)%花生 AhFT 基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛姗姗; 唐桂英; 陈霞霞; 付旭; 柳展基; 毕玉平

    2014-01-01

    FT (Flowering Locus T ) encoding florigens plays important roles in the control of the transi-tion between vegetative and reproductive growth and promoting flowering.In this study, a cDNA encoding the FT homologue was isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea ) by RT-PCR and named as AhFT . Sequence analysis indicated that the cDNA of AhFT was 893 bp long and contained a single open reading frame with 534 bp in length.The predicted AhFT protein has 177 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 19.95 kD and an isoelectric point of 6.9.Phylogenetic analysis showed AhFT belonged to the FT-like subfamily.These results indicate AhFT may play important roles in flowering.%FT (Flowering Locus T )作为“成花素”在成花转变及促进开花上起重要作用。本研究利用分子克隆和 RT-PCR 方法,从花生中克隆了一个与 FT 同源的 cDNA 序列,命名为 AhFT,该序列长度为893 bp,开放阅读框长度为534 bp,推测编码蛋白含有177个氨基酸,分子量为19.95 kD,等电点为6.9。通过与其他植物 PEBP 蛋白序列的比对,发现花生 FT 基因属于 FT-Like 家族,可能在控制植物开花中起重要作用。

  15. Development prospects of Niška Banja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Vidoje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic thinking is the base of every development and the favorite entries in theory and management practices. In tourist complex that has a special meaning because of the sole complexity of the phenomenon itself. In this sense, many of the methods of strategic management and tourism development in various areas in Serbia, SWOT analysis is one of the most reliable. For this, Niška Banja is a true challenge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179013: Sustainable identity of Serbs and minorities living in border areas of East and South-east Serbia

  16. Miroljubivi uspon – nova kineska vanjskopolitička teorija

    OpenAIRE

    Baković, Ozren

    2004-01-01

    Kao izraz težnje za osuvremenjivanjem kineske vanjske politike u promijenjenim globalnim uvjetima na početku 21. stoljeća, pojavila se nova službena kineska vanjskopolitička teorija – teorija “miroljubivog uspona”. Nakon što je naviše kinesko rukovodstvo usvojilo teoriju, ona se sad nastoji objasniti međunarodnoj javnosti. Osnovna je postavka teorije “miroljubivog uspona” da snažan dugoročni rast kineskoga gospodarstva i afirmacija Kine u međunarodnim odnosima nije ni regionalna ni globalna p...

  17. Veretu retrobuum : [ka TPÜ AR kohvikust] / Allan Hmelnitski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hmelnitski, Allan

    2004-01-01

    "Ka mina eelistan kõigi söögikohtade seast Teaduste Akadeemia puhvetit, mis on 100% breezhnevi aegne disain - kunstnahast lett, ümmargused madalad lauad, pikk-pikk nahkdiivan, kurgid ja tomatid mis maitsevad hästi ja tugevalt, täpselt nagu aastal 85, hallides ülikondades vanemad härrad vestlemas põlevkivist ja paeklindi ajaloost. Vot see on tõeline petlik naiivsus, turvalisus, rahu, muretus ja stabiilsus nagu aastal 76 ema süles."

  18. Lapsed pole ainult tulevik, nad on ka olevik / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 13. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 13. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 13. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 16. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 16. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Koit,16. nov. 2004, lk. 6; Vali Uudised, 17. nov. 2004, lk. 2. Valitsusliidu toel hääletati menetlusest välja eelnõu, mille eesmärk oli parandada kolme ja enama lapsega pere igapäeva toimetulekut, samuti üksikvanemate olukorda. Autor kritiseerib valitsuse sotsiaalkindlustuspoliitikat

  19. Politička ekonomija – ekonomija – politologija

    OpenAIRE

    Strpić, Dag

    2001-01-01

    Od 17. do 19. stoljeća politička ekonomija je prošla put od posebne društvene/ moralne znanosti do sinonima liberalne verzije cjeline političko-kameralnih ili državnih znanosti. Na prijelomu u 20. stoljeće, uspostavljanjem samostalne ekonomske znanosti i užim profiliranjem političkih znanosti, ona se počela marginalizirati (osim u naglašeno ideologiziranoj “marksističko-lenjinističkoj” verziji, gdje joj je nakon prvotne Staljinove anateme kasnije zadan centralni položaj). A u politologiji/pol...

  20. Deriving and Interpreting Ka(karimusubi in Premodern Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno MITROVIĆ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new syntax and semantics for kakarimusubi (KM, a focus construction prominent in the grammar of Old Japanese (OJ and Early Middle (Classical Japanese (CJ, which diachronically developed into the interrogative construction in Modern Japanese (MdJ headed by the ka particle. Adopting Chierchia & Caponigro’s (2013 novel analysis of Free Relatives (FRs as embedded interrogatives, an FR-based analysis of KM is proposed so as to obtain a compositional semantic analysis of this focus construction as well as an account of the adnominal marking of the presuppositional musubi component of this grammatical construction.

  1. Design of High Power Density Amplifiers: Application to Ka Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Davide; Leggieri, Alberto; Di Paolo, Franco; Bartocci, Marco; Tafuto, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Recent developments in the design of high-power-high-frequency amplifiers are assessed in this paper by the analysis and measurements of a high power density amplifier operating in the Ka Band. Design procedure is presented and a technical investigation is reported. The proposed device has shown over 23% of useful frequency bandwidth. It is an ensemble of 16 monolithic solid state power amplifiers that employees mixed technologies as spatial and planar combiners. Test performed have given maximum delivered power of 47.2 dBm.

  2. Ka- and W-band PM-HFET DRO's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, J.; Guettich, U.

    1993-06-01

    Dielectric resonator stabilized oscillators have been designed, fabricated, and investigated. The oscillators consist of microstrip matching and biasing circuits on alumina substrate, a dielectric resonator puck, and a low-noise quarter-micron InGaAs-GaAs pseudomorphic (PM) HFET as the active device. At 37 GHz and 81 GHz, output powers of 10 dBm and 0 dBm have been measured. The phase noise of the Ka-band and W-band oscillators has been determined to be -97 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz and -90 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz off carrier, respectively.

  3. Veretu retrobuum : [ka TPÜ AR kohvikust] / Allan Hmelnitski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hmelnitski, Allan

    2004-01-01

    "Ka mina eelistan kõigi söögikohtade seast Teaduste Akadeemia puhvetit, mis on 100% breezhnevi aegne disain - kunstnahast lett, ümmargused madalad lauad, pikk-pikk nahkdiivan, kurgid ja tomatid mis maitsevad hästi ja tugevalt, täpselt nagu aastal 85, hallides ülikondades vanemad härrad vestlemas põlevkivist ja paeklindi ajaloost. Vot see on tõeline petlik naiivsus, turvalisus, rahu, muretus ja stabiilsus nagu aastal 76 ema süles."

  4. Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-03-06

    The Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) is a zenith-pointing Doppler cloud radar operating at approximately 35 GHz. The KAZR is an evolutionary follow-on radar to ARM's widely successful millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR). The main purpose of the KAZR is to provide vertical profiles of clouds by measuring the first three Doppler moments: reflectivity, radial Doppler velocity, and spectra width. At the sites where the dual-polarization measurements are made, the Doppler moments for the cross-polarization channel are also available. In addition to the moments, velocity spectra are also continuously recorded for each range gate.

  5. Identification and expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) provide insight in an evolutionary context regarding sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Sturgeons are ancient fishes, which are endangered in many parts of the world. Due to their benthic nature and longevity, sturgeon are at great risk of exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Despite their endangered status, little research has been conducted to characterize the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs. Proper assessment of risk of DLCs posed to these fishes therefore, requires a better understanding of this sensitivity and the factors that are driving it. Adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study identified and characterized two distinct AhRs, AhR1 and AhR2, in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for the first time as a first step in studying the relative sensitivities of sturgeons to DLCs. Furthermore, tissue-specific expression of both AhRs under basal conditions and in response to exposure to the model DLC, β-naphthoflavone (βNF), was determined. The sequence of amino acids of AhR1 of white sturgeon had greater similarity to AhRs of tetrapods, including amphibians, birds, and mammals, than to AhR1s of other fishes. The sequence of amino acids in the ligand binding domain of the AhR1 had greater than 80% similarity to AhRs known to bind DLCs and was less similar to AhRs not known to bind DLCs. AhR2 of white sturgeon had greatest similarity to AhR2 of other fishes. Profiles of expression of AhR1 and AhR2 in white sturgeon were distinct from those known in other fishes and appear more similar to profiles observed in birds. Expressions of both AhR1 and AhR2 of white sturgeon were greatest in liver and heart, which are target organs for DLCs. Furthermore, abundances of transcripts of AhR1 and AhR2 in all tissues from white sturgeon were greater than controls (up to 35-fold) following exposure to βNF. Based upon both AhRs having similar abundances of transcript in target organs of DLC toxicity, both AhRs being up-regulated following

  6. AHS and CASI Processing for the REFLEX Remote Sensing Campaign: Methods and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Eduardo de

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The airborne spectroradiometers AHS and CASI were used as a source of hyperspectral and thermal remote sensing data during the REFLEX campaign. Data geolocation and a first simple atmospheric correction was performed by INTA in near-real time with a specific on-site setup and distributed to all campaign participants. In this paper we present briefly the AHS and CASI REFLEX flight campaign followed by a detailed description of the methodology used for image processing and finally the results obtained in terms of image quality. As a conclusion, near-real time processing for AHS and CASI level 1 geolocated products was successful as most of CASI level 2 results but further work is needed for achieving accurate AHS level 2 products.

  7. Comparative Resistance of AH26 and a New Sealer Prototype to a Bacterial Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Duggan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study compared the leakage resistance of a New Sealer Prototype (NSP with a traditional sealer (AH 26 in Resilon-filled roots subjected to a bacterial challenge. Study Design. 41 roots were instrumented to ISO size 50 apically. Group 1 (=20 contained Resilon and AH 26 sealer and roots in group 2 (=21 contained Resilon and NSP. Roots were embedded in a dual-chamber model with the upper chamber containing Streptococcus mutans inoculum. Evidence of bacterial penetration was observed for 1 month. Fisher's Test was used to analyze the data. Results. 8 of 20 roots (40% in the AH 26 group demonstrated leakage whereas 3 of 21 roots (14% in the NSP group leaked. The difference in leakage rates was not statistically significant (=0.053. Conclusion. The traditional sealer (AH 26 demonstrated increased leakage rates compared to the New Sealer Prototype (NSP, but the difference did not reach statistical significance in this study.

  8. Comparison of Portfolio Selection and Performance: Shari’ah-Compliant and Socially Responsible Investment Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Asutay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of Islamic screening criteria on Shari’ah-compliant portfolio selection and performance compared to Socially Responsible Investment (SRI portfolio. Each portfolio constructed from 15 stocks based on FTSE 100 using data from year 1997. Mean-variance portfolio optimization is employed with some financial ratios added as constraints for the Shari’ah portfolio. Annual expected return of each portfolio from 2008 to 2013 is used to calculate Sharpe’s ratio, Treynor ratio and Jensen’s alpha as the performance measurement tools. Macroeconomic variables are assessed using ordinary least square to examine whether they influence the portfolios’ expected returns or not. The result finds that Shari’ah portfolio has a better performance than SRI from year 2008 to 2010 shown by higher value of the measurement tools. However, from 2011 to 2013, SRI portfolio has better performance than Shari’ah portfolio. 

  9. Intense Seasonal A/H1N1 Influenza in Mexico, Winter 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; Chowell, Gerardo; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H.; Viboud, Cécile; Grajalez-Muñiz, Concepción; Miller, Mark. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A recrudescent wave of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 affected Mexico during the winter of 2013–2014 following a mild 2012–2013 A/H3N2 influenza season. Methods We compared the demographic and geographic characteristics of hospitalizations and inpatient deaths for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2013–2014 influenza season compared to previous influenza seasons, based on a large prospective surveillance system maintained by the Mexican Social Security health care system. Results A total of 14,236 SARI hospitalizations and 1,163 inpatient deaths (8.2%) were reported between October 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014. Rates of laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 hospitalizations and deaths were significantly higher among individuals aged 30–59 years and lower among younger age groups for the 2013–2014 A/H1N1 season compared to the previous A/H1N1 season in 2011–2012 (χ2 test, p <0.001). The reproduction number for the winter 2013–2014 influenza season in central Mexico was estimated at 1.3–1.4, in line with that reported for the 2011–2012 A/H1N1 season but lower than during the initial waves of pandemic A/H1N1 activity in 2009. Conclusions We documented a substantial increase in the number of A/H1N1-related hospitalizations and deaths during the period from October 2013–March 2014 in Mexico and a proportionate shift of severe disease to middle-aged adults, relative to the preceding A/H1N1 2011–2012 season. In the absence of clear antigenic drift in globally circulating A/H1N1 viruses in the post-2009 pandemic period, the gradual change in the age distribution of A/H1N1 infections observed in Mexico suggests a slow build-up of immunity among younger populations, reminiscent of the age profile of past pandemics. PMID:25446616

  10. Mid-late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda, southern West Siberia: vegetation, climate and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Nourgaliev, Danis; Palagushkina, Olga; Papin, Dmitry; Frolova, Larisa

    2012-08-01

    An environmental reconstruction of mid-late Holocene vegetation, climate and lake dynamics was inferred from pollen and diatom records of Lake Big Yarovoe in Kulunda, southern West Siberia. The reconstruction suggests a general prevalence of steppe during the last 4.4 ka. Under a relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.4 and 3.75 ka BP. The largest development of conifer forest started in Kulunda after 3.75 ka BP. The onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by the dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in the lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominant in Kulunda, along with a sharp reduction of conifers. These results are in agreement with the general pattern of the Holocene environmental history of the surrounding areas, including the Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. The penetration of coniferous forest into the Kulunda steppe after 3.75 ka BP was related to its geographical location northwest of the Altai Mountains. The economic activities of the ancient population of Kulunda depended on the environmental changes during the Holocene.

  11. Influenza A(H3N2) Outbreak at Transit Center at Manas, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) December 2013-February 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Influenza A(H3N2) Outbreak at Transit Center at Manas...support in response to a moderate outbreak of influenza at the Transit Center at Manas (Kyrgyzstan). A total of 215 individuals presented with... influenza -like illness symptoms from 3 December 2013 through 28 February 2014. There were 85 specimens positive for influenza (18 influenza A(H1N1

  12. Children hospitalized with influenza pneumonia AH1N1/2009 pandemic in the INSN

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Choque, Edwin; Servicio de Infectología, Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. Lima, Perú. Médico Infectólogo.; Ramírez, Carlos; Servicio de Infectología, Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. Lima, Perú. Médico Infectólogo.; Candela-Herrera, Jorge; Servicio de Infectología, Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. Lima, Perú. Médico Pediatra.; Díaz, Javier; Servicio de Infectología, Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. Lima, Perú. Médico Pediatra.; Fernández, Ana; Servicio de Infectología, Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. Lima, Perú. Médico Pediatra.; Kolevic, Lenka; Servicio de Infectología, Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. Lima, Perú. Médico Pediatra.; Segura, Eddy R.; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Escuela de Medicina, Univesidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas. Lima, Perú. Médico Epidemiólogo Clínico.; Farfán-Ramos, Sonia; Hospital de Emergencias Pediátricas. Lima, Perú. Enfermera, especialista en Enfermería Pediátrica, Magister en Salud Pública y Comunitaria, Magister en Administración de Salud.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of pneumonia with influenza virus AH1N1/2009 pandemic at the National Institute of Child. Methods. Retrospective case series in children hospitalized for influenza pneumonia pandemic AH1N1/2009 in a pediatric hospital. Reviewed the medical records between the months of June to September 2009. All cases had virological confirmation, we describe the clinical characteristics and conditions of severity. Results. A total of 74 ...

  13. Altered adrenergic response and specificity of the receptors in rat ascites hepatoma AH130.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanae, F; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R

    1989-11-15

    Adenylate cyclase activation through adrenergic receptors in rat ascites hepatoma (AH) 130 cells in response to adrenergic drugs was studied, and receptor binding and displacement were compared with those of normal rat hepatocytes. Epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) activated AH130 adenylate cyclase about half as much as isoproterenol (IPN) but equaled IPN after treatment with the alpha-antagonist phentolamine or islet-activating protein (IAP). The three catecholamines in hepatocytes were similar regardless of phentolamine or IAP. These catecholamines activated adenylate cyclase in order of IPN greater than NE greater than Epi in AH130 cells but IPN greater than Epi greater than NE in hepatocytes. We then used the alpha 1-selective ligand [3H]prazosin, the alpha 2-selective ligand [3H]clonidine, and the beta-ligand [125I]iodocyanopindolol [( 125I]ICYP), and found that AH130 cells had few prazosin-binding sites, about eight times as many clonidine-binding sites with high affinity, and many more ICYP-binding sites than in hepatocytes. The dissociation constant (Ki) of the beta 1-selective drug metoprolol by Hofstee plots for AH130 cells was lower than that for hepatocytes. The inhibition of specific ICYP binding by the beta 2-selective agonist salbutamol for AH130 cells gave only one Ki value which was much higher than both high and low Ki values of the drug for hepatocytes. These findings indicate that the alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in hepatocytes are predominantly alpha 1-type and beta 2-type, but that those in AH130 cells are predominantly alpha 2-type and beta 1-type, and the low adrenergic response of AH130 cells is due to the dominant appearance of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, linked with the inhibitory guanine-nucleotide binding regulatory protein, instead of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, and beta 1-adrenergic receptors with low affinity for the hormone.

  14. Coactivator Recruitment of AhR/ARNT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Endler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of nuclear receptors (NRs is the transformation of external cell signals into specific transcriptions of the signal molecule. Signal molecules function as ligands for NRs and, after their uptake, activated NRs form homo- or heterodimers at promoter recognition sequences of the specific genes in the nucleus. Another common feature of NRs is their dependence on coactivators, which bridge the basic transcriptional machinery and other cofactors to the target genes, in order to initiate transcription and to unwind histone-bound DNA for exposing additional promoter recognition sites via their histone acetyltransferase (HAT function. In this review, we focus on our recent findings related to the recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1/NCoA1 by the estrogen receptor-α (ERα and by the arylhydrocarbon receptor/arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 1 (AhR/ARNT1 complex. We also describe the extension of our previously published findings regarding the binding between ARNT1.1 exon16 and SRC1e exon 21, via in silico analyses of androgen receptor (AR NH2-carboxyl-terminal interactions, the results of which were verified by in vitro experiments. Based on these data, we suggest a newly derived tentative binding site of nuclear coactivator 2/glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein-1/transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (NCOA-2/ GRIP-1/TIF-2 for ARNT1.1 exon 16. Furthermore, results obtained by immunoprecipitation have revealed a second leucine-rich binding site for hARNT1.1 exon 16 in SRC1e exon 21 (LSSTDLL. Finally, we discuss the role of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD as an endocrine disruptor for estrogen related transcription.

  15. Generation of (F+2)_AH Centres in Sodium Ion Doped KCl:CO^{2-3}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaf, M.; Chihi, I.; Hamaïdia, A.; Akrmi, El.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that (F+2)AH centres of KCl may be obtained from crystals doped with K{2}CO{3} and NaCl, grown by the Czochralski method in open atmosphere. The optical properties of (F+2)AH centres thus produced are exactly the same as those of (F+2)AH centres prepared by the usual technique, which involves superoxide doping and a controlled atmosphere. Nous montrons que les centres (F+2)AH de KCl peuvent être obtenus à partir de cristaux dopés par K{2}CO{3} et NaCl, fabriqués par la méthode de Czochralski à l'air libre. Les propriétés optiques des centres (F+2)AH ainsi produits sont exactement les mêmes que celles des centres (F+2)AH préparés par la technique habituelle, qui comporte le dopage par un superoxyde et l'emploi d'une atmosphère contrôlée.

  16. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, H.; Koenig, T.

    2010-04-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard "IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)" [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  17. The KaVA and KVN Pulsar Project

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson, Richard; Sohn, Bongwon; Rioja, Mar\\'\\ia J; Jung, Taehyun; Seymour, Andrew; Raja, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    We present our work towards using the Korean VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometer) Network (KVN) and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astronomy (VERA) arrays combined into the KVN and VERA Array (KaVA) for observations of radio pulsars at high frequencies ($\\simeq$22-GHz). Pulsar astronomy is generally focused at frequencies approximately 0.3 to several GHz and pulsars are usually discovered and monitored with large, single-dish, radio telescopes. For most pulsars, reduced radio flux is expected at high frequencies due to their steep spectrum, but there are exceptions where high frequency observations can be useful. Moreover, some pulsars are observable at high frequencies only, such as those close to the Galactic Center. The discoveries of a radio-bright magnetar and a few dozen extended Chandra sources within 15 arc-minute of the Galactic Center provide strong motivations to make use of the KaVA frequency band for searching pulsars in this region. Here, we describe the science targets and report progresses made...

  18. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, H; Koenig, T, E-mail: holger.marten@kit.ed, E-mail: tobias.koenig@kit.ed [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Steinbuch Centre for Computing Herman-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard 'IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)' [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  19. Stability measurements on the 50 kA SMES conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfotenhauer, M. J.

    Stability measurements have been made on a large aluminium stabilized conductor designed for use in a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) coil. The conductor has been built to carry 50 kA at 1.8 K and in 4.6 T field. It consists of a 25.4 mm diameter, high purity aluminium stabilizer with eight superconducting strands of 2.8 mm diameter each, composed of 60% Cu, 40% NbTi. The strands are set in eight helical grooves, evenly spaced around the outer diameter of the aluminium. The conductor is designed for use in full scale SMES units and has been tested in the 1 m diameter, three-turn test coil of the University of Wisconsin proof of principle experiment (POPE). The POPE facility includes the test coil, a 4 T background magnet, a dewar for a 1.8 K, 1 atm environment and a 100 kA d.c. power supply. Test results demonstrate good agreement with a new dynamic stability model. The balance of time-dependent heat generation during current diffusion and time-dependent cooling to the helium produces three new features of stability: 1, a threshold current for propagation; 2, large propagation velocities; and 3, a finite length travelling normal zone. POPE measurements verify all three features of the dynamic stability model.

  20. Review: Bilirubin pKa studies; new models and theories indicate high pKa values in water, dimethylformamide and DMSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrow J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct aqueous pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, a poorly-soluble, unstable substance, are essential for understanding its functions. Our prior solvent partition studies, of unlabeled and [14C] UCB, indicated pKa values above 8.0. These high values were attributed to effects of internal H-bonding in UCB. Many earlier and subsequent studies have reported lower pKa values, some even below 5.0, which are often used to describe the behavior of UCB. We here review 18 published studies that assessed aqueous pKa values of UCB, critically evaluating their methodologies in relation to essential preconditions for valid pKa measurements (short-duration experiments with purified UCB below saturation and accounting for self-association of UCB. Results These re-assessments identified major deficiencies that invalidate the results of all but our partition studies. New theoretical modeling of UCB titrations shows remarkable, unexpected effects of self-association, yielding falsely low pKa estimates, and provides some rationalization of the titration anomalies. The titration behavior reported for a soluble thioether conjugate of UCB at high aqueous concentrations is shown to be highly anomalous. Theoretical re-interpretations of data in DMSO and dimethylformamide show that those indirectly-derived aqueous pKa values are unacceptable, and indicate new, high average pKa values for UCB in non-aqueous media (>11 in DMSO and, probably, >10 in dimethylformamide. Conclusions No reliable aqueous pKa values of UCB are available for comparison with our partition-derived results. A companion paper shows that only the high pKa values can explain the pH-dependence of UCB binding to phospholipids, cyclodextrins, and alkyl-glycoside and bile salt micelles.

  1. Mid-Holocene Climate Variations Recorded by Palaeolake in Marginal Area of East Asian Monsoon: A Multi-proxy Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, the mid-Holocene in most parts of China was thought to be warmer with higher precipitation,resulting from a strong Asian summer monsoon. However, some recent researches have proposed a mid-Holocene drought interval of millennial-scale in East Asian monsoon margin areas. Thus whether mid-Holocene was dry or humid remains an open issue. Here, Zhuyeze palaeolake, the terminal lake of the Shiyang River Drainage lying in Asian monsoon marginal areas, was selected for reconstructing the details of climate variations during the Holocene, especially mid-Holocene,on the basis ora sedimentological analysis. Qingtu Lake (QTL) section of 6.92m depth was taken from Zhuyeze palaeolake. Multi-proxy analysis of QTL section, including grain size, carbonate, TOC, C/N and δ13C of organic matter, was used to document regional climatic changes during 9-3 cal ka B.P. The record shows a major environmental change at 9.0-7.8 cal ka B.P., attributed to a climate trend towards warmth and humidity. This event was followed by a typical regional drought event which occurred during 7.8-7.5 cal ka B.P. And a warm and humid climate prevailed from 7.5 to 5.0 cal ka B.P., attributed to the warm/humid Holocene Optimum in this region. After that, the climate gradually became drier.Moreover, comparison of the climate record from this paper with the summer insolation at 30°N indicates that the climate pattern reflecting the Asian monsoon changes was caused by insolation change.

  2. Lake-expanding events in the Tibetan Plateau since 40 kaBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉连; 施雅风; 王苏民; 蒋雪中; 李世杰; 王爱军; 李徐生

    2001-01-01

    Since 40 kaBP, the current endorheism on the Tibetan Plateau had experienced at least four lake-expanding events, at 40-28 kaBP, 19-15 kaBP, 13-11 kaBP, 9.0-5.0 kaBP, respectively. The 40-28 kaBP and 9.0-5.0 kaBP lake-expanding events, corresponding to the global warming periods, were mainly determined by the abundant summer monsoon rainfall brought by strong Indian monsoon, aroused by enhanced solar radiation at earth orbital precessional cycle. The 40-28 kaBP lake-expanding event, also called the great lake period or the pan-lake period, for several great lake groups had come into being by the interconnection of the presently isolated and closed lake catchments. The total lake area over the Tibetan Plateau was estimated at least up to 150000 km2, 3.8 times of the present, and the lake supply coefficients were about 3-10. The 9.0-5.0 kaBP lake-expanding, with a total lake area of 68000 km2, less than the above mentioned reflected the Indian monsoon rainfall less than that of 40-28 kaBP. The expanded lak

  3. [Deployment of a mobile RT-PCR laboratory molecular biology to deal with the A(H1N1) challenge in Kaboul].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, J; Ducher, P; Fourel, D; Causse Le Dorze, P

    2010-11-01

    Since October 2009, the fear of swine flu spread in Afghanistan and severe cases were observed among NATO soldiers. Two patients were hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit. To face this new challenge, the French Health Service decided the deployment of a mobile RT-PCR laboratory molecular biology in the Kabul International Military Hospital. We describe the implementation of the mobile RT-PCR laboratory for the diagnosis of A(H1N1). The analysis of the first nasopharyngeal samples confirmed the presence of this virus in Afghanistan. The peak of positive cases was observed in mid-November 2009, and some cluster cases were observed among units deployed on the field.

  4. Forest Bird Distribution, Density and Trends in the Ka'u Region of Hawai'i Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate and current measure of population status and trend is necessary for conservation and management efforts. Scott and Kepler (1985) provided a comprehensive review of the status of native Hawaiian birds based on the extensive Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (HFBS) of the main islands (Scott et al. 1986). At that time, they documented declining populations and decreasing ranges for most species, and the extinction of several species over the previous 50 years. Many native bird species continue to decline throughout Hawai`i (Camp et al. In review, Gorresen et al. In prep.). The focus of this study is the mid-to-high elevation rainforest on the southeast windward slopes of Mauna Loa Volcano (Figure 1). Known as Ka`u, the region encompasses forest lands protected by Kamehameha Schools, The Nature Conservancy, Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HVNP), and the State of Hawai'i's Ka`u Forest Reserve, Kapapala Forest Reserve and Kapapala Cooperative Game Management Area,. Together these lands support one of three main concentrations of native forest birds on the Hawai`i Island (the other two being centered on the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge and Kulani-Keauhou area in the north and central windward part of the island, respectively.) Because this region harbors important populations of native and endangered forest birds in some of the best remaining forest habitat on the island, it has been a focus of forest bird surveys since the 1970s. The Ka`u region was first quantitatively surveyed in 1976 by the Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (Scott et al. 1986). Surveys were conducted by State of Hawai`i Division of Forestry and Wildlife in 1993 and 2002 and by the U.S. National Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey in 2004 and 2005. In this report, we present analyses of the density, distribution and trends of native and introduced forest bird within the Ka`u region of Hawai`i Island. The analyses cover only those species with sufficient detections to model detection

  5. Mid- to late Holocene Indian Ocean Monsoon variability recorded in four speleothems from Socotra Island, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rampelbergh, Maïté; Fleitmann, Dominik; Verheyden, Sophie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, Lawrence; De Geest, Peter; De Vleeschouwer, David; Burns, Stephen J.; Matter, Albert; Claeys, Philippe; Keppens, Eddy

    2013-04-01

    Four stalagmites covering the last 7.0 ka were sampled on Socotra, an island in the northern Indian Ocean to investigate the evolution of the northeast Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) since the mid Holocene. On Socotra, rain is delivered at the start of the southwest IOM in May-June and at the start of the northeast IOM from September to December. The Haggeher Mountains act as a barrier forcing precipitation brought by the northeast winds to fall preferentially on the eastern side of the island, where the studied caves are located. δ18O and δ13C and Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca signals in the stalagmites reflect precipitation amounts brought by the northeast winds. For stalagmite STM6, this amount effect is amplified by kinetic effects during calcite deposition. Combined interpretation of the stalagmites' signals suggest a weakening of the northeast precipitation between 6.0 and 3.8 ka. After 3.8 ka precipitation intensities remain constant with two superimposed drier periods, between 0 and 0.6 ka and from 2.2 to 3.8 ka. No link can be established with Greenland ice cores and with the summer IOM variability. In contrast to the stable northeast rainy season suggested by the records in this study, speleothem records from western Socotra indicate a wettening of the southwest rainy season on Socotra after 4.4 ka. The local wettening of western Socotra could relate to a more southerly path (more over the Indian Ocean) taken by the southwest winds. Stalagmite STM5, sampled at the fringe between both rain areas displays intermediate δ18O values. After 6.2 ka, similar precipitation changes are seen between eastern Socotra and northern Oman indicating that both regions are affected similarly by the monsoon. Different palaeoclimatologic records from the Arabian Peninsula currently located outside the ITCZ migration pathway display an abrupt drying around 6 ka due to their disconnection from the southwest rain influence. Records that are nowadays still receiving rain by the southwest winds

  6. The Mid-Pleistocene Transition and the Vostok Oldest Ice Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ya. Lipenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine records indicate a dramatic change in the predominant periodicity of climate variability, from about 40 ka to about 100 ka around one million years ago. The reason for this major climatic shift, which is called the Mid-Pleistocene Transition or MPT, remains unknown – and is of great interest to the climate scientist. Could the core of the oldest meteoric ice bedded at Vostok between 3310 and 3539 m, which has experienced severe deformation, nevertheless be useful in deciphering some of the aspects of the MPT enigma? Reflecting upon this question and considering the available data from the disturbed section of the ice core, we feel impelled to propose a new project focused on the oldest Vostok meteoric ice, which could be named the Vostok Oldest Ice Challenge or VOICE.

  7. Ah Q Zheng Zhuan's Retranslation Viewed From the Translator'Skopos%Ah Q Zheng Zhuan's Retranslation Viewed From the Translator' Skopos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕丽梅

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to do researches into retranslation of literary works from the perspective of Skopos theory, taking three English versions of Ah Q Zheng Zhuan as research objects. Studying retranslation of literary works from the perspective of Skopos theory is persuasive and can help to recognize the phenomenon of literary retranslation comprehensively and deeply to some extent.

  8. Wetlands sediment record from the upper Yarlung Tsangpo valley, southwest Tibetan Plateau, reveals mid-Holocene Epipaleolithic human occupation coincident with increased early and mid-Holocene wetness driven by enhanced Indian Monsoon rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, A. M.; Olsen, J. W.; Quade, J.; Lei, G.; Huth, T.; Zhang, H.; Perreault, C.

    2016-12-01

    The headwaters of the Yarlung Tsangpo river valley, located in the southwestern Tibetan Plateau, are characterized by a cold and dry climate, but contain abundant river-marginal wetlands environments, which fluctuate in extent in response to changes in local water table elevation. This region receives 80% of precipitation from the Indian Monsoon, which forms the dominant control on moisture availability, and hence wetlands extent. Our paleowetlands record, based on 14C dating of organic-rich paleowetlands deposits, provides a novel record of Holocene monsoon intensity. The wetlands deposits consist of four sedimentary units that indicate decreasing wetlands extent and monsoon intensity since 10.4 ka BP. Wet conditions occurred at ˜10.4 ka BP, ˜9.6 ka BP and ˜7.9-4.8 ka BP, with similar-to-modern conditions from ˜4.6-2.0 ka BP, and drier-than-modern conditions from ˜2.0 ka BP to present. Wetland changes correlate with monsoon intensity changes identified in nearby records, with weak monsoon intervals corresponding to desiccation and erosion of wetlands deposits. Dating of in situ ceramic and microlithic artifacts in wetlands sediments at multiple sites indicates Epipaleolithic human occupation of the YT valley after 6.6 ka BP. Artifact typology study reveals a similar microlithic technology was employed across the high plateau interior, but XRF obsidian provenance reveals separate northeast and southwest lithic conveyance zones. This indicates widespread colonization of the high, arid Tibetan Plateau interior by one or more highly mobile human populations during the early and mid-Holocene, coincident with favorable warm, wet climate conditions.

  9. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR Modulates Cockroach Allergen-Induced Immune Responses through Active TGFβ1 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a multifunctional regulator that senses and responds to environmental stimuli, plays a role in normal cell development and immune regulation. Recent evidence supports a significant link between environmental exposure and AhR in the development of allergic diseases. We sought to investigate whether AhR plays a role in mediating cockroach allergen-induced allergic immune responses. Methods. AhR expression in human lung fibroblasts from asthmatic and healthy individuals and in cockroach extract (CRE treated human lung fibroblasts (WI-38 was examined. The role of AhR in modulating CRE induced TGFβ1 production was investigated by using AhR agonist, TCDD, antagonist CH122319, and knockdown of AhR. The role of latent TGFβ1 binding protein-1 (LTBP1 in mediating TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was also examined. Results. AhR expression was higher in airway fibroblasts from asthmatic subjects as compared to healthy controls. AhR in fibroblasts was activated by TCDD with an increased expression of cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Increased AhR expression was observed in CRE-treated fibroblasts. Importantly, CRE induced TGFβ1 production in fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by TCDD but inhibited by CH122319. Reduced TGFβ1 production was further confirmed in fibroblasts with AhR knockdown. Moreover, AhR knockdown inhibited CRE induced fibroblast differentiation. Furthermore, TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was significantly inhibited by LTBP1 knockdown. Conclusion. These results provide evidence for the role of AhR in modulating cockroach allergen-induced immune responses through controlling the active TGFβ1 release, suggesting a possible synergistic effect between exposure to allergens and environmental chemicals on the development of allergic diseases.

  10. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure alters radial arm maze performance and hippocampal morphology in female AhR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, B E; Lin, T-M; Vanka, A; Peterson, R E; Juraska, J M; Schantz, S L

    2005-02-01

    Perinatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been reported to alter spatial learning in rats tested on a radial arm maze (RAM). TCDD is believed to exert most of its effects through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). To determine whether the AhR mediates TCDD-induced alterations in spatial learning, we tested male and female AhR-knockout (AhR-/-), heterozygous (AhR+/-) and wild-type (AhR+/+) mice on the RAM. AhR+/- male and female mice were time mated, and treated dams were dosed with 5 microg TCDD/kg body weight on day 13 of gestation. When offspring reached adulthood, male and female AhR+/+, AhR+/- and AhR-/- mice from TCDD-exposed and unexposed litters were tested on the eight-arm RAM. After testing, we examined hippocampal morphology as visualized by the Timm's silver sulfide stain. TCDD-exposed female AhR+/- mice made more errors than their respective controls on the RAM and exhibited a decrease in the size of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIP-MF) field of the hippocampus. None of the other TCDD-exposed groups differed from their respective control groups with regard to maze performance or hippocampal morphology. The reduction of IIP-MF field indicates a possible morphological basis for the learning deficit that was observed in the female AhR+/- mice. It is hypothesized that the effect of TCDD exposure is AhR dependent and that TCDD may alter GABAergic activity in the hippocampus of female mice during development.

  11. Emergence in China of human disease due to avian influenza A(H10N8)--cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin K W; Tsang, Alan K L; Chan, Jasper F W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-03-01

    In December 2013, China reported the first human case of avian influenza A(H10N8). A 73-year-old female with chronic diseases who had visited a live poultry market succumbed with community-acquired pneumonia. While human infections with avian influenza viruses are usually associated with subtypes prevalent in poultries, A(H10N8) isolates were mostly found in migratory birds and only recently in poultries. Although not possible to predict whether this single intrusion by A(H10N8) is an accident or the start of another epidemic like the preceding A(H7N9) and A(H5N1), several features suggest that A(H10N8) is a potential threat to humans. Recombinant H10 could attach to human respiratory epithelium, and A(H10N4) virus could cause severe infections in minks and chickens. A(H10N8) viruses contain genetic markers for mammalian adaptation and virulence in the haemagglutinin (A135T, S138A[H3 numbering]), M1(N30D, T215A), NS1(P42S) and PB2(E627K) protein. Studies on this human A(H10N8) isolate will reveal its adaptability to humans. Clinicians should alert the laboratory to test for A(H5,6,7,9,10) viruses in patients with epidemiological exposure in endemic geographical areas especially when human influenza A(H1,3) and B are negative. Vigilant virological and serological surveillance for A(H10N8) in human, poultry and wild bird is important for following the trajectory of this emerging influenza virus.

  12. On paleodrainage evolution in mid-late Epipleistocene based on radar remote sensing in northeastern Ejin Banner, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXinyuan; GUOHuadong; CHANGYueming; ZHALiangsong

    2004-01-01

    Radar remote sensing can acquire information of sub-surface covered by sand in arid area,detect surface roughness and vegetation coronet's layer and linear feature such as linear structure and channel sensitively. With sediment facies analysis, this paper studies the features of environmental evolution in mid-late Epipleistocene (60 ka BP-20 ka BP) in northeastem Ejin Banner. The conclusions are listed as follows: (1) The evolution of the three lakes, i.e. Gaxunnur, Sugunur and Tian'e lakes, are dominated by faults and regional climate. (2) By analyzing sedimentary section of old Juyanze Lake,the three lakes used to be a large outflow lake before 50 ka BP in northeastem Ejin Banner, and at 50 ka BP, temperature declined rapidly in northwestem China. The event caused the lake's shrinkage. (3)By fault activity uplift in the northem part of old Juyan Lake and depression in the southem part, the lake's water followed fi'om north to south at around 35 ka BP, old Juyanze fluvial fan was formed. At the same time, Juyan lake separated fi'om Sugunur Lake and Wentugunr old channel was abandoned.(4) In recent 2000 years, Ruoshui River is a wandering river, sometimes it flows into Juyan lake and sometimes Sugunur and Gaxunnur lakes. Due to human activities and over exploitation, the oasis ecosystem is rapidly degenerated in 15 years (1986-2000).

  13. The 8.2 ka event in the northern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetscher, M.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Müller, W.; Spötl, C.

    2012-04-01

    The 8.2 ka event has been identified as a widespread climate excursion affecting most of the Northern Hemisphere. High-resolution records from ice cores and speleothems constrain the chronology of this event to between 8.21±0.02 and 8.08±0.03 ka BP (Vinther et al. 2006, Cheng et al. 2009). A distinctive asymmetrical pattern in d18O is consistent with modelling results suggesting rapid input of freshwater into the northern Atlantic due to catastrophic drainage of ice-marginal lakes (LeGrande et al., 2008). Despite an increasing amount of data, the regional expression of this event is still poorly understood. Here, we present a new speleothem record from Gasselhöhle in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. The 205 mm-long GAS19 stalagmite was analysed at high resolution for stable isotopes (100 µm) and trace elements (~10-15 µm; continuous LA-ICPMS profiles). Twelve individual MC-ICP-MS U/Th ages underline an annual growth rate of ca. 60 µm during the Early Holocene. The d18O averages -8.9‰, only slightly more depleted than modern carbonate precipitates from the same cave chamber. The 8.2 ka event is marked in GAS19 by a ca. 1‰ excursion with a minimum value of -9.9‰. Largely invariant trace element concentrations (e.g. Mg, U, Sr, Ba) indicate essentially no changes in the local hydrological regime and therefore support the hypothesis of a temperature-dominated signal. The proximity to the lacustrine isotope record from Mondsee (eg. Lauterbach et al. 2011) opens new perspectives for the interpretation of the oxygen isotope signal using two archives at different elevations. Moreover, several coeval speleothem records are available across the Eastern Alps fostering a spatial comparison of the proxy signals associated with this event. Cheng, H. et al. (2009), Geology, 37, 1007-1010 Lauterbach, S. et al. (2011), JQS, 26, 253-267 LeGrande, A.N., Schmidt, G.A. (2008), Paleoceanography, 23, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001610 Vinther, B. et al. (2006), JGR, 111, D13103

  14. South Greenland Ice-Sheet Response to the Mid-Pliocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A. E.; Mathias, A.; Hatfield, R. G.; Winsor, K.; Stoner, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The last time atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration approached present day levels was likely during the mid-Pliocene climate optimum 3.3-3.0 Ma. Estimates of sea level from the mid-Pliocene optimum vary widely and contain a significant component of glacial isostasy and dynamic topography, precluding a firm estimate of global ice volume. Here we present new data constraining the southern Greenland ice sheet (GIS) across the mid-Pliocene optimum from IODP Site U1307 located on the Eirik Ridge south of Greenland. Magnetic susceptibility dramatically decreases at ~3.3 Ma, recovering at ~3.05 Ma. Magnetic parameters on silt-size grains (Mrs/Ms) show this decrease likely reflects the loss of silt sourced from the Precambrian terranes of south Greenland, which would suggest the loss of the south GIS. The sand fraction reflects the degree of iceberg rafting with increases at an ~40 ka period. Planktic oxygen isotopes decrease during iceberg rafting events to values lower than the Holocene. An extended interval of low sand occurs from ~3.3 Ma to ~3.2 Ma, which suggests cessation of iceberg rafting. Planktic oxygen isotopes increase during this interval. Assuming a relatively warm climate, this increase could reflect the incursion of high 18-O subtropical waters into the Labrador Sea. The return of iceberg rafted sediments after ~3.2 Ma suggests the regrowth of the GIS with marine-terminating margins. Our new preliminary record points to a GIS collapse during the mid-Pliocene climatic optimum, but that ice-free conditions only lasted for ~100 ka before the return of a volatile ice sheet for the remainder of the mid-Pliocene climatic optimum.

  15. Birth of the modern Chesapeake Bay estuary between 7.4 and 8.2 ka and implications for global seal-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, J.F.; Colman, Steven M.; Thieler, E.R.; Seal, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Two major pulses of sea-level rise are thought to have taken place since the last glacial maximum - meltwater pulses (mwp) 1A (12 cal ka) and 1B (9.5 cal ka). Between mwp 1B and about 6 cal ka, many of the complex coastal ecosystem which ring the world's oceans began to form. Here we report data for rhenium, carbon isotopes, total organic carbon, and fossil oysters from Chesapeake Bay which span the transition from fresh to brackish water conditions in the bay in the mid-Holocene. These data constrain sea-level change and resulting environmental change in the bay. They indicate that the transition was rapid, and that it was produced by (1) a third pulse of rapid eustatic sea-level rise, or (2) a geometry of the prehistoric Chesapeake Bay basin which predisposed it to a nonlinear response to a steadily rising sea level. Similar nonlinear changes in vulnerable coastal environments are likely to take place in the future due to polar warming, regardless of the timing or rate of sea-level rise.

  16. Birth of the modern Chesapeake Bay estuary between 7.4 and 8.2 ka and implications for global sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, John F.; Colman, Steven M.; Thieler, E. Robert; Seal, Robert R.

    2002-12-01

    Two major pulses of sea-level rise are thought to have taken place since the last glacial maximum — meltwater pulses (mwp) 1A (12 cal ka) and 1B (9.5 cal ka). Between mwp 1B and about 6 cal ka, many of the complex coastal ecosystems which ring the world's oceans began to form. Here we report data for rhenium, carbon isotopes, total organic carbon, and fossil oysters from Chesapeake Bay which span the transition from fresh to brackish water conditions in the bay in the mid-Holocene. These data constrain sea-level change and resulting environmental change in the bay. They indicate that the transition was rapid, and that it was produced by (1) a third pulse of rapid eustatic sea-level rise, or (2) a geometry of the prehistoric Chesapeake Bay basin which predisposed it to a nonlinear response to a steadily rising sea level. Similar nonlinear changes in vulnerable coastal environments are likely to take place in the future due to polar warming, regardless of the timing or rate of sea-level rise.

  17. Anti-Restriction Protein, KlcAHS, Promotes Dissemination of Carbapenem Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC has emerged and spread throughout the world. A retrospective analysis was performed on carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolated at our teaching hospital during the period 2009–2010, when the initial outbreak occurred. To determine the mechanism(s that underlies the increased infectivity exhibited by KPC, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST was conducted. A series of plasmids was also extracted, sequenced and analyzed. Concurrently, the complete sequences of blaKPC−2-harboring plasmids deposited in GenBank were summarized and aligned. The blaKPC−2 and KlcAHS genes in the carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were examined. E. coli strains, carrying different Type I Restriction and Modification (RM systems, were selected to study the interaction between RM systems, anti-RM systems and horizontal gene transfer (HGT. The ST11 clone predominated among 102 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates, all harbored the blaKPC−2 gene; 98% contained the KlcAHS gene. KlcAHS was one of the core genes in the backbone region of most blaKPC−2 carrying plasmids. Type I RM systems in the host bacteria reduced the rate of pHS10842 plasmid transformation by 30- to 40-fold. Presence of the anti-restriction protein, KlcAHS, on the other hand, increased transformation efficiency by 3- to 6-fold. These results indicate that RM systems can significantly restrict HGT. In contrast, KlcAHS can disrupt the RM systems and promote HGT by transformation. These findings suggest that the anti-restriction protein, KlcAHS, represents a novel mechanism that facilitates the increased transfer of blaKPC-2 and KlcAHS-carrying plasmids among K. pneumoniae strains.

  18. Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Andersen, H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is emerging as an attractive alternative to near-infrared or visible spectroscopy. MIR spectroscopy offers a unique possibility to probe the fundamental absorption bands of a large number of gases as well as the vibrational spectra of complex molecules. In this paper...

  19. Patterns of millennial variability over the last 500 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siddall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Millennial variability is a robust feature of many paleoclimate records, at least throughout the last several glacial cycles. Here we use the signal from an Antarctic climate event to probe the EPICA Dome C temperature proxy reconstruction through the last 500 ka for similar millennial-scale events. We find that clusters of millennial events occurred in a regular fashion over half of the time during this with a mean recurrence interval of 21 kyr. We find that there is no consistent link between ice-rafted debris deposition and millennial variability. Instead we speculate that changes in the zonality of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic form a viable alternative to freshwater release from icebergs as a trigger for millennial variability. We suggest that millennial changes in the zonality of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic are linked to precession and that this relationship is modified by the presence of the large, Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during glacial periods.

  20. The segetal flora of the Kałuszyn Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Skrzyczyńska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a state of preservation and the characteristics of flora of the cultivated fields of the Kaluszyńska Upland is given. The flora of agrocenosis of the Kałuszyńska Upland is rich. The presence of 278 vascular plant species was noted in the study area. It is mainly the diversity of habitats and human activity that affected its species abundance. More than a half of a number of taxa (166 species - 59,6% belong to the group of rare, 40 of them are endangered extinction. Among the most threatened species there are 14 taxa e.g.: Fumaria schleicheri, Euphorbia exigua, Illecebrum verticillatum, Asperugo procumbens, Polycnemum arvense, Radiola linoides, Camelina sativa.

  1. Over-expression of AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces neural differentiation of Neuro2a cells: neurotoxicology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishihara-Sugano Mitsuko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dioxins and related compounds are suspected of causing neurological disruption in human and experimental animal offspring following perinatal exposure during development and growth. The molecular mechanism(s of the actions in the brain, however, have not been fully investigated. A major participant in the process of the dioxin-toxicity is the dioxin receptor, namely the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. AhR regulates the transcription of diverse genes through binding to the xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE. Since the AhR has also been detected in various regions of the brain, the AhR may play a key role in the developmental neurotoxicity of dioxins. This study focused on the effect of AhR activation in the developing neuron. Methods The influence of the AhR on the developing neuron was assessed using the Neuro2a-AhR transfectant. The undifferentiated murine neuroblastoma Neuro2a cell line (ATCC was stably transfected with AhR cDNA and the established cell line was named N2a-Rα. The activation of exogenous AhR in N2a-Rα cells was confirmed using RNAi, with si-AhR suppressing the expression of exogenous AhR. The neurological properties of N2a-Rα based on AhR activation were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of cytoskeletal molecules and by RT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression of neurotransmitter-production related molecules, such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. Results N2a-Rα cells exhibited constant activation of the exogenous AhR. CYP1A1, a typical XRE-regulated gene, mRNA was induced without the application of ligand to the culture medium. N2a-Rα cells exhibited two significant functional features. Morphologically, N2a-Rα cells bore spontaneous neurites exhibiting axon-like properties with the localization of NF-H. In addition, cdc42 expression was increased in comparison to the control cell line. The other is the catecholaminergic neuron-like property. N2a-Rα cells expressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA as a

  2. Calculated pKa Variations Expose Dynamic Allosteric Communication Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Eric J M; Heyes, Logan C; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Parker, Emily J

    2016-02-17

    Allosteric regulation of protein function, the process by which binding of an effector molecule provokes a functional response from a distal site, is critical for metabolic pathways. Yet, the way the allosteric signal is communicated remains elusive, especially in dynamic, entropically driven regulation mechanisms for which no major conformational changes are observed. To identify these dynamic allosteric communication networks, we have developed an approach that monitors the pKa variations of ionizable residues over the course of molecular dynamics simulations performed in the presence and absence of an allosteric regulator. As the pKa of ionizable residues depends on their environment, it represents a simple metric to monitor changes in several complex factors induced by binding an allosteric effector. These factors include Coulombic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and solvation, as well as backbone motions and side chain fluctuations. The predictions that can be made with this method concerning the roles of ionizable residues for allosteric communication can then be easily tested experimentally by changing the working pH of the protein or performing single point mutations. To demonstrate the method's validity, we have applied this approach to the subtle dynamic regulation mechanism observed for Neisseria meningitidis 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase, the first enzyme of aromatic biosynthesis. We were able to identify key communication pathways linking the allosteric binding site to the active site of the enzyme and to validate these findings experimentally by reestablishing the catalytic activity of allosterically inhibited enzyme via modulation of the working pH, without compromising the binding affinity of the allosteric regulator.

  3. Benzimidazoisoquinolines: a new class of rapidly metabolized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR ligands that induce AhR-dependent Tregs and prevent murine graft-versus-host disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Punj

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays multiple roles in regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. The ability of certain AhR ligands to induce regulatory T cells (Tregs has generated interest in developing AhR ligands for therapeutic treatment of immune-mediated diseases. To this end, we designed a screen for novel Treg-inducing compounds based on our understanding of the mechanisms of Treg induction by the well-characterized immunosuppressive AhR ligand, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. We screened a ChemBridge small molecule library and identified 10-chloro-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benzo[de]Iso-quinolin-7-one (10-Cl-BBQ as a potent AhR ligand that was rapidly metabolized and not cytotoxic to proliferating T cells. Like TCDD,10-Cl-BBQ altered donor CD4(+ T cell differentiation during the early stages of a graft versus host (GVH response resulting in expression of high levels of CD25, CTLA-4 and ICOS, as well as several genes associated with Treg function. The Treg phenotype required AhR expression in the donor CD4(+ T cells. Foxp3 was not expressed in the AhR-induced Tregs implicating AhR as an independent transcription factor for Treg induction. Structure-activity studies showed that unsubstituted BBQ as well as 4, 11-dichloro-BBQ were capable of inducing AhR-Tregs. Other substitutions reduced activation of AhR. Daily treatment with 10-Cl-BBQ during the GVH response prevented development of GVH disease in an AhR-dependent manner with no overt toxicity. Together, our data provide strong support for development of select BBQs that activate the AhR to induce Tregs for treatment of immune-mediated diseases.

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of Evolutionary Markers of Human Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) Viruses May Guide Selection of Vaccine Strain Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanov, Sergei S; Bychkov, Dmitrii; Benner, Christian; Ripatti, Samuli; Ojala, Teija; Kankainen, Matti; Kai Lee, Hong; Wei-Tze Tang, Julian; Kainov, Denis E

    2015-11-27

    Here we analyzed whole-genome sequences of 3,969 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 4,774 A(H3N2) strains that circulated during 2009-2015 in the world. The analysis revealed changes at 481 and 533 amino acid sites in proteins of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, respectively. Many of these changes were introduced as a result of random drift. However, there were 61 and 68 changes that were present in relatively large number of A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, respectively, that circulated during relatively long time. We named these amino acid substitutions evolutionary markers, as they seemed to contain valuable information regarding the viral evolution. Interestingly, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses acquired non-overlapping sets of evolutionary markers. We next analyzed these characteristic markers in vaccine strains recommended by the World Health Organization for the past five years. Our analysis revealed that vaccine strains carried only few evolutionary markers at antigenic sites of viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The absence of these markers at antigenic sites could affect the recognition of HA and NA by human antibodies generated in response to vaccinations. This could, in part, explain moderate efficacy of influenza vaccines during 2009-2014. Finally, we identified influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains, which contain all the evolutionary markers of influenza A strains circulated in 2015, and which could be used as vaccine candidates for the 2015/2016 season. Thus, genome-wide analysis of evolutionary markers of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses may guide selection of vaccine strain candidates.

  5. Mid Holocene climate change and impact on evolution on human settlements in northern central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krossa, V. R.; Kim, H.-J.; Moros, M.; Dörfler, W.; Blanz, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schneider, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Mid Holocene climate evolution in the North Atlantic was marked by a climate optimum, followed by a transition toward colder conditions, starting at about 6 ka BP. This climate transition was accompanied by a radical change from a hunter-gatherer-fisher society toward a society based on agriculture and the domestication of animals in northern Germany and Denmark. The aim of this study is to better understand the potential impact of oceanic and terrestrial climate change on such human societies in northern Germany and Denmark. We present paleoclimatic and paleoecological reconstructions from sites surrounding the landscape where these human groups settled during the Mid Holocene. These reconstructions include a high resolution UK'37 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) record from the Skagerrak, an MBT-CBT record for estimating lake temperature from Lake Belau, Northern Germany using the calibration set of Tierney et al. (2010), and a Loss On Ignition (LOI) record representing the anoxic/oxic state from the Gotland Basin, Baltic Sea. The UK'37 record is interpreted to reflect warm season SSTs, and shows a step-like temperature drop of about 6 °C from 6.5 to 5.0 ka BP, immediately followed by a 2 °C warming at about 5.0 ka BP. The MBT-CBT lake record probably reflects mean annual temperature at our site. The record suggests mild winters and/or warm summers until 5.3 ka BP, followed by 2 °C colder conditions within 500 years. The temperature proxies suggest a positive mode in North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) until around 5.3 ka BP, followed by conditions typical of a negative NAO mode. Furthermore, the LOI record from the Gotland Basin implies a trend from oxic to more anoxic conditions, starting at ~5.8 ka BP. More severe anoxic conditions could have led to an ecosystem shift within the Baltic Sea, resulting in a decline of copepods, codfish and seals, thus influencing mesolithic hunting activity. The climatic and ecological changes that affected the Baltic Sea might

  6. Correlation between Ka/Ks and Ks is related to substitution model and evolutionary lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Zhang; Vang, Søren;

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, Wyckoff and coworkers described a surprisingly strong correlation between Ka/Ks and Ks in several data sets using the LPB93 algorithm. This finding indicated the possibility of a paradigm shift in the way selection strength can be measured using the Ka/Ks ratio. We carried out a calculat......In 2005, Wyckoff and coworkers described a surprisingly strong correlation between Ka/Ks and Ks in several data sets using the LPB93 algorithm. This finding indicated the possibility of a paradigm shift in the way selection strength can be measured using the Ka/Ks ratio. We carried out...

  7. Evidence and modeling study of droughts in China during 4 - 2 ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ShaoWu; HUANG JianBin; WEN XinYu; ZHU JinHong

    2008-01-01

    Four periods with predominated droughts are identified in 4-2 ka BP according to documentary data, namely 3.6-3.5, 3.1-3.0, 2.8-2.7, and 2.45-2.35 ka BP. Palaeo-environmental data indicated that droughts were predominated in 4-2 ka BP in the south of Northeast China, Inner-Mongolia, east of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and South China. Modeling study shows that precession may be responsible for the occurrence of droughts in 4-2 ka BP, integrating the GCM with forcing of insolation.

  8. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade 2.3.4.4 from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N8) viruses from clade 2.3.4.4 were introduced to North America by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. Reassortment of A(H5N8) viruses with avian viruses of North American lineage resulted in the generation of novel A(H5N2) viruses with novel genotypes. Through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified PB1 and NP gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from North American waterfowl prior to the introduction of A(H...

  9. Proteolytic fragments of laminin promote excitotoxic neurodegeneration by up-regulation of the KA1 subunit of the kainate receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zu-Lin; Yu, Huaxu; Yu, Wei-Ming; Pawlak, Robert; Strickland, Sidney

    2008-12-29

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein laminin contributes to excitotoxic cell death in the hippocampus, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. To study this process, we disrupted laminin gamma1 (lamgamma1) expression in the hippocampus. Lamgamma1 knockout (KO) and control mice had similar basal expression of kainate (KA) receptors, but the lamgamma1 KO mice were resistant to KA-induced neuronal death. After KA injection, KA1 subunit levels increased in control mice but were unchanged in lamgamma1 KO mice. KA1 levels in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-KO mice were also unchanged after KA, indicating that both tPA and laminin were necessary for KA1 up-regulation after KA injection. Infusion of plasmin-digested laminin-1 into the hippocampus of lamgamma1 or tPA KO mice restored KA1 up-regulation and KA-induced neuronal degeneration. Interfering with KA1 function with a specific anti-KA1 antibody protected against KA-induced neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate a novel pathway for neurodegeneration involving proteolysis of the ECM and KA1 KA receptor subunit up-regulation.

  10. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the mid-infrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy ('opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ...... of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security...

  11. Effects of scorched food leachates with or without activated charcoal pretreatment on AhR activation in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor activated by xenobiotics, including dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although AhR is also activated by some dietary constituents, it has not been completely clarified in what circumstances AhR ligands are ingested in our daily life. Because PAHs are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, we hypothesized that scorched foods might contain and leach out AhR ligands sufficient to stimulate AhR in vitro. To test this hypothesis, scorched foods (bread, cheese, etc.) were mixed vigorously with water, and the supernatants were retrieved as samples. The samples were added to HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was analyzed by RT-PCR in different cell lines treated with the samples. We further tested whether pretreatment of the samples with activated charcoal would alter their AhR-stimulating activity. All the supernatant samples tested induced AhR-dependent reporter gene activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. In some samples, these inductions were inhibited by pretreatment with activated charcoal. Our findings indicate that scorched food leachates stimulate AhR in cultured cells and that activated charcoal adsorbs the AhR-stimulating substances in some leachates. Thus, people who habitually eat scorched foods are exposed to AhR ligands on a regular basis. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether burnt foods actually exert biological effects on our health.

  12. Disease-tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants expressing Ah-AMP gene of Amaranthus hypochondriacus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An antimicrobial peptide gene from Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Ah-AMP, was amplified by PCR and cloned. Sequence analysis results revealed that this gene is 261 bp in length encoding a precursor polypeptide of 87 amino acid residues. Ah-AMP gene was inserted in the binary vector pBin438 to construct a plant expression vector pBinAH916. Leave explants of Nicotiana tabacum var. SR1 were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the above expression vector. Results from PCR, Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that the Ah-AMP gene had been integrated into the tobacco genome and was transcribed at mRNA level. Two bacterial-resistant transgenic plants were selected by inoculating the plants with Pseudomonas solanacearum and statistic analysis of two T1 lines showed that the resistance increased by 2.24 and 1.62 grade and the disease index decreased by 49.6% and 37.3% respectively when compared with the non-transformed control plants SR1. The results from challenging the plants with inoculums of Phytophthora parasitica showed that the symptom development was delayed and disease index was significantly reduced. These results suggest that Ah-AMP gene may be a potentially valuable gene for genetic engineering of plant for disease-resistance.

  13. The Volatility of Indonesia Shari’ah Capital Market Stock Price Toward Macro Economics Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Malini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shari’ah stock market is also affected by many highly interrelated economic, social, political andother factor, same as the conventional stock market, the interaction between macroeconomic variablesand Shari’ah stock market creating volatility in the stock price as a response towards severalshocks. The sensitivity of Shari’ah stock market towards shocks happened related with the futureexpectation of micro and macro factor in one country which can be predict or unpredictable.There are six macroeconomic variables that used in this research; inflation, exchange rate, interestrate, dow jones index, crude oil palm price, and FED rate. Using vector error correction model(VECM, the result shows that domestic macroeconomic variables that significantly affect IndonesiaShari’ah compliance for long term, while for international macroeconomic variables the selectedvariable such as FED rate and Dow Jones Index are not significantly affected Indonesia Shari’ahcompliance both in short term and long term. Keywords: Indonesia Shari’ah compliance, Macro Economic Indicators, Impulse Response Function,Stock Price Volatility

  14. Increasing Diversity in STEM through Ka Hikina O Ka Lā Summer Bridge Program for Native Hawaiian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, A.; Cie, D. K.; Calder, S.; Naho`olewa, D.; Rai, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Mitigation Initiative and the Kahikina O Ka Lā Program are NSF-funded projects at the University of Hawai`i Maui College. These projects offer instruction and activities intended to increase diversity in STEM careers. Ke Alahaka, the 2014 summer bridge program, was offered to Native Hawaiian high-school students who indicated an interest in STEM areas. Content workshops were offered in Marine Science, Physics, Biotechnology, and Computer Science and Engineering as well as a Hawaiian Studies course designed to provide a cultural context for the STEM instruction. Focus groups and other program assessments indicate that 50% of the students attending the workshops intend to pursue a STEM major during their undergraduate studies.

  15. Dating North European mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.): a nearly continuous record from 53 ka to 11 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkonen, P.; Aaris-Sørensen, K.; Arppe, L.; Clark, P. U.; Daugnora, L.; Lister, A.; Lõugas, L.; Seppä, H. A.; Stuart, A. J.; Wojtal, P.; Zupins, I.

    2010-05-01

    nearly continuously from 53 ka to 11 ka, completely disappearing from the area only during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). From the northern parts of the study area, mammoths disappeared ca. 27 ka ago. In the south they survived until the LGM, and occupied the area again during deglaciation. Mammoths survived in the eastern part of the study area until the end of Younger Dryas. References Weninger, B., Jöris, O., 2008. A 14C age calibration curve for the last 60 ka: the Greenland-Hulu U/Th timescale and its impact on understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Eurasia. Journal of Human Evolution 55,772-781. Weninger, B., Jöris, O., Danzeglocke, U., 2008. CalPal-2007. Cologne Radiocarbon Calibration & Palaeoclimate Research Package. http://www.calpal.de/ [2008-09-18].

  16. Ka mauli o ka 'oina a he mauli kanaka: an ethnographic study from an Hawaiian sense of place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneha, M F

    2001-09-01

    Ka Mauli O Ka 'Aina A He Mauli Kanaka: The Life of the Land is the Life of the People. A sense of place has been directly linked to spiritual well being for all indigenous peoples. Yet, there is minimal evidence that demonstrates understanding and awareness of indigenous health issues from this perspective. Health, or the lack of it, appears to be related to place or the loss of it. Issues of Hawaiian health are inseparable from issues of land, water, and atmosphere. The purpose of this research study was to explore the experience of a sense of place and its relationship to health as perceived and experienced by Hawaiian participants living in Wai'anae, Hawai'i. Thirteen adult men and women, ranging in age from 36 to 80 years, participated in this ethnographic study. Two interviews conducted with each participant addressed the research question, "What is the experience of the relationship between a sense of place and health for Hawaiians?" Participants were also asked to photograph how they experienced this relationship. The qualitative data analysis computer software, Atlas.ti, was used to assist in data analysis. The findings suggest that the relationship between sense of place and health embodies four categories: (1) relationship to akua (god, spirit), (2) relationship to natural elements, (3) relationship to self and others, and (4) belonging to a particular place. Three major traditional Hawaiian concepts, which defined how the relationship between sense of place and health are experienced, were pono, mana, and kuleana. The relationship between these concepts revealed five cultural themes. Health for Hawaiians: I. is having a spiritual connection to their ancestral place; II. relates to the past, present, and future; III. is experienced with intention and understanding; IV. means an openness to the flow and use of energy; and V. is experienced as a pu'uhonua or safe place. These themes suggest implications for Hawaiian health education, practice, and further

  17. Tissue specificity of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated responses and relative sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to an AhR agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Tendler, Brett J; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2012-06-15

    Sturgeons are endangered in some parts of the world. Due to their benthic nature and longevity sturgeon are at greater risk of exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin-like compounds that are associated with sediments. Despite their endangered status, little research has been conducted to characterize the relative responsiveness of sturgeon to dioxin-like compounds. In an attempt to study the biological effects and possible associated risks of exposure to dioxin-like compounds in sturgeon, the molecular and biochemical responses of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to a model aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, β-naphthoflavone (βNF) were investigated. White sturgeon were injected intraperitoneally with one of three doses of βNF (0, 50, or 500mg/kg, bw). Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used as a reference species since their responses have been well characterized in the past. Three days following injection with βNF, fish were euthanized and livers, gills, and intestines collected for biochemical and molecular analyses. White sturgeon exposed to βNF had significantly greater ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver (up to 37-fold), gill (up to 41-fold), and intestine (up to 36-fold) than did unexposed controls. Rainbow trout injected with βNF exhibited EROD activity that was significantly greater in liver (88-fold), than that of controls, but was undetectable in gills or intestine. Abundance of CYP1A transcript displayed a comparable pattern of tissue-specific induction with intestine (up to 189-fold), gills (up to 53-fold), and liver (up to 21-fold). Methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) and pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase (PROD) activities were undetectable in unexposed white sturgeon tissues while exposed tissues displayed MROD activity that was only moderately greater than the activity that could be detected. Differential inducibility among liver, gill, and intestine following exposure to an AhR agonist is

  18. Insights into rapid climate change: A high resolution, compound-specific n-alkane δD study of the 8.2 ka event (Tenaghi Philippon, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemmel, F.; Niedermeyer, E.; Schwab, V.; Pross, J.; Mulch, A.

    2013-12-01

    the strong isotope excursions in δD during the 8.2 ka event to reflect the combined effects of vegetation change, as evident from the pollen record, in conjunction with changes in main moisture source, possibly related to switches from a more distant source (North Atlantic and/or western- to mid-Mediterranean) to a closer (eastern Mediterranean, Aegean Sea) source during the 8.2 ka event.

  19. Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The practical realisation of optoelectronic devices operating in the 2–10 µm (mid-infrared) wavelength range offers potential applications in a variety of areas from environmental gas monitoring around oil rigs and landfill sites to the detection of pharmaceuticals, particularly narcotics. In addition, an atmospheric transmission window exists between 3 µm and 5 µm that enables free-space optical communications, thermal imaging applications and the development of infrared measures for "homeland security". Consequently, the mid-infrared is very attractive for the development of sensitive optical sensor instrumentation. Unfortunately, the nature of the likely applications dictates stringent requirements in terms of laser operation, miniaturisation and cost that are difficult to meet. Many of the necessary improvements are linked to a better ability to fabricate and to understand the optoelectronic properties of suitable high-quality epitaxial materials and device structures. Substantial progress in these m...

  20. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF A KRINGLE 5 FROM HUMAN PLASMINOGEN USING AH-SEPHAROSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustianenko L. G.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to develop a method for isolation of human plasminogen kringle 5 possessing functional activity. The proposed method includes the following steps: hydrolysis of plasminogen with elastase, separation of mini-plasminogen from kringle fragments 1–3 and 4 on Lys-Sepharose, mini-plasminogen hydrolysis with pepsin, affinity chromatography on AH-Sepharose and polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis. We obtained the electrophoretically pure fragment of human plasminogen kringle 5 showing functional activity towards the ligands with high and low molecular mass. Weight yield was 3.8% that corresponds to 25.3% of the theoretically possible. It was established that affinity chromatography on AH-Sepharose was the sufficient step to isolate kringle 5 from mini-plasminogen hydrolysate with pepsin. This approach does not require additional purification steps while the ability of kringle 5 to bind specifically to AH-Sepharose demonstrates the functional activity of the kringle.

  1. AH-MAC: Adaptive Hierarchical MAC Protocol for Low-Rate Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ismail Al-Sulaifanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive hierarchical MAC protocol (AH-MAC with cross-layer optimization for low-rate and large-scale wireless sensor networks. The main goal of the proposed protocol is to combine the strengths of LEACH and IEEE 802.15.4 while offsetting their weaknesses. The predetermined cluster heads are supported with an energy harvesting circuit, while the normal nodes are battery-operated. To prolong the network’s operational lifetime, the proposed protocol transfers most of the network’s activities to the cluster heads while minimizing the node’s activity. Some of the main features of this protocol include energy efficiency, self-configurability, scalability, and self-healing. The simulation results showed great improvement of the AH-MAC over LEACH protocol in terms of energy consumption and throughput. AH-MAC consumes eight times less energy while improving throughput via acknowledgment support.

  2. AhR transcription serum activity of Inuit´s across Greenlandic districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Deutch, Bente; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Human exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including Human exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide is ubiquitous...... food. Conclusions: i) We observed that the proportion of dioxin like (DL) compounds in the POP i) We observed that the proportion of dioxin like (DL) compounds in the POP mixture was the dominating factor affecting the level of serum AhR transcriptional activity even at very high level of non DL......-PCBs; ii) The inverse association between the integrated serum AhR transactivity and sum of POPs might be explained by the higher level of compounds antagonizing the AhR function probably due to selective POP bioaccumulation in the food chain....

  3. SOC Estimation of LiFePO4 Battery based on Improved Ah Integral Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng ZHU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is the most important status parameters of energy storage system, which is able to predict the available mileage of electric vehicle. In fact, the accuracy of SOC estimation plays a vital role in the usability and security of the battery. To fully consider the practical demands, a novel method to predict SOC of LiFePO4 battery is presented in this paper, which defines the correct coefficient separately under two working conditions of charging and discharging. Based on effective factors such as coulombic efficiency, charge and discharge current, and temperature, an Ah integral SOC estimation method with two kinds of efficiency correct coefficients is established by performing massive experimental study. Experiments prove that the estimated error of SOC is less than 5%. Compared with the original Ah method, the improved Ah method is more advantageous in the accuracy and reliability.

  4. Cosmetic Surgery in Mid Life

    OpenAIRE

    Born, Gunter

    1984-01-01

    The aging of the skin and supportive tissues in mid-life causes a deterioration in appearance and/or accentuates preexisting deformities. This can adversely affect the patient's self image and self-respect. Cosmetic or esthetic surgery helps to rejuvenate the aging features to improve the patient's self-image and restore self-confidence. This article discusses the various corrective procedures, their indications, extent, morbidity, complications and cost.

  5. Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Procurement Unit Cost BA - Budget Authority/Budget Activity BY - Base Year DAMIR - Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development...Award Critical Design Review (MID ... LVT -LVT(2) r,... First EMD Terminal Delivery LVT LVT(3) lt:>e LVT(2) -Initial Carrier Suitability •:oe IOT ...1998 LVT(2) MAY 1998 MAY 1998 NOV 1998 MAY 1998 Initial Carrier Suitability NOV 1998 NOV 1998 MAY 1999 NOV 1998 IOT &E Complete LVT(3) JUL 1999 JUL

  6. Amino Acids in Hemagglutinin Antigenic Site B Determine Antigenic and Receptor Binding Differences between A(H3N2)v and Ancestral Seasonal H3N2 Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoquan; Ilyushina, Natalia A; Lugovtsev, Vladimir Y; Bovin, Nicolai V; Couzens, Laura K; Gao, Jin; Donnelly, Raymond P; Eichelberger, Maryna C; Wan, Hongquan

    2017-01-15

    Influenza A H3N2 variant [A(H3N2)v] viruses, which have caused human infections in the United States in recent years, originated from human seasonal H3N2 viruses that were introduced into North American swine in the mid-1990s, but they are antigenically distinct from both the ancestral and current circulating H3N2 strains. A reference A(H3N2)v virus, A/Minnesota/11/2010 (MN/10), and a seasonal H3N2 strain, A/Beijing/32/1992 (BJ/92), were chosen to determine the molecular basis for the antigenic difference between A(H3N2)v and the ancestral viruses. Viruses containing wild-type and mutant MN/10 or BJ/92 hemagglutinins (HAs) were constructed and probed for reactivity with ferret antisera against MN/10 and BJ/92 in hemagglutination inhibition assays. Among the amino acids that differ between the MN/10 and BJ/92 HAs, those in antigenic site A had little impact on the antigenic phenotype. Within antigenic site B, mutations at residues 156, 158, 189, and 193 of MN/10 HA to those in BJ/92 switched the MN/10 antigenic phenotype to that of BJ/92. Mutations at residues 156, 157, 158, 189, and 193 of BJ/92 HA to amino acids present in MN/10 were necessary for BJ/92 to become antigenically similar to MN/10. The HA amino acid substitutions responsible for switching the antigenic phenotype also impacted HA binding to sialyl receptors that are usually present in the human respiratory tract. Our study demonstrates that antigenic site B residues play a critical role in determining both the unique antigenic phenotype and receptor specificity of A(H3N2)v viruses, a finding that may facilitate future surveillance and risk assessment of novel influenza viruses.

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Rhetoric in CSR Reports: A Comparison of Shari’ah Compliant Company and Non –Shari’ah Compliant Company in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razak Rafizan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances previous research in corporate social reporting (CSR by using a taxonomy of five distinct rhetorical strategies to examine any differences in term of type of ethical categories and to identify moral attitudes towards different societal activities between Shari’ah compliant company Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB and Non-Shari’ah compliant company Malayan Banking Berhad (Maybank. The data is analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that there are different rhetoric applied in both types of companies such as Agency (profit, Benefit (collective welfare, Compliance (law and contracts, Duty and Ethos (virtue. In term of moral attitudes, both types of companies disclosed relatively similar behaviour and commitment towards CSR. This research is the first of its kind to be conducted in Malaysia by using this new approach and will contribute new insights to existing CSR literatures in Malaysia.

  8. Benarkah Kita Murji’ah? Catatan atas Artikel Prof. Dr. Fauzan Saleh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Fathullah Zarkasyi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a special note on the article written by Fauzan Saleh entitled Kita Masih Murji’ah: Mencari Akar Teologi Pemahaman Umat Islam Indonesia published in Tsaqafah Volume 7, No. 2, October 2009. The author notes that the article could plunge Muslims to the wrong conception. Fauzan begins his article on Caliph Uthman’s nepotism when designating Amr bin Ash as governor of Egypt, Mua’wiyah as governor of Sham and Sa’ad bin Abi Waqas as governor of Iraq and Persia. Further this article notes concerning the definition of Ahl al- Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah. In addition, the author sees Fauzan does not fully understand this concept. Thus, because he classified both Maturidist and Asy’arist only into this group, without explaining their true set of belief. Actually the truth about Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah is the groups who have unanimity in beliefs, traditions and the status of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him and the the very righteous people among Muslims in Islam. They are the prophet’s companions and Tabi’in (followers, and the schoolars who followed their guidance, and their way in terms of faith, words, and deeds until the Day of Judgment. From this point of view, the criticism persists about the actors a great sin whereby this article parsed differences between Ahlusunah and Murji’ah. According to the author, Fauzan has been on failure when he drew a hasty conclusion at the similarity belief of Murji’ah and Ahlusunah, whereas Ahlusunah’s creed is just a continuation of Murji’ah’s. As clearly written in Fauzan’s conclusions of the article, despite Murji’ah creed is no longer known at this time, but this concept still remains sustainable in Islamic theology.

  9. Epidemiology of human influenza A(H7N9) infection in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yiu-Hong; To, May-Kei; Lam, Tsz-Sum; Yau, Shui-Wah; Leung, Oi-Shan; Chuang, Shuk-Kwan

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a case series study to review the epidemiology of human influenza A(H7N9) infection reported in Hong Kong. We reviewed case records of confirmed human cases of influenza A(H7N9) infection reported in Hong Kong in the 2013-2014 winter season. We compared the median viral shedding duration and interval from illness onset to initiation of oseltamivir treatment between severe and mild cases. We estimated the incubation period of influenza A(H7N9) virus from cases with a single known date of poultry exposure. A total of 10 cases were reported and all were imported infection from Mainland China. Four patients died and the cause of death was related to influenza A(H7N9) infection in two patients. The median interval from illness onset to initiation of oseltamivir treatment for the severe cases (4.5 days) was significantly longer than the mild cases (2 days; p = 0.025). Severe cases had a significantly longer viral shedding duration than mild cases (p = 0.028). The median incubation period for cases with a single known exposure date was 4 days. Nasopharyngeal aspirate taken from the 88 close contacts of the 10 patients all tested negative for influenza A virus using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Delayed administration of antiviral treatment may be associated with a more severe illness for influenza A(H7N9) infection. Despite our aggressive contact tracing policy with laboratory testing of all close contacts, no secondary case was identified which implied that the potential of human-to-human transmission of the circulating influenza A(H7N9) virus remains low. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Month of the Year and Pre- Holiday Effects In Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Malini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper investigates the existence of two anomalies in Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah compliance; the month of the year and pre-holiday effect, and their implication for stock market efficiency. Investing in Shari’ah compliant is different from investing in conventional stock. Conventional stock market followed the capital market set of rules and law, while Shari’ah follows not only followed the capital market set of laws but also the Islamic principles. Most of the previous studies investigated issues related to the conventional stock market, this study take one step further by investigating issue related to Shari’ah compliant instrument and make comparison between both Shari’ah compliance stock market in Indonesia and Malaysia. We document high and significant returns in month and pre-holiday in Indonesia and Malaysia stock market that represent by the Shari’ah compliance. Our result indicate that the month of the year effect is prevalent in Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah compliance.   Keywords: Calendar effects, Indonesia and Malaysia Shari’ah compliance, Month of the year and pre-holiday effects

  11. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hansen, Mette Sif; Holm, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined.......Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined....

  12. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  13. Experimental Evidence for Hydrogen Tunneling when the Isotopic Arrhenius Prefactor (AH/AD) is Unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sudhir C.; Klinman, Judith P.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is one of the major tools used for the investigation of hydrogen tunneling in condensed phase. Hydrogen transfer reactions displaying isotopic Arrhenius prefactor ratios (AH/AD) of unity are generally ascribed to a semi-classical mechanism. Here, we have identified a double mutant of soybean lipoxygenase (SLO-1, an enzyme previously shown to follow quantum mechanical hydrogen tunneling), that displays an AH/AD of unity and highly elevated (non-classical) KIEs. This observation highlights the shortcoming of assigning a hydrogen transfer reaction to a semi-classical model based solely on an Arrhenius prefactor ratio. PMID:19061319

  14. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverio, Paola; Messinesi, Grazia; Brenna, Ambrogio; Pesci, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage. PMID:25383078

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 2A3KA-2QCTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chain>A 2QCTA IKGVY-GPKAY ...2A3KA-2QCTA 2A3K 2QCT A A --------NTPREVTLHFLRTAGHPLTRWALQRQPPSPK...dbID> A 2A3KA HYWPT---EEETY ...ure> ---EEEEEure> ATOM 1001 CA ...278 TYR CA 308 2QCT A 2QCT

  16. Absolute calibration of SARAL/AltiKa in Kavaratti during its initial calibration-validation phase

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, K.N.; Shukla, A.K.; Suchandra, A.B.; ArunKumar, S.V.V.; Bonnefond, P.; Testut, L.; Mehra, P.; Laurain, O

    Island is located near a repeating ground track of SARAL/AltiKa and »12 km away from the point of closest measurement of Jason-2, SARAL/AltiKa crossover point. Additionally, the altimeter and radiometer footprints do not experience any land contamination...

  17. Productivity fluctuations in the southeastern Arabian Sea during the last 140 ka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Toshiyuki Masuzawab; Naidu, P.D.; Parthiban, G.; Mineko Yamamoto

    the palaeoproductivity fluctuations over the last 140 ka. High calcium carbonate, biogenic opal, biogenic Ba contents (wt%) and their mass accumulation rates (g/cm u2/ka) suggest higher productivity during major interglacials than in the glacials. Organic carbon content...

  18. Kõik, mis valesti sai minna, see on ka valesti läinud / George Soros

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soros, George, 1930-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Molodjozh Estonii : Biznes Sreda, Delovõje Vedomosti 6. veebr. lk. 10. Praegune finantskriis, mille käivitas kinnisvaramulli lõhkemine USA-s, tähistab ka dollari kui rahvusvahelisel reservvaluutal baseeruva laenuandmise laienemise ajastu lõppu

  19. Nii Finnairil kui ka SASil väga head majandustulemused / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Lennukompaniide Finnair ja SAS teise kvartali majandustulemused ületasid nii analüütikute kui ka firmajuhtide prognoosid, kasumit on aidanud tõsta piletihinnatõus ja käibe kasv. Diagrammid: Põhjamaistel lennufirmadel teine kvartal sel aastal selgelt esimesest parem. Vt. samas: Ka SAS tõstab piletihindasid; Põhiline ebakindlustegur - kütuse hind

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1T5KA-3CVDC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bChain> 1T5KA GPMMK-KEQAY ...> - EEEE> ATOM 514 CA GLY A 69 -12.019 37.627 24...DChain> SQLMFSPGESY > EEE> 1T5KA SLTFT---EAGTY >EEEE --- EEE...ture>EEEE EEE> ATOM 2225 CA GLU C 73 6

  1. Ravimiturg peaks ka sel aastal jõudsalt kasvama / Violetta Riidas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riidas, Violetta

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Äripäev 30. apr. lk. 16. Eelmise aasta ravimituru kasv jätkub tõenäoliselt ka sel aastal, kuna negatiivne riigieelarve ravimihüvitisi ei kärbi. Vt. samas: Võrdlus: Ravimituru jaotus haiglaapteekide ning teiste asutuste vahel peamiste ATC rühmade lõikes, 2007

  2. A View from the Cocoon--Space Categorization in the Korean Verb [na-ka-ta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Alan Hyun-Oak

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the Korean verb "na-ka-ta" ("to get out, exit") focuses on why an expression such as "kyengkicang-ey na-ka-ta" ("someone goes out/in to the sports arena") is acceptable only in the context that the person's entering the arena is for the purpose of a contest, while it becomes semantically…

  3. Design and verification of a 24 kA calibration head for a DCCT test facility

    CERN Document Server

    Fernqvist, G; Saab, A

    1999-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is CERN's next particle accelerator project, scheduled for commissioning in 2005. The project requires accurate current measurements above 10 kA. Calibration heads have been developed in collaboration with industry to work up to 24 kA at sub-ppm accuracy. The paper describes the design and verification.

  4. Penyelesaian Sengketa antara Bank Sharî‘ah dengan Nasabah Bermasalah melalui Badan Arbitrase Sharî‘ah Nasional (BASYARNAS menurut UU No. 30 tahun 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Sulistyowati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with dispute settlement between Bank Syari’ah and its customers through the National Shari’ah Arbitration Board (BASYARNAS. It focuses to elaborate the procedures of dispute settlement between Bank Syari’ah and its customers of financing from the perspective of Islamic law according to Bill No. 30/1999 above law No. 30 year 1999. Based on procedures as mentioned in the bill with regard to arbitration and alternative dispute resolution, Basyarnas, in proofing and resolving cases, has fulfilled the procedures and satisfied the conflicting parties with justice, so there is no need to appeal and reconsideration. This means that Basyarnas has conducted dispute resolution according to the existing procedures. The dispute settlement has also been in accordance with the Qur’ân and other Islamic legal rules which consist of the principles of power and mandate applied by the arbitrator in deciding and resolving the dispute. The board—as an independent institution—has setttled the disputes on the basis of justice for all parties, rejected the act of bribery since the cost is measurable. In addition, Basyarnas also gives strong emphasis on the principle of equality, friendship, consistence and response-bility in resolving disputes.

  5. Rain Fade Compensation for Ka-Band Communications Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W. Carl; Nguyen, Lan; Dissanayake, Asoka; Markey, Brian; Le, Anh

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a review and evaluation of rain fade measurement and compensation techniques for Ka-band satellite systems. This report includes a description of and cost estimates for performing three rain fade measurement and compensation experiments. The first experiment deals with rain fade measurement techniques while the second one covers the rain fade compensation techniques. The third experiment addresses a feedback flow control technique for the ABR service (for ATM-based traffic). The following conclusions were observed in this report; a sufficient system signal margin should be allocated for all carriers in a network, that is a fixed clear-sky margin should be typically in the range of 4-5 dB and should be more like 15 dB in the up link for moderate and heavy rain zones; to obtain a higher system margin it is desirable to combine the uplink power control technique with the technique that implements the source information rate and FEC code rate changes resulting in a 4-5 dB increase in the dynamic part of the system margin. The experiments would assess the feasibility of the fade measurements and compensation techniques, and ABR feedback control technique.

  6. Ka-Band Transponder for Deep-Space Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Matthew S.; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Folkner, William M.; Mendoza, Ricardo; Venkatesan, Jaikrishna

    2008-01-01

    A one-page document describes a Ka-band transponder being developed for use in deep-space radio science. The transponder receives in the Deep Space Network (DSN) uplink frequency band of 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, transmits in the 31.8- to 32.3 GHz DSN downlink band, and performs regenerative ranging on a DSN standard 4-MHz ranging tone subcarrier phase-modulated onto the uplink carrier signal. A primary consideration in this development is reduction in size, relative to other such transponders. The transponder design is all-analog, chosen to minimize not only the size but also the number of parts and the design time and, thus, the cost. The receiver features two stages of frequency down-conversion. The receiver locks onto the uplink carrier signal. The exciter signal for the transmitter is derived from the same source as that used to generate the first-stage local-oscillator signal. The ranging-tone subcarrier is down-converted along with the carrier to the second intermediate frequency, where the 4-MHz tone is demodulated from the composite signal and fed into a ranging-tone-tracking loop, which regenerates the tone. The regenerated tone is linearly phase-modulated onto the downlink carrier.

  7. Paleointensities on 8 ka obsidian from Mayor Island, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The 8 ka BP (6050 BCE pantelleritic obsidian flow on Mayor Island, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, has been investigated using 30 samples from two sites. Due to a very high paramagnetic/ferromagnetic ratio, it was not possible to determine the remanence carriers. This is despite the fact that the samples were studied intensively at low, room, and high temperatures. We infer that a stable remanence within the samples is carried by single- or close to single-domain particles. Experiments to determine the anisotropy of thermoremanence tensor and the dependency on cooling rate were hampered due to alteration resulting from the repeated heating of the samples to temperatures just below the glass transition. Nonetheless, a well-defined mean paleointensity of 57.0 ± 1.0 μT, based on individual high quality paleointensity determinations, was obtained. This field value compares very well to a paleointensity of 58.1 ± 2.9 μT, which Tanaka et al. (2009 obtained for 5500 BCE at a site 100 km distant. Agreement with geomagnetic field models, however, is poor. Thus, gathering more high-quality paleointensity data for the Pacific region and for the southern hemisphere in general to better constrain global field models is very important.

  8. Design of Ka-band antipodal finline mixer and detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Changfei; Xu Jinping; Chen Mo

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the analysis and design of a finline single-ended mixer and detector. In the circuit, for the purpose of eliminating high-order resonant modes and improving transition loss, metallic via holes are implemented along the mounting edge of the substrate embedded in the split-block of the WG-finline-microstrip transition. Meanwhile, a Ka band slow-wave and bandstop filter, which represents a reactive termination, is designed for the utilization of idle frequencies and operation frequencies energy. Full-wave analysis is carried out to optimize the input matching network of the mixer and the detector circuit using lumped elements to model the nonlinear diode. The exported S-matrix of the optimized circuit is used for conversion loss and voltage sensitivity analysis.The lowest measured conversion loss is 3.52 dB at 32.2 GHz; the conversion loss is flat and less than 5.68 dB in the frequency band of 29-34 GHz. The highest measured zero-bias voltage sensitivity is 1450 mV/mW at 38.6 GHz,and the sensitivity is better than 1000 mV/mW in the frequency band of 38-40 GHz.

  9. Patterns of millennial variability over the last 500 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siddall

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Millennial variability is a robust feature of many paleoclimate records, at least throughout the last several glacial cycles. Here we use the mean signal from Antarctic climate events 1 to 4 to probe the EPICA Dome C temperature proxy reconstruction through the last 500 ka for similar millennial-scale events. We find that clusters of millennial events occurred in a regular fashion over half of the time during this with a mean recurrence interval of 21 kyr. We find that there is no consistent link between ice-rafted debris deposition and millennial variability. Instead we speculate that changes in the zonality of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic form a viable alternative to freshwater release from icebergs as a trigger for millennial variability. We suggest that millennial changes in the zonality of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic are linked to precession via sea-ice feedbacks and that this relationship is modified by the presence of the large, Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during glacial periods.

  10. Proxy benchmarks for intercomparison of 8.2 ka simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Morrill

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3 now includes the 8.2 ka event as a test of model sensitivity to North Atlantic freshwater forcing. To provide benchmarks for intercomparison, we compiled and analyzed high-resolution records spanning this event. Two previously-described anomaly patterns that emerge are cooling around the North Atlantic and drier conditions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics. Newer to this compilation are more robustly-defined wetter conditions in the Southern Hemisphere tropics and regionally-limited warming in the Southern Hemisphere. Most anomalies around the globe lasted on the order of 100 to 150 yr. More quantitative reconstructions are now available and indicate cooling of 1.0 to 1.2 °C and a ~20% decrease in precipitation in parts of Europe, as well as spatial gradients in δ18O from the high to low latitudes. Unresolved questions remain about the seasonality of the climate response to freshwater forcing and the extent to which the bipolar seesaw operated in the early Holocene.

  11. Detecting small seamounts in AltiKa repeat cycle data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, K. M.; Smith, W. H. F.

    2016-12-01

    We present a technique of stacking repeat cycles of satellite altimeter sea surface height profiles that lowers the noise and improves the resolution of small seamounts. Our approach differs from other studies because it uses the median (not the mean) of the stacks, which suppresses outliers. Seamounts as small as 720 m tall are easily detected in stacked 40 Hz AltiKa data profiles, and a 500 m tall seamount is perceptible. Noise variance decreases with an increase in the number of cycles stacked, and RMS noise dips below 2 cm when 11 or more cycles are stacked. Coherence analyses between geoid height and bathymetry show that full wavelengths down to about 10 km can be resolved. Comparisons of study areas with and without seamounts find that signal from small seamounts lies in the 10-28 km waveband. A simple Gaussian band-pass filter based on the seamount waveband passes signals that can be used in seamount detection studies. Such studies may find seamounts <2 km tall that are predicted to be abundant on the ocean floor.

  12. Environmental characteristics of Mid-Holocene recorded by lacustrine sediments from Lake Daihai, north environment sensitive zone, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qianli; ZHOU Jie; SHEN Ji; CHEN Peng; WU Feng; XIE Xiuping

    2006-01-01

    Climate proxies, such as total organic carbon and nitrogen (TOC, TN), carbonate content (CaCO3), grain-size and pollen of the sediment core retrieved from enclosed Lake Daihai which lies in the north China environment sensitive zone are analyzed to reconstruct the environment evolution of the area based on high-resolution radiocarbon chronology. The results reveal that the TOC and TN contents of the sediments correlate well with pollen percentage and pollen flux variations during the Holocene, and both reach their peak values simultaneously at 6.7-3.5 ka BP (calendar age, 7.6-3.6ka BP). Since 6.7 ka BP, both the CaCO3 and organic matter contents of the core have simultaneous variations, and their high values also occur during 6.7-3.5 ka BP. While during 9.0-6.7 ka BP (calendar age, 10-7.6 ka BP) relatively lower level of organic matter content and pollen flux correspond to the higher level of carbonate content. The above relations suggest that during 6.7-3.5 ka BP, the productivity and effective precipitation were greatly improved in the lake drainage area, and this would probably strengthen the hydrodynamic conditions, enhancing organic matter, pollen and carbonate inputs from terrestrial sources. Such processes would account for the enrichment of both organic matter and carbonate in the sediments. While during 9.0-6.7 ka BP, the lower level of organic matter, pollen flux but high carbonate content show depressed productivity and declined vegetation coverage. The higher carbonate content at this stage would have probably resulted from the higher evaporation ratio of the lake water under relatively drier climate conditions. Therefore, it is inferred that during 6.7-3.5 ka BP, the climate was more humid with abundant rainfalls and vegetation was more flourishing in the Lake Daihai area. This can be seen as Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO).As a result, this has evident discrepancies with the traditional notion that the HCO occurs at Early Holocene or early Mid-Holocene.

  13. Experimental approaches for measuring pKa's in RNA and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaplyal, Pallavi; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    RNA and DNA carry out diverse functions in biology including catalysis, splicing, gene regulation, and storage of genetic information. Interest has grown in understanding how nucleic acids perform such sophisticated functions given their limited molecular repertoire. RNA can fold into diverse shapes that often perturb pKa values and allow it to ionize appreciably under biological conditions, thereby extending its molecular diversity. The goal of this chapter is to enable experimental measurement of pKa's in RNA and DNA. A number of experimental methods for measuring pKa values in RNA and DNA have been developed over the last 10 years, including RNA cleavage kinetics; UV-, fluorescence-, and NMR-detected pH titrations; and Raman crystallography. We begin with general considerations for choosing a pKa assay and then describe experimental conditions, advantages, and disadvantages for these assays. Potential pitfalls in measuring a pKa are provided including the presence of apparent pKa's due to a kinetic pKa or coupled acid- and alkali-promoted RNA unfolding, as well as degradation of RNA, precipitation of metal hydroxides and poor baselines. Use of multiple data fitting procedures and the study of appropriate mutants are described as ways to avoid some of these pitfalls. Application of these experimental methods to RNA and DNA will increase the number of available nucleic acid pKa values in the literature, which should deepen insight into biology and provide benchmarks for pKa calculations. Future directions for measuring pKa's in nucleic acids are discussed.

  14. Relative sea-level change in northeastern Florida (USA) during the last ∼8.0 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Andrea D.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Peltier, W. Richard; Cahill, Niamh; Hill, David F.; Ashe, Erica; Alexander, Clark R.

    2016-06-01

    An existing database of relative sea-level (RSL) reconstructions from the U.S. Atlantic coast lacked valid sea-level index points from Georgia and Florida. This region lies on the edge of the collapsing forebulge of the former Laurentide Ice Sheet making it an important location for understanding glacio-isostatic adjustment and the history of ice-sheet melt. To address the paucity of data, we reconstruct RSL in northeastern Florida (St. Marys) over the last ∼8.0 ka from samples of basal salt-marsh sediment that minimize the influence of compaction. The analogy between modern salt-marsh foraminifera and their fossil counterparts preserved in the sedimentary record was used to estimate paleomarsh surface elevation. Sample ages were determined by radiocarbon dating of identifiable and in-situ plant macrofossils. This approach yielded 25 new sea-level index points that constrain a ∼5.7 m rise in RSL during the last ∼8.0 ka. The record shows that no highstand in sea level occurred in this region over the period of the reconstruction. We compared the new reconstruction to Earth-ice models ICE 6G-C VM5a and ICE 6G-C VM6. There is good fit in the later part of the Holocene with VM5a and for a brief time in the earlier Holocene with VM6. However, there are discrepancies in model-reconstruction fit in the early to mid Holocene in northeastern Florida and elsewhere along the Atlantic coast at locations with early Holocene RSL reconstructions. The most pronounced feature of the new reconstruction is a slow down in the rate of RSL rise from approximately 5.0 to 3.0 ka. This trend may reflect a significant contribution from local-scale processes such as tidal-range change and/or change in base flow of the St. Marys River in response to paleoclimate changes. However, the spatial expression (local vs. regional) of this slow down is undetermined and corroborative records are needed to establish its geographical extent.

  15. The character of the glaciated Mid-Norwegian continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline Hjelstuen, Berit; Haflidason, Haflidi; Petter Sejrup, Hans

    2010-05-01

    During Pleistocene the development of the NW European continental margin was strongly controlled by the variability in ocean circulation, glaciations and sea-level changes. Repeated occurrence of shelf edge glaciations, from Ireland to Svalbard, started at Marine Isotope Stage 12 (c. 0.5 Ma). During these periods, fast moving ice streams also crossed the Mid-Norwegian continental shelf on a number of locations, and a thick prograding wedge accumulated on the continental slope. During shelf edge glaciations and in early deglaciation phases high sedimentation rates (>2000 cm/ka) existed, and glacigenic debris flows and melt water plumes were deposited. Within these depositional environments we identify three slide events. These slides have affected an area between 2900 and 12000 km2 and involved 580-2400 km3 of sediments, noting that the slide debrites left by the failure events reach a maximum thickness of c. 150 m. The failures have occurred within an area dominated by gradients less than 1 degree, and observation of long run-out distances indicate that hydroplaning was important during slide development. Gas hydrate bearing sediments are identified on the mid-Norwegian continental margin, but appears to be absent in the slide scars. Thus, dissociation of gas hydrates may have promoted conditions for the failures to occur. Within the region of gas hydrate bearing Pleistocene sediments the Nyegga Pockmark Field is observed. This field contains more than 200 pockmarks and is located at a water depth of 600-800 m. The pockmarks identified are up to 15 m deep, between 30 m and 600 m across and reach a maximum area of c. 315 000 m2. The pockmarks are sediment-empty features and are restricted to a <16.2 cal ka BP old sandy mud unit. It seems that the Nyegga Pockmark Field does not show any strong relationship neither to seabed features, sub-seabed structures nor the glacial sedimentary setting. Thus, this implies a more complex development history for the Nyegga

  16. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Tacken, Margot; Bos, Jens; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Korevaar, Joke C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolters, Bert; Bijl, Marc; Postma, Maarten J.; Wilschut, Jan; Nichol, Kristin L.; Hak, Eelko

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. METHODS: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was ass

  17. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Bos, J.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stolk, R.P.; Wolters, B.; Bijl, M.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.; Nichol, K.L.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. Methods: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was ass

  18. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Bos, J.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stolk, R.P.; Wolters, B.; Bijl, M.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.; Nichol, K.L.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. Methods: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was

  19. Third Wave of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus from Poultry, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shumin; Jia, Weixin; Lin, Yicun; Xing, Kaixiang; Ren, Xingxing; Qi, Wenbao

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen influenza A(H7N9) viruses were isolated from poultry or the environment in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province, China during 2014−2015. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all viruses were descended from viruses of the second wave of influenza A(H7N9) virus infections during 2013. These viruses can be divided into 2 branches. PMID:26291620

  20. Third Wave of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus from Poultry, Guangdong Province, China, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shumin; Jia, Weixin; Lin, Yicun; Xing, Kaixiang; Ren, Xingxing; Qi, Wenbao; Liao, Ming

    2015-09-01

    Fourteen influenza A(H7N9) viruses were isolated from poultry or the environment in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province, China during 2014-2015. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all viruses were descended from viruses of the second wave of influenza A(H7N9) virus infections during 2013. These viruses can be divided into 2 branches.

  1. Increased chemical weathering during the deglacial to mid-Holocene summer monsoon intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriyala, Pavan; Sukumaran, N. P.; Nath, B. Nagender; Ramamurty, P. B.; Sijinkumar, A. V.; Vijayagopal, B.; Ramaswamy, V.; Sebastian, Tyson

    2017-01-01

    Chemical weathering and the ensuing atmospheric carbon dioxide consumption has long been considered to work on geological time periods until recently when some modelling and natural records have shown that the weathering-related CO2 consumption can change at century to glacial-interglacial time scale. Last glacial to interglacial transition period is a best test case to understand the interplay between Pco2-temperature-chemical weathering when a pulse of rapid chemical weathering was initiated. Here we show, from a high resolution 54 ka record from the Andaman Sea in the northern Indian Ocean, that the chemical weathering responds to deglacial to mid-Holocene summer monsoon intensification in the Myanmar watersheds. The multi-proxy data (Al/K, CIA, Rb/Sr, 87Sr/86Sr for degree of weathering and 143Nd/144Nd for provenance) reveal an increase in silicate weathering with initiation of interglacial warm climate at ~17.7 ka followed by a major change at 15.5 ka. Inferred changes in chemical weathering have varied in tandem with the regional monsoonal proxies (δ18Osw-salinity changes of Northern Indian Ocean, effective Asian moisture content and δ18O records of Chinese caves) and are synchronous with changes in summer insolation at 30°N and δ18O of GISP2 implying that chemical weathering was not a later amplifier but worked in tandem with global climate change. PMID:28303943

  2. Increased chemical weathering during the deglacial to mid-Holocene summer monsoon intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriyala, Pavan; Sukumaran, N. P.; Nath, B. Nagender; Ramamurty, P. B.; Sijinkumar, A. V.; Vijayagopal, B.; Ramaswamy, V.; Sebastian, Tyson

    2017-03-01

    Chemical weathering and the ensuing atmospheric carbon dioxide consumption has long been considered to work on geological time periods until recently when some modelling and natural records have shown that the weathering-related CO2 consumption can change at century to glacial-interglacial time scale. Last glacial to interglacial transition period is a best test case to understand the interplay between Pco2-temperature-chemical weathering when a pulse of rapid chemical weathering was initiated. Here we show, from a high resolution 54 ka record from the Andaman Sea in the northern Indian Ocean, that the chemical weathering responds to deglacial to mid-Holocene summer monsoon intensification in the Myanmar watersheds. The multi-proxy data (Al/K, CIA, Rb/Sr, 87Sr/86Sr for degree of weathering and 143Nd/144Nd for provenance) reveal an increase in silicate weathering with initiation of interglacial warm climate at ~17.7 ka followed by a major change at 15.5 ka. Inferred changes in chemical weathering have varied in tandem with the regional monsoonal proxies (δ18Osw-salinity changes of Northern Indian Ocean, effective Asian moisture content and δ18O records of Chinese caves) and are synchronous with changes in summer insolation at 30°N and δ18O of GISP2 implying that chemical weathering was not a later amplifier but worked in tandem with global climate change.

  3. MID-FACETS OF A SIMPLEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小燕; 何斌吾; 冷岗松

    2004-01-01

    The mid-facet of a simplex in n-dimensional Euclidean space which was introduced quite recently is an important geometric element.An analytic expression for the mid-facet area of a simplex is firstly given.In order to obtain the expression,the exterior differential method was presented.Furthermore,the properties of the mid-facets of a simplex analogous to median lines of a triangle(such as for all mid-facets of a simplex,there exists another simplex such that its edge-lengths equal to these mid-facets area respectively,and all of the mid-facets of a simplex have a common point)were proved.Finally,by applying the analytic expression,a number of inequalities which combine edge-lengths,circumradius,median line,bisection area and facet area with the mid-facet area for a simplex were established.

  4. Ka-Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) Enabling High Speed Data Communication for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan F.; Chahat, Nacer; Hodges, Richard; Thomson, Mark W.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    CubeSats are at a very exciting point as their mission capabilities and launch opportunities are increasing. But as instruments become more advanced and operational distances between CubeSats and earth increase communication data rate becomes a mission-limiting factor. Improving data rate has become critical enough for NASA to sponsor the Cube Quest Centennial Challenge when: one of the key metrics is transmitting as much data as possible from the moon and beyond Currently, many CubeSats communicate on UHF bands and those that have high data rate abilities use S-band or X-band patch antennas. The CubeSat Aneas, which was launched in September 2012, pushed the envelope with a half-meter S-band dish which could achieve 100x the data rate of patch antennas. A half-meter parabolic antenna operating at Ka-band would increase data rates by over 100x that of the AMOS antenM and 10,000 that of X-band patch antennas.

  5. The rise and fall of Lake Bonneville between 45 and 10.5 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.; Lund, S.P.; Smoot, J.P.; Rhode, D.E.; Spencer, R.J.; Verosub, K.L.; Louderback, L.A.; Johnson, C.A.; Rye, R.O.; Negrini, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A sediment core taken from the western edge of the Bonneville Basin has provided high-resolution proxy records of relative lake-size change for the period 45.1-10.5 calendar ka (hereafter ka). Age control was provided by a paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV)-based age model for Blue Lake core BL04-4. Continuous records of ??18O and total inorganic carbon (TIC) generally match an earlier lake-level envelope based on outcrops and geomorphic features, but with differences in the timing of some hydrologic events/states. The Stansbury Oscillation was found to consist of two oscillations centered on 25 and 24 ka. Lake Bonneville appears to have reached its geomorphic highstand and began spilling at 18.5 ka. The fall from the highstand to the Provo level occurred at 17.0 ka and the lake intermittently overflowed at the Provo level until 15.2 ka, at which time the lake fell again, bottoming out at ~14.7 ka. The lake also fell briefly below the Provo level at ~15.9 ka. Carbonate and ??18O data indicate that between 14.7 and 13.1 ka the lake slowly rose to the Gilbert shoreline and remained at about that elevation until 11.6 ka, when it fell again. Chemical and sedimentological data indicate that a marsh formed in the Blue Lake area at 10.5 ka.Relatively dry periods in the BL04-4 records are associated with Heinrich events H1-H4, suggesting that either the warming that closely followed a Heinrich event increased the evaporation rate in the Bonneville Basin and (or) that the core of the polar jet stream (PJS) shifted north of the Bonneville Basin in response to massive losses of ice from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the Heinrich event. The second Stansbury Oscillation occurred during Heinrich event H2, and the Gilbert wet event occurred during the Younger Dryas cold interval. Several relatively wet events in BL04-4 occur during Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) warm events.The growth of the Bear River glacier between 32 and 17 ka paralleled changes in the values of proxy

  6. High rate of A(H1N1pdm09 infections among rural Thai villagers, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjawan Khuntirat

    Full Text Available Pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 emerged in Thailand in 2009. A prospective longitudinal adult cohort and household transmission study of influenza-like illness (ILI was ongoing in rural Thailand at the time of emergence. Symptomatic and subclinical A(H1N1pdm09 infection rates in the cohort and among household members were evaluated.A cohort of 800 Thai adults underwent active community-based surveillance for ILI from 2008-2010. Acute respiratory samples from ILI episodes were tested for A(H1N1pdm09 by qRT-PCR; acute and 60-day convalescent blood samples were tested by A(H1N1pdm09 hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI. Enrollment, 12-month and 24-month follow-up blood samples were tested for A(H1N1pdm09 seroconversion by HI. Household members of influenza A-infected cohort subjects with ILI were enrolled in household transmission investigations in which day 0 and 60 blood samples and acute respiratory samples were tested by either qRT-PCR or HI for A(H1N1pdm09. Seroconversion between annual blood samples without A(H1N1pdm09-positive ILI was considered as subclinical infection.The 2-yr cumulative incidence of A(H1N1pdm09 infection in the cohort in 2009/2010 was 10.8% (84/781 with an annual incidence of 1.2% in 2009 and 9.7% in 2010; 83.3% of infections were subclinical (50% in 2009 and 85.9% in 2010. The 2-yr cumulative incidence was lowest (5% in adults born ≤ 1957. The A(H1N1pdm09 secondary attack rate among household contacts was 47.2% (17/36; 47.1% of these infections were subclinical. The highest A(H1N1pdm09 secondary attack rate among household contacts (70.6%, 12/17 occurred among children born between 1990 and 2003.Subclinical A(H1N1pdm09 infections in Thai adults occurred frequently and accounted for a greater proportion of all A(H1N1pdm09 infections than previously estimated. The role of subclinical infections in A(H1N1pdm09 transmission has important implications in formulating strategies to predict and prevent the spread of A(H1N1pdm

  7. Possible pandemic threat from new reassortment of influenza A(H7N9) virus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Z; Han, R; Hu, Y; Yuan, Z; Jiang, S; Zhang, X; Xu, J

    2014-02-13

    Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus re-emerged in China in December 2013, after a decrease in the number of new cases during the preceding six months. Reassortment between influenza A(H7N9) and local H9N2 strains has spread from China's south-east coast to other regions. Three new reassortments of A(H7N9) virus were identified by phylogenetic analysis: between A(H7N9) and Zhejiang-derived strains, Guangdong/Hong Kong-derived strains or Hunan-derived A(H9N2) strains. Our findings suggest there is a possible risk that a pandemic could develop.

  8. IEEE 802.11ah: A Technology to Face the IoT Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Baños-Gonzalez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the conception of the Internet of things (IoT, a large number of promising applications and technologies have been developed, which will change different aspects in our daily life. This paper explores the key characteristics of the forthcoming IEEE 802.11ah specification. This future IEEE 802.11 standard aims to amend the IEEE 802.11 legacy specification to support IoT requirements. We present a thorough evaluation of the foregoing amendment in comparison to the most notable IEEE 802.11 standards. In addition, we expose the capabilities of future IEEE 802.11ah in supporting different IoT applications. Also, we provide a brief overview of the technology contenders that are competing to cover the IoT communications framework. Numerical results are presented showing how the future IEEE 802.11ah specification offers the features required by IoT communications, thus putting forward IEEE 802.11ah as a technology to cater the needs of the Internet of Things paradigm.

  9. Inhibition of Vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Spanggaard, Bettina

    1999-01-01

    To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish- pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect....... fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1,000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested...... by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 10(7) CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic...

  10. Job Performance Tests for U/AH-1 Helicopter Mechanics. Volume 1: Hands- On Performance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Hands-on performance tests and job knowledge tests were developed for MOS 6114 (U/AH-1 helicopter mechanic) as part of the Marine Corps Job ... Performance Measurement Project. The purpose of this information memorandum is to disseminate these performance measures to Marine Corps personnel managers

  11. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09-associated pneumonia deaths in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charatdao Bunthi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The first human infections with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus were confirmed in April 2009. We describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of influenza A(H1N1pdm09-associated pneumonia deaths in Thailand from May 2009-January 2010. METHODS: We identified influenza A(H1N1pdm09-associated pneumonia deaths from a national influenza surveillance system and performed detailed reviews of a subset. RESULTS: Of 198 deaths reported, 49% were male and the median age was 37 years; 146 (73% were 20-60 years. Among 90 deaths with records available for review, 46% had no identified risk factors for severe influenza. Eighty-eight patients (98% received antiviral treatment, but only 16 (18% initiated therapy within 48 hours of symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Most influenza A(H1N1pdm09 pneumonia fatalities in Thailand occurred in adults aged 20-60 years. Nearly half lacked high-risk conditions. Antiviral treatment recommendations may be especially important early in a pandemic before vaccine is available. Treatment should be considered as soon as influenza is suspected.

  12. Architectuur als beschavingsideaal: Het bezield modernisme van A.H. Wegerif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture as civilizing ideal - The inspired modernism of A.H. Wegerif Ahazuerus Hendrikus (Henk) Wegerif was born in Apeldoorn on 13th of April 1888, the son of Gerrit Wegerif and Elsje Breman. Both his father and grandfather were building contractors, as was his paternal uncle, Chris Wegerif.

  13. HOW SHOULD SHARI’AH PRINCIPLES BE APPLIED IN MODERN COMPANY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanuddin Susamto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show why the modern business institution (company should be Islamized, and to suggest ways in which shari’ah principles can be applied in the company. To achieve this purpose, we should understand how company be islamized in comprehensive and integrated  manner through the Islamic law perspective, with the contemporary issues like underlying contract of company,  legal entity, and the concept of liability. The resolution of these issues is important to assert that shari’ah principles could be applied in the modern company by integrating approach. An integrating approach in the treating of these issues has, however, been lacking, nor has it been subjected to a thorough legal analysis through the principles of Islamic business law.   Tujuan dari pembahasan ini adalah untuk menunjukkan bahwa institusi bisnis modern (perusahaan harus diislamisasi, dan member masukan cara-cara bagimana prinsip- prinsip shari’ah dapat ditetapkan dalam perusahaan. Untuk mencapai tujuan ini, kita perlu memahami bagaimana perusahaan diislamisasi secara menyeluruh dan terintegrasi melalui perspektif hukum Islam terhadap persoalan kontemporer, seperti landasan kontrak perusahaan, badan hukum, dan konsep liabilitas. Solusi dari persoalan ini sangat penting untuk   menegaskan bahwa prinsip-prinsip shari’ah dapat ditetapkan pada perusahaan modern melalui pendekatan integrasi. Bagaimanapun, pendekatan integrasi dalam menyikapi persoalan ini jarang dilakukan, disamping tidak menjadi tema analisis melalui prinsip-prinsip hukum bisnis Islami.

  14. Course of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus infection in Dutch patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesema, Ingrid H. M.; Meijer, Adam; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B.; van der Lubben, Mariken; van Beek, Janko; Donker, Ge A.; Prins, Jan M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Boskamp, Simone; Isken, Leslie D.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical dynamics of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 infections in 61 laboratory-confirmed Dutch cases were examined. An episode lasted a median of 7 5 days of which 2 days included fever. Respiratory symptoms resolved slowly, while systemic symptoms peaked early in the episode and disappeared quickly. S

  15. Human influenza A(H7N9) virus infection associated with poultry farm, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming; Huang, Biao; Wang, Ao; Deng, Liquan; Wu, Donglin; Lu, Xinrong; Zhao, Qinglong; Xu, Shuang; Havers, Fiona; Wang, Yanhui; Wu, Jing; Yin, Yuan; Sun, Bingxin; Yao, Jianyi; Xiang, Nijuan

    2014-11-01

    We report on a case of human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus in Jilin Province in northeastern China. This case was associated with a poultry farm rather than a live bird market, which may point to a new focus for public health surveillance and interventions in this evolving outbreak.

  16. Inhibition of Vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Spanggaard, Bettina;

    1999-01-01

    To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish- pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect....... fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1,000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested...... by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 10(7) CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic...

  17. Development, documentation and correlation of a NASTRAN vibration model of the AH-1G helicopter airframe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronkhite, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    NASTRAN was evaluated for vibration analysis of the helicopter airframe. The first effort involved development of a NASTRAN model of the AH-1G helicopter airframe and comprehensive documentation of the model. The next effort was to assess the validity of the NASTRAN model by comparisons with static and vibration tests.

  18. Activation of the Ah receptor by extracts of dietary herbal supplements, vegetables, and fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, A.; Keser, B.J.G.; Khan, E.; Brouwer, A.; Koeman, J.H.; Denison, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that can be activated by a structurally diverse range of synthetic and natural chemicals, and it mediates the toxic and biological effects of environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

  19. Architectuur als beschavingsideaal: Het bezield modernisme van A.H. Wegerif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture as civilizing ideal - The inspired modernism of A.H. Wegerif Ahazuerus Hendrikus (Henk) Wegerif was born in Apeldoorn on 13th of April 1888, the son of Gerrit Wegerif and Elsje Breman. Both his father and grandfather were building contractors, as was his paternal uncle, Chris Wegerif.

  20. Syari’ah, Fiqih dan Sebuah Perspektif tentang Tarjîh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahul Huda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes into account the very fact that Syari’ah has been a subject of controversy over centuries. Its interpretation in the form of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence is a strong indication that Syari’ah is not immune from personal subjectivication. Fiqh is quite personal whereby a jurist would read the message of Syari’ah and attempt to give his personal and subjective interpretation of it. Nonetheless, the paper is also of the argument that this controversy is in itself a source of the dynamics of Syari’ah. It is due to this controversy–otherwise known as the legal dispute- that fiqh is capable of being developed over times. Some substances of fiqh are responses to the opposing views on some issues. Not less important than this is to delve into the factors that triggered such controversy and dispute. The paper speaks of three factors, namely the nature of subject-matter, the way the jurists interpret it, and the social circumstances that surround the jurists and help shape their way of thinking. The first is epistemological, the second methodological, whereas the third to sociological. The three factors are inter-related and form as it were the comprehensive legal products which the Muslims currently inherited. The Tarjih in the meantime, is a form of a legal product, which serves both as a social and intellectual modality for the Muslims in their daily lives.

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A2AH-2NOTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A2AH-2NOTA 1A2A 2NOT H A NLLQFNKMIKEETG-KNAIPFYAFYGCYCGGGGNGKPKD...278 2NOT A 2.2960000038146973 tion> -0.0820000022649765 -0.5170000195503235 ...>-0.38600000739097595 0.8169999718666077 0.45399999618530273 0.3540000021457672 ...2NOT A 2NOTA

  2. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Teaching about Islam, "Jihad," and "Shari'ah" Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the controversial curricular and instructional aspects of teaching about Islam in social studies courses. Specifically, the author discusses pedagogically sound approaches to teaching about "jihad" and "Shari'ah" law, two of the most important and controversial concepts in Islam that often generate intense…

  3. The Influenza A(H1N1)v Pandemic: An Exploratory System Dynamics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Hamarat, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a small exploratory System Dynamics model related to the dynamics of the 2009 flu pandemic, also known as the Mexican flu, swine flu, or A(H1N1)v. The model was developed in May 2009 in order to quickly foster understanding about the possible dynamics of this new flu variant and

  4. AH-DB: collecting protein structure pairs before and after binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Darby Tien-Hao; Yao, Tsung-Ju; Fan, Chen-Yu; Chiang, Chih-Yun; Bai, Yi-Han

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the Apo-Holo DataBase (AH-DB, http://ahdb.ee.ncku.edu.tw/ and http://ahdb.csbb.ntu.edu.tw/), which provides corresponding pairs of protein structures before and after binding. Conformational transitions are commonly observed in various protein interactions that are involved in important biological functions. For example, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), which destroys free superoxide radicals in the body, undergoes a large conformational transition from an 'open' state (apo structure) to a 'closed' state (holo structure). Many studies have utilized collections of apo-holo structure pairs to investigate the conformational transitions and critical residues. However, the collection process is usually complicated, varies from study to study and produces a small-scale data set. AH-DB is designed to provide an easy and unified way to prepare such data, which is generated by identifying/mapping molecules in different Protein Data Bank (PDB) entries. Conformational transitions are identified based on a refined alignment scheme to overcome the challenge that many structures in the PDB database are only protein fragments and not complete proteins. There are 746,314 apo-holo pairs in AH-DB, which is about 30 times those in the second largest collection of similar data. AH-DB provides sophisticated interfaces for searching apo-holo structure pairs and exploring conformational transitions from apo structures to the corresponding holo structures.

  5. Alkaline manganese--zinc battery. [2000 Ah, 100 Wh/kg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumenko, V.A.; Lyapuntsova, T.G.; Lidorenko, N.S.; Lebedeva, E.S.; Penkova, L.F.; Aleshin, V.N.

    1975-02-12

    The battery described consisted of flat electrodes assembled in a pack. Cathodes were enclosed in perforated metal frames, while the anodes were metal plates coated with zinc. The batteries had capacities of about 2000 Ah and power--weight ratios of 100 Wh/kg and were resistant to shock and vibration. (RWR)

  6. IEEE 802.11ah: A Technology to Face the IoT Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños-Gonzalez, Victor; Afaqui, M Shahwaiz; Lopez-Aguilera, Elena; Garcia-Villegas, Eduard

    2016-11-22

    Since the conception of the Internet of things (IoT), a large number of promising applications and technologies have been developed, which will change different aspects in our daily life. This paper explores the key characteristics of the forthcoming IEEE 802.11ah specification. This future IEEE 802.11 standard aims to amend the IEEE 802.11 legacy specification to support IoT requirements. We present a thorough evaluation of the foregoing amendment in comparison to the most notable IEEE 802.11 standards. In addition, we expose the capabilities of future IEEE 802.11ah in supporting different IoT applications. Also, we provide a brief overview of the technology contenders that are competing to cover the IoT communications framework. Numerical results are presented showing how the future IEEE 802.11ah specification offers the features required by IoT communications, thus putting forward IEEE 802.11ah as a technology to cater the needs of the Internet of Things paradigm.

  7. Narcolepsy and A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Most, Robbert; Van Mechelen, Marcelle; Destexhe, Eric; Wettendorff, Martine; Hanon, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data from several European countries suggested an increased risk of the chronic sleep disorder narcolepsy following vaccination with Pandemrix™, an AS03-adjuvanted, pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine. Further research to investigate potential associations between Pandemrix™ vaccination, A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza infection and narcolepsy is required. Narcolepsy is most commonly caused by a reduction or absence of hypocretin produced by hypocretin-secreting neurons in the hypothalamus, and is tightly associated with HLA-II DQB1*06:02. Consequently, research focusing on CD4+ T-cell responses, building on the hypothesis that for disease development, T cells specific for antigen(s) from hypocretin neurons must be activated or reactivated, is considered essential. Therefore, the following key areas of research can be identified, (1) characterization of hypothetical narcolepsy-specific auto-immune CD4+ T cells, (2) mapping epitopes of such T cells, and (3) evaluating potential mechanisms that would enable such cells to gain access to the hypothalamus. Addressing these questions could further our understanding of the potential links between narcolepsy and A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination and/or infection. Of particular interest is that any evidence of a mimicry-based mechanism could also explain the association between narcolepsy and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza infection. PMID:24342916

  8. Long-Term Cytotoxicity, pH and Dissolution Rate of AH Plus and MTA Fillapex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal da; Accorsi-Mendonça, Thais; Pedrosa, Ana Carolina; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Zaia, Alexandre A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the long-term cytotoxic effects of the MTA Fillapex and to compare them with AH Plus. Dissolution rate and pH were also evaluated. Human osteoblast cells were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from AH Plus and MTA Fillapex, and with elutes of the same specimens for 4 successive weeks. Elute's pH was evaluated at each time point. A multiparametric cell viability assay was performed. For dissolution rate, ISO methodology was used. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, complemented with the Tukey post-test (p0.05). After 1 week, AH Plus became non-cytotoxic on all three evaluated parameters. Conversely, MTA Fillapex remained severely and mildly cytotoxic over the entire experimental period (pMTA Fillapex at all time points (p>0.05). The pH of AH Plus was significantly lower than MTA Fillapex at the second and third week (pMTA Fillapex remained cytotoxic after 4 weeks and its cytotoxicity may be related to the high dissolution rate of this material.

  9. Shari’ah-Compliant E-Commerce Models and Consumer Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kholifatul I Ardiansyah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the real picture of Shari’ah-compliant E-commerce model and consumer trust in e-commerce today, analyzing its drawbacks, and finding out how they influence each other. Shari'ah-compliant E-commerce model is a model that describes how e-commerce should run in accordance with the provisions of the Shari’ah. Broadly speaking, e-commerce in the perspective of Shari’ah must comply with some rules, namely: 1. the form of the offer and transaction agreement; 2. the transacting parties (buyers and sellers; 3. Objects and prices in the transaction; 4. Free from major prohibitions in transactions. The sample in this study is Indonesian citizen who are consumers of e-commerce. This research uses descriptive and statistical methods with multiple linear regression model. This model is considered relevant and good to be studied in order to enlighten how e-commerce is currently in the perspective of IslamDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i2.2913

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1JJWB-2Z3AH [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1JJWB-2Z3AH 1JJW 2Z3A B H -----TTIVSVRRNGQVVVGGDGQVSLG-NTVMKGNARK...HHHHHHHHHHHHH HHHHHHHHHHHHHHH EEEEE 0 1JJ...W B 1JJWB QVSLG-NTVMK...ndel> 1 1JJW B 1JJ...ine>GLY CA 348 ILE CA 430 LEU CA 439 1JJ

  11. Cyclone Xaver seen by SARAL/AltiKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharroo, Remko; Fenoglio, Luciana; Annunziato, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    During the first week of December 2013, Cyclone Xaver pounded the coasts and the North Sea. On 6 December, all along the Wadden Sea, the barrier islands along the north of the Netherlands and the northwest of Germany experienced record storm surges. We show a comparison of the storm surge measured by the radar altimeter AltiKa on-board the SARAL satellite and various types of in-situ data and models. Two tide gauges along the German North Sea coast, one in the southern harbour of the island of Helgoland and one on an offshore lighthouse Alte Weser, confirmed that the storm drove sea level to about three meters above the normal tide level. Loading effects during the storm are also detected by the GPS measurements at several tide gauge stations. The altimeter in the mean time shows that the storm surge was noticeable as far as 400 km from the coast. The altimeter measured wind speeds of 20 m/s nearly monotonically throughout the North Sea. An offshore anemometer near the island of Borkum corroborated this value. A buoy near the FINO1 offshore platform measured wave heights of 8 m, matching quite well the measurements from the altimeter, ranging from 6 m near the German coast to 12 m further out into the North Sea. Furthermore we compare the altimeter-derived and in-situ sea level, wave height and wind speed products with outputs from the Operation Circulation and Forecast model of the Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) and with a global storm surge forecast and inundation model of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. The Operational circulation model of BSH (BSHcmod) and its component, the surge model (BSHsmod), perform daily predictions for the next 72 hours based on the meteorological model of the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD). The JRC Storm Surge Calculation System is a new development that has been established at the JRC in the framework of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS). The system uses

  12. Resilient FTS3 service at GridKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, T.; Bubeliene, J.; Hoeft, B.; Obholz, L.; Petzold, A.; Wisniewski, K.

    2015-12-01

    The FTS (File Transfer Service) service provides a transfer job scheduler to distribute and replicate vast amounts of data over the heterogeneous WLCG infrastructures. Compared to the channel model of the previous versions, the most recent version of FTS simplifies and improves the flexibility of the service while reducing the load to the service components. The improvements allow to handle a higher number of transfers with a single FTS3 setup. Covering now continent-wide transfers compared to the previous version, whose installations handled only transfers within specific clouds, a resilient system becomes even more necessary with the increased number of depending users. Having set up a FTS3 services at the German T1 site GridKa at KIT in Karlsruhe, we present our experiences on the preparations for a high-availability FTS3 service. Trying to avoid single points of failure, we rely on a database cluster as fault tolerant data back-end and the FTS3 service deployed on an own cluster setup to provide a resilient infrastructure for the users. With the database cluster providing a basic resilience for the data back-end, we ensure on the FTS3 service level a consistent and reliable database access through a proxy solution. On each FTS3 node a HAproxy instance is monitoring the integrity of each database node and distributes database queries over the whole cluster for load balancing during normal operations; in case of a broken database node, the proxy excludes it transparently to the local FTS3 service. The FTS3 service itself consists of a main and a backup instance, which takes over the identity of the main instance, i.e., IP, in case of an error using a CTDB (Cluster Trivial Database) infrastructure offering clients a consistent service.

  13. French experience of 2009 A/H1N1v influenza in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Dubar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The first reports on the pandemic influenza 2009 A/H1N1v from the USA, Mexico, and Australia indicated that this disease was associated with a high mortality in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the characteristics of severe critically ill and non-severe pregnant women with 2009 A/H1N1v-related illness in France. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national registry was created to screen pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed 2009 A/H1N1v influenza. Three hundred and fifteen patients from 46 French hospitals were included: 40 patients were admitted to intensive care units (severe outcomes, 111 were hospitalized in obstetric or medical wards (moderate outcomes, and 164 were outpatients (mild outcomes. The 2009 A/H1N1v influenza illness occurred during all pregnancy trimesters, but most women (54%, notably the severe patients (70%, were in the third trimester. Among the severe patients, twenty (50% underwent mechanical ventilation, and eleven (28% were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Three women died from A/H1N1v influenza. We found a strong association between the development of a severe outcome and both co-existing illnesses (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-11.8 and a delay in oseltamivir treatment after the onset of symptoms (>3 or 5 days (adjusted OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.9-12.1 and 61.2, 95% CI; 14.4-261.3, respectively. Among the 140 deliveries after 22 weeks of gestation known to date, 19 neonates (14% were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, mainly for preterm delivery, and two neonates died. None of these neonates developed 2009 A/H1N1v infection. CONCLUSIONS: This series confirms the high incidence of complications in pregnant women infected with pandemic A/H1N1v observed in other countries but depicts a lower overall maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity than indicated in the USA or Australia. Moreover, our data demonstrate the

  14. Acetylcholine mobilization in a sympathetic ganglion in the presence and absence of 2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol (AH5183)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, R.; Collier, B.

    1988-01-01

    The present experiments measured the release of acetylcholine (ACh) by the cat superior cervical ganglia in the presence of, and after exposure to, 2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol (AH5183), a compound known to block the uptake of ACh by cholinergic synaptic vesicles. We confirmed that AH5183 blocks evoked ACh release during preganglionic nerve stimulation when approximately 13-14% of the initial ganglial ACh stores had been released; periods of rest in the presence of the drug did not promote recovery from the block, but ACh release recovered following the washout of AH5183. ACh was synthesized in AH5183-treated ganglia, as determined by the synthesis of (/sup 3/H)ACh from (/sup 3/H)choline, and this (/sup 3/H)ACh could be released by stimulation following drug washout. The specific activity of the released ACh matched that of the tissue's ACh, and thus we conclude that ACh synthesized in the presence of AH5183 is a releasable as pre-existing ACh stores once the drug is removed. We tested the relative releasability of ACh synthesized during AH5183 exposure (perfusion with (/sup 3/H)choline) and that synthesized during recovery from the drug's effects (perfusion with (/sup 14/C)choline: the ratio of (/sup 3/H)ACh to (/sup 14/C)ACh released by stimulation was similar to the ratio in the tissue. These results suggest that the mobilization of ACh for release by ganglia during recovery from an AH5183-induced block is independent of the conditions under which the ACh was synthesized. Unlike nerve impulses, black widow spider venom (BWSV) induced the release of ACh from AH5183-blocked ganglia, even in the drug's continued presence. Venom-induced release of ACh from AH5183-treated ganglia was not less than the venom-induced release from tissues not exposed to AH5183.

  15. The intrinsic line width of the Fe Ka line of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiren

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescent lines are unique features of the reflection spectrum of the cold torus when irradiated by the central AGN. Their intrinsic line widths can be used to probe the line-emitting region. The line widths of the Fe \\Ka line measured from the first order Chandra High Energy Grating (HEG) spectra are $3-5$ times larger than those measured with the Si \\Ka line for Circinus, Mrk 3, and NGC 1068. Because the observed Si \\Ka and Fe \\Ka lines are not necessarily coming from the same physical region, it is uncertain whether the line widths of the Fe \\Ka line are over-estimated or not. We measured the intrinsic line widths of the Fe \\Ka line of several nearby bright AGN using the second and third order Chandra HEG spectra, whose spectral resolutions are better than the first order data. We found the measured widths are all smaller than those from the first order data. The results clearly show that the widths of the Fe \\Ka line measured from the first order HEG data are over-estimated. It indicates that the ...

  16. The Potential for a Ka-band (32 GHz) Worldwide VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bach, U.; Colomer, F.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.; Gulyaev, S.; Horiuchi, S.; Ichikawa, R.; Kraus, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, J. A.; Lovell, J.; Majid, W.; Natusch, T.; Neidhardt, A.; Phillips, C.; Porcas, R.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Saldana, L.; Schreiber, U.; Sotuela, I.; Takeuchi, H.; Trinh, J.; Tzioumis, A.; deVincente, P.

    2012-01-01

    Ka-band (32 GHz, 9mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) networking has now begun and has tremendous potential for expansion over the next few years. Ka-band VLBI astrometry from NASA's Deep Space Network has already developed a catalog of 470 observable sources with highly accurate positions. Now, several antennas worldwide are planning or are considering adding Ka-band VLBI capability. Thus, there is now an opportunity to create a worldwide Ka-band network with potential for high resolution imaging and astrometry. With baselines approaching a Giga-lambda, a Ka-band network would be able to probe source structure at the nano-radian (200 as) level ( 100X better than Hubble) and thus gain insight into the astrophysics of the most compact regions of emission in active galactic nuclei. We discuss the advantages of Ka-band, show the known sources and candidates, simulate projected baseline (uv) coverage, and discuss potential radio frequency feeds. The combination of these elements demonstrates the feasibility of a worldwide Ka network within the next few years!

  17. Studying NASA's Transition to Ka-Band Communications for Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard; Mortensen, Dale; Welch, Bryan; Downey, Joseph; Evans, Mike

    2014-01-01

    As the S-band spectrum becomes crowded, future space missions will need to consider moving command and telemetry services to Ka-band. NASAs Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed provides a software-defined radio (SDR) platform that is capable of supporting investigation of this service transition. The testbed contains two S-band SDRs and one Ka-band SDR. Over the past year, SCaN Testbed has demonstrated Ka-band communications capabilities with NASAs Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) using both open- and closed-loop antenna tracking profiles. A number of technical areas need to be addressed for successful transition to Ka-band. The smaller antenna beamwidth at Ka-band increases the criticality of antenna pointing, necessitating closed loop tracking algorithms and new techniques for received power estimation. Additionally, the antenna pointing routines require enhanced knowledge of spacecraft position and attitude for initial acquisition, versus an S-band antenna. Ka-band provides a number of technical advantages for bulk data transfer. Unlike at S-band, a larger bandwidth may be available for space missions, allowing increased data rates. The potential for high rate data transfer can also be extended for direct-to-ground links through use of variable or adaptive coding and modulation. Specific examples of Ka-band research from SCaN Testbeds first year of operation will be cited, such as communications link performance with TDRSS, and the effects of truss flexure on antenna pointing.

  18. The Potential for a Ka-band (32 GHz) Worldwide VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bach, U.; Colomer, F.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.; Gulyaev, S.; Horiuchi, S.; Ichikawa, R.; Kraus, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Ka-band (32 GHz, 9mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) networking has now begun and has tremendous potential for expansion over the next few years. Ka-band VLBI astrometry from NASA's Deep Space Network has already developed a catalog of 470 observable sources with highly accurate positions. Now, several antennas worldwide are planning or are considering adding Ka-band VLBI capability. Thus, there is now an opportunity to create a worldwide Ka-band network with potential for high resolution imaging and astrometry. With baselines approaching a Giga-lambda, a Ka-band network would be able to probe source structure at the nano-radian (200 as) level ( 100X better than Hubble) and thus gain insight into the astrophysics of the most compact regions of emission in active galactic nuclei. We discuss the advantages of Ka-band, show the known sources and candidates, simulate projected baseline (uv) coverage, and discuss potential radio frequency feeds. The combination of these elements demonstrates the feasibility of a worldwide Ka network within the next few years!

  19. Tephrochronology of a 70 ka-long marine record in the Marsili Basin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrino, S.; Insinga, D. D.; Pelosi, N.; Kissel, C.; Laj, C.; Capotondi, L.; Sprovieri, M.

    2016-11-01

    A sequence of tephra layers is studied in a 13.9 m-long deep-sea core (MD01-2474G) from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The chronology of the succession is provided by a high-resolution age-depth model based on isotope stratigraphy and AMS radiocarbon dating, which place the succession of events in a time interval spanning the last 70 ka. Based on a precise chronological framework and proximal-distal correlations, the Y-1, Y-6 and Y-7 main marker tephras were identified. Compositional data on fresh micro-pumice or glass shards of selected tephras were correlated with the coeval volcanic activity of Aeolian Arc (Vulcano and Salina), Mt. Etna, Phlegrean Fields Pantelleria and Ischia. The tephra sequence contains a number of deposits documenting recurrent activity on Vulcano Island at ca. 6.9 ka BP (MD3), ca. 16.7 ka BP (MD11), ca. 23.2 ka BP (MD14), ca. 29.6 ka BP (MD15), ca. 36.9 ka BP (MD22) and ca. 42.5 ka BP (MD27). The results presented in this study improve the southern Tyrrhenian Sea tephrostratigraphic framework and provide new insights into chemistry and dispersal area of Aeolian Arc pyroclastic deposits in this sector of the Central Mediterranean.

  20. Impact of obesity in patients infected with 2009 influenza A(H1N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Emili; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Lorente, Leonardo; Del Mar Martín, María; Pozo, Juan Carlos; Montejo, Juan Carlos; Estella, Angel; Arenzana, Ángel; Rello, Jordi

    2011-02-01

    A large proportion of patients infected with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) (A[H1N1]) are obese. Obesity has been proposed as a risk factor influencing outcome in these patients. However, its role remains unclear. We evaluate the outcome of patients who are obese and infected with A(H1N1) in the ICU, determining whether obesity is a risk factor for mortality. This was a prospective, observational, and multicenter study performed in 144 ICUs in Spain. Data were obtained from the Grupo de Trabajo en Enfermedades Infecciosas de la Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias (GTEI/SEMICYUC) registry. Adult patients with A(H1N1) that was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction were included in the analysis. Patients who were obese (BMI > 30) were compared with patients who were nonobese. Cox regression analysis was used to determine adjusted mortality. Differences of P 40). Mechanical ventilation (MV) was more frequently applied in patients who were obese (64% vs 52.4%, P < .01) Patients with obesity remained on MV longer than patients who were nonobese (6.5 ± 10.3 days vs 9.3 ± 9.7 days, P = .02), had longer ICU length of stay (10.8 ± 12.1 days vs 13.7 ± 11.7 days, P = .03), and had longer hospitalization (18.2 ± 14.6 days vs 22.2 ± 16.5 days, P = .02). Mortality adjusted by severity and potential confounders identified that obesity was not significantly associated with ICU mortality (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.69-1.75; P = .68). In our cohort, patients who were obese and infected with A(H1N1) did not have increased mortality. However, there was an association between obesity and higher ICU resource consumption.

  1. PROBLEM PRAKTIK KHURÛJ BAGI ANGGOTA JAMA`AH TABLIGH DI MADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiqoh Bahjah Lailatus Siyami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Khurûj is one of the teachings which is tightly attached to Jama`ah Tabligh that ordered all its followers to go out of the district/area to spread amr al-ma`rûf nahy al-munkar in a certain time. The main problem is when the khurûj obligation is faced to Family obligation. Those obligations can create problems when the member of the Jama`ah Tabligh cannot make the obligation to the family and the khurûj obligation balance. One of the examples is the divorce of the member of the Jama`ah Tabligh. The reason of the divorce is because the lack of living cost when the husband did the khurûj. To fulfill it, the wife gets debt from other people and she cannot pay it off. Doing the khurûj is an activity of Jama`ah Tabligh, where a member will be stated as a legal member when he has joined the khurûj. Khurûj concept in its application is devided into 3 phases. The First is 3 days in a month; the second is 40 days in a year, and the last is 4 months in a lifetime. But the theory of the counting is using unknown and unclear base either from Al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah or any other methods of dakwah that applied by Rasulullah. While Jama`ah Tabligh uses Saying from Al-Qur’an as theoretical foundation about khurûj, that is the word “ukhrijat” containing in QS. Ali Imran (3: 110

  2. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Lihua; Zha Jinmiao; Li Wei; Li Zhaoli [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zijian, E-mail: wangzj@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-05-05

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333 {mu}g/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The expressions of Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100 {mu}g/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  3. Rapid cooling rates at an active mid-ocean ridge from zircon thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel K.; Perfit, Michael R.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Smith, Matthew C.; Cotsonika, Laurie A.; Zellmer, Georg F.; Ridley, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic spreading ridges are Earth's most productive crust generating environment, but mechanisms and rates of crustal accretion and heat loss are debated. Existing observations on cooling rates are ambiguous regarding the prevalence of conductive vs. convective cooling of lower oceanic crust. Here, we report the discovery and dating of zircon in mid-ocean ridge dacite lavas that constrain magmatic differentiation and cooling rates at an active spreading center. Dacitic lavas erupted on the southern Cleft segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge, an intermediate-rate spreading center, near the intersection with the Blanco transform fault. Their U–Th zircon crystallization ages (29.3-4.6+4.8 ka; 1δ standard error s.e.) overlap with the (U–Th)/He zircon eruption age (32.7 ± 1.6 ka) within uncertainty. Based on similar 238U-230Th disequilibria between southern Cleft dacite glass separates and young mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) erupted nearby, differentiation must have occurred rapidly, within ~ 10–20 ka at most. Ti-in-zircon thermometry indicates crystallization at 850–900 °C and pressures > 70–150 MPa are calculated from H2O solubility models. These time-temperature constraints translate into a magma cooling rate of ~ 2 × 10-2 °C/a. This rate is at least one order-of-magnitude faster than those calculated for zircon-bearing plutonic rocks from slow spreading ridges. Such short intervals for differentiation and cooling can only be resolved through uranium-series (238U–230Th) decay in young lavas, and are best explained by dissipating heat convectively at high crustal permeability.

  4. Historical review of bryological research in Fruška Gora Mt. (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Miloš M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruška Gora is a mountain located in the southern part of Pannonian plane and it is poorly bryologicaly investigated as well as most parts of Serbia. First data on bryophytes, for this region, were published in 1949 by Teodor Soška in his paper Pregled mahovina i lišajeva u okolini Beograda (Review of mosses and lichens in the vicinity of Belgrade. Soška listed 34 species of mosses and 8 liverworts species for this region. Later, in 1955, Zlatko Pavletić in his capital work Prodromus flore briofita Jugoslavije (Prodromus of Yugoslavian bryophyte flora, stated 26 moss species and 3 liverwort species, without indicating specific localities, but all of them were Soška’s original results. In 1966, the second botanist with original findings of bryophytes on Fruška Gora was Popović, who recorded 2 liverwort and 19 moss species, for this mountain, also without specific localities. By far, the most comprehensive data were given by Cvetić and Sabovljević in 2004. Their study A contribution to the bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora (Vojvodina, Serbia counted total number of 118 mosses and 14 liverworts, on 16 localities within National park Fruška Gora. The latest study on bryophytes of Fruška Gora was in 2013, and it is the first and so far, the last study of bryophyte assemblages on grasslands. Authors of this paper recorded 18 species of mosses from 29 releveé. Complete bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora is still unknown. Considering the fact that this is the region with high biodiversity, dense hydrological network and a rather complex geology, Fruška Gora certainly deserves further bryological researches.

  5. A Novel Ku-Band/Ka-Band and Ka-Band/E-Band Multimode Waveguide Couplers for Power Measurement of Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Harmonic Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler, fabricated from two dissimilar frequency band waveguides, is capable of isolating power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifier. Test results from proof-of-concept demonstrations are presented for a Ku-band/Ka-band MDC and a Ka-band/E-band MDC. In addition to power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a satellite borne beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies (Ka-band and E-band).

  6. Ka-mixing in the unimolecular dissociation of NO 2 studied by classical dynamics calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenshchikov, S. Yu; Flöthmann, H.; Schinke, R.; Bezel, I.; Wittig, C.; Kato, S.

    1998-03-01

    Coriolis and centrifugal vibration-rotation coupling in the unimolecular dissociation of ground electronic state NO 2 has been examined by using classical trajectories. The time evolution of the projection Ka of the rotational angular momentum N in a body-fixed frame is analyzed. The main result is a relation between the decomposition lifetime and the degree of Ka-mixing. For example, less than 30% of the available Ka space becomes populated for an average lifetime of 5 ps. This is consistent with the conclusions, based on time-resolved experiments, that rotation-vibration transfer is slower than reaction except just above the threshold.

  7. Pra Na Wa Ka: The Development of Training Course for Continuing Buddhism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phra M.P. Romphothanthong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buddhism is a religion that requires meditation, practice, intellectual precepts of the threefold-training such as morality, concentration and wisdom. The purpose of practicing Buddhism is the goal of deliverance through attaining knowledge and wisdom. The Pra Na Wa Ka are newly ordained monks and needed to study both of the scriptures and the practice for appreciating understanding in morality, concentration and wisdom. A training model and guidelines are needed to improve the quality and efficiency of Pra Na Wa Ka because currently most of the monks who are the teachers lacked knowledge and are not ready to act as the Pra Na Wa Ka teacher, because lack of the teaching media, lack of the proper knowledge of the teacher vocational, the lesson plan arrangement, the psychology of teaching, lack of technique variety of teaching methods. Most of the temple had no education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka who ordained in short-term, within 3 days 7 days 15 days or to one month, lack of the short period course to study about Buddhism, the Pra Na Wa Ka cannot accurately recite the Pali words, the Pra Na Wa Ka who were ordained were not motivated and faithful in learning and low morality. Approach: This research intended to study the history of the education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka (Newly ordained monk and to study about the problems and need of the Pra Na Wa Ka in knowledge about Buddhism and to develop the curriculum and the training package of the Pra Na Wa Ka in Buddhism. Results: The Pra Na Wa Ka traing course is a curriculum to study Buddhism through 3 training courses; (1 Basic Course: 3 days for initiation 7 days, (2 Intermediate course 7 days for initiation 15 days and (3 Long period course 15 days for initiation more than 30 days. The training courses were accompanied by a training kit to understand the main precepts of morality, concentration and wisdom. The curriculum was successful in providing Pra Na Wa Ka

  8. A Ka-band (32 GHz) beacon link experiment (KABLE) with Mars Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, A. L.; Hansen, D. M.; Mileant, A.; Hartop, R. W.

    1987-02-01

    A proposal for a Ka-Band (32 GHz) Link Experiment (KABLE) with the Mars Observer mission was submitted to NASA. The experiment will rely on the fourth harmonic of the spacecraft X-band transmitter to generate a 33.6 GHz signal. The experiment will rely also on the Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving station equipped to simultaneously receive X- and Ka-band signals. The experiment will accurately measure the spacecraft-to-Earth telecommunication link performance at Ka-band and X-band (8.4 GHz).

  9. Effect of methylation on the side-chain pKa value of arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evich, Marina; Stroeva, Ekaterina; Zheng, Yujun George; Germann, Markus W

    2016-02-01

    Arginine methylation is important in biological systems. Recent studies link the deregulation of protein arginine methyltransferases with certain cancers. To assess the impact of methylation on interaction with other biomolecules, the pKa values of methylated arginine variants were determined using NMR data. The pKa values of monomethylated, symmetrically dimethylated, and asymmetrically dimethylated arginine are similar to the unmodified arginine (14.2 ± 0.4). Although the pKa value has not been significantly affected by methylation, consequences of methylation include changes in charge distribution and steric effects, suggesting alternative mechanisms for recognition. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  10. A Novel Approach to Characterize Compositional Variability through Time at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.; Gill, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    The temporal, spatial, and compositional variability of eruptive products illuminates the scales of magmatic sources and processes. Prior methods to evaluate this variability rely on extensive sampling of lava flows. We describe a novel approach to assess the variability of submarine volcanics using material recovered in pushcores at a mid-ocean ridge. Pushcores collected from the west flank of Endeavour in 2011 with ROV Doc Ricketts were extruded in 1- or 2-cm intervals and volcaniclastic glass shards and foraminifera were extracted for electron microprobe and radiocarbon analyses, respectively. 14C ages and glass compositions from two cores provide chemical stratigraphies we compare to compositions of proximal lavas to assess local variability and volcaniclast dispersal. A 20-cm core from the north slope of Summit Seamount ~100m above the axial valley floor has a basal age of 4.5ka and 10-12 cm is ~1.5ka. Shards in the bottom 6cm are chemically distinct from the lava flow that it overlies. These basal shards are bimodal in MgO and the more differentiated mode is similar to flows on the valley floor on the opposite side of the faulted remnants of Summit Seamount. Most shards in the top 14 cm are similar to the underlying lava flow and have uniform MgO of 7.3 ×0.1. This composition is dominant in shards from 6-12 cm, which may represent a single eruption. Nearby flows encompassing three additional distinct lava types are also present as rare random shards; one additional lava type ~1km distant is absent. A 24-cm core from NW of Main Endeavour Field overlies a compositionally distinct low pillow mound on the west flank; no shards with this composition are found. The core is dated at 10.5ka (basal), ~4.8ka (15-17 cm), and ~2.0ka (9-11 cm). From 10.5 to 4.8 ka, most shards are compositionally similar to, but slightly more evolved than, extensive sheet lavas that flowed around the pillow mounds. A subordinate amount of shards that are compositionally similar, but more

  11. The Mid-Holocene and Last Interglacial Experiments in PMIP4/CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Braconnot, Pascale; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the forcings and feedbacks that produced interglacial warmth and the outcomes from it can help us better project the future climate of our planet. CMIP6 will include two interglacial experiments to explore the responses of the models to the forcing by orbital variations: the Mid-Holocene (MH 6000 years ago [6 ka]) and Last Interglacial (LIG 127,000 years ago [127 ka]). The dominant orbital forcing changes from modern modified the incoming solar insolation at the top of the atmosphere, resulting in large positive anomalies in summer in the Northern Hemisphere. Greenhouse gas concentrations were close to those of the pre-industrial. This pair of simulations will allow an assessment of the scaling and thresholds of the Earth system to the magnitude of the solar insolation changes (larger seasonal anomalies at 127 ka than 6 ka). High latitude feedbacks from sea-ice, water vapor and clouds will be a focus, and the implications for the stability of the Greenland and West Antarctic (WAIS) ice sheets. This output will be used by the ice sheet modeling community, with an intercomparison being coordinated as a joint activity of PMIP4 and ISMIP6 for CMIP6. As well, these experiments will explore the relative changes of the low-latitude hydrological cycle and monsoons. The MH and LIG are the most suitable of the warm interglacials for a CMIP6 assessment because of the wealth of data including: ice cores providing measurements of well-mixed greenhouse gases, aerosols including dust and sea salt, and stable water isotopes as a proxy for temperature, as well as for Greenland, ice sheet elevation and extent; marine records for ocean temperatures and geotracers that can be interpreted in terms of water masses and overturning strength; speleothems that provide indication of monsoon strength; fossil corals and sediments for interannual to multi-decadal variability; and terrestrial records that indicate temperature, vegetation, lake level, and hydroclimate changes. As

  12. A novel role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR in centrosome amplification - implications for chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Payel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Centrosome aberrations can cause genomic instability and correlate with malignant progression in common human malignancies such as breast and prostate cancer. Deregulation of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2 activity has previously been shown to be critically involved in centrosome overduplication. We therefore test here whether small molecule CDK inhibitors derived from the bis-indole indirubin can be used to suppress centrosome aberrations as a novel approach to chemoprevention of malignant progression. Results As expected, we found that the CDK inhibitor indirubin-3'-oxime (IO suppresses centrosome amplification in breast cancer cells. However, we made the unexpected discovery that indirubin-derived compounds that have been chemically modified to be inactive as kinase inhibitors such as 1-methyl-indirubin-3'-oxime (MeIO still significantly reduced centrosome amplification. All indirubins used in the present study are potent agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, which is known for its important role in the cellular metabolism of xenobiotics. To corroborate our results, we first show that the coincidence of nuclear AhR overexpression, reflecting a constitutive activation, and numerical centrosome aberrations correlates significantly with malignancy in mammary tissue specimens. Remarkably, a considerable proportion (72.7% of benign mammary tissue samples scored also positive for nuclear AhR overexpression. We furthermore provide evidence that continued expression of endogenous AhR is critical to promote centriole overduplication induced by cyclin E and that AhR and cyclin E may function in the same pathway. Overexpression of the AhR in the absence of exogenous ligands was found to rapidly disrupt centriole duplication control. Nonetheless, the AhR agonists IO and MeIO were still found to significantly reduce centriole overduplication stimulated by ectopic AhR expression. Conclusions Our results indicate that

  13. Multiproxy reconstruction for Kuroshio responses to Northern Hemispheric oceanic climate and Asian Monsoon since marine isotope stage 5.1 (∼88 ka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Wu, Y.; Zou, J.; Liu, Y.; Ge, S.; Zhao, M.; Liu, J.; Zhu, A.; Meng, X.; Yao, Z.; Han, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The Kuroshio, a western boundary current in the Western Pacific, plays a key role in regulating ocean and climate in the East Asia. The evolution of the Kuroshio and its branches has been the focus of paleoceanographic studies. In this study, we applied a multiproxy (grain size, planktonic foraminiferal species, δ18O, alkenone sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity) reconstruction from sediment core CSH1, which is located at the main axis of the Tsushima Warm Current, a branch of the Kuroshio, in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT). This study, for the first time, extended the paleoceanographic record of the Kuroshio to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5.1 (∼88 ka) from the far northern site in the OT. The core CSH1 contains three volcanic layers, K-Ah, AT, and Aso-4, which are ideal chronostratigraphic markers for precise age controls of the core. Planktonic foraminiferal species identified from this core contain warm water species related to the Kuroshio and cold species related to subarctic water mass. The relative abundances of the warm water species are high during MIS 1 and MIS 5.1, while cold species are high during MIS 2. An organic biomarker proxy, alkenone SST measured from CSH1 ranges between 21 and 25 °C with higher values during interglacials (MIS 1, 3.3, 5.1) and interstadials, and lower values during glacials and Heinrich (H)/stadial events. Sea surface salinity (SSS) and the depth of thermocline (DOT) reconstructed based on foraminifera isotopes and faunas indicate dominant Kuroshio responses to Northern Hemispheric climate and Asian Monsoon (AM) since ∼88 ka. The CSH1 SSS appears to be mainly controlled by the local river runoff and open ocean water, while the DOT change seems to be closely related to the strength of Kuroshio and the latitudinal shift of subarctic frontal zone. Our records suggest that during MIS 1 and MIS 5.1 while global sea level was high, the Kuroshio was dominant; while during MIS 2, MIS 3, and MIS 4 with low sea level

  14. Climate, herbivory, and fire controls on tropical African forest for the last 60ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Sarah J.; Russell, James

    2016-09-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Africa was drier than today and was followed by rapid step-wise climate changes during the last deglacial period. In much of Africa, these changes led to a drastic reduction of lowland forest area during the LGM, followed by recolonization of the lowlands by forest and woodland in concert with regional warming and wetting. However, the history of southeastern African vegetation contrasts with that observed further north. In particular, forest expansion appears to have occurred in southeastern Africa during episodes of high-latitude northern hemisphere cooling. Although vegetation history in Africa is generally assumed to relate purely to climate, previous studies have not addressed potential feedbacks between climate, vegetation, and disturbance regimes (fire, herbivory) that may create tipping points in ecosystems. This climate-vegetation history has profound implications for our understanding of the modern architecture of lowland and highland forests, both thought to be at risk from future climate change. Here we present analyses of fossil pollen, charcoal, and Sporormiella (dung fungus) on a continuous 60 kyr record from central Lake Tanganyika, Southeast Africa, that illustrates the interplay of climate and disturbance regimes in shaping vegetation composition and structure. We observe that extensive forests dominated the region during the last glacial period despite evidence of decreased rainfall. At the end of the LGM, forest opening at ∼17.5 ka followed warming temperatures but preceded rising precipitation, suggesting that temperature-induced water stress and disturbance from fire and herbivory affected initial landscape transformation. Our Sporormiella record indicates that mega-herbivore populations increased at the early Holocene. This higher animal density increased plant species richness and encouraged landscape heterogeneity until the mid-Holocene. At this time, regional drying followed by the onset of the Iron Age

  15. Effectiveness of the influenza a(H1N1)PDM09 vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Tacken, Margot; Bos, Jens; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Korevaar, Joke C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolters, Bert; Bijl, Marc; Postma, Maarten J.; Wilschut, Jan; Nichol, Kristin L.; Hak, Eelko

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of MF59-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in a matched case-control study. Objectives: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of MF59- adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 infl

  16. 2k micro moulding for MID fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Jørgensen, Martin Bondo

    2009-01-01

    Molded Interconnect Devices (MIDs) are plastic substrates with electrical infrastructure. The fabrication of MIDs is usually based on injection molding and different process chains may be identified from this starting point. The use of MIDs has been driven primarily by the automotive sector......, but recently the medical sector seems more and more interested. In particular, the possibility of miniaturization of 3D components with electrical infrastructure is attractive. The paper describes possible manufacturing routes and challenges of miniaturized MIDs based on two component injection molding...... and subsequent metallization. This technology promises cost-effective and convergent manufacturing approaches for both macro and micro applications. This paper presents the results of industrial MID production based on two component injection molding and discusses the important issues for MID production that can...

  17. A study of analysis PB1-F2 protein of Influenza Viruses A/H1N1pdm09, A/ H3N2, and A/H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Apsari Pawestri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tujuan. Protein PB1-F2 (polymerase basic 1-frame 2 adalah protein terbaru yang ditemukan pada virus Influenza dan telah terbukti berperan dalam induksi kematian sel dan patogenitas. Tujuan dari tulisan ini adalah untuk menganalisis protein PB1-F2 pada virus Influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09. Metode. Kami melakukan pencarian data yang relevan yaitu sekuens gen virus Influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09 dari Gen Bank National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI selama tahun 1997-2015. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekuens nukleotida gen PB1 (polymerase basic1 virus influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09. Kemudian dilakukan analisis alignment untuk mengetahui variasi protein dan mutasi yang berhubungan dengan patogenitas dan virulensi. Hasil. Kami melakukan penelitian terhadap sekuens PB1-F2 sebanyak 3262 influenza A/H5N1 dan 2472 Influenza A/H1N1pdm09. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa semua sekuens A/H5N1 memiliki panjang yang penuh sebanyak 90 asam amino, kecuali influenza pandemi 2009 hanya memiliki panjang 87 asam amino. Kemudian, ditemukan mutasi yang berhubungan dengan virulensi yang ditunjukan dengan perubahan asam amino Asparagin (N menjadi Serin (S. Mutasi tersebut terjadi pada Influenza A/H5N1 sebanyak 8.5% dan Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 sebanyak 0.5%. Kesimpulan. Ditemukan beberapa variasi panjang asam amino dan mutasi penting pada sekuens PB1-F2 dari subtipe yang berbeda yaitu influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09  yang mengindikasikan seleksi spesifik karena introduksi dan adaptasi terhadap inang yang berbeda. Diperlukan penelitian lanjutan untuk lebih memahami variasi dan kontribusi protein PB1-F2 tersebut terhadap virulensi dan patogenitas virus Influenza. Kata kunci : Patogenesis, Virus Influenza, Protein  PB1-F2 Abstract Aim. Influenza virus PB1-F2 (polymerase basic 1-frame 2 protein is a novel protein previously shown to be involved in cell death induction and pathogenesis. Here we analysis the PB1-F2 protein of Influenza virus A/H

  18. A study of analysis PB1-F2 protein of Influenza Viruses A/H1N1pdm09, A/ H3N2, and A/H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Apsari Pawestri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tujuan. Protein PB1-F2 (polymerase basic 1-frame 2 adalah protein terbaru yang ditemukan pada virus Influenza dan telah terbukti berperan dalam induksi kematian sel dan patogenitas. Tujuan dari tulisan ini adalah untuk menganalisis protein PB1-F2 pada virus Influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09. Metode. Kami melakukan pencarian data yang relevan yaitu sekuens gen virus Influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09 dari Gen Bank National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI selama tahun 1997-2015. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekuens nukleotida gen PB1 (polymerase basic1 virus influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09. Kemudian dilakukan analisis alignment untuk mengetahui variasi protein dan mutasi yang berhubungan dengan patogenitas dan virulensi. Hasil. Kami melakukan penelitian terhadap sekuens PB1-F2 sebanyak 3262 influenza A/H5N1 dan 2472 Influenza A/H1N1pdm09. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa semua sekuens A/H5N1 memiliki panjang yang penuh sebanyak 90 asam amino, kecuali influenza pandemi 2009 hanya memiliki panjang 87 asam amino. Kemudian, ditemukan mutasi yang berhubungan dengan virulensi yang ditunjukan dengan perubahan asam amino Asparagin (N menjadi Serin (S. Mutasi tersebut terjadi pada Influenza A/H5N1 sebanyak 8.5% dan Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 sebanyak 0.5%. Kesimpulan. Ditemukan beberapa variasi panjang asam amino dan mutasi penting pada sekuens PB1-F2 dari subtipe yang berbeda yaitu influenza A/H5N1 dan A/H1N1pdm09  yang mengindikasikan seleksi spesifik karena introduksi dan adaptasi terhadap inang yang berbeda. Diperlukan penelitian lanjutan untuk lebih memahami variasi dan kontribusi protein PB1-F2 tersebut terhadap virulensi dan patogenitas virus Influenza. Kata kunci : Patogenesis, Virus Influenza, Protein  PB1-F2 Abstract Aim. Influenza virus PB1-F2 (polymerase basic 1-frame 2 protein is a novel protein previously shown to be involved in cell death induction and pathogenesis. Here we analysis the PB1-F2 protein of Influenza virus A/H

  19. Mid-infrared nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoping; Kuyken, Bart; Green, William M. J.; Osgood, Richard M.; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Gunther

    2014-03-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in mid-infrared (mid-IR) photonic technology with a wavelength of operation approximately from 2-14 μm. Among several established mid-IR photonic platforms, silicon nanophotonic platform could potentially offer ultra-compact, and monolithically integrated mid-IR photonic devices and device arrays, which could have board impact in the mid-IR technology, such as molecular spectroscopy, and imaging. At room temperature, silicon has a bandgap ~ 1.12 eV resulting in vanishing two-photon absorption (TPA) for mid-IR wavelengths beyond 2.2 μm, which, coupled with silicon's large nonlinear index of refraction and its strong waveguide optical confinement, enables efficient nonlinear processes in the mid-IR. By taking advantage of these nonlinear processes and judicious dispersion engineering in silicon waveguides, we have recently demonstrated a handful of silicon mid-IR nonlinear components, including optical parametric amplifiers (OPA), broadband sources, and a wavelength translator. Silicon nanophotonic waveguide's anomalous dispersion design, providing four-wave-mixing (FWM) phase-matching, has enabled the first demonstration of silicon mid-IR optical parametric amplifier (OPA) with a net off-chip gain exceeding 13 dB. In addition, reduction of propagation losses and balanced second and fourth order waveguide dispersion design led to an OPA with an extremely broadband gain spectrum from 1.9-2.5 μm and >50 dB parametric gain, upon which several novel silicon mid-IR light sources were built, including a mid-IR optical parametric oscillator, and a supercontinuum source. Finally, a mid-IR wavelength translation device, capable of translating signals near 2.4 μm to the telecom-band near 1.6 μm with simultaneous 19 dB gain, was demonstrated.

  20. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir; Abdel-Moneim, Nabil; Tang, Zhuoqi; Furniss, David; Sojka, Lukasz; Stone, Nick; Jayakrupakar, Nallala; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Lindsay, Ian; Ward, Jon; Farries, Mark; Moselund, Peter M.; Napier, Bruce; Lamrini, Samir; Møller, Uffe; Kubat, Irnis; Petersen, Christian R.; Bang, Ole

    2016-03-01

    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the midinfrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy (`opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ in the body for real-time diagnosis. This new paradigm will be enabled through focused development of devices and systems which are robust, functionally designed, safe, compact and cost effective and are based on active and passive mid-infrared optical fibers. In particular, this will enable early diagnosis of external cancers, mid-infrared detection of cancer-margins during external surgery for precise removal of diseased tissue, in one go during the surgery, and mid-infrared endoscopy for early diagnosis of internal cancers and their precision removal. The mid-infrared spectral region has previously lacked portable, bright sources. We set a record in demonstrating extreme broad-band supercontinuum generated light 1.4 to 13.3 microns in a specially engineered, high numerical aperture mid-infrared optical fiber. The active mid-infrared fiber broadband supercontinuum for the first time offers the possibility of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security, agriculture and in manufacturing and chemical processing. This work is in part supported by the European Commission: Framework Seven (FP7) Large-Scale Integrated Project MINERVA: MId-to-NEaR- infrared spectroscopy for improVed medical diAgnostics (317803; www.minerva-project.eu).

  1. Mid-infrared silicon photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Milosevic, Milan M.; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Owens, Nathan; Headley, William R.; Teo, Ee Jin; Xiong, Boqian; Yang, Pengyuan; Hu, Youfang

    2011-01-01

    The mid-infrared spectral region is interesting for bio-chemical sensing, environmental monitoring, free space communications, or military applications. Silicon is relatively low-loss from 1.2 to 8 μm and from 24 to 100 μm, and therefore silicon photonic circuits can be used in mid- and far- infrared wavelength ranges. In this paper we investigate several silicon based waveguide structures for mid-infrared wavelength region.

  2. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  3. Tänane heategevuskontsert toetab ka Kiigemetsa kooli / Vaike Käosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käosaar, Vaike

    2007-01-01

    Heategevuskontserdist "Ma olen eriline" Põltsamaa lossihoovis, kus esinevad mitmed Eestimaa tuntud muusikud ja mille tulusid kasutatakse samasuguse pealkirjaga raamatu kirjastamise toetuseks, et aidata peresid, kus kasvab autistlikke lapsi ning Kiigemetsa Kooli, kus õpetatakse teiste seas ka autismipuudega lapsi

  4. Elektrit võivad suuremad tarbijad ka ise toota / Monica Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Monica, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Koostootmisjaamas ehk kombijõujaamas toodetakse samaaegselt nii elektrit kui ka sooja. Vt. samas: Võimalikel kasutajatel napib teadmisi. Lisad: Elektri, soojuse ja külma koostootmine; Koostootmisjaam on töökindel

  5. Euroopa Liit annab arenguabi ka voodoo sünnimaale / Irma Kaljulaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljulaid, Irma

    2010-01-01

    4. märtsil Togos toimunud presidendivalimistest, kus oli kohal ka Euroopa Liidu vaatluskomisjon. Euroopa Liidu ja Togo vahelisi suhteid reguleerib peamiselt 2000. aastal sõlmitud Cotonou leping. Üldised andmed

  6. Riik plaanib haiglatele anda õiguse ka arstirohtu müüa / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 31. märts lk. 3. Riik tahab anda haiglatele õiguse pidada jaemüügirohupoode, selle kava vastu on aga konkureerivad apteegiketid, konkurentsi- ja ravimiamet. Lisa: Ketistunud apteegiturg

  7. Carbonate and carbon fluctuations in the Eastern Arabian Sea over 140 ka: Implications on productivity changes?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Naidu, P.D.; Haake, B.G.; Schiebel, R.

    orientation. ARTICLE IN PRESS Table1 Core depth, age, stable oxygen isotope data, linear sedimenta- tion rate (LSR), and calcite and organic carbon concentration ofsedimentcoreSL-1 Depth (cm) Age (kaBP) d 18 O (%) LSR (cm/ka) CaCO 3 (%) C org (%) 1 0.49 47....96 0.50 225 44.00 30.85 0.38 230 45.00 C00.49 5.02 33.34 0.49 235 45.99 32.38 0.73 240 46.99 C00.24 5.02 38.10 0.56 Table1(continued) Depth (cm) Age (kaBP) d 18 O (%) LSR (cm/ka) CaCO 3 (%) C org (%) 245 47.98 45.24 0.48 250 48.98 C00.50 5.02 45.10 0...

  8. Design and Validation of High Date Rate Ka-Band Software Defined Radio for Small Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The Design and Validation of High Date Rate Ka- Band Software Defined Radio for Small Satellite project will develop a novel Ka-band software defined radio (SDR) that is capable of establishing high data rate inter-satellite links with a throughput of 500 megabits per second (Mb/s) and providing millimeter ranging precision. The system will be designed to operate with high performance and reliability that is robust against various interference effects and network anomalies. The Ka-band radio resulting from this work will improve upon state of the art Ka-band radios in terms of dimensional size, mass and power dissipation, which limit their use in small satellites.

  9. High Performance Ka-band Phase Shifters for Space Telecommunications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel MEMS-based digital phase shifter targeted for Ka-band operation, but scalable down to X-band and up to W-band. This novel phase shifter will...

  10. Eurotsoon kaasas Kreeka päästmiseks ka IMFi / Jürgen Tamme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamme, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Euroala liidrid Prantsusmaa president Nicolaz Sarkozy ja Saksamaa kantsler Angela Merkel jõudsid kokkuleppele Kreekale kahepoolsete laenude andmises, kuid ka Rahvusvahelise Valuutafondi kaasamises, kui võlakriisis Kreeka valitsus selleks soovi avaldab

  11. MMIC for High-Efficiency Ka-BAnd GaN Power Amplifiers (2007043) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the need for high-efficiency, high-output power amplifiers operating in the Ka-band frequencies. For space communications, the power...

  12. Venezia filmifestivali punane vaip ootab tänavu ka eestlasi / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti mängufilm "Sügisball" (režissöör Veiko Õunpuu, produtsent Katrin Kissa) esilinastub 7. septembril Venezia 64. filmifestivali konkursiprogrammis Orizzonti. Ka teistest võistlevatest filmidest

  13. Soft switching (ZVZCS) high current, low voltage modular power converter (13 kA, 16 V)

    CERN Document Server

    Bordry, Frederick; Thiesen, H

    2001-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the next accelerator being constructed at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). The superconducting LHC particle accelerator requires high currents (13 kA) and relatively low voltages (16 V) for its magnets. This paper describes the development and the production of a (13 kA, 16 V) power converter. The converter is made with a modular concept with five current sources (3.25 kA, 16 V) in parallel. The 3.25 kA sources are built as plug-in modules: a diode rectifier on the AC mains, a zero voltage zero current switching (ZVZCS) inverter working at 25 k Hz and an output stage. The obtained performance is presented and discussed. (6 refs).

  14. Riik plaanib haiglatele anda õiguse ka arstirohtu müüa / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 31. märts lk. 3. Riik tahab anda haiglatele õiguse pidada jaemüügirohupoode, selle kava vastu on aga konkureerivad apteegiketid, konkurentsi- ja ravimiamet. Lisa: Ketistunud apteegiturg

  15. Test results of 12/18 kA ReBCO coated conductor current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, I. A.; Surin, M. I.; Naumov, A. V.; Novikov, M. S.; Novikov, S. I.; Ilin, A. A.; Polyakov, A. V.; Scherbakov, V. I.; Shutova, D. I.

    2017-07-01

    A pair of hybrid current leads (brass + stacked & soldered ReBCO tapes) rated for 12 kA in steady state and for up to 18 kA at pulsed over current conditions was designed, developed and tested at NRC ;Kurchatov Institute; (NRC ;KI;). During the experiment at LN2 temperature, the current leads (CLs) were successfully charged with 18 kA at 100 A/s ramp rate. To date, as far as we know, this is the highest current capacity achieved for 2G HTS current leads. The feasibility of ;stack-and-soldering technique; for 10 kA+ class coated conductor CLs for accelerators and fusion was demonstrated. This paper gives an overview of the leads design and presents the preliminary test results. Detailed studies of magnetic properties and current sharing process for the stacked and staggered HTS joints are also reported.

  16. Tänane heategevuskontsert toetab ka Kiigemetsa kooli / Vaike Käosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käosaar, Vaike

    2007-01-01

    Heategevuskontserdist "Ma olen eriline" Põltsamaa lossihoovis, kus esinevad mitmed Eestimaa tuntud muusikud ja mille tulusid kasutatakse samasuguse pealkirjaga raamatu kirjastamise toetuseks, et aidata peresid, kus kasvab autistlikke lapsi ning Kiigemetsa Kooli, kus õpetatakse teiste seas ka autismipuudega lapsi

  17. CIA võis lennutada ja hoida vange ka Euroopa idaosas / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2006-01-01

    Amnesty Internationali raportis antakse ülevaade kolme vahistatud Jeemeni mehe kogetust aastatel 2003-2005. Meeste tunnistustest järeldab Amnesty, et neid hoiti kinni ka Ida-Euroopas. Lisa: Kolme Jeemeni mehe tunnistused

  18. Computational chemical analysis of unconjugated bilirubin anions and insights into pKa values clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Hissi, Esteban G.; Estrada, Mario R.; Lavecchia, Martín J.; Pis Diez, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    The pKa, the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation equilibrium constant, of the carboxylic acid groups of unconjugated bilirubin in water is a discussed issue because there are quite different experimental values reported. Using quantum mechanical calculations we have studied the conformational behavior of unconjugated bilirubin species (in gas phase and in solution modeled implicitly and explicitly) to provide evidence that may clarify pKa values because of its pathophysiological relevance. Our results show that rotation of carboxylate group, which is not restricted, settles it in a suitable place to establish stronger interactions that stabilizes the monoanion and the dianion to be properly solvated, demonstrating that the rationalization used to justify the high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin is inappropriate. Furthermore, low unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) pKa values were estimated from a linear regression analysis.

  19. Ku/Ka/W-band Antenna for Electronically-Scanned Cloud and Precipitation Radar Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of the key antenna technologies for Tri-band (Ku/Ka/W), scanning precipitation and cloud radar is a required milestone in preparation for one or more...

  20. Advances in Ka-Band Communication System for CubeSats and SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed that evaluated the feasibility of Ka-band communication system to provide CubeSat/SmallSat high rate science data downlink with ground antennas ranging from the small portable 1.2m/2.4m to apertures 5.4M, 7.3M, 11M, and 18M, for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar CubeSat missions. This study included link analysis to determine the data rate requirement, based on the current TRL of Ka-band flight hardware and ground support infrastructure. Recent advances in Ka-band transceivers and antennas, options of portable ground stations, and various coverage distances were included in the analysis. The link/coverage analysis results show that Cubesat/Smallsat missions communication requirements including frequencies and data rates can be met by utilizing Near Earth Network (NEN) Ka-band support with 2 W and high gain (>6 dBi) antennas.

  1. Solid State KA-Band, Solid State W-Band and TWT Amplifiers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I of the proposal describes plans to develop a state of the art transmitter for the W-Band and KA -Band Cloud Radar system. Our focus will be concentrated in...

  2. High Performance Ka Band Power Amplifiers for Future EVA Radio Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, AlphaSense, Inc. and the University of Washington detail the development of a novel, high performance Ka band power amplifier for EVA radio...

  3. Venezia filmifestivali punane vaip ootab tänavu ka eestlasi / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti mängufilm "Sügisball" (režissöör Veiko Õunpuu, produtsent Katrin Kissa) esilinastub 7. septembril Venezia 64. filmifestivali konkursiprogrammis Orizzonti. Ka teistest võistlevatest filmidest

  4. Potential for Paragliding Tourism Development in Niška Banja (South Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Pavić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People today pay attention more on their health and because of that sports tourism becomes more popular. Especially popular segment of sports tourism is adventure sports including paragliding which has a special place. Tourist product of Niška Banja, as one of more visited tourism destination in Serbia, is mostly based on its health function. In the first part of this paper it is presented touristic valorisation of Niška Banja using criteria recommended form World Tourism Organization. In the second part of this paper it is used marketing mix as a tool for creating potential tourism product Paragliding weekend in Niška Banja. The aim of this paper is to show how the tourism offers of Niška Banja can be diversified using a new integrated product and how the touristic value can be increased.

  5. Uusim tehnika annab säästu ka maasoojuspumpades / Lauri Lehtinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtinen, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    Õhksoojuspumpadega tuntust kogunud inverter- ehk sagedusmuunduriga kompressortehnikat kasutatakse ka uue põlvkonna maasoojuspumpades. Tootjate sõnul annab invertertehnika varasemate seadmetega võrreldes umbes 10–15% kokkuhoidu

  6. High-power X- and Ka-band Gallium Nitride Amplifiers with Exceptional Efficiency Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Achieving very high-power amplification with maximum efficiency at X- and Ka-band is challenging using solid-state technology. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) has been the...

  7. Tšernobõl mõjutab ka praegu sündivaid lapsi / Marek Laane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laane, Marek, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Nõrk radioaktiivsus mõjutab tugevasti inimese pärilikkusainet DNA, tekitades muutusi ka kiiritada saanute lastes, leidsid Tšernobõli tuumakatastroofi likvidaatoreid uurinud Ukraina ja Iisraeli teadlased

  8. Indrek Saar tegutseb ka Kuressaare teatris / Indrek Saar ; interv. Aarne Mäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Indrek, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Rakvere Teatri direktor kuulub ka Kuressare Linnateatri loomenõukogusse. Muljeid H. Hoffmanni-J. Crouchi-P. McDermotti muusikalist "Kolumats" (lavastaja Ch. Römer) Kuressaare teatrilaval koostöös VAT Teatriga

  9. Haabersti tulistaja laskis inimeste pihta ka Ida-Virumaal / Erik Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Erik, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 13. sept. lk. 1. Tallinnas Haabersti linnaosavalitsuses tulirelvast sotsiaalhoolekande osakonna juhatajat Tatjana Sarzanovat raskelt haavanud Vladimirit on politsei juba 10 päeva otsinud sugulase tulistamise pärast Ida-Virumaal

  10. Kahtlustatavate ringi lisandus ka K-Projekt / Kadri Paas, Kadri Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna transpordiameti liikluskorralduse osakonna juhataja Vello Lõugase kriminaalasja raames sai pistiseandmise kahtlustuse ka K-Projekt ja selle suuromanik Rein Annusver. Läbi otsiti Tallinna liikluskorraldaja Mati Songisepa kodu ja töökoht

  11. Uusim tehnika annab säästu ka maasoojuspumpades / Lauri Lehtinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtinen, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    Õhksoojuspumpadega tuntust kogunud inverter- ehk sagedusmuunduriga kompressortehnikat kasutatakse ka uue põlvkonna maasoojuspumpades. Tootjate sõnul annab invertertehnika varasemate seadmetega võrreldes umbes 10–15% kokkuhoidu

  12. Pengaruh Sistem Waralaba Terhadap Retail Kecil Di Ponorogo Tinjauan Maṣlaḥah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Wulandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: One of the indications of the acceleration of economic progress in Ponorogo is the rapid development of the real sectors, especially the proliferation of modern businesses using the franchise system. Therefore, small retail businesses today are facing new competitors with huge capital and reliability of modern management. This study tries to find out the impact of the franchise system invasion to the existence of small retails, and how it affects the maṣlaḥah (safety of small retails in Ponorogo. This study uses the theory of maqāṣid al-sharīah in the aspects of ḥifẓ al-māl to analyze the sustainability of small retail businesses amid the proliferation of franchise businesses. Maṣlāḥah is thinking about the advantages and disadvantages on the basis of religious teachings by thinking about priorities and side with the community (al-maṣlaḥah al-'āmah. The results of this study found out the threat of franchise trading system to the existence of small retails. Therefore, the maṣlaḥah for small retail of businesses means the realization of the safety from the expansion of large investors, such as monopoly. Abstrak: Salah satu indikator meningkatnya laju perekonomian Kabupaten Ponorogo ditandai dengan pesatnya perkembangan sektor riil terutama dengan menjamurnya berbagai jenis toko-roko modern (khususnya dengan sistem waralaba yang terus bertambah jumlahnya. Lalu bagaimana dengan para pebisnis retail kecil yang kebanyakan mereka memiliki usaha dengan modal yang tidak terlalu besar. Penelitian ini berupaya mengetahui adakah  pengaruh yang terjadi akibat adanya toko-toko dengan sistem waralaba terhadap eksistensi retail kecil, serta adakah pengaruhnya terhadap kemaslahatan retail kecil yang ada di Ponorogo. Penelitian ini menggunakan teori keberlangsungan usaha yang dikaitkan dengan maqāsid al-shar’īah  aspek kemaslahatan hifz al-māl untuk menguji pengaruh kemaslahatan retail kecil dengan adanya bisnis

  13. DDE and PCB 153 independently induce aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Salgado-Bustamante, Mariana; González-Amaro, Roberto; Hernandez-Castro, Berenice; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that compounds inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines enhance AhR expression. The aim of this study was 2-fold: (1) to determine if two pro-inflammatory compounds, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexa-chlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), independently affect AhR gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); and (2) if affected, to determine whether the mechanism involved was due to AhR activation or to a pro-inflammatory effect of the chemicals. PBMC isolated from healthy individuals were incubated in the presence of DDE (10 µg/ml) and PCB 153 (20 ng/ml) over time and AhR and CYP1A1 expression was assessed with a real-time PCR technique. The results indicated there was over-expression of the AhR mRNA in PBMC when the cells were treated with DDE and PCB 153. No changes in expression levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were found. Importantly, when the cells were exposed to DDE and PCB 153 in the presence of an antagonist of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the over-expression of AhR was abolished; as expected, the expression of CYP1A1 was unaffected. In conclusion, these studies demonstrated for the first time an increment of AhR expression "in vitro" in PBMC treated with two pro-inflammatory environmental pollutants, DDE and PCB153. Moreover, the over-expression of AhR was dependent of TNFα induced by DDE and PCB 153 and was independent of AhR activation.

  14. NASA's Evolution to Ka-Band Space Communications for Near-Earth Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Stocklin, Frank; Geldzahler, Barry; Friedman, Daniel; Celeste, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the exploration of NASA using a Ka-band system for spacecraft communications in Near-Earth orbits. The reasons for changing to Ka-band are the higher data rates, and the current (X-band spectrum) is becoming crowded. This will require some modification to the current ground station antennas systems. The results of a Request for Information (RFI) are discussed, and the recommended solution is reviewed.

  15. Ka küberkurjategijaid köidab ennekõike raha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi Menedzhment : infovõpusk nr. 20 dets. lk. 7. Riskijuhtimise aastakonverentsil rõhutas siseministeeriumi sisejulgeoleku asekantsler Erkki Koort, et küberhaavatavat infrastruktuuri tuleb kaitsta ühtaegu nii virtuaalse kui ka füüsilise rünnaku vastu. Lisa: Küberhaavatava kriitilise infrastruktuuri nimekiri. Vt. samas: Küberkaitses vajab täpsustamist erasektori roll; Igaüks õpib enda vigadest; Eesti on terroriohu osas ääremaa

  16. Test results on prototype 50-kA conductors for tokamak induction heating coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J.J.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Turck, B.

    1979-01-01

    Fabricability of a very large, 50-kA superconducting cable has been demonstrated. Test results of critical current and stability measurements are presented. The design critical current of 55 kA at 7 T was met. The recovery current was degraded as a result of the expectedly poor insulation system. Energy loss measurements on prototype advanced mixed matrix conductors, which will be incorporated into a second prototype cable, are presented.

  17. REAL-TIME FADE MITIGATION USING RADIOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS FOR FUTURE KA-BAND SERVICES AT DLR.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Due to the congestion of popular C- and Ku-band frequencies, the satellite communication systems are rapidly moving toward the higher frequencies. Most of the commercial communication satellites in the near future will operate Ka-band transponders. One of the inevitable part of such systems are ground stations which support In-Orbit-testing and the traffic routine for the satellites. The main problem at Ka-band link planning is the link availability reduction due to rain fade and scintillatio...

  18. Progress in studies of the climate of humid period and the impacts of changing precession in early-mid Holocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbin Huang; Shaowu Wang; Xinyu Wen; Bao Yang

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the climate of humid period and the impacts of changing precession in the early-mid Holocene are reviewed in this paper.High-resolution proxy data indicated that the African Humid Period,strong summer monsoon from the Arabian Sea to South Asia,northward migration of ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone) over the northern South America,and the humid period of China appeared in 10.5-5.5 kaBP,10.0-6.0 kaBP,10.5-5.4 kaBP,and 11.0-8.0 kaBP,respectively.Modeling studies proved that summer inso-lation over the Northern Hemisphere increased following the changes of precession in the early Holocene,which increased the land-sea temperature contrasts,intensified the summer monsoon circulation in the Northern Hemisphere,and finally induced a humid climate over the area under the influence of summer monsoon.However,modeling results underestimated the increase of precipitation and the degree of northward extension of monsoon rain belt compared with palaeo-environmental data.These discrepancies between the modeling results and the palaeo-environmental data may be associated with the changes of North Atlantic circulation,sea ice and veg-etation covers.Moreover,climate of the humid period was not stable,in which several droughts were inlaid on centennial scale.In this review,perspectives for further studies of the climate change of the humid period in the early-mid Holocene are also proposed.

  19. Skill and reliability of climate model ensembles at the Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Hargreaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paleoclimate simulations provide us with an opportunity to critically confront and evaluate the performance of climate models in simulating the response of the climate system to changes in radiative forcing and other boundary conditions. Hargreaves et al. (2011 analysed the reliability of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project, PMIP2 model ensemble with respect to the MARGO sea surface temperature data synthesis (MARGO Project Members, 2009 for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka BP. Here we extend that work to include a new comprehensive collection of land surface data (Bartlein et al., 2011, and introduce a novel analysis of the predictive skill of the models. We include output from the PMIP3 experiments, from the two models for which suitable data are currently available. We also perform the same analyses for the PMIP2 mid-Holocene (6 ka BP ensembles and available proxy data sets. Our results are predominantly positive for the LGM, suggesting that as well as the global mean change, the models can reproduce the observed pattern of change on the broadest scales, such as the overall land–sea contrast and polar amplification, although the more detailed sub-continental scale patterns of change remains elusive. In contrast, our results for the mid-Holocene are substantially negative, with the models failing to reproduce the observed changes with any degree of skill. One cause of this problem could be that the globally- and annually-averaged forcing anomaly is very weak at the mid-Holocene, and so the results are dominated by the more localised regional patterns in the parts of globe for which data are available. The root cause of the model-data mismatch at these scales is unclear. If the proxy calibration is itself reliable, then representativity error in the data-model comparison, and missing climate feedbacks in the models are other possible sources of error.

  20. Hydroclimatic Changes in Coastal Southern California at the Last Glacial Termination (~33 to 10 Ka): Pollen and Macrofossil Evidence from Lake Elsinore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, L. E.; Kirby, M. E.; Feakins, S. J.; Peteet, D. M.; Wu, M.; Pavia, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution (1 cm ≈ 14 yrs) pollen analyses from a well-dated sediment core from Lake Elsinore record changes in coastal southern California upland and lowland vegetation at the end of the last glacial (~33 to 10 ka). Montane (>2200m) conifer forests expanded to lower elevations in the full glacial, with peak abundances at ~33ka near the beginning of the first wetland episode when aquatic macrofossils such as Potomogeton and Zannichellia seeds were present. In the Holocene, conifers were replaced by mid-elevation (1400-2100 m) oak woodlands and chaparral. Early Holocene abundance of algae and microcharcoal, absence of macrosfossils, and high total carbonate imply warmer epilimnion, eutrophication, and lower precipitation. Three general climate modes are reconstructed from the Lake Elsinore pollen data based on modern California pollen/vegetation/ hydroclimate relationships. First, beginning ~33ka, the record is characterized by a 10 kyr-long interval of high frequency changes in precipitation during which two expanded wetland episodes bracket repeated expansions of saline/alkaline vegetation. Second, low-amplitude variations in effective moisture characterize the last Glacial Maximum (23 to 15 kyrs). Third, rapid, abrupt high-amplitude changes in water availability occur during the Bølling, Allerod and Younger Dryas chronozones. Patterns of hydroclimatic change inferred from the pollen data are consistent with hydrologic variability reconstructed from lithologic and biochemical analyses of coeval samples from the Lake Elsinore core. The timing and character of the response of coastal southern California ecosystems at the termination of the last glacial is correlative with northeast Pacific Ocean climate events and with general patterns of global climate change.

  1. Suggestions to the media to help us cope with the A/H7N9 crisis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Lu, Hongzhou

    2014-04-01

    The A/H7N9 avian influenza virus sparked global concerns about public health. The media published numerous reports about emerging infectious diseases, including their clinical characteristics and genomic information. However, outbreaks of A/H7N9 posed a real challenge to China's emergency management and especially its dealing with the media. This study analyzes ways to deal with the media during A/H7N9 crises and it proposes a shift in public emergency management from an "Impact-Responsive" approach to a "Prevention-Active" approach. A "Prevention-Active" approach should be used when dealing with the media during subsequent outbreaks.

  2. [A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) avian influenza: the H7N9 avian influenza outbreak of 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Yao, Kai-Hu

    2013-06-01

    influenza virus can infect humans and cause disease. The clinical presentation of human infection is usually mild, but the infection caused by A(H5N1) avian influenza virus occurring initially in Hongkong in 1997 or the A(H7N9) virus isolated first at the beginning of this year in China is severe and characterized by high mortality. The mortality rate of adolescents and children caused by H5N1 avian influenza is lower than that of adults and the younger the child the lower the mortality rate. A few pediatric H7N9 avian influenza cases recovered soon after treatment. A child was determined to be a H7N9 avian influenza virus carrier. These findings suggested that the pediatric H7N9 avian influenza infection was mild. It is very important to start anti-virus treatment with oseltamivir as early as possible in cases of avian influenza infection is considered. Combined therapy, including respiratory and circulatory support and inhibiting immunological reaction, is emphasized in the treatment of severe cases.

  3. Rules of co-occurring mutations characterize the antigenic evolution of human influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haifen; Zhou, Xinrui; Zheng, Jie; Kwoh, Chee-Keong

    2016-12-05

    The human influenza viruses undergo rapid evolution (especially in hemagglutinin (HA), a glycoprotein on the surface of the virus), which enables the virus population to constantly evade the human immune system. Therefore, the vaccine has to be updated every year to stay effective. There is a need to characterize the evolution of influenza viruses for better selection of vaccine candidates and the prediction of pandemic strains. Studies have shown that the influenza hemagglutinin evolution is driven by the simultaneous mutations at antigenic sites. Here, we analyze simultaneous or co-occurring mutations in the HA protein of human influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and B viruses to predict potential mutations, characterizing the antigenic evolution. We obtain the rules of mutation co-occurrence using association rule mining after extracting HA1 sequences and detect co-mutation sites under strong selective pressure. Then we predict the potential drifts with specific mutations of the viruses based on the rules and compare the results with the "observed" mutations in different years. The sites under frequent mutations are in antigenic regions (epitopes) or receptor binding sites. Our study demonstrates the co-occurring site mutations obtained by rule mining can capture the evolution of influenza viruses, and confirms that cooperative interactions among sites of HA1 protein drive the influenza antigenic evolution.

  4. BANK SYARÎ'AH DAN TAKÂFUL (Sebuah Kajian Evaluatif-Reflektif atas Perkembangan Bank Syarî'ah dan Takâful di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Hadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Islam menjiwai dan mewarnai perilaku manusia dalam berpikir,bersikap maupun bertindak dengan batas-batas yang telah ditetapkan, dalam rangka pengabdian kepada Allah swt. Setelahmelalui perdebatan sengit selama berabad-abad tentangperilaku bunga uang (ribâ, interest dalam menentukan perilakuekonomi manusia, antara diharamkan atau dibolehkan, kinimuncul di hadapan kita keputusan di mana terbuka jalan bagiyang mengharamkan bunga dan bagi yang membolehkan ataubahkan mengharuskannya dengan konsep yang lebih Islâmîdan dapat diterima oleh berbagai pihak terutama mayoritaspenduduk Indonesia yang notabene beragama Islam dengan apayang dikenal sebagai bank syarî'ah dan takâful (asuransi Islâm.Melalui kedua lembaga inilah kita berharap dapat menyaksikanpada satu saat terwujudnya “gurita” ekonomi umat yangdahsyat, apabila terjadi kerjasama mudlarabah di tingkatkelembagaan ekonomi syarî'ah (BMI, BSI, BPRS, BMT dan STIdengan berpedoman pada ta’âwanû ‘alâ al-birr wa al-taqwâ, wa lâta'âwanû alâ al-itsm wa al-‘udwân. Kerjasama ini hendaklahprofesional. Untuk itu perlu dibangun manajemen yang Islâmî,yang didukung dengan sumber daya terampil, yang bekerjadengan keyakinan dan teguh dalam pendirian serta memilikimoral atau akhlaq yang luhur.

  5. Progress in the prediction of pKa values in proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexov, Emil; Mehler, Ernest L.; Baker, Nathan A.; Baptista, Antonio; Huang, Yong; Milletti, Francesca; Nielsen, Jens E.; Farrell, Damien; Carstensen, Tommy; Olsson, Mats H.; Shen, Jana K.; Warwicker, Jim; Williams, Sarah; Word, J Michael

    2011-12-15

    The pKa-cooperative aims to provide a forum for experimental and theoretical researchers interested in protein pKa values and protein electrostatics in general. The first round of the pKa -cooperative, which challenged computational labs to carry out blind predictions against pKas experimentally determined in the laboratory of Bertrand Garcia-Moreno, was completed and results discussed at the Telluride meeting (July 6-10, 2009). This paper serves as an introduction to the reports submitted by the blind prediction participants that will be published in a special issue of PROTEINS: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics. Here we briefly outline existing approaches for pKa calculations, emphasizing methods that were used by the participants in calculating the blind pKa values in the first round of the cooperative. We then point out some of the difficulties encountered by the participating groups in making their blind predictions, and finally try to provide some insights for future developments aimed at improving the accuracy of pKa calculations.

  6. The GridKa Tier-1 Computing Center within the ALICE Grid Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, WooJin J.; Christopher, Jung; Heiss, Andreas; Petzold, Andreas; Schwarz, Kilian

    2014-06-01

    The GridKa computing center, hosted by Steinbuch Centre for Computing at the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany, is serving as the largest Tier-1 center used by the ALICE collaboration at the LHC. In 2013, GridKa provides 30k HEPSPEC06, 2.7 PB of disk space, and 5.25 PB of tape storage to ALICE. The 10Gbit/s network connections from GridKa to CERN, several Tier-1 centers and the general purpose network are used by ALICE intensively. In 2012 a total amount of ~1 PB was transferred to and from GridKa. As Grid framework, AliEn (ALICE Environment) is being used to access the resources, and various monitoring tools including the MonALISA (MONitoring Agent using a Large Integrated Services Architecture) are always running to alert in case of any problem. GridKa on-call engineers provide 24/7 support to guarantee minimal loss of availability of computing and storage resources in case of hardware or software problems. We introduce the GridKa Tier-1 center from the viewpoint of ALICE services.

  7. Changes in the content of eolian iron during the past 900 ka and the implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Jianjing; GUO Zhengtang

    2003-01-01

    In this study, total Fe2O3 content (Fet) in two parallel sections fromthe central Loess Plateau (Xifeng and Changwu) is analyzed to address the variations of eolian iron in the past 900 ka. The obtained timeseries indicate that Fet values in some glacial intervals are comparable to that of interglacial periods and its oscillations do not generally correspond to the long-term glacial-interglacial changes. Rather, it exhibits higher frequency fluctuations without detectable 100 ka period, but with a strong 20 ka period and a clear 40 ka period. The combination of 20 ka and 40 ka periods suggest that eolian iron content was relatively independent of glacial-interglacial changes, but more strongly influenced by the insolation changes in the northern hemisphere. Higher iron content was observed for the S5-1 soil that is correlative to marine δ 18O stage 13. In marine records, this stage is characterized by higher δ 13C values, suggesting that the event is of global significance.

  8. Earth as diode: monsoon source of the orbital ~100 ka climate cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A potential source for Earth's enigmatic ~100 ka climate cycle, which is found in many ancient geological records at low latitudes and also in the pacing of glaciation during the late Pleistocene, is traced to a climatic rectifying process inherent in the monsoon. Seasonal information needed to identify the rectifying mechanism is preserved within varves of a continuous, 200 ka recording of annual maximum surface temperature (Tmax from the equator of Western Pangea. Specific seasonal reactions recorded in varves show how the monsoon reacted to seasonal differences in insolation at equinox to produce a 11.7 ka semi-precession cycle in Tmax. At solstice, anti-phasing of insolation in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, intensified and focused by a highly asymmetric Pangea relative to the equator, produced a strong equatorial maritime monsoon that performed a nonlinear rectifying function similar to that of a simple rectifying diode. Expressed in the resulting varve series are substantial cycles in Tmax of 100 ka, 23.4 ka, and 11.7 ka. Importantly, any external or internal forcing of the tropical (monsoon climate system at higher-than-orbital frequencies (e.g. solar, ENSO should also be amplified at Milankovitch frequencies by the monsoon.

  9. Interpretation and preliminary simulation of the 40 ka periodicity of the Quaternary glaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nan; CHEN Xing

    2007-01-01

    More and more proxy records approved that the periodicity of the glacial cycles is about 40 ka before MPT (middle Pleistocene transition) as early as late Tertiary from 3.0 Ma to 0.9 Ma, whereas it changes to about 100 ka after MPT.Summer insolation at high latitude in Northern Hemisphere, usually considered as the main external force for the ice age, is dominated by the 23 ka precession period, which does not match the period of the glacial cycles.In this paper, we define an energy index C and its threshold Ct that indicate the net energy supply and the overall response of the climate system.The difference between these two parameters determines whether the ice sheet melts or not, and accordingly the start and termination of the interglacial stages, as well as the periodicity of glacial oscillations.Based on the energy threshold hypothesis, the preliminary simulation experiments are made to test the period of the glacial cycles and driven factors from a conceptual model.The results indicate that energy index C and threshold Ct can interpret not only the 40 ka periodicity before MPT, but also the quasi-100 ka periodicity after MPT to some extent, and the 40 ka is the basic period of the glacial cycles, which discloses the inherent continuity of climatic change before and after MPT.

  10. A Ka-band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. E.; García-Miró, C.; Horiuchi, S.; Sotuela, I.

    2011-10-01

    The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of ~200 micro-arcsec (μas) in α cos δ and ~300 μas in δ. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 μas level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.

  11. A Ka-Band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. Eric; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Sotuela, Ioana

    2011-01-01

    The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of approximately 200 micro-arcsec in alpha cos(delta) and approximately 300 micro-arcsec in delta. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 micro-arcsec level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.

  12. Active Galactic Nuclei and the Truncation of Star Formation in K+A Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael J I; Caldwell, Nelson; Palamara, David; Cool, Richard J; Dey, Arjun; Hickox, Ryan; Jannuzi, Buell T; Murray, Stephen S; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We have searched for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in K+A galaxies, using multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopy in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. The K+A galaxies, which have had their star formation rapidly truncated, are selected via their strong Balmer absorption lines and weak H-alpha emission. Our sample consists of 24 K+A galaxies selected from 6594 0.10K+A galaxies are likely ongoing galaxy mergers, with nearby companion galaxies or tidal tails. Galaxy mergers may be responsible for the truncation of star formation, or we are observing the aftermath of merger triggered starbursts. As expected, the optical colors of K+A galaxies largely fall between blue galaxies with ongoing star formation and red passive galaxies. However, only 1% of the galaxies with colors between the red and blue populations are K+A galaxies, and we conclude that the truncation of ...

  13. The timescales of magma evolution at mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Philipp A.; Regelous, Marcel; Beier, Christoph; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.; Nebel, Oliver; Haase, Karsten M.

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic crust is continuously created at mid-ocean ridges by decompression melting of the upper mantle as it upwells due to plate separation. Decades of research on active spreading ridges have led to a growing understanding of the complex magmatic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes linked to the formation of new oceanic igneous crust. However, less is known about the timescales of magmatic processes at mid-ocean ridges, including melting in and melt extraction from the mantle, fractional crystallisation, crustal assimilation and/or magma mixing. In this paper, we review the timescales of magmatic processes by integrating radiometric dating, chemical and petrological observations of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and geophysical models. These different lines of evidence suggest that melt extraction and migration, and crystallisation and mixing processes occur over timescales of 1 to 10,000 a. High-resolution geochemical stratigraphic profiles of the oceanic crust using drill-core samples further show that at fast-spreading ridges, adjacent flow units may differ in age by only a few 100 a. We use existing chemical data and new major- and trace-element analyses of fresh MORB glasses from drill-cores in ancient Atlantic and Pacific crust, together with model stratigraphic ages to investigate how lava chemistry changes over 10 to 100 ka periods, the timescale of crustal accretion at spreading ridges which is recorded in the basalt stratigraphy in drilled sections through the oceanic crust. We show that drilled MORBs have compositions that are similar to those of young MORB glasses dredged from active spreading ridges (lavas that will eventually be preserved in the lowermost part of the extrusive section covered by younger flows), showing that the dredged samples are indeed representative of the bulk oceanic crust. Model stratigraphic ages calculated for individual flows in boreholes, together with the geochemical stratigraphy of the drilled sections, show that at

  14. Functional balance between the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 HA D222 variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Casalegno

    Full Text Available D222G/N substitutions in A(H1N1pdm09 hemagglutinin may be associated with increased binding of viruses causing low respiratory tract infections and human pathogenesis. We assessed the impact of such substitutions on the balance between hemagglutinin binding and neuraminidase cleavage, viral growth and in vivo virulence.Seven viruses with differing polymorphisms at codon 222 (2 with D, 3 G, 1 N and 1 E were isolated from patients and characterized with regards hemagglutinin binding affinity (Kd to α-2,6 sialic acid (SAα-2,6 and SAα-2,3 and neuraminidase enzymatic properties (Km, Ki and Vmax. The hemagglutination assay was used to quantitatively assess the balance between hemagglutinin binding and neuraminidase cleavage. Viral growth properties were compared in vitro in MDCK-SIAT1 cells and in vivo in BALB/c mice. Compared with D222 variants, the binding affinity of G222 variants was greater for SAα-2,3 and lower for SAα-2,6, whereas that of both E222 and N222 variants was greater for both SAα-2,3 and SAα-2,6. Mean neuraminidase activity of D222 variants (16.0 nmol/h/10(6 was higher than that of G222 (1.7 nmol/h/10(6 viruses and E/N222 variants (4.4 nmol/h/10(6 viruses. The hemagglutination assay demonstrated a deviation from functional balance by E222 and N222 variants that displayed strong hemagglutinin binding but weak neuraminidase activity. This deviation impaired viral growth in MDCK-SIAT1 cells but not infectivity in mice. All strains but one exhibited low infectious dose in mice (MID50 and replicated to high titers in the lung; this D222 strain exhibited a ten-fold higher MID50 and replicated to low titers. Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase balance status had a greater impact on viral replication than hemagglutinin affinity strength, at least in vitro, thus emphasizing the importance of an optimal balance for influenza virus fitness. The mouse model is effective in assessing binding to SAα-2,3 but cannot differentiate SAα-2,3- from SA

  15. Functional balance between the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 HA D222 variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalegno, Jean-Sébastien; Ferraris, Olivier; Escuret, Vanessa; Bouscambert, Maude; Bergeron, Corinne; Linès, Laetitia; Excoffier, Thierry; Valette, Martine; Frobert, Emilie; Pillet, Sylvie; Pozzetto, Bruno; Lina, Bruno; Ottmann, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    D222G/N substitutions in A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin may be associated with increased binding of viruses causing low respiratory tract infections and human pathogenesis. We assessed the impact of such substitutions on the balance between hemagglutinin binding and neuraminidase cleavage, viral growth and in vivo virulence.Seven viruses with differing polymorphisms at codon 222 (2 with D, 3 G, 1 N and 1 E) were isolated from patients and characterized with regards hemagglutinin binding affinity (Kd) to α-2,6 sialic acid (SAα-2,6) and SAα-2,3 and neuraminidase enzymatic properties (Km, Ki and Vmax). The hemagglutination assay was used to quantitatively assess the balance between hemagglutinin binding and neuraminidase cleavage. Viral growth properties were compared in vitro in MDCK-SIAT1 cells and in vivo in BALB/c mice. Compared with D222 variants, the binding affinity of G222 variants was greater for SAα-2,3 and lower for SAα-2,6, whereas that of both E222 and N222 variants was greater for both SAα-2,3 and SAα-2,6. Mean neuraminidase activity of D222 variants (16.0 nmol/h/10(6)) was higher than that of G222 (1.7 nmol/h/10(6) viruses) and E/N222 variants (4.4 nmol/h/10(6) viruses). The hemagglutination assay demonstrated a deviation from functional balance by E222 and N222 variants that displayed strong hemagglutinin binding but weak neuraminidase activity. This deviation impaired viral growth in MDCK-SIAT1 cells but not infectivity in mice. All strains but one exhibited low infectious dose in mice (MID50) and replicated to high titers in the lung; this D222 strain exhibited a ten-fold higher MID50 and replicated to low titers. Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase balance status had a greater impact on viral replication than hemagglutinin affinity strength, at least in vitro, thus emphasizing the importance of an optimal balance for influenza virus fitness. The mouse model is effective in assessing binding to SAα-2,3 but cannot differentiate SAα-2,3- from SAα-2

  16. 5 ka BP event in monsoonal China%我国季风区5 ka BP气候事件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 谭亮成; 安芷生

    2016-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope A lot of studies suggested the Holocene climate change had played an important role in the evolution of the Neolithic cultures around the world. During the Holocene, there were a series of abrupt climate changes. One of the abrupt events occurred around~5 ka BP, which signiifcantly changed the environment of many regions over the world. Because this event occurred before the dawn of civilization, it had caused important inlfuences on human society. In this paper, we reviewed the recently published high-resolution, absolutely-dated speleothem and limnological records from different regions of monsoonal China, which had recorded hydrological changes during the 5 ka BP event period. We further discussed its impacts on the Neolithic culture of China, as well as the driving mechanisms.Materials and methods We divided the monsoonal China into Northeast China, North China, Central China, East China, South China, Southwest China and the Tibetan Plateau. We compared the hydrological changes in different regions of monsoonal China, by using recent published high-resolution, absoluted dated records.Results We suggested the monsoonal China, from the north to the south, had experienced dry climate during this event. The dry event was most signiifcantly recorded in North China, Northeast China and Tibetan Plateau. It began at 5.6—5.5 ka BP, reaching to the driest at ~5.0 ka BP, and then the precipitation rapidly recovered. Stalagmite record from Central China also showed similar result with North China. There was also cold and dry climate in Southwest China during the period of 5.5—4.8 ka BP. In South China, notably dry climate was observed in 5.5—5.0 ka BP. It seems there was imprint of 5 ka BP event in East China, although it’s hard to determine the exact timing, because of low resolutions and poor age controls of the published records. The extreme dry climate had played an important role on the evolution of Chinese Neolithic culture. The

  17. Rationalization of the pKa values of alcohols and thiols using atomic charge descriptors and its application to the prediction of amino acid pKa's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugur, Ilke; Marion, Antoine; Parant, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    approaches (gas phase or continuum solvent-based approaches), with five distinct atomic charge models (Mulliken, Löwdin, NPA, Merz-Kollman, and CHelpG), and with nine different DFT functionals combined with 16 different basis sets. Moreover, the capability of semiempirical methods (AM1, RM1, PM3, and PM6......) to also predict pKa's of thiols, phenols, and alcohols is analyzed. From our benchmarks, the best combination to reproduce experimental pKa's is to compute NPA atomic charge using the CPCM model at the B3LYP/3-21G and M062X/6-311G levels for alcohols (R(2) = 0.995) and thiols (R(2) = 0.986), respectively...... of the experimental pKa's of phenols, alcohols, and thiols. Our protocol is based on the linear relationship between computed atomic charges of the anionic form of the molecules (being either phenolates, alkoxides, or thiolates) and their respective experimental pKa values. It is tested with different environment...

  18. The role of the northward-directed (sub)surface limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the 8.2 ka event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegzes, A. D.; Jansen, E.; Telford, R. J.

    2014-10-01

    The so-called "8.2 ka event" is widely regarded as a major Holocene climate perturbation. It is most readily identifiable in the oxygen-isotope records from Greenland ice cores as an approximately 160-year-long cold interval between 8250 and 8090 years BP. The prevailing view has been that the cooling over Greenland, and potentially over the northern North Atlantic at least, was triggered by the catastrophic final drainage of the Agassiz-Ojibway proglacial lake as part of the remnant Laurentide Ice Sheet collapsed over Hudson Bay at around 8420 ± 80 years BP. The consequent freshening of surface waters in the northern North Atlantic Ocean and the Nordic Seas resulted in weaker overturning, and hence reduced northward ocean heat transport. We have reconstructed variations in the strength of the eastern branch of the Atlantic Inflow into the Nordic Seas around the time of the lake outbursts. While the initial freshwater forcing may have been even larger than originally thought, as the lake outbursts may have been accompanied by a major iceberg discharge from Hudson Bay, our proxy records from the mid-Norwegian Margin do not evidence a uniquely large slowdown in the eastern branch of the Atlantic Inflow at the time. Therefore, its main role in the 8.2 ka event may have been the (rapid) advection of fresh and cold waters to high northern latitudes, initiating rapid sea-ice expansion and an increase in surface albedo.

  19. Magma storage and ascent at Lipari Island (Aeolian archipelago, Southern Italy) at 223-81 ka: the role of crustal processes and tectonic influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Martino, Corrado; Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Lucchi, Federico; Peccerillo, Angelo; Tranne, Claudio A.; Diamond, Larryn W.

    2010-11-01

    Fluid inclusion studies together with volcanological and petrochemical data allow reconstruction of the magma feeding system of basaltic-andesitic to andesitic activity during the oldest and intermediate stages of development of Lipari Island (223-81 ka). A major magma storage zone is active during the overall investigated time span at depths of 22 km, close to the crust-mantle Moho transition, at which mantle-derived mafic magmas tend to accumulate due to neutral buoyancy conditions. Beneath central-type volcanoes (M. Mazzacaruso, M. S.Angelo, M. Chirica-Costa d’Agosto), a shallower magma reservoir is located within the upper crust at 5.5-3.5 km, associated with a major lithological discontinuity. For fissural-type volcanoes (Timpone Ospedale, Monterosa, M. Chirica), tectonic structures are suggested to influence further magma ascent and storage at mid-crustal depths (˜14 km), with no ponding at shallower levels. Partial crustal melting processes at the roofs of the deep magma reservoirs (˜17 km) are invoked to explain the origin of cordierite-bearing lavas beneath M. S.Angelo and M. Chirica-Costa d’Agosto volcanoes, which were active during the intermediate stages of development of Lipari (105-81 ka). The generation of felsic anatectic melts in the lower crust could have created density and rheologic barriers to impede the passage of mafic melts and promote their ponding, with influence on the subsequent evolution of Lipari volcano.

  20. ANALISIS POTENSI PENERIMAAN KUALITAS ALUMNI PROGRAM STUDI EKONOMI SYARI’AH STAIN KUDUS DITINJAU DARI PERSPEKTIF STAKEHOLDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekawati Rahayu Ningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available GRADUATES RECEPTION QUALITYANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL ECONOMIC STUDIES SYARI’AH IN STAIN KUDUS VIEWED FROM THE PERSPECTIVE STAKEHOLDER. The first aim of  this study was to determine the potential reception of  graduates quality in Shariah Economic Studiesof  STAINKudus in the world of  work. Second, to determine the motivations and needs of  stakeholders on the acceptance of  the quality of  graduates in Economics   Shariah STAIN Kudus.And third, to determine what factors which are supporting and inhibiting the absorption of graduates of the Department of Shariah Economics STAIN Kudus in working world. The theory that was developed as a basis for the analysis is the pyramid theory of  motivation and needs of  Abraham Maslow. By using qualitative research approach, the analysis and discussion of this study are:First, the potential acceptance of  Shariah Economy graduates in the working world, especially in the banking and financial institutions Shari’ah is still very large and potentially growing along with the rapid growth in the number of  banking and financial institutions Shari’ah in Indonesia. Second, motivation and needs of  stakeholders for the graduates reception of Shariah Economic STAIN Kudus is because it is the only college in the state of  religion around the Pantura area having Shariah Economic Studies Program and easily accessible. In addition, in order to establish a more synergistic relationship with the STAIN kudus then either the shari’a banking and financial institutions are willing to accept graduates of  Shariah Economic Studies Program as employees, of course, with the various criteria established in the job requirements. Keywords:Potential,  Quality  Admissions,  Graduates, Economic Shariah, Stakeholder. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah: Pertama, untuk mengetahui potensi penerimaan kualitas alumni Program Studi Ekonomi Syari’ah STAIN Kudus di dunia kerja. Kedua, untuk mengetahui motivasi dan

  1. The role of the northward-directed (subsurface limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the 8.2 ka Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Tegzes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The so-called "8.2 ka Event" has been widely regarded as a major climate perturbation over the Holocene. It is most readily identifiable in the oxygen-isotope records from Greenland ice cores as an approximately 160 yr-long cold interval between 8250–8090 yr BP. The prevailing view has been that the cooling over Greenland, and potentially over the northern North Atlantic at least, was triggered by the catastrophic final drainage of the Agassiz-Ojibway proglacial lake as part of the remnant Laurentide Ice Sheet collapsed over Hudson Bay at around 8420 ± 80 yr BP. The consequent freshening of surface waters in the northern North Atlantic Ocean and the Nordic Seas resulted in weaker overturning, hence reduced northward heat transport. Here we present proxy records from site JM97-MD95-2011 on the mid-Norwegian Margin indicating a (sharp decline in the strength of the eastern branch of the Atlantic Inflow into the Nordic Seas immediately following a uniquely large drop in (subsurface ocean temperatures coeval with the lake outbursts. We propose that the final drainage of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway was accompanied by a major iceberg discharge from Hudson Bay, which resulted in the cooling of the northward-directed northern Gulf Stream-North Atlantic Drift-Norwegian Atlantic Current system. Since our current-strength proxy records from the mid-Norwegian Margin do not evidence an exceptionally strong reduction in the main branch of the Atlantic Inflow into the Nordic Seas at the time, we argue that a chilled northward-directed (subsurface-current system and an already colder background climate state could be the main factors responsible for the 8.2 ka climate perturbation.

  2. Detecting Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Ah Receptor and Fluorescence Quantitative PCR with Exonuclease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhuang, Huisheng

    2010-11-01

    Tetrachlorobiphenyls as ligands were cultivated with goldfish, Ah receptors were extracted from the liver of goldfish and purified by hydroxyapatite. The complex of TCB ligands-receptors were analyzed by Surface Plasmon Resonance. DNA probes were amplified by PCR using Primers F1 and F2 with the DNA recognition site of responsive enhancer. DNA probes bound to the complex were not digested by exonuclease. The DNA that bound to the complex was quantified by real time PCR. A standard curve with TCB concentration to Ct values was obtained in the range of 10-12mol/L to 10-8 mol/L, according to TCB concentration in samples. The detection limit of the assay was below 10-12mol/L of TCB. Compared with HPLC, this assay is much more sensitive. These results suggest that fluorescence quantitative PCR with exonuclease by Ah receptors fits for detection of trace PCB.

  3. Outcomes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynfield, Ruth; Davey, Richard; Dwyer, Dominic E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from prospectively planned cohort studies on risk of major clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus are limited. In 2009, in order to assess outcomes and evaluate risk factors for progression of illness, two cohort studies were...... and/or death for outpatients, and hospitalization for >28 days, transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) if enrolled from general ward, and/or death for inpatients. Infection was confirmed by RT-PCR. 590 FLU 002 and 392 FLU 003 patients with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 were enrolled from 81 sites in 17...... during the pandemic period had a poorer prognosis than in subsequent seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, particularly when requiring hospital admission, are at high risk for disease progression, especially if they are older, immunodeficient, or admitted late in infection...

  4. Metapopulation dynamics enable persistence of influenza A, including A/H5N1, in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Parviez Rana; Fuller, Trevon; Harrigan, Ryan; Zhao, Delong; Arriola, Carmen Sofia; Gonzalez, Armandoe; Miller, Matthew Joshua; Xiao, Xiangming; Smith, Tom B; Jones, Jamie Holland; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A/H5N1 has persistently but sporadically caused human illness and death since 1997. Yet it is still unclear how this pathogen is able to persist globally. While wild birds seem to be a genetic reservoir for influenza A, they do not seem to be the main source of human illness. Here, we highlight the role that domestic poultry may play in maintaining A/H5N1 globally, using theoretical models of spatial population structure in poultry populations. We find that a metapopulation of moderately sized poultry flocks can sustain the pathogen in a finite poultry population for over two years. Our results suggest that it is possible that moderately intensive backyard farms could sustain the pathogen indefinitely in real systems. This fits a pattern that has been observed from many empirical systems. Rather than just employing standard culling procedures to control the disease, our model suggests ways that poultry production systems may be modified.

  5. The AhR Ligand, TCDD, Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity Differently in Androgen-Sensitive versus Castration-Resistant Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The reported biological effects of TCDD include induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, wasting syndrome and tumor promotion. TCDD elicits most of its effects through binding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). TCDD induced degradation of AhR has been widely reported and requires ubiquitination of the protein. The rapid depletion of AhR following TCDD activation serves as a mechanism to modulate AhR mediated gene induction. In addition to inducing AhR degradation, TCDD has been reported to i...

  6. Emergence of Islamic Sciences in Merv (First Two Centuries A.H.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut CAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Merv, the first center and one of the four largest cities of Khorasan, had undergone some radical changes, which also influenced the history of the region it was located, in political, military, social, cultural and scientific aspects since its conquest. In this context, the emergence of Islamic sciences in Merv and its status in the first two centuries a.h. will be handled and some scientific personalities of the period will be mentioned within the scope of the article.

  7. 松下4 Ah 18650型锂离子电池

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾旭平

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2009年12月,松下发布了一款可用于多种便携式设备的"18650"尺寸的锂离子充电电池的高性能产品,型号为NCR18650A.与原产品"NCR18650"相比,容量从2.9 Ah提高到了3.1 Ah.

  8. Analysis of a pandemic in the Italian newspapers: the A(H1N1 experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zanetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: in 2009 a novel infective agent, a(H1n1, was recognized by the World Health organization (WHo as a pandemic virus. Like most European countries, Italy experienced a single pandemic wave during fall-winter 2009. The objective of our study was to evaluate the news reports and the representation of the a(H1n1 pandemic in the Italian newspapers both quantitatively and qualitatively.

    Methods: from april 24th, 2009 to February 28th, 2010, seven national newspapers were monitored for the quantitative reporting of a(H1n1. In a three month sample period, reports were evaluated quali- tatively by considering their front page presence, tones used for headlines, and images and figures dedicated to the topic.

    Results: in a ten month window, a total of 1220 articles were published. The reporting period showed four peaks and one hollow, with a similar pattern for all the newspapers. during the three-month sample period, we found a total of 382 articles, 98.4% of which appeared on front pages, 33.8% of which contained headlines using alarming tones, and 47.8% which contained info-graphic elements.

    Conclusions: the a(H1n1 2009 pandemic in Italy was mild; nonetheless, newspapers devoted great attention to the new influenza and used alarmist tones. In similar situations, there are several areas where scientists should play a greater role. scientists should support journalists in understanding scientific issues and help them translate scientific information into news items. scientists should also help to contain the anxiety aroused in lay people by a pandemic, and support vaccination efforts dedicated to it....

  9. Lithium-Ion Performance and Abuse Evaluation Using Lithium Technologies 9Ah cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Albert Daniel; Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries in a pouch form offer high energy density and safety in their designs and more recently they are offering performance at higher rates. Lithium Technologies 9Ah high-power pouch cells were studied at different rates, thermal environments, under vacuum and several different conditions of abuse including overcharge, over-discharge and external short circuit. Results of this study will be presented.

  10. PENGUNGKAPAN SYARI’AH COMPLIANCE DAN KEPATUHAN BANK SYARIAH TERHADAP PRINSIP SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrori -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur niat para akuntan dan manager bank Islam untuk menerapkan praktek pengungkapan kepatuhan shariah sebagai tanggung jawab kepatuhan terhadap prinsip-prinsip bank Islam dilihat dari perspektif teori tindakan. Populasi untuk penelitian ini adalah para akuntan dan manager cabang bank Islam di kota Semarang dimana untuk respondennya berjumlah 36. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan linear regression. Hasil dari penelitian ini untuk memberikan dukungan empiris terhadap teori tindakan dan juga untuk memprediksi niat para akuntan dan manager bank Islam untuk menerapkan praktek pengungkapan kepatuhan shariah. Praktek pengungkapan kepatuhan shariah disarankan untuk diterapkan pada pelaporan keuangan sebagai tanggung jawab kepatuhan bank Islam. This study aims to assess the intentions of accountants and managers of Islamic banks to apply the disclosure practices of syari’ah compliance as accountability for adherence to the principles of syari’ah Islamic banks in the perspective of the theory of reasoned action. The study population include accountants and managers of Islamic bank branches in the city of Semarang in which there are 36 respondents. Linear regression was implemented for analyzing the data to test the hypothesis used. The results of this study provide empirical support for the theory of reasoned action. Then, it can also be used to predict the intentions of accountants and managers of Islamic banks to apply the disclosure practices of syari’ah compliance. Syari’ah compliance disclosure practices is suggested to be applied in financial report as a compliance responsibility of Islamic banks.

  11. INVESTIGATION ON HOT DUCTILITY AND STRENGTH OF CONTINUOUS CASTING SLAB FOR AH32 STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Y. Li; X.F. Li; L.G. Ao

    2006-01-01

    By means of Gleeble-1500 testing machine, the simulation of continuous casting process for AH32 steel was carried out and hot ductility and strength were determined. The cracking sensitivity was studied under the different temperatures and strain rates. The Precipitations of AlN at different temperatures and the fractures of high-temperature tensile samples were observed by using TEM (transmission electron microscope) and SEM (scanning electron microscope). The factors affecting the brittle temperature zone were discussed.

  12. AH-DB: collecting protein structure pairs before and after binding

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the Apo–Holo DataBase (AH-DB, http://ahdb.ee.ncku.edu.tw/ and http://ahdb.csbb.ntu.edu.tw/), which provides corresponding pairs of protein structures before and after binding. Conformational transitions are commonly observed in various protein interactions that are involved in important biological functions. For example, copper–zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), which destroys free superoxide radicals in the body, undergoes a large conformational transition from an ‘open’ st...

  13. Mid-Career Change and Early Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carl V.

    1978-01-01

    An NSF study suggests that important qualitative changes in the faculty may be obtained through increased attention to mid-career change and early retirement programs. Interest in career options, early retirement alternatives, evaluation criteria, mid-career change alternatives, internship, fellowship programs, and retraining programs are…

  14. Corporate Governance in Shareholding Companies: Comparing Legal Perspective and Position of Shari’ah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aznan, H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the concept of corporate governance in shareholding companies and the legal perspective in comparison with the position of Shari’ah. The purpose of governance is to instil confidence among the stakeholders that the Boards of Directors are applying a diligent legal and administrative framework, to avoid potential administrative and financial failures and corruption. The study has proceeded by defining the concept of governance from linguistics, accounting, administrative, and legal perspectives. The study also discusses the stands of international organisations on the issue of corporate governance. Then, it is proceeded by discussing the concept of corporate governance from Shari’ah point of view. The study found that even with the absence of the term “company governance” in Islamic Law, the concept of corporate governance is in line with the Shari’ah and that their scholars have clearly referred to it in their literature. The study has used the descriptive, analytical, inductive and comparative methodology in analyzing the subject matter.

  15. BAGI HASIL DAN BANK SYARI’AH (Solusi terhadap Bunga Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Haryanto Rudy Haryanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: To save money in terms of investation is one of bank’s functions. Interest and production sharing are kinds of investation in banking system. Interest is a marketable entry in conventional banking, however production sharing is known in syari’ah banking system. Some people argue that interest cannot be seperated from the banking activity, in fact Islam recommends the followers to avoid it; hence it could be substituted with term of production sharing. It matches the priciple of musyarakah and mudharabah as being taught by Rasûlullâh SAW. Bank interest is considered ribâ (excessive interest and it is forbidden in Islam. Moreover, production sharing is more useful and beneficial for people. Unfortunately, the value of production sharing (syarî’ah banking product is lower than the value of banking interest (conventional banking product due to the fact that the ralationship established by syari’ah banking and its customer is based on the principle of gotong royong (mutual coorporation and production sharing partnership. Key Words: ribâ, musyarakah, mudharabah, dan bagi-hasil  

  16. [Pilot studies with a serotonin agonist (AH 25086 B). Efficacy and tolerance in acute migraine attacks.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doenicke, A; Siegel, E

    1987-07-01

    AH 25086 B is a selective agonist of the newly determined 5-HT(1) receptors, which are sited mainly in the intracranial section of the carotid artery. According to experimental studies, the effect of AH 25086 B is decidedly more highly selective than that of ergotamine; the blood flow through the arteriovenous anastomoses of the internal carotid artery is clearly reduced, while the blood flow through the capillaries supplying the brain is increased. With AH 25086 B administered in an infusion rapid abolition of migraine attacks already in progress proved possible. The first 12 patients worldwide to receive this preparation were treated, some on several occasions, for a total of 21 migraine attacks: 7 received one infusion, 3 received two, 1 three, and 1 patient received five infusions. There were some side-effects with some infusions: nausea (18), vomiting (9), and photophobia (19). On average it took 31 min (range 10-60 min) for the headache to be relieved, regardless of the duration of migraine symptoms before the start of treatment. This was not a controlled study, but the results (14 very good, 6 good or satisfactory, in 21 attacks treated) were better than could have been expected by chance. Tolerance of the preparation was good, all side-effects being transitory and mild; with dosages up to 1.6 mug kg(-1) min(-1) no changes were seen in heart rate or blood pressure.

  17. ATSAR THARIQAH AL-QIRA'AH AL-MUTAKARRIRAH FI MAHARAH AL-KITABAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihlah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to reveal the students' writing skill, namely dictation (Imlâ’ and to analyze the use of the repeated reading technique in learning Qirâ'ah Jahriyyah, as well as to determine the effect of the use of al-Qirâ'ah al-Mutakarrirah technique on the students' skills in writing dictation. This method was used to improve students’ reading fluency at the beginners’ level, which was popularized by Samuel in 1979. This research used the experimental method through pretest and posttest control group design. The samples of the research were 44 students consisted of 22 students the experimental class and 22 students of the control class. The analysis of the data applied t-test. The results showed that the use of was significant on the students' writing skill in dictation. It was based on the tcount, 2.64, and ttable, 2.02, at the significance level of 5%. The al-Qirâ'ah al-Mutakarrirah technique was thus effectively used to develop the beginner-leveled students’ writing skill, especially dictation.

  18. PERSPEKTIF MUHAMMAD SA‘ÎD AL-ASYMÂWÎ tentang HISTORISITAS SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutawalli Mutawalli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Islamic law in Islamic thought tradition is viewed as significant knowledge for development of other Islamic knowledge. However, in an epistemological area, the concept of Islamic law provokes debates in terms of its implementation, for example, whether it is considered syarî‘ah or fiqh? Such question is always raised by contemporary Muslim thinkers like Muhammad Sa‘îd al-Asymâwî.Al-Asymâwî’s question is related to his paradigm that firmly differentiates syarî‘ah (Islamic law as religious teachings and fiqh (religious thoughts. Syarî‘ah is Allah’s ways and methods consisting of values and principles that are flexible following community movement. While fiqh is Muslim scholars’ deduction, exploration and interpretation of Al-Qur’an and Sunnah, it is limited to times and spaces. Consequently, according to such paradigm, some Islamic orders that are considered authoritative by the majority of Muslim scholars should be reviewed such as Islamic inheritance, criminal and political laws. With this approach, Al-Asymâwî is claimed as a real guard of liberalism and secularism among Muslim thinkers.

  19. Examination of design options for 35 Ah ambient temperature Li-TiS sub 2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, D. H.; Rao, S. S.; Yen, S. P. S.; Somoano, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is actively engaged in the development of ambient temperature rechargable lithium cells for future NASA geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) missions. To achieve these ambitious goals, Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, and Li-V6O13 systems were examined in detail. Among these three, the Li-TiS2 system has shown the longest life cycle and highest rate capability. Experimental Li-TiS2 batteries (10.5 V, 0.4 Ah) developed in-house have completed eight simulated and accelerated GEO seasons successfully. Inview of the encouraging results, the design options were examined for a scaled-up Li-TiS2 cell. It is hoped that the results of these studies will provide guidelines for prioritizing the research efforts and guiding the selection of optimized materials. Designs for 35 Ah Li-TiS2 cell were examined because present day geosynchronous satellites are powered by batteries of 35 Ah capacity. A computer program was developed to evaluate the influence of various design parameters on the specific energy and the rate capability of the cells.

  20. UNQUESTIONED GENDER LENS IN CONTEMPORARY INDONESIAN SHARI‘A ORDINANCES (PERDA SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Candraningrum

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Muslim participation in the democratic arena is now contested with the arrival of the decentralization process in 423 districts since 1992. The most notable movement is the quest for Islamic identity in the rejuvenation of Shari‘ah Ordinances which is interpreted symbolically and transcripturally. These ordinances have unrecognized the importance of gender lens in its practice. Until the end of 2007 no less than 63 districts have ratified Perda Syari’ah. In general, these ordinances designed to govern three aspects of public life, namely (1 to eradicate social crimes especially prostitutions and gambling; (2 to enforce ritual observances among Muslims such as reading the Qur’an, Friday congregations and fasting during Ramadhan; and (3 to govern the way people dress up in public sphere—especially the head-veiling for women. Although Islam is the religion of the majority there are also non-Muslim among Indonesian and institutionally Indonesia is not an Islamic state, therefore the ratification of Perda Syari’ah betrayed national consensus agreed upon by the founding fathers of the republic.

  1. Investigation of a Coupled Arrhenius-Type/Rossard Equation of AH36 Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qin; Tian, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Peng

    2017-04-13

    High-temperature tensile testing of AH36 material in a wide range of temperatures (1173-1573 K) and strain rates (10(-4)-10(-2) s(-1)) has been obtained by using a Gleeble system. These experimental stress-strain data have been adopted to develop the constitutive equation. The constitutive equation of AH36 material was suggested based on the modified Arrhenius-type equation and the modified Rossard equation respectively. The results indicate that the constitutive equation is strongly influenced by temperature and strain, especially strain. Moreover, there is a good agreement between the predicted data of the modified Arrhenius-type equation and the experimental results when the strain is greater than 0.02. There is also good agreement between the predicted data of the Rossard equation and the experimental results when the strain is less than 0.02. Therefore, a coupled equation where the modified Arrhenius-type equation and Rossard equation are combined has been proposed to describe the constitutive equation of AH36 material according to the different strain values in order to improve the accuracy. The correlation coefficient between the computed and experimental flow stress data was 0.998. The minimum value of the average absolute relative error shows the high accuracy of the coupled equation compared with the two modified equations.

  2. Evaluation of the apical sealing ability of bioceramic sealer, AH plus & epiphany: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprit Sudhir Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This in vitro study evaluated and compared the microleakage of three sealers; Endosequence bioceramic (BC sealer, AH Plus and Epiphany. Materials and Methods: Study was done on 75 extracted human single rooted permanent teeth, which were decoronated and the root canals were instrumented. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 25 and obturated by continuous wave condensation technique. Group A: using Endosequence BC, Group B: using AH Plus sealer, Group C: using Resilon Epiphany system. Microleakage was evaluated using dye penetration method. Teeth were split longitudinally and then horizontally markings were made at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the apex. Dye penetration evaluation was done under stereomicroscope (30X magnification. Results: The dye penetration in Group B was more than in Group A and C in both vertical and horizontal directions, suggesting that newly introduced BC sealer and Epiphany sealer sealed the root canal better compared to AH Plus Sealer. Conclusion: Newer root canal sealers seal the root canal better but cannot totally eliminate leakage.

  3. Monsoonal response to mid-holocene orbital forcing in a high resolution GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. C. Bosmans

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we use a sophisticated high-resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, EC-Earth, to investigate the effect of Mid-Holocene orbital forcing on summer monsoons on both hemispheres. During the Mid-Holocene (6 ka, there was more summer insolation on the Northern Hemisphere than today, which intensified the meridional temperature and pressure gradients. Over North Africa, monsoonal precipitation is intensified through increased landward monsoon winds and moisture advection as well as decreased moisture convergence over the oceans and more convergence over land compared to the pre-industrial simulation. Precipitation also extends further north as the ITCZ shifts northward in response to the stronger poleward gradient of insolation. This increase and poleward extent is stronger than in most previous ocean-atmosphere GCM simulations. In north-westernmost Africa, precipitation extends up to 35° N. Over tropical Africa, internal feedbacks completely overcome the direct warming effect of increased insolation. We also find a weakened African Easterly Jet. Over Asia, monsoonal precipitation during the Mid-Holocene is increased as well, but the response is different than over North-Africa. There is more convection over land at the expense of convection over the ocean, but precipitation does not extend further northward, monsoon winds over the ocean are weaker and the surrounding ocean does not provide more moisture. On the Southern Hemisphere, summer insolation and the poleward insolation gradient were weaker during the Mid-Holocene, resulting in a reduced South American monsoon through decreased monsoon winds and less convection, as well as an equatorward shift in the ITCZ. This study corroborates the findings of paleodata research as well as previous model studies, while giving a more detailed account of Mid-Holocene monsoons.

  4. Mid infrared upconversion spectroscopy using diffuse reflectance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Kehlet, Louis M.; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach for mid infrared (mid-IR) spectral analysis using upconversion technology applied in a diffuse reflectance setup. We demonstrate experimentally that mid-IR spectral features in the 2.6-4 μm range using different test samples (e.g. zeolites) can be obtained. The results...... are in good agreement with published data. We believe that the benefit of low noise upconversion methods combined with spectral analysis will provide an alternative approach to e.g. mid-IR Fourier Transform microscopy. We discuss in detail the experimental aspects of the proposed method. The upconversion unit...... located in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength region easily accessible for low noise Silicon CCD camera technology. Thus the room temperature upconversion unit and the Silicon CCD camera replaces noisy mid infrared detectors used in existing Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. We demonstrate...

  5. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  6. Evaluation of Cross-immune Reaction of Anti-Aeromonas hydrophila AH1 Serum%抗嗜水气单胞菌AH1血清交叉免疫反应的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹凤; 陈丽芳; 朱徽

    2010-01-01

    本研究利用嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)AH1腹腔注射小白鼠,测定半数致死量LD50为1.35×107.在此基础上制备抗嗜水气单胞菌AH1血清(抗AH1血清),采用凝集反应测出抗AH1血清的效价为25,600.进一步分析抗AH1血清对温和气单胞菌(Aeromonas sobria)等13种致病菌的交叉免疫反应,结果表明,抗AH1血清与气单胞菌属细菌、孤菌属细菌和假单胞属细菌之间的交叉反应程度比较大,而与其它属细菌之间存在的交叉反应程度小,或不存在交叉反应.

  7. Operational effectiveness analyses of AH/UAV cooperative surveillance against mission%基于AH/UAV编队协同侦察打击的作战效能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任鹏; 高晓光

    2011-01-01

    The cooperative combat mission was descripted, and the dynamic mathematical model of the AH/UAV cooperative attacking ground target in the particular threaten environment was established. By simulation analysis, the mission success probability, the target damage probability and the survival probability of the AH/UAV cooperative combat were significantly increased.%对AH/UAV协同作战任务进行了客观描述,建立了AH/UAV编队协同在指定威胁环境条件下对地面重要目标实施攻击的动态数学模型.通过仿真,分析了AH/UAV协同执行侦察打击任务的重要作战效能指标,并通过对比分析可知,AH/UAV协同作战能够显著提高攻击作战的任务成功率和对目标的击毁率,同时能够降低风险,提高自身安全.

  8. A comparison of adrenergic receptors of rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells with those of normal rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanae, F; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R

    1988-04-01

    The pharmacological specificity of adrenergic receptors in the plasma membrane of rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells was compared with that in normal rat hepatocytes. The number of [125I]iodocyanopindolol-binding sites was much greater in AH130 cells than in the hepatocytes. We characterized the alpha-adrenergic receptor subtypes using the alpha 1-selective ligand [3H]prazosin and the alpha 2-selective ligand [3H]clonidine. AH130 cells had fewer prazosin-binding sites than the hepatocytes and about 8 times as many clonidine-binding sites of high affinity. The results showed that the adrenergic receptors in AH130 cells have pharmacological properties that are very different from those of the receptors in normal rat hepatocytes.

  9. Kanegelo ya Nimirode: Re lebelela diphihlelelo t�a gagwe ka lefsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elelwani B. Farisani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kanegelo ya Hama/Nimirode e �omi�it�we go gatelela Bathobaso ba Afrika-Borwa le ba Amerika. Taodi�wana ye e lekola Nimirode ka lefsa le go t�ea magato a go bu�et�a seriti sa gagwe le sa Bathobaso sekeng.Seo se tlo dirwa ka dikgato t�e tlhano ka mo tlase. Sa mathomo, re tlo lekola dimelo t�a bana ba Noage, go kwe�i�a Nimirode, yo e lego yena �edi ye kgolo ya taodi�wana ye. Sa bobedi re tlo lebelela ka fao bangwadi ba bangwe ba t�welet�ago seswant�ho sa go befa sa Nimirode. Sa boraro, re tlo sekaseka tiri�o ya kanegelo ya Hama/Nimirode go gatelela le go dira Bathobaso makgoba. Sa bone, re tlo sekaseka diphihlelelo le dikatlego t�a Nimirode. Mo re tlo tsepelela diphihlelelo t�a gagwe t�e tharo t�e kgolo bjalo ka go ba mmu�i wa maemo, motsomi yo maatla le moagi. Nepo ya karolo ye ke go ganet�ana le tshekatsheko ya go se be botse ye e nepilwego Nimirode nakong ya go feta. Re tlo tlalelet�a ka go fa tshekatsheko ye e tebilego ya thogako godimo ga Hama/Ku�e/Nimirode. Sa bohlano, ebile e le sa mafelelo, re tlo t�welet�a nyanyeng bohlokwa bja kanegelo ya Nimirode go bao ba bego ba gatelet�we le go ba makgoba ka baka la temana ye. Re tlo nepi�a Afrika-Borwa.

  10. Molecular Paleoclimate Reconstructions over the Last 9 ka from a Peat Sequence in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Huang, Xianyu; Sachse, Dirk; Ding, Weihua; Xue, Jiantao

    2016-01-01

    To achieve a better understanding of Holocene climate change in the monsoon regions of China, we investigated the molecular distributions and carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ13C and δD values) of long-chain n-alkanes in a peat core from the Shiwangutian (SWGT) peatland, south China over the last 9 ka. By comparisons with other climate records, we found that the δ13C values of the long-chain n-alkanes can be a proxy for humidity, while the δD values of the long-chain n-alkanes primarily recorded the moisture source δD signal during 9-1.8 ka BP and responded to the dry climate during 1.8-0.3 ka BP. Together with the average chain length (ACL) and the carbon preference index (CPI) data, the climate evolution over last 9 ka in the SWGT peatland can be divided into three stages. During the first stage (9-5 ka BP), the δ13C values were depleted and CPI and Paq values were low, while ACL values were high. They reveal a period of warm and wet climate, which is regarded as the Holocene optimum. The second stage (5-1.8 ka BP) witnessed a shift to relatively cool and dry climate, as indicated by the more positive δ13C values and lower ACL values. During the third stage (1.8-0.3 ka BP), the δ13C, δD, CPI and Paq values showed marked increase and ACL values varied greatly, implying an abrupt change to cold and dry conditions. This climate pattern corresponds to the broad decline in Asian monsoon intensity through the latter part of the Holocene. Our results do not support a later Holocene optimum in south China as suggested by previous studies.

  11. Determinants of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza vaccination among pregnant women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Marie; Wu, Kendra M; Yuen, Carol Yuet Shueng; Cheung, Ka Lun; Chan, Vincci Hiu Sze

    2013-01-01

    During the 2009–2010 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic, pregnant women infected with the virus experienced excess morbidity and mortality when compared with other groups. Once a vaccine was available, pregnant women were a priority group for vaccination. Only a few studies have reported on the uptake of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza vaccine among pregnant women during the pandemic and none were from Asia. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with 2009 A/H1N1 influenza vaccine uptake among pregnant women in Hong Kong. Using a multi-center, cross-sectional design, we recruited 549 postpartum women from four post-natal wards in Hong Kong over a 4-month period during the second wave of the A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in the winter and spring of 2010. Only 6.2% (n = 34) of participants had received the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza vaccine and 4.9% (n = 27) had received the seasonal influenza vaccine. The most common reasons for not receiving the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine were fear of causing harm to themselves or their fetus. A high knowledge level (OR = 19.06; 95% CI 5.55, 65.48), more positive attitudes (OR = 3.52; 95% CI 1.37, 9.07), and having a family member who had the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza vaccine (OR = 7.69; 95% CI 2.92, 20.19) were independently and positively associated with vaccination. Study results show an unacceptably low uptake of the pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Hong Kong. Interventions to increase influenza vaccine knowledge and uptake among this group should be a priority for future pandemic planning and seasonal vaccination campaigns.

  12. Pseudomine, an isoxazolidone with siderophoric activity from Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2 isolated from Lake Victorian Nile Perch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthoni, U.; Christophersen, C.; Nielsen, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    A siderophore, pseudomonine, and sodium salicylate were isolated from the culture broth of iron-deficient cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2 isolated from the surface of spoiled Nile Perch from Lake Victoria......A siderophore, pseudomonine, and sodium salicylate were isolated from the culture broth of iron-deficient cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2 isolated from the surface of spoiled Nile Perch from Lake Victoria...

  13. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silong Chen

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT, which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA to phosphatidic acid (PA, catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2 and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1 were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts.

  14. Molecular analysis of the chloroplast Cu/Zn-SOD gene (AhCSD2) in peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiurong Zhang; Qian Wan; Fengzhen Liu⁎; Kun Zhang; Aiqing Sun; Bing Luo; Li Sun; Yongshan Wan⁎⁎

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) plays a key role in response to drought stress, and differences in SOD activity changes among cultivars are important under drought conditions. We obtained the full-length DNA of the chloroplast Cu/Zn-SOD gene (AhCSD2) from 11 allotetraploid cultivars and 5 diploid wild species in peanut. BLAST search against the peanut genome showed that the AhCSD2 genes gCSD2-1 and gCSD2-2 are located at the tops of chromosome A03 (A genome) and B03 (B genome), respectively, and both contain 8 exons and 7 introns. Nucleotide sequence analyses indicated that gCSD2-2 sequences were identical among all the tested cultivars, while gCSD2-1 sequences showed allelic variations. The amino acid sequences deduced from gCSD2-1 and gCSD2-2 both contain a chloroplast transit peptide and are distinguished by 6 amino acid (aa) residue differences. The other 2 aa residue variations in the mature peptide regions give rise to three-dimensional structure changes of the protein deduced from the genes gCSD2-1 and gCSD2-2. Sequences analyses of cultivars and wild species showed that gCSD2-2 of Arachis hypogaea and gAipCSD2 (Arachis ipaensis) are identical, and despite the abundant polymorphic loci between gCSD2-1 of A. hypogaea and sequences from A genome wild species, the deduced amino acid sequence of AhCSD2-1 (A. hypogaea) is identical to that of AduCSD2 (Arachis duranensis), whereas AcoCSD2 (Arachis correntina) and AcaCSD2 (Arachis cardenasii) both have 2 aa differences in the transit peptide region compared with AhCSD2-1 (A. hypogaea). Based on the Peanut Genome Project, promoter prediction revealed many stress-related cis-acting elements within the potential promoter regions (pp-A and pp-B). pp-A contains more binding sites for drought-associated transcriptional factors than pp-B. We hypothesize that the marked changes in SOD activity in different cultivars under drought stress are tightly regulated by transcription factors through transcription and

  15. Molecular analysis of the chloroplast Cu/Zn-SOD gene(AhCSD2) in peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiurong; Zhang; Qian; Wan; Fengzhen; Liu; Kun; Zhang; Aiqing; Sun; Bing; Luo; Li; Sun; Yongshan; Wan

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase(SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) plays a key role in response to drought stress, and differences in SOD activity changes among cultivars are important under drought conditions. We obtained the full-length DNA of the chloroplast Cu/Zn-SOD gene(Ah CSD2)from 11 allotetraploid cultivars and 5 diploid wild species in peanut. BLAST search against the peanut genome showed that the Ah CSD2 genes g CSD2-1 and g CSD2-2 are located at the tops of chromosome A03(A genome) and B03(B genome), respectively, and both contain 8exons and 7 introns. Nucleotide sequence analyses indicated that g CSD2-2 sequences were identical among all the tested cultivars, while g CSD2-1 sequences showed allelic variations.The amino acid sequences deduced from g CSD2-1 and g CSD2-2 both contain a chloroplast transit peptide and are distinguished by 6 amino acid(aa) residue differences. The other 2aa residue variations in the mature peptide regions give rise to three-dimensional structure changes of the protein deduced from the genes g CSD2-1 and g CSD2-2. Sequences analyses of cultivars and wild species showed that g CSD2-2 of Arachis hypogaea and g Aip CSD2(Arachis ipaensis) are identical, and despite the abundant polymorphic loci between g CSD2-1 of A.hypogaea and sequences from A genome wild species, the deduced amino acid sequence of Ah CSD2-1(A. hypogaea) is identical to that of Adu CSD2(Arachis duranensis), whereas Aco CSD2(Arachis correntina) and Aca CSD2(Arachis cardenasii) both have 2 aa differences in the transit peptide region compared with Ah CSD2-1(A. hypogaea). Based on the Peanut Genome Project, promoter prediction revealed many stress-related cis-acting elements within the potential promoter regions(pp-A and pp-B). pp-A contains more binding sites for drought-associated transcriptional factors than pp-B. We hypothesize that the marked changes in SOD activity in different cultivars under drought stress are tightly regulated by transcription factors through transcription and

  16. AhR Activation Underlies the CYP1A Autoinduction by A-998679 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Liguori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Xenobiotic-mediated induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs is frequently encountered in drug discovery and can influence disposition, pharmacokinetic, and toxicity profiles. The CYP1A subfamily of DMEs plays a central role in the biotransformation of several drugs and environmental chemicals. Autoinduction of drugs through CYP3A enzymes is a common mechanism for their enhanced clearance. However, autoinduction via CYP1A is encountered less frequently. In this report, an experimental compound, A-998679 (3-(5-pyridin-3-yl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl benzonitrile, was shown to enhance its own clearance via induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Rats were dosed for 5 days with 30, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day A-998679. During the dosing period, the compound’s plasma AUC decreased at 30 mg/kg (95% and 100 mg/kg (80%. Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry of the livers showed a large increase in the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1A, which was involved in the biotransformation of A-998679. Induction of CYP1A was confirmed in primary rat, human, and dog hepatocytes. The compound also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 in human liver microsomes. A-998679 activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR in a luciferase gene reporter assay in HepG2 cells, upregulated expression of genes associated with AhR activation in rat liver, and enhanced nuclear migration of AhR in HepG2 cells. Collectively these results demonstrate that A-998679 is an AhR activator that induces CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression, resulting in an autoinduction phenomenon. The unique properties of A-998679, along with its novel structure distinct from classical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, may warrant its further evaluation as a tool compound for use in studies involving AhR biology and CYP1A related mechanisms of drug metabolism and toxicity.

  17. Two fatalities associated with synthetic opioids: AH-7921 and MT-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Helena; Krueger, Julia; Sachs, Hans; Musshoff, Frank; Graw, Matthias; Roider, Gabriele; Stoever, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    In this study, two fatalities associated with the synthetic opioids AH-7921 and MT-45 are reported. Within the last few years, both compounds have emerged on the recreational drug market and are sold as "research chemicals" on the internet. In the first case, a 22-year-old woman was found dead in the bedroom of her apartment by two of her friends. A plastic bag labeled "AH-7921" was found in the apartment and the two friends stated that the deceased had consumed AH-7921 prior to her death. The woman was a known drug addict. In the second case, a 24-year-old man was found dead in his room by his mother. The deceased was sitting on a chair in front of his desk slumped over. Several bags of white powder labeled "MT-45", "Methoxmetamine" and "Methoxphenidine" were found in his room. Toxicological analyses of femoral blood, heart blood, liver, pericardial fluid, urine, vitreous humor and stomach content of the deceased were performed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Time-of-flight mass spectrometry was carried out on an LC-Triple TOF 5600 system (AB Sciex) with electrospray ionization operated in positive mode. In the first case, additional hair analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LC-QTOF-MS. In both cases, the relevant synthetic opioid could be detected in all analyzed samples. The concentration of AH-7921 was determined to be 450μg/L in femoral blood. MT-45 was present at a concentration of 2900μg/L in femoral blood. Besides methoxmetamine which could qualitatively be detected in femoral blood, urine and stomach content no methoxphenidine was found. In summary, deaths of the young individuals could be, by exclusion of other causes of death, attributed to the consumption of an overdose of AH-7921 and MT-45, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 新疆罗布泊地区32.0~9.1 kaB.P.期间的孢粉记录及其古气候古环境演化%A POLLEN RECORD AND THE PALEOCLIMATIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EVOLUTION IN LOP-NUR,XINJIANG IN 32.0~9.lk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东; 罗超; 彭子成; 张兆峰; 刘卫国; 张彭熹

    2009-01-01

    新疆罗布泊地区罗北洼地CK-2钻孔的孢粉记录揭示出:32.0~9.1 kaB.P.植被演替明显,气候干湿波动显著;晚冰期向全新世过渡期间,气候波动频繁且具突变性.31.98~19.26kaB.P.罗布泊地区处于末次冰期的盛冰期阶段,气候寒冷湿润,冷暖波动频繁,但幅度不大,研究区植被以草原一荒漠草原为主;19.26-13.67kaB.P.气候明显变为温暖干燥,植被以荒漠为主;13.67~12.73kaB.P.气候冷湿偏干,植被以草原-荒漠草原为主;12.73~9.14kaB.P.气候冷湿与暖干交替频繁,波动幅度较大,植被逐渐由荒漠向草原-荒漠草原过渡.其中,16.45~15.39kaB.P.,14.27~13.67kaB.P.和11.74~11.23kaB.P.之间的冷颤动分别相应于老仙女木、中仙女木和新仙女木事件;15.39~14.27kaB.P.和12.73~11.74kaB.P.之间的暖期则分别对应于欧洲博令和阿勒罗得暖期;新仙女木事件后的气候具有突变性的特点,10.49kaB.P.前后的暖事件和9.14kaB.P.前后的冷事件,成为全新世早期气候变化的显著特征.孢粉浓度和花粉组合所反映的罗布泊地区晚冰期以来的气候演化同全球性的气候事件具有显著的可比性.%Eastern Xinjiang as an aridest region of China is located at the boundary between the East Asian summer monsoon and the Northern Hemisphere's westerly winds.This region is sensitive to the environmental change in the large-scale westerly and monsoonal circulation systems.Some studies have indicated that Late Pleistocene climatic changes in this region were mostly influenced by expansion and contraction of the summer monsoonal circulation.However,this region might have experienced complex pattern of climate change neither a direct response to the westerlies nor to summer monsoon clue to the interplay between the subtropical monsoon system and the mid-latitude westerlies.We present lithology and fossil pollen data from a sedimentary core CK-2 drilled from the Luobei Depression(40°47 'N,91°03'E

  19. An early to mid-Pleistocene deep Arctic Ocean ostracode fauna with North Atlantic affinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNinno, Lauren H.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Rodriquez-Lazaro, J.; Brenner, Alec R.

    2015-01-01

    An early to middle Pleistocene ostracode fauna was discovered in sediment core P1-93-AR-23 (P23, 76.95°N, 155.07°W) from 951 meter water depth from the Northwind Ridge, western Arctic Ocean. Piston core P23 yielded more than 30,000 specimens and a total of about 30 species. Several early to mid-Pleistocene species in the genera Krithe,Echinocythereis, Pterygocythereis, and Arcacythere are now extinct in the Arctic and show taxonomic affinities to North Atlantic Ocean species. Our results suggest that there was a major ostracode faunal turnover during the global climate transitions known as the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT, ~ 1.2 to 0.7 Ma) and the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE, ~ 400 ka) reflecting the development of perennial sea ice during interglacial periods and large ice shelves during glacial periods over the last 400,000 years.

  20. Acquisition of Insect-Resistant Transgenic Maize Harboring a Truncated cry1Ah Gene via Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiu-ying; LANG Zhi-hong; ZHANG Jie; HE Kang-lai; ZHU Li; HUANG Da-fang

    2014-01-01

    A novel insecticidal gene cry1Ah was cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis isolate BT8 previously for plant genetic engineering improvement. Truncated active Cry1Ah toxin has a toxicity level similar to that of the full-length Cry1Ah toxin. In this study, plant expression vector pMhGM harboring truncated cry1Ah gene was transformed into maize (Zea mays L.) immature embryos by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation at which maize alcohol dehydrogenase matrix attachment regions (madMARs) were incorporated on both sides of the gene expression cassette to improve gene expression. A total of 23 PCR positive events were obtained with a transformation efifciency of 5%around. Bioassay results showed that events 1-4 and 1-5 exhibited enhanced resistance to the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis). These two events were further conifrmed by molecular analysis. Southern blot suggested that a single copy of the cry1Ah gene was successfully integrated into the maize genome. Western blot and ELISA showed that the foreign gene cry1Ah was expressed stably at high level in maize and could be inherited stably over generations. The results of a bioassay of T1-T4 transgenic maize plants indicated that the transgenic plants were highly toxic to the Asian corn borer and their resistance could be inherited stably from generation to generation. Thus, events 1-4 and 1-5 are good candidates for the breeding of insect-resistant maize.

  1. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of GuttaFlow Bioseal, GuttaFlow 2, AH-Plus and MTA Fillapex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygili, Gokhan; Saygili, Suna; Tuglu, Ibrahim; Davut Capar, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of different sealers including GuttaFlow Bioseal, GuttaFlow 2, AH-Plus and MTA Fillapex on L929 murine fibroblasts. Samples of GuttaFlow Bioseal, GuttaFlow 2, AH-Plus and MTA Fillapex were fabricated in Teflon disks of 5 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness. L929 fibroblasts were exposed to the extracts of these materials for 3, 24, 72 and 168 h at 37(°)C with 5% CO2. Cell viability was evaluated by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The data were analysed by ANOVA. GuttaFlow Bioseal was nontoxic at all experimental time points (P>0.05), whereas MTA Fillapex and AH-Plus were toxic (PMTA Fillapex was more cytotoxic than AH-Plus. There were more apoptotic cells in the MTA Fillapex and AH-Plus groups than in the other groups at 3 h (PMTA Fillapex and AH-Plus. At all experimental time points, there was no significant difference in the cell viability between the GuttaFlow Bioseal group and the control group.

  2. Hydrological variability in the Northern Levant: a 250 ka multiproxy record from the Yammoûneh (Lebanon sedimentary sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gasse

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Levant is a key region in terms of both long-term hydroclimate dynamics and human cultural evolution. Our understanding of the regional response to glacial-interglacial boundary conditions is limited by uncertainties in proxy-data interpretation and the lack of long-term records from different geographical settings.

    The present paper provides a 250 ka paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on a multi-proxy approach from northern Levant, derived from a 36 m lacustrine-palustrine sequence cored in the small intra-mountainous karstic Yammoûneh basin from northern Lebanon. We combined time series of sediment properties, paleovegetation, and carbonate oxygen isotopes (δc, to yield a comprehensive view of paleohydrologic-paleoclimatic fluctuations in the basin over the two last glacial-interglacial cycles. Integration of all available proxies shows that Interglacial maxima (early-mid MIS 7, MIS 5.5 and early MIS 1 experienced relatively high effective moisture, evidenced by the dominance of forested landscapes (although with different forest types associated with authigenic carbonate sedimentation in a productive waterbody. Synchronous and steep δc increases can be reconciled with enhanced mean annual moisture when changes in seasonality are taken into account. During Glacials periods (MIS 2 and MIS 6, open vegetation tends to replace the forests, favouring local erosion and detrital sedimentation. However, all proxy data reveal an overall wetting during MIS 6, while a drying trend took place during MIS4-2, leading to extremely harsh LGM conditions possibly linked to water storage as ice in the surrounding highlands. Over the past 250 ka, the Yammoûneh record shows an overall decrease in local effective water, coincident with a weakening of seasonal insolation contrasts linked to the decreasing amplitude of the eccentricity cycle.

    The Yammoûneh record is roughly consistent with long-term climatic

  3. EPOS Thematic Core Service ANTHROPOGENIC HAZARDS (TCS AH) - development of e-research platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata

    2017-04-01

    TCS AH is based on IS-EPOS Platform. The Platform facilitates research on anthropogenic hazards and is available online, free of charge https://tcs.ah-epos.eu/. The Platform is a final product of the IS-EPOS project, founded by the national programme - POIG - which was implemented in 2013-2015 (POIG.02.03.00-14-090/13-00). The platform is a result of a joint work of scientific community and industrial partners. Currently, the development of TCS AH is carried under EPOS IP project (H2020-INFRADEV-1-2015-1, INFRADEV-3-2015). Platform is an open virtual access point for researchers and Ph. D. students interested in anthropogenic seismicity and related hazards. This environment is designed to ensure a researcher the maximum possible liberty for experimentation by providing a virtual laboratory, in which the researcher can design own processing streams and process the data integrated on the platform. TCS AH integrates: data and specific high-level services. Data gathered in the so-called "episodes", comprehensively describing a geophysical process, induced or triggered by human technological activity, which, under certain circumstances can become hazardous for people, infrastructure and the environment. 7 sets of seismic, geological and technological data were made available on the Platform. The data come from Poland, Germany, UK and Vietnam, and refer to underground mining, reservoir impoundment, shale gas exploitation and geothermal energy production. The next at least 19 new episodes related to conventional hydrocarbon extraction, reservoir treatment, underground mining and geothermal energy production are being integrated within the framework of EPOS IP project. The heterogeneous multi-disciplinary data (seismic, displacement, geomechanical data, production data etc.) are transformed to unified structures to form integrated and validated datasets. To deal with this various data the problem-oriented services were designed and implemented. The particular attention

  4. Sea-surface salinity variations in the northern Caribbean Sea across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sepulcre

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available By reconstructing past hydrologic variations in the Northern Caribbean Sea and their influence on the stability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC during the last 940 ka, we seek to document climate changes in this tropical area in response to the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT. Using core MD03-2628, we estimated past changes in sea surface salinity (SSS using Δδ18O, the difference between the modern, and the past δ18O of seawater (obtained by combining alkenone thermometer data with the δ18O of the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides rube (white and corrected for ice-sheet volume effects. Today, the lowest SSS values in the area studied are associated with the northernmost location of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ. The Δδ18O record obtained from core MD03-2628 exhibits glacial/interglacial cyclicity with higher values during all glacial periods spanning the last 940 ka, indicating increased SSS. A long-term trend was also observed in the Δδ18O values that exhibited a shift toward lower values for interglacial periods during the last 450 ka, as compared to interglacial stages older than 650 ka. A rise in SSS during glacial stages may be related to the southernmost location of the ITCZ, which is induced by a steeper cross-equator temperature gradient and associated with reduced northward cross-equatorial oceanic transport. Therefore, the results suggest a permanent link between the tropical salinity budget and the AMOC during the last 940 ka. Following the MPT, lower salinities during the last five interglacial stages indicated a northernmost ITCZ location that was forced by changes in the cross-equator temperature gradient and that was associated with the poleward position of Southern Oceanic Fronts that amplify the transport of heat and moisture to the North Atlantic. These processes may have contributed to the amplification of the

  5. 花生AhDRRP基因启动子的克隆%Molecular clonning of promoter sequence of AhDRRP gene from Arachis hypogaea L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟旎; 李万福; 梁炫强

    2011-01-01

    采用基于PCR的基因组DNA步移法,首次从抗黄曲霉品种粤油20花生中克隆AhDRRP基因起始密码子ATG上游403 bp启动子序列,并对其进行植物顺式作用元件数据库PLACE预测分析.研究结果表明,该启动子序列含有大量的TATA box,CAAT box,GATA box; CURECORECR、DOFCOREZM、TAAAGSTKST1等多种抗逆应答元件以及植物激素调节元件2SSEEDPROTBANAPA、ARR1AT、SEF1MOTIF、SEF4MOTIFGM7S等,预示了该基因可能在植物的逆境应答中发挥重要作用.

  6. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade 2.3.4.4 from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bryan S; Russier, Marion; Jeevan, Trushar; Marathe, Bindumadhav; Govorkova, Elena A; Russell, Charles J; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Choi, Young Ki; Brown, Ian; Saito, Takehiko; Stallknecht, David E; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N8) viruses from clade 2.3.4.4 were introduced to North America by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. Reassortment of A(H5N8) viruses with avian viruses of North American lineage resulted in the generation of novel A(H5N2) viruses with novel genotypes. Through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified PB1 and NP gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from North American waterfowl prior to the introduction of A(H5N8) to North America, highlighting these bird species in the origin of reassortant A(H5N2) viruses. While they were highly virulent and transmissible in poultry, we found A(H5N2) viruses to be low pathogenic in mice and ferrets, and replication was limited in both hosts compared with those of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin protein from A(H5N2) viruses showed that the receptor binding preference, cleavage, and pH of activation were highly adapted for replication in avian species and similar to those of other 2.3.4.4 viruses. In addition, North American and Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX viruses replicated to significantly lower titers in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells than did seasonal human A(H1N1) and highly pathogenic A(H5N1) viruses isolated from a human case. Thus, despite their having a high impact on poultry, our findings suggest that the recently emerging North American A(H5N2) viruses are not expected to pose a substantial threat to humans and other mammals without further reassortment and/or adaptation and that reassortment with North American viruses has not had a major impact on viral phenotype. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses have been introduced into North America from Asia, causing extensive morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. The introduced viruses have reassorted with North American avian influenza viruses, generating viral genotypes not seen on

  7. Comparison of excitotoxic profiles of ATPA, AMPA, KA and NMDA in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, B W; Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    2001-10-26

    The excitotoxic profiles of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (ATPA), (RS)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) were evaluated using cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI) as a measure for induced, concentration-dependent neuronal damage in hippocampal slice cultures. ATPA is in low concentrations a new selective agonist of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR5 confined to KA receptors and also in high concentrations an AMPA receptor agonist. The following rank order of estimated EC(50) values was found after 2 days of exposure: AMPA (3.7 mM)>NMDA (11 mM)=KA (13 mM)>ATPA (33 mM). Exposed to 30 microM ATPA, 3 microM AMPA and 10 microM NMDA, CA1 was the most susceptible subfield followed by fascia dentata and CA3. Using 8 microM KA, CA3 was the most susceptible subfield, followed by fascia dentata and CA1. In 100 microM concentrations, all four agonists induced the same, maximal PI uptake in all hippocampal subfields, corresponding to total neuronal degeneration. Using glutamate receptor antagonists, like GYKI 52466, NBQX and MK-801, inhibition data revealed that AMPA excitotoxicity was mediated primarily via AMPA receptors. Similar results were found for a high concentration of ATPA (30 microM). In low GluR5 selective concentrations (0.3-3 microM), ATPA did not induce an increase in PI uptake or a reduction in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity of hippocampal interneurons. For KA, the excitotoxicity appeared to be mediated via both KA and AMPA receptors. NMDA receptors were not involved in AMPA-, ATPA- and KA-induced excitotoxicity, nor did NMDA-induced excitotoxicity require activation of AMPA and KA receptors. We conclude that hippocampal slice cultures constitute a feasible test system for evaluation of excitotoxic effects and mechanisms of new (ATPA) and classic (AMPA, KA and NMDA) glutamate receptor agonists. Comparison of concentration

  8. TCDD-induced transcriptional profiles in different mouse strains that have an identical AhR genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qing; Suzuki, Junko S.; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh [Environmental Health Sciences Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa, Tsukuba (Japan); Takei, Teiji [Environmental Health and Safety Division, Ministry of the Environment, Kasumigaseki, Tokyo (Japan); Lin, Tinmin; Peterson, R.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Wisconsin, MA (United States). School of Pharmacy and Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center

    2004-09-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant that is known to cause hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. A characteristic feature in the toxicity of TCDD is exceptionally large differences in susceptibility among animal species or even strains belonging to the same species. These strain differences in susceptibility to TCDD have now been elucidated to be due to the difference in ligand binding affinity or transcriptional activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Actually the C57BL/6 type AhR (AhR{sup b}) showed 6-fold higher ligand binding affinity than the DBA/2 type AhR (AhR{sup d}). The H/W rat AhR has a C-terminal truncation of the transactivating domain compared to the L-E rat AhR. On the other hand, there is considerable species variability in response sensitivity to TCDD that cannot be ascribed simply to polymorphisms of the AhR gene. A non-AhR gene susceptibility loci for hepatic porphyria has been observed in mice treated with iron compounds prior to TCDD injection by using a quantitative trait locus analysis of an F2 intercross between susceptible C57BL/6 and resistant DBA/2 stains. In the rat, a gene B with Han/Wistar type AhR is likely to be involved in resistance to TCDD lethality. These observations suggest that other modulating genes, so-called ''modifier genes'', have profound effects on the AhR-mediated gene expression phenotype. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the AhR coding region, the BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mouse strains are clustered together on a single branch. In the present study, we try to confirm the existence of modifiers by using microarray analysis to examine hepatic gene expression after TCDD exposure in BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mice. To recognize the existence of a modifier besides the AhR, it is a prerequisite experimental condition that the analyzed strains have an identical AhR genotype. Therefore, we selected BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mice as the model

  9. Differences in the Epidemiology of Human Cases of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) Viruses Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Horby, Peter W.; Tsang, Tim K.; Chen, Enfu; Gao, Lidong; Ou, Jianming; Nguyen, Tran Hien; Duong, Tran Nhu; Gasimov, Viktor; Feng, Luzhao; Wu, Peng; Jiang, Hui; Ren, Xiang; Peng, Zhibin; Li, Sa; Li, Ming; Zheng, Jiandong; Liu, Shelan; Hu, Shixiong; Hong, Rongtao; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Gao, George F.; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Background. The pandemic potential of avian influenza viruses A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) remains an unresolved but critically important question. Methods. We compared the characteristics of sporadic and clustered cases of human H5N1 and H7N9 infection, estimated the relative risk of infection in blood-related contacts, and the reproduction number (R). Results. We assembled and analyzed data on 720 H5N1 cases and 460 H7N9 cases up to 2 November 2014. The severity and average age of sporadic/index cases of H7N9 was greater than secondary cases (71% requiring intensive care unit admission vs 33%, P = .007; median age 59 years vs 31, P H7N9. A higher proportion of H5N1 infections occurred in clusters (20%) compared to H7N9 (8%). The relative risk of infection in blood-related contacts of cases compared to unrelated contacts was 8.96 for H5N1 (95% CI, 1.30, 61.86) and 0.80 for H7N9 (95% CI, .32, 1.97). Conclusions. The results are consistent with an ascertainment bias towards severe and older cases for sporadic H7N9 but not for H5N1. The lack of evidence for ascertainment bias in sporadic H5N1 cases, the more pronounced clustering of cases, and the higher risk of infection in blood-related contacts, support the hypothesis that susceptibility to H5N1 may be limited and familial. This analysis suggests the potential pandemic risk may be greater for H7N9 than H5N1. PMID:25940354

  10. Hydroclimate of the Last Glacial Maximum and deglaciation in southern Australia's arid margin interpreted from speleothem records (23–15 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Treble

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial data spanning the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and deglaciation from the southern Australian region are sparse and limited to discontinuous sedimentological and geomorphological records with relatively large chronological uncertainties. This dearth of records has hindered a critical assessment of the role of the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude westerly winds on the region's climate during this time period. In this study, two precisely dated speleothem records for Mairs Cave, Flinders Ranges, are presented, providing for the first time a detailed terrestrial hydroclimatic record for the southern Australian drylands during 23–15 ka. Recharge to Mairs Cave is interpreted from the speleothem record by the activation of growth, physical flood layering, and δ18O and δ13C minima. Periods of lowered recharge are indicated by 18O and 13C enrichment, primarily affecting δ18O, argued to be driven by evaporation of shallow soil/epikarst water in this water-limited environment. A hydrological driver is supported by calcite fabric changes. These include the presence of laminae, visible organic colloids, and occasional dissolution features, related to recharge, as well as the presence of sediment bands representing cave floor flooding. A shift to slower-growing, more compact calcite and an absence of lamination is interpreted to represent reduced recharge. The Mairs Cave record indicates that the Flinders Ranges were relatively wet during the LGM and early deglaciation, particularly over the interval 18.9–15.8 ka. This wetter phase ended abruptly with a shift to drier conditions at 15.8 ka. These findings are in agreement with the geomorphic archives for this region, as well as the timing of events in records from the broader Australasian region. The recharge phases identified in the Mairs Cave record are correlated with, but antiphase to, the position of the westerly winds interpreted from marine core MD03-2611, located 550 km south

  11. KaM_CRK: Clustering and Ranking Knowledge for Reasonable Results Based on Behaviors and Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A model named KaM_CRK is proposed, which can supply the clustered and ranked knowledge to the users on different contexts. By comparing the attributes of contexts and JANs, our findings indicate that our model can accumulate the JANs, whose attributes are similar with the user’s contexts, together. By applying the KaM_CLU algorithm and Centre rank strategy into the KaM_CRK model, the model boosts a significant promotion on the accuracy of provision of user's knowledge. By analyzing the users' behaviors, the dynamic coefficient BehaviorF is first presented in KaM_CLU. Compared to traditional approaches of K_means and DBSCAN, the KaM_CLU algorithm does not need to initialize the number of clusters. Additionally, its synthetic results are more accurate, reasonable, and fit than other approaches for users. It is known from our evaluation through real data that our strategy performs better on time efficiency and user's satisfaction, which will save by 30% and promote by 5%, respectively.

  12. Ka-band Technologies for Small Spacecraft Communications via Relays and Direct Data Downlink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Niederhaus, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Downey, Joe; Roberts, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    As the scientific capabilities and number of small spacecraft missions in the near Earth region increase, standard yet configurable user spacecraft terminals operating in Ka-band are needed to lower mission cost and risk and enable significantly higher data return than current UHF or S-band terminals. These compact Ka-band terminals are intended to operate with both the current and next generation of Ka-band relay satellites and via direct data communications with near Earth tracking terminals. This presentation provides an overview of emerging NASA-sponsored and commercially provided technologies in software defined radios (SDRs), transceivers, and electronically steered antennas that will enable data rates from hundreds of kbps to over 1 Gbps and operate in multiple frequency bands (such as S- and X-bands) and expand the use of NASA's common Ka-bands frequencies: 22.55-23.15 GHz for forward data or uplink; and 25.5-27.0 GHz for return data or downlink. Reductions in mass, power and volume come from integration of multiple radio functions, operations in Ka-band, high efficiency amplifiers and receivers, and compact, flat and vibration free electronically steered narrow beam antennas for up to + 60 degrees field of regard. The software defined near Earth space transceiver (SD-NEST) described in the presentation is intended to be compliant with NASA's space telecommunications radio system (STRS) standard for communications waveforms and hardware interoperability.

  13. Overview of Ka-band communications technology requirements for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward F.

    1991-12-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative, Ka-band frequencies are likely to carry the bulk of the communications traffic both in the vicinity of and on the return links from the moon and Mars. The four exploration architectures identified by the Synthesis Group are examined and Ka-band technology requirements to meet the data traffic needs and schedule are identified. Specific Ka-band technology requirements identified are: transmitters - 0.5 to 200 W with high efficiency; antennas - 5m and 9m diameter, with multiple beams and/or scanning beams; and spacecraft receivers - noise figure of 2 dB. For each component, the current state of technology is assessed and needed technology development programs are identified. It is concluded that to meet the schedules of lunar and Mars precursor missions beginning in approximately the year 2000, aggressive technology development and advanced development programs are required immediately for Ka-band communications systems components. Additionally, the greater data transmission rates for the cargo and piloted phases of the exploration program require further Ka-band communications technology developments targeted for operations beginning in about 2010.

  14. Performance of a Ka-band transponder breadboard for deep-space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysoor, N. R.; Lane, J. P.; Kayalar, S.; Kermode, A. W.

    1995-08-01

    This article summarizes the design concepts applied in the development of and advanced Ka-band (34.4 GHz/32 GHz) transponder breadboard for the next generation of space communications systems applications. The selected architecture upgrades the X-band (7.2 GHz/8.4 GHz) deep-space transponder (DST) to provide Da-band up/Ka- and X-band down capability. The Ka-band transponder breadboard incorporates several state-of-the-art components, including sampling mixers, a Ka-band dielectric resonator oscillator, and microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs). The MMICs that were tested in the breadboard include upconverters, downconverters, automatic gain control circuits, mixers, phase modulators, and amplifiers. The measured receiver dynamic range, tracking range, acquisition rate, static phase error, and phase jitter characteristics of the Ka-band breadboard interfaced to the advanced engineering model X-band DST are in good agreement with the expected performance. The results show a receiver tracking threshold of -149 dBm with a dynamic range of 80 dB and a downlink phase jitter of 7 deg rms. The analytical results of phase noise and Allan standard deviation are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Geological record of meltwater events at Qinghai Lake, China from the past 40 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Taibei; Wang, Hao; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Peng; Zhu, Yizhi; Burr, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    We report here on a previously unpublished sediment core from Qinghai Lake, China, that preserves a continuous record of sedimentation for the past 40 ka. A striking feature of the record is a set of distinct meltwater events recorded at 35, 19 and 14 ka respectively. These events are manifest as distinct pulses of relatively old organic radiocarbon in the sediments. We interpret these as a signal of glacial melting in the Qinghai Lake watershed. The meltwater signals are closely correlated to temperature and precipitation records associated with deglaciation. The events at 19 ka and 14 ka correspond to well-established high latitude Melt Water Pulse (MWP) events during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2, and the 35 ka event corresponds to a period of pervasive high lake levels in western China during late MIS 3. We interpret these anomalous dates as the result of relatively old carbon that was destabilized by the glaciers, and released into the lake as the glaciers melted. The data indicate that this process takes thousands of years. We expect that the approach employed here to identify these events is generally applicable to any lake system with a significant glacial meltwater component.

  16. Fabrication of band-pass filter using YBCO film at Ka-band frequency; YBCO hakumaku wo mochiita Ka-band taiiki tsuka fuiruta no sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshitake, T.; Hattori, W.; Murakami, S.; Suzuki, S. [NEC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    In this report, Ka band microstrip band pass filter was produced experimentally using an YBCO system high temperature superconductivity thin film as examination initial stage high temperature superconductivity a thin film superscription communication element. With it, the following were examined: Evaluation method and frequency characteristics of the filter. Especially, the examination on structure of the package and system of measurement using refrigerating machine becomes important in order to evaluate the filter with the high frequency. (NEDO)

  17. Radar altimetry backscattering signatures at Ka, Ku, C, and S bands over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappart, F.; Fatras, C.; Mougin, E.; Marieu, V.; Diepkilé, A. T.; Blarel, F.; Borderies, P.

    This study presents a comprehensive comparison of radar altimetry signatures at Ka-, Ku-, C-, and S-bands using SARAL, ENVISAT and Jason-2 data over the major bioclimatic zones, soil and vegetation types encountered in West-Africa, with an emphasis on the new information at Ka-band provided by the recently launched SARAL-Altika mission. Spatio-temporal variations of the radar altimetry responses were related to changes in surface roughness, land cover and soil wetness. Analysis of time series of backscattering coefficients along the West African bioclimatic gradient shows that radar echoes at nadir incidence are well correlated to soil moisture in semi-arid savannah environments. Radar altimeters are able to detect the presence of water even under a dense canopy cover at all frequencies. But only measurements at Ka-band are able to penetrate underneath the canopy of non-inundated tropical evergreen forests.

  18. Kuolleiden saaret. Historiallisen ajan keskisuomalaisten saarihautausmaiden luonne ja käyttö hautapaikkoina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Ruohonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirkkomaiden ulkopuolella sijaitsevat hautasaaret ovat leimallisia erityisesti harvaan asutuille seuduille, joissa kirkkomatkat ovat olleet pitkiä ja hankalia. Saaria on pidetty väliaikaisina hautausmaina, joihin on haudattu kesällä, kelirikkoaikana tai levottomana ajankohtana kuolleet odottamaan myöhempää kuljetusta kirkkomaalle. Saarten käyttöä hautaustarkoituksiin ei ole kuitenkaan systemaattisesti tutkittu. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan Keski-Suomessa sijaitsevien Petäjäveden ja Uuraisten hautapaikkoja sekä niiksi epäiltyjä kohteita. Laajan ja monia tieteenaloja käsittelevän lähdeaineiston kautta artikkeli selvittää kohteiden luonnetta ja niiden käyttöä hautapaikkoina. Erityistä huomiota kiinnitetään aineiston esittelyn lisäksi hautaustradition ajoittamiseen eri menetelmillä.

  19. Diatom species composition in the Raška river (Southwestern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaković Danijela P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the composition of epilithic diatoms in the Raška River. Samples were collected by scraping stone surfaces with a brush from 5 localities along the Raška River in April, June, August and November 2011 and March and May 2012. Diatom frustules were cleaned using cold acid method, and mounted on permanent slides. An investigation of the Raška River resulted in description of 106 diatom taxa. The most species rich genera are Navicula (10, Gomphonema (10 and Nitzschia (9, while other genera are presented with one or more species. Detailed floristic analysis of the benthic diatom flora in this river has not been conducted before. Therefore, this paper provides a groundwork for future researches. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 037009

  20. TRANSFORMATION OF MAQÂSHID Al-SYARÎ’AH (An Overview of the Development of Islamic Law in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Absori .

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This study is part of an effort to systematize the basic conception of the values of the sharia as the foundation in the life of nation and state life, where the orientation is to embody the essence of the religious life through the maqâshid al-syarî`ah. Islam as al-dîn has been providing the basics of life of Muslims through the al-Qur’an and as-Sunnah. Both of these contain guidance values of human life, including in running the sharia for Muslims. Sharia (syarî`ah in perspective of terminology is "street". In an isthilâhî perspective, it is a way to get to God. The basic meaning of sharia itself should be realized in the basic understanding maqâshid al-syarî`ah, which can be interpreted within the scope of statehood, because the meaning contained are the values of universality of maqâshid al-syarî`ah. In the context of Indonesian, then maqâshid al-syarî`ah is part of the basic conception air Almighty God with the aim of creating prosperity for the people of Indonesia. In this study, the approach used is the doctrinal bases to study literature. This study is the strengthening of the maqâshid al-syarî`ah as the basis for the development of Islamic law.Abstrak:Kajian ini merupakan bagian dari upaya untuk sistematisasi konsep dasar dari nilai-nilai syari’ah sebagai pondasi dalam kehidupan berbangsa dan kehidupan bernegara, dimana orientasi tersebut adalah untuk mewujudkan hakikat kehidupan dalam beragama melalui maqâshid al-syarî`ah. Islam sebagai al-dîn telah memberikan dasar-dasar kehidupan umat Muslim melalui al-Qur’an dan al-Sunnah. Kedua hal tersebut mengandung nilai-nilai tuntunan kehidupan umat manusia termasuk dalam menjalankan syariah bagi umat Muslim. Syari’ah dalam perspektif terminologi merupakan “jalan”. Sedangkan secara isthilâhî, ia dimaknai sebagai jalan untuk sampai kepada Allah SWT. Makna dasar dari syari’ah itu sendiri harus diwujudkan dalam pemahaman dasar maqâshid al-syarî’ah, di