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Sample records for ka driftwood pumice-fall

  1. Eruption dynamics of the 7.7 ka Driftwood pumice-fall suggest mafic injection is a common eruption mechanism for Makushin Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, A.; Crowley, P.; Hazlett, R. W.; Nicolaysen, K. E.

    2010-12-01

    Makushin Volcano on Unalaska Island, AK is potentially the most threatening volcano in the Aleutian chain, being close to the largest Aleutian towns of Dutch Harbor and Unalaska. This study reports the eruption chronology and triggering mechanism for the most recent highly explosive event, the 7.7 ka Driftwood Pumice-fall event. The Driftwood Pumice reaches thicknesses of over 2 m, and isopach contours estimate a total deposit volume of 0.3-0.9 km3, covering an area of at least 8100 km2. These reconstructions show an eruption on the scale of the 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption, with a VEI of 4-5. In the field, the deposit was divided into four stratigraphic horizons from bottom to top, and tephra within these layers becomes systematically more mafic upward through the section, ranging from a basal low-SiO2 dacite (64 wt.% SiO2) to an upper medium-SiO2 andesite (61.5 wt.% SiO2). High-Ca plagioclase (An75-83) and high-Mg olivine (Mg69-75) grains within the pumice are in great disequilibrium with the dacitic glass (64-69 wt.% SiO2), suggesting their origin in a more mafic magma. Geochemical trends, disequilibrium mineral populations, and mineral zonation patterns within these plagioclase and olivine xenocrysts show evidence of magma mixing between a bulk siliceous magma chamber and a mafic injection. The amount of the mafic component increases upward within the deposit, ranging from 0-25% throughout the section. The mafic injection is calculated to have been ~110-200 °C hotter than the siliceous magma chamber. The thermal pulse provided by the injection likely initiated convection and volatile exsolution within the siliceous magma body, ultimately causing the Driftwood Pumice eruption. Diffusion rates based on the thickness of lower-Mg rim zonations (<10 µm thick rims of Mg64) in the olivine xenocrysts show a lag-time of ~1 year between the basaltic injection and the resulting eruption. Similar delays between mafic injections and eruptions are seen in numerous other

  2. Dendro-provenancing of Arctic driftwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Lena; Tegel, Willy; Geyer, Jan; Kirdyanov, Alexander V.; Nikolaev, Anatoly N.; Eggertsson, Ólafur; Altman, Jan; Reinig, Frederick; Morganti, Sandro; Wacker, Lukas; Büntgen, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    Arctic driftwood may represent a cross-disciplinary proxy archive at the interface of marine and terrestrial environments, which will likely gain in importance under future global climate change. Circumpolar network analyses that systematically consider species-specific boreal origin areas, transport routes and deposition characteristics of Arctic driftwood, are, however, missing. Here, we present tree-ring width (TRW) measurements of 2412 pine, larch and spruce driftwood samples from Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard, the Faroe Islands, and the Lena Delta in northeastern Siberia. Representing the largest Arctic driftwood TRW compilation, these data are compared against 495 TRW reference chronologies from the boreal forests of Eurasia and North America. The southern Yenisei region is the main source for recent pine driftwood at all Arctic sampling sites, whereas spruce mainly originates in western Russia and central Siberia, as well as in northern North America. Larch driftwood is, for the first time, dendro-provenanced to central and eastern Siberia. A new larch driftwood chronology extends the middle Lena River reference chronology back to 1203 CE. Annually resolved radiocarbon measurements further date six larch driftwood chronologies between 1294 and 2013 CE. Although being highly replicated, our study emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinary research efforts including radiocarbon dating, isotopic tracing and aDNA processing for improving Arctic driftwood provenancing in space and time. If successful, Arctic driftwood studies will contribute to the reconstruction of past boreal summer temperature variations and ocean current dynamics, as well as changes in sea ice extent and relative sea level over the last centuries to millennia.

  3. Tracing the origin of Arctic driftwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Lena; Tegel, Willy; Eggertsson, Ã.`Lafur; Schweingruber, Fritz Hans; Blanchette, Robert; Kirdyanov, Alexander; GäRtner, Holger; Büntgen, Ulf

    2013-03-01

    Arctic environments, where surface temperatures increase and sea ice cover and permafrost depth decrease, are very sensitive to even slight climatic variations. Placing recent environmental change of the high-northern latitudes in a long-term context is, however, complicated by too short meteorological observations and too few proxy records. Driftwood may represent a unique cross-disciplinary archive at the interface of marine and terrestrial processes. Here, we introduce 1445 driftwood remains from coastal East Greenland and Svalbard. Macroscopy and microscopy were applied for wood anatomical classification; a multi-species subset was used for detecting fungi; and information on boreal vegetation patterns, circumpolar river systems, and ocean current dynamics was reviewed and evaluated. Four conifer (Pinus, Larix, Picea, and Abies) and three deciduous (Populus, Salix, and Betula) genera were differentiated. Species-specific identification also separated Pinus sylvestris and Pinus sibirica, which account for ~40% of all driftwood and predominantly originate from western and central Siberia. Larch and spruce from Siberia or North America represents ~26% and ~18% of all materials, respectively. Fungal colonization caused different levels of driftwood staining and/or decay. Our results demonstrate the importance of combining wood anatomical knowledge with insight on boreal forest composition for successfully tracing the origin of Arctic driftwood. To ultimately reconstruct spatiotemporal variations in ocean currents, and to better quantify postglacial uplift rates, we recommend consideration of dendrochronologically dated material from many more circumpolar sites.

  4. Using local knowledge, hydrological, and climate data to develop a driftwood harvest model in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Hinzman, L. D.; Kielland, K.

    2011-12-01

    Residents of rural Alaska usually harvest driftwood from the Yukon River during two distinct periods in the summer. Typically, driftwood accompanies high flows on the Yukon River associated with spring break-up. A few weeks later, a second pulse of driftwood associated with the "2nd Rise" typically flows during early June. This study examines the nature of the differential timing of high flow events in the Yukon River to develop a model of the driftwood harvest. Many communities in interior Alaska have grown to rely upon driftwood as an important source of wood, which is used in construction and as a source of fuel. Increasingly, villages in rural Alaska are trying to lessen their dependence upon high-cost fossil fuels and other non-renewable energy sources. A number of Alaskan villages have recently installed wood chip-fired boilers to generate heat and/or electricity and additional boilers are slated to be installed in rural Alaska in the near future. These boilers are largely fed by driftwood which can be harvested cheaply and processed easily. But if the driftwood harvest is dependent upon high flows in the Yukon, how will fluctuations in river hydrology affect the efficacy and reliability of driftwood harvest? We examined this question using information from local knowledge in conjunction with U.S. census, hydrological, and climate reanalysis data sets to model the magnitude of Yukon River driftwood harvest during summer. It appears that since 1995, high flow events have decreased magnitude, but increased in frequency, compared to the period between 1977 and 1994. Based upon this observation, the annual potential driftwood harvest in Tanana since 1995 was modeled to be greater compared to the average prior to 1994. This pattern was largely driven by a change in the frequency and duration of high flow events. Thus, the availability of driftwood as an energy resource is expected to be commensurate to the recurrence of high flow events on the Yukon River.

  5. Effects of Boreal Timber Rafting on the Composition of Arctic Driftwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hellmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wood from the boreal forest represents an important resource for paper production and sawmill processing. Due to poor infrastructure and high transportation costs on land, timbers are often transported over long distances along large river systems. Industrial river rafting activities started at the end of the 19th century and were intensified in western Russia and central Siberia from the 1920s to the 1980s. After initial single stem rafting, timber is today mostly floated in ship-guided rafts. Lost wood can be transported further to the Arctic Ocean, where it may drift within sea ice over several years and thousands of kilometers before being deposited along (sub-Arctic coastlines. Here, we introduce dendro-dated tree-ring width series of 383 driftwood samples from logged timber that were collected along different driftwood-recipient coastlines in Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard. The majority of driftwood is Pinus sylvestris from the southern Yenisei region in central Siberia, whereas Larix sp. and Picea sp. from western Russia and eastern Siberia are rare. Although our results are based on a small sample collection, they clearly show the importance of timber rafting on species, age and origin of Arctic driftwood and indicate the immense loss of material during wood industrial river floating.

  6. Sustainable New Brick and Thermo-Acoustic Insulation Panel from Mineralization of Stranded Driftwood Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest recently in by-products for application in green buildings. These materials are widely used as building envelope insulators or blocks. In this study, an experimental study was conducted to test stranded driftwood residues as raw material for possible thermo-acoustic insulation panel and environmentally sustainable brick. The thermal and acoustic characteristics of such a natural by-product were examined. Part of samples were mineralized by means of cement-based additive to reinforce the material and enhance its durability as well as fire resistance. Several mixtures with different sizes of ground wood chips and different quantities of cement were investigated. The thermo-acoustic in-lab characterization was aimed at investigating the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric specific heat, and acoustic transmission loss. All samples were tested before and after mineralization. Results from this study indicate that it is possible to use stranded driftwood residues as building materials with competitive thermo-acoustic properties. In fact, the thermal conductivity was shown to be always around 0.07 W/mK in the unbound samples, and around double that value for the mineralized samples, which present a much higher volumetric specific heat (1.6 MJ/m3K and transmission loss capability. The lignin powder showed a sort of intermediate behavior between the unbound and the mineralized samples.

  7. A study of the composition, characteristics, and origin of modern driftwood on the western coast of Nunavik (Quebec, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelandt, Stéphanie; Marguerie, Dominique; Bhiry, Najat; Delwaide, Ann

    2015-03-01

    Data concerning driftwood is of value to researchers in fields as diverse as oceanography, geomorphology, and human occupation. Yet studies on the subject in the Canadian Arctic have only recently been carried out, and the present study is the first in Nunavik (northeastern Canada). This paper documents the composition, characteristics, and origin of modern driftwood pieces on the beaches of the eastern coast of Hudson Bay. A total of 1057 samples from Ivujivik, Akulivik, Inukjuak, and Umiujaq were identified as belonging to four coniferous species (Picea sp., Larix sp., Abies sp. likely balsamea, and Thuja sp. likely occidentalis) and four deciduous species (Salix sp., Populus sp., Alnus sp., and Betula sp., likely papyrifera). Spruce largely predominate; white birch, white cedar, and fir are rare. The presence of the latter species proves that some of the wood originated from south-southeast of James Bay. Driftwood found in the southern area (Umiujaq) are more numerous, larger, and less degraded than driftwood in the north (Ivujivik). However, many large coniferous samples were found as far north as Akulivik, indicating that they likely traveled a great distance, unlike the smaller wood specimens (especially deciduous samples). All of the wood that we analyzed died relatively young, with an average age of 63 years for conifers and 23 years for deciduous. Measurements of ring widths and the cross-dating of samples with existing reference chronologies of living trees along Hudson Bay and James Bay revealed several possible correlations and origins for wood found in same areas.

  8. Seasonal abundance of the shipworm Neoteredo reynei (Bivalvia, Teredinidae in mangrove driftwood from a northern Brazilian beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos S. Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Shipworms are important decomposers of wood, especially in mangrove forests where productivity is high. However, little emphasis has been given to the activity of shipworms in relation to the export of nutrients from mangroves to adjacent coastal areas. As a first step to obtaining such information, the frequency of colonized mangrove driftwood as well as shipworm density and length were studied by collecting washed up logs during a year at Ajuruteua beach, state of Pará, northern Brazil. A single species, Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, was found colonizing driftwood. Although large colonized logs were most common on the beach, shipworm density was higher in small logs, especially during the dry season. In general, however, density was higher during the wet season (January to April and lowest in July. Overall shipworm mean length was 9.66cm. In large logs, mean length increased between the wet and dry seasons. However, there was no difference in length among log size categories. Mean shipworm length was similar throughout most of the year but tended to be greater in July. Although salinity varied between 10.9 and 40 during the year, no relationship was found between salinity and density or length. The results suggest that shipworm activity in driftwood logs is relatively constant throughout the year. Increased air humidity and rainfall may promote survival during the wet season. Large logs may take longer to colonize and thus have lower densities than small ones which are scarce probably because they are destroyed rapidly by shipworm activity. However, data on the disintegration of logs would be necessary to test this hypothesis. Larger size of shipworms in the dry season may be related to growth after an earlier recruitment period. Shipworms in large logs during the dry season may be better protected from dessication and high temperatures by the insulating properties of the larger volume of wood.

  9. Kuulus dress ka Evelinile!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kinkis Eestis esinenud popstaar Madonnale eesti rahvusmotiividega dressid. Sarnased spordirõivad tulevad müügile ka Tallinnas Viru keskuses Bastioni esinduskaupluses. Proua Evelin Ilvesele valmistatakse ainulaadsed valgest kangast dressid

  10. Kuulus dress ka Evelinile!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kinkis Eestis esinenud popstaar Madonnale eesti rahvusmotiividega dressid. Sarnased spordirõivad tulevad müügile ka Tallinnas Viru keskuses Bastioni esinduskaupluses. Proua Evelin Ilvesele valmistatakse ainulaadsed valgest kangast dressid

  11. Volcanic activity in the Acambay Graben: a < 25 Ka subplinian eruption from the Temascalcingo volcano and implications for volcanic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Aguirre Díaz, Gerardo; Sunyé Puchol, Ivan; Bartolini, Stefania; Geyer, Adelina

    2016-04-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) contains a large number of stratovolcanoes, some well-known, as Popocatepetl, Iztaccihuatl, Nevado de Toluca, or Colima and many others of more modest dimensions that are not well known but constitute the majority in the TMVB. Such volcanoes are, for example, Tequila, San Juan, Sangangüey, Cerro Culiacán, Cerro Grande, El Zamorano, La Joya, Palo Huerfano, Jocotitlán, Altamirano and Temascalcingo, among many others. The Temascalcingo volcano (TV) is an andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) at the eastern part of the Acambay Graben (northwest portion of Estado de México). The TV is composed mainly by dacitic, porphyritic lavas, block and ash deposits and subordinate pumice fall deposits and ignimbrites (Roldán-Quintana et al., 2011). The volcanic structure includes a summit caldera that has a rectangular shape, 2.5×3.5 km, with the largest side oriented E-W, parallel to major normal faults affecting the edifice. The San Mateo Pumice eruption is one of the greatest paroxysmal episodes of this volcano with pumice deposits mainly exposed at the scarp of the Acambay-Tixmadeje fault and at the northern and northeastern flanks of TV. It overlies a paleosol dated at 25 Ka. A NE-trending dispersion was obtained from field data covering an area of at least 80 km2. These deposits overlie older lava flows and mud flows and are discontinuously covered and eroded by younger reworked deposits of Temascalcingo volcano. This event represents a highly explosive phase that generated a relatively thick and widespread pumice fallout deposit that may occur again in future eruptions. A similar eruption today would have a significantly impact in the region, overall due to the fact that there has been no systematic assessment of the volcanic hazard in any of the studies that have been conducted so far in the area. So, this is a pending and urgent subject that must be tackled without delay. Financed by

  12. Prunskiene tahab lepet ka Keskerakonnaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Leedu Rahvaerakonna (LLP) juht Kazimira Prunskeine käis Moskvas Ühtse Venemaa kongressil ning allkirjastas leppe oma erakonna ja Ühtse Venemaa vahel, samasuguse leppe kavatseb ta allkirjastada ka Eesti Keskerakonnaga, Kasahstanis võimul oleva Nur Otani partei ja Kreeka erakonnaga Uus Demokraatia

  13. Ajateenistust alustab ka viis neidu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Tuleval nädalal alustab ajateenistust üle 1600 noormehe, lisaks alustab juulis Kuperjanovi jala­väepataljonis vabatahtlikuna ajateenistust ka viis neidu. Juulikuise teenistusse kutsumisega alustavad teenistust ajateenijad, kelle ametikoht eeldab 11-kuulist ajateenistust ehk autojuhid, erialaspet­sialistid, allohvitserid ja reservrühmaülemad

  14. KaVA ESTEMA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyadomari, Miyako; Imai, Hiroshi; Cho, Se-Hyung; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Choi, Yoon-Kyong; Kim, Jaeheon; Yun, Youngjoo; Matsumoto, Naoko; Min, Cheul-Hong; Oyama, Tomoaki; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Jin; Dodson, Richard; Rioja, Maria; Burns, Ross; Orosz, Gabor; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Chibueze O, James; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Sobolev, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    The ESTEMA (Expanded Study on Stellar Masers) project is one of three Large Programs of the KaVA (the combined array of the Korean VLBI Network and Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry), and conducted in 2015-2016. It aims to publish a database of the largest sample of VLBI images of circumstellar water (H2O) and silicon-monoxide (SiO) maser sources towards circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of 80 evolved stars in late AGB to early post-AGB phase. Here we present the specifications of the ESTEMA observations and the planned scientific goals in order to share the basic information of the ESTEMA with astronomical community and encourage future collaborations with the ESTEMA and future follow-up observations for the targeted stars.

  15. Fade Mitigation Techniques at Ka-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Asoka (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Rain fading is the dominant propagation impairment affecting Ka-band satellite links and rain fade mitigation is a key element in the design of Ka-band satellite networks. Some of the common fade mitigation techniques include: power control, diversity, adaptive coding, and resource sharing. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides an excellent opportunity to develop and test Ka-band rain impairment amelioration techniques. Up-link power control and diversity are discussed in this paper.

  16. Ka Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) for Interplanetary CubeSat Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ka Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) for Interplanetary CubeSat Communications allowing moving up from UHF, S or X to get higher gain for a given diameter.

  17. Ka-band MMIC subarray technology program (Ka-Mist)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, W.

    1995-09-01

    Ka-band monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) arrays have been considered as having high potential for increasing the capability of space, aircraft, and land mobile communication systems in terms of scan performance, data rate, link margin, and flexibility while offering a significant reduction in size, weight, and power consumption. Insertion of MMIC technology into antenna systems, particularly at millimeter wave frequencies using low power and low noise amplifiers in closed proximity to the radiating elements, offers a significant improvement in the array transmit efficiency, receive system noise figure, and overall array reliability. Application of active array technology also leads to the use of advanced beamforming techniques that can improve beam agility, diversity, and adaptivity to complex signal environments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the 'tile' array packaging architecture at EHF via the insertion of 1990 MMIC technology into a functional tile array or subarray module. The means test of this objective was to demonstrate and deliver to NASA a minimum of two 4 x 4 (16 radiating element) subarray modules operating in a transmit mode at 29.6 GHz. Available (1990) MMIC technology was chosen to focus the program effort on the novel interconnect schemes and packaging requirements rather than focusing on MMIC development. Major technical achievements of this program include the successful integration of two 4 x 4 subarray modules into a single antenna array. This 32 element array demonstrates a transmit EIRP of over 300 watts yielding an effective directive power gain in excess of 55 dB at 29.63 GHz. The array has been actively used as the transmit link in airborne/terrestrial mobile communication experiments accomplished via the ACTS satellite launched in August 1993.

  18. Evolution of the 120 ka caldera-forming eruption of Kutcharo volcano, eastern Hokkaido, Japan: Geologic and petrologic evidence for multiple vent systems and rapid generation of pyroclastic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Akiko; Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the eruptive sequence and temporal evolution of juvenile materials during the 120 ka Kutcharo pumice flow IV (Kp IV) eruption, which was the most voluminous (175 km3: bulk volume) caldera-forming eruption of Kutcharo volcano. The eruptive deposits are divided into four units in ascending order. Unit 1 is widely dispersed and consists of silt-sized, cohesive ash. Unit 2 is a thin, moderately sorted pumice fall deposit with a restricted distribution and small volume (caldera. Juvenile materials consist mainly of rhyolite pumice (74%-78% SiO2) associated with a minor amount of scoria (52%-73% SiO2) that are found only northwest of the caldera in Unit 3 and Unit 4. These scoriae can be classified on the basis of the P2O5 contents of their matrix glass into low-P, medium-P, and high-P types, which are almost entirely restricted to the lower part of Unit 3, Unit 4, and the upper part of Unit 3, respectively. These three types display distinct mixing trends with the rhyolitic compositions in SiO2-P2O5 variation diagrams. This evidence indicates that three distinct mafic magmas were independently and intermittently injected into the main body of silicic magma to erupt from the northwestern part of the magma system. Mafic injections did not occur in the southern part of the magma system. This petrologic evidence implies that the northwestern and southeastern flows of Unit 3 are heterotopic, contemporaneous products derived from multiple vent systems. Although Unit 2 was derived from an eruptive column, its volume is very small compared to Plinian fall deposits of typical caldera-forming eruptions. In our interpretation, the activity of the Kp IV eruption reached its climax rapidly, depositing Unit 3, without first producing a stable Plinian column. The presence of multiple vent systems could have allowed the system to bypass an initial eruptive stage with a stable Plinian column and begin its climactic stage, represented by Unit 3, rapidly. Multiple vents

  19. AltiKa in-flight performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Francois; Desjonquères, Jean-Damien; Steunou, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    The SARAL/AltiKa satellite has been launched the 25th of February 2013 from the launch pad of Sriharikota (India). Since this date, AltiKa provides measurements and affords the first altimetry results in Ka band. This paper recalls the instrument design and assesses the in-flight performance. The SARAL/AltiKa mission has been developed in the frame of a cooperation between CNES (French Space Agency) and ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization). AltiKa is a single frequency Ka-band altimeter with a bi-frequency radiometer embedded. Both altimeter and radiometer share the same antenna. Altimeter expertise and routine calibrations performed during assessment phase demonstrate the stability of the instrument. Moreover the performance assessed over ocean are noteworthy such as 0.9 cm on epoch 1 Hz noise for 2 m of SWH, which is fully consistent with simulations and ground pre-flight tests results. The data availability is also very good and very few altimeter measurements are lost due to rain attenuation. Radiometer data analysis shows that the instrument is very stable and its performances are consistent with pre-flight tests results.

  20. Ionization constants pKa of cardiolipin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Olofsson

    Full Text Available Cardiolipin is a phospholipid found in the inner mitochondrial membrane and in bacteria, and it is associated with many physiological functions. Cardiolipin has a dimeric structure consisting of two phosphatidyl residues connected by a glycerol bridge and four acyl chains, and therefore it can carry two negative charges. The pKa values of the phosphate groups have previously been reported to differ widely with pKa1 = 2.8 and pKa2 = 7.5-9.5. Still, there are several examples of experimental observations from cardiolipin-containing systems that do not fit with this dissociation behavior. Therefore, we have carried out pH-titration and titration calorimetric experiments on two synthetic cardiolipins, 1,1',2,2'-tetradecanoyl cardiolipin, CL (C14:0, and 1,1',2,2'-tetraoctadecenoyl cardiolipin, CL (C18:1. Our results show that both behave as strong dibasic acids with pKa1 about the same as the first pKa of phosphoric acid, 2.15, and pKa2 about one unit larger. The characterization of the acidic properties of cardiolipin is crucial for the understanding of the molecular organization in self-assembled systems that contain cardiolipin, and for their biological function.

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1KA4A-1WGZA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1KA4A-1WGZA 1KA4 1WGZ A A EVFQNETIKQILAKYRRIWAIGHAQSVLGWDLEVNMPKE...confEVID> 0 1KA4 A 1KA4A...tryChain> 1KA4 A 1KA4A FPLGTRARLD... CA 334 SER CA 255 1KA4 A 1KA4A LEEGKVPREHP HH

  2. The Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Link Experiment (MGS/KaBLE-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4-GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-m-diameter parabolic antenna on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) research and development (R&D) 34-meter a ntenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. This Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE-II) allows the performances of the Ka-band and X-band signals to be compared under nearly identical conditions. The two signals have been regularly tracked during the past 2 years. This article presents carrier-signal-level data (P_c/N_o) for both X-band and Ka-band acquired over a wide range of station elevation angles, weather conditions, and solar elongation angles. The cruise phase of the mission covered the period from launch (November 7, 1996) to Mars orbit capture (September 12, 1997). Since September 12, 1997, MGS has been in orbit around Mars. The measurements confirm that Ka-band could increase data capacity by at least a factor of three (5 dB) as compared with X-band. During May 1998, the solar corona experiment, in which the effects of solar plasma on the X-band and Ka-band links were studied, was conducted. In addition, frequency and difference frequency (f_x - f_(Ka)/3.8), ranging, and telemetry data results are presented. MGS/KaBLE-II measured signal strengths (for 54 percent of the experiments conducted) that were in reasonable agreement with predicted values based on preflight knowledge, and frequency residuals that agreed between bands and whose statistics were consistent with expected noise sources. For passes in which measured signal strengths disagreed with predicted values, the problems were traced to known deficiencies, for example, equipment operating under certain conditions, such as a cold Ka-band solid-state power amplifier (SSPA

  3. Modulation transfer functions at Ka band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesany, Vahid; Sistani, Bita; Salam, Asif; Haimov, Samuel; Gogineni, Prasad; Moore, Richard K.

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) is often used to describe the modulation of the radar signal by the long waves. MTFs were measured at 35 GHz (Ka band) with a switched-beam vector slope gauge/scatterometer on the research platform NORDSEE as part of the SAXON-FPN experiment. Three independent measurements of the scattering were available for each height measurement. This provided the opportunity to average the time series to reduce the effects of fading noise and sea spikes, or, alternatively, to append the time series to achieve more degrees of freedom in the spectral estimates. For upwind measurements, the phase of the VV-polarized Ka-band MTF was always positive, which implies that the maximum of the radar return originates from the forward face of the long-scale waves. This phase increases with increasing wind speed. The magnitude of the MTF decreases with increasing wind speed.

  4. KaKa带你杀大网

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昊月

    2005-01-01

    上期和大家一起漫步dust2,体会了其中的妙处,这期KaKa带你去inferno这张地图探个究竟。inferno是一张对于警匪都比较平衡的地图,攻守都有各自的优势,如何利用这些优势让自己在大网里的杀人数剧增,是KaKa这期要告诉大家的重点。上次KaKa教大家如果做匪徒在大网里杀人,这次咱做警察,练练如何在大网里防守,这次我们进一个开局金钱数16000的大网里,免得初期还要手枪肉搏。一切准备就绪,开局买上M4,炸宙,闪光再带把拆包器,可能会有人有疑问。”又不是打比赛,要买拆包器干吗?杀光敌人不就得了吗。”KaKa在这里还要提醒你一点.1.5版和1.6版其中的一个小区别就是如果警察成功拆除炸弹的话,可以增加3个杀人数,所以只要有机会就奋不顾身去抢拆包,这也算是提高自己在大网里杀人数一个“歪门邪道”,可比你和3个匪徒周旋半天划得来哦。

  5. Validation of GPM Ka-Radar Algorithm Using a Ground-based Ka-Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kaneko, Yuki; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Furukawa, Kinji; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    GPM led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of US (NASA) aims to observe global precipitation. The core satellite is equipped with a microwave radiometer (GMI) and a dual-frequency radar (DPR) which is the first spaceborne Ku/Ka-band dual-wavelength radar dedicated for precipitation measurement. In the DPR algorithm, measured radar reflectivity is converted to effective radar reflectivity by estimating the rain attenuation. Here, the scattering/attenuation characteristics of Ka-band radiowaves are crucial, particularly for wet snow. A melting layer observation using a dual Ka-band radar system developed by JAXA was conducted along the slope of Mt. Zao in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. The dual Ka-band radar system consists of two nearly identical Ka-band FM-CW radars, and the precipitation systems between two radars were observed in opposite directions. From this experiment, equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) and specific attenuation (k) were obtained. The experiments were conducted for two winter seasons. During the data analyses, it was found that k estimate easily fluctuates because the estimate is based on double difference calculation. With much temporal and spatial averaging, k-Ze relationship was obtained for melting layers. One of the results is that the height of the peak of k seems slightly higher than that of Ze. The results are compared with in-situ precipitation particle measurements.

  6. Språka och lek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylander, Helle Iben; Thomsen, Inge Benn

    Språka och Lek innehåller mer än 100 språklekar och idéer. Bokens aktiviteter är noggrant beskrivna med tydliga mål och anvisningar, så att den pedagogiska personalen i förskolan kan erbjuda spännande och värdefulla språkliga upplevelser med hjälp av vardagsföremål och massor av fantasi. Boken är...

  7. Ka-band waveguide rotary joint

    KAUST Repository

    Yevdokymov, Anatoliy

    2013-04-11

    The authors present a design of a waveguide rotary joint operating in Ka-band with central frequency of 33 GHz, which also acts as an antenna mount. The main unit consists of two flanges with a clearance between them; one of the flanges has three circular choke grooves. Utilisation of three choke grooves allows larger operating clearance. Two prototypes of the rotary joint have been manufactured and experimentally studied. The observed loss is from 0.4 to 0.8 dB in 1.5 GHz band.

  8. High Efficiency Ka-Band Spatial Combiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Passi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Ka-Band, High Efficiency, Small Size Spatial Combiner (SPC is proposed in this paper, which uses an innovatively matched quadruple Fin Lines to microstrip (FLuS transitions. At the date of this paper and at the Author's best knowledge no such FLuS innovative transitions have been reported in literature before. These transitions are inserted into a WR28 waveguide T-junction, in order to allow the integration of 16 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC Solid State Power Amplifiers (SSPA's. A computational electromagnetic model using the finite elements method has been implemented. A mean insertion loss of 2 dB is achieved with a return loss better the 10 dB in the 31-37 GHz bandwidth.

  9. p Ka calculation of poliprotic acid: histamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Abreu, Heitor A.; De Almeida, Wagner B.; Duarte, Hélio A.

    2004-01-01

    Various theoretical studies have been reported addressing the performance of solvation models available to estimate p Ka values. However, no attention has been paid so far to the role played by the electronic, thermal and solvation energy individual contributions to the Gibbs free energy of the deprotonation process. In this work, we decompose the total Gibbs free energy into three distinct terms and then evaluate the dependence of each contribution on the level of theory employed for its determination using different levels of theory. The three possible p Kas of histamine have been estimated and compared with available experimental data. We found that the electronic energy term is sensitive to the level of theory and basis set, and, therefore, could be also a source of error in the theoretical calculation of p Kas.

  10. KaKa带你杀大网

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昊月

    2005-01-01

    前两期的Dust2和Inferno相信大家杀得一定很过瘾吧?这期KaKa继续向大家介绍杀大网的奥妙,这次我们转战Train这张地图。这张地图的特点是阴人的特点是掩体多、整体的颜色比较暗,可以到处阴人。Train的空间感也比较强,上下移动的频率比较多,所以大家在玩这种地图的时候枪口上下移动会很频繁。对鼠标垫比较好的玩家来说,是比较耗损好的鼠标垫哦,希望大家不要心疼。

  11. Aeronautical applications of steerable K/Ka-band antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmken, Henry; Prather, Horton

    1995-01-01

    The expected growth of wideband data and video transmission via satellite will press existing satellite Ku-band services and push development of the Ka-band region. Isolated ground based K/Ka-band terminals can experience severe fading due to rain and weather phenomena. However, since aircraft generally fly above the severe weather, they are attractive platforms for developing commercial K/Ka-band communication links.

  12. Conduit enlargement during the precursory Plinian eruption of Aira Caldera, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geshi, Nobuo; Miyabuchi, Yasuo

    2016-09-01

    Increase in magma flux as the result of conduit enlargement is one of the key processes that triggered caldera collapse and eruption of the Ito ignimbrite from Aira Caldera at ~29 ka. We examine the total volume of the pumice fall deposit, vertical variations in grain size of pumice, and the lithic content in the Osumi pumice deposit to investigate the trigger for caldera collapse. Wider distribution of the later-stage unit and the upward coarsening of grain size throughout the Osumi pumice fall deposit indicate an increase in magma discharge toward the onset of collapse. The total volume of lithic fragments in the Osumi pumice fall deposit is estimated as ~1.6 km3, based on the lithic content in several representative outcrops and the total volume of the Osumi pumice fall deposit. The lithic fragments in the Osumi pumice fall deposit indicate intense mechanical erosion of the conduit during the Plinian eruption prior to caldera collapse. Caldera collapse requires decompression of the magma chamber by withdrawal of magma; effective enlargement of the conduit diameter during precursory eruptive phases is one of the important processes that subsequently allow the rapid discharge of a large volume of magma, which in turn facilitates decompression of the reservoir and induces caldera collapse.

  13. DARHT 2 kA Cathode Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, E.; Houck, T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Miram, G.; Prichard, B.; Roy, P.K.; Waldron, W.; Westenskow, G.; Yu, S.; Bieniosek, F.M.

    2009-03-09

    In the campaign to achieve 2 kA of electron beam current, we have made several changes to the DARHT-II injector during 2006-2007. These changes resulted in a significant increase in the beam current, achieving the 2 kA milestone. Until recently (before 2007), the maximum beam current that was produced from the 6.5-inch diameter (612M) cathode was about 1300 A when the cathode was operating at a maximum temperature of 1140 C. At this temperature level, the heat loss was dominated by radiation which is proportional to temperature to the fourth power. The maximum operating temperature was limited by the damage threshold of the potted filament and the capacity of the filament heater power supply, as well as the shortening of the cathode life time. There were also signs of overheating at other components in the cathode assembly. Thus it was clear that our approach to increase beam current could not be simply trying to run at a higher temperature and the preferred way was to operate with a cathode that has a lower work function. The dispenser cathode initially used was the type 612M made by SpectraMat. According to the manufacturer's bulletin, this cathode should be able to produce more than 10 A/cm{sup 2} of current density (corresponding to 2 kA of total beam current) at our operating conditions. Instead the measured emission (space charge limited) was 6 A/cm{sup 2}. The result was similar even after we had revised the activation and handling procedures to adhere more closely to the recommend steps (taking longer time and nonstop to do the out-gassing). Vacuum was a major concern in considering the cathode's performance. Although the vacuum gauges at the injector vessel indicated 10{sup -8} Torr, the actual vacuum condition near the cathode in the central region of the vessel, where there might be significant out-gassing from the heater region, was never determined. Poor vacuum at the surface of the cathode degraded the emission (by raising the work function

  14. Briti korruptsioonivastane seadus kehtib ka Eestis / Tõnis Tamme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamme, Tõnis, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Suurbritannias jõustub 1. juulil 2011 uus korruptsioonivastane seadus (Bribery Act 2010), mis kehtib ühtmoodi nii Briti ettevõtetele kui ka mujal maailmas asutatud äriühingutele, kelle äritegevus või ka osa sellest omab puutumust Suurbritanniaga

  15. Assigning the pKa's of Polyprotic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses (1) polyproptic acids for which the difference between K-a's is large; (2) the Henderson-Hasselbach equation; (3) polyprotic acids for which the difference between K-a's is small; (4) analysis of microscopic dissociation constants for cysteine; and (5) analysis of pK-a data. (JN)

  16. High power Ka band TWT amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkowski, C.; Ivers, J.D.; Nation, J.A.; Wang, P.; Schachter, L.

    1999-07-01

    Two high power 35 GHz TWT amplifiers driven by a relativistic pencil, 850 kV, 200A electron beam have been assembled and tested. The first had a dielectric slow wave structure and was primarily used to develop diagnostics, and to gain experience in working with high power systems in Ka band. The source of the input power for the amplifier was a magnetron producing a 30 kW, 200ns long pulse of which 10 kW as delivered to the experiment. The 30 cm long dielectric (Teflon) amplifier produced output power levels of about 1 MW with a gain of about 23 dB. These results are consistent with expectations from PIC code simulations for this arrangement. The second amplifier, which is a single stage disk loaded slow wave structure, has been designed. It consists of one hundred uniform cells with two sets of ten tapered calls at the ends to lower the reflection coefficient. The phase advance per cell is {pi}/2. The amplifier passband extends from 28 to 40 GHz. It is designed to increase the output power to about 20 MW. The amplifier is in construction and will be tested in the near future. Details of the design of both systems will be provided and initial results from the new amplifier presented.

  17. The sensitivity of the Late Saalian (140 ka) and LGM (21 ka) Eurasian ice sheets to sea surface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleoni, Florence [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); UJF, CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockhlom (Sweden); Liakka, Johan [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Krinner, Gerhard; Peyaud, Vincent [UJF, CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Jakobsson, Martin [Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockhlom (Sweden); Masina, Simona [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    This work focuses on the Late Saalian (140 ka) Eurasian ice sheets' surface mass balance (SMB) sensitivity to changes in sea surface temperatures (SST). An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), forced with two preexisting Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka) SST reconstructions, is used to compute climate at 140 and 21 ka (reference glaciation). Contrary to the LGM, the ablation almost stopped at 140 ka due to the climatic cooling effect from the large ice sheet topography. Late Saalian SST are simulated using an AGCM coupled with a mixed layer ocean. Compared to the LGM, these 140 ka SST show an inter-hemispheric asymmetry caused by the larger ice-albedo feedback, cooling climate. The resulting Late Saalian ice sheet SMB is smaller due to the extensive simulated sea ice reducing the precipitation. In conclusion, SST are important for the stability and growth of the Late Saalian Eurasian ice sheet. (orig.)

  18. NASA SCaN Overview and Ka-Band Actvities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, James D.; Midon, Marco Mario; Davarian, Faramaz; Geldzahler, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The Ka- and Broadband Communications Conference is an international forum attended by worldwide experts in the area of Ka-Band Propagation and satellite communications. Since its inception, NASA has taken the initiative of organizing and leading technical sections on RF Propagation and satellite communications, solidifying its worldwide leadership in the aforementioned areas. Consequently, participation in this conference through the contributions described below will maintain NASA leadership in Ka- and above RF Propagation as it relates to enhancing current and future satellite communication systems supporting space exploration.

  19. Onboard Interferometric SAR Processor for the Ka-Band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Peral, Eva; Clark, Duane I.; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    An interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard processor concept and algorithm has been developed for the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn) instrument on the Surface and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. This is a mission- critical subsystem that will perform interferometric SAR processing and multi-look averaging over the oceans to decrease the data rate by three orders of magnitude, and therefore enable the downlink of the radar data to the ground. The onboard processor performs demodulation, range compression, coregistration, and re-sampling, and forms nine azimuth squinted beams. For each of them, an interferogram is generated, including common-band spectral filtering to improve correlation, followed by averaging to the final 1 1-km ground resolution pixel. The onboard processor has been prototyped on a custom FPGA-based cPCI board, which will be part of the radar s digital subsystem. The level of complexity of this technology, dictated by the implementation of interferometric SAR processing at high resolution, the extremely tight level of accuracy required, and its implementation on FPGAs are unprecedented at the time of this reporting for an onboard processor for flight applications.

  20. Under tõi kirjanduse juurde ka Ilvese / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    Sirje Kiini raamatust "Marie Under : elu, luuletaja identiteet ja teoste vastuvõtt" (Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2009), mille esitlus toimus 10. dets. Kirjanike Majas Tallinnas. Sõnavõtuga esines ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  1. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  2. Key Science Observations of AGNs with KaVA Array

    CERN Document Server

    Kino, Motoki; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Sohn, Bong Won

    2015-01-01

    KaVA (KVN and VERA Array) is a new combined VLBI array with KVN (Korean VLBI Network) and VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). First, we briefly review the imaging capabilities of KaVA array which actually achieves more than three times better dynamic range than that achieved by VERA alone. The KaVA images clearly show detailed structures of extended radio jets in AGNs. Next, we represent the key science program to be led by KaVA AGN sub working group. We will conduct the monitoring observations of Sgr A* and M87 because of the largeness of their central super-massive black hole angular sizes. The main science goals of the program are (i) testing magnetically-driven-jet paradigm by mapping velocity fields of the M87 jet, and (ii) obtaining tight constraints on physical properties of radio emitting region in Sgr A*.

  3. Autorid ja esitajad tahavad maksu ka mobiiltelefonidelt / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Esitajate liidu arvates tuleks maksu alla minevate seadmete hulka arvata ka blu-ray plaadid, MP3-mängijad ja pleieriga mobiiltelefonid, millel on mälumahtu üle 128 MB. Elisa pressiesindaja Marika Raiski arvamus

  4. Rahvasaadik Pikhof toetab nii Tiibetit kui ka Hiinat / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige Heljo Pikhof on kirjas nii Riigikogu Tiibeti toetusrühmas kui ka Hiina parlamendirühmas, samuti Taiwani toetusrühmas. TÜ sinoloogiateaduri Märt Läänemetsa arvamus, H. Pikhofi selgitus

  5. Ka-Band MMIC T/R Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is specifically written to address the need for improved Ka-band T/R modules. The solicitation calls for investigation and development of core...

  6. Under tõi kirjanduse juurde ka Ilvese / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    Sirje Kiini raamatust "Marie Under : elu, luuletaja identiteet ja teoste vastuvõtt" (Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2009), mille esitlus toimus 10. dets. Kirjanike Majas Tallinnas. Sõnavõtuga esines ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  7. Autorid ja esitajad tahavad maksu ka mobiiltelefonidelt / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Esitajate liidu arvates tuleks maksu alla minevate seadmete hulka arvata ka blu-ray plaadid, MP3-mängijad ja pleieriga mobiiltelefonid, millel on mälumahtu üle 128 MB. Elisa pressiesindaja Marika Raiski arvamus

  8. Kindralpolkovnik Maiorov : "Teie mured on ka meie mured!" / Tiit Tambi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tambi, Tiit

    1993-01-01

    President Lennart Meri kohtumine Venemaa relvajõudude loode väegrupi ülemjuhataja kindralpolkovnik Leonid Majoroviga, 9. veebruar 1993. Ka kindralpolkovniku kohtumistest Eestis elavate sõjaveteranidega

  9. Võitlus terrorismiga on ka meie kohus / Ando Leps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leps, Ando, 1935-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Kesknädal 25. september lk. 4 (lühendatult). Septembri alguses Toledo Ülikoolis toimunud Euroopa Kriminoloogia Assotsiatsiooni II konverentsist. Autori ettekandest "Rahvusvaheline terrorism ja Eesti". Autor: Keskerakond. Parlamendisaadik

  10. Ka-Band MMIC T/R Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II proposal is presented as the follow on to the Phase I SBIR contract number NNC06CB21C entitled "Ka-band MMIC T/R Module" For active microwave...

  11. A comparative study of RADAR Ka-band backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, D.; Pierdicca, N.; Guerriero, L.; Ferrazzoli, Paolo; Calleja, Eduardo; Rommen, B.; Giudici, D.; Monti Guarnieri, A.

    2014-10-01

    Ka-band RADAR frequency range has not yet been used for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from space so far, although this technology may lead to important applications for the next generation of SAR space sensors. Therefore, feasibility studies regarding a Ka-band SAR instrument have been started [1][2], for the next generation of SAR space sensors. In spite of this, the lack of trusted references on backscatter at Ka-band revealed to be the main limitation for the investigation of the potentialities of this technology. In the framework of the ESA project "Ka-band SAR backscatter analysis in support of future applications", this paper is aimed at the study of wave interaction at Ka-band for a wide range of targets in order to define a set of well calibrated and reliable Ka-band backscatter coefficients for different kinds of targets. We propose several examples of backscatter data resulting from a critical survey of available datasets at Ka-band, focusing on the most interesting cases and addressing both correspondences and differences. The reliability of the results will be assessed via a preliminary comparison with ElectroMagnetic (EM) theoretical models. Furthermore, in support of future technological applications, we have designed a prototypal software acting as a "library" of earth surface radar response. In our intention, the output of the study shall contribute to answer to the need of a trustworthy Ka-Band backscatter reference. It will be of great value for future technological applications, such as support to instrument analysis, design and requirements' definition (e.g.: Signal to Noise Ratio, Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero).

  12. Sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean from 30ka to 10ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Kerr; Greenop, Rosanna; Burke, Andrea; Barker, Stephen; Chalk, Thomas; Crocker, Anya

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most striking features of the Late Pleistocene interval are the rapid changes in climate between warmer interstadial and cold stadial periods which, when coupled, are termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. This shift between warm and cold climates has been interpreted to result from changes in the thermohaline circulation (Broecker et al., 1985) triggered by, for instance, freshwater input from the collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet (Zahn et al., 1997). However, a recent study suggests that major ice rafting events cannot be the 'trigger' for the centennial to millennial scale cooling events identified over the past 500kyr (Barker at al., 2015). Polar planktic foraminiferal and lithogenic/terrigenous grain counts reveal that the southward migration of the polar front occurs before the deposition of ice rafted debris and therefore the rafting of ice during stadial periods. Based upon this evidence, Barker et al. suggest that the transition to a stadial state is a non-linear response to gradual cooling in the region. In order to test this hypothesis, our study reconstructs sea surface temperature across D-O events and the deglaciation in the North Atlantic between 30ka and 10ka using Mg/ Ca paleothermometry in Globigerina bulloides at ODP Sites 980 and 983 (the same sites as used in Barker et al., 2015) with an average sampling resolution of 300 years. With our new record we evaluate the timing of surface ocean temperature change, frontal shift movement, and ice rafting to investigate variations in the temperature gradient across the polar front over D-O events. References: Barker, S., Chen, J., Gong, X., Jonkers, L., Knorr, G., Thornalley, D., 2015. Icebergs not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events. Nature, 520(7547), pp.333-336. Broecker, W.S., Peteer, D.M., Rind, D., 1985. Does the ocean-atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation? Nature, 315 (6014), pp.21-26. Zahn, R., Schönfeld, J., Kudrass, H.-R., Park, M

  13. THE CURRENT STAR FORMATION RATE OF K+A GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Danielle M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ridgway, Susan E.; De Propris, Roberto [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Goto, Tomotsugu, E-mail: nielsen@astro.wisc.edu [Dark Cosmology Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

    2012-12-20

    We derive the stacked 1.4 GHz flux from the FIRST survey for 811 K+A galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. For these objects we find a mean flux density of 56 {+-} 9 {mu}Jy. A similar stack of radio-quiet white dwarfs yields an upper limit of 43 {mu}Jy at a 5{sigma} significance to the flux in blank regions of the sky. This implies an average star formation rate of 1.6 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for K+A galaxies. However, the majority of the signal comes from {approx}4% of K+A fields that have aperture fluxes above the 5{sigma} noise level of the FIRST survey. A stack of the remaining galaxies shows little residual flux consistent with an upper limit on star formation of 1.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Even for a subset of 456 'young' (spectral ages <250 Myr) K+A galaxies, we find that the stacked 1.4 GHz flux is consistent with no current star formation. Our data suggest that the original starburst has been terminated in the majority of K+A galaxies, but that this may represent part of a duty cycle where a fraction of these galaxies may be active at a given moment with dusty starbursts and active galactic nuclei being present.

  14. 18 Ka BP records of climatic changes, Bay of Bengal: Isotopic and sedimentological evidences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Suneethi, J.

    arid climate between 18 and 15 14C Ka BP, a variable climate between 15 and 13 Ka BP, and again an arid climate at 12.5 Ka BP. The negative d18O, reduced C/I and higher smectite document a humid phase culminating at 12 Ka BP. Arid climate phases...

  15. ATLAS distributed computing operations in the GridKa cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckeck, Guenter; Serfon, Cedric; Walker, Rodney [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Garching (Germany); Harenberg, Torsten; Kalinin, Sergey; Schultes, Joachim [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany); Kawamura, Gen [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Leffhalm, Kai [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Meyer, Joerg [Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Petzold, Andreas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Sundermann, Jan Erik [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The ATLAS Grid Computing resources in Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, and Switzerland consist of a cloud of 12 Tier-2 computing centers grouped around the Tier-1 center GridKa at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing at KIT. While the Tier-1 center serves as a hub for data management in the cloud and is the principal resource for reprocessing and custodial storage of raw ATLAS data, the Tier-2 centers provide the resources for user analysis and production of simulated events. During the first full year of data taking at the LHC, the GridKa cloud has successfully contributed to the overall ATLAS computing effort, enabling physicists to quickly analyze the large volume of new incoming data and the corresponding simulated events. This talk covers the computing operations in the GridKa cloud with focus on performance and experiences at both the Tier-1 and Tier-2 centers.

  16. Ka-band MMIC microstrip array for high rate communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. Q.; Raquet, C. A.; Tolleson, J. B.; Sanzgiri, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    In a recent technology assessment of alternative communication systems for the space exploration initiative (SEI), Ka-band (18 to 40 GHz) communication technology was identified to meet the mission requirements of telecommunication, navigation, and information management. Compared to the lower frequency bands, Ka-band antennas offer higher gain and broader bandwidths; thus, they are more suitable for high data rate communications. Over the years, NASA has played an important role in monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array technology development, and currently, has an ongoing contract with Texas Instrument (TI) to develop a modular Ka-band MMIC microstrip subarray (NAS3-25718). The TI contract emphasizes MMIC integration technology development and stipulates using existing MMIC devices to minimize the array development cost. The objective of this paper is to present array component technologies and integration techniques used to construct the subarray modules.

  17. 12 kaBP lake environment on the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炳元; 王苏民; 朱立平; 李元芳

    2001-01-01

    The systemic analyses have been carried out in this paper to the paleolake shorelines, paleolake sediments and paleoclimatic proxies of 20 lakes, in which there were 12 kaBP dating data on the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that the paleolake level had apparently risen during 14-11 kaBP, the glaciers melting period, in the Tibetan area and Northwest China. Especially, much more increasing amplitude supplied by thawy glaciers water occurred than in the best period of Holocene. The temperate-humid climate around 12 kaBP appeared in the Tibetan area and even in the whole China. This event may be compared with the Bolling/Allerod warm period which was reflected by Europe and Greenland ice core records. It showed that the B/A event was not a regional one in the North Atlantic area.

  18. Kažun kao prepoznatljiv element identiteta Istre

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Temeljem terenskih istraživanja provedenih posljednjih desetljeća te prikupljene literature u članku se analizira pojam, funkcija i značaj građevine koja se u Istri označava najčešće imenom kažun, također casita (u nekoliko lokaliteta istroromanskoga govornog područja) te hižica, hiška, koča, kućica na sjevernom dijelu poluotoka. Konstrukcija kažuna podrazumijeva način građenja suhozidom na kružnoj osnovi: kameni prstenovi podižu se u kružni zid, a zatim sužavaju u „lažni svod“ koji se zasipa...

  19. Predicting pKa for proteins using COSMO-RS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Jensen, Jan Halborg; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2013-01-01

    We have used the COSMO-RS implicit solvation method to calculate the equilibrium constants, pKa, for deprotonation of the acidic residues of the ovomucoid inhibitor protein, OMTKY3. The root mean square error for comparison with experimental data is only 0.5 pH units and the maximum error 0.8 p......H units. The results show that the accuracy of pKa prediction using COSMO-RS is as good for large biomolecules as it is for smaller inorganic and organic acids and that the method compares very well to previous pKa predictions of the OMTKY3 protein using Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics. Our approach...

  20. X-/Ka-band dichroic plate noise temperature reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, W.; Lee, P.

    1994-11-01

    The X-/Ka-band (8.4 GHz/32.0 GHz) dichroic plate installed as DSS 13 contributes an estimated 3 K to the system noise temperature at 32.0 GHz. Approximately 1 percent of the Ka-band incident field is reflected by the plate into the 300-K environment of the DSS-13 pedestal room. A low-cost, easily implemented method of reducing the noise temperature is presented. Using a curved reflector, the reflected field can be re-focused into an 80-K cold load, reducing the noise temperature contribution of the dichroic plate by about 2 K.

  1. Identiteto paieška šeimos fotografijose

    OpenAIRE

    Kniškaitė, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Darbe nagrinėjamas identitetas ir jo paieška šeimos fotografijose. Keliamas tikslas išanalizuoti identitetą ir jo vizualumą formuojančius faktorius. Kadangi darbo tema susijusi su savęs paieška, analizės objektu tampa tapatumas, o šeima pasirinkta kaip priemonė jam atskleisti. Albuminės fotografijos šiame darbe naudojamos kaip giminės istorinis šaltinis, kaip paveldas, kurio pagalba ne tik vizualiai atkuriamas šeimos genealoginis medis, bet ir pereinama prie interpretacinio požiūrio į albumi...

  2. Pollen-climate relationships in time (9 ka, 6 ka, 0 ka) and space (upland vs. lowland) in eastern continental Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Cao, Xianyong; Dallmeyer, Anne; Zhao, Yan; Ni, Jian; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Temporal and spatial stability of the vegetation-climate relationship is a basic ecological assumption for pollen-based quantitative inferences of past climate change and for predicting future vegetation. We explore this assumption for the Holocene in eastern continental Asia (China, Mongolia). Boosted regression trees (BRT) between fossil pollen taxa percentages (Abies, Artemisia, Betula, Chenopodiaceae, Cyperaceae, Ephedra, Picea, Pinus, Poaceae and Quercus) and climate model outputs of mean annual precipitation (Pann) and mean temperature of the warmest month (Mtwa) for 9 and 6 ka (ka = thousand years before present) were set up and results compared to those obtained from relating modern pollen to modern climate. Overall, our results reveal only slight temporal differences in the pollen-climate relationships. Our analyses suggest that the importance of Pann compared with Mtwa for taxa distribution is higher today than it was at 6 ka and 9 ka. In particular, the relevance of Pann for Picea and Pinus increases and has become the main determinant. This change in the climate-tree pollen relationship parallels a widespread tree pollen decrease in north-central China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We assume that this is at least partly related to vegetation-climate disequilibrium originating from human impact. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration may have permitted the expansion of moisture-loving herb taxa (Cyperaceae and Poaceae) during the late Holocene into arid/semi-arid areas. We furthermore find that the pollen-climate relationship between north-central China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau is generally similar, but that regional differences are larger than temporal differences. In summary, vegetation-climate relationships in China are generally stable in space and time, and pollen-based climate reconstructions can be applied to the Holocene. Regional differences imply the calibration-set should be restricted spatially.

  3. Multi-Step Ka/Ka Dichroic Plate with Rounded Corners for NASA's 34m Beam Waveguide Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, Watt; Khayatian, Behrouz; Hoppe, Daniel; Long, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    A multi-step Ka/Ka dichroic plate Frequency Selective Surface (FSS structure) is designed, manufactured and tested for use in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas. The proposed design allows ease of manufacturing and ability to handle the increased transmit power (reflected off the FSS) of the DSN BWG antennas from 20kW to 100 kW. The dichroic is designed using HFSS and results agree well with measured data considering the manufacturing tolerances that could be achieved on the dichroic.

  4. Multi-Step Ka/Ka Dichroic Plate with Rounded Corners for NASA's 34m Beam Waveguide Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, Watt; Khayatian, Behrouz; Hoppe, Daniel; Long, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    A multi-step Ka/Ka dichroic plate Frequency Selective Surface (FSS structure) is designed, manufactured and tested for use in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas. The proposed design allows ease of manufacturing and ability to handle the increased transmit power (reflected off the FSS) of the DSN BWG antennas from 20kW to 100 kW. The dichroic is designed using HFSS and results agree well with measured data considering the manufacturing tolerances that could be achieved on the dichroic.

  5. Improvisatsioonilised filmietendus-kontserdid "Kas kino ka saab?"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi ja Eesti Film 100 poolt Suurgildi hoones korraldatud koostöönäitust "Elavad ja laulvad pildid" täiendab filmietenduste-kontsertide sari "Kas kino ka saab?", kus täna on kinoklassiku Georges Meliesi (1861-1938) filmiprogramm Jaak Lõhmuse kommenteeriva sõnavõtuga

  6. Che legend elab ka 40 aastat hiljem / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 9. okt. lk. 10. Argentinas sündinud ja 1967. aastal hukatud revolutsionääri Ernesto Che Guevara poliitikukarjäärist, tema panusest Kuuba revolutsiooni ja poliitikasse. Ernesto Che Guevara mälestamisest Ladina-Ameeerika riikides. Lisa: Kuuba revolutsioon; Che Guevara elu

  7. Additive manufacturing of Ka-band antennas for wireless communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armendariz, Unai; Rommel, Simon; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of WR-28 waveguide horn antennas operating in the Ka-band frequency range between 26.5 GHz and 40 GHz through 3D printing. Three different antennas are fabricated from polylactide acid filaments in conductive and non-conductive variants; the latter...

  8. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  9. Aju rehkendab pingsalt ka unelemise ajal / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2011-01-01

    Siiani arvati, et kui inimene ei tegutse, siis ei tegutse ka aju. Nüüdseks on selge, et aju on aktiivne alati. Ja matemaatiliste ülesannete lahendamisega seotud ajupiirkonnad on ühed, mis inimese ajus alati valvel püsivad

  10. Eesti Energia emissioonis on koht ka rahvaaktsiatel / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia võimaliku aktsiaemissiooni korral tagatakse võimalus soetada aktsiaid ka jaeinvestoritel. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul tugevdaks see Eesti inimeste huvi energeetika vastu, samuti võimaldaks see paigutada oma sääste Eesti arenguga seotud ettevõttesse

  11. Suhkruturu reform : [ka teiste toiduainete turu reformist] / Ants Laansalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laansalu, Ants, 1938-2011

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk. 83-86. Euroopa Komisjon esitles 2004. a juuli keskel suhkruturu reformikava, mille eesmärgiks on muuta sektor konkurentsivõimelisemaks, turu nõudlustele vastavaks, tarbija- ja keskkonnasõbralikumaks ning lõpetada ületootmine

  12. Eesti Energia emissioonis on koht ka rahvaaktsiatel / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia võimaliku aktsiaemissiooni korral tagatakse võimalus soetada aktsiaid ka jaeinvestoritel. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul tugevdaks see Eesti inimeste huvi energeetika vastu, samuti võimaldaks see paigutada oma sääste Eesti arenguga seotud ettevõttesse

  13. Ehitusala tõus jätkus ka mullu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti, 3. nov. 2004, lk. 14-15. Ehitusfirmade TOP 95 aastal 2003. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe TOP 40. TOP-i koostamise metoodika. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Omakapitali tootluse TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Ehitusettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed

  14. Ottis osales ka ise kahtlases riigihankes / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Riigi Kinnisvara juht Tiit Ottis palus 2005. aasta mais keskkriminaalpolitseil algatada Kärdla piirivalvekordoni hangete uurimiseks kriminaalasi. Antud hankel osales ka Ottise loodud AS Gustaf, mis pakkus küll odavaimat hinda, kuid konkursi võitis AS Pameron. Vt. samas: Kriminaalasi algatati teo suhtes

  15. Che legend elab ka 40 aastat hiljem / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 9. okt. lk. 10. Argentinas sündinud ja 1967. aastal hukatud revolutsionääri Ernesto Che Guevara poliitikukarjäärist, tema panusest Kuuba revolutsiooni ja poliitikasse. Ernesto Che Guevara mälestamisest Ladina-Ameeerika riikides. Lisa: Kuuba revolutsioon; Che Guevara elu

  16. Kas läheb ka Ruudi tapmiseks? / Kati Murutar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murutar, Kati, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Lastefilm "Ruudi" : stsenaristid Katrin Laur, Aare Toikka, Aarne Mägi : režissöör Katrin Laur : nimiosas lapsnäitleja Paul Oskar Soe : Allfilm - MRP Matila Röhr Productions - Schmidtz Katze Filmkollektiv 2006. Võetud kõne alla ka Peeter Simmi "Kõrini!" ja Peeter Urbla "Stiilipeo" arvustaja meelest teenimatult mahategevad retsensioonid

  17. Ehitusala tõus jätkus ka mullu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti, 3. nov. 2004, lk. 14-15. Ehitusfirmade TOP 95 aastal 2003. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe TOP 40. TOP-i koostamise metoodika. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Omakapitali tootluse TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Ehitusettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed

  18. Experimental radio frequency link for Ka-band communications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Conray, Martin J.; Saunders, Alan L.; Pope, Dale E.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental radio frequency link has been demonstrated to provide two-way communication between a remote user ground terminal and a ground-based Ka-band transponder. Bit-error-rate performance and radio frequency characteristics of the communication link were investigated.

  19. High Througput pKa Prediction Using Semi Empirical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of organic molecules relevant to medicine and biotechnology contain one or more ionizable groups, which means that fundamental physical and chemical properties (e.g. the charge of the molecule) depend on the pH of the surroundings via the corresponding pKa values of the molecules. As drug- and material design increasingly is being done through high throughput screens, fast - yet accurate - computational pKa prediction methods are becoming crucial to the design process. Current empirical pKa predictors are increasingly found to fail because they are being applied to parts of chemical space for which experimental parameterization data is lacking. We propose to develop a pKa predictor that, due its quantum mechanical foundation, is more generally applicable but still fast enough to be used in high throughput screening. The method has the potential to impact virtually any biotechnological design process involving organic molecules as we will demonstrate for metabolic engineering and organic bat...

  20. Tõnu Talve "Ka" tuuritab Kadrinas ja Rakveres / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2005-01-01

    Tõnu Talve maalidest. Kadrinas esitatud trio Fragile performance'st ja näitusest tsüklist "Ka" Rakveres. Rakvere näitusel Teele Tuuna ja kolmeaastase tütre Anneliise tööd. Trio Fragile koosseisus on kitarrist Robert Jürjendal, trummar Arvo Urb ja maalija Tõnu Talve

  1. Holland soovib Maailmapanga juhi kohale ka teisi kandidaate / Kalev Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Kalev

    2005-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush nimetas Iraagi sõja peamise planeerija Paul Wolfowitzi Maailmapanga presidendi kandidaadiks. See valik on Euroopas põhjustanud vastuolusid, kuna temast kardetakse Bushi senise välispoliitilise stiili jätkajat ka Maailmapangas. Bill Clintonit peetakse üheks võimalikuks kandidaadiks ÜRO peasekräri kohale

  2. Improvisatsioonilised filmietendus-kontserdid "Kas kino ka saab?"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi ja Eesti Film 100 poolt Suurgildi hoones korraldatud koostöönäitust "Elavad ja laulvad pildid" täiendab filmietenduste-kontsertide sari "Kas kino ka saab?", kus täna on kinoklassiku Georges Meliesi (1861-1938) filmiprogramm Jaak Lõhmuse kommenteeriva sõnavõtuga

  3. The new Ford Ka: a design for the future; Der neue Ford Ka: Ein Konzept fuer die Zukunftt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Bietz, T.; Castro, P.; Cole, S.; Jansen, K.H.; McColm, A.

    1996-09-01

    One of the factors of success in the competitive world of today`s automotive industry is the ability to adapt quickly to changing customer requirements. Surveys in all European countries indicate an increasing demand for cars that are below the established small cars in terms of size and price. Ford is offering with the new Ford Ka a product in the Sub-B class, which gains new ground by a fascinating design as well as matches the B-class for safety and noise comfort. The Ka is fun-to-drive with lively, safe handling to `best in class` standard at an outstanding price/performance ratio. (orig.) [Deutsch] Befragungen in ganz Europa signalisieren einen steigenden Bedarf an Fahrzeugen, die in Groesse und Preis unterhalb der etablierten Kleinwagen positioniert sind. Ford bietet mit dem neuen Ka in der Sub-B-Klasse ein Produkt, das nicht nur durch wegweisendes Design besticht, sondern gleichzeitig Fahrvergnuegen durch agiles und sicheres Handling garantiert. Der Ka bietet Sicherheit und Geraeuschkomfort auf dem Niveau der naechsthoeheren Klasse und dies bei einem guten Preis-Leistungsverhaeltnis. (orig.)

  4. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4 GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-in diameter parabolic high gain antenna (HGA) on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) R&D 34-meter antenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. The projected 5-dB link advantage of Ka-band relative to X-band was confirmed in previous reports using measurements of MGS signal strength data acquired during the first two years of the link experiment from December 1996 to December 1998. Analysis of X-band and Ka-band frequency data and difference frequency (fx-fka)/3.8 data will be presented here. On board the spacecraft, a low-power sample of the X-band downlink from the transponder is upconverted to 32 GHz, the Ka-band frequency, amplified to I-W using a Solid State Power Amplifier, and radiated from the dual X/Ka HGA. The X-band signal is amplified by one of two 25 W TWTAs. An upconverter first downconverts the 8.42 GHz X-band signal to 8 GHz and then multiplies using a X4 multiplier producing the 32 GHz Ka-band frequency. The frequency source selection is performed by an RF switch which can be commanded to select a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) or USO (Ultra-Stable Oscillator) reference. The Ka-band frequency can be either coherent with the X-band downlink reference or a hybrid combination of the USO and VCO derived frequencies. The data in this study were chosen such that the Ka-band signal is purely coherent with the X-band signal, that is the downconverter is driven by the same frequency source as the X-band downlink). The ground station used to acquire the data is DSS-13, a 34-meter BWG antenna which incorporates a series of mirrors inside beam waveguide tubes which guide the energy to a subterranean pedestal room, providing a stable environment

  5. Hydrological variability in northern Levant over the past 250 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gasse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Levant features sharp climatic gradients from North to South and from West to East resulting in a large environmental diversity. The lack of long-term record from the northern Levant limits our understanding of the regional response to glacial-interglacial boundary conditions in this key area. The 250 ka paleoenvironmental reconstruction presented here is a first step to fill this geographical gap.

    The record comes from a 36 m lacustrine-palustrine sequence cored in the small intra-mountainous karstic basin of Yammoûneh (northern Lebanon. The paper combines times series of sediment properties, paleovegetation, and carbonate oxygen isotopes, to yield a comprehensive view of paleohydrologic-paleoclimatic fluctuations in the basin over the two last glacial-interglacial cycles. Efficient moisture was higher than today during interglacial peaks around 240, 215–220, ~130–120 ka and 11–9 ka (although under different Precipitation minus Evaporation balance. Moderate wetting events took place around 170, 150, 105–100, 85–75, 60–55 and 35 ka. The penultimate glacial period was generally wetter than the last glacial stage. Local aridity culminated from the LGM to 15 ka, possibly linked to water storage as ice in the surrounding highlands. An overall decrease in local water availability is observed from the profile base to top. Fluctuations in available water seem to be primarily governed by changes in local summer insolation controlled by the orbital eccentricity modulated by the precession cycle, and by changes in precipitation and temperature seasonality.

    Our record is roughly consistent with long-term climatic fluctuations in northeastern Mediterranean lands, except during the penultimate glacial phase. It shares some features with speleothem records of western Israel. Conversely, after 130 ka, it is clearly out of phase with hydrological changes in the Dead Sea basin. Potential causes of these spatial heterogeneities

  6. 13 kA Superconducting Busbars Manufacturing Process

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, R; Fornasiere, E

    2012-01-01

    In the LHC, the superconducting Main Bending magnets and Quadrupole magnets are series-connected electrically in different excitation circuits by means of superconducting busbars, carrying a maximum current of 13 kA. These superconducting busbars consist of a superconducting Rutherford cable thermally and electrically coupled to a copper section all along the length. The function of the copper section is essentially to provide an alternative path for the magnet current in case of resistive transition. The production of these components was originally outsourced. The decision to import the technology at CERN led to a global re-engineering of the standard process. Although based on the procedures adopted during the LHC construction, a few modifications and improvements have been implemented, profiting of the experience gained in the last few years. This document details the manufacturing process of the 13 kA busbars as it is actually performed at CERN, emphasizing the new solutions adopted during the first mon...

  7. NOVEL MLANTJARAN KA SASAK: FROM DILLEMATIC TEACHERS TO HUMOROUS ONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Tingkat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the representation of the image of teachers in the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak written by Gde Srawana. Using the theory of literary sociology and the theory of representation as the basis of analysis, it was found that teachers were  imaged of being dilemmatic, humanistic idealistic, caring about the Balinese culture, and being humorous. Sociologically, the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak pictured the life background of the Balinese society during 1930s, indicated by the critical attitude of the intellectuals through I Made Sarati and Ida Ayu Priya, the characters who played a role as teachers, towards the caste feudalism in marriage. Such a critical attitude was expressed in such an inciting way that the ethic and aesthetic values needed to educate society were not neglected.

  8. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka

    OpenAIRE

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L.; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-marie

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the ...

  9. Riigikogus tehakse ka tööd / Vilja Savisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Vilja, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Sakala, 13. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Harju Ekspress, 15. juuni 2007, lk. 8; Järva Teataja, 16. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 6. Parlamendiliige Keskerakonna fraktsiooni poolt parlamendis algatatud eelnõudest

  10. Kui suudab Steve, suudab ka Apple / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla

  11. Euroopa Liit toetab ka väiketalupidajaid / Rein Aidma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aidma, Rein, 1950-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vali Uudised 12. nov. lk. 4, Harjumaa, Hiiu Leht, Sakala 14. nov. lk. 3,2,2, Koit 18. nov. lk. 6, Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje 21. nov. lk. 4, Järva Teataja 25. nov. lk. 2. Väiksematel põllumajandusega tegelevatel ettevõtetel on võimalus saada ajutist abi paremaks toimetulekuks võimalike muutuste korral, mis leiavad aset liitumisjärgsel perioodil

  12. Ka omavalitsus vastutab palkade eest / Aivar Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Aivar, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline, Koit 11. nov. lk.4,6, Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje, Hiiumaa, Järva Teataja 11. nov. lk. 2, Pärnu Postimees 12. nov. lk. 15, Vali Uudised 14. nov. lk. 2, Valgamaalane 18. nov. lk. 2, Vooremaa 25. nov. lk. 2. Kohalike omavalitsuste võimalustest õpetajate ja kultuuritöötajate palkade täiendavaks tõstmiseks 2004. aastal

  13. Riigikogus tehakse ka tööd / Vilja Savisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Vilja, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Sakala, 13. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Harju Ekspress, 15. juuni 2007, lk. 8; Järva Teataja, 16. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 6. Parlamendiliige Keskerakonna fraktsiooni poolt parlamendis algatatud eelnõudest

  14. Ka omavalitsus vastutab palkade eest / Aivar Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Aivar, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline, Koit 11. nov. lk.4,6, Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje, Hiiumaa, Järva Teataja 11. nov. lk. 2, Pärnu Postimees 12. nov. lk. 15, Vali Uudised 14. nov. lk. 2, Valgamaalane 18. nov. lk. 2, Vooremaa 25. nov. lk. 2. Kohalike omavalitsuste võimalustest õpetajate ja kultuuritöötajate palkade täiendavaks tõstmiseks 2004. aastal

  15. Eestil on Euroopas ka oma tee / Jürgen Ligi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ligi, Jürgen, 1959-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 17. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 17. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Koit,17. apr. 2004, lk. 6; Meie Maa, 17. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 20. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Virumaa Nädalaleht, 23. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Sakala, 23. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 8. mai 2004, lk. 2. Maksu- ja sotsiaalpoliitika otsustusõigusest ning kaitsmisest EL-i riikides

  16. Kui suudab Steve, suudab ka Apple / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla

  17. Precision Deployable Mast for the SWOT KaRIn Instrument Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design and prototype a lightweight, precision-deployable mast for the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn) antennas in the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT)...

  18. Use of Roud Wood in Kaingáng Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has the purpose of describing and analyzing the evolutionary habitation process of the Kaingáng. Its main focus is the typological reading of the shelters as well as the registration of the wooden building system used in the construction of the houses in the “Äpucaraninha” Reserve, located in a district of Londrina. The research proceeds with the elaboration of the genealogy of the kaingáng’s habitation through the consultation to the published historical reports and their chronological organization. The data collection within the group was accomplished through informal interviews, photographic survey and in loco observations. Aspects related to the use of the round wood as well as the other elements that are part of the construction, were verified at this stage. The raw material used in every building system is obtained in the Reserve itself, being the wood used not only in the structure but also in the sealing. The connections are made through fittings and fastenings with liana. In spite of the mixture of values and meanings that the Kaingáng community experiences through the contact with other cultures, traditional aspects related to the building of the “traditional house” are preserved, with no domain of other techniques by most of the group. The registration intends to contribute towards the identification and understanding of important issues related to the spaces built by the man.

  19. Rain Fade Compensation Alternatives for Ka Band Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.

    1997-01-01

    Future satellite communications systems operating in Ka-band frequency band are subject to degradation produced by the troposphere which is much more severe than those found at lower frequency bands. These impairments include signal absorption by rain, clouds and gases, and amplitude scintillation's arising from refractive index irregularities. For example, rain attenuation at 20 GHz is almost three times that at 11 GHz. Although some of these impairments can be overcome by oversizing the ground station antennas and high power amplifiers, the current trend is using small (less than 20 inches apertures), low-cost ground stations (less than $1000) that can be easily deployed at user premises. As a consequence, most Ka-band systems are expected to employ different forms of fade mitigation that can be implemented relatively easily and at modest cost. The rain fade mitigation approaches are defined by three types of Ka-band communications systems - a low service rate (less than 1.5 Mb/s), a moderate service rate (1.5 to 6 Mb/s) system and a high service rate (greater than 43 Mb/s) system. The ACTS VSAT network, which includes an adaptive rain fade technique, is an example of a moderate service rate.

  20. ATLAS computing operations within the GridKa Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J; Walker, R [LMU Munich (Germany); Olszewski, A [Institute of Nuclear Physics Krakow (Poland); Nderitu, S [University of Bonn (Germany); Serfon, C; Duckeck, G

    2010-04-01

    The organisation and operations model of the ATLAS T1-T2 federation/Cloud associated to the GridKa T1 in Karlsruhe is described. Attention is paid to Cloud level services and the experience gained during the last years of operation. The ATLAS GridKa Cloud is large and divers spanning 5 countries, 2 ROC's and is currently comprised of 13 core sites. A well defined and tested operations model in such a Cloud is of the utmost importance. We have defined the core Cloud services required by the ATLAS experiment and ensured that they are performed in a managed and sustainable manner. Services such as Distributed Data Management involving data replication,deletion and consistency checks, Monte Carlo Production, software installation and data reprocessing are described in greater detail. In addition to providing these central services we have undertaken several Cloud level stress tests and developed monitoring tools to aid with Cloud diagnostics. Furthermore we have defined good channels of communication between ATLAS, the T1 and the T2's and have pro-active contributions from the T2 manpower. A brief introduction to the GridKa Cloud is provided followed by a more detailed discussion of the operations model and ATLAS services within the Cloud.

  1. Utjecaj materijala za pakiranje na kvalitetu Kačkavalja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce Talevski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available U ovom radu ispitivan je utjecaj različitog ambalažnog materijala (A - kontrolni uzorak, B - polimerna emulzija, C - vosak i D - polimerna folija na kvalitetu Kačkavalja. Najnižu pH vrijednost imao je uzorak zaštićen voskom, što je rezultat zadržavanja nastalih organskih kiselina i plinova od strane ambalažnog materijala. Statistički značajan utjecaj ambalažnih materijala (p<0.01 bio je utvrđen kod sadržaja suhe tvari, proteina i pepela, dok statistička značajnost nije bila utvrđena kod sadržaja masti kod Kačkavalja. Proteolitički procesi bili su izraženiji kod uzorka zaštićenog voskom i polimernom folijom, s višim razinama topljivog dušika, primarnih i sekundarnih dušičnih spojeva i koeficijenta zrelosti u odnosu na kontrolni uzorak i uzorak zaštićen polimernom emulzijom.

  2. AltiKa: a Ka-band Altimetry Payload and System for Operational Altimetry during the GMES Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Patrick; Steunou, Nathalie; Caubet, Eric; Phalippou, Laurent; Rey, Laurent; Thouvenot, Eric; Verron, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Ka-band altimetry payload and system that has been studied for several years by CNES, ALCATEL SPACE and some science laboratories. Altimetry is one of the major elements of the ocean observing system to be made sustainable through the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) and GMES (Global Monitoring of the Environment and Security) programs. A short review of some mission objectives to be fulfilled in terms of mesoscale oceanography in the frame of the GEOSS and GMES programs is performed. To answer the corresponding requirements, the approach consisting in a constellation of nadir altimeter is discussed. A coupled Ka-band altimeter-radiometer payload is then described; technical items are detailed to explain how this payload shall meet the science and operational requirements, and expected performances are displayed. The current status of the payload development and flight perspectives are given.

  3. AltiKa: a Ka-band Altimetry Payload and System for Operational Altimetry during the GMES Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Verron

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Ka-band altimetry payload and system that has beenstudied for several years by CNES, ALCATEL SPACE and some science laboratories.Altimetry is one of the major elements of the ocean observing system to be madesustainable through the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems and GMES(Global Monitoring of the Environment and Security programs. A short review of somemission objectives to be fulfilled in terms of mesoscale oceanography in the frame of theGEOSS and GMES programs is performed. To answer the corresponding requirements, theapproach consisting in a constellation of nadir altimeter is discussed. A coupled Ka-bandaltimeter-radiometer payload is then described; technical items are detailed to explain howthis payload shall meet the science and operational requirements, and expectedperformances are displayed. The current status of the payload development and flightperspectives are given.

  4. Functional Spectral Analysis of Paleoclimatic Evolution in Lanzhou Area over the Last 15 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂芳; 殷鸿福; 李长安; 陈中原

    2003-01-01

    In this paper,we make use of the functional spectral analysis to infer the periodicity of paleoclimate in the Hongzuisi section since about 15 ka. Through combined analysis of organic carbon isotope and CaCO3 content,the law of paleoclimatic evolution of the Hongzuisi section is obtained. There were climatic changes from 10 ka to about 0.1 ka over the last 15 ka. Among these cycles,the cycle of several ka is most remarkable. The result indicates that functional spectral analysis is helpful for paleoclimatic study,which can provide useful information about paleoclimatic reconstruction and future forecast.

  5. High speed transfer switch with 50 kA and 50 kV ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reass, W. A.; Kasik, R. J.; Wilds, W. A.

    This paper gives the mechanical design and electrical parameters of a pneumatically operated transfer switch. This design is used to switch 3-second 50-kA current pulses, and is easily capable of 75 kA operation, with water-cooled versions capable of 20 kA continuously. Although the switch is not specifically designed to make or break 50 kA, it is provided with auxiliary Elkonite arcing contacts that have proven their value in protecting the main electrodes even under repetitive (50 kA) fault conditions. Included in this presentation will be the results of extensive life testing and associated criteria.

  6. Development prospects of Niška Banja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Vidoje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic thinking is the base of every development and the favorite entries in theory and management practices. In tourist complex that has a special meaning because of the sole complexity of the phenomenon itself. In this sense, many of the methods of strategic management and tourism development in various areas in Serbia, SWOT analysis is one of the most reliable. For this, Niška Banja is a true challenge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179013: Sustainable identity of Serbs and minorities living in border areas of East and South-east Serbia

  7. Miroljubivi uspon – nova kineska vanjskopolitička teorija

    OpenAIRE

    Baković, Ozren

    2004-01-01

    Kao izraz težnje za osuvremenjivanjem kineske vanjske politike u promijenjenim globalnim uvjetima na početku 21. stoljeća, pojavila se nova službena kineska vanjskopolitička teorija – teorija “miroljubivog uspona”. Nakon što je naviše kinesko rukovodstvo usvojilo teoriju, ona se sad nastoji objasniti međunarodnoj javnosti. Osnovna je postavka teorije “miroljubivog uspona” da snažan dugoročni rast kineskoga gospodarstva i afirmacija Kine u međunarodnim odnosima nije ni regionalna ni globalna p...

  8. Veretu retrobuum : [ka TPÜ AR kohvikust] / Allan Hmelnitski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hmelnitski, Allan

    2004-01-01

    "Ka mina eelistan kõigi söögikohtade seast Teaduste Akadeemia puhvetit, mis on 100% breezhnevi aegne disain - kunstnahast lett, ümmargused madalad lauad, pikk-pikk nahkdiivan, kurgid ja tomatid mis maitsevad hästi ja tugevalt, täpselt nagu aastal 85, hallides ülikondades vanemad härrad vestlemas põlevkivist ja paeklindi ajaloost. Vot see on tõeline petlik naiivsus, turvalisus, rahu, muretus ja stabiilsus nagu aastal 76 ema süles."

  9. Lapsed pole ainult tulevik, nad on ka olevik / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 13. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 13. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 13. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 16. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 16. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Koit,16. nov. 2004, lk. 6; Vali Uudised, 17. nov. 2004, lk. 2. Valitsusliidu toel hääletati menetlusest välja eelnõu, mille eesmärk oli parandada kolme ja enama lapsega pere igapäeva toimetulekut, samuti üksikvanemate olukorda. Autor kritiseerib valitsuse sotsiaalkindlustuspoliitikat

  10. Politička ekonomija – ekonomija – politologija

    OpenAIRE

    Strpić, Dag

    2001-01-01

    Od 17. do 19. stoljeća politička ekonomija je prošla put od posebne društvene/ moralne znanosti do sinonima liberalne verzije cjeline političko-kameralnih ili državnih znanosti. Na prijelomu u 20. stoljeće, uspostavljanjem samostalne ekonomske znanosti i užim profiliranjem političkih znanosti, ona se počela marginalizirati (osim u naglašeno ideologiziranoj “marksističko-lenjinističkoj” verziji, gdje joj je nakon prvotne Staljinove anateme kasnije zadan centralni položaj). A u politologiji/pol...

  11. Deriving and Interpreting Ka(karimusubi in Premodern Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno MITROVIĆ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new syntax and semantics for kakarimusubi (KM, a focus construction prominent in the grammar of Old Japanese (OJ and Early Middle (Classical Japanese (CJ, which diachronically developed into the interrogative construction in Modern Japanese (MdJ headed by the ka particle. Adopting Chierchia & Caponigro’s (2013 novel analysis of Free Relatives (FRs as embedded interrogatives, an FR-based analysis of KM is proposed so as to obtain a compositional semantic analysis of this focus construction as well as an account of the adnominal marking of the presuppositional musubi component of this grammatical construction.

  12. Design of High Power Density Amplifiers: Application to Ka Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Davide; Leggieri, Alberto; Di Paolo, Franco; Bartocci, Marco; Tafuto, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Recent developments in the design of high-power-high-frequency amplifiers are assessed in this paper by the analysis and measurements of a high power density amplifier operating in the Ka Band. Design procedure is presented and a technical investigation is reported. The proposed device has shown over 23% of useful frequency bandwidth. It is an ensemble of 16 monolithic solid state power amplifiers that employees mixed technologies as spatial and planar combiners. Test performed have given maximum delivered power of 47.2 dBm.

  13. Ka- and W-band PM-HFET DRO's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, J.; Guettich, U.

    1993-06-01

    Dielectric resonator stabilized oscillators have been designed, fabricated, and investigated. The oscillators consist of microstrip matching and biasing circuits on alumina substrate, a dielectric resonator puck, and a low-noise quarter-micron InGaAs-GaAs pseudomorphic (PM) HFET as the active device. At 37 GHz and 81 GHz, output powers of 10 dBm and 0 dBm have been measured. The phase noise of the Ka-band and W-band oscillators has been determined to be -97 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz and -90 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz off carrier, respectively.

  14. Veretu retrobuum : [ka TPÜ AR kohvikust] / Allan Hmelnitski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hmelnitski, Allan

    2004-01-01

    "Ka mina eelistan kõigi söögikohtade seast Teaduste Akadeemia puhvetit, mis on 100% breezhnevi aegne disain - kunstnahast lett, ümmargused madalad lauad, pikk-pikk nahkdiivan, kurgid ja tomatid mis maitsevad hästi ja tugevalt, täpselt nagu aastal 85, hallides ülikondades vanemad härrad vestlemas põlevkivist ja paeklindi ajaloost. Vot see on tõeline petlik naiivsus, turvalisus, rahu, muretus ja stabiilsus nagu aastal 76 ema süles."

  15. Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-03-06

    The Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) is a zenith-pointing Doppler cloud radar operating at approximately 35 GHz. The KAZR is an evolutionary follow-on radar to ARM's widely successful millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR). The main purpose of the KAZR is to provide vertical profiles of clouds by measuring the first three Doppler moments: reflectivity, radial Doppler velocity, and spectra width. At the sites where the dual-polarization measurements are made, the Doppler moments for the cross-polarization channel are also available. In addition to the moments, velocity spectra are also continuously recorded for each range gate.

  16. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, H.; Koenig, T.

    2010-04-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard "IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)" [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  17. The KaVA and KVN Pulsar Project

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson, Richard; Sohn, Bongwon; Rioja, Mar\\'\\ia J; Jung, Taehyun; Seymour, Andrew; Raja, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    We present our work towards using the Korean VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometer) Network (KVN) and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astronomy (VERA) arrays combined into the KVN and VERA Array (KaVA) for observations of radio pulsars at high frequencies ($\\simeq$22-GHz). Pulsar astronomy is generally focused at frequencies approximately 0.3 to several GHz and pulsars are usually discovered and monitored with large, single-dish, radio telescopes. For most pulsars, reduced radio flux is expected at high frequencies due to their steep spectrum, but there are exceptions where high frequency observations can be useful. Moreover, some pulsars are observable at high frequencies only, such as those close to the Galactic Center. The discoveries of a radio-bright magnetar and a few dozen extended Chandra sources within 15 arc-minute of the Galactic Center provide strong motivations to make use of the KaVA frequency band for searching pulsars in this region. Here, we describe the science targets and report progresses made...

  18. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, H; Koenig, T, E-mail: holger.marten@kit.ed, E-mail: tobias.koenig@kit.ed [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Steinbuch Centre for Computing Herman-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard 'IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)' [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  19. Stability measurements on the 50 kA SMES conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfotenhauer, M. J.

    Stability measurements have been made on a large aluminium stabilized conductor designed for use in a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) coil. The conductor has been built to carry 50 kA at 1.8 K and in 4.6 T field. It consists of a 25.4 mm diameter, high purity aluminium stabilizer with eight superconducting strands of 2.8 mm diameter each, composed of 60% Cu, 40% NbTi. The strands are set in eight helical grooves, evenly spaced around the outer diameter of the aluminium. The conductor is designed for use in full scale SMES units and has been tested in the 1 m diameter, three-turn test coil of the University of Wisconsin proof of principle experiment (POPE). The POPE facility includes the test coil, a 4 T background magnet, a dewar for a 1.8 K, 1 atm environment and a 100 kA d.c. power supply. Test results demonstrate good agreement with a new dynamic stability model. The balance of time-dependent heat generation during current diffusion and time-dependent cooling to the helium produces three new features of stability: 1, a threshold current for propagation; 2, large propagation velocities; and 3, a finite length travelling normal zone. POPE measurements verify all three features of the dynamic stability model.

  20. Review: Bilirubin pKa studies; new models and theories indicate high pKa values in water, dimethylformamide and DMSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrow J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct aqueous pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, a poorly-soluble, unstable substance, are essential for understanding its functions. Our prior solvent partition studies, of unlabeled and [14C] UCB, indicated pKa values above 8.0. These high values were attributed to effects of internal H-bonding in UCB. Many earlier and subsequent studies have reported lower pKa values, some even below 5.0, which are often used to describe the behavior of UCB. We here review 18 published studies that assessed aqueous pKa values of UCB, critically evaluating their methodologies in relation to essential preconditions for valid pKa measurements (short-duration experiments with purified UCB below saturation and accounting for self-association of UCB. Results These re-assessments identified major deficiencies that invalidate the results of all but our partition studies. New theoretical modeling of UCB titrations shows remarkable, unexpected effects of self-association, yielding falsely low pKa estimates, and provides some rationalization of the titration anomalies. The titration behavior reported for a soluble thioether conjugate of UCB at high aqueous concentrations is shown to be highly anomalous. Theoretical re-interpretations of data in DMSO and dimethylformamide show that those indirectly-derived aqueous pKa values are unacceptable, and indicate new, high average pKa values for UCB in non-aqueous media (>11 in DMSO and, probably, >10 in dimethylformamide. Conclusions No reliable aqueous pKa values of UCB are available for comparison with our partition-derived results. A companion paper shows that only the high pKa values can explain the pH-dependence of UCB binding to phospholipids, cyclodextrins, and alkyl-glycoside and bile salt micelles.

  1. Lake-expanding events in the Tibetan Plateau since 40 kaBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉连; 施雅风; 王苏民; 蒋雪中; 李世杰; 王爱军; 李徐生

    2001-01-01

    Since 40 kaBP, the current endorheism on the Tibetan Plateau had experienced at least four lake-expanding events, at 40-28 kaBP, 19-15 kaBP, 13-11 kaBP, 9.0-5.0 kaBP, respectively. The 40-28 kaBP and 9.0-5.0 kaBP lake-expanding events, corresponding to the global warming periods, were mainly determined by the abundant summer monsoon rainfall brought by strong Indian monsoon, aroused by enhanced solar radiation at earth orbital precessional cycle. The 40-28 kaBP lake-expanding event, also called the great lake period or the pan-lake period, for several great lake groups had come into being by the interconnection of the presently isolated and closed lake catchments. The total lake area over the Tibetan Plateau was estimated at least up to 150000 km2, 3.8 times of the present, and the lake supply coefficients were about 3-10. The 9.0-5.0 kaBP lake-expanding, with a total lake area of 68000 km2, less than the above mentioned reflected the Indian monsoon rainfall less than that of 40-28 kaBP. The expanded lak

  2. Eruption of a major Holocene pyroclastic flow at Citlaltépetl volcano (Pico de Orizaba), México, 8.5 9.0 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo; Rose, William I.

    1995-12-01

    Multiple volcanic eruptions occurred between 8500 and 9000 yr. B.P. from the central crater of Citlaltépetl Volcano generating a series of pyroclastic flows that formed a deposit with a total volume of about 0.26 km 3 (D.R.E.). The flows descended in all directions around the crater, but they were mostly controlled by topography and deposited in valleys or local topographic depressions up to about 30 km from vent. Although the flows were apparently emplaced without much violence, some features of the deposits reveal local turbulent conditions and an expanded fluidization that can be related to moderate flow velocities. The deposit has two members: the lower one consists of multiple flow units, and the upper one includes a single flow unit and a thin basal pumice-fall. Both members are lithologically similar and dominated by dense, andesitic scoriae with minor amounts of different pumice types (andesitic, dacitic, and banded), and lithics in a silty matrix. The eruption probably had a low-pressure 'boiling-over' mechanism and was possibly triggered by mixing of dacitic and andesitic magmas. Juvenile material in the pyroclastic-flow deposit is compositionally similar to that of Holocene lava flows at Citlaltépetl, which have apparently resulted from magma homogenization of mafic and silicic end members. Because the system is continuously injected with new basaltic-andesitic magma, a recurrence of explosive activity is possible in future eruptions.

  3. The 8.2 ka event in the northern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetscher, M.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Müller, W.; Spötl, C.

    2012-04-01

    The 8.2 ka event has been identified as a widespread climate excursion affecting most of the Northern Hemisphere. High-resolution records from ice cores and speleothems constrain the chronology of this event to between 8.21±0.02 and 8.08±0.03 ka BP (Vinther et al. 2006, Cheng et al. 2009). A distinctive asymmetrical pattern in d18O is consistent with modelling results suggesting rapid input of freshwater into the northern Atlantic due to catastrophic drainage of ice-marginal lakes (LeGrande et al., 2008). Despite an increasing amount of data, the regional expression of this event is still poorly understood. Here, we present a new speleothem record from Gasselhöhle in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. The 205 mm-long GAS19 stalagmite was analysed at high resolution for stable isotopes (100 µm) and trace elements (~10-15 µm; continuous LA-ICPMS profiles). Twelve individual MC-ICP-MS U/Th ages underline an annual growth rate of ca. 60 µm during the Early Holocene. The d18O averages -8.9‰, only slightly more depleted than modern carbonate precipitates from the same cave chamber. The 8.2 ka event is marked in GAS19 by a ca. 1‰ excursion with a minimum value of -9.9‰. Largely invariant trace element concentrations (e.g. Mg, U, Sr, Ba) indicate essentially no changes in the local hydrological regime and therefore support the hypothesis of a temperature-dominated signal. The proximity to the lacustrine isotope record from Mondsee (eg. Lauterbach et al. 2011) opens new perspectives for the interpretation of the oxygen isotope signal using two archives at different elevations. Moreover, several coeval speleothem records are available across the Eastern Alps fostering a spatial comparison of the proxy signals associated with this event. Cheng, H. et al. (2009), Geology, 37, 1007-1010 Lauterbach, S. et al. (2011), JQS, 26, 253-267 LeGrande, A.N., Schmidt, G.A. (2008), Paleoceanography, 23, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001610 Vinther, B. et al. (2006), JGR, 111, D13103

  4. The Terrestrial NPP Simulation in China since 6ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; DONG Wenjie; JI Jinjun; DAN Li

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the long-term global carbon cycle required estimate of the changes in terrestrial carbon storage after the last glacial period. The results of simulation at mid-Holocene (MH) from PMIP (Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project) and the modern data from CRU (Climate Research Unit,East Anglia University, UK) allow us to use the Atmosphere-Vegetation Interaction Model (AVIM) to simulate the Chinese terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) at 6ka BP and present time. The change of NPP and total NPP in China from now to mid-Holocene are about 54 g m-2yr-1 and 0.63 Pg yr-1,respectively, mainly due to the build-up of temperate forest and tropical rainforest. Chinese terrestrial NPP variation from MH to now is closely related to the variation in intensity of Asian monsoon, which controlled the climate-vegetation pattern change.

  5. Patterns of millennial variability over the last 500 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siddall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Millennial variability is a robust feature of many paleoclimate records, at least throughout the last several glacial cycles. Here we use the signal from an Antarctic climate event to probe the EPICA Dome C temperature proxy reconstruction through the last 500 ka for similar millennial-scale events. We find that clusters of millennial events occurred in a regular fashion over half of the time during this with a mean recurrence interval of 21 kyr. We find that there is no consistent link between ice-rafted debris deposition and millennial variability. Instead we speculate that changes in the zonality of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic form a viable alternative to freshwater release from icebergs as a trigger for millennial variability. We suggest that millennial changes in the zonality of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic are linked to precession and that this relationship is modified by the presence of the large, Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during glacial periods.

  6. The segetal flora of the Kałuszyn Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Skrzyczyńska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a state of preservation and the characteristics of flora of the cultivated fields of the Kaluszyńska Upland is given. The flora of agrocenosis of the Kałuszyńska Upland is rich. The presence of 278 vascular plant species was noted in the study area. It is mainly the diversity of habitats and human activity that affected its species abundance. More than a half of a number of taxa (166 species - 59,6% belong to the group of rare, 40 of them are endangered extinction. Among the most threatened species there are 14 taxa e.g.: Fumaria schleicheri, Euphorbia exigua, Illecebrum verticillatum, Asperugo procumbens, Polycnemum arvense, Radiola linoides, Camelina sativa.

  7. Calculated pKa Variations Expose Dynamic Allosteric Communication Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Eric J M; Heyes, Logan C; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Parker, Emily J

    2016-02-17

    Allosteric regulation of protein function, the process by which binding of an effector molecule provokes a functional response from a distal site, is critical for metabolic pathways. Yet, the way the allosteric signal is communicated remains elusive, especially in dynamic, entropically driven regulation mechanisms for which no major conformational changes are observed. To identify these dynamic allosteric communication networks, we have developed an approach that monitors the pKa variations of ionizable residues over the course of molecular dynamics simulations performed in the presence and absence of an allosteric regulator. As the pKa of ionizable residues depends on their environment, it represents a simple metric to monitor changes in several complex factors induced by binding an allosteric effector. These factors include Coulombic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and solvation, as well as backbone motions and side chain fluctuations. The predictions that can be made with this method concerning the roles of ionizable residues for allosteric communication can then be easily tested experimentally by changing the working pH of the protein or performing single point mutations. To demonstrate the method's validity, we have applied this approach to the subtle dynamic regulation mechanism observed for Neisseria meningitidis 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase, the first enzyme of aromatic biosynthesis. We were able to identify key communication pathways linking the allosteric binding site to the active site of the enzyme and to validate these findings experimentally by reestablishing the catalytic activity of allosterically inhibited enzyme via modulation of the working pH, without compromising the binding affinity of the allosteric regulator.

  8. Correlation between Ka/Ks and Ks is related to substitution model and evolutionary lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Zhang; Vang, Søren;

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, Wyckoff and coworkers described a surprisingly strong correlation between Ka/Ks and Ks in several data sets using the LPB93 algorithm. This finding indicated the possibility of a paradigm shift in the way selection strength can be measured using the Ka/Ks ratio. We carried out a calculat......In 2005, Wyckoff and coworkers described a surprisingly strong correlation between Ka/Ks and Ks in several data sets using the LPB93 algorithm. This finding indicated the possibility of a paradigm shift in the way selection strength can be measured using the Ka/Ks ratio. We carried out...

  9. Evidence and modeling study of droughts in China during 4 - 2 ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ShaoWu; HUANG JianBin; WEN XinYu; ZHU JinHong

    2008-01-01

    Four periods with predominated droughts are identified in 4-2 ka BP according to documentary data, namely 3.6-3.5, 3.1-3.0, 2.8-2.7, and 2.45-2.35 ka BP. Palaeo-environmental data indicated that droughts were predominated in 4-2 ka BP in the south of Northeast China, Inner-Mongolia, east of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and South China. Modeling study shows that precession may be responsible for the occurrence of droughts in 4-2 ka BP, integrating the GCM with forcing of insolation.

  10. Proteolytic fragments of laminin promote excitotoxic neurodegeneration by up-regulation of the KA1 subunit of the kainate receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zu-Lin; Yu, Huaxu; Yu, Wei-Ming; Pawlak, Robert; Strickland, Sidney

    2008-12-29

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein laminin contributes to excitotoxic cell death in the hippocampus, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. To study this process, we disrupted laminin gamma1 (lamgamma1) expression in the hippocampus. Lamgamma1 knockout (KO) and control mice had similar basal expression of kainate (KA) receptors, but the lamgamma1 KO mice were resistant to KA-induced neuronal death. After KA injection, KA1 subunit levels increased in control mice but were unchanged in lamgamma1 KO mice. KA1 levels in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-KO mice were also unchanged after KA, indicating that both tPA and laminin were necessary for KA1 up-regulation after KA injection. Infusion of plasmin-digested laminin-1 into the hippocampus of lamgamma1 or tPA KO mice restored KA1 up-regulation and KA-induced neuronal degeneration. Interfering with KA1 function with a specific anti-KA1 antibody protected against KA-induced neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate a novel pathway for neurodegeneration involving proteolysis of the ECM and KA1 KA receptor subunit up-regulation.

  11. Increasing Diversity in STEM through Ka Hikina O Ka Lā Summer Bridge Program for Native Hawaiian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, A.; Cie, D. K.; Calder, S.; Naho`olewa, D.; Rai, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Mitigation Initiative and the Kahikina O Ka Lā Program are NSF-funded projects at the University of Hawai`i Maui College. These projects offer instruction and activities intended to increase diversity in STEM careers. Ke Alahaka, the 2014 summer bridge program, was offered to Native Hawaiian high-school students who indicated an interest in STEM areas. Content workshops were offered in Marine Science, Physics, Biotechnology, and Computer Science and Engineering as well as a Hawaiian Studies course designed to provide a cultural context for the STEM instruction. Focus groups and other program assessments indicate that 50% of the students attending the workshops intend to pursue a STEM major during their undergraduate studies.

  12. Dating North European mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.): a nearly continuous record from 53 ka to 11 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkonen, P.; Aaris-Sørensen, K.; Arppe, L.; Clark, P. U.; Daugnora, L.; Lister, A.; Lõugas, L.; Seppä, H. A.; Stuart, A. J.; Wojtal, P.; Zupins, I.

    2010-05-01

    nearly continuously from 53 ka to 11 ka, completely disappearing from the area only during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). From the northern parts of the study area, mammoths disappeared ca. 27 ka ago. In the south they survived until the LGM, and occupied the area again during deglaciation. Mammoths survived in the eastern part of the study area until the end of Younger Dryas. References Weninger, B., Jöris, O., 2008. A 14C age calibration curve for the last 60 ka: the Greenland-Hulu U/Th timescale and its impact on understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Eurasia. Journal of Human Evolution 55,772-781. Weninger, B., Jöris, O., Danzeglocke, U., 2008. CalPal-2007. Cologne Radiocarbon Calibration & Palaeoclimate Research Package. http://www.calpal.de/ [2008-09-18].

  13. Ka mauli o ka 'oina a he mauli kanaka: an ethnographic study from an Hawaiian sense of place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneha, M F

    2001-09-01

    Ka Mauli O Ka 'Aina A He Mauli Kanaka: The Life of the Land is the Life of the People. A sense of place has been directly linked to spiritual well being for all indigenous peoples. Yet, there is minimal evidence that demonstrates understanding and awareness of indigenous health issues from this perspective. Health, or the lack of it, appears to be related to place or the loss of it. Issues of Hawaiian health are inseparable from issues of land, water, and atmosphere. The purpose of this research study was to explore the experience of a sense of place and its relationship to health as perceived and experienced by Hawaiian participants living in Wai'anae, Hawai'i. Thirteen adult men and women, ranging in age from 36 to 80 years, participated in this ethnographic study. Two interviews conducted with each participant addressed the research question, "What is the experience of the relationship between a sense of place and health for Hawaiians?" Participants were also asked to photograph how they experienced this relationship. The qualitative data analysis computer software, Atlas.ti, was used to assist in data analysis. The findings suggest that the relationship between sense of place and health embodies four categories: (1) relationship to akua (god, spirit), (2) relationship to natural elements, (3) relationship to self and others, and (4) belonging to a particular place. Three major traditional Hawaiian concepts, which defined how the relationship between sense of place and health are experienced, were pono, mana, and kuleana. The relationship between these concepts revealed five cultural themes. Health for Hawaiians: I. is having a spiritual connection to their ancestral place; II. relates to the past, present, and future; III. is experienced with intention and understanding; IV. means an openness to the flow and use of energy; and V. is experienced as a pu'uhonua or safe place. These themes suggest implications for Hawaiian health education, practice, and further

  14. Data of evolutionary structure change: 2A3KA-2QCTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chain>A 2QCTA IKGVY-GPKAY ...2A3KA-2QCTA 2A3K 2QCT A A --------NTPREVTLHFLRTAGHPLTRWALQRQPPSPK...dbID> A 2A3KA HYWPT---EEETY ...ure> ---EEEEEure> ATOM 1001 CA ...278 TYR CA 308 2QCT A 2QCT

  15. Absolute calibration of SARAL/AltiKa in Kavaratti during its initial calibration-validation phase

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, K.N.; Shukla, A.K.; Suchandra, A.B.; ArunKumar, S.V.V.; Bonnefond, P.; Testut, L.; Mehra, P.; Laurain, O

    Island is located near a repeating ground track of SARAL/AltiKa and »12 km away from the point of closest measurement of Jason-2, SARAL/AltiKa crossover point. Additionally, the altimeter and radiometer footprints do not experience any land contamination...

  16. Productivity fluctuations in the southeastern Arabian Sea during the last 140 ka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Toshiyuki Masuzawab; Naidu, P.D.; Parthiban, G.; Mineko Yamamoto

    the palaeoproductivity fluctuations over the last 140 ka. High calcium carbonate, biogenic opal, biogenic Ba contents (wt%) and their mass accumulation rates (g/cm u2/ka) suggest higher productivity during major interglacials than in the glacials. Organic carbon content...

  17. Kõik, mis valesti sai minna, see on ka valesti läinud / George Soros

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soros, George, 1930-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Molodjozh Estonii : Biznes Sreda, Delovõje Vedomosti 6. veebr. lk. 10. Praegune finantskriis, mille käivitas kinnisvaramulli lõhkemine USA-s, tähistab ka dollari kui rahvusvahelisel reservvaluutal baseeruva laenuandmise laienemise ajastu lõppu

  18. Nii Finnairil kui ka SASil väga head majandustulemused / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Lennukompaniide Finnair ja SAS teise kvartali majandustulemused ületasid nii analüütikute kui ka firmajuhtide prognoosid, kasumit on aidanud tõsta piletihinnatõus ja käibe kasv. Diagrammid: Põhjamaistel lennufirmadel teine kvartal sel aastal selgelt esimesest parem. Vt. samas: Ka SAS tõstab piletihindasid; Põhiline ebakindlustegur - kütuse hind

  19. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1T5KA-3CVDC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bChain> 1T5KA GPMMK-KEQAY ...> - EEEE> ATOM 514 CA GLY A 69 -12.019 37.627 24...DChain> SQLMFSPGESY > EEE> 1T5KA SLTFT---EAGTY >EEEE --- EEE...ture>EEEE EEE> ATOM 2225 CA GLU C 73 6

  20. Ravimiturg peaks ka sel aastal jõudsalt kasvama / Violetta Riidas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riidas, Violetta

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Äripäev 30. apr. lk. 16. Eelmise aasta ravimituru kasv jätkub tõenäoliselt ka sel aastal, kuna negatiivne riigieelarve ravimihüvitisi ei kärbi. Vt. samas: Võrdlus: Ravimituru jaotus haiglaapteekide ning teiste asutuste vahel peamiste ATC rühmade lõikes, 2007

  1. A View from the Cocoon--Space Categorization in the Korean Verb [na-ka-ta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Alan Hyun-Oak

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the Korean verb "na-ka-ta" ("to get out, exit") focuses on why an expression such as "kyengkicang-ey na-ka-ta" ("someone goes out/in to the sports arena") is acceptable only in the context that the person's entering the arena is for the purpose of a contest, while it becomes semantically…

  2. Design and verification of a 24 kA calibration head for a DCCT test facility

    CERN Document Server

    Fernqvist, G; Saab, A

    1999-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is CERN's next particle accelerator project, scheduled for commissioning in 2005. The project requires accurate current measurements above 10 kA. Calibration heads have been developed in collaboration with industry to work up to 24 kA at sub-ppm accuracy. The paper describes the design and verification.

  3. Rain Fade Compensation for Ka-Band Communications Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W. Carl; Nguyen, Lan; Dissanayake, Asoka; Markey, Brian; Le, Anh

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a review and evaluation of rain fade measurement and compensation techniques for Ka-band satellite systems. This report includes a description of and cost estimates for performing three rain fade measurement and compensation experiments. The first experiment deals with rain fade measurement techniques while the second one covers the rain fade compensation techniques. The third experiment addresses a feedback flow control technique for the ABR service (for ATM-based traffic). The following conclusions were observed in this report; a sufficient system signal margin should be allocated for all carriers in a network, that is a fixed clear-sky margin should be typically in the range of 4-5 dB and should be more like 15 dB in the up link for moderate and heavy rain zones; to obtain a higher system margin it is desirable to combine the uplink power control technique with the technique that implements the source information rate and FEC code rate changes resulting in a 4-5 dB increase in the dynamic part of the system margin. The experiments would assess the feasibility of the fade measurements and compensation techniques, and ABR feedback control technique.

  4. Ka-Band Transponder for Deep-Space Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Matthew S.; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Folkner, William M.; Mendoza, Ricardo; Venkatesan, Jaikrishna

    2008-01-01

    A one-page document describes a Ka-band transponder being developed for use in deep-space radio science. The transponder receives in the Deep Space Network (DSN) uplink frequency band of 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, transmits in the 31.8- to 32.3 GHz DSN downlink band, and performs regenerative ranging on a DSN standard 4-MHz ranging tone subcarrier phase-modulated onto the uplink carrier signal. A primary consideration in this development is reduction in size, relative to other such transponders. The transponder design is all-analog, chosen to minimize not only the size but also the number of parts and the design time and, thus, the cost. The receiver features two stages of frequency down-conversion. The receiver locks onto the uplink carrier signal. The exciter signal for the transmitter is derived from the same source as that used to generate the first-stage local-oscillator signal. The ranging-tone subcarrier is down-converted along with the carrier to the second intermediate frequency, where the 4-MHz tone is demodulated from the composite signal and fed into a ranging-tone-tracking loop, which regenerates the tone. The regenerated tone is linearly phase-modulated onto the downlink carrier.

  5. Paleointensities on 8 ka obsidian from Mayor Island, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The 8 ka BP (6050 BCE pantelleritic obsidian flow on Mayor Island, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, has been investigated using 30 samples from two sites. Due to a very high paramagnetic/ferromagnetic ratio, it was not possible to determine the remanence carriers. This is despite the fact that the samples were studied intensively at low, room, and high temperatures. We infer that a stable remanence within the samples is carried by single- or close to single-domain particles. Experiments to determine the anisotropy of thermoremanence tensor and the dependency on cooling rate were hampered due to alteration resulting from the repeated heating of the samples to temperatures just below the glass transition. Nonetheless, a well-defined mean paleointensity of 57.0 ± 1.0 μT, based on individual high quality paleointensity determinations, was obtained. This field value compares very well to a paleointensity of 58.1 ± 2.9 μT, which Tanaka et al. (2009 obtained for 5500 BCE at a site 100 km distant. Agreement with geomagnetic field models, however, is poor. Thus, gathering more high-quality paleointensity data for the Pacific region and for the southern hemisphere in general to better constrain global field models is very important.

  6. Design of Ka-band antipodal finline mixer and detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Changfei; Xu Jinping; Chen Mo

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the analysis and design of a finline single-ended mixer and detector. In the circuit, for the purpose of eliminating high-order resonant modes and improving transition loss, metallic via holes are implemented along the mounting edge of the substrate embedded in the split-block of the WG-finline-microstrip transition. Meanwhile, a Ka band slow-wave and bandstop filter, which represents a reactive termination, is designed for the utilization of idle frequencies and operation frequencies energy. Full-wave analysis is carried out to optimize the input matching network of the mixer and the detector circuit using lumped elements to model the nonlinear diode. The exported S-matrix of the optimized circuit is used for conversion loss and voltage sensitivity analysis.The lowest measured conversion loss is 3.52 dB at 32.2 GHz; the conversion loss is flat and less than 5.68 dB in the frequency band of 29-34 GHz. The highest measured zero-bias voltage sensitivity is 1450 mV/mW at 38.6 GHz,and the sensitivity is better than 1000 mV/mW in the frequency band of 38-40 GHz.

  7. Patterns of millennial variability over the last 500 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siddall

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Millennial variability is a robust feature of many paleoclimate records, at least throughout the last several glacial cycles. Here we use the mean signal from Antarctic climate events 1 to 4 to probe the EPICA Dome C temperature proxy reconstruction through the last 500 ka for similar millennial-scale events. We find that clusters of millennial events occurred in a regular fashion over half of the time during this with a mean recurrence interval of 21 kyr. We find that there is no consistent link between ice-rafted debris deposition and millennial variability. Instead we speculate that changes in the zonality of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic form a viable alternative to freshwater release from icebergs as a trigger for millennial variability. We suggest that millennial changes in the zonality of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic are linked to precession via sea-ice feedbacks and that this relationship is modified by the presence of the large, Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during glacial periods.

  8. Proxy benchmarks for intercomparison of 8.2 ka simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Morrill

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3 now includes the 8.2 ka event as a test of model sensitivity to North Atlantic freshwater forcing. To provide benchmarks for intercomparison, we compiled and analyzed high-resolution records spanning this event. Two previously-described anomaly patterns that emerge are cooling around the North Atlantic and drier conditions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics. Newer to this compilation are more robustly-defined wetter conditions in the Southern Hemisphere tropics and regionally-limited warming in the Southern Hemisphere. Most anomalies around the globe lasted on the order of 100 to 150 yr. More quantitative reconstructions are now available and indicate cooling of 1.0 to 1.2 °C and a ~20% decrease in precipitation in parts of Europe, as well as spatial gradients in δ18O from the high to low latitudes. Unresolved questions remain about the seasonality of the climate response to freshwater forcing and the extent to which the bipolar seesaw operated in the early Holocene.

  9. Detecting small seamounts in AltiKa repeat cycle data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, K. M.; Smith, W. H. F.

    2016-12-01

    We present a technique of stacking repeat cycles of satellite altimeter sea surface height profiles that lowers the noise and improves the resolution of small seamounts. Our approach differs from other studies because it uses the median (not the mean) of the stacks, which suppresses outliers. Seamounts as small as 720 m tall are easily detected in stacked 40 Hz AltiKa data profiles, and a 500 m tall seamount is perceptible. Noise variance decreases with an increase in the number of cycles stacked, and RMS noise dips below 2 cm when 11 or more cycles are stacked. Coherence analyses between geoid height and bathymetry show that full wavelengths down to about 10 km can be resolved. Comparisons of study areas with and without seamounts find that signal from small seamounts lies in the 10-28 km waveband. A simple Gaussian band-pass filter based on the seamount waveband passes signals that can be used in seamount detection studies. Such studies may find seamounts <2 km tall that are predicted to be abundant on the ocean floor.

  10. Experimental approaches for measuring pKa's in RNA and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaplyal, Pallavi; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    RNA and DNA carry out diverse functions in biology including catalysis, splicing, gene regulation, and storage of genetic information. Interest has grown in understanding how nucleic acids perform such sophisticated functions given their limited molecular repertoire. RNA can fold into diverse shapes that often perturb pKa values and allow it to ionize appreciably under biological conditions, thereby extending its molecular diversity. The goal of this chapter is to enable experimental measurement of pKa's in RNA and DNA. A number of experimental methods for measuring pKa values in RNA and DNA have been developed over the last 10 years, including RNA cleavage kinetics; UV-, fluorescence-, and NMR-detected pH titrations; and Raman crystallography. We begin with general considerations for choosing a pKa assay and then describe experimental conditions, advantages, and disadvantages for these assays. Potential pitfalls in measuring a pKa are provided including the presence of apparent pKa's due to a kinetic pKa or coupled acid- and alkali-promoted RNA unfolding, as well as degradation of RNA, precipitation of metal hydroxides and poor baselines. Use of multiple data fitting procedures and the study of appropriate mutants are described as ways to avoid some of these pitfalls. Application of these experimental methods to RNA and DNA will increase the number of available nucleic acid pKa values in the literature, which should deepen insight into biology and provide benchmarks for pKa calculations. Future directions for measuring pKa's in nucleic acids are discussed.

  11. Ka-Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) Enabling High Speed Data Communication for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan F.; Chahat, Nacer; Hodges, Richard; Thomson, Mark W.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    CubeSats are at a very exciting point as their mission capabilities and launch opportunities are increasing. But as instruments become more advanced and operational distances between CubeSats and earth increase communication data rate becomes a mission-limiting factor. Improving data rate has become critical enough for NASA to sponsor the Cube Quest Centennial Challenge when: one of the key metrics is transmitting as much data as possible from the moon and beyond Currently, many CubeSats communicate on UHF bands and those that have high data rate abilities use S-band or X-band patch antennas. The CubeSat Aneas, which was launched in September 2012, pushed the envelope with a half-meter S-band dish which could achieve 100x the data rate of patch antennas. A half-meter parabolic antenna operating at Ka-band would increase data rates by over 100x that of the AMOS antenM and 10,000 that of X-band patch antennas.

  12. The rise and fall of Lake Bonneville between 45 and 10.5 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.; Lund, S.P.; Smoot, J.P.; Rhode, D.E.; Spencer, R.J.; Verosub, K.L.; Louderback, L.A.; Johnson, C.A.; Rye, R.O.; Negrini, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A sediment core taken from the western edge of the Bonneville Basin has provided high-resolution proxy records of relative lake-size change for the period 45.1-10.5 calendar ka (hereafter ka). Age control was provided by a paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV)-based age model for Blue Lake core BL04-4. Continuous records of ??18O and total inorganic carbon (TIC) generally match an earlier lake-level envelope based on outcrops and geomorphic features, but with differences in the timing of some hydrologic events/states. The Stansbury Oscillation was found to consist of two oscillations centered on 25 and 24 ka. Lake Bonneville appears to have reached its geomorphic highstand and began spilling at 18.5 ka. The fall from the highstand to the Provo level occurred at 17.0 ka and the lake intermittently overflowed at the Provo level until 15.2 ka, at which time the lake fell again, bottoming out at ~14.7 ka. The lake also fell briefly below the Provo level at ~15.9 ka. Carbonate and ??18O data indicate that between 14.7 and 13.1 ka the lake slowly rose to the Gilbert shoreline and remained at about that elevation until 11.6 ka, when it fell again. Chemical and sedimentological data indicate that a marsh formed in the Blue Lake area at 10.5 ka.Relatively dry periods in the BL04-4 records are associated with Heinrich events H1-H4, suggesting that either the warming that closely followed a Heinrich event increased the evaporation rate in the Bonneville Basin and (or) that the core of the polar jet stream (PJS) shifted north of the Bonneville Basin in response to massive losses of ice from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the Heinrich event. The second Stansbury Oscillation occurred during Heinrich event H2, and the Gilbert wet event occurred during the Younger Dryas cold interval. Several relatively wet events in BL04-4 occur during Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) warm events.The growth of the Bear River glacier between 32 and 17 ka paralleled changes in the values of proxy

  13. Cyclone Xaver seen by SARAL/AltiKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharroo, Remko; Fenoglio, Luciana; Annunziato, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    During the first week of December 2013, Cyclone Xaver pounded the coasts and the North Sea. On 6 December, all along the Wadden Sea, the barrier islands along the north of the Netherlands and the northwest of Germany experienced record storm surges. We show a comparison of the storm surge measured by the radar altimeter AltiKa on-board the SARAL satellite and various types of in-situ data and models. Two tide gauges along the German North Sea coast, one in the southern harbour of the island of Helgoland and one on an offshore lighthouse Alte Weser, confirmed that the storm drove sea level to about three meters above the normal tide level. Loading effects during the storm are also detected by the GPS measurements at several tide gauge stations. The altimeter in the mean time shows that the storm surge was noticeable as far as 400 km from the coast. The altimeter measured wind speeds of 20 m/s nearly monotonically throughout the North Sea. An offshore anemometer near the island of Borkum corroborated this value. A buoy near the FINO1 offshore platform measured wave heights of 8 m, matching quite well the measurements from the altimeter, ranging from 6 m near the German coast to 12 m further out into the North Sea. Furthermore we compare the altimeter-derived and in-situ sea level, wave height and wind speed products with outputs from the Operation Circulation and Forecast model of the Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) and with a global storm surge forecast and inundation model of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. The Operational circulation model of BSH (BSHcmod) and its component, the surge model (BSHsmod), perform daily predictions for the next 72 hours based on the meteorological model of the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD). The JRC Storm Surge Calculation System is a new development that has been established at the JRC in the framework of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS). The system uses

  14. Resilient FTS3 service at GridKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, T.; Bubeliene, J.; Hoeft, B.; Obholz, L.; Petzold, A.; Wisniewski, K.

    2015-12-01

    The FTS (File Transfer Service) service provides a transfer job scheduler to distribute and replicate vast amounts of data over the heterogeneous WLCG infrastructures. Compared to the channel model of the previous versions, the most recent version of FTS simplifies and improves the flexibility of the service while reducing the load to the service components. The improvements allow to handle a higher number of transfers with a single FTS3 setup. Covering now continent-wide transfers compared to the previous version, whose installations handled only transfers within specific clouds, a resilient system becomes even more necessary with the increased number of depending users. Having set up a FTS3 services at the German T1 site GridKa at KIT in Karlsruhe, we present our experiences on the preparations for a high-availability FTS3 service. Trying to avoid single points of failure, we rely on a database cluster as fault tolerant data back-end and the FTS3 service deployed on an own cluster setup to provide a resilient infrastructure for the users. With the database cluster providing a basic resilience for the data back-end, we ensure on the FTS3 service level a consistent and reliable database access through a proxy solution. On each FTS3 node a HAproxy instance is monitoring the integrity of each database node and distributes database queries over the whole cluster for load balancing during normal operations; in case of a broken database node, the proxy excludes it transparently to the local FTS3 service. The FTS3 service itself consists of a main and a backup instance, which takes over the identity of the main instance, i.e., IP, in case of an error using a CTDB (Cluster Trivial Database) infrastructure offering clients a consistent service.

  15. The intrinsic line width of the Fe Ka line of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiren

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescent lines are unique features of the reflection spectrum of the cold torus when irradiated by the central AGN. Their intrinsic line widths can be used to probe the line-emitting region. The line widths of the Fe \\Ka line measured from the first order Chandra High Energy Grating (HEG) spectra are $3-5$ times larger than those measured with the Si \\Ka line for Circinus, Mrk 3, and NGC 1068. Because the observed Si \\Ka and Fe \\Ka lines are not necessarily coming from the same physical region, it is uncertain whether the line widths of the Fe \\Ka line are over-estimated or not. We measured the intrinsic line widths of the Fe \\Ka line of several nearby bright AGN using the second and third order Chandra HEG spectra, whose spectral resolutions are better than the first order data. We found the measured widths are all smaller than those from the first order data. The results clearly show that the widths of the Fe \\Ka line measured from the first order HEG data are over-estimated. It indicates that the ...

  16. The Potential for a Ka-band (32 GHz) Worldwide VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bach, U.; Colomer, F.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.; Gulyaev, S.; Horiuchi, S.; Ichikawa, R.; Kraus, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, J. A.; Lovell, J.; Majid, W.; Natusch, T.; Neidhardt, A.; Phillips, C.; Porcas, R.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Saldana, L.; Schreiber, U.; Sotuela, I.; Takeuchi, H.; Trinh, J.; Tzioumis, A.; deVincente, P.

    2012-01-01

    Ka-band (32 GHz, 9mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) networking has now begun and has tremendous potential for expansion over the next few years. Ka-band VLBI astrometry from NASA's Deep Space Network has already developed a catalog of 470 observable sources with highly accurate positions. Now, several antennas worldwide are planning or are considering adding Ka-band VLBI capability. Thus, there is now an opportunity to create a worldwide Ka-band network with potential for high resolution imaging and astrometry. With baselines approaching a Giga-lambda, a Ka-band network would be able to probe source structure at the nano-radian (200 as) level ( 100X better than Hubble) and thus gain insight into the astrophysics of the most compact regions of emission in active galactic nuclei. We discuss the advantages of Ka-band, show the known sources and candidates, simulate projected baseline (uv) coverage, and discuss potential radio frequency feeds. The combination of these elements demonstrates the feasibility of a worldwide Ka network within the next few years!

  17. Studying NASA's Transition to Ka-Band Communications for Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard; Mortensen, Dale; Welch, Bryan; Downey, Joseph; Evans, Mike

    2014-01-01

    As the S-band spectrum becomes crowded, future space missions will need to consider moving command and telemetry services to Ka-band. NASAs Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed provides a software-defined radio (SDR) platform that is capable of supporting investigation of this service transition. The testbed contains two S-band SDRs and one Ka-band SDR. Over the past year, SCaN Testbed has demonstrated Ka-band communications capabilities with NASAs Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) using both open- and closed-loop antenna tracking profiles. A number of technical areas need to be addressed for successful transition to Ka-band. The smaller antenna beamwidth at Ka-band increases the criticality of antenna pointing, necessitating closed loop tracking algorithms and new techniques for received power estimation. Additionally, the antenna pointing routines require enhanced knowledge of spacecraft position and attitude for initial acquisition, versus an S-band antenna. Ka-band provides a number of technical advantages for bulk data transfer. Unlike at S-band, a larger bandwidth may be available for space missions, allowing increased data rates. The potential for high rate data transfer can also be extended for direct-to-ground links through use of variable or adaptive coding and modulation. Specific examples of Ka-band research from SCaN Testbeds first year of operation will be cited, such as communications link performance with TDRSS, and the effects of truss flexure on antenna pointing.

  18. The Potential for a Ka-band (32 GHz) Worldwide VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bach, U.; Colomer, F.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.; Gulyaev, S.; Horiuchi, S.; Ichikawa, R.; Kraus, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Ka-band (32 GHz, 9mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) networking has now begun and has tremendous potential for expansion over the next few years. Ka-band VLBI astrometry from NASA's Deep Space Network has already developed a catalog of 470 observable sources with highly accurate positions. Now, several antennas worldwide are planning or are considering adding Ka-band VLBI capability. Thus, there is now an opportunity to create a worldwide Ka-band network with potential for high resolution imaging and astrometry. With baselines approaching a Giga-lambda, a Ka-band network would be able to probe source structure at the nano-radian (200 as) level ( 100X better than Hubble) and thus gain insight into the astrophysics of the most compact regions of emission in active galactic nuclei. We discuss the advantages of Ka-band, show the known sources and candidates, simulate projected baseline (uv) coverage, and discuss potential radio frequency feeds. The combination of these elements demonstrates the feasibility of a worldwide Ka network within the next few years!

  19. Tephrochronology of a 70 ka-long marine record in the Marsili Basin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrino, S.; Insinga, D. D.; Pelosi, N.; Kissel, C.; Laj, C.; Capotondi, L.; Sprovieri, M.

    2016-11-01

    A sequence of tephra layers is studied in a 13.9 m-long deep-sea core (MD01-2474G) from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The chronology of the succession is provided by a high-resolution age-depth model based on isotope stratigraphy and AMS radiocarbon dating, which place the succession of events in a time interval spanning the last 70 ka. Based on a precise chronological framework and proximal-distal correlations, the Y-1, Y-6 and Y-7 main marker tephras were identified. Compositional data on fresh micro-pumice or glass shards of selected tephras were correlated with the coeval volcanic activity of Aeolian Arc (Vulcano and Salina), Mt. Etna, Phlegrean Fields Pantelleria and Ischia. The tephra sequence contains a number of deposits documenting recurrent activity on Vulcano Island at ca. 6.9 ka BP (MD3), ca. 16.7 ka BP (MD11), ca. 23.2 ka BP (MD14), ca. 29.6 ka BP (MD15), ca. 36.9 ka BP (MD22) and ca. 42.5 ka BP (MD27). The results presented in this study improve the southern Tyrrhenian Sea tephrostratigraphic framework and provide new insights into chemistry and dispersal area of Aeolian Arc pyroclastic deposits in this sector of the Central Mediterranean.

  20. Historical review of bryological research in Fruška Gora Mt. (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Miloš M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruška Gora is a mountain located in the southern part of Pannonian plane and it is poorly bryologicaly investigated as well as most parts of Serbia. First data on bryophytes, for this region, were published in 1949 by Teodor Soška in his paper Pregled mahovina i lišajeva u okolini Beograda (Review of mosses and lichens in the vicinity of Belgrade. Soška listed 34 species of mosses and 8 liverworts species for this region. Later, in 1955, Zlatko Pavletić in his capital work Prodromus flore briofita Jugoslavije (Prodromus of Yugoslavian bryophyte flora, stated 26 moss species and 3 liverwort species, without indicating specific localities, but all of them were Soška’s original results. In 1966, the second botanist with original findings of bryophytes on Fruška Gora was Popović, who recorded 2 liverwort and 19 moss species, for this mountain, also without specific localities. By far, the most comprehensive data were given by Cvetić and Sabovljević in 2004. Their study A contribution to the bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora (Vojvodina, Serbia counted total number of 118 mosses and 14 liverworts, on 16 localities within National park Fruška Gora. The latest study on bryophytes of Fruška Gora was in 2013, and it is the first and so far, the last study of bryophyte assemblages on grasslands. Authors of this paper recorded 18 species of mosses from 29 releveé. Complete bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora is still unknown. Considering the fact that this is the region with high biodiversity, dense hydrological network and a rather complex geology, Fruška Gora certainly deserves further bryological researches.

  1. A Novel Ku-Band/Ka-Band and Ka-Band/E-Band Multimode Waveguide Couplers for Power Measurement of Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Harmonic Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler, fabricated from two dissimilar frequency band waveguides, is capable of isolating power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifier. Test results from proof-of-concept demonstrations are presented for a Ku-band/Ka-band MDC and a Ka-band/E-band MDC. In addition to power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a satellite borne beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies (Ka-band and E-band).

  2. Ka-mixing in the unimolecular dissociation of NO 2 studied by classical dynamics calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenshchikov, S. Yu; Flöthmann, H.; Schinke, R.; Bezel, I.; Wittig, C.; Kato, S.

    1998-03-01

    Coriolis and centrifugal vibration-rotation coupling in the unimolecular dissociation of ground electronic state NO 2 has been examined by using classical trajectories. The time evolution of the projection Ka of the rotational angular momentum N in a body-fixed frame is analyzed. The main result is a relation between the decomposition lifetime and the degree of Ka-mixing. For example, less than 30% of the available Ka space becomes populated for an average lifetime of 5 ps. This is consistent with the conclusions, based on time-resolved experiments, that rotation-vibration transfer is slower than reaction except just above the threshold.

  3. Pra Na Wa Ka: The Development of Training Course for Continuing Buddhism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phra M.P. Romphothanthong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buddhism is a religion that requires meditation, practice, intellectual precepts of the threefold-training such as morality, concentration and wisdom. The purpose of practicing Buddhism is the goal of deliverance through attaining knowledge and wisdom. The Pra Na Wa Ka are newly ordained monks and needed to study both of the scriptures and the practice for appreciating understanding in morality, concentration and wisdom. A training model and guidelines are needed to improve the quality and efficiency of Pra Na Wa Ka because currently most of the monks who are the teachers lacked knowledge and are not ready to act as the Pra Na Wa Ka teacher, because lack of the teaching media, lack of the proper knowledge of the teacher vocational, the lesson plan arrangement, the psychology of teaching, lack of technique variety of teaching methods. Most of the temple had no education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka who ordained in short-term, within 3 days 7 days 15 days or to one month, lack of the short period course to study about Buddhism, the Pra Na Wa Ka cannot accurately recite the Pali words, the Pra Na Wa Ka who were ordained were not motivated and faithful in learning and low morality. Approach: This research intended to study the history of the education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka (Newly ordained monk and to study about the problems and need of the Pra Na Wa Ka in knowledge about Buddhism and to develop the curriculum and the training package of the Pra Na Wa Ka in Buddhism. Results: The Pra Na Wa Ka traing course is a curriculum to study Buddhism through 3 training courses; (1 Basic Course: 3 days for initiation 7 days, (2 Intermediate course 7 days for initiation 15 days and (3 Long period course 15 days for initiation more than 30 days. The training courses were accompanied by a training kit to understand the main precepts of morality, concentration and wisdom. The curriculum was successful in providing Pra Na Wa Ka

  4. A Ka-band (32 GHz) beacon link experiment (KABLE) with Mars Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, A. L.; Hansen, D. M.; Mileant, A.; Hartop, R. W.

    1987-02-01

    A proposal for a Ka-Band (32 GHz) Link Experiment (KABLE) with the Mars Observer mission was submitted to NASA. The experiment will rely on the fourth harmonic of the spacecraft X-band transmitter to generate a 33.6 GHz signal. The experiment will rely also on the Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving station equipped to simultaneously receive X- and Ka-band signals. The experiment will accurately measure the spacecraft-to-Earth telecommunication link performance at Ka-band and X-band (8.4 GHz).

  5. Effect of methylation on the side-chain pKa value of arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evich, Marina; Stroeva, Ekaterina; Zheng, Yujun George; Germann, Markus W

    2016-02-01

    Arginine methylation is important in biological systems. Recent studies link the deregulation of protein arginine methyltransferases with certain cancers. To assess the impact of methylation on interaction with other biomolecules, the pKa values of methylated arginine variants were determined using NMR data. The pKa values of monomethylated, symmetrically dimethylated, and asymmetrically dimethylated arginine are similar to the unmodified arginine (14.2 ± 0.4). Although the pKa value has not been significantly affected by methylation, consequences of methylation include changes in charge distribution and steric effects, suggesting alternative mechanisms for recognition. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  6. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  7. Tänane heategevuskontsert toetab ka Kiigemetsa kooli / Vaike Käosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käosaar, Vaike

    2007-01-01

    Heategevuskontserdist "Ma olen eriline" Põltsamaa lossihoovis, kus esinevad mitmed Eestimaa tuntud muusikud ja mille tulusid kasutatakse samasuguse pealkirjaga raamatu kirjastamise toetuseks, et aidata peresid, kus kasvab autistlikke lapsi ning Kiigemetsa Kooli, kus õpetatakse teiste seas ka autismipuudega lapsi

  8. Elektrit võivad suuremad tarbijad ka ise toota / Monica Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Monica, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Koostootmisjaamas ehk kombijõujaamas toodetakse samaaegselt nii elektrit kui ka sooja. Vt. samas: Võimalikel kasutajatel napib teadmisi. Lisad: Elektri, soojuse ja külma koostootmine; Koostootmisjaam on töökindel

  9. Euroopa Liit annab arenguabi ka voodoo sünnimaale / Irma Kaljulaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljulaid, Irma

    2010-01-01

    4. märtsil Togos toimunud presidendivalimistest, kus oli kohal ka Euroopa Liidu vaatluskomisjon. Euroopa Liidu ja Togo vahelisi suhteid reguleerib peamiselt 2000. aastal sõlmitud Cotonou leping. Üldised andmed

  10. Riik plaanib haiglatele anda õiguse ka arstirohtu müüa / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 31. märts lk. 3. Riik tahab anda haiglatele õiguse pidada jaemüügirohupoode, selle kava vastu on aga konkureerivad apteegiketid, konkurentsi- ja ravimiamet. Lisa: Ketistunud apteegiturg

  11. Carbonate and carbon fluctuations in the Eastern Arabian Sea over 140 ka: Implications on productivity changes?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Naidu, P.D.; Haake, B.G.; Schiebel, R.

    orientation. ARTICLE IN PRESS Table1 Core depth, age, stable oxygen isotope data, linear sedimenta- tion rate (LSR), and calcite and organic carbon concentration ofsedimentcoreSL-1 Depth (cm) Age (kaBP) d 18 O (%) LSR (cm/ka) CaCO 3 (%) C org (%) 1 0.49 47....96 0.50 225 44.00 30.85 0.38 230 45.00 C00.49 5.02 33.34 0.49 235 45.99 32.38 0.73 240 46.99 C00.24 5.02 38.10 0.56 Table1(continued) Depth (cm) Age (kaBP) d 18 O (%) LSR (cm/ka) CaCO 3 (%) C org (%) 245 47.98 45.24 0.48 250 48.98 C00.50 5.02 45.10 0...

  12. Design and Validation of High Date Rate Ka-Band Software Defined Radio for Small Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The Design and Validation of High Date Rate Ka- Band Software Defined Radio for Small Satellite project will develop a novel Ka-band software defined radio (SDR) that is capable of establishing high data rate inter-satellite links with a throughput of 500 megabits per second (Mb/s) and providing millimeter ranging precision. The system will be designed to operate with high performance and reliability that is robust against various interference effects and network anomalies. The Ka-band radio resulting from this work will improve upon state of the art Ka-band radios in terms of dimensional size, mass and power dissipation, which limit their use in small satellites.

  13. High Performance Ka-band Phase Shifters for Space Telecommunications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel MEMS-based digital phase shifter targeted for Ka-band operation, but scalable down to X-band and up to W-band. This novel phase shifter will...

  14. Eurotsoon kaasas Kreeka päästmiseks ka IMFi / Jürgen Tamme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamme, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Euroala liidrid Prantsusmaa president Nicolaz Sarkozy ja Saksamaa kantsler Angela Merkel jõudsid kokkuleppele Kreekale kahepoolsete laenude andmises, kuid ka Rahvusvahelise Valuutafondi kaasamises, kui võlakriisis Kreeka valitsus selleks soovi avaldab

  15. MMIC for High-Efficiency Ka-BAnd GaN Power Amplifiers (2007043) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the need for high-efficiency, high-output power amplifiers operating in the Ka-band frequencies. For space communications, the power...

  16. Venezia filmifestivali punane vaip ootab tänavu ka eestlasi / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti mängufilm "Sügisball" (režissöör Veiko Õunpuu, produtsent Katrin Kissa) esilinastub 7. septembril Venezia 64. filmifestivali konkursiprogrammis Orizzonti. Ka teistest võistlevatest filmidest

  17. Soft switching (ZVZCS) high current, low voltage modular power converter (13 kA, 16 V)

    CERN Document Server

    Bordry, Frederick; Thiesen, H

    2001-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the next accelerator being constructed at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). The superconducting LHC particle accelerator requires high currents (13 kA) and relatively low voltages (16 V) for its magnets. This paper describes the development and the production of a (13 kA, 16 V) power converter. The converter is made with a modular concept with five current sources (3.25 kA, 16 V) in parallel. The 3.25 kA sources are built as plug-in modules: a diode rectifier on the AC mains, a zero voltage zero current switching (ZVZCS) inverter working at 25 k Hz and an output stage. The obtained performance is presented and discussed. (6 refs).

  18. Riik plaanib haiglatele anda õiguse ka arstirohtu müüa / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 31. märts lk. 3. Riik tahab anda haiglatele õiguse pidada jaemüügirohupoode, selle kava vastu on aga konkureerivad apteegiketid, konkurentsi- ja ravimiamet. Lisa: Ketistunud apteegiturg

  19. Test results of 12/18 kA ReBCO coated conductor current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, I. A.; Surin, M. I.; Naumov, A. V.; Novikov, M. S.; Novikov, S. I.; Ilin, A. A.; Polyakov, A. V.; Scherbakov, V. I.; Shutova, D. I.

    2017-07-01

    A pair of hybrid current leads (brass + stacked & soldered ReBCO tapes) rated for 12 kA in steady state and for up to 18 kA at pulsed over current conditions was designed, developed and tested at NRC ;Kurchatov Institute; (NRC ;KI;). During the experiment at LN2 temperature, the current leads (CLs) were successfully charged with 18 kA at 100 A/s ramp rate. To date, as far as we know, this is the highest current capacity achieved for 2G HTS current leads. The feasibility of ;stack-and-soldering technique; for 10 kA+ class coated conductor CLs for accelerators and fusion was demonstrated. This paper gives an overview of the leads design and presents the preliminary test results. Detailed studies of magnetic properties and current sharing process for the stacked and staggered HTS joints are also reported.

  20. Tänane heategevuskontsert toetab ka Kiigemetsa kooli / Vaike Käosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käosaar, Vaike

    2007-01-01

    Heategevuskontserdist "Ma olen eriline" Põltsamaa lossihoovis, kus esinevad mitmed Eestimaa tuntud muusikud ja mille tulusid kasutatakse samasuguse pealkirjaga raamatu kirjastamise toetuseks, et aidata peresid, kus kasvab autistlikke lapsi ning Kiigemetsa Kooli, kus õpetatakse teiste seas ka autismipuudega lapsi

  1. CIA võis lennutada ja hoida vange ka Euroopa idaosas / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2006-01-01

    Amnesty Internationali raportis antakse ülevaade kolme vahistatud Jeemeni mehe kogetust aastatel 2003-2005. Meeste tunnistustest järeldab Amnesty, et neid hoiti kinni ka Ida-Euroopas. Lisa: Kolme Jeemeni mehe tunnistused

  2. Computational chemical analysis of unconjugated bilirubin anions and insights into pKa values clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Hissi, Esteban G.; Estrada, Mario R.; Lavecchia, Martín J.; Pis Diez, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    The pKa, the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation equilibrium constant, of the carboxylic acid groups of unconjugated bilirubin in water is a discussed issue because there are quite different experimental values reported. Using quantum mechanical calculations we have studied the conformational behavior of unconjugated bilirubin species (in gas phase and in solution modeled implicitly and explicitly) to provide evidence that may clarify pKa values because of its pathophysiological relevance. Our results show that rotation of carboxylate group, which is not restricted, settles it in a suitable place to establish stronger interactions that stabilizes the monoanion and the dianion to be properly solvated, demonstrating that the rationalization used to justify the high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin is inappropriate. Furthermore, low unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) pKa values were estimated from a linear regression analysis.

  3. Ku/Ka/W-band Antenna for Electronically-Scanned Cloud and Precipitation Radar Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of the key antenna technologies for Tri-band (Ku/Ka/W), scanning precipitation and cloud radar is a required milestone in preparation for one or more...

  4. Advances in Ka-Band Communication System for CubeSats and SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed that evaluated the feasibility of Ka-band communication system to provide CubeSat/SmallSat high rate science data downlink with ground antennas ranging from the small portable 1.2m/2.4m to apertures 5.4M, 7.3M, 11M, and 18M, for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar CubeSat missions. This study included link analysis to determine the data rate requirement, based on the current TRL of Ka-band flight hardware and ground support infrastructure. Recent advances in Ka-band transceivers and antennas, options of portable ground stations, and various coverage distances were included in the analysis. The link/coverage analysis results show that Cubesat/Smallsat missions communication requirements including frequencies and data rates can be met by utilizing Near Earth Network (NEN) Ka-band support with 2 W and high gain (>6 dBi) antennas.

  5. Solid State KA-Band, Solid State W-Band and TWT Amplifiers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I of the proposal describes plans to develop a state of the art transmitter for the W-Band and KA -Band Cloud Radar system. Our focus will be concentrated in...

  6. High Performance Ka Band Power Amplifiers for Future EVA Radio Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, AlphaSense, Inc. and the University of Washington detail the development of a novel, high performance Ka band power amplifier for EVA radio...

  7. Venezia filmifestivali punane vaip ootab tänavu ka eestlasi / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti mängufilm "Sügisball" (režissöör Veiko Õunpuu, produtsent Katrin Kissa) esilinastub 7. septembril Venezia 64. filmifestivali konkursiprogrammis Orizzonti. Ka teistest võistlevatest filmidest

  8. Potential for Paragliding Tourism Development in Niška Banja (South Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Pavić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People today pay attention more on their health and because of that sports tourism becomes more popular. Especially popular segment of sports tourism is adventure sports including paragliding which has a special place. Tourist product of Niška Banja, as one of more visited tourism destination in Serbia, is mostly based on its health function. In the first part of this paper it is presented touristic valorisation of Niška Banja using criteria recommended form World Tourism Organization. In the second part of this paper it is used marketing mix as a tool for creating potential tourism product Paragliding weekend in Niška Banja. The aim of this paper is to show how the tourism offers of Niška Banja can be diversified using a new integrated product and how the touristic value can be increased.

  9. Uusim tehnika annab säästu ka maasoojuspumpades / Lauri Lehtinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtinen, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    Õhksoojuspumpadega tuntust kogunud inverter- ehk sagedusmuunduriga kompressortehnikat kasutatakse ka uue põlvkonna maasoojuspumpades. Tootjate sõnul annab invertertehnika varasemate seadmetega võrreldes umbes 10–15% kokkuhoidu

  10. High-power X- and Ka-band Gallium Nitride Amplifiers with Exceptional Efficiency Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Achieving very high-power amplification with maximum efficiency at X- and Ka-band is challenging using solid-state technology. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) has been the...

  11. Tšernobõl mõjutab ka praegu sündivaid lapsi / Marek Laane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laane, Marek, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Nõrk radioaktiivsus mõjutab tugevasti inimese pärilikkusainet DNA, tekitades muutusi ka kiiritada saanute lastes, leidsid Tšernobõli tuumakatastroofi likvidaatoreid uurinud Ukraina ja Iisraeli teadlased

  12. Indrek Saar tegutseb ka Kuressaare teatris / Indrek Saar ; interv. Aarne Mäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Indrek, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Rakvere Teatri direktor kuulub ka Kuressare Linnateatri loomenõukogusse. Muljeid H. Hoffmanni-J. Crouchi-P. McDermotti muusikalist "Kolumats" (lavastaja Ch. Römer) Kuressaare teatrilaval koostöös VAT Teatriga

  13. Haabersti tulistaja laskis inimeste pihta ka Ida-Virumaal / Erik Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Erik, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 13. sept. lk. 1. Tallinnas Haabersti linnaosavalitsuses tulirelvast sotsiaalhoolekande osakonna juhatajat Tatjana Sarzanovat raskelt haavanud Vladimirit on politsei juba 10 päeva otsinud sugulase tulistamise pärast Ida-Virumaal

  14. Kahtlustatavate ringi lisandus ka K-Projekt / Kadri Paas, Kadri Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna transpordiameti liikluskorralduse osakonna juhataja Vello Lõugase kriminaalasja raames sai pistiseandmise kahtlustuse ka K-Projekt ja selle suuromanik Rein Annusver. Läbi otsiti Tallinna liikluskorraldaja Mati Songisepa kodu ja töökoht

  15. Uusim tehnika annab säästu ka maasoojuspumpades / Lauri Lehtinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtinen, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    Õhksoojuspumpadega tuntust kogunud inverter- ehk sagedusmuunduriga kompressortehnikat kasutatakse ka uue põlvkonna maasoojuspumpades. Tootjate sõnul annab invertertehnika varasemate seadmetega võrreldes umbes 10–15% kokkuhoidu

  16. NASA's Evolution to Ka-Band Space Communications for Near-Earth Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Stocklin, Frank; Geldzahler, Barry; Friedman, Daniel; Celeste, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the exploration of NASA using a Ka-band system for spacecraft communications in Near-Earth orbits. The reasons for changing to Ka-band are the higher data rates, and the current (X-band spectrum) is becoming crowded. This will require some modification to the current ground station antennas systems. The results of a Request for Information (RFI) are discussed, and the recommended solution is reviewed.

  17. Ka küberkurjategijaid köidab ennekõike raha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi Menedzhment : infovõpusk nr. 20 dets. lk. 7. Riskijuhtimise aastakonverentsil rõhutas siseministeeriumi sisejulgeoleku asekantsler Erkki Koort, et küberhaavatavat infrastruktuuri tuleb kaitsta ühtaegu nii virtuaalse kui ka füüsilise rünnaku vastu. Lisa: Küberhaavatava kriitilise infrastruktuuri nimekiri. Vt. samas: Küberkaitses vajab täpsustamist erasektori roll; Igaüks õpib enda vigadest; Eesti on terroriohu osas ääremaa

  18. Test results on prototype 50-kA conductors for tokamak induction heating coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J.J.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Turck, B.

    1979-01-01

    Fabricability of a very large, 50-kA superconducting cable has been demonstrated. Test results of critical current and stability measurements are presented. The design critical current of 55 kA at 7 T was met. The recovery current was degraded as a result of the expectedly poor insulation system. Energy loss measurements on prototype advanced mixed matrix conductors, which will be incorporated into a second prototype cable, are presented.

  19. REAL-TIME FADE MITIGATION USING RADIOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS FOR FUTURE KA-BAND SERVICES AT DLR.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Due to the congestion of popular C- and Ku-band frequencies, the satellite communication systems are rapidly moving toward the higher frequencies. Most of the commercial communication satellites in the near future will operate Ka-band transponders. One of the inevitable part of such systems are ground stations which support In-Orbit-testing and the traffic routine for the satellites. The main problem at Ka-band link planning is the link availability reduction due to rain fade and scintillatio...

  20. Progress in the prediction of pKa values in proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexov, Emil; Mehler, Ernest L.; Baker, Nathan A.; Baptista, Antonio; Huang, Yong; Milletti, Francesca; Nielsen, Jens E.; Farrell, Damien; Carstensen, Tommy; Olsson, Mats H.; Shen, Jana K.; Warwicker, Jim; Williams, Sarah; Word, J Michael

    2011-12-15

    The pKa-cooperative aims to provide a forum for experimental and theoretical researchers interested in protein pKa values and protein electrostatics in general. The first round of the pKa -cooperative, which challenged computational labs to carry out blind predictions against pKas experimentally determined in the laboratory of Bertrand Garcia-Moreno, was completed and results discussed at the Telluride meeting (July 6-10, 2009). This paper serves as an introduction to the reports submitted by the blind prediction participants that will be published in a special issue of PROTEINS: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics. Here we briefly outline existing approaches for pKa calculations, emphasizing methods that were used by the participants in calculating the blind pKa values in the first round of the cooperative. We then point out some of the difficulties encountered by the participating groups in making their blind predictions, and finally try to provide some insights for future developments aimed at improving the accuracy of pKa calculations.

  1. The GridKa Tier-1 Computing Center within the ALICE Grid Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, WooJin J.; Christopher, Jung; Heiss, Andreas; Petzold, Andreas; Schwarz, Kilian

    2014-06-01

    The GridKa computing center, hosted by Steinbuch Centre for Computing at the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany, is serving as the largest Tier-1 center used by the ALICE collaboration at the LHC. In 2013, GridKa provides 30k HEPSPEC06, 2.7 PB of disk space, and 5.25 PB of tape storage to ALICE. The 10Gbit/s network connections from GridKa to CERN, several Tier-1 centers and the general purpose network are used by ALICE intensively. In 2012 a total amount of ~1 PB was transferred to and from GridKa. As Grid framework, AliEn (ALICE Environment) is being used to access the resources, and various monitoring tools including the MonALISA (MONitoring Agent using a Large Integrated Services Architecture) are always running to alert in case of any problem. GridKa on-call engineers provide 24/7 support to guarantee minimal loss of availability of computing and storage resources in case of hardware or software problems. We introduce the GridKa Tier-1 center from the viewpoint of ALICE services.

  2. Changes in the content of eolian iron during the past 900 ka and the implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Jianjing; GUO Zhengtang

    2003-01-01

    In this study, total Fe2O3 content (Fet) in two parallel sections fromthe central Loess Plateau (Xifeng and Changwu) is analyzed to address the variations of eolian iron in the past 900 ka. The obtained timeseries indicate that Fet values in some glacial intervals are comparable to that of interglacial periods and its oscillations do not generally correspond to the long-term glacial-interglacial changes. Rather, it exhibits higher frequency fluctuations without detectable 100 ka period, but with a strong 20 ka period and a clear 40 ka period. The combination of 20 ka and 40 ka periods suggest that eolian iron content was relatively independent of glacial-interglacial changes, but more strongly influenced by the insolation changes in the northern hemisphere. Higher iron content was observed for the S5-1 soil that is correlative to marine δ 18O stage 13. In marine records, this stage is characterized by higher δ 13C values, suggesting that the event is of global significance.

  3. Earth as diode: monsoon source of the orbital ~100 ka climate cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A potential source for Earth's enigmatic ~100 ka climate cycle, which is found in many ancient geological records at low latitudes and also in the pacing of glaciation during the late Pleistocene, is traced to a climatic rectifying process inherent in the monsoon. Seasonal information needed to identify the rectifying mechanism is preserved within varves of a continuous, 200 ka recording of annual maximum surface temperature (Tmax from the equator of Western Pangea. Specific seasonal reactions recorded in varves show how the monsoon reacted to seasonal differences in insolation at equinox to produce a 11.7 ka semi-precession cycle in Tmax. At solstice, anti-phasing of insolation in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, intensified and focused by a highly asymmetric Pangea relative to the equator, produced a strong equatorial maritime monsoon that performed a nonlinear rectifying function similar to that of a simple rectifying diode. Expressed in the resulting varve series are substantial cycles in Tmax of 100 ka, 23.4 ka, and 11.7 ka. Importantly, any external or internal forcing of the tropical (monsoon climate system at higher-than-orbital frequencies (e.g. solar, ENSO should also be amplified at Milankovitch frequencies by the monsoon.

  4. Interpretation and preliminary simulation of the 40 ka periodicity of the Quaternary glaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nan; CHEN Xing

    2007-01-01

    More and more proxy records approved that the periodicity of the glacial cycles is about 40 ka before MPT (middle Pleistocene transition) as early as late Tertiary from 3.0 Ma to 0.9 Ma, whereas it changes to about 100 ka after MPT.Summer insolation at high latitude in Northern Hemisphere, usually considered as the main external force for the ice age, is dominated by the 23 ka precession period, which does not match the period of the glacial cycles.In this paper, we define an energy index C and its threshold Ct that indicate the net energy supply and the overall response of the climate system.The difference between these two parameters determines whether the ice sheet melts or not, and accordingly the start and termination of the interglacial stages, as well as the periodicity of glacial oscillations.Based on the energy threshold hypothesis, the preliminary simulation experiments are made to test the period of the glacial cycles and driven factors from a conceptual model.The results indicate that energy index C and threshold Ct can interpret not only the 40 ka periodicity before MPT, but also the quasi-100 ka periodicity after MPT to some extent, and the 40 ka is the basic period of the glacial cycles, which discloses the inherent continuity of climatic change before and after MPT.

  5. A Ka-band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. E.; García-Miró, C.; Horiuchi, S.; Sotuela, I.

    2011-10-01

    The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of ~200 micro-arcsec (μas) in α cos δ and ~300 μas in δ. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 μas level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.

  6. A Ka-Band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. Eric; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Sotuela, Ioana

    2011-01-01

    The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of approximately 200 micro-arcsec in alpha cos(delta) and approximately 300 micro-arcsec in delta. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 micro-arcsec level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.

  7. Active Galactic Nuclei and the Truncation of Star Formation in K+A Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael J I; Caldwell, Nelson; Palamara, David; Cool, Richard J; Dey, Arjun; Hickox, Ryan; Jannuzi, Buell T; Murray, Stephen S; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We have searched for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in K+A galaxies, using multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopy in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. The K+A galaxies, which have had their star formation rapidly truncated, are selected via their strong Balmer absorption lines and weak H-alpha emission. Our sample consists of 24 K+A galaxies selected from 6594 0.10K+A galaxies are likely ongoing galaxy mergers, with nearby companion galaxies or tidal tails. Galaxy mergers may be responsible for the truncation of star formation, or we are observing the aftermath of merger triggered starbursts. As expected, the optical colors of K+A galaxies largely fall between blue galaxies with ongoing star formation and red passive galaxies. However, only 1% of the galaxies with colors between the red and blue populations are K+A galaxies, and we conclude that the truncation of ...

  8. 5 ka BP event in monsoonal China%我国季风区5 ka BP气候事件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 谭亮成; 安芷生

    2016-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope A lot of studies suggested the Holocene climate change had played an important role in the evolution of the Neolithic cultures around the world. During the Holocene, there were a series of abrupt climate changes. One of the abrupt events occurred around~5 ka BP, which signiifcantly changed the environment of many regions over the world. Because this event occurred before the dawn of civilization, it had caused important inlfuences on human society. In this paper, we reviewed the recently published high-resolution, absolutely-dated speleothem and limnological records from different regions of monsoonal China, which had recorded hydrological changes during the 5 ka BP event period. We further discussed its impacts on the Neolithic culture of China, as well as the driving mechanisms.Materials and methods We divided the monsoonal China into Northeast China, North China, Central China, East China, South China, Southwest China and the Tibetan Plateau. We compared the hydrological changes in different regions of monsoonal China, by using recent published high-resolution, absoluted dated records.Results We suggested the monsoonal China, from the north to the south, had experienced dry climate during this event. The dry event was most signiifcantly recorded in North China, Northeast China and Tibetan Plateau. It began at 5.6—5.5 ka BP, reaching to the driest at ~5.0 ka BP, and then the precipitation rapidly recovered. Stalagmite record from Central China also showed similar result with North China. There was also cold and dry climate in Southwest China during the period of 5.5—4.8 ka BP. In South China, notably dry climate was observed in 5.5—5.0 ka BP. It seems there was imprint of 5 ka BP event in East China, although it’s hard to determine the exact timing, because of low resolutions and poor age controls of the published records. The extreme dry climate had played an important role on the evolution of Chinese Neolithic culture. The

  9. Rationalization of the pKa values of alcohols and thiols using atomic charge descriptors and its application to the prediction of amino acid pKa's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugur, Ilke; Marion, Antoine; Parant, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    approaches (gas phase or continuum solvent-based approaches), with five distinct atomic charge models (Mulliken, Löwdin, NPA, Merz-Kollman, and CHelpG), and with nine different DFT functionals combined with 16 different basis sets. Moreover, the capability of semiempirical methods (AM1, RM1, PM3, and PM6......) to also predict pKa's of thiols, phenols, and alcohols is analyzed. From our benchmarks, the best combination to reproduce experimental pKa's is to compute NPA atomic charge using the CPCM model at the B3LYP/3-21G and M062X/6-311G levels for alcohols (R(2) = 0.995) and thiols (R(2) = 0.986), respectively...... of the experimental pKa's of phenols, alcohols, and thiols. Our protocol is based on the linear relationship between computed atomic charges of the anionic form of the molecules (being either phenolates, alkoxides, or thiolates) and their respective experimental pKa values. It is tested with different environment...

  10. Kanegelo ya Nimirode: Re lebelela diphihlelelo t�a gagwe ka lefsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elelwani B. Farisani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kanegelo ya Hama/Nimirode e �omi�it�we go gatelela Bathobaso ba Afrika-Borwa le ba Amerika. Taodi�wana ye e lekola Nimirode ka lefsa le go t�ea magato a go bu�et�a seriti sa gagwe le sa Bathobaso sekeng.Seo se tlo dirwa ka dikgato t�e tlhano ka mo tlase. Sa mathomo, re tlo lekola dimelo t�a bana ba Noage, go kwe�i�a Nimirode, yo e lego yena �edi ye kgolo ya taodi�wana ye. Sa bobedi re tlo lebelela ka fao bangwadi ba bangwe ba t�welet�ago seswant�ho sa go befa sa Nimirode. Sa boraro, re tlo sekaseka tiri�o ya kanegelo ya Hama/Nimirode go gatelela le go dira Bathobaso makgoba. Sa bone, re tlo sekaseka diphihlelelo le dikatlego t�a Nimirode. Mo re tlo tsepelela diphihlelelo t�a gagwe t�e tharo t�e kgolo bjalo ka go ba mmu�i wa maemo, motsomi yo maatla le moagi. Nepo ya karolo ye ke go ganet�ana le tshekatsheko ya go se be botse ye e nepilwego Nimirode nakong ya go feta. Re tlo tlalelet�a ka go fa tshekatsheko ye e tebilego ya thogako godimo ga Hama/Ku�e/Nimirode. Sa bohlano, ebile e le sa mafelelo, re tlo t�welet�a nyanyeng bohlokwa bja kanegelo ya Nimirode go bao ba bego ba gatelet�we le go ba makgoba ka baka la temana ye. Re tlo nepi�a Afrika-Borwa.

  11. Molecular Paleoclimate Reconstructions over the Last 9 ka from a Peat Sequence in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Huang, Xianyu; Sachse, Dirk; Ding, Weihua; Xue, Jiantao

    2016-01-01

    To achieve a better understanding of Holocene climate change in the monsoon regions of China, we investigated the molecular distributions and carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ13C and δD values) of long-chain n-alkanes in a peat core from the Shiwangutian (SWGT) peatland, south China over the last 9 ka. By comparisons with other climate records, we found that the δ13C values of the long-chain n-alkanes can be a proxy for humidity, while the δD values of the long-chain n-alkanes primarily recorded the moisture source δD signal during 9-1.8 ka BP and responded to the dry climate during 1.8-0.3 ka BP. Together with the average chain length (ACL) and the carbon preference index (CPI) data, the climate evolution over last 9 ka in the SWGT peatland can be divided into three stages. During the first stage (9-5 ka BP), the δ13C values were depleted and CPI and Paq values were low, while ACL values were high. They reveal a period of warm and wet climate, which is regarded as the Holocene optimum. The second stage (5-1.8 ka BP) witnessed a shift to relatively cool and dry climate, as indicated by the more positive δ13C values and lower ACL values. During the third stage (1.8-0.3 ka BP), the δ13C, δD, CPI and Paq values showed marked increase and ACL values varied greatly, implying an abrupt change to cold and dry conditions. This climate pattern corresponds to the broad decline in Asian monsoon intensity through the latter part of the Holocene. Our results do not support a later Holocene optimum in south China as suggested by previous studies.

  12. New proximal tephras at Somma-Vesuvius: evidences of a pre-caldera, large (?) explosive eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparice, Domenico; Scarpati, Claudio; Mazzeo, Fabio Carmine; Petrosino, Paola; Arienzo, Ilenia; Gisbert, Guillem; Petrelli, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    A 5 m thick pyroclastic and volcaniclastic sequence, never reported before, comprising a pumice fall deposit has been recognized in a disused quarry near Pollena Trocchia, on the NW slope of Somma-Vesuvius. It is composed of three stratigraphic units: a pumice fall deposit that underlies a pyroclastic density current deposit; they are overlain by a volcaniclastic unit emplaced during a quiescent period of the volcano. The pyroclastic deposits are separated by a horizon of reworked material indicating the emplacement from two distinct eruptive events. The pumice fall deposit has been subject of a detailed investigation. It consists of an ash bed overlaid by a roughly stratified pumice fall layer. The presence of ballistic clasts indicates the proximal nature of this deposit and its stratigraphic position below the Pomici di Base (22 ka) Plinian deposit allows constraining its age to the pre-caldera period (22-39 ky) of activity of Somma-Vesuvius. Samples have been collected in order to perform sedimentological (grain size and componentry), geochemical and isotopic analyses. Samples range from moderately to poorly sorted and show a trachytic composition. The comparison with literature data of compatible deposits vented from Somma-Vesuvius (Schiava, Taurano and Codola eruptions as well as borehole data) allows excluding any correlation with already known Vesuvian products suggesting that the analysed products are ascribable to a new, pre-caldera, explosive eruption. We name this new event ;Carcavone eruption;. Based on thickness, maximum lithic clasts and orientation of impact sags, showing a provenance from SE, we envisage the emplacement from a Plinian style eruption vented in the northern sector of the current caldera.

  13. Comparison of excitotoxic profiles of ATPA, AMPA, KA and NMDA in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, B W; Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    2001-10-26

    The excitotoxic profiles of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (ATPA), (RS)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) were evaluated using cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI) as a measure for induced, concentration-dependent neuronal damage in hippocampal slice cultures. ATPA is in low concentrations a new selective agonist of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR5 confined to KA receptors and also in high concentrations an AMPA receptor agonist. The following rank order of estimated EC(50) values was found after 2 days of exposure: AMPA (3.7 mM)>NMDA (11 mM)=KA (13 mM)>ATPA (33 mM). Exposed to 30 microM ATPA, 3 microM AMPA and 10 microM NMDA, CA1 was the most susceptible subfield followed by fascia dentata and CA3. Using 8 microM KA, CA3 was the most susceptible subfield, followed by fascia dentata and CA1. In 100 microM concentrations, all four agonists induced the same, maximal PI uptake in all hippocampal subfields, corresponding to total neuronal degeneration. Using glutamate receptor antagonists, like GYKI 52466, NBQX and MK-801, inhibition data revealed that AMPA excitotoxicity was mediated primarily via AMPA receptors. Similar results were found for a high concentration of ATPA (30 microM). In low GluR5 selective concentrations (0.3-3 microM), ATPA did not induce an increase in PI uptake or a reduction in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity of hippocampal interneurons. For KA, the excitotoxicity appeared to be mediated via both KA and AMPA receptors. NMDA receptors were not involved in AMPA-, ATPA- and KA-induced excitotoxicity, nor did NMDA-induced excitotoxicity require activation of AMPA and KA receptors. We conclude that hippocampal slice cultures constitute a feasible test system for evaluation of excitotoxic effects and mechanisms of new (ATPA) and classic (AMPA, KA and NMDA) glutamate receptor agonists. Comparison of concentration

  14. A 600-ka Arctic sea-ice record from Mendeleev Ridge based on ostracodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; Polyak, L.V.; Reed, D.; Kandiano, E. S.; Marzen, R. E.; Council, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic paleoceanography and sea-ice history were reconstructed from epipelagic and benthic ostracodes from a sediment core (HLY0503-06JPC, 800 m water depth) located on the Mendeleev Ridge, Western Arctic Ocean. The calcareous microfaunal record (ostracodes and foraminifers) covers several glacial/interglacial cycles back to estimated Marine Isotope Stage 13 (MIS 13, ∼500 ka) with an average sedimentation rate of ∼0.5 cm/ka for most of the stratigraphy (MIS 5–13). Results based on ostracode assemblages and an unusual planktic foraminiferal assemblage in MIS 11 dominated by a temperate-water species Turborotalita egelida show that extreme interglacial warmth, high surface ocean productivity, and possibly open ocean convection characterized MIS 11 and MIS 13 (∼400 and 500 ka, respectively). A major shift in western Arctic Ocean environments toward perennial sea ice occurred after MIS 11 based on the distribution of an ice-dwelling ostracode Acetabulastoma arcticum. Spectral analyses of the ostracode assemblages indicate sea ice and mid-depth ocean circulation in western Arctic Ocean varied primarily at precessional (∼22 ka) and obliquity (∼40 ka) frequencies.

  15. KaM_CRK: Clustering and Ranking Knowledge for Reasonable Results Based on Behaviors and Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A model named KaM_CRK is proposed, which can supply the clustered and ranked knowledge to the users on different contexts. By comparing the attributes of contexts and JANs, our findings indicate that our model can accumulate the JANs, whose attributes are similar with the user’s contexts, together. By applying the KaM_CLU algorithm and Centre rank strategy into the KaM_CRK model, the model boosts a significant promotion on the accuracy of provision of user's knowledge. By analyzing the users' behaviors, the dynamic coefficient BehaviorF is first presented in KaM_CLU. Compared to traditional approaches of K_means and DBSCAN, the KaM_CLU algorithm does not need to initialize the number of clusters. Additionally, its synthetic results are more accurate, reasonable, and fit than other approaches for users. It is known from our evaluation through real data that our strategy performs better on time efficiency and user's satisfaction, which will save by 30% and promote by 5%, respectively.

  16. Ka-band Technologies for Small Spacecraft Communications via Relays and Direct Data Downlink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Niederhaus, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Downey, Joe; Roberts, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    As the scientific capabilities and number of small spacecraft missions in the near Earth region increase, standard yet configurable user spacecraft terminals operating in Ka-band are needed to lower mission cost and risk and enable significantly higher data return than current UHF or S-band terminals. These compact Ka-band terminals are intended to operate with both the current and next generation of Ka-band relay satellites and via direct data communications with near Earth tracking terminals. This presentation provides an overview of emerging NASA-sponsored and commercially provided technologies in software defined radios (SDRs), transceivers, and electronically steered antennas that will enable data rates from hundreds of kbps to over 1 Gbps and operate in multiple frequency bands (such as S- and X-bands) and expand the use of NASA's common Ka-bands frequencies: 22.55-23.15 GHz for forward data or uplink; and 25.5-27.0 GHz for return data or downlink. Reductions in mass, power and volume come from integration of multiple radio functions, operations in Ka-band, high efficiency amplifiers and receivers, and compact, flat and vibration free electronically steered narrow beam antennas for up to + 60 degrees field of regard. The software defined near Earth space transceiver (SD-NEST) described in the presentation is intended to be compliant with NASA's space telecommunications radio system (STRS) standard for communications waveforms and hardware interoperability.

  17. Overview of Ka-band communications technology requirements for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward F.

    1991-12-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative, Ka-band frequencies are likely to carry the bulk of the communications traffic both in the vicinity of and on the return links from the moon and Mars. The four exploration architectures identified by the Synthesis Group are examined and Ka-band technology requirements to meet the data traffic needs and schedule are identified. Specific Ka-band technology requirements identified are: transmitters - 0.5 to 200 W with high efficiency; antennas - 5m and 9m diameter, with multiple beams and/or scanning beams; and spacecraft receivers - noise figure of 2 dB. For each component, the current state of technology is assessed and needed technology development programs are identified. It is concluded that to meet the schedules of lunar and Mars precursor missions beginning in approximately the year 2000, aggressive technology development and advanced development programs are required immediately for Ka-band communications systems components. Additionally, the greater data transmission rates for the cargo and piloted phases of the exploration program require further Ka-band communications technology developments targeted for operations beginning in about 2010.

  18. Performance of a Ka-band transponder breadboard for deep-space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysoor, N. R.; Lane, J. P.; Kayalar, S.; Kermode, A. W.

    1995-08-01

    This article summarizes the design concepts applied in the development of and advanced Ka-band (34.4 GHz/32 GHz) transponder breadboard for the next generation of space communications systems applications. The selected architecture upgrades the X-band (7.2 GHz/8.4 GHz) deep-space transponder (DST) to provide Da-band up/Ka- and X-band down capability. The Ka-band transponder breadboard incorporates several state-of-the-art components, including sampling mixers, a Ka-band dielectric resonator oscillator, and microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs). The MMICs that were tested in the breadboard include upconverters, downconverters, automatic gain control circuits, mixers, phase modulators, and amplifiers. The measured receiver dynamic range, tracking range, acquisition rate, static phase error, and phase jitter characteristics of the Ka-band breadboard interfaced to the advanced engineering model X-band DST are in good agreement with the expected performance. The results show a receiver tracking threshold of -149 dBm with a dynamic range of 80 dB and a downlink phase jitter of 7 deg rms. The analytical results of phase noise and Allan standard deviation are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Geological record of meltwater events at Qinghai Lake, China from the past 40 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Taibei; Wang, Hao; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Peng; Zhu, Yizhi; Burr, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    We report here on a previously unpublished sediment core from Qinghai Lake, China, that preserves a continuous record of sedimentation for the past 40 ka. A striking feature of the record is a set of distinct meltwater events recorded at 35, 19 and 14 ka respectively. These events are manifest as distinct pulses of relatively old organic radiocarbon in the sediments. We interpret these as a signal of glacial melting in the Qinghai Lake watershed. The meltwater signals are closely correlated to temperature and precipitation records associated with deglaciation. The events at 19 ka and 14 ka correspond to well-established high latitude Melt Water Pulse (MWP) events during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2, and the 35 ka event corresponds to a period of pervasive high lake levels in western China during late MIS 3. We interpret these anomalous dates as the result of relatively old carbon that was destabilized by the glaciers, and released into the lake as the glaciers melted. The data indicate that this process takes thousands of years. We expect that the approach employed here to identify these events is generally applicable to any lake system with a significant glacial meltwater component.

  20. Fabrication of band-pass filter using YBCO film at Ka-band frequency; YBCO hakumaku wo mochiita Ka-band taiiki tsuka fuiruta no sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshitake, T.; Hattori, W.; Murakami, S.; Suzuki, S. [NEC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    In this report, Ka band microstrip band pass filter was produced experimentally using an YBCO system high temperature superconductivity thin film as examination initial stage high temperature superconductivity a thin film superscription communication element. With it, the following were examined: Evaluation method and frequency characteristics of the filter. Especially, the examination on structure of the package and system of measurement using refrigerating machine becomes important in order to evaluate the filter with the high frequency. (NEDO)

  1. Radar altimetry backscattering signatures at Ka, Ku, C, and S bands over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappart, F.; Fatras, C.; Mougin, E.; Marieu, V.; Diepkilé, A. T.; Blarel, F.; Borderies, P.

    This study presents a comprehensive comparison of radar altimetry signatures at Ka-, Ku-, C-, and S-bands using SARAL, ENVISAT and Jason-2 data over the major bioclimatic zones, soil and vegetation types encountered in West-Africa, with an emphasis on the new information at Ka-band provided by the recently launched SARAL-Altika mission. Spatio-temporal variations of the radar altimetry responses were related to changes in surface roughness, land cover and soil wetness. Analysis of time series of backscattering coefficients along the West African bioclimatic gradient shows that radar echoes at nadir incidence are well correlated to soil moisture in semi-arid savannah environments. Radar altimeters are able to detect the presence of water even under a dense canopy cover at all frequencies. But only measurements at Ka-band are able to penetrate underneath the canopy of non-inundated tropical evergreen forests.

  2. Kuolleiden saaret. Historiallisen ajan keskisuomalaisten saarihautausmaiden luonne ja käyttö hautapaikkoina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Ruohonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirkkomaiden ulkopuolella sijaitsevat hautasaaret ovat leimallisia erityisesti harvaan asutuille seuduille, joissa kirkkomatkat ovat olleet pitkiä ja hankalia. Saaria on pidetty väliaikaisina hautausmaina, joihin on haudattu kesällä, kelirikkoaikana tai levottomana ajankohtana kuolleet odottamaan myöhempää kuljetusta kirkkomaalle. Saarten käyttöä hautaustarkoituksiin ei ole kuitenkaan systemaattisesti tutkittu. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan Keski-Suomessa sijaitsevien Petäjäveden ja Uuraisten hautapaikkoja sekä niiksi epäiltyjä kohteita. Laajan ja monia tieteenaloja käsittelevän lähdeaineiston kautta artikkeli selvittää kohteiden luonnetta ja niiden käyttöä hautapaikkoina. Erityistä huomiota kiinnitetään aineiston esittelyn lisäksi hautaustradition ajoittamiseen eri menetelmillä.

  3. Diatom species composition in the Raška river (Southwestern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaković Danijela P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the composition of epilithic diatoms in the Raška River. Samples were collected by scraping stone surfaces with a brush from 5 localities along the Raška River in April, June, August and November 2011 and March and May 2012. Diatom frustules were cleaned using cold acid method, and mounted on permanent slides. An investigation of the Raška River resulted in description of 106 diatom taxa. The most species rich genera are Navicula (10, Gomphonema (10 and Nitzschia (9, while other genera are presented with one or more species. Detailed floristic analysis of the benthic diatom flora in this river has not been conducted before. Therefore, this paper provides a groundwork for future researches. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 037009

  4. pKa values in proteins determined by electrostatics applied to molecular dynamics trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tim; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2015-06-09

    For a benchmark set of 194 measured pKa values in 13 proteins, electrostatic energy computations are performed in which pKa values are computed by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In contrast to the previous approach of Karlsberg(+) (KB(+)) that essentially used protein crystal structures with variations in their side chain conformations, the present approach (KB2(+)MD) uses protein conformations from four molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 10 ns each. These MD simulations are performed with different specific but fixed protonation patterns, selected to sample the conformational space for the different protonation patterns faithfully. The root-mean-square deviation between computed and measured pKa values (pKa RMSD) is shown to be reduced from 1.17 pH units using KB(+) to 0.96 pH units using KB2(+)MD. The pKa RMSD can be further reduced to 0.79 pH units, if each conformation is energy-minimized with a dielectric constant of εmin = 4 prior to calculating the electrostatic energy. The electrostatic energy expressions upon which the computations are based have been reformulated such that they do not involve terms that mix protein and solvent environment contributions and no thermodynamic cycle is needed. As a consequence, conformations of the titratable residues can be treated independently in the protein and solvent environments. In addition, the energy terms used here avoid the so-called intrinsic pKa and can therefore be interpreted without reference to arbitrary protonation states and conformations.

  5. Design of a Ka-Band Propagation Terminal for Atmospheric Measurements in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Jacquelynne R.; Nessel, James A.; Zemba, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a Ka-Band beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed alongside an existing Ka-Band Radiometer [2] located at the east end of the Svalbard Near Earth Network (NEN) complex. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation [3] receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation by directly measuring the propagated signal from the satellite Thor 7.

  6. Accurate calculation of the p Ka of trifluoroacetic acid using high-level ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazian, Mansoor; Zakery, Maryam; Noorbala, Mohammad R.; Coote, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    The p Ka value of trifluoroacetic acid has been successfully calculated using high-level ab initio methods such as G3 and CBS-QB3. Solvation energies have been calculated using CPCM continuum model of solvation at the HF and B3-LYP levels of theory with various basis sets. Excellent agreement with experiment (to within 0.4 p Ka units) was obtained using CPCM solvation energies at the B3-LYP/6-31+G(d) level (or larger) in conjunction with CBS-QB3 or G3 gas-phase energies of trifluoroacetic acid and its anion.

  7. Kas kollaste kaartide lõpp toob lõpu ka lapsesoodustusele? / Jarno Laur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Jarno, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Erastamisväärtpaberite väljaandmise ja kasutamise lõpetamise eelnõust, millega lõpetataks ka lastega seotud 25 000 kroonine hinnasoodustus maa väljaostmisel. Sama ka Vali Uudised 13. jaan. 2005, lk. 2 ; Kuulutaja 13. jaan. 2006, lk. 4 ; Põhjarannik 13. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Lääne Elu 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Nädaline 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Hiiu Leht 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Lõunaleht 19. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Meie Maa 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 21. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Nädalaleht 13. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Valgamaalane 19. jaan. 2006, lk. 2

  8. Controlling the pKa of the bacteriorhodopsin Schiff base by use of artificial retinal analogues.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Artificial bacteriorhodopsin pigments based on synthetic retinal analogues carrying an electron-withdrawing CF3 substituent group were prepared. The effects of CF3 on the spectra, photocycles, and Schiff base pKa values of the pigments were analyzed. A reduction of 5 units in the pKa of the Schiff base is observed when the CF3 substituent is located at the C-13 polyene position, in the vicinity of the protonated Schiff base nitrogen. The results lead to the unambiguous characterization of the...

  9. Convergence of an adaptive Ka\\v{c}anov FEM for quasi-linear problems

    OpenAIRE

    Garau, Eduardo M.; Morin, Pedro; Zuppa, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We design an adaptive finite element method to approximate the solutions of quasi-linear elliptic problems. The algorithm is based on a Ka\\v{c}anov iteration and a mesh adaptation step is performed after each linear solve. The method is thus \\emph{inexact} because we do not solve the discrete nonlinear problems exactly, but rather perform one iteration of a fixed point method (Ka\\v{c}anov), using the approximation of the previous mesh as an initial guess. The convergence of the method is prov...

  10. Kas kollaste kaartide lõpp toob lõpu ka lapsesoodustusele? / Jarno Laur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Jarno, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Erastamisväärtpaberite väljaandmise ja kasutamise lõpetamise eelnõust, millega lõpetataks ka lastega seotud 25 000 kroonine hinnasoodustus maa väljaostmisel. Sama ka Vali Uudised 13. jaan. 2005, lk. 2 ; Kuulutaja 13. jaan. 2006, lk. 4 ; Põhjarannik 13. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Lääne Elu 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Nädaline 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Hiiu Leht 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Lõunaleht 19. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Meie Maa 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 21. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Nädalaleht 13. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Valgamaalane 19. jaan. 2006, lk. 2

  11. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Ka Band Radio Science Experiments and the Effect of the Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami W.; Morabito, David

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the possibilities of utilizing the telecommunication links between spacecraft and Earth to examine changes in the phase/frequency, amplitude, and polarization of radio signals to investigate, specifically for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)mission utilizes X-band coherent (uplink and downlink) carrier Doppler and range for its gravity investigation Gravity team will also take advantage of Ka-band downlink signal Tropospheric calibration data from Advanced Water Vapor Radiometer (AWVR) will be used. The calibration of the received Ka band signal for the effect of the troposphere is discussed.

  12. Temperature Distribution Analysis of JAERI 60 kA HTS Lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUYoukun; T.Isono

    2003-01-01

    High temperature suprerconductor (HTS)current lead has an advantage in reducing electric power consumption of a refrigerator for a large current superconducting magnet system such as a fusion device. A fusion device requires more than 20 pairs of large current leads and each current capacity is about 60 kA. The conventional 60 kA current lead needs 100 kW electric power for refrigeration and a 2/3 reduction is available by the application of a HTS current lead.

  13. Design of a Ka-band Propagation Terminal for Atmospheric Measurements in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Jacquelynne R.; Nessel, James A.; Zemba, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a Ka-Band beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed alongside an existing Ka-Band Radiometer located at the east end of the Svalbard Near Earth Network (NEN) complex. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation by directly measuring the propagated signal from the satellite Thor 7.

  14. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Ka Band Radio Science Experiments and the Effect of the Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami W.; Morabito, David

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the possibilities of utilizing the telecommunication links between spacecraft and Earth to examine changes in the phase/frequency, amplitude, and polarization of radio signals to investigate, specifically for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)mission utilizes X-band coherent (uplink and downlink) carrier Doppler and range for its gravity investigation Gravity team will also take advantage of Ka-band downlink signal Tropospheric calibration data from Advanced Water Vapor Radiometer (AWVR) will be used. The calibration of the received Ka band signal for the effect of the troposphere is discussed.

  15. Tallinna info- ja abitelefon toetab ka hättasattunud lapsi / Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Hille, 1941-2014

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 16. jaan., lk. 5. Infotelefoni projektijuhi Herve Merivaldi sõnul ei sõanda lapsed lastekaitsetöötaja või politsei poole pöörduda. Abitelefonile helistades aitavad dispetsherid neil ühendust saada inimestega, kes neid aidata võivad

  16. Internetiside VoIP sobib ka ettevõtteile / Valdur Laid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laid, Valdur, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 8. juuni lk. 19. Kommunikatsiooni liikumisest internetti ehk IP-võrku ning selle võimalustest ettevõtjaile. Vt. samas: Väikefirmade IP-lahendus jõuab aasta lõpus massturule

  17. 35 ka BP climate simulations in East Asia and probing the mechanisms of climate changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ge; ZHENG Yiqun; KE Xiankun

    2005-01-01

    Paleoclimate modeling has become an important tool to detect the future climate of the global warming that is difficult to be validated. The paleoclimate modeling has to be evaluated by regionally geological data in order to determine if it is able to reproduce a reality of climate states. Geological evidence shows that there was a warm-wet interstadial at 35000±3000 a BP in China, which provides an important climate period to be historical analogue for the future climate changes induced by greenhouse gas emissions. Integrated geological records of later phase of the MSI3 from China also provide basements for evaluation of 35 ka BP climate modeling. This paper reports the paleoclimate experiments applied by various forces, and validates the outputs by geological data, consequently improving the boundary conditions in the experiments and making the paleoclimates more approach the reality. The simulations show an increased temperature in the mid-low latitudes and an extended rain-belt northwards in East Asia, while a decreased temperature in high latitudes and a strong exchange of the N-S atmospheric circulation. As there is only ca. 10-15 ka from 35 ka BP to the LGM (21 ka BP) during which climate rapidly changed from a warm-wet interstadial to a typical ice age, this simulation provides scientific basis to recognize the criteria of global warming and trends of natural climate development.

  18. Liha tootmine : [2000-2004 Eestis liikide kaupa, s.h. ka kitseliha] / Matti Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Matti, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk. 20-22. 2004. a. vähenes sealihatoodang 3%, lamba- ja kitseliha toodang 25%.Veise- ja linnuliha tootmine kasvas kubki 5%. Tabel: Lihatoodang aastatel 2000-2004

  19. Mahepõllumajandus : [1999-2004, ka ökomärgist] / Peeter Prass

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prass, Peeter

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk.43-45. Hinnanguliselt moodustas 2004. a. mahepõllundusega hõivatud maa üldisest põllumajandusmaast alla 5%. Piimalehmadest olid maheloomad veidi üle 2%. Diagrammid

  20. Computer Aided Design of Ka-Band Waveguide Power Combining Architectures for Interplanetary Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Karl R.

    2006-01-01

    Communication systems for future NASA interplanetary spacecraft require transmitter power ranging from several hundred watts to kilowatts. Several hybrid junctions are considered as elements within a corporate combining architecture for high power Ka-band space traveling-wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs). This report presents the simulated transmission characteristics of several hybrid junctions designed for a low loss, high power waveguide based power combiner.

  1. Development of a 1 kA, 50 Hz Superconducting Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.A.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Fedorovsky, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A single-phase, thermally switched superconducting power converter operating at mains frequency is being developed and tested by the authors. Typical design values of the device are: input voltage of 220 V; input current of 7 A; output voltage of 1 V; and output current of 1 kA. The average output

  2. Results from Two Years of Ka-Band Propagation Characterization at Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Zemba, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Over the several years, NASA plans to launch several earth science missions which are expected to achieve data throughputs of 5-40 terabits per day transmitted from low earth orbiting spacecraft to ground stations. The current S-band and X-band frequency allocations in use by NASA, however, are incapable of supporting the data rates required to meet this demand. As such, NASA is in the planning stages to upgrade its existing Near Earth Network (NEN) Polar ground stations to support Ka-band (25.5-27 GHz) operations. Consequently, it becomes imperative that characterization of propagation effects at these NEN sites is conducted to determine expected system performance, particularly at low elevation angles ((is) less than 10 deg) where spacecraft signal acquisition typically occurs. Since May 2011, NASA Glenn Research Center has installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the NEN site located in Svalbard, Norway. The Ka-band radiometer monitors the water vapor line, as well as 6 frequencies around 26.5 GHz at multiple elevation angles: 45 deg, 20 deg, and 10 deg. Two year data collection results indicate comparable performance to previously characterized northern latitude sites in the United States, i.e., Fairbanks, Alaska. It is observed that cloud cover at the Svalbard site remains the dominant loss mechanism for Ka-band links, resulting in a margin requirement of 4.1 dB to maintain link availability of 99% at 10 deg elevation.

  3. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1MRUA-2C3KA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1MRUA-2C3KA 1MRU 2C3K A A TPSHLSDRYELGEILGFGGMSEVHLARDLRLHRDVAVKV...HHHHHHHHHHHHH HHHH -----HHHH -- 0 1MRU... A 1MRUA GDSVD-ARSDV 1MRU A 1MRU...ILE CA 362 ASP CA 288 SER CA 245 1MRU

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1MRUB-2C3KA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1MRUB-2C3KA 1MRU 2C3K B A MTTPSHLSDRYELGEILGFGGMSEVHLARDLRLHRDVAV...HH ---HHHHHHHHHHHHHH -------HHHH HHHH -- 0 1MRU... B 1MRUB GDSVD-A.../rmsd> 3.5074009895324707 1 1MRU... B 1MRUB

  5. Miil ja Vichmann ühiselt ka laevaäris / Hannes Sarv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarv, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    Olav Miili ja Marcel Vichmanni vahel jagamisele minev Ärimaja kontsern on seotud ka uute, AS-i Saaremaa Laevakompanii (SLK) käe all sõitvate parvlaevade ehitamisega. Samuti on ettevõtjad seotud AS-iga Tallinna Olümpiapurjespordikeskus

  6. Antarctic ice volume for the last 740 ka calculated with a simple ice sheet model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2005-01-01

    Fluctuations in the volume of the Antarctic ice sheet for the last 740 ka are calculated by forcing a simple ice sheet model with a sea-level history (from a composite deep sea δ18O record) and a temperature history (from the Dome C deuterium record). Antarctic ice volume reaches maximum values of a

  7. Design and Evaluation of 275 kV-3 kA HTS Power Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Jun, T.; Liu, J.; Nakayama, R.; Hayakawa, N.; Wang, X.; Ishiyama, A.; Amemiya, N.; Hasegawa, T.; Saitoh, T.; Ohkuma, T.; Maruyama, O.

    A 275 kV 3 kA high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been developed in the Materials & Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) project. The cable is expected to be put to practical use as the backbone power line in the future because the capacity of 1.5 GW is about the same as overhead transmission lines. The 30 m cable has been designed on the basis of design values that had been obtained by various voltage tests, AC loss measurement tests, short circuit tests, and other elementary tests. Cable insulation was determined by the design stresses and test conditions based on IEC, JEC (Japan electrical standards), and other HTS demonstrations. This cable was also designed to withstand the short circuit test of 63 kA for 0.6 seconds and to have low losses, including AC loss and dielectric loss of 0.8 W/m at 3kA, 275 kV. Based on the design, a 30 m cable was manufactured, and short samples during this manufacturing process were confirmed to have the designed characteristics. Furukawa Electric prepared a demonstration of the 30 m cable with two terminations and a cable joint. The long-term test under a current of 3 kA, and test voltage determined from 30 years of insulation degradation has been conducted since November 2012 at Shenyang in China.

  8. Progress of 275 kV-3 kA YBCO HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Wang, X.; Aoki, Y.; Saito, T.; Ohkuma, T.; Maruyama, O.

    2011-11-01

    A 275 kV-3 kA high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been developed in the Materials & Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) project. AC loss reduction of a two-layer HTS conductor was undertaken by removing the edges of YBCO tapes with low critical current density. The HTS conductor using these tapes was fabricated, and low loss of 0.235 W/m at 3 kA rms was achieved. The 275 kV-3 kA cable was designed, and the 2 m model cables were fabricated. This cable had 325 mm 2 copper stranded former inside the HTS conductor and a 310 mm 2 copper shield layer on the HTS shield layer for over-current protection. These cables withstood an over-current of 63.0 kA for 0.6 s, which is the worst situation for 275 kV systems. The partial discharge (PD) and V- t characteristics of a liquid nitrogen (LN 2)/polypropylene (PP) laminated paper composite insulation system have been integrated into the design of the insulation for the 275 kV cable. The results revealed that the PD inception stress (PDIE) did not depend on the insulation thickness, and that lifetime indices of V- t characteristics at PD inception were as high as about 80-100.

  9. Steerable K/Ka-Band Antenna For Land-Mobile Satellite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Arthur; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Woo, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Prototype steerable microwave antenna tracks and communicates with geostationary satellite. Designed to mount on roof of vehicle and only 10 cm tall. K/Ka-band antenna rugged and compact to suit rooftop mobile operating environment. More-delicate signal-processing and control equipment located inside vehicle.

  10. Säästa tasub ka praegu / Märten Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ross, Märten, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 1. nov. lk. 9. Eesti Panga asepresident peab valeks kõrge inflatsiooni kartuses kostvaid soovitusi, et kroonisäästud tuleks kulutada millegi ostmiseks, ning leiab, et euro kindla vahetuskursi tõttu on Eesti kroon piisavalt kaitstud

  11. Ac loss measurements on a superconducting transformer for a 25 kA superconducting rectifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Mulders, J.M.; de Reuver, J.L.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Ac loss measurements have been performed on a superconducting transformer. The transformer is a part of a 25 kA thermally switched superconducting rectifier operating at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. The loss measurements have been automatized by means of a microcomputer sampling four relevant signals and

  12. Müügiga kimpus majaomanikud otsivad samal ajal ka rentnikke / Kaire Talviste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talviste, Kaire, 1979-

    2008-01-01

    Olukorrast eramute üüriturul: kinnisvaraportaalides on rendile pakkuda ligi paarsada maja, mida püütakse samal ajal ka edutult müüa, rendihinnad ulatuvad 30 000 - 50 000 kroonini kuus, eramuid üürivad peamiselt välismaalased

  13. USA tahab sõjaväkke ka ajutisi sisserändajaid / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    USA soovib sõjaväkke hakata värbama ka sisserändajaid, kellel on riigis viibimiseks vaid ajutine luba, kuna Iraagis ja Afganistanis venivate konfliktide tõttu vajab vabatahtlikkusel põhinev armee uusi sõdureid

  14. Evaluation and Performance Analysis of 3D Printing Technique for Ka-Band Antenna Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armendariz, Unai; Rommel, Simon; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of 3D printed WR-28 waveguide horn antennas operating in the Ka-band frequency range between 26.5GHz and 40GHz. Three antennas are fabricated from polylactide acid filaments in conductive and non-conductive variants; the latter is covered...

  15. Performance evolution of 60 kA HTS cable prototypes in the EDIPO test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovsky, N.; Uglietti, D.; Sedlak, K.; Stepanov, B.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2016-08-01

    During the first test campaign of the 60 kA HTS cable prototypes in the EDIPO test facility, the feasibility of a novel HTS fusion cable concept proposed at the EPFL Swiss Plasma Center (SPC) was successfully demonstrated. While the measured DC performance of the prototypes at magnetic fields from 8 T to 12 T and for currents from 30 kA to 70 kA was close to the expected one, an initial electromagnetic cycling test (1000 cycles) revealed progressive degradation of the performance in both the SuperPower and SuperOx conductors. Aiming to understand the reasons for the degradation, additional cycling (1000 cycles) and warm up-cool down tests were performed during the second test campaign. I c performance degradation of the SuperOx conductor reached ∼20% after about 2000 cycles, which was reason to continue with a visual inspection of the conductor and further tests at 77 K. AC tests were carried out at 0 and 2 T background fields without transport current and at 10 T/50 kA operating conditions. Results obtained in DC and AC tests of the second test campaign are presented and compared with appropriate data published recently. Concluding the first iteration of the HTS cable development program at SPC, a summary and recommendations for the next activity within the HTS fusion cable project are also reported.

  16. Tööka talu rõõmus aed / Tiina Tammet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammet, Tiina, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Võistluse "Kodu kauniks" 2005. a. finalisti, Katrin Riibaku ja Meelis Mõisa taluaiast Pala vallas Jõgevamaal. Talus elab kolm põlvkonda, tegeldakse ka sea- ja kurgikasvatusega. Eakas kaevukook, lipumast, talukraam, õõnsa puu tüverõngastest aed, puutüvest vormitud toolid, veskikivist laud. 4 värv. ill.

  17. High Current, Low Voltage Power Converter [20kA, 6V] LHC Converter Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, H E; Dupaquier, A; Fernqvist, G

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting LHC accelerator requires high currents (~12.5kA) and relatively low voltages (~10 V) for its magnets. The need to install the power converters underground is the driving force for reduced volume and high efficiency. Moreover, the LHC machine will require a very high level of performance from the power converters, particularly in terms of DC stability, dynamic response and also in matters of EMC. To meet these requirements soft-switching techniques will be used. This paper describes the development of a [20kA,6V] power converter intended as a stable high-current source for D CCT calibration and an evaluation prototype for the future LHC converters. The converter is made with a modular concept with five current sources [4kA,6V] in parallel. The 4kA sources are built as plu g-in modules: a diode rectifier on the AC mains with a damped L-C passive filter, a Zero Voltage Switching inverter working at 20 kHz and an output stage (high frequency transformers, Schottky rectifi ers and output filter...

  18. Clintonit ähvardab kaotus ka New Hampshireþis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 8. jaan. 2008, lk. 7. Arvamusküsitluste järgi juhtis demokraatide leeris USA presidendikandidaadiks pürgiv Barack Obama enne New Hampshireþi eelvalimisi oma pearivaali Hillary Clintoni ees 10% edumaaga

  19. SYSTEM MODELLING OF DTH BROADCASTING AT KA BAND MULTIBEAM SATELLITE SYSTEM OVER INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swastik Sahoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A major application of satellite is broadcasting and in India this is done at Ku band. But with the increase of demand of number of channels Ku band is getting saturated. So, to satisfy this requirement an approach is to go to higher frequency band, i.e. Ka band. As India is allocated with seven fixed GEO locations, so the purpose is to calculate what is the suitable satellite position for India at Ka band, what is the best EIRP available at that position and what will be the smallest ground antenna diameter and satellite antenna diameter at Ka band. Broadcasting is done at 20GHz Ka band downlink frequency. At this frequency, as the signal will face lots of impairments during propagation, so the attenuation caused by variety of factors are discussed here. To overcome the attenuation maximum EIRP is given. The link equation is taken as a reference to calculate quality of the signal, G/T ratio and EIRP of the satellite. The extreme west region of India is being taken as earth station and after some brief calculations all the results are discussed. Out of seven allocated GEO locations, 74⁰E gives best output in terms of minimum loss & small antenna diameters.

  20. Säästa tasub ka praegu / Märten Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ross, Märten, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 1. nov. lk. 9. Eesti Panga asepresident peab valeks kõrge inflatsiooni kartuses kostvaid soovitusi, et kroonisäästud tuleks kulutada millegi ostmiseks, ning leiab, et euro kindla vahetuskursi tõttu on Eesti kroon piisavalt kaitstud

  1. Social Metaphorical Mapping of the Concept of Force "CHI-KA-RA" in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mariko

    2005-01-01

    This research focused on the concept of "force" ("CHI-KA-RA" in Japanese) in Newtonian mechanics. The primary objective was to develop a tool, based on metaphor, to interpret student thinking in learning scientific topics. The study provides an example of using the tool to trace the process of mutual changes in thinking during a dialog among…

  2. Maailma esimene online-maakler teenindab ka eesti keeles / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Maailma esimene online-maaklerfirma E*Trade avas eestikeelse kauplemiskeskkonna, kuhu lähikuudel lisandub võimalus kaubelda ka Eesti aktsiatega. Tabel: E*Trade pakub konkurentsi kohalikele maakleritele. Kommenteerib Peeter Koppel. Vt. samas: Lauri Matsulevitsh. LHV konkurenti ei karda

  3. Maailma esimene online-maakler teenindab ka eesti keeles / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Maailma esimene online-maaklerfirma E*Trade avas eestikeelse kauplemiskeskkonna, kuhu lähikuudel lisandub võimalus kaubelda ka Eesti aktsiatega. Tabel: E*Trade pakub konkurentsi kohalikele maakleritele. Kommenteerib Peeter Koppel. Vt. samas: Lauri Matsulevitsh. LHV konkurenti ei karda

  4. Ettevõtluskeskkonna loomisel osalemine on meie õigus, kuid ka vastutus / Margus Timmo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Timmo, Margus

    2005-01-01

    Autori hinnangul peab riigi majanduspoliitika üldine orientatsioon lähiaastatel olema kohapealse algatuse toetamine nii ühistegevuse kui ka üksikisiku tasandil, eesmärgiks mikro- ja väikeettevõtete teke läbi ettevõtlike inimeste tegevuse

  5. Kas Roger Federer suudab Rafael Nadali alistada ka Pariisis? / Maarja Värv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Värv, Maarja

    2007-01-01

    Prantsusmaa lahtiste tennisemeistrivõistluste eel on paljude jaoks suurim küsimus, kas maailma esinumber Roger Federer suudab lõpuks võita ka Roland Garros' esikoha ning astuda sammu suure slämmi suunas. Vt. samas: Maret Ani põhiturniirile ei pääsenud

  6. Siseministri kärpekava lööb valusalt ka Kagu-Eestit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Siseministeeriumi eelarveprojekti järgi kaotab ministeeriumi haldusalas töö ligi 1000 inimest ning ka mitmetes Kagu-Eesti piirkondades võib tekkida tõsiseid probleeme nii politsei kui tuletõrjujate töömail

  7. Design of a Ka-band gyro-TWT amplifier for broadband operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaria, Mukesh Kumar; Sinha, A. K. [Microwave Tubes Area, CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani 333031 (India); Choyal, Y. [Department of Physics, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper, the design of a Ka-band periodically ceramic loaded gyro-TWT amplifier has been carried out. The design predict that the interaction structure can produce more than 80 kW output power, 50 dB saturated gain, and 3 dB bandwidth for 65 kV and 5 A electron beam with velocity ratio (α) of 1.2. This paper describes the design and simulation of a high performance 35 GHz TE{sub 01} mode gyro-TWT that applies the same technique of employing a periodic dielectric loaded interaction structure to achieve stability and wide bandwidth. The design of input coupler with loaded interaction structure for Ka-band Gyro-TWT has been carried out using Ansoft hfss. The return loss (S{sub 11}) and transmission loss (S{sub 21}) of the Ka-band gyro-TWT input coupler have been found to be −27.3 dB and −0.05 dB, respectively. The design of output window for Ka-band Gyro-TWT has been carried out using cst microwave studio.

  8. Lake-Level Responses to Abrupt Climate Changes in North-Central Pennsylvania since >16 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, T. M.; Shuman, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    Water levels in small lakes and ponds have widely responded to late-Quaternary climate changes, and we use a combination of geophysical surveys and sediment cores to reconstruct the hydrologic history of Sunfish Pond near Leroy, Pennsylvania (41°38'N 76°41'W). The small lake sits atop Barclay Mountain, a narrow ridge of the Appalachian Mountains near the southern limit of the Wisconsin glaciation. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and a transect of three sediment cores indicate that the shoreline position of the lake has shifted over time with sandy littoral sediments extending outward into the lake stratigraphy, which is primarily composed of organic-rich muds. Calibrated radiocarbon ages from a sediment core collected in 2.25 m of water indicate that the lake formed by ca. 16.1 ka. Deposition of organic-rich muds in the near-shore core indicates moderately high water levels during the period of Heinrich Event 1, the Younger Dryas, and portions of the early Holocene. Sand layers and exceptionally low sediment accumulation rates indicate low water, however, from <16-12.5 ka and again from 5.5-2.8 ka. The water level has been near its modern high level since 2.8 ka based on extensive deposition of rapidly accumulating, organic-rich muds across the basin. The changes coincide with major changes in regional pollen records, and confirm the hydrologic significance of late-Pleistocene abrupt events in the Mid-Atlantic region.

  9. Geological conditions of origin of the Potočka zijalka cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Buser

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Potočka zijalka cave on Mt. Ol{eva in Southern Karavanke during excavation of cave sediments of Würm age that contain cultural remains of the Cromagnon Man also large amounts of gravel were before the Badenian transgression, from the Central Alps during Miocene.

  10. Lipstok tahab nii asespiikriks kui ka Eesti Panga presidendiks / Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kagge, Rasmus, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Riigikogu liikmed Siim-Valmar Kiisler, Eiki Nestor, Peep Aru avaldavad arvamust Andres Lipstoki kandideerimise kohta nii Riigikogu aseesimeheks kui ka Eesti Panga presidendiks. Eesti Panga praeguse presidendi Vahur Krafti väidetavast plaanist kandideerida järgmistel Riigikogu valimistel

  11. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of Bačka (Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A contribution to knowledge of the poorly known bryophyte flora of Bačka region in Serbia is given in the present paper. The total of bryophyte species recorded in the region is raised from seven to 46. Six nationally threatened and two species threatened on the European level are found in the investigated area.

  12. An integrated Ka/Ku-band payload for personal, mobile and private business communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Edward J.; Keelty, J. Malcolm

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Department of Communications has been studying options for a government-sponsored demonstration payload to be launched before the end of the century. A summary of the proposed system concepts and network architectures for providing an advanced private business network service at Ku-band and personal and mobile communications at Ka-band is presented. The system aspects addressed include coverage patterns, traffic capacity, and grade of service, multiple access options as well as special problems, such as Doppler in mobile applications. Earth terminal types and the advanced payload concept proposed in a feasibility study for the demonstration mission are described. This concept is a combined Ka-band/Ku-band payload which incorporates a number of advanced satellite technologies including a group demodulator to convert single-channel-per-carrier frequency division multiple access uplink signals to a time division multiplex downlink, on-board signal regeneration, and baseband switching to support packet switched data operation. The on-board processing capability of the payload provides a hubless VSAT architecture which permits single-hop full mesh interconnectivity. The Ka-band and Ku-band portions of the payload are fully integrated through an on-board switch, thereby providing the capability for fully integrated services, such as using the Ku-band VSAT terminals as gateway stations for the Ka-band personal and mobile communications services.

  13. Nii Soome kui ka Eesti teevad keelestrateegiat / Jüri Valge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valge, Jüri, 1948-

    2009-01-01

    Väljaandest: Soome keele tulevik. Keelepoliitiline tegevuskava (Suomen kielen tulevaisuus. Kielipoliittinen toimintaohjelma. Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskus. Helsinki, 2009). Samu probleeme lahendatakse ka Eestis. Eesti valitsus kiitis heaks korralduse, millega Haridus- ja Teadusministeeriumi kohustati 10. aprilliks 2010 koostama eesti keele uus arengukava perioodiks 2011-2017

  14. High Power High Efficiency Ka-Band Power Combiners for Solid-State Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jon C.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Chevalier, Christine T.

    2006-01-01

    Wide-band power combining units for Ka-band are simulated for use as MMIC amplifier applications. Short-slot couplers as well as magic-tees are the basic elements for the combiners. Wide bandwidth (5 GHz) and low insertion (approx.0.2 dB) and high combining efficiencies (approx.90 percent) are obtained.

  15. Kas Roger Federer suudab Rafael Nadali alistada ka Pariisis? / Maarja Värv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Värv, Maarja

    2007-01-01

    Prantsusmaa lahtiste tennisemeistrivõistluste eel on paljude jaoks suurim küsimus, kas maailma esinumber Roger Federer suudab lõpuks võita ka Roland Garros' esikoha ning astuda sammu suure slämmi suunas. Vt. samas: Maret Ani põhiturniirile ei pääsenud

  16. Liha tootmine : [2000-2004 Eestis liikide kaupa, s.h. ka kitseliha] / Matti Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Matti, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk. 20-22. 2004. a. vähenes sealihatoodang 3%, lamba- ja kitseliha toodang 25%.Veise- ja linnuliha tootmine kasvas kubki 5%. Tabel: Lihatoodang aastatel 2000-2004

  17. Mahepõllumajandus : [1999-2004, ka ökomärgist] / Peeter Prass

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prass, Peeter

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk.43-45. Hinnanguliselt moodustas 2004. a. mahepõllundusega hõivatud maa üldisest põllumajandusmaast alla 5%. Piimalehmadest olid maheloomad veidi üle 2%. Diagrammid

  18. Internetiside VoIP sobib ka ettevõtteile / Valdur Laid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laid, Valdur, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 8. juuni lk. 19. Kommunikatsiooni liikumisest internetti ehk IP-võrku ning selle võimalustest ettevõtjaile. Vt. samas: Väikefirmade IP-lahendus jõuab aasta lõpus massturule

  19. Rahvusriigid mängivad ka globaliseeruvas ilmas põhirolli / Dani Rodrik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodrik, Dani

    2011-01-01

    Majandusprofessori sõnul on riikidel õigus kaitsta oma regulatsioone ja institutsioone. Peame aktsepteerima, et riigid võivad toetada siseriiklikke reegleid - maksupoliitikat, finantsreegleid, tööjõustandardeid - ja ka piiril tõkkeid luues, kui kaubavahetus ähvardab siseriiklikke tavasid

  20. Muusikamaailm : "Passioon 2000" Stuttgardis. Ojai festivalilt. Boulez dirigeerib ka Edinburghis. Placido Domingo Helsingis / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Stuttgardi Rahvusvahelisel Bachi Akadeemia korraldataval Euroopa muusikafestivalil ettekandele tulevatest "tänapäevastest passioonidest". Ojai muusikafestivalist Jaapanis. P. Boulezi 75. sünnipäevale pühendatud kontserdisari "Boulez 2000" jõudis ka Edinburghi festivalile. P. Domingo kontserdist Helsingi olümpiastaadionil, K. Mattila kontserdist Helsingi Areenal

  1. Ettevõtja saab raha ka otse Brüsselist / Silva Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Silva, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Lisaks mitmetele Eesti asutustele, mis alates sellest aastast EL-i struktuurifondide kaudu raha jagama hakkavad, on ettevõtjatel võimalik taotleda erinevate programmide kaudu raha ka otse EL-i eelarvest. Lisa: Otse saab raha taotleda mitmest programmist

  2. Kodumaine allhange jõuab ka siinsete tootjateni / Ain Alvela ; kommenteerinud Ardo Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvela, Ain, 1967-

    2015-01-01

    Metallitööfirma OÜ Haapsalu Metal on Rootsi kapitalile kuuluv allhanketellimustele spetsialiseerunud ettevõte, mille tootevalikusse kuuluvad näiteks ka Eesti ettevõtete tellimusel valminud saetööstusseadmed, kalatööstuse automatiseeritud tootmisliinid, metsatraktorite keskliigendid, turbakaevandamiseks mõeldud masinate ümberseadistamine ning võistlusautode detailid

  3. A North Atlantic tephrostratigraphical framework for 130-60 ka b2k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwan M., Davis; Peter M., Abbott; Rhian H., Meara

    2014-01-01

    Building chronological frameworks for proxy sequences spanning 130e60 ka b2k is plagued by difficulties and uncertainties. Recent developments in the North Atlantic region, however, affirm the potential offered by tephrochronology and specifically the search for cryptotephra. Here we review...

  4. Tourism potentials of the Raška region and development of rural tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Mila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find solutions for stopping negative economic processes in the Raška region, as well as land reclamation and depopulation of villages, one of the main activities is adequate restructuration of the economy, according to available resources. In this paper we analyze a place of tourism in the Raška region, as an activity to which is not given appropriate developmental role in the previous development policies, as opposed to diverse and attractive natural and anthropogenic values. In the paper we identify the most significant tourism potentials of the Raška region and their evaluation score. Special attention is given to rural tourism as one of the activities that can have a greater role in future plans for demographic and economic revitalization of this area. We analyze the current state of rural tourism in the Raška region, and indicate main limiting factors that prevent rapid development of this, in many ways, primary form of tourism.

  5. Ka-Band PAA for Satellite Telemetry System for RLVs & Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed antenna is a Radial-Waveguide Array (RWA) that will operate at Ka band, 25.5-27.5 GHz in transmit and receive for left-hand, right-hand. This Phase I...

  6. Muusikamaailm : "Passioon 2000" Stuttgardis. Ojai festivalilt. Boulez dirigeerib ka Edinburghis. Placido Domingo Helsingis / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Stuttgardi Rahvusvahelisel Bachi Akadeemia korraldataval Euroopa muusikafestivalil ettekandele tulevatest "tänapäevastest passioonidest". Ojai muusikafestivalist Jaapanis. P. Boulezi 75. sünnipäevale pühendatud kontserdisari "Boulez 2000" jõudis ka Edinburghi festivalile. P. Domingo kontserdist Helsingi olümpiastaadionil, K. Mattila kontserdist Helsingi Areenal

  7. Desert evolution and climatic changes in the Tarim River basin since 12 ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯起; 苏志珠; 金会军

    1999-01-01

    Climatic changes in the Tarim River basin since 12 kaBP were divided into four stages based on the analyses of sedimentary phase, the features of some climatic and environmental biomarks in the sedimentary strata and desert evolution. During the Holocene, cool-dry and temperate-dry climates resulted in apparent alluvial-fluvial and weak aeolian activities. During 10—8 kaBP, the climate was dry and cold, large-scale sand dunes activities led to regional desert expansion. During the hypsithermal (8—3 kaBP), the climate was dry and warm, shifting sand areas decreased and a lot of sand dunes were fixed along the banks of the Tarim River and its tributaries, lowlands and lakes. As a result, fluvial-alluvial areas increased. Since 3 kaBP, the aeolian activity and sandstorms have been enhancing due to the combined influences of climatic warming and illogical exploitation of land and water resources. The climate in the Tarim River basin have been persistently dry and alternated by warm and cold periods. Conse

  8. Results from Three Years of Ka-Band Propagation Characterization at Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James; Zemba, Michael; Morse, Jacquelynne

    2015-01-01

    Over the next several years, NASA plans to launch several earth science missions which are expected to achieve data throughputs of 5-40 terabits per day transmitted from low earth orbiting spacecraft to ground stations. The current S-band and X-band frequency allocations in use by NASA, however, are incapable of supporting the data rates required to meet this demand. As such, NASA is in the planning stages to upgrade its existing Near Earth Network (NEN) polar ground stations to support Ka-band (25.5-27 GHz) operations. Consequently, it installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the Svalbard site. Svalbard was chosen as the appropriate site for two primary reasons: (1) Svalbard will be the first site to be upgraded to Ka-band operations within the NEN Polar Network enhancement plan, and (2) there exists a complete lack of Ka-band propagation data at this site (as opposed to the Fairbanks, AK NEN site, which has 5 years of characterization collected during the Advanced Communications Technology becomes imperative that characterization of propagation effects at these NEN sites is conducted to determine expected system Satellite (ACTS) campaign). processing and provide the Herein, we discuss the data three-year measurement results performance, particularly at low elevation angles ((is) less than 10 deg) from the ongoing Ka-band propagation characterization where spacecraft signal acquisition typically occurs. Since May 2011, NASA Glenn Research Center has installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the NEN site located in Svalbard, Norway. The Ka-band radiometer monitors the water vapor line, as well as 4 frequencies around 26.5 GHz at a fixed 10 deg elevation angle. Three-year data collection results indicate good campaign at Svalbard, Norway. Comparison of these results with the ITU models and existing ERA profile data indicates very good agreement when the 2010 rain maps and cloud statistics are used. Finally, the Svalbard data is used to derive the expected

  9. Prediction of the pKa's of aqueous metal ion +2 complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Virgil E; Felmy, Andrew R; Dixon, David A

    2015-03-26

    Aqueous metal ions play an important role in many areas of chemistry. The acidities of [Be(H2O)4](2+), [M(H2O)6](2+), M = Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Hg(2+), and [M(H2O)n](2+), M = Ca(2+) and Sr(2+), n = 7 and 8, complexes have been predicted using density functional theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory in the gas phase. pKa's in aqueous solution were predicted by using self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations with different solvation models. The most common binding motif of the majority of the metal +2 complexes is coordination number (CN) 6, with each hexaaquo cluster having reasonably high symmetry for the best arrangement of the water molecules in the first solvation shell. Be(2+) is tetracoordinated, but a second solvation shell of 8 waters is needed to predict the pKa. The Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) aquo clusters have a coordination number of 7 or 8 as found in terms of the energy of the reaction M(H2O)7(2+) + H2O → M(H2O)8(2+) and the pKa values. The calculated geometries are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The SCRF calculations with the conductor-like screening model (COSMO), and the conductor polarized continuum model (CPCM) using COSMO-RS radii, consistently agree best with experiment at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ levels of theory. The CCSD(T) level provides the most accurate pKa's, and the MP2 level also provides reliable predictions. Our predictions were used to elucidate the properties of metal +2 ion complexes. The pKa predictions provide confirmation of the size of the first solvation shell sizes. The calculations show that it is still difficult to predict pKa's using this cluster/implicit solvent approach to better than 1 pKa unit.

  10. Reproducing basic pKa values for turkey ovomucoid third domain using a polarizable force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, Timothy H; Kaminski, George A

    2009-06-04

    We have extended our previous studies of calculating acidity constants for the acidic residues found in the turkey ovomucoid third domain protein (OMTKY3) by determining the relative pKa values for the basic residues (Lys13, Arg21, Lys29, Lys34, His52, and Lys55). A polarizable force field (PFF) was employed. The values of the pKa were found by direct comparison of energies of solvated protonated and deprotonated forms of the protein. Poisson-Boltzmann (PBF) and surface generalized Born (SGB) continuum solvation models represent the hydration, and a nonpolarizable fixed-charge OPLS-AA force field was used for comparison. Our results indicate that (i) the pKa values of the basic residues can be found in close agreement with the experimental values when a PFF is used in conjunction with the PBF solvation model, (ii) it is sufficient to take into the account only the residues which are in close proximity (hydrogen bonded) to the residue in question, and (iii) the PBF solvation model is superior to the SGB solvation model for these pKa calculations. The average error with the PBF/PFF model is only 0.7 pH unit, compared with 2.2 and 6.1 units for the PBF/OPLS and SGB/OPLS, respectively. The maximum deviation of the PBF/PFF results from the experimental values is 1.7 pH units compared with 6.0 pH units for the PBF/OPLS. Moreover, the best results were obtained while using an advanced nonpolar energy calculation scheme. The overall conclusion is that this methodology and force field are suitable for the accurate assessment of pKa shifts for both acidic and basic protein residues.

  11. Influence of paragenetic factors on production and chemical composition of Paška sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the produced Paška sheep milk is entirely processed in Pag cheese, it is of great importance to ensure a uniform milk production of prescribed chemical composition and hygienic quality. In addition to genotype, as the most important factor, the production and quality of sheep milk is affected by numerous physiological factors, so the aim of this research was to determine the influence of paragenetic factors (stage and number of lactation on daily milk yield and chemical composition (total solids, milk fat, protein, casein, lactose, total solids non fat of Paška sheep milk. Three herds were chosen by random selection within the areas of Kolan and Caska, and survey was conducted on a total of 213 Paška sheep. Stage of lactation was divided to: the beginning (to 50th-day, the middle (from 51st till 100thday and the end (101st -day till dry out of lactation. Depending on the number of lactation, sheep were grouped into five groups (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and others. A significant influence of stage and number of lactation on average daily milk yield and analysed chemical composition parameters was determined. The Paška sheep had the highest daily milk production in the mid lactation (773 g, and the third lactation (712 g recorded. At the end of lactation, total solids, milk fat, protein, casein, total solids non fat in milk were significantly higher than at the beginning and middle of lactation. The highest share of total solids, milk fat, protein and casein was determined in Paška sheep milk at 5th lactation and other lactations. Between the individual parameters significantcorrelation coefficients were determined.

  12. Dichroic Filter for Separating W-Band and Ka-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Larry W.; Durden, Stephen L.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Long, Ezra M.; Sosnowski, John B.; Higuera, Raymond J.; Chen, Jacqueline C.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACEs) mission development would advance cloud profiling radar from that used in CloudSat by adding a 35-GHz (Ka-band) channel to the 94-GHz (W-band) channel used in CloudSat. In order to illuminate a single antenna, and use CloudSat-like quasi-optical transmission lines, a spatial diplexer is needed to add the Ka-band channel. A dichroic filter separates Ka-band from W-band by employing advances in electrical discharge machining (EDM) and mode-matching analysis techniques developed and validated for designing dichroics for the Deep Space Network (DSN), to develop a preliminary design that both met the requirements of frequency separation and mechanical strength. First, a mechanical prototype was built using an approximately 102-micron-diameter EDM process, and tolerances of the hole dimensions, wall thickness, radius, and dichroic filter thickness measured. The prototype validated the manufacturing needed to design a dichroic filter for a higher-frequency usage than previously used in the DSN. The initial design was based on a Ka-band design, but thicker walls are required for mechanical rigidity than one obtains by simply scaling the Ka-band dichroic filter. The resulting trade of hole dimensions for mechanical rigidity (wall thickness) required electrical redesign of the hole dimensions. Updates to existing codes in the linear solver decreased the analysis time using mode-matching, enabling the electrical design to be realized quickly. This work is applicable to missions and instruments that seek to extend W-band cloud profiling measurements to other frequencies. By demonstrating a dichroic filter that passes W-band, but reflects a lower frequency, this opens up the development of instruments that both compare to and enhance CloudSat.

  13. KaBOB: ontology-based semantic integration of biomedical databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kevin M; Bada, Michael; Baumgartner, William A; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2015-04-23

    The ability to query many independent biological databases using a common ontology-based semantic model would facilitate deeper integration and more effective utilization of these diverse and rapidly growing resources. Despite ongoing work moving toward shared data formats and linked identifiers, significant problems persist in semantic data integration in order to establish shared identity and shared meaning across heterogeneous biomedical data sources. We present five processes for semantic data integration that, when applied collectively, solve seven key problems. These processes include making explicit the differences between biomedical concepts and database records, aggregating sets of identifiers denoting the same biomedical concepts across data sources, and using declaratively represented forward-chaining rules to take information that is variably represented in source databases and integrating it into a consistent biomedical representation. We demonstrate these processes and solutions by presenting KaBOB (the Knowledge Base Of Biomedicine), a knowledge base of semantically integrated data from 18 prominent biomedical databases using common representations grounded in Open Biomedical Ontologies. An instance of KaBOB with data about humans and seven major model organisms can be built using on the order of 500 million RDF triples. All source code for building KaBOB is available under an open-source license. KaBOB is an integrated knowledge base of biomedical data representationally based in prominent, actively maintained Open Biomedical Ontologies, thus enabling queries of the underlying data in terms of biomedical concepts (e.g., genes and gene products, interactions and processes) rather than features of source-specific data schemas or file formats. KaBOB resolves many of the issues that routinely plague biomedical researchers intending to work with data from multiple data sources and provides a platform for ongoing data integration and development and for

  14. Cysteine pKa Depression by a Protonated Glutamic Acid in Human DJ-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Anna C.; Lakshminarasimhan, Mahadevan; Remington, Benjamin C.; Hasim, Sahar; Pozharski, Edwin; Wilson, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Human DJ-1, a disease-associated protein that protects cells from oxidative stress, contains an oxidation-sensitive cysteine (C106) that is essential for its cytoprotective activity. The origin of C106 reactivity is obscure, due in part to the absence of an experimentally determined pKa value for this residue. We have used atomic resolution X-ray crystallography and UV spectroscopy to show that C106 has a depressed pKa of 5.4±0.1 and that the C106 thiolate accepts a hydrogen bond from a protonated glutamic acid sidechain (E18). X-ray crystal structures and cysteine pKa analysis of several site-directed substitutions at residue 18 demonstrate that the protonated carboxylic acid sidechain of E18 is required to maximally stabilize the C106 thiolate. A nearby arginine residue (R48) participates in a guanidinium stacking interaction with R28 from the other monomer in the DJ-1 dimer and elevates the pKa of C106 by binding an anion that electrostatically suppresses thiol ionization. Our results show that the ionizable residues (E18, R48 and R28) surrounding C106 affect its pKa in a way that is contrary to expectations based on the typical ionization behavior of glutamic acid and arginine. Lastly, a search of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) produces several candidate hydrogen bonded aspartic/glutamic acid-cysteine interactions, which we propose are particularly common in the DJ-1 superfamily. PMID:18570440

  15. A ˜25 ka Indian Ocean monsoon variability record from the Andaman Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, H.; Flower, B. P.; Poore, R. Z.; Quinn, T. M.

    2007-10-01

    Recent paleoclimatic work on terrestrial and marine deposits from Asia and the Indian Ocean has indicated abrupt changes in the strength of the Asian monsoon during the last deglaciation. Comparison of marine paleoclimate records that track salinity changes from Asian rivers can help evaluate the coherence of the Indian Ocean monsoon (IOM) with the larger Asian monsoon. Here we present paired Mg/Ca and δ 18O data on the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber (white) from Andaman Sea core RC12-344 that provide records of sea-surface temperature (SST) and δ 18O of seawater (δ 18O sw) over the past 25,000 years (ka) before present (BP). Age control is based on nine accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates on mixed planktic foraminifera. Mg/Ca-SST data indicate that SST was ˜3 °C cooler during the last glacial maximum (LGM) than the late Holocene. Andaman Sea δ 18O sw exhibited higher than present values during the Lateglacial interval ca 19-15 ka BP and briefly during the Younger Dryas ca 12 ka BP. Lower than present δ 18O sw values during the BØlling/AllerØd ca 14.5-12.6 ka BP and during the early Holocene ca 10.8-5.5 ka BP are interpreted to indicate lower salinity, reflect some combination of decreased evaporation-precipitation (E-P) over the Andaman Sea and increased Irrawaddy River outflow. Our results are consistent with the suggestion that IOM intensity was stronger than present during the BØlling/AllerØd and early Holocene, and weaker during the late glaciation, Younger Dryas, and the late Holocene. These findings support the hypothesis that rapid climate change during the last deglaciation and Holocene included substantial hydrologic changes in the IOM system that were coherent with the larger Asian monsoon.

  16. Kinetička i termička svojstva sirove i pročišćene β-galaktozidaze, upotrijebljenih za proizvodnju galaktooligosaharida

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    β-Galaktozidaza je enzim koji katalizira hidrolizu laktoze. Primjenjuje se u prehrambenoj i mliječnoj industriji za dobivanje proizvoda sa smanjenim udjelom laktoze. U ovom su radu ispitana svojstva dvaju enzima, sirove i pročišćene β-galaktozidaze, dobivenih iz sojeva kvasca Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082 i Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 16045. Određeni su sljedeći parametri: optimalna pH-vrijednost i temperatura, energija deaktivacije, termička stabilnost, kinetički i termodinamički paramet...

  17. Lorraine Stevenin suudab hullumeelset töötempot jätkata ka koos lapsega / Teeli Remmelg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remmelg, Teeli

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 22. juuni lk. 10. Välismeediafirma JCDecaux Unicom juhi hinnangul ei takista lapse sünd töötamist. Lisad: Lorraine Stevenin; Eesti väiksus on nii eelis kui ka puudus. Kommenteerib JCDecaux Unicom Eesti OÜ müügidirektor Kristiina Kõiv

  18. Bottom water oxygenation history in southeastern Arabian Sea during the past 140 ka: Results from redox-sensitive elements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Pearce, N.J.G.

    history throughout the past 140 ka. The enrichment of redox-sensitive elements (Re, U, Cd and Sb) above average crustal abundances suggests that the Last Glacial Maxima (17.48 ka), stadials of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)-5 (5b and 5d) and Glacial...

  19. 75 FR 28095 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “E Ku Ana Ka Paia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``E Ku Ana Ka Paia: Unification... 15, 2003 , I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``E Ku Ana Ka...

  20. "Petruška pärastlõuna" : Kolm pilti ja küsimused / Leenu Nigu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nigu, Leenu

    2010-01-01

    Vanemuise Teatris 20. märtsil esietendunud Rootsi Koreograafi Pontus Lindbergi ballettist "Petruška" Igor Stravinski "Petruška", Claude Debussy "Fauni pärastlõuna" ja Maurice Raveli laulutsükli "Šeherezade" muusikale

  1. Seasonal hypoxia was a natural feature of the coastal zone in the Little Belt, Denmark, during the past 8 ka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helmond, N.A.G.M.; Krupinski, Nadine Quintana; Lougheed, Bryan; Obrochta, Stephen; Andrén, Thomas; Slomp, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    The extent of the hypoxic area in the Baltic Sea has rapidly expanded over the past century. Two previous phases of widespread hypoxia, coinciding with the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4 ka before present; BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 2–0.8 ka BP), have been identified. Relatively

  2. Dual Ka-band radar field campaign for GPM/DPR algorithm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, K.; Nishikawa, M.; Nakamura, K.; Komachi, K.; Hanado, H.; Kawamura, S.; Sugitani, S.; Minda, H.; Shimizu, S.; Oki, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an expanded follow-on mission to TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and a GPM core satellite will carry dual frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and a GPM Microwave Imager on board. The DPR, which is being developed by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), consists of two radars; Ku-band precipitation radar (KuPR) and Ka-band radar (KaPR). The DPR is expected to advance precipitation science by expanding the coverage of observations to higher latitudes than those of the TRMM/PR, measuring snow and light rain by the KaPR, and providing drop size distribution information based on the differential attenuation of echoes at two frequencies. In order to secure the quality of precipitation estimates, ground validation (GV) of satellite data and retrieval algorithms is essential. Since end-to-end comparisons between instantaneous precipitation data observed by satellite and ground-based instruments is not enough to improve the algorithms. The error of various physical parameters in the precipitation retrieval algorithms (e.g. attenuation factor, drop size distribution, terminal velocity, density of the snow particles, etc.) will be estimated by the comparison with the ground-based observation data. A dual Ka-band radar system is developed by the JAXA for the GPM/DPR algorithm development. The dual Ka-radar system which consists of two identical Ka-band radars can measure both the specific attenuation and the equivalent radar reflectivity at Ka-band. Those parameters are important particularly for snow measurement. Using the dual Ka-radar system along with other instruments, such as a polarimetric precipitation radar, a wind-profiler radar, ground-based precipitation measurement systems, the uncertainties of the parameters in the DPR algorithm can be reduced. The verification of improvement of rain retrieval with the DPR algorithm is

  3. Eolian depositional phases during the past 50 ka and inferred climate variability for the Pampean Sand Sea, western Pampas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripaldi, Alfonsina; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-05-01

    The Pampean Sand Sea, which occurs from the Argentinian Pampas to the eastern Andean piedmont, hosts presently stabilized dune fields spanning the late Quaternary. This study integrates previous results and presents new geomorphic, stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronologic data for nineteen >2 m-thick eolian successions for the San Luis paleo-dune field, western Pampas, to better constrain the depositional history. Six eolian depositional phases are identified spanning the past 50 ka, interposed with paleosols and/or bounded by erosive surfaces. Age control was from 61 OSL ages of small aliquots of quartz grains from eolian stratigraphic units. The inferred timing of eolian phases are at ca. 70 ± 10 yr, 190 ± 20 yr, 12 to 1 ka, 22 to 17 ka, 29 to 24 ka, and 40 to 32 ka. A maximum span for periods of pedogenesis at ca. 12 to 17 ka, 22 to 24 ka, and 29 to 32 ka was provided by bounding OSL ages, which broadly overlap with high stands of pluvial lakes and glacier advances in the central Andes. We infer that the added precipitation may reflect expansion of the Southern Hemisphere monsoon, associated with Northern Hemisphere Heinrich events, leading to episodes of significantly wetter conditions (>350 mm MAP) to at least 35° S. Most of the Holocene (12 ka to 0.8 ka) was characterized by sand sheet deposit under drier than present conditions (100-450 mm MAP), associated with Monte-type vegetation (shrub steppe). The latest two eolian depositional phases, occurred at ca. 190 and 70 yr ago, during the historic period with European settlement and are related to anthropogenic landscape disturbance, though the youngest phase was concomitant with 1930s drought. Wet conditions dominated since ca. AD 1970 with new lakes and rivers forming across this eolian terrain; an incongruous environmental response in reference to drier conditions for most of the Holocene.

  4. The Effect of Spatial Scale on Paleovegetation Data-Model Comparisons for 6 ka and 21 ka in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.; Thompson, R. S.; Strickland, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    Climate-model simulations of past climates are often evaluated using both paleovegetation proxy data (e.g., pollen) and model simulations of past vegetation. These data-model comparison efforts provide important information for evaluating paleoclimate model simulations, and also for refining interpretations of paleovegetation proxy data and improving our understanding of past climate-vegetation interactions. A common limitation of these data-model comparisons is that the spatial resolution of paleoclimate simulations is frequently coarser than the spatial scales represented by the vegetation proxy data. This difference in spatial resolution is particularly important in topographically complex regions, such as the western United States. We used climate data simulated by coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models for 6 ka and 21 ka from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 2 (PMIP2) database to evaluate the effects of spatial scale on the agreement between simulated and observed paleovegetation data. The climate data were downscaled to spatial resolutions of 30-minutes and finer and used with BIOME4, an equilibrium biogeography model, to simulate equilibrium vegetation for the western United States. The simulated vegetation was compared with fossil pollen and macrofossil data for the same region from the BIOME6000 data set. The results indicate the sensitivity of different vegetation types to changes in the spatial resolution of the data-model comparison and demonstrate the importance of data aggregation and spatial scale in evaluating data-model agreement.

  5. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the older (> 40 ka) ignimbrites on the Campanian Plain, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, H. E.; Rolandi, G.; Jackson, J. C.; Cannatelli, C.; Doherty, A. L.; Petrosino, P.; De Vivo, B.

    2016-09-01

    The Campanian Plain in southern Italy has been volcanically active for at least the last 300 ka. The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) erupted at 39.3 ka, has a volume of ≥ 310 km3 and a great areal extent. However, significant, but scattered deposits of older ignimbrites underlie the CI and document a long history of volcanism. We examined the mineralogy and geochemistry of 11 older ignimbrite strata by optical petrography, electron microprobe, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and various whole-rock geochemical techniques. We have analyzed strata at Durazzano (116.1 ka), Moschiano (184.7 ka), Seiano Valley (245.9 and 289.6 ka), and Taurano - Acqua Feconia (157.4, 183.8, 205.6, and 210.4 ka) that have been previously dated on unaltered sanidine. The older ignimbrites are highly altered with loss on ignition (LOI) that ranges from 17 to 8 wt%. Whole-rock compositions reflect variable element mobility during weathering; e.g., CaO is enriched and Na2O depleted relative to hydration. X-ray diffraction identified major chabazite, kaolinite, and illite alteration products in some samples. Rhabdophane-(Nd), usually intergrown with chabazite and Mn-carbonate, indicates that some LREE were also mobilized during weathering. The phenocryst mineralogy is typical for Campanian Plain (CP) magmas and consists of plagioclase (An88 Ab11 Or1 to An32 Ab63 Or5), potassium feldspar (Or40 Ab57 An3 to Or79 Ab18 An3), biotite (TiO2 = ~ 4-7 wt%, BaO = up to 2 wt%, F = up to 2 wt%), diopside (Ca47Mg47Fe6 to Ca48Mg29Fe23), and titaniferous magnetite. Relatively immobile trace elements Zr, Hf, Th, Ta, V, and Nb were used to investigate element abundance and ratio compared to the Campanian Ignimbrite and other CP magmas. Zr/Hf of the older ignimbrites is similar to that of the CI, but Ta is depleted relative to Th and V is enriched compared to CI. Th/Ta and Nb/V distributions for most of the older ignimbrites are similar to those in the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff with the exception of

  6. Experimental characterization of negative refractive index material NRM at Ka band

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sougata

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the experimental characterization of a negative refractive material NRM at Ka band using LR labyrinth Ring and wire array WA. We describe in detail the the LR and wire array characterization separately, and after that the combined experimental results, for NRM are reported. The LRs analytical and simulation study is not new but design in Ka band and different experimental procedure for the characterization of the negative refractive index is the novelty of this paper. For performing a negative refractive index experiment we made prism of 150 Prism angle . We get enhanced transmittance of more than 20 dB from background, at a negative angle of refraction. The values of the negative refractive index in a band of about 1 G Hz around 31 GHz are retrieved from the experimental data.

  7. Atlas operation in the GridKa Tier1/Tier2 Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Nderitu, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Duckeck, G; Serfon, C; Petzold, A; Harenberg, T; Schultes, J; Kawamura, G; Sundermann, J; Meyer, J; Olszewski, A; Leffhalm, K; Kalinin, S

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS GridKa cloud consists of the GridKa Tier1 centre and 12 Tier2 sites from five countries associated to it. Over the last years a well defined and tested operation model evolved. Several core cloud services need to be operated and closely monitored: distributed data management, involving data replication, deletion and consistency checks; support for ATLAS production activities, which includes Monte Carlo simulation, reprocessing and pilot factory operation; continuous checks of data availability and performance for user analysis; software installation and database setup. Of crucial importance is good communication between sites, operations team and ATLAS as well as efficient cloud level monitoring tools. The presentation will give an overview of the operations model and ATLAS services within the cloud and focus on the experience gained since real LHC data taking has started.

  8. Atlas operation in the GridKa Tier1/Tier2 Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Nderitu, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Duckeck, G; Serfon, C; Petzold, A; Harenberg, T; Schultes, J; Kawamura, G; Sundermann, J; Meyer, J; Olszewski, A; Leffhalm, K

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS GridKa cloud consists of the GridKa Tier1 centre and 12 Tier2 sites from five countries associated to it. Over the last years a well defined and tested operation model evolved. Several core cloud services need to be operated and closely monitored: distributed data management, involving data replication, deletion and consistency checks; support for ATLAS production activities, which includes Monte Carlo simulation, reprocessing and pilot factory operation; continuous checks of data availability and performance for user analysis; software installation and database setup. Of crucial importance is good communication between sites, operations team and ATLAS as well as efficient cloud level monitoring tools. The presentation will give an overview of the operations model and ATLAS services within the cloud and focus on the experience gained since real LHC data taking has started.

  9. Architecture of villas as an element of identity of Vrnjačka Banja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Igor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of villas stands out as one of the recognizable characteristics of Vrnjačka Banja's physical structure and as a distinctive type of objects forming the tourist offer. Analyses of position, function and importance of villa architecture in shaping the identity of Vrnjačka Banja are based on the conviction that organized space and built environment, as a result of design and planning processes, have decisive role in forming the identity of places and making them recognizable. In this paper, architectural elements that characterize this type of objects are being analyzed. Also, the role that singled out elements have at higher urban levels, firstly in creating characteristic, recognizable architectural and urban ensembles, and consequently in identity forming, is pointed out. These issues are considered in terms of tourism development, as a precondition for making recognizable city with possibilities for branding, that consequently improve the exploiting of the tourist potentials.

  10. Comparison of excitotoxic profiles of ATPA, AMPA, KA and NMDA in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    2001-01-01

    ) values was found after 2 days of exposure: AMPA (3.7 mM)>NMDA (11 mM)=KA (13 mM)>ATPA (33 mM). Exposed to 30 microM ATPA, 3 microM AMPA and 10 microM NMDA, CA1 was the most susceptible subfield followed by fascia dentata and CA3. Using 8 microM KA, CA3 was the most susceptible subfield, followed...... by fascia dentata and CA1. In 100 microM concentrations, all four agonists induced the same, maximal PI uptake in all hippocampal subfields, corresponding to total neuronal degeneration. Using glutamate receptor antagonists, like GYKI 52466, NBQX and MK-801, inhibition data revealed that AMPA excitotoxicity...

  11. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND RF CHARACTERIZATION OF KA-BAND SILICON IMPATT DIODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAPAS KUMAR PAL,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A silicon (p+nn+ SDR IMPATT diode for Ka-band operation has been designed by using a double iterative DC and Small signal simulation which involves simultaneous solution of Poisson’s equation and Carrier continuity equation, satisfying appropriate boundary conditions in the depletion layer edges. Using the design parameters,silicon epitaxial n/n+ wafers of appropriate thickness and resistivity of the epitaxial layer have been selected for fabrication of (p+nn+ SDR IMPATT diode for Ka-band operation. The (p+nn+ SDR IMPATT diode has been fabricated through diffusion technique. The optimized process steps of fabrication, starting from wafer cleaningto packaging have been described in details. The DC V-I and RF characteristics of fabricated IMPATT diode have been measured by using an integrated heat sink cum resonant cap waveguide cavity.

  12. Test results of the 18 kA EDIPO HTS current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesche, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.wesche@psi.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association Euratom - Confederation Suisse, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bagnasco, Maurizio; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Felder, Roland; Guetg, Marc; Holenstein, Manuel; Jenni, Markus; March, Stephen; Roth, Felix; Vogel, Martin [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association Euratom - Confederation Suisse, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    For the new test facility EDIPO (European DIPOle), to be hosted by CRPP, two 18 kA HTS current leads were manufactured and successfully tested. The HTS module, made of AgMgAu/Bi-2223 tapes, is cooled only by heat conduction to the cold end, while the copper part is cooled by forced flow helium gas. The current leads were tested at low voltage up to the maximum current of 18 kA. The helium mass flow rates required for stable operation at various currents were determined. In addition to the steady state operation, the transient behavior in the case of a loss of flow was studied experimentally. The test results provide an estimate of the operational limits of the EDIPO HTS current leads.

  13. MOREŠKA I MATTACCINO U ITALIJI — OKO 1450.-1630.

    OpenAIRE

    Sparti, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    "Moreška je najčešće spominjan ples iz 15. stoljeća ali ga je unatoč tome najteže klasificirati i opisati u čitavoj povijesti plesa" (Curt Sachs). Moreška se u svakoj zemlji razvijala na različite načine. U Italiji je taj pojam imao čitav niz značenja: mimički, plesani "balet" (često s alegorijskim temama); osobiti tradicijski ples; bojevni ples; poseban plesni korak. U talijanskoj moreški nikad se ne spominju Maori, nevjernici ili kršćani, a moreški sličan ples mattaccin...

  14. Korsun-Shevchenkivs’ka Offensive of Soviet Troops (January — February 1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ramazanov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The author considers one of the many battles of the Second World War, which had a direct bearing on the liberation of Ukraine from German invaders. Analyzes the planning and preparation by the Soviet command Korsun-Shevchenkivs’ka Operation Ukeraine on the Right Bank. Events this operation unfolded mainly in the region of the Dnieper near Kaniv. Consider in detail the conduct of the Soviet offensive and the counterattack of the German command, which sought to rescue the encircled troops. The data of the Soviet and German historians regarding the loss of the German forces during the military operation. The author concludes that, due to implementation of Korsun-Shevchenkivs’ka operations for the Soviet army has opened up new opportunities to further advance and the final liberation of Ukraine from Nazi invaders.

  15. Ka-band InSAR Imaging and Analysis Based on IMU Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Jun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared with other bands, the millimeter wave Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR has high accuracy and small size, which is a hot topic in InSAR research. On the other hand, shorter wavelength causes difficulties in 2D imaging and interferometric phase extraction. In this study, the imaging and phase performance of the streaming Back Projection (BP method combined with IMU data are analyzed and discussed on the basis of actual Ka-band InSAR data. It is found that because the wavelength of the Ka-band is short, it is more sensitive to the antenna phase-center history. To ensure the phase-preserving capacity, the IMU data must be used with accurate motion error compensation. Furthermore, during data processing, we verify the flat-earth-removing capacity of the BP algorithm that calculates and compensates the master and slave antenna phase centers individually.

  16. Grain-size cycles in Salawusu River valley since 150 ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The palaeo-mobile dune sands and fluvio-lacustrine facies with palaeosols in Milanggouwan stratigraphic section of the Salawusu River valley situated at the southeast of the Mu Us Desert experienced abundant remarkable alternative changes of coarse and fine rhythms in grainsize since 150 ka BP, and the grain-size parameters - Mz, σ, Sk, Kg and SC/I also respond to the situation of multi-fluctuational alternations between peak and valley values. Simultaneity the grainsize eigenvalues - Ф5, Ф16, P25, Ф50, Ф75, Ф84 and Ф95 are respondingly manifested as greatly cadent jumpiness. Hereby, the Milanggouwan section can be divided into 27 grain-size coarse and fine sedimentary cycles, which can be regarded as a real and integreted record of climate-geological process of desert vicissitude resulted from the alternative evolvement of the ancient winter and summer monsoons of East Asia since 150 ka BP.

  17. Royal sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis Ka21 (higher Basidiomycetes), as a functional food in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Liu, Ying; Motoi, Masuro; Ohno, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    The Royal Sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis, is used as a natural health product. In Japan, however, the quality control of some of these mushroom products has been viewed as a safety problem. Focusing on the quality control of A. brasiliensis KA21, we have performed several safety studies. To date, we have established evidence that this mushroom can be used safely as an immunostimulant and to mediate biochemical parameters associated with obesity or diabetes. Furthermore, to improve the manufacturing process of this mushroom, we have studied the relationship between its pharmaceutical actions and the conditions of its cultivation and thermal management. The purpose of this review is to report the findings of basic and clinical studies of the fruit body of A. brasiliensis KA21.

  18. Reconfigurable phased antenna array for extending cubesat operations to Ka-band: Design and feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttazzoni, G.; Comisso, M.; Cuttin, A.; Fragiacomo, M.; Vescovo, R.; Vincenti Gatti, R.

    2017-08-01

    Started as educational tools, CubeSats have immediately encountered the favor of the scientific community, subsequently becoming viable platforms for research and commercial applications. To ensure competitive data rates, some pioneers have started to explore the usage of the Ka-band beside the conventional amateur radio frequencies. In this context, this study proposes a phased antenna array design for Ka-band downlink operations consisting of 8×8 circularly polarized subarrays of microstrip patches filling one face of a single CubeSat unit. The conceived structure is developed to support 1.5 GHz bandwidth and dual-task missions, whose feasibility is verified by proper link budgets. The dual-task operations are enabled by a low-complexity phase-only control algorithm that provides pattern reconfigurability in order to satisfy both orbiting and intersatellite missions, while remaining adherent to the cost-effective CubeSat paradigm.

  19. Test results for a subscale (100 kA) SMES splice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Scott D.; Zeigler, John C.

    1994-07-01

    The design for the 20 MW-hr SMES-ETM for the Bechtel concept calls for two splices per turn of conductor, and over 100 turns. The design value of resistance for the splices is on the order of 10(exp -11) ohms (0.4 W/splice at 200 kA), which is an order of magnitude less than the state of the art for high current devices. The splice design utilizes a superconducting braid wrapped around lapped subcables for an extremely low resistance joint. A history of the manufacturing development for the splice is presented. The performance of a sub-scale version of the splice joint has been measured at Texas Accelerator Center. Values of splice resistance at 1.8 K and background fields up to 5 T are reported. Performance of a 100 kA conductor is also reported.

  20. Linking the 8.2 ka Event and its Freshwater Forcing in the Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jeremy S.; Carlson, Anders E.; Winsor, Kelsey; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Andrews, John T.; Strasser, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 8.2 ka event was the last deglacial abrupt climate event. A reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) attributed to the drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz may have caused the event, but the freshwater signature of Lake Agassiz discharge has yet to be identified in (delta)18O of foraminiferal calcite records from the Labrador Sea, calling into question the connection between freshwater discharge to the North Atlantic and AMOC strength. Using Mg/Ca-paleothermometry, we demonstrate that approx. 3 C of near-surface ocean cooling masked an 1.0 % decrease in western Labrador Sea (delta)18O of seawater concurrent with Lake Agassiz drainage. Comparison with North Atlantic (delta)18O of seawater records shows that the freshwater discharge was transported to regions of deep-water formation where it could perturb AMOC and force the 8.2 ka event.

  1. Comparison of excitotoxic profiles of ATPA, AMPA, KA and NMDA in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    2001-01-01

    ) values was found after 2 days of exposure: AMPA (3.7 mM)>NMDA (11 mM)=KA (13 mM)>ATPA (33 mM). Exposed to 30 microM ATPA, 3 microM AMPA and 10 microM NMDA, CA1 was the most susceptible subfield followed by fascia dentata and CA3. Using 8 microM KA, CA3 was the most susceptible subfield, followed...... by fascia dentata and CA1. In 100 microM concentrations, all four agonists induced the same, maximal PI uptake in all hippocampal subfields, corresponding to total neuronal degeneration. Using glutamate receptor antagonists, like GYKI 52466, NBQX and MK-801, inhibition data revealed that AMPA excitotoxicity...

  2. A role for icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, Ane P. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deltares, Department of Morphology and Sedimentary Systems, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jongma, Jochem I. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the potential role of icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event, using a coupled climate model equipped with an iceberg component. First, we evaluate the effect of a large iceberg discharge originating from the decaying Laurentide ice sheet on ocean circulation, compared to a release of an identical volume of freshwater alone. Our results show that, on top of the freshwater effect, a large iceberg discharge facilitates sea-ice growth as a result of lower sea-surface temperatures induced by latent heat of melting. This causes an 8% increased sea-ice cover, 5% stronger reduction in North Atlantic Deep Water production and 1 C lower temperature in Greenland. Second, we use the model to investigate the effect of a hypothetical two-stage lake drainage, which is suggested by several investigators to have triggered the 8.2 ka climate event. To account for the final collapse of the ice-dam holding the Laurentide Lakes we accompany the secondary freshwater pulse in one scenario with a fast 5-year iceberg discharge and in a second scenario with a slow 100-year iceberg discharge. Our experiments show that a two-stage lake drainage accompanied by the collapsing ice-dam could explain the anomalies observed around the 8.2 ka climate event in various climate records. In addition, they advocate a potential role for icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event and illustrate the importance of latent heat of melting in the simulation of climate events that involve icebergs. Our two-stage lake drainage experiments provide a framework in the discussion of two-stage lake drainage and ice sheet collapse. (orig.)

  3. Pöffi filme näeb ka Ida-Virumaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Avatakse IX Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali põhiprogramm, millest osa linastub ka Jõhvis ja Narvas. Lisatud PÖFFi programm Narva kultuurikeskuses Rugodiv ja dokumentaalfilmi "Sügavas kurgus" tutvustus : režissöörid Fenton Bailey, Randy Barbato : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Film käsitleb 1972.a. kurikuulsa pornofilmi "Sügav kurk" ("Deep Throat") fenomeni

  4. Electrostatic pKa computations in proteins: role of internal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tim; Kieseritzky, Gernot; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2011-12-01

    The solvent accessible surface area (SASA) algorithm is conventionally used to characterize protein surfaces in electrostatic energy computations of proteins. Unfortunately, it often fails to find narrow cavities inside a protein. As a consequence pK(a) computations based on this algorithm perform badly. In this study a new cavity-algorithm is introduced, which solves this problem and provides improved pK(a) values. The procedure is applied to 20 pK(a) values of titratable groups introduced as point mutations in SNase variants, where crystal structures are available. The computations of these pK(a)s are particular challenging, since they are placed in a rather hydrophobic environment. For nine mutants, where the titratable residue is in contact with a large cavity, the RMSD(pKa) between computed and measured pK(a) values is 2.04, which is a considerable improvement as compared to the original results obtained with Karlsberg(+) (http://agknapp.chemie.fu-berlin.de/karlsberg/) that yielded an RMSD(pKa) of 8.8. However, for 11 titratable residues the agreement with experiments remains poor (RMSD(pKa) = 6.01). Considering 15 pK(a)s of SNase, which are in a more conventional less hydrophobic protein environment, the RMSD(pKa) is 2.1 using the SASA-algorithm and 1.7 using the new cavity-algorithm. The agreement is reasonable but less good than what one would expect from the general performance of Karlsberg(+) indicating that SNase belongs to the more difficult proteins with respect to pK(a) computations. We discuss the possible reasons for the remaining discrepancies between computed and measured pK(a)s.

  5. A satellite system for multimedia personal communications at Ka-band and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatalaro, F.; Losquadro, G.

    1995-01-01

    The main characteristics of the satellite extremely high frequency (EHF) communication of multimedia mobile services (SECOMS) system are given and the results of the preliminary analysis are included. The SECOMS provides a first generation Ka band system with coverage over Western Europe, in order to satisfy business user needs of very large bandwidths and terminal mobility. The satellite system also provides a second generation EHF enhanced system with increased capacity and enlarged coverage, to serve all of Europe and the nearby countries.

  6. Rimi toob Eesti liha lettidele ka Poola kaudu / Urmas Jaagant, Agnes Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jaagant, Urmas

    2010-01-01

    Lihatootjate ja Poolas asuvat pakendamiskeskust pidava Hilton Foodsi vahel jätkuvad läbirääkimised, et sõlmida ekspordilepingud. Hilton Foods töötleb ja pakendab nii Eesti kui ka teiste riikide liha ning müüb selle Rimi kaubamärgi all Leedu, Läti, Ungari, Eesti jt. riikide poodidele. Rimi turundusjuhi Evelin Mägioja selgitusi

  7. Prediction of pKa values using the PM6 semiempirical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy C. Kromann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The PM6 semiempirical method and the dispersion and hydrogen bond-corrected PM6-D3H+ method are used together with the SMD and COSMO continuum solvation models to predict pKa values of pyridines, alcohols, phenols, benzoic acids, carboxylic acids, and phenols using isodesmic reactions and compared to published ab initio results. The pKa values of pyridines, alcohols, phenols, and benzoic acids considered in this study can generally be predicted with PM6 and ab initio methods to within the same overall accuracy, with average mean absolute differences (MADs of 0.6–0.7 pH units. For carboxylic acids, the accuracy (0.7–1.0 pH units is also comparable to ab initio results if a single outlier is removed. For primary, secondary, and tertiary amines the accuracy is, respectively, similar (0.5–0.6, slightly worse (0.5–1.0, and worse (1.0–2.5, provided that di- and tri-ethylamine are used as reference molecules for secondary and tertiary amines. When applied to a drug-like molecule where an empirical pKa predictor exhibits a large (4.9 pH unit error, we find that the errors for PM6-based predictions are roughly the same in magnitude but opposite in sign. As a result, most of the PM6-based methods predict the correct protonation state at physiological pH, while the empirical predictor does not. The computational cost is around 2–5 min per conformer per core processor, making PM6-based pKa prediction computationally efficient enough to be used for high-throughput screening using on the order of 100 core processors.

  8. Pöffi filme näeb ka Ida-Virumaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Avatakse IX Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali põhiprogramm, millest osa linastub ka Jõhvis ja Narvas. Lisatud PÖFFi programm Narva kultuurikeskuses Rugodiv ja dokumentaalfilmi "Sügavas kurgus" tutvustus : režissöörid Fenton Bailey, Randy Barbato : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Film käsitleb 1972.a. kurikuulsa pornofilmi "Sügav kurk" ("Deep Throat") fenomeni

  9. Vettus üritas äri ka koos tuntud nimedega / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Einar Vettus üritas maavahetusäri Otepää Looduspargis ajada ka koos Oliver Kruuda, Margus Kanguri ja Toomas Kõuhknaga, kuid tehing ebaõnnestus. Küsimustele vastab Margus Kangur. Vt. samas: Seitsmel omanikul tihedad ärisidemed; Kesklinna krundid tulid kätte; Siim Kallas: hea, et Eestis korruptandid kätte saadakse; Anne Oja. Kinnisvarahai ja advokaadi tandem võlus majanduskeelud elamumaaks

  10. Rimi toob Eesti liha lettidele ka Poola kaudu / Urmas Jaagant, Agnes Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jaagant, Urmas

    2010-01-01

    Lihatootjate ja Poolas asuvat pakendamiskeskust pidava Hilton Foodsi vahel jätkuvad läbirääkimised, et sõlmida ekspordilepingud. Hilton Foods töötleb ja pakendab nii Eesti kui ka teiste riikide liha ning müüb selle Rimi kaubamärgi all Leedu, Läti, Ungari, Eesti jt. riikide poodidele. Rimi turundusjuhi Evelin Mägioja selgitusi

  11. Ka ilmetu Cannes'i festival jääb ikkagi heaks / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade 56. Cannes'i filmifestivalil võistelnud filmidest. Kuldse Palmioksa võitis ameerika režissööri Gus Van Santi "Elevant", žürii grand prix' sai türgi režissööri Nuri Bilge Ceylani "Eemal" ("Uzak"). Auhinnati ka Kanada komöödiat "Barbarite sissetungid" režii Denys Arcand), iraanlanna Samira Makhmalbafi "Kell viis pealelõunal". Lisatud auhinnatute nimekiri

  12. Ostuhullus tabab nii naisi kui ka mehi / Katri Soe-Suren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe-Suren, Katri

    2008-01-01

    Saksamaa Erlangeni ülikooli teadlaste poolt välja töötatud teraapiaprogramm tõestab, et haiguslik ostusõltuvus on ravitav. Hansapanga ja SEB panga pressiesindajate sõnul ei ole ostusõltuvus Eestis probleemiks. Lisad: Oniomaania; Kui kahtled, et ka sind on tabanud ostusõltuvus. Kommenteerib Selveri pressiesindaja Ivi Saar. Vt. samas: Kolm patsienti jutustab oma loo

  13. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa Mill. WOOD OBTAINED FROM MAÇKA-ÇATAK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Ay

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physical properties of chestnut were investigated. 8 trees used for experiments were obtained fromTrabzon-Maçka- Çatak region. Samples were prepared according to the related standarts. Oven-dried and air-dried density, volume weight, the amount of shrinkage, the ratio of cell walls, air cavities, the moisture content of wood at green condition, and the fiber saturation point as physical properties were determined.

  14. A K/Ka band radiating element for Tx/Rx phased array

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, Ali Imran

    2017-01-20

    The paper presents a K/Ka band radiating element for TX/RX phased arrays. Dual band operations is obtained using a single radiating surface: a novel radiator is adopted and placed in a configuration in which dual band and single band elements are interleaved. The array elements are optimized to scan the beam in excess of 50° in both bands. A subarray with 49 Rx elements and 105 Tx elements was built and measured confirming the results obtained in simulations.

  15. AN AGCM +SSiB MODEL SIMULATION ON CHANGES IN PALAEOMONSOON CLIMATE AT 21 KA BP IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星; 于革; 刘健

    2001-01-01

    The numerical simulation experiment of climate at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka BP)in China is made by using an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) coupled with land surface processes (AGCM+SSiB) and earth orbital parameters and boundary forcing conditions at 21 ka. The modeled climate features are compared with reconstructed conditions at 21 ka from palco-lake data and pollen data. The results show that the simulated climate conditions at 21 ka in China are fairly comparable with palco-climatological data. The climate features at 21 ka in China from the experiment are characterized by a drier in the east and a wetter in the west and in the Tibetan Plateau as well. According to the analysis of distribution of pressure and precipitation, as well as the intensity of atmospheric circulation at 21 ka, monsoon circulation in eastern Asia was significantly weak comparing with the present. In the Tibetan Plateau, the intensity of summer monsoon circulation was strengthened, and winter monsoon was a little stronger than the present.The simulation with given forcing boundary conditions, especially the different vegetation coverage, can reproduce the climate condition at the LGM in China, and therefore provides dynamical mechanisms on the climate changes at 21 ka.

  16. A Novel Low-cost, Ka-band, High Altitude, Multi-Baseline Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Sensor for Surface Water Ocean Topography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents the Ka-band SWOT Phenomenology Airborne Radar (KaSPAR) to support the surface water ocean topography (SWOT) mission for science and algorithm...

  17. The potentials for creating sustainable rural tourism in Bačka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Uglješa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Average rural household in Bačka mostly depend on agricultural activities. Modern society changes, especially changes in agriculture production imply need for diversification of business activities. Rural tourism can be important part of rural economy for some villages in Bačka. Fertile plain, Danube, Tisa and other smaller rivers, animals and games represent base of natural tourist attractions of rural tourism. However, main competitive advantages of Bačka are anthropogenic values. Traditional pannonian houses, baroques churches, numerous rural festivities, and "melting point" of different nationalities make good base for rural tourism development. Different combinations of rural attractions create several tourist experiences of this region: authentic tourist experience at "szalashes", particular tourist experience in villages, intensive tourist experience of rural events and manifestations, not authentic tourist experiences of pseudo rural attractions and complex tourist experience in rural areas. Regarding to emitive centers of rural tourist demand can be specified tree regions for development of rural tourism - region of Novi Sad, Subotica, and Sombor. Rural tourism can make a valuable contribution to rural economies, job creation, landscape conservation, retention of rural population, support to rural culture and tradition, nature conservation and other. At the same time, rural tourism is facing various limitations. With in this context, rural tourism planning has to include principles of sustainable development.

  18. Test of 60 kA coated conductor cable prototypes for fusion magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, D.; Bykovsky, N.; Sedlak, K.; Stepanov, B.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2015-12-01

    Coated conductors could be promising materials for the fabrication of the large magnet systems of future fusion devices. Two prototype conductors (flat cables in steel conduits), each about 2 m long, were manufactured using coated conductor tapes (4 mm wide) from Super Power and SuperOx, with a total tape length of 1.6 km. Each flat cable is assembled from 20 strands, each strand consisting of a stack of 16 tapes surrounded by two half circular copper profiles, twisted and soldered. The tapes were measured at 12 T and 4.2 K and the results of the measurements were used for the assessment of the conductor electromagnetic properties at low temperature and high field. The two conductors were assembled together in a sample that was tested in the European Dipole (EDIPO) facility. The current sharing temperatures of the two conductors were measured at background fields from 8 T up to 12 T and for currents from 30 kA up to 70 kA: the measured values are within a few percent of the values expected from the measurements on tapes (short samples). After electromagnetic cycling, T cs at 12 T and 50 kA decreased from about 12 K to 11 K (about 10%), corresponding to less than 3% of I c.

  19. Design and Manufacture of 20 kA HTS Current Leads for a Hybrid Magnet System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.; March, S.; Vogel, M.; Ehmler, H.; Smeibidl, P.

    A new series connected 25 T hybrid magnet system is being developed by the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) for neutron scattering experiments. In collaboration with CRPP, high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads have been developed for the powering of the outer superconducting coil. These HTS current leads, with a nominal current rating of 20 kA, have been designed and are being manufactured by CRPP, based on the design of the 18 kA EDIPO leads. Each of the two current leads consists of an HTS module cooled only by heat conduction from the cold end and a copper part actively cooled by helium gas of 44 K inlet temperature. To reach a temperature of 53.7 K at the warm end of the HTS a helium mass flow rate of 1.37 g/s per lead is required at a current of 20 kA. The estimated heat leak at the 4.5 K level caused only by heat conduction is as low as 1.4 W. The evolution of the temperatures in the case of a loss of flow has been calculated. In addition to the design, the main fabrication steps are described.

  20. Computing pKa Values with a Mixing Hamiltonian Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Fan, Xiaoli; Jin, Yingdi; Hu, Xiangqian; Hu, Hao

    2013-09-10

    Accurate computation of the pKa value of a compound in solution is important but challenging. Here, a new mixing quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) Hamiltonian method is developed to simulate the free-energy change associated with the protonation/deprotonation processes in solution. The mixing Hamiltonian method is designed for efficient quantum mechanical free-energy simulations by alchemically varying the nuclear potential, i.e., the nuclear charge of the transforming nucleus. In pKa calculation, the charge on the proton is varied in fraction between 0 and 1, corresponding to the fully deprotonated and protonated states, respectively. Inspired by the mixing potential QM/MM free energy simulation method developed previously [H. Hu and W. T. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 123, 041102], this method succeeds many advantages of a large class of λ-coupled free-energy simulation methods and the linear combination of atomic potential approach. Theory and technique details of this method, along with the calculation results of the pKa of methanol and methanethiol molecules in aqueous solution, are reported. The results show satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Development of Fruška Gora and some open questions of sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić-Brković Milica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Future development of Fruška Gora triggers numerous questions from the domain of sustainability. The solutions defined in the spatial plan-PPPPN Fruška Gora 2022, can be carried out only on condition that the current course of spatial planning and space related decision making change, so that the respective procedures become more sensitive to the specific requirements of sustainability. Sustainability by itself affects the way planning is being performed, while the specifics of a concrete case, like the case explored in this paper, set up a particular input relevant for both the conceptual and methodological aspects of planning. The proposals of implementing the specific sustainability-based techniques along with the practical implications of their use throughout the planning process are examined in this paper. Normally, most of them are not part of a standard planning procedure, however, they become highly relevant in cases like Fruška Gora, or similar. A sequence of innovations and possible modifications of/within the existing paradigm proposed here include: the prevention techniques, carrying capacity assessment as it relates to the eco-balance, risk assessment, impact analysis, eco-sensitive zoning, GIS based monitoring, etc. Special attention is given to the issues of physical and environmental quality, as they relate to sustainability.

  2. Optimization of crude oil degradation by Dietzia cinnamea KA1, capable of biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavynifard, Amirarsalan; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of a crude oil degrader and biosurfactant-producing bacterium, along with optimization of conditions for crude oil degradation. Among 11 isolates, 5 were able to emulsify crude oil in Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) among which one isolate, named KA1, showed the highest potency for growth rate and biodegradation. The isolate was identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal conditions were 510 mM NaCl, pH 9.0, 35 °C, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4 Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2 PO4 . Gravimetric test and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy technique (GC-MS) showed that Dietzia cinnamea KA1 was able to utilize and degrade 95.7% of the crude oil after 5 days, under the optimal conditions. The isolate was able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil, glycerol or whey as the sole carbon sources, but bacterial growth was occurred using molasses with no biosurfactant production. This is the first report of biosurfactant production by D. cinnamea using crude oil, glycerol and whey and the first study to report a species of Dietzia degrading a wide range of hydrocarbons in a short time.

  3. Sequence preservation of osteocalcin protein and mitochondrial DNA in bison bones older than 55 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Marsh, Christina M.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Gandhi, Hasand; Shapiro, Beth; Cooper, Alan; Hauschka, Peter V.; Collins, Matthew J.

    2002-12-01

    We report the first complete sequences of the protein osteocalcin from small amounts (20 mg) of two bison bone (Bison priscus) dated to older than 55.6 ka and older than 58.9 ka. Osteocalcin was purified using new gravity columns (never exposed to protein) followed by microbore reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Sequencing of osteocalcin employed two methods of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS): peptide mass mapping (PMM) and post-source decay (PSD). The PMM shows that ancient and modern bison osteocalcin have the same mass to charge (m/z) distribution, indicating an identical protein sequence and absence of diagenetic products. This was confirmed by PSD of the m/z 2066 tryptic peptide (residues 1 19); the mass spectra from ancient and modern peptides were identical. The 129 mass unit difference in the molecular ion between cow (Bos taurus) and bison is caused by a single amino-acid substitution between the taxa (Trp in cow is replaced by Gly in bison at residue 5). Bison mitochondrial control region DNA sequences were obtained from the older than 55.6 ka fossil. These results suggest that DNA and protein sequences can be used to directly investigate molecular phylogenies over a considerable time period, the absolute limit of which is yet to be determined.

  4. Beam tests on the 4-kA, 1. 5-MeV injector for FXR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.; Ravenscroft, D.; Scarpetti, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1981-01-01

    The new flash x-ray machine (FXR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is scheduled for completion in late 1981. This is a 54 module, linear induction accelertor, designed to deliver 500 Roentgen at 1 m as bremsstrahlung from a 20 MeV, 4 kA, 60 ns pulsed electron beam. The 9 cm diameter, cold-cathode electron source generates a 15 kA emitted beam at 1.5 MeV, and collimation is being used to reduce the transmitted current to 3.5 kA, with an emittance of 70 mr-cm. The collimated beam diameter is 4 cm. Six ferrite-loaded cavities are used in tandem to energize the injector. The high voltage performance of the injector cavities and other pulsed-power conditioning elements was tested earlier in a series of 10/sup 5/ shots at 400 kV per cavity. An overview of the injector design and of the beam test results is given.

  5. Humans permanently occupied the Andean highlands by at least 7 ka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Randall; Stefanescu, Ioana C; Garcia-Putnam, Alexander; Aldenderfer, Mark S; Clementz, Mark T; Murphy, Melissa S; Llave, Carlos Viviano; Watson, James T

    2017-06-01

    High-elevation environments above 2500 metres above sea level (m.a.s.l.) were among the planet's last frontiers of human colonization. Research on the speed and tempo of this colonization process is active and holds implications for understanding rates of genetic, physiological and cultural adaptation in our species. Permanent occupation of high-elevation environments in the Andes Mountains of South America tentatively began with hunter-gatherers around 9 ka according to current archaeological estimates, though the timing is currently debated. Recent observations on the archaeological site of Soro Mik'aya Patjxa (8.0-6.5 ka), located at 3800 m.a.s.l. in the Andean Altiplano, offer an opportunity to independently test hypotheses for early permanent use of the region. This study observes low oxygen (δ(18)O) and high carbon (δ(13)C) isotope values in human bone, long travel distances to low-elevation zones, variable age and sex structure in the human population and an absence of non-local lithic materials. These independent lines of evidence converge to support a model of permanent occupation of high elevations and refute logistical and seasonal use models. The results constitute the strongest empirical support to date for permanent human occupation of the Andean highlands by hunter-gatherers before 7 ka.

  6. Humans permanently occupied the Andean highlands by at least 7 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Ioana C.; Garcia-Putnam, Alexander; Aldenderfer, Mark S.; Clementz, Mark T.; Murphy, Melissa S.; Llave, Carlos Viviano; Watson, James T.

    2017-01-01

    High-elevation environments above 2500 metres above sea level (m.a.s.l.) were among the planet's last frontiers of human colonization. Research on the speed and tempo of this colonization process is active and holds implications for understanding rates of genetic, physiological and cultural adaptation in our species. Permanent occupation of high-elevation environments in the Andes Mountains of South America tentatively began with hunter–gatherers around 9 ka according to current archaeological estimates, though the timing is currently debated. Recent observations on the archaeological site of Soro Mik'aya Patjxa (8.0–6.5 ka), located at 3800 m.a.s.l. in the Andean Altiplano, offer an opportunity to independently test hypotheses for early permanent use of the region. This study observes low oxygen (δ18O) and high carbon (δ13C) isotope values in human bone, long travel distances to low-elevation zones, variable age and sex structure in the human population and an absence of non-local lithic materials. These independent lines of evidence converge to support a model of permanent occupation of high elevations and refute logistical and seasonal use models. The results constitute the strongest empirical support to date for permanent human occupation of the Andean highlands by hunter–gatherers before 7 ka. PMID:28680685

  7. Brief communication: preliminary radiocarbon dates from Florida crania in Hrdlička's gulf states catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanowski, Christopher M; Johnson, Kent M

    2011-05-01

    Aleš Hrdlička produced a tremendous amount of data in his career, much of which was published in a series of catalogs by the US National Museum. The Gulf States catalog, for example, contains raw craniometric data for over 700 individuals from the state of Florida alone. However, many of these skeletons are poorly sourced by Hrdlička, thus limiting their utility in modern bioarchaeological analyses where context is critical. In particular, the age of the skeletal material is often based solely on associated material culture and information on the sites themselves is not presented by Hrdlička. To address this impasse we attempted radiocarbon dates for 10 of the largest Florida sites published in the Gulf States catalog. In addition, archival data in the form of unpublished field notes and personal correspondence were accessed to better contextualize the radiocarbon dates and to provide some guidance on the degree of temporal variability at the sites. Eight AMS radiocarbon dates were successful. Archival data was of variable quality per site. In some cases very little is known about the provenience of the specimens. In other cases, however, individual burials could be allocated to specific strata within specific mounds. The relevance of using published raw data is discussed with respect to the Howells and Boas Immigrant datasets and the impact the dissemination of these resources has had on the discipline.

  8. Predicting the pKa and stability of organic acids and bases at an oil-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M P; Olsson, M H M; Stipp, S L S

    2014-06-10

    We have used density functional theory and the implicit solvent model, COSMO-RS, to investigate how the acidity constant, pKa, of organic acids and bases adsorbed at the organic compound-aqueous solution interface changes, compared to its value in the aqueous phase. The pKa determine the surface charge density of the molecules that accumulate at the fluid-fluid interface. We have estimated the pKa by comparing the stability of the protonated and unprotonated forms of a series of molecules in the bulk aqueous solution and at an interface where parts of each molecule reside in the hydrophobic phase and the rest remains in the hydrophilic phase. We found that the pKa for acids is shifted by ∼1 pH unit to higher values compared to the bulk water pKa, whereas they are shifted to lower values by a similar amount for bases. Because this pKa shift is similar in magnitude for each of the molecules studied, we propose that the pKa for molecules at a water-organic compound interface can easily be predicted by adding a small shift to the aqueous pKa. This shift is general and correlates with the functional group. We also found that the relative composition of molecules at the fluid-fluid interface is not the same as in the bulk. For example, species such as carboxylic acids are enriched at the interface, where they can dominate surface properties, even when they are a modest component in the bulk fluid. For high surface concentrations of carboxylic acid groups at an interface, such as a self-assembled monolayer, we have demonstrated that the pKa depends on the degree of deprotonation through direct hydrogen bonding between protonated and deprotonated acidic headgroups.

  9. Comparison between calibration methods of kerma-area product (P{sub KA}); Comparacao entre metodos de calibracao do produto kerma-area (P{sub KA})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, V.C.C.; Macedo, E.M.; Pereira, L.C.S.; Modesto, I.F.; Ferreira, M.; Navarro, M.V.T., E-mail: valeria@ifba.edu.br [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LABPROSAUD/IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Laboratorio de Produtos para a Saude

    2015-07-01

    P{sub KA} is a relevant dosimetric quantity utilized mainly in interventional radiology procedures, and it's calibration essential for maintenance of the metrological reliability in measurements. As there are two methods to calibrate this kind of meters (substitution method and directly measuring kerma and area), the goal of this study was to compare them, in order to indicate which is the better option to be implanted at Calibration Laboratory Labprosaud/IFBA. The results showed a good equivalence between two methods, with minimal concordance of 99,2% between calibration factors. However, the substitution method ensure higher metrological reliability with uncertainties 60% lower. This method was implanted at Labprosaud. (author)

  10. Eruptive history of Sundoro volcano, Central Java, Indonesia since 34 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prambada, Oktory; Arakawa, Yoji; Ikehata, Kei; Furukawa, Ryuta; Takada, Akira; Wibowo, Haryo Edi; Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro; Kartadinata, M. Nugraha

    2016-11-01

    Reconstruction of the eruptive history of Sundoro volcano is needed to forecast the probability of future eruptions and eruptive volumes. Sundoro volcano is located in Central Java (Indonesia), 65 km northwest of Yogyakarta, and in one of the most densely populated areas of Indonesia. On the basis of stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, petrography, and whole-rock geochemistry, we recognize the following 12 eruptive groups: (1) Ngadirejo, (2) Bansari, (3) Arum, (4) Kembang, (5) Kekep, (6) Garung, (7) Kertek, (8) Watu, (9) Liyangan, (10) Kledung, (11) Summit, and (12) Sibajak. The Ngadirejo (34 ka BP) to Kledung (1 ka) eruptive groups are inferred to have been the stratovolcano building phase. Based on compositions of deposits, one or more magma reservoirs of intermediate chemical composition are inferred to have existed below the volcano during the periods of time represented by the eruptive groups. SiO2 of juvenile eruptive products ranges from 50 to 63 wt%, and K2O contents range from high K to medium K. The chemical composition and phenocryst content of eruptive products change with time. The lower SiO2 products contain mainly plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine, whereas the more evolved rocks contain plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and rare hornblende and olivine. Our work has defined Sundoro's eruptive history for the period 1-34 ka, and this history helps us to forecast future activity. We estimated that the total amount of magma discharged since 34 ka is approximately 4.4 km3. The average eruption rate over this group ranges from 0.14 to 0.17 km3/kyr. The eruption rate and the frequency of individual eruptions indicate that the volcano has been very active since 34 ka, and this activity in combination with our petrological data suggest the presence of one or more magma reservoirs that have been repeatedly filled and then discharged as eruptions have taken place. Our data further suggest that the volume of the crustal reservoir system has

  11. Sea surface Ka-band radar cross-section from field observations in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovsky, Yury; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Grodsky, Semyon; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    An interest in Ka-band radar backscattering from the ocean surface is growing due to better spatial resolution and more accurate Doppler anomaly estimate. But, available empirical models of Ka-band cross-section are quite scarce and sometime controversial. Here we present multi-year (2009-2015) field measurements of Ka-band co-polarized (VV and HH) sea surface normalized radar cross-section (NRCS) from research platform in the Black sea collected in a wide range of observation and sea state conditions. The data are fitted by polynomial function of incidence angle, azimuth and wind speed with accounting for measured radar antenna pattern. This empirical NRCS is compared with published Ka- and Ku-band data. Our Ka-band NRCS is close to Ku-band, but is 5-7 dB higher than 'pioneer' measurements by Masuko et al. (1986). Following the two-scale Bragg paradigm, the NRCS is split into polarized (Bragg) and non-polarized components and analyzed in terms of polarization ratio (VV/HH) and polarization difference (VV-HH) to estimate wave spectra at the Bragg wave number. Non-polarized component dominates at low incidence angles 60°) NRCS azimuth dependency is unimodal (upwind peak) for HH and bimodal (with up- and downwind peaks) for VV polarization. This again can be attributed to different backscattering mechanisms for VV and HH polarizations. With decreasing of incidence angle, up- to downwind ratio tends to 1, and under light wind conditions (4-6 m/s) can be less than 1. The same situation is observed for polarization difference, which reflects Bragg backscattering properties only. This effect can be explained by enhanced roughness on upwind (windward) face of the tilting wave. Retrieval of Bragg roughness properties shows that omni-directional saturation spectra at ~1000 rad/m are 2-3 times higher (0.01 at 10 m/s wind speed) than the spectra obtained from optical measurements of regular sea surface without wave breaking. This suggests that observed difference can arise

  12. The effects of multiple features of alternatively spliced exons on the KA/KS ratio test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Feng-Chi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of alternatively spliced exons (ASEs is of primary interest because these exons are suggested to be a major source of functional diversity of proteins. Many exon features have been suggested to affect the evolution of ASEs. However, previous studies have relied on the KA/KS ratio test without taking into consideration information sufficiency (i.e., exon length > 75 bp, cross-species divergence > 5% of the studied exons, leading to potentially biased interpretations. Furthermore, which exon feature dominates the results of the KA/KS ratio test and whether multiple exon features have additive effects have remained unexplored. Results In this study, we collect two different datasets for analysis – the ASE dataset (which includes lineage-specific ASEs and conserved ASEs and the ACE dataset (which includes only conserved ASEs. We first show that information sufficiency can significantly affect the interpretation of relationship between exons features and the KA/KS ratio test results. After discarding exons with insufficient information, we use a Boolean method to analyze the relationship between test results and four exon features (namely length, protein domain overlapping, inclusion level, and exonic splicing enhancer (ESE frequency for the ASE dataset. We demonstrate that length and protein domain overlapping are dominant factors, and they have similar impacts on test results of ASEs. In addition, despite the weak impacts of inclusion level and ESE motif frequency when considered individually, combination of these two factors still have minor additive effects on test results. However, the ACE dataset shows a slightly different result in that inclusion level has a marginally significant effect on test results. Lineage-specific ASEs may have contributed to the difference. Overall, in both ASEs and ACEs, protein domain overlapping is the most dominant exon feature while ESE frequency is the weakest one in affecting

  13. A New Sediment Core From Lake Elsinore, CA Reveals Evidence for Large Amplitude Hydrologic Change Between 9ka and 30ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, M. E.; Feakins, S. J.; Fantozzi, J. M.; Lund, S.; Zimmerman, S. R.; Hiner, C.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Elsinore is the largest natural lake in coastal southwestern North America (CSWNA). Building on cores taken in 2003, a new 20-meter core (LEDC10-1) spanning 9ka to 30ka was acquired in 2010. Twenty-one AMS 14C dates, mostly on discrete organic material (e.g. seeds, charcoal), provide an initial age model. On average 1 cm equals 13 years of sedimentation making this new core the highest resolution, most complete glacial-age terrestrial archive yet obtained from CSWNA. We present initial multi-proxy results including magnetic susceptibility, organic and carbonate content, grain size, CN ratios, and δD plant leaf waxes to infer past climate state and change. The deglacial sequence is characterized by large amplitude hydrologic change: from a very wet full glacial to a dry Holocene. A δD shift of 100 per mil indicates a dramatic shift in either P:E ratio or changes in storm tracks/moisture sources. Sand % increases from the Holocene into the glacial, which is interpreted to indicate a wetter-than-present glacial climate in CSWNA. High amplitude sand variability at centennial-to-millennial scales also suggests a highly dynamic climate in CSWNA during the last glacial. Comparisons of the Elsinore record of abrupt hydrologic events to high latitude records show coherence with various climate intervals including Heinrich events 2 and 3. We also observe connections to local marine conditions in the Santa Barbara Basin. Future plans include additional dates, grain size, elemental data, compound specific isotope analyses, microfossil identification/counts, and palynology.

  14. Deficiency in p53 is required for doxorubicin induced transcriptional activation of NF-small ka, CyrillicB target genes in human breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmases, A.; Gonzalez, I.; Menendez, S.; Arpi, O.; Corominas, J.; Servitja, S.; Tusquets, I.; Chamizo, C.; Rincon, R.; Espinosa, L.; Bigas, A.; Eroles, P.; Furriol, J.; Lluch, A.; Rovira, A.; Albanell, J.; Rojo, F.

    2014-01-01

    NF-small ka, CyrillicB has been linked to doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer patients. NF-small ka, CyrillicB nuclear translocation and DNA binding in doxorubicin treated-breast cancer cells have been extensively examined; however its functional relevance at transcriptional level on NF-small ka

  15. Stairs to Skałka. From Iconography of Martyrdom of Bishop Stanislaus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Węcławowicz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available For over one hundred years research discussions have revolved around two issues: was Skałka really the site of the martyrdom of bishop Stanislaus, and, what was the church like in its medieval phases: the alleged, pre-Romanesque phase and, confirmed by sources, the Gothic foundation of Casimir the Great. An argument over the site of the martyrdom will turn out to be unimportant if it is considered in two different meanings, two different orders of interpretation. In the historiographic meaning, bishop Stanislaus might have been killed on the Wawel hill, while in the hagiographic meaning, the martyrdom must have taken place on the site called Skałka, outside the town and the Vistula river, in a distant sanctuary of Archangel Gabriel. The latter of the aforementioned research questions - what was the church “Na Skałce’ like in the Middle Ages - was put at the end of the 19th century by Władysław Łuszczkiewicz. In an answer, he presented the churches imagined in the scenes of the Martyrdom of St. Stanislaus in triptychs from St. Mary’s church in Cracow and from a church at Pławno. He understood them as realistic views of Skałka at the beginning of the 16th century A survey of a broad material shows, however, that in the late medieval iconography of St. Stanislaus at least two architectural types of the church which is the background of the Martyrdom scene can be distinguished at the beginning of the 16th century. The question what Skałka was like in reality is a wrong question then and must be left unanswered. The right question is: why was the architectural background of the Martyrdom scene depicted in such different ways, and, was this architecture in its iconographic design really meant to show only the Gothic church ‘Na Skałce’. With varied realisations of details of the church itself, the common motives of all depictions of Skałka are: walls surrounding the hill, gates built in them - one, two or three, always open and

  16. Understanding the initiation and development of explosive Plinian eruptions: the conduit processes, eruption dynamics and dispersal processes of the ignimbrite and caldera-forming Lower Pumice 1 (184 ka) and Lower Pumice 2 (172 ka) eruptions, Santorini Caldera, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Jack Michael

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, the internal stratigraphy, facies, and facies architecture of the rhyodacitic 184 ka Lower Pumice 1 (LP1) and 172 ka Lower Pumice 2 (LP2) eruption sequences, erupted from Santorini Caldera, Greece, are reassessed as the basis for understanding the initiation and development of caldera-forming Plinian eruptions, including the changing conditions of the magmatic system, the conduit and eruption processes, the transition between eruption phases and ultimately the evolution of the...

  17. Miniaturized UHF, S-, and Ka-band RF MEMS Filters for Small Form Factor, High Performance EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase II of this SBIR, Harmonic Devices (HDI) proposes to develop miniaturized MEMS filters at UHF, S-band and Ka-band to address the requirements of NASA's...

  18. Berliini filmifestivalil näeb ka Peeter Simmi filmi "Head käed" / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2002-01-01

    Berliini 52. filmifestival algas eile sakslase Tom Tykweri mängufilmiga "Taevas". Esmakordselt on festivali "Panorama" kavas eesti mängufilm, milleks on Peeter Simmi "Head käed". Eesti filmid on esil ka festivali suurel filmiturul

  19. Enroni krahh võib hakata mõjutama ka Eesti ettevõtteid / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2006-01-01

    USA energiafirma Enron finantspettus võib hakata läbi koostööpartnerite, kellele hakkavad kehtima karmimad raamatupidamisreeglid, mõjutama ka Eesti firmasid. Vt. samas: Akt karmistab reegleid; Hansapangale tooks akt lisakulutusi

  20. Ka Kuusalust ja Loksalt käidi Soomes õppimas euroraha jagamist-küsimist / Ülle Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Ülle, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Kuut omavalitsust, ka Kuusalu valda ja Loksa linna ühendav MTÜ Arenduskoda viis LEADER-programmi raames 22 inimest Soome Pirkanmaale 2-päevasele õppereisile. Vt. samas: Mida LEADER-programmi raames tehakse MTÜs Arenduskoda?

  1. Hewlett-Packard võib ka arvutiärist kõrvale tõmbuda / Kuldar Kullasepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kullasepp, Kuldar, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Maailma üks juhtivamaid arvutitootjaid Hewlwtt-Packard teatas, et kavatseb mobiilseadmete tootmise lõpetada. Küsimärgi all on ka edasine arvutite tootmine, tulevikus keskendutakse ilmselt tarkvarale, serveritele ja teenustele

  2. Aqueous-only, pH-induced nanoassembly of dual pKa-driven contraphilic block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam S.; Li, Yali; Ruda, C. Marcus

    2009-01-01

    pH-Responsive block copolymers, having two segments with functionalities of differing pKa, were prepared by NMP, providing a “green” route to the assembly of core/shell functionalizable nanostructures. PMID:18985203

  3. Dopingaine võib kätte saada ka vanaema retseptiga / Kristjan Port ; intervjueerinud Indrek Kuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Port, Kristjan, 1960-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuu Tallinna Ülikooli terviseteaduste ja spordi instituudi direktori, SA Eesti Antidoping nõukogu liikme Kristjan Pordiga, kes tõdeb, et profispordi kõrval on dopingainetega muret ka harrastusspordis

  4. High-Efficiency, Ka-band Solid-State Power Amplifier Utilizing GaN Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QuinStar Technology proposes to develop an efficient, solid-state power amplifier (SSPA), operating at Ka-band frequencies, for high data rate, long range space...

  5. Dopingaine võib kätte saada ka vanaema retseptiga / Kristjan Port ; intervjueerinud Indrek Kuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Port, Kristjan, 1960-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuu Tallinna Ülikooli terviseteaduste ja spordi instituudi direktori, SA Eesti Antidoping nõukogu liikme Kristjan Pordiga, kes tõdeb, et profispordi kõrval on dopingainetega muret ka harrastusspordis

  6. Ka Kuusalust ja Loksalt käidi Soomes õppimas euroraha jagamist-küsimist / Ülle Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Ülle, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Kuut omavalitsust, ka Kuusalu valda ja Loksa linna ühendav MTÜ Arenduskoda viis LEADER-programmi raames 22 inimest Soome Pirkanmaale 2-päevasele õppereisile. Vt. samas: Mida LEADER-programmi raames tehakse MTÜs Arenduskoda?

  7. Berliini filmifestivalil näeb ka Peeter Simmi filmi "Head käed" / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2002-01-01

    Berliini 52. filmifestival algas eile sakslase Tom Tykweri mängufilmiga "Taevas". Esmakordselt on festivali "Panorama" kavas eesti mängufilm, milleks on Peeter Simmi "Head käed". Eesti filmid on esil ka festivali suurel filmiturul

  8. Determination of Surface pKa of Pure Mercaptoacetic Acid and 2- Mercaptobenzothiazole Mixed Monolayers by Impedance Titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Han LU; Chuan Yin LIU; Hong Yan ZHAO; Wei LIU; Li Ping JIANG; Ling Yan JIANG

    2004-01-01

    Interfacial proton transfer reactions of pure mercaptoacetic acid (MA) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (Mbz) mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been studied using a.c. impedance titration method. The charge-transfer resistance (Rct) is measured with the monolayer composition and the ionic strength of pH solution. The surface pKa can be obtained by the plots of Rct and pH, the reasons of shifts of surface pKa are also explained.

  9. The 13 ka Pelée-Type Dome Collapse at Nevado de Toluca Volcano, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, M.; Capra, L.; Sarocchi, D.; Bellotti, F.

    2007-05-01

    The Nevado de Toluca is an active volcano located in the central sector of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, 80 km southwest of Mexico City. Activity at this andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano began ca. 2.6 Ma ago. During the last 42 ka, the volcano has been characterized by different eruptive styles, including five dome collapses dated at 37, 32, 28, 26, and 13 ka and five Plinian eruptions at 42 ka, 36 ka, 21.7 ka, 12.1 ka and 10.5 ka. The 13 ka dome collapse is the youngest event of this type, and originated a 0.11 km3 block-and-ash flow deposit on the north-eastern sector of the volcano. The deposit consists of two facies: channel-like, 10 m thick, monolitologic, that is composed of up to five units, with decimetric dacitic clasts set in a sandy matrix; and a lateral facies that consists of a gray, sandy horizon, up to 4 m thick, with a 30 cm-thick surge layer at the base. The main component is a dacitic lava, with different degree of vesciculation, with mineral association of Pl-Hbl-Opx. Plagioclases show two different textures: in equilibrium, with normal zoning (core = An37-64.3, rim = An30.7-45.8) or with spongy cellular texture with inverse zoning (core = An38-43.5, rim = An45-51.2). Hornblende is normally light green, barren of oxidation. The rock matrix contains up to 53 perc. of glass with abundant microlites, indicating over-pressure on the crystallizing magma and a rapid expulsion. All these stratigraphic and petrographic features indicate that the dome was quickly extruded on the summit of the volcano, probably triggered by a magma mixing process, and its collapse was accompanied by an explosive component, being classified as a Pelée-type event.

  10. Response of mollusk assemblages from the Luochuan loess section to orbital forcing since the last 250 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This note presents a new result of terrestrial mollusk study from the Luochuan loess section since the last 250 ka. A total of 213 samples,taken at intervals of 10 cm in the S0-L3 portion,were analyzed for fossil mollusks. Generally,150 600 individuals were counted in each sample. According to the distribution of mollusk fossil assemblages in the loess section,11 mollusk fossil zones have been recognized,representing different climatic and ecological conditions. Three main ecological groups were identified according to the temperature and moisture requirements of each taxon. The cold-aridiphilous group shows maxima at about 240 220,190 182,150 140 and 74 66 ka BP. The thermo-humidiphilous set has high abundances for at least 6 times in the section at about 246 240,220 216,170 158,92 86,60 44 and 10 kaBP. Our results show that variations in mollusk ecological groups are related with changes in the Earth orbital parameters at the 41 and 20 ka frequencies. Maxima in thermo-humidiphilous taxa are in phase with accretion intervals of obliquity (41 ka period),reflecting the East Asian summer monsoon with 41 ka period in controlling variations in terrestrial mollusk ecological groups. In addition,maxima in thermo- humidiphilous taxa appearing at about 246 240,220 216,60 and 10 kaBP,are consistent with procession (20 ka period) maxima,indicating that the procession period also plays an important role in adjusting the ecological pattern of mollusk groups.

  11. Paleomagnetic secular variation at the Azores during the last 3 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, A.; Speranza, F.; Porreca, M.

    2012-12-01

    We report on 33 new paleomagnetic directions obtained from 16 lava flows emplaced in the last 3 ka on São Miguel, the largest island of the Azores. The data provide 27 directions from historical or 14C dated flows which, together with 6 directions previously gathered from the same flows by Johyson et al., (1998), yield the first paleomagnetic record of the last 3 ka from the Atlantic Ocean. Within-flow directions are consistent, suggesting that inclination swings from 60° to 25° and declination changes between -10° to 20° reflect variations in the geomagnetic field over the last 3 ka. To a first approximation, the declination record is consistent with predictions from CALS3k.4 and gufm1 global field models. Conversely, inclination values are lower than model predictions at two different ages: 1) four different sites from the 1652 AD flow yield I=48° instead of I=63° predicted by gufm1; 2) data from several flows nicely mimic the inclination minimum of 800-1400 AD, but inclination values are lower by ca. 10° than CALS3k.4 model predictions. By interpolating a cubic spline fit on declination / inclination versus age data, we tentatively infer the directional evolution of the geomagnetic field at the Azores from 1000 BC to 1600 AD.The obtained curve shows three tracks in virtual overlap during the 1000-800 BC, 800-500 BC, and 400-700 AD time spans; Cubic spline interpolation of flow mean declinations (a) and inclinations (b) versus respective calendar ages; c) directions derived every 100 years from cubic spline interpolation, superimposed on paleomagnetic directions (and relative confidence cones) from three loosely-dated flows (Fig. 1). For ages older than 750 AD the fit line is dashed, as it is constrained by a limited number of data. Vertical error bars for declination and inclination data are α95 /cos(I) and α95 values, respectively

  12. Ka-Band Site Characterization of the NASA Near Earth Network in Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R.; Morse, J.; Nessel, J.; Zemba, M.; Tuttle, K.; Caroglanian, A.; Younes, B.; Pedersen, Sten-Chirstian

    2011-01-01

    Critical to NASA s rapid migration toward Ka-Band is the comprehensive characterization of the communication channels at NASA's ground sites to determine the effects of the atmosphere on signal propagation and the network's ability to support various classes of users in different orbits. Accordingly, NASA has initiated a number of studies involving the ground sites of its Near Earth and Deep Space Networks. Recently, NASA concluded a memorandum of agreement (MOA) with the Norwegian Space Centre of the Kingdom of Norway and began a joint site characterization study to determine the atmospheric effects on Ka-Band links at the Svalbard Satellite Station in Norway, which remains a critical component of NASA s Near Earth Communication Network (NEN). System planning and design for Ka-band links at the Svalbard site cannot be optimally achieved unless measured attenuation statistics (e.g. cumulative distribution functions (CDF)) are obtained. In general, the CDF will determine the necessary system margin and overall system availability due to the atmospheric effects. To statistically characterize the attenuation statistics at the Svalbard site, NASA has constructed a ground-based monitoring station consisting of a multi-channel total power radiometer (25.5 - 26.5 GHz) and a weather monitoring station to continuously measure (at 1 second intervals) attenuation and excess noise (brightness temperature). These instruments have been tested in a laboratory environment as well as in an analogous outdoor climate (i.e. winter in Northeast Ohio), and the station was deployed in Svalbard, Norway in May 2011. The measurement campaign is planned to last a minimum of 3 years but not exceeding a maximum of 5 years.

  13. Evidence for an Elevated Aspartate pKa in the Active Site of Human Aromatase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Giovanna; Breitner, Maximilian; Bandino, Andrea; Ghosh, Debashis; Jennings, Gareth K.; Hackett, John C.; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase (CYP19A1), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, is of significant mechanistic and therapeutic interest. Crystal structures and computational studies of this enzyme shed light on the critical role of Asp309 in substrate binding and catalysis. These studies predicted an elevated pKa for Asp309 and proposed that protonation of this residue was required for function. In this study, UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and enzyme kinetics were used to study the impact of pH on aromatase structure and androstenedione binding. Spectroscopic studies demonstrate that androstenedione binding is pH-dependent, whereas, in contrast, the D309N mutant retains its ability to bind to androstenedione across the entire pH range studied. Neither pH nor mutation perturbed the secondary structure or heme environment. The origin of the observed pH dependence was further narrowed to the protonation equilibria of Asp309 with a parallel set of spectroscopic studies using exemestane and anastrozole. Because exemestane interacts with Asp309 based on its co-crystal structure with the enzyme, its binding is pH-dependent. Aromatase binding to anastrozole is pH-independent, consistent with the hypothesis that this ligand exploits a distinct set of interactions in the active site. In summary, we assign the apparent pKa of 8.2 observed for androstenedione binding to the side chain of Asp309. To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental assignment of a pKa value to a residue in a cytochrome P450. This value is in agreement with theoretical calculations (7.7–8.1) despite the reliance of the computational methods on the conformational snapshots provided by crystal structures. PMID:25425647

  14. Oxygen Isotopes and Meltwater: Younger Dryas and 8.2 ka Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigwin, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Delta 18-O is one of our most powerful and widely used proxies, with, arguably, the fewest likely unknown unknowns. Here I will consider the d18-O evidence for the two best-known floods of mostly liquid water to the ocean, the Younger Dryas (YD) and the 8.2 ka event. The first d18-O signal of a meltwater flood in the ocean was reported 40 years ago by Kennett and Shackleton (1975) and that paper led directly to the meltwater diversion hypothesis for the origin of the YD cooling. It was later suggested by Rooth (1982) that such a flood could interrupt Nordic seas convection and trigger the YD cold episode. It was reported at this meeting last year that a candidate flood has been found in the Mackenzie River region of the western Arctic based on low d18-O and multiple other lines of evidence. The 8.2 ka event was about one-tenth the duration of the YD but with possibly higher transport, and is more difficult to detect in open marine sediments. As with the YD, it has been modeled by hosing and low salinities have been derived by temperature correcting the d18-O. The resulting low salinity was shown not to follow the prediction of the highest resolution modeling, and theory, that the fresh water would be transported mostly equatorward along the continental shelf. However, I report here that the low d18-O signal of the 8.2 ka flooding is present in new cores from near Logan Canyon on the Scotian shelf break, and in Jordan Basin, Gulf of Maine. These results substantially validate the modeling of Condron and Winsor that fresh water transport must have been along the continental shelf.

  15. Aspartate embedding depth affects pHLIP's insertion pKa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendos, Justin; Barrera, Francisco N; Engelman, Donald M

    2013-07-09

    We have used the pHlow insertion peptide (pHLIP) family to study the role of aspartate embedding depth in pH-dependent transmembrane peptide insertion. pHLIP binds to the surface of a lipid bilayer as a largely unstructured monomer at neutral pH. When the pH is lowered, pHLIP inserts spontaneously across the membrane as a spanning α-helix. pHLIP insertion is reversible when the pH is adjusted back to a neutral value. One of the critical events facilitating pHLIP insertion is the protonation of aspartates in the spanning domain of the peptide: the negative side chains of these residues convert to uncharged, polar forms, facilitating insertion by altering the hydrophobicity of the spanning domain. To examine this protonation mechanism further, we created pHLIP sequence variants in which the two spanning aspartates (D14 and D25) were moved up or down in the sequence. We hypothesized that the aspartate depth in the inserted state would directly affect the proton affinity of the acidic side chains, altering the pKa of pH-dependent insertion. To this end, we also mutated the arginine at position 11 to determine whether arginine snorkeling modulates the insertion pKa by affecting the aspartate depth. Our results indicate that both types of mutations change the insertion pKa, supporting the idea that the aspartate depth is a participating parameter in determining the pH dependence. We also show that pHLIP's resistance to aggregation can be altered with our mutations, identifying a new criterion for improving the performance of pHLIP in vivo when targeting acidic disease tissues such as cancer and inflammation.

  16. Modeling the climatic implications of the Guliya δ18O record during the past 130 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using an intermediate-complexity UVic Earth System Climate Model (UVic Model, the geographical and seasonal implications and an indicative sense of the historical climate found in the δ18O record of the Guliya ice core (hereinafter, the Guliya δ18O are investigated under time-dependent orbital forcing with an acceleration factor of 100 over the past 130 ka. The results reveal that the simulated late-summer (August–September Guliya surface air temperature (SAT reproduces the 23-ka precession and 43-ka obliquity cycles in the Guliya δ18O. Furthermore, the Guliya δ18O is significantly correlated with the SAT over the Northern Hemisphere (NH, which suggests the Guliya δ18O is an indicator of the late-summer SAT in the NH. Corresponding to the warm and cold phases of the precession cycle in the Guliya temperature, there are two anomalous patterns in the SAT and sea surface temperature (SST fields. The first anomalous pattern shows an increase in the SAT (SST toward the Arctic, possibly associated with the joint effect of the precession and obliquity cycles, and the second anomalous pattern shows an increase in the SAT (SST toward the equator, possibly due to the influence of the precession cycle. Additionally, the summer (winter Guliya and NH temperatures are higher (lower in the warm phases of Guliya late-summer SAT than in the cold phases. Furthermore, the Guliya SAT is closely related to the North Atlantic SST, in which the Guliya precipitation may act as a "bridge" linking the Guliya SAT and the North Atlantic SST.

  17. Sedimentary Characteristics and Paleoenvironmental Records of Zabuye Salt Lake, Tibetan Plateau, since 128 ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper for the first time reveals high-resolution core records of Zabuye Salt Lake in the interior of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. According to 1346 samples taken continuously, relatively accurate 14C, U-series disequilibrium and ESR ages have been obtained, thus revealing that the lake core ages from 0 to 83.63 m of hole SZK02 are ~800 to over 128 ka. In the paper, the lake core sedimentary characteristics (including the lithologies and mineral assemblages) are analyzed in detail and correlated with ostracod assemblages Ⅰ to ⅩⅩ and sporopollen zones A to I, and on the basis of an integrated analysis of the δ18O values of authigenic calcium-magnesium carbonate and environmental proxies of minerals, sporopollen and microfossils in the lake core, a correlation has been made of oxygen isotope change between this lake core and the Greenland GISP2 and GRIP and Guliya ice cores, and the climate of Zabuye Salt Lake since 128 ka BP is divided into the last interglacial stage (including substages e, d, c, b and a) of oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 5, early glacial stadial of the last glacial stage of OIS 4, interglacial stadial of the last glacial stage of OIS 3, late glacial stadial of the last glacial stage or Last Glacial Maximum of OIS 2 and postglacial state of OIS 1; in addition, 6 Heinrich (H6-H1) events, Younger Dryas event and 8.2 ka BP cold event have been recognized.

  18. Tehnološka priprava za izdelavo gredi električne motorne žage.

    OpenAIRE

    Thaler, Janez

    2013-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljen postopek izdelave gredi motorne žage. Opisani so vsi proizvodni postopki s poudarkom na uporabi sodobnih CNC-tehnologij. Podrobno so predstavljene napredne numerično krmiljene stružnice in tehnološka priprava za struženje gredi. Na podlagi poznanih obdelovalnih procesov je v zaključku predlagana izboljšava proizvodnega procesa s ciljem izboljšati zanesljivost procesa in znižati stroške izdelave.

  19. Ka eakad tahavad ja suudavad töötada / Kadi Pärnits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärnits, Kadi, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Sakala 4. mai lk. 2, Lääne Elu 5. mai, lk. 2, Koit 5. mai, lk. 6, Videvik 5. mai lk. 2, Harjumaa 6. mai, lk. 2, Põhjarannik 6. mai, lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 6. mai lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 3. juuni lk. 2, Valgamaalane 9. juuni lk. 2, Pärnu Postimees 5. juuli lk. 15, Vooremaa 26. juuli lk. 2. Sotsiaaldemokraatide algatusest kehtivat töölepinguseadust muuta ja võtta tööandjatelt õigus vabaneda eakast töötajast kohe, kui viimane saab 65 aastaseks

  20. Američka doktrina preventivnoga udara i međunarodno pravo

    OpenAIRE

    Seršić, Maja

    2008-01-01

    Ovaj se članak bavi opsegom američke doktrine preventivnoga napada. Proučava zakonitost preventivnoga napada uopće, obilježja nove američke doktrine i njezin utjecaj na pozitivno međunarodno pravo. Iako ne postoje naznake o novome običajnom pravu u vezi zakonitosti preventivnih napada, koje zagovara nova američka doktrina, akcije koje su poduzete u skladu s ovom doktrinom uglavnom su naštetile UN-u, koji je postao potpuno marginaliziran. U suštini, jedino UN ima nadležnost baviti se teroristi...

  1. Proposal for a Joint NASA/KSAT Ka-band RF Propagation Terminal at Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volosin, Jeffrey; Acosta, Roberto; Nessel, James; McCarthy, Kevin; Caroglanian, Armen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the placement of a Ka-band RF Propagation Terminal at Svalbard, Norway. The Near Earth Network (NEN) station would be managed by Kongsberg Satellite Services (KSAT) and would benefit NASA and KSAT. There are details of the proposed NASA/KSAT campaign, and the responsibilities each would agree to. There are several reasons for the placement, a primary reason is comparison with the Alaska site, Based on climatological similarities/differences with Alaska, Svalbard site expected to have good radiometer/beacon agreement approximately 99% of time.

  2. The Development and Demonstration of a 360m/10 kA HTS DC Power Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liye

    With the quick development of renewable energy, it is expected that the electric power from renewable energy would be the dominant one for the future power grid. Due to the specialty of the renewable energy, the HVDC power transmission would be very useful for the transmission of electric power from renewable energy. DC power cable made of High Tc Superconductor (HTS) would be a possible alternative for the construction of HVDC power transmission system. In this chapter, we report the development and demonstration of a 360 m/10 kA HTS DC power cable and the test results.

  3. KaTie: for parton-level event generation with k_T-dependent initial states

    CERN Document Server

    van Hameren, A

    2016-01-01

    KaTie is a parton-level event generator for hadron scattering processes that can deal with partonic initial-state momenta with an explicit transverse momentum dependence causing them to be space-like. Provided with the necessary transverse momentum dependent parton density functions, it calculates the off-shell matrix elements and performs the phase space importance sampling to produce weighted events, for example in the Les Houches Event File format. It can deal with arbitrary processes within the Standard Model, for up to four final-state particles and beyond. Furthermore, it can produce events for single-parton scattering as well as for multi-parton scattering.

  4. Toward more realistic freshwater forcing experiments of the 8.2 ka event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, C.; Wagner, A. J.; Ward, E. M.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Rosenbloom, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    The 8.2 ka event is a key test case for simulating the coupled climate response to changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Most previous model experiments of this event were forced by the drainage of proglacial Lake Agassiz-Ojibway into the Hudson Bay and entering the Atlantic Ocean through the Hudson Strait. This drainage contained enough water to raise global sea level about 0.2 meters or more, but it likely had a short duration on the order of one year. Recent advances in quantifying the meltwater forcing associated with the 8.2 ka event point towards a forcing larger than the drainage of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway, probably involving the collapse of the Hudson Bay ice dome and raising global sea level on the order of 1.5 to 3.0 meters. Using the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3), we show that this larger forcing yields a better match to paleoclimate proxy records. Despite these improvements in forcing magnitude in model simulations, the forcing itself is still generally applied in an unrealistic geographic manner, across most of the Labrador Sea rather than only along the Labrador coast. We present additional experiments using the CCSM3, with an ocean model resolution only slightly coarser than that used in previous eddy-resolving simulations, to test the sensitivity to freshwater forcing location. When revised freshwater forcing is applied across the Labrador Sea, the AMOC is reduced by about 40% and climate anomalies compare well with proxy records of the 8.2 ka event in terms of magnitude and duration. When the forcing is added only along the Labrador coast, however, most meltwater joins the subtropical gyre and travels to the subtropics with minor impact to the AMOC (about 10% decrease). It is likely that model biases in the placement of the North Atlantic Current remain an important limitation for correctly simulating the 8.2 ka event, though the effects of icebergs or alternative freshwater sources cannot be completely

  5. Ka-band Dielectric Waveguide Antenna Array for Millimeter Wave Active Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weihai; Fei, Peng; Nian, Feng; Yang, Yujie; Feng, Keming

    2014-11-01

    Ka-band compact dielectric waveguide antenna array for active imaging system is given. Antenna array with WR28 metal waveguide direct feeding is specially designed with small size, high gain, good radiation pattern, easy realization, low insertion loss and low mutual coupling. One practical antenna array for 3-D active imaging system is shown with theoretic analysis and experimental results. The mutual coupling of transmitting and receiving units is less than -30dB, the gain from 26.5GHz to 40GHz is (12-16) dB. The results in this paper provide guidelines for the designing of millimeter wave dielectric waveguide antenna array.

  6. Particle simulation of a ka-band gyrotron traveling wave amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Shouxi; Liu Pukun; Zhang Shichang; Du Chaohai; Xue Qianzhong; Geng Zhihui; Su Yinong [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2652, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-08-15

    The design of a ka-band gyrotron traveling wave (gyro-TWT) amplifier is presented. The gyro-TWT amplifier with a severed structure operates in the fundamental harmonic TE{sub 01} circular electric mode. The beam-wave interaction is studied by using a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The simulations predict that the amplifier can produce an output peak power of over 155 kW, 22% efficiency, 23 dB gain, and a 3 dB bandwidth of 2 GHz for a 70 kV, 10 A electron beam with an axial velocity spread {Delta}v{sub z}/v{sub z}=5%.

  7. Ka Band Phase Locked Loop Oscillator Dielectric Resonator Oscillator for Satellite EHF Band Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and fabrication of a Ka Band PLL DRO having a fundamental oscillation frequency of 19.250 GHz, used as local oscillator in the low-noise block of a down converter (LNB for an EHF band receiver. Apposite circuital models have been created to describe the behaviour of the dielectric resonator and of the active component used in the oscillator core. The DRO characterization and measurements have shown very good agreement with simulation results. A good phase noise performance is obtained by using a very high Q dielectric resonator.

  8. Ka eakad tahavad ja suudavad töötada / Kadi Pärnits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärnits, Kadi, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Sakala 4. mai lk. 2, Lääne Elu 5. mai, lk. 2, Koit 5. mai, lk. 6, Videvik 5. mai lk. 2, Harjumaa 6. mai, lk. 2, Põhjarannik 6. mai, lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 6. mai lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 3. juuni lk. 2, Valgamaalane 9. juuni lk. 2, Pärnu Postimees 5. juuli lk. 15, Vooremaa 26. juuli lk. 2. Sotsiaaldemokraatide algatusest kehtivat töölepinguseadust muuta ja võtta tööandjatelt õigus vabaneda eakast töötajast kohe, kui viimane saab 65 aastaseks

  9. Application of electrical resistivity imaging on Divaška jama cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Mihevc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI is a widely used tool in geophysical survey of various subsurface structures. To establish its applicability for karst subsurface, ERI was conducted in Divača karst above caves of Trhlovca and Divaška jama and in its continuation as denuded cave on slopes of Radvanj collapse doline. Empty cave passages were not detected with ERI as electrical resistivity difference between voids and highly resistive carbonate bedrock is too small. On the other hand, denuded caves and cave sections, filled with loamy material, can be clearly distinguished.

  10. "Parim" on subjektiivne, aga kõhutundest ka ei piisa / Inga Kuusik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusik, Inga, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi Menedzhment : infovõpusk nr. 13 apr. lk. 6-7. Saku Õlletehase uus finantsjuht oma tööst tubakatootja Imperial Tobacco Grupi Kesk-Aasia regiooni finantsdirektorina Kõrgõzstanis, Saku Õlletehase kapitali struktuurist, finantsdirektori rollist ettevõttes ja tööjõu värbamisest Saku Õlletehases. Lisad: Saku Õlletehas 2006: mõõdukas käibe-, aga suur kasumikasv; Tabel: Saku Õlletehase dividendimaksed 1997-2007

  11. A CDMA architecture for a Ka-band Personal Access Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Masoud; Sue, Miles K.

    1990-01-01

    A Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) architecture is currently being studied for use in a Ka-band Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). The complete architecture consisting of block diagrams of the user terminal, the supplier station, the network management center, and the satellite is described along with the access methods and frequency/time plans. The complexity of developing this system using the CDMA architecture is compared to that of a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) architecture. The inherent advantages and disadvantages of the two architectures are compared and their respective capacities are discussed.

  12. Pension tuleb maal tasuta koju ka tulevikus / Siim-Valmar Kiisler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiisler, Siim, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    Regionaalminister Siim-Valmar Kiisleri sõnul toetas riigikogu sotsiaalkomisjon tema ettepanekut ning otsustas kirjutada eelnõusse sisse sätte, et hajaasustusega piirkondades ning asulates, kus pangateenused pole kättesaadavad, jääb pensionide ning hüvitiste kojukanne edaspidigi tasuta. Ilmunud ka: Harju Elu 17. okt. lk. 2, Vooremaa 16. okt. lk. 2; Harju Elu 17. okt. lk. 2; Kuulutaja 17. okt. lk. 4; Võrumaa Teataja 18. okt. lk. 2; Meie Maa 16. okt. lk. 2; Koit 21. okt. lk. 6; Sakala 22. okt. lk. 2; Oma Saar 23. okt. lk. 5

  13. Meta-analitička obrada osnovnog kemijskog sastava mesa janjadi mediteranskih pasmina ovaca

    OpenAIRE

    Kaić, dr.sc. Ana; Mioč, prof.dr.sc. Boro; Potočnik, doc.dr.sc. Klemen

    2014-01-01

    U ovom istraživanju je utvrđen osnovni kemijski sastav janjećeg mesa mediteranskih pasmina ovaca primjenom meta-analize rezultata sedam znanstvenih istraživanja. Baza kodiranih podataka o kemijskom sastavu uključivala je janjad pasmina Tushin, Rasa Aragonesa, Churra Tensina, Grazalema Merino, Comisana i ličke pramenke. Statistička obrada kodiranih podataka provedena je softverskim programom CMA, dok su rezultati meta-analitičke obrade prikazani šumskim grafikonom pomoću softverskog program...

  14. Prehrambena i biološka vrijednost fermentiranih mliječnih proizvoda

    OpenAIRE

    Kaić-Rak, Antoinette; Antonić-Degač, Katica

    1996-01-01

    Zapaža se sve veće zanimanje za fermentirane mliječne proizvode, koji osim vlastite mikroflore sadrže i dodatne kulture raznih vrsta bakterija, npr. Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobakterije i si. Razlog tome je njihova važna prehrambeno-biološka vrijednost, obzirom na to da su vrlo dobri izvori mnogih prehrambenih tvari, pogotovo visokovrijednih bjelančevina, Ca, P, Mg, vit. B2, vit. B12 i niacin ekvivalenata. Osim dokazane prehrambeno-biološke vrijednosti navedenih proizvoda, oni mogu imat...

  15. Deep-Space Ka-Band Link Priority Data Protection: Pre-Emptive Retransmission vs. Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambayati, Shervin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the performance of two preemptive retransmission schemes for protection of priority data over deep-space Ka-band links is evaluated. The first scheme merges the correctly received bit from each transmission to create the most complete set of priority data for each pass (bit merge). The second scheme (symbol combining) combines the soft symbols received from each transmission of the priority data to increase the priority data's signal to noise ratio (SNR), thus increasing the liklihood of the correct reception.

  16. ASASSN-17ka: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in ESO 244-G 019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monard, L. A. G.; Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Bock, G.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kiyota, S.; Masi, G.; Post, R. S.

    2017-07-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy ESO 244-G 019. ASASSN-17ka (AT 2017frr) was discovered in images obtained on UT 2017-07-27.23 at V 16.5 mag. We also detect the object in images obtained on UT 2017-07-24.24 (V 16.6), UT 2017-07-29.23 (V 16.0), and UT 2017-07-30.23 (V 16.5).

  17. Analysis of Standards Efficiency in Digital Television Via Satellite at Ku and Ka Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landeros-Ayala Salvador

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis on the main technical features of digital television standards for satellite transmission is carried out. Based on simulations and link budgets, the standard with the best operational performance is defined, based on simulations and link budget analysis, as well as a comparative efficiency analysis is conducted for the Ku and Ka bands for both transparent and regenerative transponders in terms of power, bandwidth, information rate and link margin, including clear sky, uplink rain, downlink rain and rain in both.

  18. The 40 kA dumping system for the ISR beams

    CERN Document Server

    Schnuriger, J C

    1975-01-01

    It has been necessary to build a fast and reliable system which can dump the beam whenever safety monitors indicate a hardware fault or a beam loss. The beam in each ISR is dumped by means of four fast pulsed magnets deflecting the particles vertically onto an absorber block situated in the same long straight section. The 0.75 Omega , 40 kA pulse generator now energizing the four fast pulsed magnets is described with special attention to the principles and technological solutions which were adopted in order to achieve the necessary reliability of the system for each type of operation, and particularly during long colliding beam experiments. (7 refs).

  19. submitter Manufacture and Test of ITER 10-kA HTSCL Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Tingzhi; Liu, Chenglian; Lu, Kun; Ran, Qingxiang; Song, Yuntao; Niu, Erwu; Bauer, Pierre; Devred, Arnaud; Lee, Seungje; Taylor, Thomas; Yang, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    To carry current for the ITER correction coils, the 10-kA high-temperature superconducting current leads studied here are designed. Current leads provide the transition from 4.5-K low temperature to room temperature. This paper summarizes the major design features of the prototypes, which is followed by a discussion of the manufacturing and testing. The test results approved their excellent performance on low joint resistance and long loss-of-flow accident time. The overheating time, mass flow, and heat loads to 5-K ends also reached the expectation.

  20. Simulation and measurement of a Ka-band HTS MMIC Josephson junction mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Pegrum, Colin; Du, Jia; Guo, Yingjie Jay

    2017-01-01

    We report modeling and simulation results for a Ka band high-temperature superconducting (HTS) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) Josephson junction mixer. A Verilog-A model of a Josephson junction is established and imported into the system simulator to realize a full HTS MMIC circuit simulation containing the HTS passive circuit models. Impedance matching optimization between the junction and passive devices is investigated. Junction DC I-V characteristics, current and local oscillator bias conditions and mixing performance are simulated and compared with the experimental results. Good agreement is obtained between the simulation and measurement results.

  1. Ka Band Phase Locked Loop Oscillator Dielectric Resonator Oscillator for Satellite EHF Band Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    Coco, S; Di Maggio, F.; A. Laudani; I. Pomona

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a Ka Band PLL DRO having a fundamental oscillation frequency of 19.250 GHz, used as local oscillator in the low-noise block of a down converter (LNB) for an EHF band receiver. Apposite circuital models have been created to describe the behaviour of the dielectric resonator and of the active component used in the oscillator core. The DRO characterization and measurements have shown very good agreement with simulation results. A good phase nois...

  2. Modeling and Measurement of Phase Noise in GaAs HBT Ka-Band Oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Lenk, Friedrich; Schott, Matthias; Heinrich, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Accurate oscillator phase-noise simulation is a key problem in MMIC design, which is not solved satisfactory so far and needs further investigation. In this paper, a Ka-band MMIC oscillator with GaInP/GaAs HBT and on-chip resonator is treated as an example. Measured phase noise reaches -90 dBc/Hz and below at 100 kHz offset. To evaluate phase-noise predic-tion, the circuit is simulated using different commercial simulation tools and HBT models. Con-siderable differences in simulation results ...

  3. "Parim" on subjektiivne, aga kõhutundest ka ei piisa / Inga Kuusik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusik, Inga, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi Menedzhment : infovõpusk nr. 13 apr. lk. 6-7. Saku Õlletehase uus finantsjuht oma tööst tubakatootja Imperial Tobacco Grupi Kesk-Aasia regiooni finantsdirektorina Kõrgõzstanis, Saku Õlletehase kapitali struktuurist, finantsdirektori rollist ettevõttes ja tööjõu värbamisest Saku Õlletehases. Lisad: Saku Õlletehas 2006: mõõdukas käibe-, aga suur kasumikasv; Tabel: Saku Õlletehase dividendimaksed 1997-2007

  4. Evaluation of Deep Space Ka-Band Data Transfer using Radiometeorological Forecasts and Radiometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Marzano, Frank S.; Biscarini, Marianna; Milani, Luca; Cimini, Domenico; De Sanctis, Klaide; Di Fabio, Saverio

    2016-04-01

    Deep space exploration is aimed at acquiring information about the solar system. In this scenario, telecommunications links between Earth ground receiving stations and extra-terrestrial satellite platforms have to be designed in order to ensure the optimal transfer of the acquired scientific data back to the Earth. A significant communication capacity has to be planned when very large distances, as those characterising deep space links, are involved thus fostering more ambitious scientific mission requirements. At the current state of the art, two microwave channel frequencies are used to perform the deep space data transfer: X band (~ 8.4 GHz) and Ka band (~ 32 GHz) channel. Ka-band transmission can offer an advantage over X-band in terms of antenna performance with the same antenna effective area and an available data transfer bandwidth (50 times higher at Ka band than X band). However, Earth troposphere-related impairments can affects the space-to-Earth carrier signals at frequencies higher than 10 GHz by degrading its integrity and thus reducing the deep space channel temporal availability. Such atmospheric impairments, especially in terms of path attenuation, their statistic and the possibility to forecast them in the next 24H at the Earth's receiving station would allow a more accurate design of the deep space link, promoting the mitigation of the detrimental effects on the link availability. To pursue this aim, meteorological forecast models and in situ measurements need to be considered in order to characterise the troposphere in terms of signal path attenuation at current and future time. In this work, we want to show how the synergistic use of meteorological forecasts, radiative transfer simulations and in situ measurements such as microwave radiometry observations, rain gauges and radiosoundings, can aid the optimisation of a deep space link at Ka band and improve its performance with respect to usual practices. The outcomes of the study are in the

  5. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei. Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food.

  6. Severe stunting in blackgram caused by the Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) KA27 DNA B component is ameliorated by co-infection or post-infection with the KA22 DNA B: MYMV nuclear shuttle protein is the symptom determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Nagrani; Parameswari, Chidambaram; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2011-04-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-[India:Vigna] (MYMV-[IN:Vig]), a blackgram isolate of MYMV, has five variable and infective DNA B components of which KA22 and KA27 DNA Bs share only 72% nucleotide sequence identity between them. Agroinoculation of blackgram with partial dimers of DNA A and KA27 DNA B caused severe stunting and an inordinate delay in flowering. Interestingly, co-agroinoculation of KA27+KA22 DNA B components along with DNA A ameliorated severe stunting, rescued from the delay in flowering and caused the appearance of yellow mosaic symptom characteristic of KA22 DNA B. Post-agroinoculation of KA27 DNA B-infected blackgram plants with KA22 DNA B also resulted in the amelioration from severe stunting and in the alleviation from the delay in flowering. Alleviation from KA27 DNA B-type of symptom by co-infection or post-infection with KA22 DNA B did not result in a corresponding reduction in KA27 DNA B levels. Swapping of KA27 DNA B with the nuclear shuttle protein gene (NSP) of KA22 DNA B abolished severe stunting and caused the appearance of mild yellow symptom, suggesting that the NSP is the major symptom determinant in MYMV DNA B.

  7. Initiation of the Mekong River delta at 8 ka: evidence from the sedimentary succession in the Cambodian lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toru; Saito, Yoshiki; Sieng, Sotham; Ben, Bunnarin; Kong, Meng; Sim, Im; Choup, Sokuntheara; Akiba, Fumio

    2009-02-01

    Modern deltas are understood to have initiated around 7.5-9 ka in response to the deceleration of sea-level rise. This episode of delta initiation is closely related to the last deglacial meltwater events and eustatic sea-level rises. The initial stage of the Mekong River delta, one of the world's largest deltas, is well recorded in Cambodian lowland sediments. This paper integrates analyses of sedimentary facies, diatom assemblages, and radiocarbon dates for three drill cores from the lowland to demonstrate Holocene sedimentary evolution in relation to sea-level changes. The cores are characterized by a tripartite succession: (1) aggrading flood plain to natural levee and tidal-fluvial channel during the postglacial sea-level rise (10-8.4 ka); (2) aggrading to prograding tidal flats and mangrove forests around and after the maximum flooding of the sea (8.4-6.3 ka); and (3) a prograding fluvial system on the delta plain (6.3 ka to the present). The maximum flooding of the sea occurred at 8.0 ± 0.1 ka, 2000 years before the mid-Holocene sea-level highstand, and tidal flats penetrated up to 20-50 km southeast of Phnom Penh after a period of abrupt ˜5 m sea-level rise at 8.5-8.4 ka. The delta progradation then initiated as a result of the sea-level stillstand at around 8-7.5 ka. Another rapid sea-level rise at 7.5-7 ka allowed thick mangrove peat to be widely deposited in the Cambodian lowland, and the peat accumulation endured until 6.3 ka. Since 6.3 ka, a fluvial system has characterized the delta plain, and the fluvial sediment discharge has contributed to rapid delta progradation. The uppermost part of the sedimentary succession, composed of flood plain to natural-levee sediments, reveals a sudden increase in sediment accumulation over the past 600-1000 years. This increase might reflect an increase in the sediment yield due to human activities in the upper to middle reaches of the Mekong, as with other Asian rivers.

  8. Electrostatic Energetics of Bacillus subtilis Ribonuclease P Protein Determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Histidine pKa Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Pamela L; Daniels, Kyle G; Oas, Terrence G

    2015-09-08

    The pKa values of ionizable groups in proteins report the free energy of site-specific proton binding and provide a direct means of studying pH-dependent stability. We measured histidine pKa values (H3, H22, and H105) in the unfolded (U), intermediate (I), and sulfate-bound folded (F) states of RNase P protein, using an efficient and accurate nuclear magnetic resonance-monitored titration approach that utilizes internal reference compounds and a parametric fitting method. The three histidines in the sulfate-bound folded protein have pKa values depressed by 0.21 ± 0.01, 0.49 ± 0.01, and 1.00 ± 0.01 units, respectively, relative to that of the model compound N-acetyl-l-histidine methylamide. In the unliganded and unfolded protein, the pKa values are depressed relative to that of the model compound by 0.73 ± 0.02, 0.45 ± 0.02, and 0.68 ± 0.02 units, respectively. Above pH 5.5, H22 displays a separate resonance, which we have assigned to I, whose apparent pKa value is depressed by 1.03 ± 0.25 units, which is ∼0.5 units more than in either U or F. The depressed pKa values we observe are consistent with repulsive interactions between protonated histidine side chains and the net positive charge of the protein. However, the pKa differences between F and U are small for all three histidines, and they have little ionic strength dependence in F. Taken together, these observations suggest that unfavorable electrostatics alone do not account for the fact that RNase P protein is intrinsically unfolded in the absence of ligand. Multiple factors encoded in the P protein sequence account for its IUP property, which may play an important role in its function.

  9. Synthetic Lethality Screen Identifies RPS6KA2 as Modifier of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Milosevic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is characterized by a high degree of resistance to chemotherapy. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibition using the small-molecule inhibitor erlotinib was shown to provide a small survival benefit in a subgroup of patients. To identify kinases whose inhibition acts synergistically with erlotinib, we employed a kinome-wide small-interfering RNA (siRNA-based loss-of-function screen in the presence of erlotinib. Of 779 tested kinases, we identified several targets whose inhibition acted synergistically lethal with EGFR inhibition by erlotinib, among them the S6 kinase ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (RPS6KA2/ribosomal S6 kinase 3. Activated RPS6KA2 was expressed in approximately 40% of 123 human pancreatic cancer tissues. RPS6KA2 was shown to act downstream of EGFR/RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK signaling and was activated by EGF independently of the presence of KRAS mutations. Knockdown of RPS6KA2 by siRNA led to increased apoptosis only in the presence of erlotinib, whereas RPS6KA2 activation or overexpression rescued from erlotinib- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. This effect was at least in part mediated by downstream activation of ribosomal protein S6. Genetic as well as pharmacological inhibition of RPS6KA2 by the inhibitor BI-D1870 acted synergistically with erlotinib. By applying this synergistic lethality screen using a kinome-wide RNA interference-library approach, we identified RPS6KA2 as potential drug target whose inhibition synergistically enhanced the effect of erlotinib on tumor cell survival. This kinase therefore represents a promising drug candidate suitable for the development of novel inhibitors for pancreatic cancer therapy.

  10. Quench Propagation in the Superconducting 6 kA Flexible Busbars of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, M; Pelegrin-Carcelen, J M; Sonnemann, F

    2002-01-01

    Flexible superconducting cables with currents up to 6 kA will be used to power magnets individually in the insertion regions of the LHC. In case of a quench, the currents in these circuits will decay very fast (with time constants of about 200 ms) such that relatively small copper cross sections are sufficient for these busbars. Quench propagation experiments on a prototype cable and corresponding simulations led to a detailed understanding of the quench behavior of these busbars and to recommendations for the design and application of the cable. Simulations of the quench process in a multi-strand conductor led to a detailed understanding of the way current crosses from superconducting to pure copper strands and how this affects the quench propagation velocity. At nominal current (6 kA), the quench propagation velocities are high (10 m/s) and the hot spot temperature increases rapidly. In this situation, timely quench detection and energy extraction (current reduction) are vital to prevent damage of circuit c...

  11. Did Lake Bonneville Experience A Major Water-Budget Shift At 17.4 cal ka?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, C.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Bonneville, in western Utah, had transgressed to its highest level by 18.3 cal ka, overflowed into the Snake River drainage basin until 17.4 cal ka, then catastrophically dropped 100 m as its overflow threshold was washed out. This event, which is referred to as the “Bonneville flood,” is well documented geomorphically, stratigraphically, and geochronologically. At the same time the Bonneville flood was occurring, the level of Lake Estancia in central New Mexico dropped over 30 m then returned to its previous high level in an event caused by climate change in that basin. The question is: “did Lake Bonneville experience a correlative climate-induced shift in its water budget (a decrease in the ratio of input to output), even while it continuously overflowed before, during, and after the Bonneville flood?” The answer to this question has a bearing on the global effects of the climate change that is well documented in the Estancia basin. Data from sediment cores from the Bonneville basin are providing a means to address the question. Data include: ostracode faunal changes, total inorganic carbon, stable isotopes, detrital sand, and mineralogy. The challenge is to identify the measurable characteristics of the sediment core that can be used to clearly separate the effects of water-budget change from those caused by the catastrophic (essentially instantaneous) 100-m lowering of Lake Bonneville.

  12. FERROELECTRIC SWITCH FOR A HIGH-POWER Ka-BAND ACTIVE PULSE COMPRESSOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc.

    2013-12-18

    Results are presented for design of a high-power microwave switch for operation at 34.3 GHz, intended for use in an active RF pulse compressor. The active element in the switch is a ring of ferroelectric material, whose dielectric constant can be rapidly changed by application of a high-voltage pulse. As envisioned, two of these switches would be built into a pair of delay lines, as in SLED-II at SLAC, so as to allow 30-MW μs-length Ka-band pulses to be compressed in time by a factor-of-9 and multiplied in amplitude to generate 200 MW peak power pulses. Such high-power pulses could be used for testing and evaluation of high-gradient mm-wave accelerator structures, for example. Evaluation of the switch design was carried out with an X-band (11.43 GHz) prototype, built to incorporate all the features required for the Ka-band version.

  13. Radial Color Gradients in K+A Galaxies in Distant Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholomew, L J; Gaba, A E; Caldwell, N; Bartholomew, Lindsay J.; Rose, James A.; Gaba, Alejandro E.; Caldwell, Nelson

    2001-01-01

    Galaxies in rich clusters with z $\\gtrsim$ 0.3 are observed to have a higher fraction of photometrically blue galaxies than their nearby counterparts. This raises the important question of what environmental effects can cause the termination of star formation between z $\\approx$ 0.3 and the present. The star formation may be truncated due to ram-pressure stripping, or the gas in the disk may be depleted by an episode of star formation caused by some external perturbation. To help resolve this issue, surface photometry was carried out for a total of 70 early-type galaxies in the cluster Cl1358+62, at z $\\sim$ 0.33, using two-color images from the Hubble Archive. The galaxies were divided into two categories based on spectroscopic criteria: 24 are type K+A (e.g., strong Balmer lines, with no visible emission lines), while the remaining 46 are in the control sample with normal spectra. Radial color profiles were produced to see if the K+A galaxies show bluer nuclei in relation to their surrounding disks. Specifi...

  14. Operational experience in the use of 18 kA HTS current leads for Edipo

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, S.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2013, the Edipo facility of CRPP was commissioned. The dipole is powered via two 18 kA HTS current leads, designed and manufactured at CRPP. As part of the Edipo commissioning framework, the operational parameters of the leads were implemented in the control system. The in-situ tests were found to be in good agreement with the tests performed without a background field in 2011. The leads consist of a conduction cooled HTS module, made of AgMgAu/Bi-2223 stacks, and a wire bundle heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is cooled by forced flow helium gas, the inlet temperature of which was measured to vary between 65 K and 85 K. During operation with field, the mass flow rate is a function of current (2.05 g/s per lead at full field, 12.35 T, 17.2 kA). Reduced cooling investigations showed that 0.31 g/s per lead is suitable for overnight standby and 0.2 g/s per lead for longer periods. For detection of and protection against quench in the HTS module, a threshold of 10 mV was found to be appropriate. The heat exchanger has a voltage protection threshold of 120 mV. The temperatures of the heat exchanger, the HTS, and the helium inlet temperature were monitored in order to provide a further layer of protection.

  15. Regeneration of Vrnjačka Banja and sustainable tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Igor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Vrnjačka Banja has always been dynamic, starting with its reputation of an elite spa, followed by being a spa for mass medical and other tourist purposes, all up to present days when Banja became the economic center of its municipality, qualified by a number of various functions and interests. With the latest Master Plan for Vrnjačka Banja, the attempt was made to have a better control over space and to meet most of the partial interests. The aim was to "activate" wider area of Banja from central parts to the periphery, and to comprehend Banja in its wider context. Sustainable development as a tall order cannot be attained if its application does not involve a number of other instruments of public action or if it is not in sync with reaching a consensus, which would require a permanent action. In such a context, Master Plan is not an obstacle but a solid basis with significant flexibility for a creative local government.

  16. Preliminary checklist of Myxomycota and Ascomycota from Fruška Gora mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaman Maja A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruška Gora mountain represents very important source of natural and semi-natural forest ecosystems in the northern part of the Republic of Serbia and therefore it is important source of habitats for different groups of fungi. As opposed to coordinated inventory and monitoring projects of fungi established around Europe long ago, mycological researches in Serbia are still sporadic and insufficiently coordinated by authorities and experts. In accordance with that, available data concerning the state of fungi in Serbia are scarce. The aim of this work was to collect all relevant unpublished data considering fungi in Fruška Gora and to present checklist of two fungal phyla: Myxomycota and Ascomycota. In the presented checklist, 23 recorded species of Myxomycota (known as fungal analogues were distributed in 2 classes, 5 orders, and 7 families. The first class (Protosteliomycetes contained only one species - Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa (fam. Ceratiomyxaceae. The largest order was Trichiales (9 species, while the dominant families were Stemonitidaceae and Trichiaceae, each with 6 species recorded. The most abundant species was Lycogala epidendrum (fam. Reticulariaceae, with 13 records. Phylum Ascomycota was represented with 95 species belonging to 6 classes, 12 orders and 29 families. The most highly represented classes were Leotiomycetes (32 species and Pezizomycetes (31 species. The most abundant species were: Xylaria polymorpha (17 records, Xylaria hypoxylon (14 records, and Sarcoscypha coccinea (14 records. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-43002

  17. Diagnostics for a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV, electron induction injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, T. L.; Anderson, D. E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.; Vanecek, D. L.; Westenskow, G. A.; Yu, S. S.

    1998-12-01

    We are constructing a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV, electron induction injector as part of the RTA program, a collaborative effort between LLNL and LBNL to develop relativistic klystrons for Two-Beam Accelerator applications. The RTA injector will also be used in the development of a high-gradient, low-emittance, electron source and beam diagnostics for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility. The electron source will be a 3.5″-diameter, thermionic, flat-surface, m-type cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150 ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 200 π-mm-mr. Precise measurement of the beam parameters is required so that performance of the RTA injector can be confidently scaled to the 4 kA, 3 MeV, and 2-microsecond pulse parameters of the DARHT injector. Planned diagnostics include an isolated cathode with resistive divider for direct measurement of current emission, resistive wall and magnetic probe current monitors for measuring beam current and centroid position, capacitive probes for measuring A-K gap voltage, an energy spectrometer, and a pepperpot emittance diagnostic. Details of the injector, beam line, and diagnostics are presented.

  18. A Ka-band 22 dBm GaN amplifier MMIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dongfang; Chen Xiaojuan; Yuan Tingting; Wei Ke; Liu Xinyu

    2011-01-01

    A Ka-band GaN amplifier MMIC has been designed in CPW technology,and fabricated with a domestic GaN epitaxial wafer and process.This is,to the best of our knowledge,the first demonstration of domestic Kaband GaN amplifier MMICs.The single stage CPW MMIC utilizes an AIGaN/GaN HEMT with a gate-length of 0.25 μm and a gate-width of 2 × 75 μm.Under Vds =10 V,continuous-wave operating conditions,the amplifier has a 1.5 GHz operating bandwidth.It exhibits a linear gain of 6.3 dB,a maximum output power of 22 dBm and a peak PAE of 9.5% at 26.5 GHz.The output power density of the AIGaN/GaN HEMT in the MMIC reaches 1 W/mm at Ka-band under the condition of Vds =10 V.

  19. Diagnostics for a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV electron induction injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houck, T.L.; Anderson, D.E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.M.; Vanecek, D.L.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1998-05-11

    We are constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, electron induction injector as part of the RTA program, a collaborative effort between LLNL and LBNL to develop relativistic klystrons for Two-Beam Accelerator applications. The RTA injector will also be used in the development of a high-gradient, low-emittance, electron source and beam diagnostics for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility. The electron source will be a 3.5``-diameter, thermionic, flat-surface, m-type cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 200 {pi}-mm-mr. Precise measurement of the beam parameters is required so that performance of the RTA injector can be confidently scaled to the 4-kA, 3-MeV, and 2-microsecond pulse parameters of the DARHT injector. Planned diagnostics include an isolated cathode with resistive divider for direct measurement of current emission, resistive wall and magnetic probe current monitors for measuring beam current and centroid position, capacitive probes for measuring A-K gap voltage, an energy spectrometer, and a pepper-pot emittance diagnostic. Details of the injector, beam line, and diagnostics are presented.

  20. A novel Ka-band coaxial transit-time oscillator with a four-gap buncher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Lili; He, Juntao; Ling, Junpu [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2015-05-15

    A novel Ka-band coaxial transit-time oscillator (TTO) with a four-gap buncher is proposed and investigated. Simulation results show that an output power of 1.27 GW and a frequency of 26.18 GHz can be achieved with a diode voltage of 447 kV and a beam current of 7.4 kA. The corresponding power efficiency is 38.5%, and the guiding magnetic field is 0.6 T. Studies and analysis indicate that a buncher with four gaps can modulate the electron beam better than the three-gap buncher in such a Ka-band TTO. Moreover, power efficiency increases with the coupling coefficient between the buncher and the extractor. Further simulation demonstrates that power efficiency can reach higher than 30% with a guiding magnetic field of above 0.5 T. Besides, the power efficiency exceeds 30% in a relatively large range of diode voltage from 375 kV to 495 kV.

  1. Paleoproductivity evolution in the West Philippine Sea during the last 700 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zheng; LI Tiegang; CHANG Fengming; NAN Qingyun; LI Qing

    2013-01-01

    In order to reconstruct the paleoproductivity evolution history of the West Philippine Sea during the last 700 ka,the vertical gradient of Aδ13C in dissolved inorganic carbon (Aδ13C between those of foraminifera Pulleniatina obliquiloculata and Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi) and planktonic foraminiferal assemblages were analysed in piston Core MD06-3047 retrieved from the Benham Rise (east of the Luzon Island).Paleoproductivity evolution in the West Philippine Sea during the last 700 ka is closely related to glacial-interglacial cycles and precession-controlled insolation.Controlling factors of paleoproductivity could have been both thermocline fluctuations related with ENSO-like processes and eolian input associated with East Asian winter monsoon,and the former could have been the primary factor.A higher productivity and a shallower thermocline coeval with the occurrence of low CO2 concentrations in the EPICA Dome C icecore might indicate that biological export production in the low-latitude could act as a significant sink in the global carbon cycle,and modify atmospheric CO2 concentrations.Spectral analysis further reveals that the paleoproductivity is mainly controlled by thermocline fluctuations subjected to ENSO processes responding to processional variability of insolation.High coherences in eccentricity,obliquity and precession periods further revealing the close link between thermocline fluctuations,paleoproductivity and atmospheric CO2 levels.

  2. Electromagnetic Properties of Graphene-like Films in Ka-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Voronovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied electromagnetic properties of pyrolytic carbon (PyC films with thicknesses from 9 nm to 110 nm. The PyC films consisted of randomly oriented and intertwined graphene flakes with a typical size of a few nanometers were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD at 1100 °C on a quartz substrate. The reflectance and transmittance of these films in Ka-band, 26–37 GHz, were studied both experimentally and theoretically. The discovered remarkably high absorption loss of up to 50% of incident power, along with chemical stability, makes PyC films attractive for electromagnetic (EM interference shielding in space and airspace communication systems, as well as in portable electronic devices occupying this frequency slot. Since, in practical applications, the PyC film should be employed for coating of dielectric surfaces, two important issues to be addressed are: (i which side (front or back of the substrate should be covered to ensure maximum absorption losses; and (ii the frequency dependence of absorbance/transmittance/reflectance of binary PyC/quartz structures in the Ka-band.

  3. Sedimentary cycles of trace elements in Salawusu River Valley since 150 ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper makes some analyses on 11 trace elements in the Milanggouwan stratigraphical section in the Salawusu River valley, which is regarded as a prototype geology-palaeoclimate record since 150 ka BP. The results show that the content and variation of trace elements has experienced remarkably regular changes in the pace with coarse and fine sedimentary cycles of palaeo-aeolian sands to its overlying fluvio-lacustrine facies or/and palaeosols. The trace elements with chemical properties of relatively active (V, Sr, Cu, Ni, As) and relatively stable (P, Pb, Rb, Mn, Nb, Zr) are a manifestation of the corresponding 27 changeable cycles between peak and valley values, appearing a multi-fluctuational process line of relative gathering and migration since then. The low numerical value distribution of these two types of trace elements in the aeolian sand facies represents erosion and accumulation under wind force during the cold-dry climate. Whereas their enrichments in both fluvio-lacustrine facies and palaeosols are related to the valley's special low-lying physiognomic position between the Ordos Plateau and the Loess Plateau under the warm and humid climate conditions. The above relatively migrated and gathered change of the trace elements is the result of 27 climatic cycles of cold-dry and warm-humid, which is probably caused by repeated alternations of winter monsoon and summer monsoon in the Mu Us Sandy Land influenced by the climate vicissitudes in northern hemisphere during glacial and interglacial periods since 150 ka BP.

  4. Desert-steppe migration on the Loess Plateau at about 450 kaBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJingbo

    2005-01-01

    According to the field investigation, observation by an electronic microscope and x-ray identification and chemical analysis, desert-steppe migration in the Loess Plateau at about 450 kaBP was studied. The data show that gypsum illuvial horizon indicating the desert-steppe environment developed in the early stage of the formation of the fifth layer loess in Shaoling tableland in Chang'an and Bailu tableland in Xran of Shaanxi are situated in the southern Loess Plateau. This indicates that remarkable drying occurred, a large-scope migration of desert steppe took place toward south and the climate zone migrated 5 degrees in latitude to south which is the largest migration range indicated by geochemical indexes. The desert-steppe and more wild environment distributed widely on the Loess Plateau at that time. The development of gypsum also indicates that the climate changed at 450 kaBP from monsoon climate to nonmonsoon climate in the Loess Plateau, and the region was not affected by summer monsoon and was in the cold and dry environment of nonmonsoon climate. Annual mean nrecinitation was about 200 rnm. 400 mm less at that time than at oresent.

  5. Ferroelectric switch for a high-power Ka-band active pulse compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2013-12-18

    Results are presented for design of a high-power microwave switch for operation at 34.3 GHz, intended for use in an active RF pulse compressor. The active element in the switch is a ring of ferroelectric material, whose dielectric constant can be rapidly changed by application of a high-voltage pulse. As envisioned, two of these switches would be built into a pair of delay lines, as in SLED-II at SLAC, so as to allow 30-MW μs-length Ka-band pulses to be compressed in time by a factor-of-9 and multiplied in amplitude to generate 200 MW peak power pulses. Such high-power pulses could be used for testing and evaluation of high-gradient mm-wave accelerator structures, for example. Evaluation of the switch design was carried out with an X-band (11.43 GHz) prototype, built to incorporate all the features required for the Ka-band version.

  6. Ka-Band Atmospheric Phase Stability Measurements in Goldstone, CA; White Sands, NM; and Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael J.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Nessel, James A.

    2014-01-01

    As spacecraft communication links are driven to higher frequencies (e.g. Ka-band) both by spectrum congestion and the appeal of higher data rates, the propagation phenomena at these frequencies must be well characterized for effective system design. In particular, the phase stability of a site at a given frequency will govern whether or not the site is a practical location for an antenna array, particularly if uplink capabilities are desired. Propagation studies to characterize such phenomena must be done on a site-by-site basis due to the wide variety of climates and weather conditions at each ground terminal. Accordingly, in order to statistically characterize the atmospheric effects on Ka-Band links, site test interferometers (STIs) have been deployed at three of NASA's operational sites to directly measure each site's tropospheric phase stability. Using three years of results from these experiments, this paper will statistically characterize the simultaneous atmospheric phase noise measurements recorded by the STIs deployed at the following ground station sites: the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, CA; the White Sands Ground Terminal near Las Cruces, NM; and the Guam Remote Ground Terminal on the island of Guam.

  7. Pollen-based continental climate reconstructions at 6 and 21 ka: A global synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlein, P.J.; Harrison, S.P.; Brewer, S.; Connor, S.; Davis, B.A.S.; Gajewski, K.; Guiot, J.; Harrison-Prentice, T. I.; Henderson, A.; Peyron, O.; Prentice, I.C.; Scholze, M.; Seppa, H.; Shuman, B.; Sugita, S.; Thompson, R.S.; Viau, A.E.; Williams, J.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Subfossil pollen and plant macrofossil data derived from 14C-dated sediment profiles can provide quantitative information on glacial and interglacial climates. The data allow climate variables related to growing-season warmth, winter cold, and plant-available moisture to be reconstructed. Continental-scale reconstructions have been made for the mid-Holocene (MH, around 6 ka) and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, around 21 ka), allowing comparison with palaeoclimate simulations currently being carried out as part of the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The synthesis of the available MH and LGM climate reconstructions and their uncertainties, obtained using modern-analogue, regression and model-inversion techniques, is presented for four temperature variables and two moisture variables. Reconstructions of the same variables based on surface-pollen assemblages are shown to be accurate and unbiased. Reconstructed LGM and MH climate anomaly patterns are coherent, consistent between variables, and robust with respect to the choice of technique. They support a conceptual model of the controls of Late Quaternary climate change whereby the first-order effects of orbital variations and greenhouse forcing on the seasonal cycle of temperature are predictably modified by responses of the atmospheric circulation and surface energy balance. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

  8. On the Design of Laser Structured Ka Band Multi-Chip Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mehdi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid prototyping of millimeter wave (MMW multi-chip module (MCM on low-cost ceramic-polymer composite substrate using laser ablation process is presented. A Ka band MCM front-end receiver is designed, fabricated and tested. The complete front-end receiver module except the IF and power distribution sections is realized on the single prescribed substrate. The measured receiver gain, noise figure and image rejection is 37 dB, 4.25 dB and 40 dB respectively. However, it deduced from the experimental results of the two front-end modules that the complex permittivity characteristics of the substrate are altered after the laser ablation process. The effective permittivity alteration phenomenon is further validated through the characterization and comparison of various laser ablated and chemically etched Ka band parallel-coupled band-pass filters. A simple and experimentally verified method is worked out to utilize the laser ablation structuring process on the prescribed substrate. It is anticipated that the proposed method can be applied to other laminated substrates as well with the prescribed manufacturing process.

  9. 3 kA Power Supplies for the Duke OK-5 FEL Wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Victor; Mikhailov, Stepan; Oakeley, Owen; Wallace, Patrick W; Wu, Y K

    2005-01-01

    The next generation electromagnetic OK-5/Duke storage ring FEL wigglers require three 3kA/70V power supplies with current stability about 20 ppm and current ripples less than 20ppm in their full operating range. Duke FEL Laboratory acquired three out-of-service thyristor controllable power supplies (Transrex, 5kA/100V) which was built almost 30 years ago. The existing archaic firing circuit, lack of any output voltage filtering and outdated DCCT, would not be able to meet the above requirements.To deliver the desirable high performance with very limited funds, all three T-Rex power supplies have been completely rebuilt in house at DFELL. Modern high stability electronic components and a Danfysik DCCT with a high current stability have been used. New symmetrical firing circuit, efficient passive LC filter and reliable transformer-coupled active filter are used to reduce output current ripples to an appropriate level. At the present time, the first refurbished power supply in operation since August, 2004 with g...

  10. NMR determination of lysine pKa values in the Pol lambda lyase domain: mechanistic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guanghua; DeRose, Eugene F; Kirby, Thomas W; London, Robert E

    2006-02-14

    The base excision repair (BER) process requires removal of an abasic deoxyribose-5-phosphate group, a catalytic activity that has been demonstrated for the N-terminal 8 kDa domain of DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta), and for the homologous domain of DNA polymerase lambda (Pol lambda). Previous studies have demonstrated that this activity results from formation of a Schiff base adduct of the abasic deoxyribose C-1' with a lysine residue (K312 in the case of Pol lambda), followed by a beta-elimination reaction. To better understand the underlying chemistry, we have determined pKa values for the lysine residues in the Pol lambda lyase domain labeled with [epsilon-13C]lysine. At neutral pH, the H(epsilon) protons on 3 of the 10 lysine residues in this domain, K287, K291, and K312, exhibit chemical shift inequivalence that results from immobilization of the lysyl side chains. For K287 and K291, this results from the K287-E261 and K291-E298 salt bridge interactions, while for K312, immobilization apparently results from steric and hydrogen-bonding interactions that constrain the position of the lysine side chain. The pKa value of K312 is depressed to 9.58, a value indicating that at physiological pH K312 will exist predominantly in the protonated form. Titration of the domain with hairpin DNA containing a 5'-tetrahydrofuran terminus to model the abasic site produced shifts of the labeled lysine resonances that were in fast exchange but appeared to be complete at a stoichiometry of approximately 1:1.3, consistent with a dissociation constant of approximately 1 microM. The epsilon-proton shifts of K273 were the most sensitive to the addition of the DNA, apparently due to changes in the relative orientation between K273 and W274 in the DNA complex. The average pKa values increased by 0.55, consistent with the formation of some DNA-lysine salt bridges and with the general pH increase expected to result from a reduction in the net positive charge of the complex. A general

  11. A Southern Ocean terrestrial record of global climate change for the past 130 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergoes, M.; Newnham, R.; Hendy, C.; Lowell, T.; Preusser, F.; Almond, P.; Fitzsimons, S.

    2003-04-01

    The coastal plain of South Westland, New Zealand, is characterised by a complex pattern of Late Quaternary moraines and outwash surfaces formed form the advance and retreat of successive piedmont glaciers originating from the adjacent Southern Alps ice centre. Associated with the glacial landforms are numerous bogs and lakes, whose accumulated sedimentary sequences serve as rich natural archives for subsequent climate change. At one such site, Okarito Pakihi, 15 cores have been taken to depths of up to 10 m, without reaching bottom. The generalised stratigraphy from the top consists of a 2-4 m peat layer extending back to 12.0 14C ka, overlying 2-3 m of massive blue-grey silt, often with a zone of greater organic content in its midst. Towards the top of this unit is a layer of glass shards from the Kawakawa Tephra (22.5 14C ka), whilst optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating indicates the age of this unit ranges from 28 ka near the top to 75 ka near the base. At its base, the blue-grey silt changes abruptly to a 3-4 m thick brown organic-rich silt which in turn changes abruptly to massive blue-grey silt grading into a finely laminated silt. Preliminary OSL results suggest an age of >130 ka for the laminated silts. This chronostratigraphy thus indicates a continuous sedimentary record extending from near present back to at least the penultimate glaciation, whilst the palynology of this record shows a sequence of vegetation and climate change that corresponds broadly to the marine isotope (MI) record for this interval. The upper organic unit (Holocene) is dominated by lowland temperate (podocarp) rainforest pollen which is near absent in the underlying blue-grey silts, deposited during MI Stages 2-4, when long periods of sub-alpine shrubland were punctuated by short intervals of grassland expansion. There appears to be good correspondence between these palynologically determined grassland intervals and other records of glacier movement during the last

  12. The IUPAC aqueous and non-aqueous experimental pKa data repositories of organic acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Anthony Michael

    2014-10-01

    Accurate and well-curated experimental pKa data of organic acids and bases in both aqueous and non-aqueous media are invaluable in many areas of chemical research, including pharmaceutical, agrochemical, specialty chemical and property prediction research. In pharmaceutical research, pKa data are relevant in ligand design, protein binding, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination as well as solubility and dissolution rate. The pKa data compilations of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, originally in book form, have been carefully converted into computer-readable form, with value being added in the process, in the form of ionisation assignments and tautomer enumeration. These compilations offer a broad range of chemistry in both aqueous and non-aqueous media and the experimental conditions and original reference for all pKa determinations are supplied. The statistics for these compilations are presented and the utility of the computer-readable form of these compilations is examined in comparison to other pKa compilations. Finally, information is provided about how to access these databases.

  13. The 100-133 ka record of Italian explosive volcanism and revised tephrochronology of Lago Grande di Monticchio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Sabine; Keller, Jörg; Paterne, Martine; Mingram, Jens; Lauterbach, Stefan; Opitz, Stephan; Sottili, Gianluca; Giaccio, Biagio; Albert, Paul G.; Satow, Chris; Tomlinson, Emma L.; Viccaro, Marco; Brauer, Achim

    2012-12-01

    Laminated sediments of the maar lake Lago Grande di Monticchio in southern Italy exhibit a unique sequence of numerous primary tephra events that provide both insights into the Late Quaternary eruptive history of Italian volcanoes and an archive of essential marker horizons for dating and linking palaeoclimate records throughout the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. The acquisition of new sediment cores from this lake now extends the existing 100 ka-tephra record back to 133 ka BP, the end of the penultimate Glacial. The additional ca 30 m of sediments host a total number of 52 single tephra layers forming 21 tephra clusters that have been characterised on the basis of detailed geochemical and petrographical examinations. Tephras can be assigned to hitherto poorly known Plinian to sub-Plinian eruptive events of the nearby Campanian (Ischia Island, Phlegrean Fields), Roman (Sabatini volcanic district) and Aeolian-Sicilian volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli, Salina) and are dated according to the varve and sedimentation rate chronology of Monticchio sediments. The most prominent tephra layers within the interval of investigation - TM-25 and TM-27 - can be firmly correlated with Ionian Sea tephras X-5 (ca 105 ka BP) and X-6 (ca 108-110 ka BP). In addition, a further 26 tephra layers are correlated with radiometrically and radioisotopically dated volcanic events providing the basis for a robust revised tephrochronology of the entire Monticchio sediment sequence for the last 133 ka.

  14. Abrupt Climate Change around 4 ka BP:Role of the Thermohaline Circulation as Indicated by a GCM Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绍武; 周天军; 蔡静宁; 朱锦红; 谢志辉; 龚道溢

    2004-01-01

    A great deal of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic evidence suggests that a predominant temperature drop and an aridification occurred at ca. 4.0 ka BP. Palaeoclimate studies in China support this dedution. The collapse of ancient civilizations at ca. 4.0 ka BP in the Nile Valley and Mesopotamia has been attributed to climate-induced aridification. A widespread alternation of the ancient cultures was also found in China at ca. 4.0 ka BP in concert with the collapse of the civilizations in the Old World. Palaeoclimatic studies indicate that the abrupt climate change at 4.0 ka BP is one of the realizations of the cold phase in millennial scale climate oscillations, which may be related to the modulation of the Thermohaline Circulation (THC) over the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, this study conducts a numerical experiment of a GCM with SST forcing to simulate the impact of the weakening of the THC. Results show a drop in temperature from North Europe, the northern middle East Asia, and northern East Asia and a significant reduction of precipitation in East Africa, the Middle East, the Indian Peninsula, and the Yellow River Valley. This seems to support the idea that coldness and aridification at ca. 4.0 ka BP was caused by the weakening of the THC.

  15. VLBI observations of bright AGN jets with KVN and VERA Array (KaVA): Evaluation of Imaging Capability

    CERN Document Server

    Niinuma, Kotaro; Kino, Motoki; Sohn, Bong Won; Akiyama, Kazunori; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Trippe, Sascha; Hada, Kazuhiro; Jung, Taehyun; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Dodson, Richard; Koyama, Shoko; Honma, Mareki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Chung, Aeree; Doi, Akihiro; Fujisawa, Kenta; Han, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Joeng-Sook; Lee, Jeewon; Lee, Jeong Ae; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Oyama, Tomoaki; Sorai, Kazuo; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Bae, Jaehan; Byun, Do-Young; Cho, Se-Hyung; Choi, Yoon Kyung; Chung, Hyunsoo; Chung, Moon-Hee; Han, Seog-Tae; Hirota, Tomoya; Hwang, Jung-Wook; Je, Do-Heung; Jike, Takaaki; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Jung, Jin-Seung; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Jiman; Kang, Yong-Woo; Kan-ya, Yukitoshi; Kanaguchi, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kim, Bong Gyu; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Hyun-Goo; Kim, Jaeheon; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Mikyoung; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kono, Yusuke; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Lee, Changhoon; Lee, Jung-Won; Lee, Sang Hyun; Minh, Young Chol; Matsumoto, Naoko; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Oh, Chung Sik; Oh, Se-Jin; Park, Sun-Youp; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Sasao, Tetsuo; Shibata, Katsunori M; Song, Min-Gyu; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Wi, Seog-Oh; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Yun, Young Joo

    2014-01-01

    The Korean very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) network (KVN) and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) Array (KaVA) is the first international VLBI array dedicated to high-frequency (23 and 43 GHz bands) observations in East Asia. Here, we report the first imaging observations of three bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) known for their complex morphologies: 4C 39.25, 3C 273, and M 87. This is one of the initial result of KaVA early science. Our KaVA images reveal extended outflows with complex substructure such as knots and limb brightening, in agreement with previous Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations. Angular resolutions are better than 1.4 and 0.8 milliarcsecond at 23 GHz and 43 GHz, respectively. KaVA achieves a high dynamic range of ~1000, more than three times the value achieved by VERA. We conclude that KaVA is a powerful array with a great potential for the study of AGN outflows, at least comparable to the best existing radio interferometric arrays.

  16. Correlations and predictions of carboxylic acid pKa values using intermolecular structure and properties of hydrogen-bonded complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Han, Jun; Tao, Fu-Ming

    2008-01-31

    Density functional theory calculations have been preformed on a series of hydrogen-bonded complexes of substituted aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids with ammonia. Molecular properties, particularly those related to hydrogen bonding, have been carefully examined for their interdependence as well as dependence on the acidity of the acid. The bond length and stretching frequency of the hydroxyl group and the hydrogen-bond length and energy of the complex are shown to be highly correlated with each other and are linearly correlated with available literature pKa values of the carboxylic acids. The linear correlations resulting from the fit to the available pKa values can be used to predict the pKa values of similar carboxylic acids. The pKa values so predicted using the different molecular properties are highly consistent and in good agreement with the literature values. This study suggests that calculated molecular properties of hydrogen-bonded complexes allow effective and systematic prediction of pKa values for a large range of organic acids using the established linear correlations. This approach is unique in its capability to determine the acidity of a particular functional group or the local acidity within a large molecular system such as a protein.

  17. Evaluation of Thiol Raman Activities and pKa Values Using Internally Referenced Raman-Based pH Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandaratne, Nuwanthi; Hu, Juan; Siriwardana, Kumudu; Gadogbe, Manuel; Zhang, Dongmao

    2016-04-05

    Thiols, including organothiol and thiol-containing biomolecules, are among the most important classes of chemicals that are used broadly in organic synthesis, biological chemistry, and nanosciences. Thiol pKa values are key indicators of thiol reactivity and functionality. Reported herein is an internally referenced Raman-based pH titration method that enables reliable quantification of thiol pKa values for both mono- and dithiols in water. The degree of thiol ionization is monitored directly using the peak intensity of the S-H stretching feature in the 2600 cm(-1) region relative to an internal reference peak as a function of the titration solution's pH. The thiol pKa values and Raman activity relative to its internal reference were then determined by curve fitting the experimental data with equations derived on the basis of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Using this Raman titration method, we determined for the first time the first and second thiol pKa values for 1,2-benzenedithiol in water. This Raman-based method is convenient to implement, and its underlying theory is easy to follow. It should therefore have broad application for thiol pKa determinations and verification.

  18. Accurate pKa calculation of the conjugate acids of alkanolamines, alkaloids and nucleotide bases by quantum chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangarapu, Satesh; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Zuilhof, Han

    2013-04-02

    The pKa of the conjugate acids of alkanolamines, neurotransmitters, alkaloid drugs and nucleotide bases are calculated with density functional methods (B3LYP, M08-HX and M11-L) and ab initio methods (SCS-MP2, G3). Implicit solvent effects are included with a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and universal solvation models (SMD, SM8). G3, SCS-MP2 and M11-L methods coupled with SMD and SM8 solvation models perform well for alkanolamines with mean unsigned errors below 0.20 pKa units, in all cases. Extending this method to the pKa calculation of 35 nitrogen-containing compounds spanning 12 pKa units showed an excellent correlation between experimental and computational pKa values of these 35 amines with the computationally low-cost SM8/M11-L density functional approach. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Deep Space Ka-band Link Management and the MRO Demonstration: Long-term Weather Statistics Versus Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz; Shambayati, Shervin; Slobin, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    During the last 40 years, deep space radio communication systems have experienced a move toward shorter wavelengths. In the 1960s a transition from L- to S-band occurred which was followed by a transition from S- to X-band in the 1970s. Both these transitions provided deep space links with wider bandwidths and improved radio metrics capability. Now, in the 2000s, a new change is taking place, namely a move to the Ka-band region of the radio frequency spectrum. Ka-band will soon replace X-band as the frequency of choice for deep space communications providing ample spectrum for the high data rate requirements of future missions. The low-noise receivers of deep space networks have a great need for link management techniques that can mitigate weather effects. In this paper, three approaches for managing Ka-band Earth-space links are investigated. The first approach uses aggregate annual statistics, the second one uses monthly statistics, and the third is based on the short-term forecasting of the local weather. An example of weather forecasting for Ka-band link performance prediction is presented. Furthermore, spacecraft commanding schemes suitable for Ka-band link management are investigated. Theses schemes will be demonstrated using NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft in the 2007 to 2008 time period, and the demonstration findings will be reported in a future publication.

  20. Calibration of the KA Band Tracking of the Bepi-Colombo Spacecraft (more Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriot, J.; Serafini, J.; Sichoix, L.

    2013-12-01

    The radiosciences Bepi-Colombo MORE experiment will use X/X, X/Ka and Ka/Ka band radio links to make accurate measurements of the spacecraft range and range rate. Tropospheric zenith wet delays range from 1.5 cm to 10 cm, with high variability (less than 1000 s) and will impair these accurate measurements. Conditions vary from summer (worse) to winter (better), from day (worse) to night (better). These wet delays cannot be estimated from ground weather measurements and alternative calibration methods should be used in order to cope with the MORE requirements (no more than 3 mm at 1000 s). Due to the Mercury orbit, MORE measurements will be performed by daylight and more frequently in summer than in winter (from Northern hemisphere). Two systems have been considered to calibrate this wet delay: Water Vapor Radiometers (WVRs) and GPS receivers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a new class of WVRs reaching a 5 percent accuracy for the wet delay calibration (0.75 mm to 5 mm), but these WVRs are expensive to build and operate. GPS receivers are also routinely used for the calibration of data from NASA Deep Space probes, but several studies have shown that GPS receivers can give good calibration (through wet delay mapping functions) for long time variations, but are not accurate enough for short time variations (100 to 1000 s), and that WVRs must be used to efficiently calibrate the wet troposphere delays over such time spans. We think that such a calibration could be done by assimilating data from all the GNSS constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Beidou and IRNSS) that will be available at the time of the Bepi-Colombo arrival at Mercury (2021), provided that the underlying physics of the turbulent atmosphere and evapotranspiration processes are properly taken into account at such time scales. This implies to do a tomographic image of the troposphere overlying each Deep Space tracking station at time scales of less than 1000 s. For this purpose, we have

  1. Žumberačka Gora – Transformation from a Refuge to an Exodus Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Crkvenčić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the problem of immigration from Žumberačka gora, a highland region that lies on the border between Croatia and Slovenia. Due consideration is given to its border-zone character, basic features and later colonization during the mid-sixteenth century. A dual social organization and even social relations emerged in the region, reflecting the contrast between the Military Frontier and the civilian portion. The consequences of long settlement and secondary colonization led to agrarian overpopulation and difficult living conditions. Social and overriding economic changes throughout the country by the mid-nineteenth century compelled the population of Žumberačka gora to begin departing from the region. Intense immigration gradually caused negative natural growth, i.e. a natural decline in the population. Natural decline (number of deaths exceeding the number of live births and emigration were gradually reflected in the lower numbers and advanced age of the population. These processes were particularly marked in the military frontier portion of the region – in Žumberak – which accounts for almost three fourths of this highland region’s territory. In this part of the region the population has been numerically declining since 1931, but particularly since 1971. Today only one fifth of the population recorded in 1953 (just after World War II lives in Žumberak. This drop is a result of both natural decline and immigration. The age structure of the region’s remaining population is dominated by the elderly, which is shown by demographic aging indicators. Such a population is not a sound prerequisite for the region’s economic revival. The basic features of Žumberak’s landscape are deserted or devastated villages with many abandoned tracts of once arable land. A formerly densely populated region that could not feed its own residents has become a zone marked by a population exodus, an area lacking a labor

  2. Tracing the Oldest Audio Recordings of Vocal Musical Tradition of Germans in Bačka. The Field Research of Gustav Kipers-Sonenberg in Bačka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Ivkov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an attempt by the author to contribute to the history of ethnomusicology in Serbia, by brining to light new data on the fieldwork conducted by Gustav Kipers – Sonenberg in Bačka for the purposes of making audio recordings and collecting German traditional melodies. The aim of the research is to study the opinions of contemporary members of the German national community in Bačka on the melodies gathered by Gustav Kipers – Sonenberg. This approach and the data gathered become the basis for considering further directives for the study of German traditional music in Serbia.

  3. Morphotectonic control of the Białka drainage basin (Central Carpathians): Insights from DEM and morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołosiewicz, Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    The Białka river valley is directly related to a deep NNW-SSE oriented fault zone. According to the results of previous morphometric analyses, the Białka drainage basin is one of the most tectonically active zones in the Central Carpathians. It is also located within an area of high seismic activity. In this study Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based, morphometric analyses were used to investigate the morphotectonic conditions of the watershed. The results reveal the relationships between the main tectonic feature and the landforms within the research area. The lineaments, as obtained from the classified aspect map, seem to coincide with the orientation of the main structures as well as the trends revealed by the theoretical Riedel-Skempton shear model. Base-level and isolong maps support the conclusion that the Białka and Biały Dunajec fault zones exert a strong influence on the morphology of the adjacent area.

  4. Improvement of Ka-band satellite link availability for real-time IP-based video contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Berretta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New High Throughput Satellite (HTS systems allow high throughput IP uplinks/contribution at Ka-band frequencies for relatively lower costs when compared to broadcasting satellite uplinks at Ku band. This technology offers an advantage for live video contribution from remote areas, where the terrestrial infrastructure may not be adequate. On the other hand, the Ka-band is more subject to impairments due to rain or bad weather. This paper addresses the target system specification and provides an optimized approach for the transmission of IP-based video flows through HTS commercial services operating at Ka-band frequencies. In particular, the focus of this study is on the service requirements and the propagation analysis that provide a reference architecture to improve the overall link availability. The approach proposed herein leads to the introduction of a new concept of live service contribution using pairs of small satellite antennas and cheap satellite terminals.

  5. Theoretical pKa prediction of the α-phosphate moiety of uridine 5‧-diphosphate-GlcNAc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipperla, Bhavaniprasad; Griffiths, Thomas M.; Wang, Xingyong; Yu, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    The pKa value of the α-phosphate moiety of uridine 5‧-diphosphate-GlcNAc (UDP-GlcNAc) has been successfully calculated using density functional theory methods in conjunction with the Polarizable Continuum Models. Theoretical methods were benchmarked over a dataset comprising of alkyl phosphates. B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations using SMD solvation model provide excellent agreement with the experimental data. The predicted pKa for UDP-GlcNAc is consistent with most recent NMR studies but much higher than what it has long been thought to be. The importance of this study is evident that the predicted pKa for UDP-GlcNAc supports its potential role as a catalytic base in the substrate-assisted biocatalysis.

  6. Long-term repeated biodesulfurization by immobilized Rhodococcus erythropolis KA2-5-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, M.; Kawamoto, T.; Tanaka, A. [Kyoto Univ., Yoshida (Japan). Dept. of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry; Fujino, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Maruhashi, K. [Advanced Technology and Research Inst., Petroleum Energy Center, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In this study, biodesulfurization (BDS) was carried out using immobilized Rhodococcus erythropolis KA2-5-1 in n-tetradecane containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a model oil (n-tetradecane/immobilized cell biphasic system). The cells were immobilized by entrapping them with calcium alginate, agar, photo-crosslinkable resin prepolymers (ENT-4000 and ENTP-4000), and urethane prepolymers (PU-3 and PU-6); and it was found that ENT-4000-immobilized cells had the highest DBT desulfurization activity in the model oil system without leakage of cells from the support. Furthermore, ENT-4000-immobilized cells could catalyze BDS repeatedly in this system for more than 900 h with reactivation; and recovery of both the biocatalyst and the desulfurized model oil was easy. This study would give a solution to the problems in BDS, such as the troublesome process of recovering desulfurized oil and the short life of BDS biocatalysts. (orig.)

  7. Groundwater pollution with heavy metals in the Ibar alluvium near Raška (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the operation of an ore flotation facility at Donja Rudnica near Raška, Serbia, during the period from 1972 to 2002, flotation tailings and wastewater of highly complex chemical compositions were deposited in the alluvial plain of the Ibar River. Due to the excellent groundwater flow characteristics of the alluvial formations underlying the tailings dump, the groundwater and soil over an extended area were continually polluted. High concentrations of heavy metals (Fe = 7.38 mg/L. Zn = 4.04 mg/L, Pb = 2.17 mg/L in the soil and concentrations of sulfate as high as 3709 mg/L, and pH levels of 4.2 in the groundwater have been recorded at some locations. This paper draws attention to the potential risk this site poses for the conservation of biodiversity over the extended area.

  8. Thermal Deformation and RF Performance Analyses for the SWOT Large Deployable Ka-Band Reflectarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; Sunada, E.; Chaubell, J.; Esteban-Fernandez, D.; Thomson, M.; Nicaise, F.

    2010-01-01

    A large deployable antenna technology for the NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission is currently being developed by JPL in response to NRC Earth Science Tier 2 Decadal Survey recommendations. This technology is required to enable the SWOT mission due to the fact that no currently available antenna is capable of meeting SWOT's demanding Ka-Band remote sensing requirements. One of the key aspects of this antenna development is to minimize the effect of the on-orbit thermal distortion to the antenna RF performance. An analysis process which includes: 1) the on-orbit thermal analysis to obtain the temperature distribution; 2) structural deformation analysis to get the geometry of the antenna surface; and 3) the RF performance with the given deformed antenna surface has been developed to accommodate the development of this antenna technology. The detailed analysis process and some analysis results will be presented and discussed by this paper.

  9. Reconstruction of past climate variability in SE Spain between 14 and 8 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budsky, Alexander; Scholz, Denis; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Christoph, Spötl; Gibert, Luis; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-04-01

    In comparison to the large climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene, Holocene climate only underwent minor changes. Nevertheless, cyclic climate changes also occurred during the Holocene. The Bond events, represented by the presence of cold, ice-bearing waters from the north of Iceland as far south as the latitude of Britain, occurred at a cyclicity of about 1500 a and were particularly pronounced during the Early Holocene. However, their climatic impact on the terrestrial realm was not consistent over Europe, in particular with respect to changes in precipitation. Here we present a precisely dated high-resolution flowstone record from Cueva Victoria, SE Spain, a site well suited to study the competing influence of the Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea on the southern Iberian Peninsula. We sampled several flowstones with a thickness of up to 60 cm. 230Th/U-dating has shown that these deposits mainly formed during relatively warm climate intervals of the Middle and Late Pleistocene, i.e. interglacials and interstadials (Budsky et al., 2015; Gibert et al., 2016). Here we focus on a short (11 cm) flowstone sequence from the Holocene with a high temporal resolution (centennial for stable isotopes and annual for trace elements). The flowstone grew between 14 and ca. 8 ka b2k. The decreasing trend of the δ18O and δ13C values as well as of several trace elements between 12 and 11 ka b2k reflects an increase in temperature and precipitation at the beginning of the Holocene. In particular, Sr and Mg show a trend towards low and stable values. Subsequently, from 10.5 to 8 ka b2k, the δ13C values show a high variability (-11 to -4), whereas the δ18O values are rather stable (between -6 and -7). Maxima in δ13C are interpreted as drier conditions in response to Bond events. These events possibly led to a change of the atmospheric circulation, affecting the vegetation in SE Spain, which evolved towards an open C3 vegetation at ca. 8 ka b2k concomitant with drier conditions

  10. Pārskatu ģenerēšanas bibliotēka Python valodai

    OpenAIRE

    Paltovs, Deniss

    2012-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darba pamatā ir pārskatu ģenerēšanas bibliotēka Python valodai - PythonReports, kura ļauj Python izstrādātajiem no datiem un šablona izveidot izdruku uz ekrāna vai printera. Gala produkts ir vizuālais redaktors, kurš ļauj ērti un uzskatāmi veidot un rediģēt PythonReports šablonus, izmantojot mūsdienu lietotāju saskarnes tehnoloģijas operētājsistēmās ar grafisku lietotāja saskarni. Kvalifikācijas darbs balstās uz iepriekšējo pieredzi, iegūto izmantojot līdzīgus rīkus citās sist...

  11. Weekend settlements: The case of Sićevačka gorge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis of the impact of an intensive process of building rest and recreation houses and the establishment of settlements in the Sićevačka gorge, Serbia, from the 1960s to the beginning of the 20th, century. The analysis is based on field research conducted in 2001/2002nd, as well as official statistical data. In this paper, settlements are defined by their spatial distribution, characteristics of the local position within the existing territory (Atari, and basic trends in development and advanced geospatial changes. Special attention is devoted to the consideration of how the density of temporary settlements (weekend has impacted the permanent (continuous population as well as the territorial and population development of existing rural settlements. .

  12. Nematofauna of bank vole: Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780 from Mt. Fruška gora (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić-Čabrilo Olivera N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematofauna of bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus was analyzed for the first time from samples collected in our country. The specimens were collected in Fruška Gora National Park (locality of Brankovac. The number of collected specimens was 138, and infestation with seven nematode species was determined: Heligmosomum mixtum (Schulz, 1954, Heligmosomoides glareoli (Baylis, 1928, Syphacia petrusewiczi (Bernard, 1966, S. stroma (Linstow, 1884, Capillaria murissylvatici (Dieseng, 1851, Trichocephalus muris Schrank, 1788, and Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821. The species Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, and Syphacia petrusewiczi represent the first records for the territory of our country. The species best represented in the sample were H. glareoli and S. petrusewiczi. There were no statistically significant differences between the sexes of host species regarding the prevalence, mean intensity, or mean abundance of parasite invasion.

  13. Fiziologija laktacije i mehanička mužnja

    OpenAIRE

    Džidić, Alen

    1999-01-01

    Glavni cilj ovog članka je da opiše interakciju između fiziologije laktacije i mehaničke mužnje. To je važno da bi se izbjegli loši utjecaji (npr: mastitis, broj somatskih stanica, itd.). Dio u kojem je opisana anatomija vimena prikazuje kakvo je vime potrebno da bi ono bilo zdravo i imalo visok prinos mlijeka. Dio u kojem je opisana mehanička mužnja pokazuje parametre mužnje potrebne za dobru i jednostavnu mužnju. Glavni zaključak o interakciji između fiziologije laktacije i mehaničke mužnje...

  14. Temperature and methane records over the last 2 ka in Dasuopu ice core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    High resolution δ18O and methane records over the last 2ka have been reconstructed from Dasuopu ice core recovered from the Himalayas. Analysis shows that the δ18O record correlates well with the Northern Hemispheric temperature, Dunde ice core record, and with temperature record in eastern China. The warming trend detected in δ18O record from the last century is similar to that during the Medieval warm period. There is a dramatic increasing in methane concentration in the Dasuopu ice core, which reached 1031 nmol@mol-1 in 1997. Moreover, methane concentration in the Dasuopu ice core is about 15%-20% higher than that in Antarctica and Greenland. There is a positive correlation between methane concentration and δ18O in Dasuopu ice core.

  15. Surrender and Subjectivity: Merleau-Ponty and Patočka on Intersubjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddo Evink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Jan Patočka’s phenomenology of intersubjectivity one can find clear influences of Merleau-Ponty. By both philosophers intersubjectivity is seen as a form of reversibility that has a primacy above personal subjectivity. But Patočka adds to this idea of reversibility the notion of surrender or dedication. In this article it is demonstrated how Patočka’s conception on surrender is developed in his idea of the three movements of human existence. Moreover, the understanding of intersubjectivity through surrender is presented as an important step towards an answer to several points of critique on Merleau-Ponty’s views on intersubjectivity, that were brought to the fore by Claude Lefort. Finally, in this article several aspects of surrender are distinguished in order to give more insight in the functioning and effects of the third movement of human life.

  16. DIJABETIČKA NEFROPATIJA KAO UZROK KRONIČNE BUBREŽNE BOLESTI

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Ivan; PRKAČIN, INGRID

    2015-01-01

    Dijabetička nefropatija vodeći je uzrok završne faze kronične bubrežne bolesti u većini razvijenih zemalja s učestalosti do 50 %. Visoka učestalost dijabetičke nefropatije posljedica je kontinuiranog povećanja prevalencije dijabetesa tipa 2 u općoj populaciji. Neregulirana glikemija, hipertenzija i genetska predispozicija glavni su čimbenici rizika za razvoj dijabetičke nefropatije. Ostali čimbenici su povišeni serumski lipidi, pušenje i povišen unos proteina. Za nastanak dijabetičke nefropat...

  17. Analysis of a Novel Ka-band Folded Waveguide Amplifier for Traveling-Wave Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Ming-Liang; WEI Yan-Yu; HE Jun; GONG Yu-Bin; WANG Wen-Xiang; Gun-Sik Park

    2009-01-01

    A novel Ka-band folded waveguide (FW) amplifier for traveling wave tubes (TWT) is investigated. The dispersion curve and interaction impedance are obtained and compared to the normal FW circuit by numerical simulation. The interaction impedance is higher than a normal circuit through the whole band. We also study the beam-wave interaction in this novel circuit, and the nonlinear large-signal performance is analyzed by a 3-D particle-in-cell code MACIC3D. A much higher continuous-wave (CW) output power with a considerably shorter circuit compared to a normal circuit is predicted by our simulation. Moreover, the novel FW even has a broader 3-dB bandwidth. It therefore will be useful in designing a miniature but high-power and broadband millimeter-wave TWT.

  18. A new low-cost 10 ns pulsed Ka-band radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Pekka; Ylinen, Juhana

    2011-07-01

    Two Gunn oscillators, conventional intermediate frequency building blocks, and a modified GaAs diode detector are combined to form a portable monostatic 10 ns instrumentation radar for outdoor Ka-band radar cross section measurements. At 37.8 GHz the radar gives +20 dBm output power and its tangential sensitivity is -76 dBm. Processing bandwidth is 125 MHz, which also allows for some frequency drift in the Gunn devices. Intra-pulse frequency chirp is less than 15 MHz. All functions are steered by a microcontroller. First measurements convince that the construction has a reasonable ability to reduce close-to-ground surface clutter and gives an effective way of resolving target detail. This is beneficial especially when amplitude fluctuations disturb measurements with longer pulses. The new unit operates on 12 V dc, draws a current of less than 3 A, and weighs 5 kg.

  19. Analysis of Defective Interconnections of the 13 kA LHC Superconducting Bus Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Bianchi, M; Breschi, M; Bottura, L; Willering, G

    2012-01-01

    The interconnections between Large Hadron Collider (LHC) main dipole and quadrupole magnets are made of soldered joints of two superconducting cables stabilized by a copper bus bar. The 2008 incident revealed the possible presence of defects in the interconnections of the 13 kA circuits that could lead to unprotected resistive transitions. Since then thorough experimental and numerical investigations were undertaken to determine the safe operating conditions for the LHC. This paper reports the analysis of experimental tests reproducing defective interconnections between main quadrupole magnets. A thermo-electromagnetic model was developed taking into account the complicated sample geometry. Close attention was paid to the physical description of the heat transfer towards helium, one of the main unknown parameters. The simulation results are reported in comparison with the measurements in case of static He I cooling bath. The outcome of this study constitutes a useful input to improve the stability assessment ...

  20. Performance Analyses of the Radio Orbital Angular Momentum Steering Technique Based on Ka-Band Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingtuan Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The misalignment in the orbital angular momentum- (OAM- based system would distort the radiation patterns of twisted beams carrying OAM, consequently making the OAM-based communication infeasible. To tackle the misalignment problem, a radio OAM steering technique based on a uniform circular array (UCA is illustrated. Subsequently, simulations are conducted to explore the influence of the OAM steering on the OAM mode quality and transmission performance. Furthermore, UCAs working at Ka-band with formulated feeding networks are designed and fabricated to analyze the performance of the OAM steering. The influences of OAM steering on mode quality and orthogonality are then evaluated in the experiment. Overall, the analyses of OAM steering technique are beneficial for the development of radio OAM study.

  1. Thermal Deformation and RF Performance Analyses for the SWOT Large Deployable Ka-Band Reflectarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; Sunada, E.; Chaubell, J.; Esteban-Fernandez, D.; Thomson, M.; Nicaise, F.

    2010-01-01

    A large deployable antenna technology for the NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission is currently being developed by JPL in response to NRC Earth Science Tier 2 Decadal Survey recommendations. This technology is required to enable the SWOT mission due to the fact that no currently available antenna is capable of meeting SWOT's demanding Ka-Band remote sensing requirements. One of the key aspects of this antenna development is to minimize the effect of the on-orbit thermal distortion to the antenna RF performance. An analysis process which includes: 1) the on-orbit thermal analysis to obtain the temperature distribution; 2) structural deformation analysis to get the geometry of the antenna surface; and 3) the RF performance with the given deformed antenna surface has been developed to accommodate the development of this antenna technology. The detailed analysis process and some analysis results will be presented and discussed by this paper.

  2. Critical evaluation of buffering solutions for pKa determination by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuguet, Elisabet; Reta, Mario; Gibert, Carme; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth; Ràfols, Clara

    2008-07-01

    The performance of the most common and also some other less common CE buffers has been tested for the pKa determination of several types of compounds (pyridine, amines, and phenols). The selected buffers cover a pH ranging from 3.7 to 11.8. Whereas some buffers, like acetic acid/acetate, BisTrisH+/BisTris, TrisH+/Tris, CHES/CHES-, and CAPS/CAPS- can be used with all type of analytes, others like ammonium/ammonia, butylammonium/butylammonia, ethylammonium/ethylammonia, diethylammonium/diethylammonia, and hydrogenphosphate/phosphate are not recommended because they interact with a wide range of compounds. The rest of the tested buffers (dihydrogenphosphate/hydrogenphosphate, MES/MES-, HEPES/HEPES-, and boric acid/borate) can show specific interactions depending on the nature of the analytes, and their use in some applications should be restricted.

  3. ALICE Grid Computing at the GridKa Tier-1 Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.; Petzold, A.; Pfeiler, C.-E.; Schwarz, K.

    2012-12-01

    The GridKa center at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is the largest ALICE Tier-1 center. It hosts 40,000 HEPSEPC'06, approximately 2.75 PB of disk space, and 5.25 PB of tape space for the ‘A Large Ion Collider Experiment’ (ALICE), at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These resources are accessed via the AliEn (ALICE Environment) middleware. The storage is divided into two instances, both using the storage middleware xrootd. We will focus on the set-up of these resources and on the topic of monitoring. The latter serves a vast number of purposes, ranging from efficiency statistics for process and procedure optimization to alerts for on-call duty engineers.

  4. The anomalous currents in the front foils of the JET lost alpha diagnostic KA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, F. E. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Kiptily, V.; Salmi, A.; Horton, A.; Fullard, K. [Culham Science Center, Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Darrow, D.; Hill, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    We have examined the observed currents in the front foils of the JET Faraday cup lost alpha particle diagnostic KA-2. In particular, we have sought to understand the currents during Ohmic plasmas for which the ion flux at the detectors was initially assumed to be negligible. We have considered two sources of this current: plasma ions (both deuterium and impurity) in the vicinity of the detector (including charge exchange neutrals) and photoemission from scattered UV radiation. Based upon modeling and empirical observation, the latter source appears most likely and, moreover, seems to be applicable to the currents in the front foil during ELMy H-mode plasmas. A very thin gold or nickel foil attached to the present detector aperture is proposed as a solution to this problem, and realistic calculations of expected fluxes of lost energetic neutral beam ions during TF ripple experiments are presented as justification of this proposed solution.

  5. Long-term monitoring of Sgr A* at 7 mm with VERA and KaVA

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Kazunori; Sohn, Bong Won; Lee, Sang Sung; Trippe, Sascha; Honma, Mareki

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of radio monitoring observations of Sgr A* at 7 mm (i.e. 43 GHz) with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), which is a VLBI array in Japan. VERA provides angular resolutions on millisecond scales, resolving structure within ~100 Schwarzschild radii of Sgr A* similar to Very Large Baseline Array (VLBA). We performed multi-epoch observations of Sgr A* in 2005 - 2008, and started monitoring it again with VERA from January 2013 for tracing the current G2 encounter event. Our preliminary results in 2013 show that Sgr A* on mas scales has been in ordinary state as of August 2013, although some fraction of the G2 cloud already passed pericenter of Sgr A* in April 2013. We will continue on monitoring Sgr A* with VERA and newly developed KaVA (KVN and VERA Array).

  6. S/Ka Dichroic Plate with Rounded Corners for NASA's 34-m Beam-Waveguide Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, W.; Khayatian, B.; Imbriale, W.

    2016-02-01

    An S-/Ka-band frequency selective surface (FSS) or a dichroic plate is designed, manufactured, and tested for use in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34-m beam-waveguide (BWG) antennas. Due to its large size, the proposed dichroic incorporates a new design feature: waveguides with rounded corners to cut cost and allow ease of manufacturing the plate. The dichroic is designed using an analysis that combines the finite-element method (FEM) for arbitrarily shaped guides with the method of moments and Floquet mode theory for periodic structures. The software was verified by comparison with previously measured and computed dichroic plates. The large plate was manufactured with end-mill machining. The RF performance was measured and is in excellent agreement with the analytical results. The dichroic has been successfully installed and is operational at DSS-24, DSS-34, and DSS-54.

  7. Numerical simulation on electrolyte flow field in 156 kA drained aluminum reduction cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Nai-jun; XIA xiao-xia; WANG Fu-qiang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the commercial CFD software CFX-4.3, two-phase flow of electrolyte in 156 kA drained aluminum reduction cells with a new structure was numerically simulated by multi-fluid model and k-εturbulence model. The results show that the electrolyte flow in the drained cells is more even than in the conventional cells. Corresponding to center point feeding,the electrolyte flow in the drained cells is more advantageous to the release of anode gas, the dissolution and diflusion of alumina, and the gradient reduction of the electrolyte density and temperature. The average velocity of the electrolyte is 8.3 cm/s, and the maximum velocity is 59.5 cm/s.The average and maximum velocities of the gas are 23.2 cm/s and 61.1 cm/s, respectively. The cathode drained slope and anode cathode distance have certain effects on the electrolyte flow.

  8. The Anomalous Currents In The Front Foils of the JET Lost Alpha Diagnostic KA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, F. E.; Kiptily, V.; Salmi, A.; Horton, A.; Fullard, K.; Murari, A.; Darrow, D.; Hill, K.

    2011-05-04

    We have examined the observed currents in the front foils of the JET Faraday cup lost alpha particle diagnostic KA-2. In particular, we have sought to understand the currents during Ohmic plasmas for which the ion flux at the detectors was initially assumed to be negligible. We have considered two sources of this current: plasma ions both deuterium and impurity in the vicinity of the detector including charge exchange neutrals and photoemission from scattered UV radiation. Based upon modeling and empirical observation, the latter source appears most likely and, moreover, seems to be applicable to the currents in the front foil during ELMy H-mode plasmas. A very thin gold or nickel foil attached to the present detector aperture is proposed as a solution to this problem, and realistic calculations of expected fluxes of lost energetic neutral beam ions during TF ripple experiments are presented as justification of this proposed solution.

  9. Design of a 30 m long 1 kA 10 kV YBCO cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostila, L [Institute of Electromagnetics, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Lehtonen, J [Institute of Electromagnetics, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Masti, M [Institute of Electromagnetics, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Lallouet, N [Nexas France, rue Mozart 4-10, 92587 Clichy (France); Saugrain, J-M [Nexas France, rue Mozart 4-10, 92587 Clichy (France); Allais, A [Nexans Deutschland Industries GmbH and Co. KG, Kabelkamp 20, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Schippl, K [Nexans Deutschland Industries GmbH and Co. KG, Kabelkamp 20, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Schmidt, F [Nexans Deutschland Industries GmbH and Co. KG, Kabelkamp 20, D-30179 Hannover (Germany); Balog, G [Nexans Norway, PO Box 6450, Etterstad, N-0605, Oslo, Norway (Norway); Marot, G [Air Liquide DTA, 2 rue de Clemenciere BP15, 38360 Sassenage (France); Ravex, A [Air Liquide DTA, 2 rue de Clemenciere BP15, 38360 Sassenage (France); Usoskin, A [European High Temperature Superconductors Gmbh and Co. KG, Windausweg 2, 37037 Goettingen (Germany); Goemoery, F [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Klincok, B [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Souc, J [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Freyhardt, H C [Institute of Materialphysic, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    In this paper a 30 m long one-phase coaxial YBCO cable with 1 kA transport current and 10 kV operating voltage was designed for the Super3C project to check the feasibility of YBCO tapes for low-loss cables. The final design incorporates cryogenic, mechanical and electromagnetic aspects. The electromagnetic losses during normal operation must be minimized. The cryogenic design must also take into account the generation of heat during short circuit conditions. Mechanical restrictions set the minimum gaps between the coated conductor tapes and the minimum lay angles in order to make the cabling feasible and to enable handling of the cable. The design of the electric insulation should be according to the international standard as far as applicable. The final design has to take into account all of the above restrictions.

  10. Enhancing End-to-End Performance of Information Services Over Ka-Band Global Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Glover, Daniel R.; Ivancic, William D.; vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    The Internet has been growing at a rapid rate as the key medium to provide information services such as e-mail, WWW and multimedia etc., however its global reach is limited. Ka-band communication satellite networks are being developed to increase the accessibility of information services via the Internet at global scale. There is need to assess satellite networks in their ability to provide these services and interconnect seamlessly with existing and proposed terrestrial telecommunication networks. In this paper the significant issues and requirements in providing end-to-end high performance for the delivery of information services over satellite networks based on various layers in the OSI reference model are identified. Key experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of digital video and Internet over satellite-like testbeds. The results of the early developments in ATM and TCP protocols over satellite networks are summarized.

  11. Climatic variations in the past 140 ka recorded in core RM, east Qinghai-Xizang Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敬禄; 王苏民; 潘红玺; 夏威岚

    1997-01-01

    The sequences of climatic evolution are reconstructed by the analyses of δ13C and δ18O of carbonate from core RM in the Zoige Basin since 140 kaB. P. During the Last Glaciation there existed at least seven warm climatic fluctuations and five cold events correlated with the records of ice core and deep sea, and during the preceding last in-terglacial period there were two cold climatic variations coinciding with the record of ice core GRIP. These results depict climatic instability in east Qinghai-Xizang Plateau over the last interglacial period. In addition, the environmental proxies of the carbonate content and pigments indicate the similar results to the stable isotope record from core RM.

  12. Ka-Band SiGe Receiver Front-End MMIC for Transponder Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Jaikrishna; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Hashemi, Hassein; Aflatouni, Firooz

    2010-01-01

    A fully integrated, front-end Ka-band monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) was developed that houses an LNA (low noise amplifier) stage, a down-conversion stage, and output buffer amplifiers. The MMIC design employs a two-step quadrature down-conversion architecture, illustrated in the figure, which results in improved quality of the down-converted IF quadrature signals. This is due to the improved sensitivity of this architecture to amplitude and phase mismatches in the quadrature down-conversion process. Current sharing results in reduced power consumption, while 3D-coupled inductors reduce the chip area. Improved noise figure is expected over previous SiGe-based, frontend designs

  13. Cryo-Cooled Sapphire Oscillator for the Cassini Ka-Band Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Dick, G. John

    1997-01-01

    We present features for an ultra-stable sapphire cryogenic oscillator which has been designed to support the Cassini Ka-band Radio Science experiment. The design of this standard is new in several respects. It is cooled by a commercial cryocooler instead of liquid cryogens to increase operating time, and it uses a technology to adjust the temperature turn-over point to extend the upper operating temperature limit and to enable construction of multiple units with uniform operating characteristics. Objectives are 3 x 10(exp -15) stability for measuring times 1 second less than or equal to (tau) less than or equal to 100 seconds, phase noise of -85 dBc/Hz from offset frequencies of 1 Hz to 1000 Hz at 10 GHz carrier frequency, and a one year continuous operating period.

  14. Low phase noise GaAs HBT VCO in Ka-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yan; Yuming, Zhang; Hongliang, Lü; Yimen, Zhang; Yue, Wu; Yifeng, Liu

    2015-02-01

    Design and fabrication of a Ka-band voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) using commercially available 1-μm GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor technology is presented. A fully differential common-emitter configuration with a symmetric capacitance with a symmetric inductance tank structure is employed to reduce the phase noise of the VCO, and a novel π-feedback network is applied to compensate for the 180° phase shift. The on-wafer test shows that the VCO exhibits a phase noise of -96.47 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset and presents a tuning range from 28.312 to 28.695 GHz. The overall dc current consumption of the VCO is 18 mA with a supply voltage of -6 V The chip area of the VCO is 0.7 × 0.7 mm2.

  15. Design of a Cryocooled Sapphire Oscillator for the Cassini Ka-Band Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. J.; Wang, R. T.

    1998-04-01

    We present design aspects of a cryogenic sapphire oscillator that is being developed for ultra-high short-term stability and low phase noise in support of the Cassini Ka-band (32-GHz) radio science experiment. With cooling provided by a commercial cryocooler instead of liquid helium, this standard is designed to operate continuously for periods of a year or more. Performance targets are a stability of 3 x 10^(-15) (1 second ≤ τ ≤ 100 seconds) and a phase noise of -73 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz measured at 34 GHz. Test results are reported for several subsystems, including the cryocooler, vibration isolation system, and ruby compensating element.

  16. Radiating Elements for Shared Aperture Tx/Rx Phased Arrays at K/Ka Band

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, A.I.

    2016-04-11

    A dual band, Tx/Rx, self-diplexing phased array is presented. The antenna has been designed to cover Tx/Rx satellite communications at K/Ka band with a frequency ratio 1.5:1. To obtain dual band operations with a single radiating surface, a novel dual band radiator is adopted and placed in a configuration in which dual band and single band elements are interleaved. The proposed configuration reduces the number of radiating elements required by other solutions while avoiding the insurgence of grating lobes. The tightly packed arrangement of the elements poses many integration issues, which are solved with a novel integration technique. The array elements are optimized to scan the beam in excess of ° in both bands. A subarray with 49 Rx elements and 105 Tx elements was built and measured confirming the results obtained in simulations.

  17. High-Efficiency Ka-Band Waveguide Two-Way Asymmetric Power Combiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, E. G.; Simons, R. N.; Freeman, J. C.; Chevalier, C. T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is planning a number of Space Exploration, Earth Observation and Space Science missions where Ka-band solid-state power amplifiers (SSPAs) could have a role. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) based SSPAs with output powers on the order of 10 W at Ka-band frequencies would be adequate to satisfy the data transmission rate requirements at the distances involved. MMICs are a type of integrated circuit fabricated on a GaAs wafer, which operates at micro wave frequencies and performs the function of signal amplification. The highest power Ka-band (31.8 to 32.3 GHz) SSPA to have flown in space had an output power of 2.6 W with an overall efficiency of 14.3 percent. This SSPA was built around discrete GaAs pHEMT (high electron mobility transistor) devices and flew aboard the Deep Space One spacecraft. State-of-the-art GaAs pHEMT-based MMIC power amplifiers (PAs) can deliver RF power at Ka-band frequencies anywhere from 3 W with a power added efficiency (PAE) of 32 percent to 6 W with a PAE of 26 percent. However, to achieve power levels higher than 6 W, the output of several MMIC PAs would need to be combined using a high-efficiency power combiner. Conventional binary waveguide power combiners, based on short-slot and magic-T circuits, require MMIC PAs with identical amplitude and phase characteristics for high combining efficiency. However, due to manufacturing process variations, the output powers of the MMIC PAs tend to be unequal, and hence the need to develop unequal power combiners. A two-way asymmetric magic-T based power combiner for MMIC power amplifiers, which can take in unequal inputs, has been successfully designed, fabricated, and characterized over NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) frequency range of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz. The figure is a transparent view of the a sym - metric combiner that shows the 4-port configuration and the internal structure. The rod, post, and iris are positioned by design to achieve the desired asymmetric power ratio

  18. Ka-band bistatic ground-based SAR using noise signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, K.; Mogyla, A.; Vyplavin, P.; Palamarchuk, V.; Zemlyaniy, O.; Tarasenko, V.; Zaets, N.; Skretsanov, V.; Shubniy, A.; Glamazdin, V.; Natarov, M.; Nechayev, O.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, one of the actual problems is remote monitoring of technical state of large objects. Different methods can be used for that purpose. The most promising of them relies on application of ground based synthetic aperture radars (SAR) and differential interferometry. We have designed and tested Ground Based Noise Waveform SAR based on noise radar technology [1] and synthetic aperture antennas [2]. It enabled to build an instrument for precise all-weather monitoring of large objects in real-time. We describe main performance of ground-based interferometric SAR which uses continuous Ka-band noise waveform as a probe signal. Besides, results of laboratory trials and evaluation of its main performance are presented as well.

  19. High Efficiency Ka-Band Solid State Power Amplifier Waveguide Power Combiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chevalier, Christine T.; Freeman, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    A novel Ka-band high efficiency asymmetric waveguide four-port combiner for coherent combining of two Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Solid State Power Amplifiers (SSPAs) having unequal outputs has been successfully designed, fabricated and characterized over the NASA deep space frequency band from 31.8 to 32.3 GHz. The measured combiner efficiency is greater than 90 percent, the return loss greater than 18 dB and input port isolation greater than 22 dB. The manufactured combiner was designed for an input power ratio of 2:1 but can be custom designed for any arbitrary power ratio. Applications considered are NASA s space communications systems needing 6 to 10 W of radio frequency (RF) power. This Technical Memorandum (TM) is an expanded version of the article recently published in Institute of Engineering and Technology (IET) Electronics Letters.

  20. The evolution of deserts with climatic changes in China since 150 ka B.P.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董光荣; 陈惠忠; 王贵勇; 李孝泽; 邵亚军; 金炯

    1997-01-01

    According to the bioclimatic zones, dune mobility and the fabric characteristics of stratigraphic sedimentary facies, the deserts in China are divided into Eastern, Western, Central and Northwestern deserts. Based on the records of stratigraphical facies, climatic proxies, historical data, etc. in each desert region, the evolution of deserts with climatic changes in time and space since 150 ka B. P. in China are dealt with; then the evolution of deserts in relation to the glacial climatic fluctuations caused by solar radiation changes, underlying surface variation and their feedback mechanism is discussed through comparison with global records; finally, in consideration of global wanning due to increasing of greenhouse gases such as CO2, the possible tendency of the evolution of deserts and the climatic changes is discussed.

  1. Quantification of southwest China rainfall during the 8.2 ka BP event with response to North Atlantic cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhui; Hu, Chaoyong

    2016-07-01

    The 8.2 ka BP event could provide important information for predicting abrupt climate change in the future. Although published records show that the East Asian monsoon area responded to the 8.2 ka BP event, there is no high-resolution quantitative reconstructed climate record in this area. In this study, a reconstructed 10-year moving average annual rainfall record in southwest China during the 8.2 ka BP event is presented by comparing two high-resolution stalagmite δ18O records from Dongge cave and Heshang cave. This decade-scale rainfall reconstruction is based on a central-scale model and is confirmed by inter-annual monitoring records, which show a significant positive correlation between the regional mean annual rainfall and the drip water annual average δ18O difference from two caves along the same monsoon moisture transport pathway from May 2011 to April 2014. Similar trends between the reconstructed rainfall and the stalagmite Mg / Ca record, another proxy of rainfall, during the 8.2 ka BP period further increase the confidence of the quantification of the rainfall record. The reconstructed record shows that the mean annual rainfall in southwest China during the central 8.2 ka BP event is less than that of present (1950-1990) by ˜ 200 mm and decreased by ˜ 350 mm in ˜ 70 years experiencing an extreme drying period lasting for ˜ 50 years. Comparison of the reconstructed rainfall record in southwest China with Greenland ice core δ18O and δ15N records suggests that the reduced rainfall in southwest China during the 8.2 ka BP period was coupled with Greenland cooling with a possible response rate of 110 ± 30 mm °C-1.

  2. First Airswot Ka-Band Radar Backscatter Returns over a Complex California Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baney, O. N.; Smith, L. C.; Pitcher, L. H.; Gleason, C. J.; Chu, V. W.; Bennett, M. M.; Pavelsky, T.; Sadowy, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    In anticipation of the launch of the NASA Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, this project was conducted around the Piute Ponds of Edwards Air Force Base within the Mojave Desert, California to characterize ground conditions simultaneously with two AirSWOT flights collected May 14th, 2014. Both SWOT and AirSWOT employ a Ka-band interferometer to map water surface elevations and extent, but the ability of Ka-band radar to discriminate shorelines and flooded vegetation is not well known. Presumed bright returns from moist soils surrounding surface water bodies have also been speculated to confound interpretation of SWOT/AirSWOT data. The Piute Ponds are a dynamic area of constantly changing water conditions, providing a convenient test site for field studies to assess open water, dry shorelines, vegetation edges, islands, flooded vegetation and soil moisture in conjunction with AirSWOT backscatter and visible/near-infrared camera imagery. Islands were characterized into dry islands and flooded vegetation stands including species such as bulrush (Scripus acutus) and tamarisk (Tammarix ramosissima). Results demonstrate that full water extent can be determined by near-range backscatter returns which are strong for both open water and flooded vegetation. Far-range backscatter returns over open water were unreliable for flooded extent. Comparing near-range and far-range backscatter results to the soil moisture transect shows correlation, however as soil moisture increases, discriminating between wet sediment and water becomes difficult. In sum, first results suggest near-return backscatter results prove most useful in distinguishing open water from non-water, with a strong correlation between soil moisture and backscatter returns.

  3. Reconstructing Hydrothermal Activity on the Juan de Fuca Ridge over the Last 25ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmel, N.; Costa, K.; McManus, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity on mid-ocean ridges plays a unique role in biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Hydrothermal vents are a significant source of dissolved Fe, a critical micronutrient in the ocean that supports primary productivity and can modulate the carbon cycle. Little is known about hydrothermal activity in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but new evidence suggests lower sea levels may generate enhanced hydrothermal activity. If hydrothermal activity was higher during the LGM, an Fe fertilized biological pump could have contributed to lower atmospheric CO2 levels. In this study we investigate sediment cores from the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) to reconstruct hydrothermal activity over the past 25 ka. Five multicores were examined from a spatial array, covering a depth transect along the ridge flank and crest, with a temporal resolution of between 500 and 1000 years. Fe and Cu concentrations were measured by flux fusion, corrected for lithogenic inputs, and normalized to 230Th to calculate hydrothermal fluxes. Hydrothermal flux of Fe and Cu was observed at all times from all sites, suggesting persistent hydrothermal activity on the JdFR. Furthermore, Fe flux into the sediment increases with proximity to the ridge, consistent with a hydrothermal source. The sediment record indicates a stable flux of Fe during the Holocene, compared to flux variations that change by up to 100% between 15 and 20ka. Averaged over 5-7kyr time slices, Cu flux is greater in all 5 records during the LGM than during the Holocene, but in contrast, Fe flux overall appears slightly lower during the LGM than the Holocene. These are the first records from the JdFR to cover the last deglaciation at millennial timescales, and they suggest a more complicated hydrothermal response to glacial sea level changes than observed at other mid-ocean ridges.

  4. CaCO3 CYCLES IN SALAWUSU RIVER BASIN SINCE 150KA B. P.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper, with Milanggouwan stratigraphic section as a typical section of the Salawusu River Basin,explores the relation between CaCO3 content distribution and climate change since 150 ka B.P. and concludes that: 1) The low-high changes of CaCO3 content in the section has a remarkable corresponding relation with the sedimentary cycles of ancient aeolian sand and overlying fluviolacustrine facies or palaeosols. 2) CaCO3 distribution in aeolian sand is relatively meagre, ranging from 0. 8% -7.18%, or on an average 2. 50% but relatively enriches in the fluviolacustrine faceis and palaeosols, ranging from 2. 20% - 14. 9%, or on an average 5.74%. This implies that they have different climatic backgrounds. The former was the product of erosion, transport and deposition by wind under arid and cold climatic conditions, whereas the latter was related to its special low-lying geomorphic position between the Ordos Plateau and Loess Plateau and warm-humid climatic environment. When the climatic became warm and humid, fluviola custrine and swamp facies developed, soil-forming action strengthened, and low-lying catchment condition was favor able to CaCO3 accumulation. 3) The basic cause responsible for the multicycie of CaCO3 migration and accumulation in the Milanggouwan section may be the multiple alterations of winter and summer monsoons over the Mu Us Desert under the influences of climatic fluctuation of glacial and interglacial periods in the Northern Hemisphere since 150ka B. P..

  5. Reverberation Mapping of the Kepler-Field AGN KA1858+4850

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Liuyi; Barth, Aaron J.; Aldering, Greg S.; Briley, Michael M.; Carroll, Carla J.; Carson, Daniel J.; Cenko, S., Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Cohen, Daniel P.; Cucchiara, Antonino; Desjardins, Tyler D.

    2014-01-01

    KA1858+4850 is a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy at redshift 0.078 and is among the brightest active galaxies monitored by the Kepler mission. We have carried out a reverberation mapping campaign designed to measure the broad-line region size and estimate the mass of the black hole in this galaxy. We obtained 74 epochs of spectroscopic data using the Kast Spectrograph at the Lick 3-m telescope from February to November of 2012, and obtained complementary V-band images from five other ground-based telescopes. We measured the Hbeta light curve lag with respect to the V-band continuum light curve using both cross-correlation techniques (CCF) and continuum light curve variability modeling with the JAVELIN method, and found rest-frame lags of tCCF = 13.53+2.03 -2.32 days and tJAVELIN = 13.15+1.08 -1.00 days. The Hbeta root-mean-square line profile has a width of sigma line = 770 +/- 49 km s(exp -1). Combining these two results and assuming a virial scale factor of f = 5.13, we obtained a virial estimate of M(sub BH) = 8.06+1.59 -1.72 ×10(exp 6) solar mass for the mass of the central black hole and an Eddington ratio of L/L(sub Edd) (is) approx. 0.2. We also obtained consistent but slightly shorter emission-line lags with respect to the Kepler light curve. Thanks to the Kepler mission, the light curve of KA1858+4850 has among the highest cadences and signal-to-noise ratios ever measured for an active galactic nucleus; thus, our black hole mass measurement will serve as a reference point for relations between black hole mass and continuum variability characteristics in active galactic nuclei.

  6. Silica in a Mars analog environment: Ka u Desert, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelos, K.D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chemtob, S.M.; Morris, R.V.; Ming, D. W.; Swayze, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired over the Ka u Desert are atmospherically corrected to ground reflectance and used to identify the mineralogic components of relatively young basaltic materials, including 250-700 and 200-400 year old lava flows, 1971 and 1974 flows, ash deposits, and solfatara incrustations. To provide context, a geologic surface units map is constructed, verified with field observations, and supported by laboratory analyses. AVIRIS spectral endmembers are identified in the visible (0.4 to 1.2 ??m) and short wave infrared (2.0 to 2.5 ??m) wavelength ranges. Nearly all the spectral variability is controlled by the presence of ferrous and ferric iron in such minerals as pyroxene, olivine, hematite, goethite, and poorly crystalline iron oxides or glass. A broad, nearly ubiquitous absorption feature centered at 2.25 ??m is attributed to opaline (amorphous, hydrated) silica and is found to correlate spatially with mapped geologic surface units. Laboratory analyses show the silica to be consistently present as a deposited phase, including incrustations downwind from solfatara vents, cementing agent for ash duricrusts, and thin coatings on the youngest lava flow surfaces. A second, Ti-rich upper coating on young flows also influences spectral behavior. This study demonstrates that secondary silica is mobile in the Ka u Desert on a variety of time scales and spatial domains. The investigation from remote, field, and laboratory perspectives also mimics exploration of Mars using orbital and landed missions, with important implications for spectral characterization of coated basalts and formation of opaline silica in arid, acidic alteration environments. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Cryogenic Cooling System for 5 kA, 200 μH Class HTS DC Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heecheol; Kim, Seokho; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Park, Taejun; Kim, A.-rong; Lee, Sangjin

    DC reactors, made by aluminum busbar, are used to stabilize the arc of an electric furnace. In the conventional arc furnace, the transport current is several tens of kilo-amperes and enormous resistive loss is generated. To reduce the resistive loss at the DC reactor, a HTS DC reactor can be considered. It can dramatically improve the electric efficiency as well as reduce the installation space. Similar with other superconducting devices, the HTS DC reactor requires current leads from a power source in room temperature to the HTS coil in cryogenic environment. The heat loss at the metal current leads can be minimized through optimization process considering the geometry and the transport current. However, the transport current of the HTS DC reactor for the arc furnace is much larger than most of HTS magnets and the enormous heat penetration through the current lead should be effectively removed to keep the temperature around 70∼77 K. Current leads are cooled down by circulation of liquid nitrogen from the cooling system with a stirling cryocooler. The operating temperature of HTS coil is 30∼40 K and circulation of gaseous helium is used to remove the heat generation at the HTS coil. Gaseous helium is transported through the cryogenic helium blower and a single stage GM cryocooler. This paper describes design and experimental results on the cooling system for current leads and the HTS coil of 5 kA, 200 μH class DC reactor as a prototype. The results are used to verify the design values of the cooling systems and it will be applied to the design of scale-up cooling system for 50 kA, 200 μH class DC reactor.

  8. Simultaneous Ka-Band Site Characterization: Goldstone, CA, White Sands, NM, and Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Morabito, David; Caroglanian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    To statistically characterize atmospheric effects on Ka-band links at NASA operational sites, NASA has constructed site test interferometers (STI s) which directly measure the tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These instruments observe an unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2) and measure the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas and its signal attenuation. Three STI s have been deployed so far: the first one at the NASA Deep Space Network Tracking Complex in Goldstone, California (May 2007); the second at the NASA White Sands Complex, in Las Cruses, New Mexico (February 2009); and the third at the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) complex in Guam (May 2010). Two station-years of simultaneous atmospheric phase fluctuation data have been collected at Goldstone and White Sands, while one year of data has been collected in Guam. With identical instruments operating simultaneously, we can directly compare the phase stability and rain attenuation at the three sites. Phase stability is analyzed statistically in terms of the root-mean-square (rms) of the tropospheric induced time delay fluctuations over 10 minute blocks. For two years, the time delay fluctuations at the DSN site in Goldstone, CA, have been better than 2.5 picoseconds (ps) for 90% of the time (with reference to zenith), meanwhile at the White Sands, New Mexico site, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 2.2 ps with reference to zenith) for 90% of time. For Guam, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 12 ps (reference to zenith) at 90% of the time, the higher fluctuations are as expected from a high humidity tropical rain zone. This type of data analysis, as well as many other site quality characteristics (e.g., rain attenuation, infrastructure, etc.) will be used to determine the suitability of all the sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-band.

  9. Reverberation Mapping of the KEPLER Field AGN KA1858+4850

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Liuyi; Barth, Aaron J.; Aldering, Greg S.; Briley, Michael M.; Carroll, Carla J.; Carson, Daniel J.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Cohen, Daniel P.; Cucchiara, Antonino; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Edelson, Rick; Fang, Jerome J.; Fedrow, Joseph M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fox, Ori D.; Furniss, Amy; Gates, Elinor L.; Gregg, Michael; Gustafson, Scott; Horst, J. Chuck; Joner, Michael D.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Lacy, Mark; Laney, C. David; Leonard, Douglas C.; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A.; Margon, Bruce; Neeleman, Marcel; Nguyen, My L.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Ross, Nathaniel R.; Sand, David J.; Searcy, Kinchen J.; Shivvers, Isaac S.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Graeme H.; Suzuki, Nao; Smith, Krista Lynne; Tytler, David; Werk, Jessica K.; Worseck, Gábor

    2014-11-01

    KA1858+4850 is a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy at redshift 0.078 and is among the brightest active galaxies monitored by the Kepler mission. We have carried out a reverberation mapping campaign designed to measure the broad-line region size and estimate the mass of the black hole in this galaxy. We obtained 74 epochs of spectroscopic data using the Kast Spectrograph at the Lick 3 m telescope from 2012 February to November, and obtained complementary V-band images from five other ground-based telescopes. We measured the Hβ light curve lag with respect to the V-band continuum light curve using both cross-correlation techniques (CCF) and continuum light curve variability modeling with the JAVELIN method and found rest-frame lags of τ CCF = 13.53+2.03-2.32 days and τ JAVELIN = 13.15+1.08-1.00 days. The Hβ rms line profile has a width of σline = 770 ± 49 km s-1. Combining these two results and assuming a virial scale factor of f = 5.13, we obtained a virial estimate of M{BH} = 8.06+1.59-1.72 × 106 {M}⊙ for the mass of the central black hole and an Eddington ratio of L/L Edd ≈ 0.2. We also obtained consistent but slightly shorter emission-line lags with respect to the Kepler light curve. Thanks to the Kepler mission, the light curve of KA1858+4850 has among the highest cadences and signal-to-noise ratios ever measured for an active galactic nucleus; thus, our black hole mass measurement will serve as a reference point for relations between black hole mass and continuum variability characteristics in active galactic nuclei.

  10. Tüli Euroopa raha pärast mõjutab ka eesti elu / Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikko, Marianne, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 5. juuli, lk. 2, Koit 5. juuli, lk. 6, Võrumaa Teataja 5. juuli, lk. 2, Vooremaa 7. juuli lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 12. juuli lk. 2, Nädaline 12. juuli lk. 4, Sõnumitooja 13. juuli lk. 2, Meie Maa 13. juuli lk. 2, Vali Uudised 15. juuli lk. 2, Virumaa Teataja 26. juuli lk. 7, Sakala 28. juuli lk. 2, Harjumaa 5. august lk. 2. Inglise peaministri Tony Blair'i ja Prantsusmaa presidendi Jacques Chirac'i vaidlustest sõltub ka Eesti põllumehe saatus, kuna Euroopa Liidu eelarvest tulevad tänavu peaaegu kõik põllumajandustoetused

  11. Crippled song. Ręka by Bolesław Leśmian within the context of expressionistic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szewczyk-Haake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of Leśmian’s poem Ręka (from the collection of poems entitled Łąka, 1920 leads to distinguishing certain features of the poem that make a connection of the poem with literary expressionism feasible. The above similarities can be testified not only by distinct macabre motifs but also a very peculiar way the narrator constructs his narrative that can be concluded as an attempt at establishing a particular bond between the protagonist and the reader. Works written by the Poznań based expressionists Stanisław Kubicki and Józef Wittlin provide the appropriate context for the poem.

  12. Petrology and geochronology of lavas from Ka'ula Volcano: Implications for rejuvenated volcanism of the Hawaiian mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Michael O.; Weis, Dominique; Jicha, Brian R.; Ito, Garrett; Hanano, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Marine surveying and submersible sampling of Ka'ula Volcano, located 100 km off the axis of the Hawaiian chain, revealed widespread areas of young volcanism. New 40Ar/39Ar and geochemical analyses of the olivine-phyric submarine and subaerial volcanic rocks show that Ka'ula is shrouded with 1.9-0.5 Ma alkalic basalts. The ages and chemistry of these rocks overlap with rejuvenated lavas on nearby, northern Hawaiian Island shields (Ni'ihau, Kaua'i and South Kaua'i Swell). Collectively, these rejuvenated lavas cover a vast area (∼7000 km2), much more extensive than any other area of rejuvenated volcanism worldwide. Ka'ula rejuvenated lavas range widely in alkalinity and incompatible element abundances (e.g., up to 10× P2O5 at a given MgO value) and ratios indicating variable degrees of melting of a heterogeneous source. Heavy REE elements in Ka'ula lavas are pinned at a mantle normalized Yb value of 10 ± 1, reflecting the presence of garnet in the source. Trace element ratios indicate the source also contained phlogopite and an Fe-Ti oxide. The new Ka'ula ages show that rejuvenated volcanism was nearly coeval from ∼0.3 to 0.6 Ma along a 450 km segment of the Hawaiian Islands (from West Maui to north of Ka'ula). The ages and volumes for rejuvenated volcanism are inconsistent with all but one geodynamic melting model proposed to date. This model advocates a significant contribution of pyroxenite to rejuvenated magmas. Analyses of olivine phenocryst compositions suggest a major (33-69%) pyroxenite component in Ka'ula rejuvenated lavas, which correlates positively with radiogenic Pb isotope ratios for Ka'ula. This correlation is also observed in lavas from nearby South Kaua'i lavas, as was reported for Atlantic oceanic islands. The presence of pyroxenite in the source may have extended the duration and volume of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism.

  13. Tüli Euroopa raha pärast mõjutab ka eesti elu / Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikko, Marianne, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 5. juuli, lk. 2, Koit 5. juuli, lk. 6, Võrumaa Teataja 5. juuli, lk. 2, Vooremaa 7. juuli lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 12. juuli lk. 2, Nädaline 12. juuli lk. 4, Sõnumitooja 13. juuli lk. 2, Meie Maa 13. juuli lk. 2, Vali Uudised 15. juuli lk. 2, Virumaa Teataja 26. juuli lk. 7, Sakala 28. juuli lk. 2, Harjumaa 5. august lk. 2. Inglise peaministri Tony Blair'i ja Prantsusmaa presidendi Jacques Chirac'i vaidlustest sõltub ka Eesti põllumehe saatus, kuna Euroopa Liidu eelarvest tulevad tänavu peaaegu kõik põllumajandustoetused

  14. Paleoclimate in continental northwestern Europe during the Eemian and early Weichselian (125-97 ka): insights from a Belgian speleothem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenberge, Stef; Verheyden, Sophie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Keppens, Eddy; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The last interglacial serves as an excellent time interval for studying climate dynamics during past warm periods. Speleothems have been successfully used for reconstructing the paleoclimate of last interglacial continental Europe. However, all previously investigated speleothems are restricted to southern Europe or the Alps, leaving large parts of northwestern Europe undocumented. To better understand regional climate changes over the past, a larger spatial coverage of European last interglacial continental records is essential, and speleothems, because of their ability to obtain excellent chronologies, can provide a major contribution. Here, we present new, high-resolution data from a stalagmite (Han-9) obtained from the Han-sur-Lesse Cave in Belgium. Han-9 formed between 125.3 and ˜ 97 ka, with interruptions of growth occurring at 117.3-112.9 and 106.6-103.6 ka. The speleothem was investigated for its growth, morphology and stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) composition. The speleothem started growing relatively late within the last interglacial, at 125.3 ka, as other European continental archives suggest that Eemian optimum conditions were already present during that time. It appears that the initiation of Han-9 growth is caused by an increase in moisture availability, linked to wetter conditions around 125.3 ka. The δ13C and δ18O proxies indicate a period of relatively stable conditions after 125.3 ka; however, at 120 ka the speleothem δ18O registered the first signs of regionally changing climate conditions, being a modification of ocean source δ18O linked to an increase in ice volume towards the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e-5d transition. At 117.5 ka, drastic vegetation changes are recorded by Han-9 δ13C immediately followed by a cessation of speleothem growth at 117.3 ka, suggesting a transition to significantly dryer conditions. The Han-9 record covering the early Weichselian displays larger amplitudes in both isotope proxies and changes in stalagmite

  15. Environmental change of Gucheng Lake of Jiangsu in the past 15 ka and its relation to palaeomonsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王苏民; 羊向东; 马燕; 潘红玺; 童国榜; 吴锡浩

    1996-01-01

    The high-resolution and multi-proxy analysis of lacustrine sediments from the Gucheng Lake has revealed the palaeodimatic and palaeoenvironmental evolutionary process since 15 ka B.P. The formation, expansion and shrinkage of the lake is closely related to monsoon rain caused by strength change of monsoon circulation which is controlled by orbit forcing. An abrupt descending of temperature occurring from 11.3 to 11.0ka B.P. may be correlative to Younger Dryas event, which trancated the monsoon climate cycle. Through the correlation with adjacent regions, it can be known that there were twice north shifts and twice south migrations for polar front of monsoon.

  16. A 20-ka reconstruction of a Sahelo-Sudanian paleoenvironment using multi-method dating on pedogenic carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; King, Georgina E.; Valla, Pierre G.; Sebag, David; Herman, Frédéric; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-04-01

    Soils can be precious environmental archives as they are open systems resulting from external persistent disturbance, or forcing (Jenny, 1941). Pedogenic carbonate nodules associated with clay-rich soils have been investigated in the Far North region of Cameroon in non-carbonate watersheds (Chad Basin). Nodule bearing soils have mima-like mound morphologies, within stream networks. Such settings raise questions on the processes leading to carbonate precipitation as well as landscape genesis. The mima-like mounds have been identified as degraded Vertisols, resulting from differential erosion induced by a former gilgai micro-relief (Diaz et al., 2016). Non-degraded Vertisols occur in waterlogged areas, located downstream from mima-like mound locations (Braband and Gavaud, 1985). Therefore during a former wetter period Vertisols may have been extended to the mima-like mound areas, followed by a shift toward drier conditions and erosion (Diaz et al., 2016). Consequently, mima-like mounds and associated carbonate nodules are inherited from climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. The aim of this study is to validate the scenario above using the carbonate nodules collected in a mima-like mound as time archives. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of K-feldspars trapped within the nodules is used to assess the deposition time of the soil parent material, composing the mima-like mounds. The carbonate and organic nodule parts have been radiocarbon dated with the aim of assessing the carbonate precipitation age and the age range of soil formation, respectively. Results show that the soil parent material was deposited between 18 ka and 12 ka BP and that the nodules precipitated between 7 ka and 5 ka BP. These results suggest that the deposition occurred during the arid climatic period of the Bossoumian (20 ka to 15 ka BP; Hervieu, 1970) and during the first drier part of the African Humid Period (14.8 ka to 11.5 ka BP; deMenocal et al., 2000

  17. Pollen-based paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change at Lake Ohrid (SE Europe during the past 500 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sadori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ohrid is located at the border between FYROM and Albania and formed during the latest phases of Alpine orogenesis. It is the deepest, the largest and the oldest tectonic lake in Europe. To better understand the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental evolution of Lake Ohrid a deep drilling was carried out in 2013 within the framework of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions (SCOPSCO project that was funded by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP. Preliminary results indicate that lacustrine sedimentation of Lake Ohrid started between 1.2 and 1.9 Ma ago. Here we present new pollen data (selected percentage and concentration taxa/groups of the uppermost ~200 m of the 569 m-long DEEP core drilled in the depocenter of Lake Ohrid. The study is the fruit of a cooperative work carried out in several European palynological laboratories. The age model is based on nine tephra layers and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters and to the global benthic isotope stack LR04. According to the age model the studied sequence covers the last ~500 000 years at a millennial-scale resolution (~1.6 ka and record the major vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the last 12 (13 only pro parte marine isotope stages (MIS. Our results indicate that there is a general good correspondence between forested/non-forested periods and glacial/interglacial cycles of marine isotope stratigraphy. Our record shows a progressive change from cooler and wetter to warmer and dryer interglacial conditions. This shift is visible also in glacial vegetation. The interglacial phase corresponding to MIS11 (pollen assemblage zone, PAZ OD-12, 488–455 ka BP and OD-19, 367–328 ka BP is dominated by montane trees such as conifers. The two younger interglacial periods, MIS5 (PAZ OD-3, 126–70 ka BP and MIS1 (PAZ OD-1, 12 ka BP to present are marked by dominance of mesophilous elements such as deciduous and semi

  18. Pollen-recorded climate changes between 13.0 and 7.0 14C ka BP in southern Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN AiZhi; MA YuZhen; FENG ZhaoDong; LI Fei; WU HuiNing

    2007-01-01

    A pollen record from Haiyuan section in the southern part of Ningxia revealed a detailed history of vegetation variation and associated climate changes during the period from ~13.0 to ~7.0 14C ka BP. A steppe landscape under a moderately dry (and probably cool) condition (~12.7-~12.1 14C ka BP) was replaced by a coniferous forest dominating the landscape under a generally wet climate from ~12.1 to ~11.0 14C ka BP. This generally wet period, corresponding to the European B(o)lling/All(e)rod period, can be divided into three stages: a cool and wet stage between ~12.1 and ~11.4 14C ka BP, a mild and relatively dry stage between ~11.4 and ~11.2 14C ka BP, and a mild and wet stage between ~11.2 and ~11.0 14C ka BP. The coniferous forest-dominated landscape was then deteriorated into steppe landscape (~11.0-~10.6 14C ka BP) and further into a desert steppe landscape from ~10.6 to ~9.8 14C ka BP, being correspondent to the European Younger Dryas period. After a brief episode of a cool and wet climate (~9.8-~9.6 14C ka BP), a relatively mild and dry condition prevailed during the early Holocene (~9.6-~7.6 14C ka BP) and then a warm and humid climate started the mid-Holocene (~7.6-~7.2 14C ka BP).

  19. Electrostatic contribution of surface charge residues to the stability of a thermophilic protein: benchmarking experimental and predicted pKa values.

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    Chi-Ho Chan

    Full Text Available Optimization of the surface charges is a promising strategy for increasing thermostability of proteins. Electrostatic contribution of ionizable groups to the protein stability can be estimated from the differences between the pKa values in the folded and unfolded states of a protein. Using this pKa-shift approach, we experimentally measured the electrostatic contribution of all aspartate and glutamate residues to the stability of a thermophilic ribosomal protein L30e from Thermococcus celer. The pKa values in the unfolded state were found to be similar to model compound pKas. The pKa values in both the folded and unfolded states obtained at 298 and 333 K were similar, suggesting that electrostatic contribution of ionizable groups to the protein stability were insensitive to temperature changes. The experimental pKa values for the L30e protein in the folded state were used as a benchmark to test the robustness of pKa prediction by various computational methods such as H++, MCCE, MEAD, pKD, PropKa, and UHBD. Although the predicted pKa values were affected by crystal contacts that may alter the side-chain conformation of surface charged residues, most computational methods performed well, with correlation coefficients between experimental and calculated pKa values ranging from 0.49 to 0.91 (p<0.01. The changes in protein stability derived from the experimental pKa-shift approach correlate well (r = 0.81 with those obtained from stability measurements of charge-to-alanine substituted variants of the L30e protein. Our results demonstrate that the knowledge of the pKa values in the folded state provides sufficient rationale for the redesign of protein surface charges leading to improved protein stability.

  20. Alati peab olema valmis mitte ainult plaan B, vaid ka C, D, E ... / Ülle Järv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järv, Ülle, 1958-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi Menedzhment : infovõpusk nr. 22 märts lk. 8-9. Baltika strateegiline pööre sisaldas kolme teemat: uue strateegia finantseerimine, uue finantsaruandlussüsteemi ülesehitamine ning riskide määratlemine ja juhtimine