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Sample records for k88 challenged piglet

  1. Effects of casein glycomacropeptide supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal barrier permeability and inflammatory responses in Escherichia coli K88 challenged piglets

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    Yili Rong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP is a bioactive peptide derived from milk with multiple functions. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of CGMP as a potential feed additive on growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal barrier permeability and inflammatory responses of Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88 challenged piglets. Eighteen weaning piglets were randomly assigned to three groups. Control group and K88 challenged group received a basal diet, and CGMP treated group received the basal diet supplemented with 1% of CGMP powder. The trail lasted for 12 days, K88 was orally administered to the piglets of K88 challenged group and CGMP treated group on days 8–10. The results showed that the diet containing 1% CGMP significantly alleviated the decrease in average daily gain (P  0.05 and barrier permeability damage (P < 0.05, and acute inflammatory response (P < 0.05 induced by E. coli K88 infection. In conclusion, CGMP supplementation in the diet protected the weaning piglets against E. coli K88 infection.

  2. Effect of chicken egg anti-F4 antibodies on performance and diarrhea incidences in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88+-challenged piglets.

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    Aluko, Kolawole; Velayudhan, Deepak E; Khafipour, Ehsan; Fang, Lin; Nyachoti, Martin

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of spay-dried whole egg containing anti-F4 antibodies (SDWE) against recombinantly produced F4 antigens in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 + (ETEC)-challenged piglets. Twenty-seven 21-d-old and individually housed piglets were randomly allotted to 3 treatments consisting of a wheat-soybean meal basal diet containing either 0 (control egg powder; CEP), 0.1% (SDWE1) or 0.4% (SDWE2) SDWE. After a 7-d adaptation period, blood samples were collected from all pigs, and pigs were weighed and orally challenged with an ETEC inoculum. Blood was sampled at 24 and 48 h post-challenge, and diarrhea incidences and scores were recorded. On d 14, all pigs were weighed and then euthanized to obtain intestinal tissue samples for histomorphology measurement. During the pre-challenge period, pigs fed the SDWE showed a linear improvement ( P  < 0.05) in average daily gain (ADG) and gain to feed ratio (G:F), but there were no differences among treatments in growth performance during the post-challenge period. Diarrhea incidences and scores, fecal shedding of ETEC, plasma urea nitrogen content and intestinal histomorphology were similar among treatments. The results show that 0.4% SDWE supported greater piglet performance before challenge although such benefits were not evident during the post-challenge period at either 0.1% or 0.4% supplementation.

  3. The detection of K88, K99 fimbrial antigen and enterotoxin genes of Escherichia coli isolated from piglets and calves with diarrhoea in Indonesia

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    Supar

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains cause diarrhoeal disease in piglets and calves in Indonesia. These strains possess two virulence factors namely attachment and enterotoxin antigens . These factors could be detected phenotypically and genetically. Haemolytic Escherichia coli (E coli isolates possessing K88 fimbrial antigen associated with 0-group 108 and 149. They were positive for K88 gene and demonstrated their ability to produce heat labile enterotoxin (LT and genetically were all positive for LT gene . Seventeen isolates ofE coli K88 which associated with 0-group 149 were positive forSTb gene, other O-serotypes were negative . Ten isolates of Ecoli K88 which associated with 0-group 108 possessed K88, K99, LT and STa genes, but negative for STb gene . However, phenotypically the K99 antigen and STa toxin were not expressed under laboratory conditions, the reason was not well understood . E. coli K99 strains isolated from calves wit h diarrhoea were all associated with 0-group 9 and produced STa toxin when tested by suckling mousse bioassay. The E. coli K99 calf isolates were all hybridized with K99 and STa gene only . It is likely that K99 gene is associated with STa gene . The DNA hybridization technique is more convenience to be used for confirmation diagnosis of colibacillosis, however, not all veterinary laboratories could perform these tests .

  4. Effect of different butyrate supplementations on growth and health of weaning pigs challenged or not with E. coli K88

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    Paolo Trevisi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a full factorial design (4 diets X challenge, Yes/No, 72 weaning pigs were assigned to one of the diets: Control; experimental diets, obtained with the addition of 2 g/kg free sodium butyrate (fNaB, or 0.6 g/kg fat-protected sodium butyrate (pNaB, or 2 g/kg INVE-NutriAd commercial mixture (Mix, based on 75 g/kg protected butyrate. Oral challenge with Escherichia coli K88 was done on 2/3 of pigs on d 7. Pigs were slaughtered on d 13. The mortality in challenged pigs, tended to be higher in control group (50.0% than in the three supplemented groups (23.5%. Growth tended to be increased averagely by the supplements (p=0.100 after the challenge, that also significantly reduced growth. In general the diet did not affect the fecal shedding of Escherichia coli and Lactobacilli, the K88-specific IgA activity in blood, the morphology of oxyntic mucosa and the expression of H+/K+-ATPase gene. The supplementations tended to increase villous length of jejunum (p=0.101. On the whole, growth, villous height and surviving rate can be positively affected either when the supplementation is done by free butyrate, by protected butyrate or by the special Inve Nutri-Ad product and these effects are distributed both on pigs infected or not with Escherichia coli K88.

  5. Oral challenge with E.coli K88 as a tool to assess growth and health performance in feeding trials of-weaned pigs

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    P. Bonilauri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of dietary solutions for weaning pigs is problematic. In field situations, an accurate control of replications is difficult and disturbing factors are hardly removed; in experimental farm, hygienic conditions are in general superior to practical farms. In the study of alternatives to in-feed antibiotics the challenge with K88 E.coli has been often proposed. The predisposition to this colibacillosis is, at least partially, genetically controlled and depends on the presence of intestinal receptors for the F4 fimbrial antigens of K88 E.coli...

  6. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation Boosts Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Escherichia coli Challenged Piglets.

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    Fengrui Zhang

    Full Text Available N-carbamylglutamate (NCG has been shown to enhance performance in neonatal piglets. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of NCG on the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary NCG supplementation on intestinal mucosal immunity in neonatal piglets after an Escherichia coli (E. coli challenge. New-born piglets (4 d old were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (n = 7, including (I sham challenge, (II sham challenge +50 mg/kg NCG, (III E. coli challenge, and (IV E. coli challenge +50 mg/kg NCG. On d 8, pigs in the E. coli challenge groups (III and IV were orally challenged with 5 mL of E. coli K88 (10(8 CFU/mL, whereas pigs in the sham challenge groups (I and II were orally dosed with an equal volume of water. On d 13, all piglets were sacrificed, and samples were collected and examined. The results show that average daily gain in the E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV was decreased (PE.coli<0.05. However, it tended to be higher in the NCG treated piglets (II and IV. Ileum secretory IgA, as well as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in ileal homogenates, were increased in E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV. Similarly, ileum SIgA and IL-10 levels, and CD4(+ percentage in NCG treated piglets (II and IV were higher than no-NCG treated piglets (PNCG<0.05. However, the IL-2 level was only decreased in the piglets of E. coli challenge + NCG group (IV compared with E. coli challenge group (III (P<0.05. No change in the IL-2 level of the sham challenged piglets (III was observed. In conclusion, dietary NCG supplementation has some beneficial effects on intestinal mucosal immunity in E. coli challenged piglets, which might be associated with stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis. Our findings have an important implication that NCG may be used to reduce diarrhea in neonatal piglets.

  7. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Boulardii and β-galactomannan oligosaccharide on porcine intestinal epithelial and dendritic cells challenged in vitro with Escherichia coli F4 (K88

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    Badia Roger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Probiotic and prebiotics, often called "immune-enhancing" feed additives, are believed to deal with pathogens, preventing the need of an immune response and reducing tissue damage. In this study, we investigated if a recently developed β-galactomannan (βGM had a similar protective role compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Boulardii (Scb, a proven probiotic, in the context of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC infection. ETEC causes inflammation, diarrhea and intestinal damage in piglets, resulting in large economic loses worldwide. We observed that Scb and βGM products inhibited in vitro adhesion of ETEC on cell surface of porcine intestinal IPI-2I cells. Our data showed that Scb and βGM decreased the mRNA ETEC-induced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, GM-CSF and chemokines CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL8 on intestinal IPI-2I. Furthermore, we investigated the putative immunomodulatory role of Scb and βGM on porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs per se and under infection conditions. We observed a slight up-regulation of mRNA for TNF-α and CCR7 receptor after co-incubation of DC with Scb and βGM. However, no differences were found in DC activation upon ETEC infection and Scb or βGM co-culture. Therefore, our results indicate that, similar to probiotic Scb, prebiotic βGM may protect intestinal epithelial cells against intestinal pathogens. Finally, although these products may modulate DC activation, their effect under ETEC challenge conditions remains to be elucidated.

  8. Therapeutic effects of glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

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    Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (Pglutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition.

  9. Effect of L-glutamine levels in piglets diets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysacharides

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    Arturo Pardo L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of different levels of L-glutamine on weaned and immunologically challenged piglets with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS on performance parameters, serum cortisol and defense cells. Materials and methods. Four levels of L –glutamine were evaluated (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% as well as the addition, or no addition, of LPS (0.3μg. 96 piglets were used (48 castrated males and 48 females of Agroceres x PenArlan lineage, with an initial age of 21 days and 6.06±0.852 kg live weight. An experimental design was used on randomized blocks in a factorial setting 4 x 2 (levels of L- glutamine with or without challenge. Results. Cubic effect was shown for daily weight gain of unchallenged animals, and was better with the addition of 0.41% L- glutamine. Feed conversion improved with increased levels of L -glutamine for challenged animals. In the evaluation of defense cells, there was interaction of leukocytes with the levels of L- glutamine and the immune challenge. Eosinophils and lymphocytes showed a quadratic effect for the levels of L –glutamine, with a maximum value of 1.30% and 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions. L -glutamine supplementation of up to 2% in the diet improves feed conversion and favors the immune serum of weaned piglets challenged with LPS of E. coli.

  10. Effects of Resveratrol and Essential Oils on Growth Performance, Immunity, Digestibility and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Challenged Piglets

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    S. T. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of resveratrol and essential oils from medicinal plants on the growth performance, immunity, digestibility, and fecal microbial shedding of weaned piglets. A total of 48 weaned piglets (8 kg initial weight, 28-d-old were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with 3 replications of 4 piglets each. The dietary treatments were NC (negative control; basal diet, PC (positive control; basal diet+0.002% apramycin, T1 (basal diet+0.2% resveratrol, and T2 (basal diet+0.0125% essential oil blend. All piglets were orally challenged with 5 ml culture fluid containing 2.3×108 cfu/ml of Escherichia coli KCTC 2571 and 5.9×108 cfu/ml Salmonella enterica serover Typhimurium. The PC group (p0.05. Serum IgG level was increased in the T1 group, whereas TNF-α levels was reduced in the supplemented groups compared to control (p<0.05. The PC diet improved the dry matter (DM digestibility, whereas PC and T2 diets improved nitrogen (N digestibility compared to NC and T1 diets (p<0.05. Fecal Salmonella and E. coli counts were reduced in all treatment groups compared to control (p<0.05. Fecal Lactobacillus spp. count was increased in the T2 group compared to others (p<0.05. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on fecal Bacillus spp. count throughout the entire experimental period. Based on these results, resveratrol showed strong potential as antibiotic alternatives for reversing the adverse effects of weaning stress on growth performance, immunity and microbial environment in E. coli and Salmonella-challenged piglets.

  11. Dietary addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG impairs the health of Escherichia coli F4-challenged piglets.

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    Trevisi, P; Casini, L; Coloretti, F; Mazzoni, M; Merialdi, G; Bosi, P

    2011-08-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is a probiotic for humans and is normally not found in pigs; however, it has been shown to protect the human-derived intestinal Caco-2 cells against the damage induced by an important intestinal pathogen, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC). An experiment was conducted to test whether the dietary addition of LGG improves the growth and health of weaned pigs when orally challenged by E. coli F4. Thirty-six pigs were weaned at 21 days and assigned to a standard weaning diet with or without 1010 CFU LGG (ATCC 53103) per day. The pigs, individually penned, were orally challenged with 1.5 ml of a 1010 CFU E. coli F4 suspension on day 7 and slaughtered on day 12 or 14. With the addition of LGG, the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake were reduced after the challenge with ETEC and for the entire trial (P F4-specific IgA activity was not affected by the diet at all the samplings. Our result shows that, the administration of LGG do not prevent or reduce the detrimental effect of the E. coli F4 infection on the growth performance and health status of weaned piglet.

  12. An NMR-based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of supplementation with glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

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    Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Hu, Jiayu; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Adeola, Olayiwola; Yao, Kang; Yin, Yulong; Li, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation with glutamic acid on piglets challenged with DON. A total of 20 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments (5 piglets/treatment): 1) basal diet, negative control (NC); 2) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON (DON); 3) basal diet +2% (g/g) glutamic acid (GLU); 4) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON +2% glutamic acid (DG). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 days of treatment. A metabolite analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomic technology and the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities for plasma, as well as the activity of Caspase-3 and the proliferation of epithelial cells were conducted. The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (Pglutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (Pglutamic acid to DON treatment increased the plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes for the jejunum and ileum (Pglutamic acid has the potential to repair the injuries associated with oxidative stress as well as the disturbances of energy and amino acid metabolism induced by DON.

  13. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

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    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background The processes of weaning and exposure to pathogenic bacteria induce stress responses, which may alter the metabolism. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma metabolites and immune responses in piglets in response to the stress induced by weaning and Escherichia coli chall...

  14. Early life thermal stress: Impact on future thermotolerance, stress response, behavior, and intestinal morphology in piglets exposed to a heat stress challenge during simulated transport

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    Study objectives were to evaluate the impact of early life thermal stress (ELTS) on thermoregulation, stress, and intestinal health of piglets subjected to a future heat stress (HS) challenge during simulated transport. Approximately 7 d after farrowing, 12 first parity gilts and their litters were ...

  15. Persistent Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Infection Enhances Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 Adhesion by Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

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    Xia, Lu; Dai, Lei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2017-11-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus characterized by diarrhea and high morbidity rates, and the mortality rate is 100% in piglets less than 2 weeks old. Pigs infected with TGEV often suffer secondary infection by other pathogens, which aggravates the severity of diarrhea, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that persistent TGEV infection stimulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) can more easily adhere to generating cells. Intestinal epithelial cells are the primary targets of TGEV and ETEC infections. We found that TGEV can persistently infect porcine intestinal columnar epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and cause EMT, consistent with multiple changes in key cell characteristics. Infected cells display fibroblast-like shapes; exhibit increases in levels of mesenchymal markers with a corresponding loss of epithelial markers; have enhanced expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNAs; and demonstrate increases in migratory and invasive behaviors. Additional experiments showed that the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways via TGF-β is critical for the TGEV-mediated EMT process. Cellular uptake is also modified in cells that have undergone EMT. TGEV-infected cells have higher levels of integrin α5 and fibronectin and exhibit enhanced ETEC K88 adhesion. Reversal of EMT reduces ETEC K88 adhesion and inhibits the expression of integrin α5 and fibronectin. Overall, these results suggest that TGEV infection induces EMT in IPEC-J2 cells, increasing the adhesion of ETEC K88 in the intestine and facilitating dual infection. IMPORTANCE Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes pig diarrhea and is often followed by secondary infection by other pathogens. In this study, we showed

  16. Feed supplementation with arginine and zinc on antioxidant status and inflammatory response in challenged weanling piglets

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    Nadia Bergeron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although supplementing the diet with zinc oxide and arginine is known to improve growth in weanling piglets, the mechanism of action is not well understood. We measured the antioxidant status and inflammatory response in 48 weanling castrated male piglets fed diets supplemented with or without zinc oxide (2,500 mg Zn oxide per kg and arginine (1% starting at the age of 20 days. The animals were injected with lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg on day 5. Half of them received another injection on day 12. Blood samples were taken just before and 6, 24 and 48 h after injection and the mucosa lining the ileum was recovered following euthanizing on days 7 and 14. Zinc supplementation increased reduced and total glutathione (GSH (reduced and total during days 5 to 7 and arginine decreased oxidized GSH measured on days 5 and 12 and the ratio of total antioxidant capacity to total oxidative status during days 12 to 14. Zinc decreased plasma malondialdehyde measured on days 5 and 12 and serum haptoglobin measured on day 12 and increased both metallothionein-1 expression and total antioxidant capacity measured in the ileal mucosa on day 14. Tumour necrosis factor α concentration decreased from days 5 to 12 (all effects were significant at P < 0.05. This study shows that the zinc supplement reduced lipid oxidation and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation during the post-weaning period, while the arginine supplementation had only a limited effect.

  17. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose

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    Andre-i Sarabia-Sainz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88 was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-β (4-1 galactose was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3 were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10–17 µm. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections.

  18. Vaccination of piglets up to 1 week of age with a single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine induces protective immunity within 2 weeks against virulent challenge in the presence of maternally derived antibodies.

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    Wilson, Stephen; Van Brussel, Leen; Saunders, Gillian; Runnels, Paul; Taylor, Lucas; Fredrickson, Dan; Salt, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    Enzootic pneumonia, resulting from infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is of considerable economic importance to the pig industry and normally is controlled through active vaccination of piglets. We have demonstrated that administration of an inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to piglets less than 1 week old is efficacious under field conditions and reduces the level of lung lesions observed in comparison to that in control pigs. Here, the results of two separate studies, one in piglets with and the second one in piglets without maternal antibodies, conducted to satisfy the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia (monograph no. 07/2009:2448), are reported. Piglets received either minimal titer Suvaxyn MH-One or saline at less than 1 week of age and were challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 2 weeks later. The number of lung lesions was recorded 4 weeks after challenge, and bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens were analyzed for quantification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae DNA. In the presence and absence of maternal antibodies, vaccination of piglets at less than 1 week of age was efficacious, with vaccinated piglets having significantly lower percentages of lung with lesions and lower Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae counts detected in bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens at necropsy. In conclusion, the vaccination of piglets at 1 week of age with Suvaxyn MH-One is efficacious in the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies.

  19. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

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    Xiangbing Mao

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05, and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier

  20. [Survival properties of ETEC surface-displayed K88ac-LT(B) on Lactobacillus casei].

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    Wei, Chunhua; Liu, Jiankui; Hou, Xilin; Wang, Guihua; Yu, Liyun

    2009-01-01

    K88ac-LT(B) gene derived from pQE30-K88ac-LT(B) was cloned into the expression vector pLA and then the recombinant vector was transformed into the competent cells Lactobacillus casei 525. The recombinant bacteria were grown at 37 degrees C, in MRS broth. Western blotting analysis with rabbit-anti-K88ac-LT(B) polyclonal serum indicated that the recombinant protein reacted with the specific antibodies. The results showed that the molecular weight of the recombinant protein was about 71.2 kD. The K88ac-LT(B) fusion protein on the cell surface was confirmed by immunofluorescence mciroscopy and flow cytometric analysis. In addition, the survival of recombinant Lactobacillus casei 525 was studied in imitative gastrointestinal environments such as artificial gastro fluid (pH 1.5-5.5), artificial intestinal fluid, bile(0.3-3.0 g/L). The results indicated that the recombinant strain survived well in artificial gastric fluids at pH 2.5-4.5 in 5 h. The recombinant Lactobacillus casei 525 could slowly grow in the artificial intestinal fluid for different time, and could survive in 0.3% bile.

  1. Glutamate alleviates muscle protein loss by modulating TLR4, NODs, Akt/FOXO and mTOR signaling pathways in LPS-challenged piglets.

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    Ping Kang

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of the glutamate (Glu on muscle protein loss through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NODs, Akt/Forkhead Box O (Akt/FOXO and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathways in LPS-challenged piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets were assigned into four treatments: (1 Control; (2 LPS+0% Glu; (3 LPS + 1.0% Glu; (4 LPS + 2.0% Glu. The experiment was lasted for 28 days. On d 28, the piglets in the LPS challenged groups were injected with LPS on 100 μg/kg body weight (BW, and the piglets in the control group were injected with the same volume of 0.9% NaCl solution. After 4 h LPS or saline injection, the piglets were slaughtered and the muscle samples were collected. Glu supplementation increased the protein/DNA ratio in gastrocnemius muscle, and the protein content in longissimus dorsi (LD muscle after LPS challenge (P<0.05. In addition, Glu supplementation decreased TLR4, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK 1, receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase (RIPK 2, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB mRNA expression in gastrocnemius muscle (P<0.05, MyD88 mRNA expression in LD muscle, and FOXO1 mRNA expression in LD muscle (P<0.05. Moreover, Glu supplementation increased p-Akt/t-Akt ratio (P<0.05 in gastrocnemius muscle, and p-4EBP1/t-4EBP1 ratio in both gastrocnemius and LD muscles (P<0.05. Glu supplementation in the piglets' diets might be an effective strategy to alleviate LPS-induced muscle protein loss, which might be due to suppressing the mRNA expression of TLR4 and NODs signaling-related genes, and modulating Akt/FOXO and mTOR signaling pathways.

  2. Vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive B and T cell responses to a prototype monovalent attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and virulent human rotavirus challenge in a gnotobiotic piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep S Chattha

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RV are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFNα cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12 and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10 cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2 and IFNγ (PID6 compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more

  3. Administration of probiotics influences F4 (K88)-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli attachment and intestinal cytokine expression in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudelin, Jean-François; Lessard, Martin; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Nadeau, Eric; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Boutin, Yvan; Brousseau, Jean-Philippe; Lauzon, Karoline; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2011-05-23

    This study evaluated the effect of the probiotics Pediococcus acidilactici and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii on the intestinal colonization of O149 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli harbouring the F4 (K88) fimbriae (ETEC F4) and on the expression of ileal cytokines in weaned pigs. At birth, different litters of pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: 1) control without antibiotics or probiotics (CTRL); 2) reference group in which chlortetracycline and tiamulin were added to weanling feed (ATB); 3) P. acidilactici; 4) S. cerevisiae boulardii; or 5) P. acidilactici + S. cerevisiae boulardii. Probiotics were administered daily (1 × 10(9) CFU per pig) during the lactation period and after weaning (day 21). At 28 days of age, all pigs were orally challenged with an ETEC F4 strain, and a necropsy was performed 24 h later. Intestinal segments were collected to evaluate bacterial colonization in the small intestine and ileal cytokine expressions. Attachment of ETEC F4 to the intestinal mucosa was significantly reduced in pigs treated with P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii in comparison with the ATB group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). In addition, proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, were upregulated in ETEC F4 challenged pigs treated with P. acidilactici alone or in combination with S. cerevisiae boulardii compared with the CTRL group. In conclusion, the administration of P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii was effective in reducing ETEC F4 attachment to the ileal mucosa, whereas the presence of P. acidilactici was required to modulate the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines in pigs challenged with ETEC F4.

  4. Administration of probiotics influences F4 (K88-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli attachment and intestinal cytokine expression in weaned pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daudelin Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the probiotics Pediococcus acidilactici and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii on the intestinal colonization of O149 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli harbouring the F4 (K88 fimbriae (ETEC F4 and on the expression of ileal cytokines in weaned pigs. At birth, different litters of pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: 1 control without antibiotics or probiotics (CTRL; 2 reference group in which chlortetracycline and tiamulin were added to weanling feed (ATB; 3 P. acidilactici; 4 S. cerevisiae boulardii; or 5 P. acidilactici + S. cerevisiae boulardii. Probiotics were administered daily (1 × 109 CFU per pig during the lactation period and after weaning (day 21. At 28 days of age, all pigs were orally challenged with an ETEC F4 strain, and a necropsy was performed 24 h later. Intestinal segments were collected to evaluate bacterial colonization in the small intestine and ileal cytokine expressions. Attachment of ETEC F4 to the intestinal mucosa was significantly reduced in pigs treated with P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii in comparison with the ATB group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, were upregulated in ETEC F4 challenged pigs treated with P. acidilactici alone or in combination with S. cerevisiae boulardii compared with the CTRL group. In conclusion, the administration of P. acidilactici or S. cerevisiae boulardii was effective in reducing ETEC F4 attachment to the ileal mucosa, whereas the presence of P. acidilactici was required to modulate the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines in pigs challenged with ETEC F4.

  5. 共表达ETEC K99、K88菌毛蛋白重组干酪乳杆菌的构建%The Surface Display of ETEC K99,K88 Protein in Lactobacillus casei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温丽娟; 王桂华; 侯喜林; 余丽芸; 王萌

    2011-01-01

    将PCR扩增的K99和K88-LTB基因片段串联插入到干酪乳杆菌细胞表面表达载体pLA中,构建了重组表达载体pLA-K99-K88-LTB,将其电转化干酪乳杆菌CICC 6 105,获得了表达融合蛋白pLA-K99-K88-LTB的重组干酪乳杆菌表达系统.重组干酪乳杆菌在MRS培养基中表达后,经SDS-PAGE检测,约有90 KDa的融合蛋白得到表达,蛋白大小与理论值相符合.Western-blot分析表明表达的蛋白可被鼠源K99,K88抗血清所识别.间接免疫荧光技术和流式细胞术的结果表明,融合蛋白成功地利用多聚谷氨酸跨膜蛋白pgsA基因展示在干酪乳杆菌菌体表面.

  6. Whey protein concentrate enhances intestinal integrity and influences transforming growth factor-β1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in piglets after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kan; Jiao, Lefei; Cao, Shuting; Song, Zehe; Hu, Caihong; Han, Xinyan

    2016-03-28

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has been reported to have protective effects on the intestinal barrier. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important component in the WPC, but whether TGF-β1 plays a role in these processes is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of WPC on the intestinal epithelial barrier as well as whether TGF-β1 is involved in these protection processes in a piglet model after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. In total, eighteen weanling pigs were randomly allocated to one of the following three treatment groups: (1) non-challenged control and control diet; (2) LPS-challenged control and control diet; (3) LPS+5 %WPC diet. After 19 d of feeding with control or 5 %WPC diets, pigs were injected with LPS or saline. At 4 h after injection, pigs were killed to harvest jejunal samples. The results showed that WPC improved (Pprotein, phosphorylated-Smad2 expression and Smad4 and Smad7 mRNA expressions and decreased (Pprotein kinase signalling pathways.

  7. The automated analysis of clustering behaviour of piglets from thermal images in response to immune challenge by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N J; Bench, C J; Liu, T; Chabot, B; Schaefer, A L

    2018-01-01

    An automated method of estimating the spatial distribution of piglets within a pen was used to assess huddling behaviour under normal conditions and during a febrile response to vaccination. The automated method was compared with a manual assessment of clustering activity. Huddling behaviour was partly related to environmental conditions and clock time such that more huddling occurred during the night and at lower ambient air temperatures. There were no positive relationships between maximum pig temperatures and environmental conditions, suggesting that the narrow range of air temperatures in this study was not a significant factor for pig temperature. Spatial distribution affected radiated pig temperature measurements by IR thermography. Higher temperatures were recorded in groups of animals displaying huddling behaviour. Huddling behaviour was affected by febrile responses to vaccination with increased huddling occurring 3 to 8 h post-vaccination. The automated method of assessing spatial distribution from an IR image successfully identified periods of huddling associated with a febrile response, and to changing environmental temperatures. Infrared imaging could be used to quantify temperature and behaviour from the same images.

  8. Injury and mechanism of recombinant E. coli expressing STa on piglets colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Li, Xueni; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Yutao; DU, Linxiao; Ding, Binying; Hou, Yongqing; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Tao

    2018-02-09

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is primary pathogenic bacteria of piglet diarrhea, over two thirds of piglets diarrhea caused by ETEC are resulted from STa-producing ETEC strains. This experiment was conducted to construct the recombinant E. coli expressing STa and study the injury and mechanism of recombinant E. coli expressing STa on 7 days old piglets colon. Twenty-four 7 days old piglets were allotted to four treatments: control group, STa group (2 × 10 9 CFU E. coli LMG194-STa), LMG194 group (2 × 10 9 CFU E. coli LMG194) and K88 group (2 × 10 9 CFU E. coli K88). The result showed that E. coli infection significantly increased diarrhea rates; changed DAO activity in plasma and colon; damaged colonic mucosal morphology including crypt depth, number of globet cells, density of lymphocytes and lamina propria cell density; substantially reduced antioxidant capacity by altering activities of GSH-Px, SOD, and TNOS and productions of MDA and H 2 O 2 ; obviously decreased AQP3, AQP4 and KCNJ13 protein expression levels; substantially altered the gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. Conclusively, STa group had the biggest effect on these indices in four treatment groups. These results suggested that the recombinant strain expressed STa can induce piglets diarrhea and colonic morphological and funtional damage by altering expression of proteins connect to transportation function and genes associated with intestinal injury and inflammatory cytokines.

  9. Trough for piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A trough is disclosed for supplying piglets with mineral supplements in the suckling period. The trough is designed to awaken the piglets' curiosity and thus make them root in the bottom of the trough, where the mineral supplements are dispensed in form of a dry powder mixture, and thus reduce...

  10. Genetic aspects of piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, E.F.

    2001-01-01

    Piglet mortality is high. In the USA nearly 20% of the piglets do not survive between late gestation and weaning; 7% of the piglets die during farrowing and some 13% are lost during lactation. These statistics from the USA are no exception to the norm. Selection for increased piglet

  11. Flaxseed Oil Attenuates Intestinal Damage and Inflammation by Regulating Necroptosis and TLR4/NOD Signaling Pathways Following Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in a Piglet Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huiling; Wang, Haibo; Wang, Shuhui; Tu, Zhixiao; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xiuying; Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Chunwei; Chen, Jie; Liu, Yulan

    2018-05-01

    Flaxseed oil is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the precursor of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This study investigates the protective effect of flaxseed oil against intestinal injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Twenty-four weaned pigs were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with dietary treatment (5% corn oil vs 5% flaxseed oil) and LPS challenge (saline vs LPS). On day 21 of the experiment, pigs were administrated with LPS or saline. At 2 h and 4 h post-administration, blood samples were collected. After the blood harvest at 4 h, all piglets were slaughtered and intestinal samples were collected. Flaxseed oil supplementation led to the enrichment of ALA, EPA, and total n-3 PUFAs in intestine. Flaxseed oil improved intestinal morphology, jejunal lactase activity, and claudin-1 protein expression. Flaxseed oil downregulated the mRNA expression of intestinal necroptotic signals. Flaxseed oil also downregulated the mRNA expression of intestinal toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) and its downstream signals myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins 1, 2 (NOD1, NOD2) and its adapter molecule, receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIPK2). These results suggest that dietary addition of flaxseed oil enhances intestinal integrity and barrier function, which is involved in modulating necroptosis and TLR4/NOD signaling pathways. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Risks associated with high-dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an Escherichia coli model of piglet diarrhoea: intestinal microbiota and immune imbalances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiong Li

    Full Text Available Probiotic could be a promising alternative to antibiotics for the prevention of enteric infections; however, further information on the dose effects is required. In this study, weanling piglets were orally administered low- or high-dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus ACTT 7469 (10(10 CFU/d or 10(12 CFU/d for 1 week before F4 (K88-positive Escherichia coli challenge. The compositions of faecal and gastrointestinal microbiota were recorded; gene expression in the intestines was assessed by real-time PCR; serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α concentrations and intestinal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 were detected by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Unexpectedly, high-dose administration increased the incidence of diarrhoea before F4(+ETEC challenge, despite the fact that both doses ameliorated F4(+ETEC-induced diarrhoea with increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts accompanied by reduced coliform shedding in faeces. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus administration reduced Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts in the colonic contents, and the high-dose piglets also had lower Lactobacillius and Bacteroides counts in the ileal contents. An increase in the concentration of serum TNF-α induced by F4(+ETEC was observed, but the increase was delayed by L. rhamnosus. In piglets exposed to F4(+ETEC, jejunal TLR4 expression increased at the mRNA and protein levels, while jejunal interleukin (IL-8 and ileal porcine β-defensins 2 (pBD2 mRNA expression increased; however, these increases were attenuated by administration of L. rhamnosus. Notably, expression of jejunal TLR2, ileal TLR9, Nod-like receptor NOD1 and TNF-α mRNA was upregulated in the low-dose piglets after F4(+ETEC challenge, but not in the high-dose piglets. These findings indicate that pretreatment with a low dose of L. rhamnosus might be more effective than a high dose at ameliorating diarrhoea. There is a risk that high-dose L. rhamnosus pretreatment may negate the preventative

  13. Risks Associated with High-Dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an Escherichia coli Model of Piglet Diarrhoea: Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Imbalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Cai, Zheng-Xing; Lu, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Lu; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Zhang, Fan-Jian; Zhou, Dong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic could be a promising alternative to antibiotics for the prevention of enteric infections; however, further information on the dose effects is required. In this study, weanling piglets were orally administered low- or high-dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus ACTT 7469 (1010 CFU/d or 1012 CFU/d) for 1 week before F4 (K88)-positive Escherichia coli challenge. The compositions of faecal and gastrointestinal microbiota were recorded; gene expression in the intestines was assessed by real-time PCR; serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations and intestinal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were detected by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Unexpectedly, high-dose administration increased the incidence of diarrhoea before F4+ETEC challenge, despite the fact that both doses ameliorated F4+ETEC-induced diarrhoea with increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts accompanied by reduced coliform shedding in faeces. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus administration reduced Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts in the colonic contents, and the high-dose piglets also had lower Lactobacillius and Bacteroides counts in the ileal contents. An increase in the concentration of serum TNF-α induced by F4+ETEC was observed, but the increase was delayed by L. rhamnosus. In piglets exposed to F4+ETEC, jejunal TLR4 expression increased at the mRNA and protein levels, while jejunal interleukin (IL)-8 and ileal porcine β-defensins 2 (pBD2) mRNA expression increased; however, these increases were attenuated by administration of L. rhamnosus. Notably, expression of jejunal TLR2, ileal TLR9, Nod-like receptor NOD1 and TNF-α mRNA was upregulated in the low-dose piglets after F4+ETEC challenge, but not in the high-dose piglets. These findings indicate that pretreatment with a low dose of L. rhamnosus might be more effective than a high dose at ameliorating diarrhoea. There is a risk that high-dose L. rhamnosus pretreatment may negate the preventative effects, thus

  14. Mannan-oligosaccharide and organic acids for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Souza Vieira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of acetic, propionic, and formic (50% organic acids and mannan-oligosaccharide (50% on growth performance, digestibility, and faecal score in challenged weaned piglets. Twenty male piglets (5.57 ± 0.32 kg of BW; 21-24 days of age were housed individually in metabolic cages for 28 days in an acclimatised room. The treatments were composed of the inclusion (0.1%; n = 10 or not (n = 10 of additive in the diet. The experimental design was completely randomised with two treatments, 10 replicates, and one piglet per replicate. The nutritional matrix was supplemented with 10% of barley and 35.9 to 34.0% of soybean meal in the pre-starter diet (3-14 days post-weaning and the starter diet (15-28 days post-weaning, respectively, to cause an intestinal challenge. Diets did not include any antimicrobial or growth promoters. Weekly, the animal and the leftover diet were weighed to evaluate growth performance. Digestibility was evaluated through total faeces and urine collection. Piglets fed diets with additive had 8.7% greater weight gain (P < 0.05 compared to those piglets in the control treatment in the starter phase. For other growth performance responses there was no treatment effect. Similarly, the inclusion of additive in the piglet diets did not affect the faecal score or the energy and nutrient digestibility. In the starter phase and throughout the experimental period, piglets fed diets with additive had 18.37% and 15.07% greater nitrogen (N intake and 19.53% and 16.05% greater N retention, respectively, compared to piglets in the control treatment (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the addition of additive composed by organic acids and mannan-oligosaccharide does not improve energy and nutrient digestibility but increases the N retention and weight gain in weaned piglets in the starting phase.

  15. The polymeric stability of the Escherichia coli F4 (K88) fimbriae enhances its mucosal immunogenicity following oral immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, Frank; Joensuu, Jussi Joonas; Stuyven, Edith; De Meyer, Julie; Muilu, Mikko; Pirhonen, Minna; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Mast, Jan; Niklander-Teeri, Viola; Cox, Eric

    2008-10-23

    Only a few vaccines are commercially available against intestinal infections since the induction of a protective intestinal immune response is difficult to achieve. For instance, oral administration of most proteins results in oral tolerance instead of an antigen-specific immune response. We have shown before that as a result of oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae purified from pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the fimbriae bind to the F4 receptor (F4R) in the intestine and induce a protective F4-specific immune response. F4 fimbriae are very stable polymeric structures composed of some minor subunits and a major subunit FaeG that is also the fimbrial adhesin. In the present study, the mutagenesis experiments identified FaeG amino acids 97 (N to K) and 201 (I to V) as determinants for F4 polymeric stability. The interaction between the FaeG subunits in mutant F4 fimbriae is reduced but both mutant and wild type fimbriae behaved identically in F4R binding and showed equal stability in the gastro-intestinal lumen. Oral immunization experiments indicated that a higher degree of polymerisation of the fimbriae in the intestine was correlated with a better F4-specific mucosal immunogenicity. These data suggest that the mucosal immunogenicity of soluble virulence factors can be increased by the construction of stable polymeric structures and therefore help in the development of effective mucosal vaccines.

  16. Praktijkevaluatie van 'piglet snatching'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Bij piglet snatching worden biggen van een zeug direct bij de geboorte weggevangen en overgelegd naar een zeug op een ander bedrijf. In de praktijk is dit een goede, welzijnsvriendelijke manier om biggen van een bedrijf met een lage ziektevrij-status maar met een hoge genetische waarde over te

  17. L-cysteine protects intestinal integrity, attenuates intestinal inflammation and oxidant stress, and modulates NF-κB and Nrf2 pathways in weaned piglets after LPS challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ze he; Tong, Guo; Xiao, Kan; Jiao, Le fei; Ke, Ya lu; Hu, Cai hong

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated whetherL-cysteine (L-cys) could alleviate LPS-induced intestinal disruption and its underlying mechanism. Piglets fed with anL-cys-supplemented diet had higher average daily gain.L-cys alleviated LPS-induced structural and functional disruption of intestine in weanling piglets, as demonstrated by higher villus height, villus height (VH) to crypt depth (CD) ratio, and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and lower FITC-dextran 4 (FD4) kDa flux in jejunum and ileum. Supplementation withL-cys up-regulated occludin and claudin-1 expression, reduced caspase-3 activity and enhanced proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression of jejunum and ileum relative to LPS group. Additionally,L-cys suppressed the LPS-induced intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress, as demonstrated by down-regulated TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels, increased catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione (GSH) contents and the ratio of GSH and oxidized glutathione in jejunum and ileum. Finally, a diet supplemented withL-cys inhibited NF-κB(p65) nuclear translocation and elevated NF erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation compared with the LPS group. Collectively, our results indicated the protective function ofL-cys on intestinal mucosa barrier may closely associated with its anti-inflammation, antioxidant and regulating effect on the NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling pathways. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Does the environmental background (intensive v. outdoor systems) influence the behaviour of piglets at weaning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y Y W; Pluske, J R; Fleming, P A

    2015-08-01

    Under intensive pig husbandry, outdoor systems offer a more complex physical and social environment compared with indoor systems (farrowing sheds). As the rearing environment affects behavioural development, it can, therefore, influence behavioural responses of pigs to stressful environments in later stages of production. We tested how the rearing environment influenced behavioural responses to a novel arena test in piglets on the day that they were weaned and mixed into large groups. We recorded video footage and compared the behavioural responses of 30 outdoor-raised and 30 farrowing shed-raised piglets tested in an experimental arena and sequentially exposed to four challenges (each for 5 min) on the day of weaning. Quantitative and qualitative behavioural measures were recorded using time budgets and scoring demeanour or 'qualitative behavioural expression' (using Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA)). When held in isolation (challenge 1), both groups were scored as more 'scared/worried', while outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating and jumping against the arena walls. Both groups interacted with a plastic ball (challenge 2: exposure to a novel object) during which they were scored as more 'playful/curious' than other challenges. When a food bowl was introduced (challenge 3), farrowing shed-raised piglets were more interested in playing with the food bowl itself, whereas outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating the feed. Finally, there were no significant differences in social behaviour (challenge 4: introduction of another piglet) between the two groups in terms of the latency to contact each other, amount of time recorded engaged in aggressive/non-aggressive social interactions or QBA scores. Although piglets spent 30% of their time interacting with the other piglet, and half of this time (47%) was engaged in negative interactions (pushing, biting), the levels of aggression were not different between the two groups. Overall, outdoor

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of Swine-Derived Lactobacillus reuteri: Probiotic Properties and Effects on Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells Challenged with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Li; Chen, Zhuang; Ma, Xianyong; Yang, Xuefen; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-06-28

    Probiotics are considered as the best effective alternatives to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic potential of lactobacilli for use in swine farming by using in vitro evaluation methods. A total of 106 lactic acid bacterial isolates, originating from porcine feces, were first screened for the capacity to survive stresses considered important for putative probiotic strains. Sixteen isolates showed notable acid and bile resistance, antibacterial activity, and adherence to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). One isolate, LR1, identified as Lactobacillus reuteri, was selected for extensive study of its probiotic and functional properties in IPEC-1 cell models. L. reuteri LR1 exhibited good adhesion to IPEC-1 cells and could inhibit the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to IPEC-1 cells. L. reuteri LR1 could also modulate transcript and protein expression of cytokines involved in inflammation in IPEC-1 cells; the Lactobacillus strain inhibited the ETEC-induced expression of proinflammatory transcripts (IL-6 and TNF-α) and protein (IL-6), and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Measurement of the permeation of FD-4 showed that L. reuteri LR1 could maintain barrier integrity in monolayer IPEC-1 cells exposed to ETEC. Immunolocalization experiments showed L. reuteri LR1 could also prevent ETEC-induced tight junction ZO-1 disruption. Together, these results indicate that L. reuteri LR1 exhibits desirable probiotic properties and could be a potential probiotic for use in swine production.

  20. Fish oil alleviates activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis associated with inhibition of TLR4 and NOD signaling pathways in weaned piglets after a lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan; Chen, Feng; Li, Quan; Odle, Jack; Lin, Xi; Zhu, Huiling; Pi, Dingan; Hou, Yongqing; Hong, Yu; Shi, Haifeng

    2013-11-01

    Long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids exert beneficial effects in neuroendocrine dysfunctions in animal models and clinical trials. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the beneficial effects remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that dietary treatment with fish oil (FO) could mitigate LPS-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein signaling pathways. Twenty-four weaned pigs were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and the main factors consisted of diet (5% corn oil vs. 5% FO) and immunological challenge (saline vs. LPS). After 21 d of dietary treatment with 5% corn oil or FO diets, pigs were treated with saline or LPS. Blood samples were collected at 0 (preinjection), 2, and 4 h postinjection, and then pigs were humanely killed by intravenous injection of 40 mg/kg body weight sodium pentobarbital for tissue sample collection. FO led to enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, spleen, and thymus. FO decreased plasma adrenocorticotrophin and cortisol concentrations as well as mRNA expressions of hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone and pituitary proopiomelanocortin. FO also reduced mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in hypothalamus, adrenal gland, spleen, and thymus, and of cyclooxygenase 2 in hypothalamus. Moreover, FO downregulated the mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its downstream molecules, including cluster differentiation factor 14, myeloid differentiation factor 2, myeloid differentiation factor 88, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, tumor necrosis factor-α receptor-associated factor 6, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p65, and also decreased the mRNA expressions of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1, nucleotide

  1. Electrochemical magneto immunosensor based on endogenous β-galactosidase enzyme to determine enterotoxicogenic Escherichia coli F4 (K88) in swine feces using square wave voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviana Tarditto, Lorena; Alicia Zon, María; García Ovando, Hugo; Roberto Vettorazzi, Nelio; Javier Arévalo, Fernando; Fernández, Héctor

    2017-11-01

    Diseases caused by enterotoxicogenic Escherichia coli F4 (K88) (ETEC F4) are a problem in swine production establishments. Due to the high rate of mortality and morbidity of E. coli infections, a rapid and accurate diagnosis is important in order to choose an appropriate treatment to reduce the economic impact. Therefore, an electrochemical magneto-immunosensor (EMI) was developed to detect and quantify ETEC F4 in swine feces samples through a direct non-competitive immunoassay. ETEC F4 was selectively captured by immunomagnetic separation. The detection principle was based on the activity of β-galactosidase endogenous enzyme (β-gal), which hydrolyses the p-aminophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (p-APG) producing p-aminophenol (p-AP), which was oxidized on a carbon screen printed electrode (CSPE) using square wave voltammetry (SWV). All parameters related to construction and electrochemical responses were optimized. The total analysis time to quantify ETEC F4 using the EMI was less than 2h and the limit of detection (LOD) was 33CFUmL -1 . The perceptual relative error (%E r ) was 20%. The magneto-immunosensor was validated versus conventional method of culture and plate count, obtaining a very good agreement. The EMI is simple, fast and economical to detect and quantify ETEC F4 in swine feces samples, being thus a valuable tool in swine production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neonatal piglet survival: impact of sow nutrition around parturition on fetal glycogen deposition and production and composition of colostrum and transient milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Quesnel, H

    2014-01-01

    is born. Selection for large litters during the last two decades has challenged piglets even further during the critical neonatal phase because the selection programs indirectly decreased birth weight of piglets and because increased litter size has increased the competition between littermates. Different...

  3. Of piglets, dietary proteins, and pancreatic proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkink, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Newly weaned piglets often show digestive disorders, frequently resulting in diarrhoea. These disorders may be related to the dietary protein source, since young piglets are less capable of digesting proteins of vegetable origin than older pigs. This study was undertaken to investigate the

  4. Teat order affects postweaning behaviour in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sommavilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate if piglets that suck anterior teats differ from the others in the litter in birth weight, if they have higher growth rate during lactation, and if this affects behaviour and post-weaning weight gain, when piglets change to a solid diet. For this, the teat order of 24 litters was determined during suckling. Piglets were weaned on the 28thday of age, and 24 groups were formed, composed of one piglet that sucked on the first two pairs of teats (AT and three piglets that sucked on the other teats (OT. Even though weight at birth did not vary according to teat order, weight gain at weaning differed between the groups (AT: 6.64, S.E. 0.20kg, OT: 5.73, S.E. 0.13kg; P

  5. Postpartum deaths: piglet, placental, and umbilical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Farstad, W; Framstad, T

    2013-06-01

    The fetal growth of the piglet is highly dependent on its placenta, and the newborn piglet birth weight is highly associated with postpartum death. However, there is little information available in the literature on the assessment of the placenta in relation to postpartum death in piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the placental area and placental weight, status of the umbilical cord, and piglet birth characteristics, such as blood parameters, vitality score, and birth weight on postpartum death. All live born piglets in litters from 26 Landrace-Yorkshire sows were monitored during farrowing and the status of each was recorded, including placental area and placental weight and blood variables obtained from the piglets and umbilical veins. Out of the 386 live-born piglets, 16.8% died before weaning at 5 wk. Among these, 78.5% died within the first 3 d of life. Mean blood concentration of lactate was increased in piglets that did not survive to weaning (P = 0.003). Concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased (P vitality score vs. piglets born with an intact umbilical cord (P = 0.021), and they had an increased probability of dying before weaning (P = 0.050). Mean birth weight, body mass index, placental area (P live litter size. Blood concentrations of IgG and albumin recorded at d 1 were decreased in piglets that died before weaning (P < 0.01), and blood concentration of albumin was positively associated with placental area (P < 0.001). We conclude that placental area and placental weight, status of the umbilical cord, birth weight, body mass index, blood concentrations of lactate, hemoglobin, and hematocrit recorded at birth, and blood concentrations of IgG and albumin recorded at d 1 were associated with postpartum death in this study. These results may indicate that there is an upper uterine limitation of litter size and that placental area and placental weight influence postpartum survival.

  6. Performance and diarrhoea in piglets following weaning at seven weeks of age:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M T; Vestergaard, E M; Jensen, S K

    2009-01-01

    for the effect on diarrhoea. To introduce a diarrhoea-like condition, half of the piglets were challenged with an E. coli O 149 dose of 1 × 108 colony forming units on days one and two after weaning (day of weaning = day zero). All piglets were susceptible since the dams were tested mono-zygotic susceptible...... to the attachment site of E. coli O 149 in the intestines. Each of the four experiments included 32 piglets from 4 sows. The design was a 2 × 2 factorial with dietary factor and E. coli O 149 challenge as the two factors, each at two levels. The piglets were housed individually during the experiment which lasted......, the studied dietary factors could not alleviate a diarrhoea-like condition and at the same time maintain the growth rate. Furthermore, the results indicate that performance can be improved if piglets achieve a daily feed intake of at least 200 g during the first day after weaning....

  7. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Descriptive, prospective cohort. Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and clinical settings. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  8. Protein synthesis and intestinal flora in piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namioka, Shigeo

    1980-01-01

    Utilization of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) by the flora in piglet colon was studied by administration of 15 N-urea and 15 N-ammonium salt to aseptic piglets and to SPF piglets which had been acclimatized to a clean environment after settling of intestinal flora. Administration of 15 N-urea did not result in 15 N uptake by any tissue-constituting protein at any site of the aseptic piglets, almost all 15 N being excreted into the urine. In contrast, the tissue and skeletal muscle of the SPF piglets showed incorporated 15 N from urea. Urea was converted, by urease of the intestinal flora, into NH 3 , which was absorbed from the mucosa of the intestinal tract to reach the liver where it was synthesized into glutamic acid, followed by conversion into various amino acids. 15 N-ammonium administration produced a significant amount of 15 N even in the tissue protein of the aseptic piglets. After NPN administration, the liver protein-constituting amino acid fraction showed 15 N-labeling of almost all essential, as well as non-essential amino acids. Culture of colonic flora with 15 N-urea revealed 15 N-labeling of all amino acids that constituted bacterial cells, indicating the presence of urea recycling mediated by bacterial urease in single rumen animals.(Chiba, N.)

  9. Sesame meal as the first protein source in piglet starter diets and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gerardo Mariscal

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... The protein source or phytase did not affect villus height, crypt depth, or TTA. However ... The transition from milk to a starter diet at weaning can challenge the digestive tract of piglets ... Protection, and Use of Laboratory Animals (Diario Oficial de la ..... Effect of a novel phytase on growth performance, bone.

  10. Dose-dependent effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on serum interleukin-17 production and intestinal T-cell responses in pigs challenged with Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao-Hong; Li, Xiao-Qiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dong; Liu, Hao-Yu; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism underlying the dose effect of probiotics on ameliorating diarrhea has not been fully elucidated. Here, low (1 × 10(9) CFU/ml) or high (1 × 10(11) CFU/ml) doses of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 were administered orally to piglets for 1 week before F4 (K88)-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4(+) ETEC) challenge. Administration of a low, but not a high, dose of L. rhamnosus decreased the percentage of CD3(+) CD4(+) CD8(-) T cells in the peripheral blood. Notably, transiently increased serum concentrations of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) were observed after F4(+) ETEC challenge in pigs pretreated with a high dose of L. rhamnosus. Administration of L. rhamnosus increased the percentage of the small intestinal lamina propria CD3(+) CD4(+) CD8(-) cells and Peyer's patch CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) and CD3(-) CD4(-) CD8(+) cells. The percentage of ileal intraepithelial CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(+) cells increased only in the high-dose piglets. Administration of L. rhamnosus downregulated expression of ileal IL-17A after F4(+) ETEC challenge but had no effect on expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-12, IL-4, and FOXP3 mRNA in the small intestine. Expression of jejunal IL-2, ileal transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and ileal IL-10 was upregulated in the low-dose piglets after F4(+) ETEC challenge. Our findings suggest that amelioration of infectious diarrhea in piglets by L. rhamnosus is associated with the generation of lamina propria CD3(+) CD4(+) CD8(-) T cells, the expansion of Peyer's patch CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) and CD3(-) CD4(-) CD8(+) cells, and the attenuation of F4(+) ETEC-induced increase in CD3(+) CD4(+) CD8(+) T cells in the small intestine. However, consumption of high doses of L. rhamnosus may increase levels of serum IL-17A after F4(+) ETEC challenge, thus eliciting a strong proinflammatory response.

  11. Dose-Dependent Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on Serum Interleukin-17 Production and Intestinal T-Cell Responses in Pigs Challenged with Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao-Hong; Li, Xiao-Qiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dong; Liu, Hao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the dose effect of probiotics on ameliorating diarrhea has not been fully elucidated. Here, low (1 × 109 CFU/ml) or high (1 × 1011 CFU/ml) doses of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 were administered orally to piglets for 1 week before F4 (K88)-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4+ ETEC) challenge. Administration of a low, but not a high, dose of L. rhamnosus decreased the percentage of CD3+ CD4+ CD8− T cells in the peripheral blood. Notably, transiently increased serum concentrations of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) were observed after F4+ ETEC challenge in pigs pretreated with a high dose of L. rhamnosus. Administration of L. rhamnosus increased the percentage of the small intestinal lamina propria CD3+ CD4+ CD8− cells and Peyer's patch CD3+ CD4− CD8− and CD3− CD4− CD8+ cells. The percentage of ileal intraepithelial CD3+ CD4− CD8+ cells increased only in the high-dose piglets. Administration of L. rhamnosus downregulated expression of ileal IL-17A after F4+ ETEC challenge but had no effect on expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-12, IL-4, and FOXP3 mRNA in the small intestine. Expression of jejunal IL-2, ileal transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and ileal IL-10 was upregulated in the low-dose piglets after F4+ ETEC challenge. Our findings suggest that amelioration of infectious diarrhea in piglets by L. rhamnosus is associated with the generation of lamina propria CD3+ CD4+ CD8− T cells, the expansion of Peyer's patch CD3+ CD4− CD8− and CD3− CD4− CD8+ cells, and the attenuation of F4+ ETEC-induced increase in CD3+ CD4+ CD8+ T cells in the small intestine. However, consumption of high doses of L. rhamnosus may increase levels of serum IL-17A after F4+ ETEC challenge, thus eliciting a strong proinflammatory response. PMID:24389928

  12. Investigations on ileal microbial flora in weaning piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klüss, J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Kwella, M.; Kuhla, S.; Souffrant, W.B.

    2003-01-01

    To characterize ileal microbial flora in weaning piglets a slaughter trial was conducted. 224 German Landrace piglets of both genders were allocated to four different feeding regimes (with or without avilamycin, 3 resp. 8 % crude fibre content). At predefined times pre- and postweaning piglets were

  13. Associations between intrapartum death and piglet, placental, and umbilical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Farstad, W; Framstad, T

    2012-12-01

    Intrapartum death in multiparous gestations in sows (Sus scrofa) is often caused by hypoxia. There is little information in the literature on the assessment of the placenta in relation to intrapartum death in piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the placental area and weight upon piglet birth characteristics and intrapartum death. Litters from 26 Landrace-Yorkshire sows were monitored during farrowing and the status of each piglet was recorded, including blood parameters of piglets and their umbilical veins. Of 413 piglets born, 6.5% were stillborn. Blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, and CO(2) partial pressure were increased in the stillborn piglets (P birth was increased for piglets born dead vs. live (P birth weight for piglets born dead was not different from live-born piglets (P = 0.631), whereas mean body mass index was reduced (P 0.2). Piglet BW was positively correlated with placental area and placental weight (P birth order group, and broken umbilical cords explained 71% of the stillbirths (P = 0.001). We conclude that placental area and placental weight are both positively associated with piglet birth weight, but not with the probability of being born dead. Placental area was a better predictor of piglet vitality than placental weight. Because umbilical cord rupture and prolonged birth time were associated with being born dead, umbilical cord rupture and placental detachment seem to be probable causes of intrapartum death.

  14. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Yang, Gui-Yan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2) were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but t...

  15. Protective effect of oral administration of transgenic tobacco seeds against verocytotoxic Escherichia coli strain in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luciana; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Vagni, Simona; Sala, Vittorio; Reggi, Serena; Baldi, Antonella

    2014-03-01

    The use of transgenic plants as delivery system for antigenic proteins is attractive for its simplicity and increases likelihood for local immune response at sites of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of oral administration of tobacco seeds, expressing the FedA, the major protein of the F18 adhesive fimbriae, and B subunit of verocytotoxin, against verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) strain in piglets. Forty-three early weaned piglets, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups: 3 test groups and a control. Treatment groups orally received a bolus, with different dose of tobacco seeds on 0, 1, 2, 14 days post primary administration. After challenge, with 1*10(10) CFU of O138 Escherichia coli strain, piglets showed clinical scores significantly higher in the control group compared to orally immunized groups (P administration of recombinant tobacco seeds expressing antigenic proteins against VTEC strains can induce a protective effect against challenger strain in piglets.

  16. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2 were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus treatment. Expression of TLR2 and NOD1 mRNA was up-regulated in cells pre-treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus counteracted F4+ ETEC-induced increases in TNF-α concentration. Increased PGE2. concentrations were observed in cells infected with F4+ ETEC and in cells treated with L. rhamnosus only. A decrease in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR was observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge in cells treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression. Our findings suggest that L. rhamnosus protects intestinal epithelial cells from F4+ ETEC-induced damage, partly through the anti-inflammatory response involving synergism between TLR2 and NOD1. In addition, L. rhamnosus promotes EGFR-independent Akt activation, which may activate intestinal epithelial cells in response to bacterial infection, in turn increasing tight junction integrity and thus enhancing the barrier function and restricting pathogen invasion. Pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus was superior to co-incubation in reducing the adhesion of F4+ ETEC to IPEC-J2 cells and subsequently attenuating F4+ ETEC-induced mucin layer destruction and suppressing apoptosis. Our data indicate that a selected L. rhamnosus strain interacts with porcine intestinal epithelial cells to maintain the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal epithelial

  17. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Yang, Gui-Yan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2) were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus treatment. Expression of TLR2 and NOD1 mRNA was up-regulated in cells pre-treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus counteracted F4+ ETEC-induced increases in TNF-α concentration. Increased PGE2. concentrations were observed in cells infected with F4+ ETEC and in cells treated with L. rhamnosus only. A decrease in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge in cells treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression. Our findings suggest that L. rhamnosus protects intestinal epithelial cells from F4+ ETEC-induced damage, partly through the anti-inflammatory response involving synergism between TLR2 and NOD1. In addition, L. rhamnosus promotes EGFR-independent Akt activation, which may activate intestinal epithelial cells in response to bacterial infection, in turn increasing tight junction integrity and thus enhancing the barrier function and restricting pathogen invasion. Pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus was superior to co-incubation in reducing the adhesion of F4+ ETEC to IPEC-J2 cells and subsequently attenuating F4+ ETEC-induced mucin layer destruction and suppressing apoptosis. Our data indicate that a selected L. rhamnosus strain interacts with porcine intestinal epithelial cells to maintain the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal epithelial cell activation in

  18. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pereira Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline, feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger, with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  19. Inactivated rotavirus vaccine induces protective immunity in gnotobiotic piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuan; Azevedo, Marli; Saif, Linda J; Gentsch, Jon R; Glass, Roger I; Jiang, Baoming

    2010-07-26

    Live oral rotavirus vaccines that are effective in middle and high income countries have been much less immunogenic and effective among infants in resource-limited settings. Several hypotheses might explain this difference, including neutralization of the vaccine by high levels of maternal antibody in serum and breast milk, severe malnutrition, and interference by other flora and viruses in the gut. We have pursued development of an alternative parenteral rotavirus vaccine with the goal of inducing comparable levels of immunogenicity and efficacy in populations throughout the world regardless of their income levels. In the present study, we assessed the immunogenicity and protection of a candidate inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV), the human strain CDC-9 (G1P[8]) formulated with aluminum phosphate, against rotavirus infection in gnotobiotic piglets. Three doses of IRV induced high titers of rotavirus-specific IgG and neutralizing activity in the sera of gnotobiotic piglets and protection against shedding of rotavirus antigen following oral challenge with a homologous virulent human strain Wa (G1P[8]). Our findings demonstrate the proof of concept for an IRV in a large animal model and provide evidence and justification for further clinical development as an alternative candidate vaccine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Skin Vaccination against Rotavirus Using Microneedles: Proof of Concept in Gnotobiotic Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuan; Vlasova, Anastasia; Velasquez, Daniel E; Saif, Linda J; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Kochba, Efrat; Levin, Yotam; Jiang, Baoming

    2016-01-01

    Live-attenuated oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines have lower efficacy in low income countries, and additionally are associated with a rare but severe adverse event, intussusception. We have been pursuing the development of an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV) using the human rotavirus strain CDC-9 (G1P[8]) through parenteral immunization and previously demonstrated dose sparing and enhanced immunogenicity of intradermal (ID) unadjuvanted IRV using a coated microneedle patch in comparison with intramuscular (IM) administration in mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response and protection against RV infection and diarrhea conferred by the administration of the ID unadjuvanted IRV using the microneedle device MicronJet600® in neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets challenged with virulent Wa G1P[8] human RV. Three doses of 5 μg IRV when administered intradermally and 5 μg IRV formulated with aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3] when administered intramuscularly induced comparable rotavirus-specific antibody titers of IgA, IgG, IgG avidity index and neutralizing activity in sera of neonatal piglets. Both IRV vaccination regimens protected against RV antigen shedding in stools, and reduced the cumulative diarrhea scores in the piglets. This study demonstrated that the ID and IM administrations of IRV are immunogenic and protective against RV-induced diarrhea in neonatal piglets. Our findings highlight the potential value of an adjuvant sparing effect of the IRV ID delivery route.

  1. Skin Vaccination against Rotavirus Using Microneedles: Proof of Concept in Gnotobiotic Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Wang

    Full Text Available Live-attenuated oral rotavirus (RV vaccines have lower efficacy in low income countries, and additionally are associated with a rare but severe adverse event, intussusception. We have been pursuing the development of an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV using the human rotavirus strain CDC-9 (G1P[8] through parenteral immunization and previously demonstrated dose sparing and enhanced immunogenicity of intradermal (ID unadjuvanted IRV using a coated microneedle patch in comparison with intramuscular (IM administration in mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response and protection against RV infection and diarrhea conferred by the administration of the ID unadjuvanted IRV using the microneedle device MicronJet600® in neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn piglets challenged with virulent Wa G1P[8] human RV. Three doses of 5 μg IRV when administered intradermally and 5 μg IRV formulated with aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH3] when administered intramuscularly induced comparable rotavirus-specific antibody titers of IgA, IgG, IgG avidity index and neutralizing activity in sera of neonatal piglets. Both IRV vaccination regimens protected against RV antigen shedding in stools, and reduced the cumulative diarrhea scores in the piglets. This study demonstrated that the ID and IM administrations of IRV are immunogenic and protective against RV-induced diarrhea in neonatal piglets. Our findings highlight the potential value of an adjuvant sparing effect of the IRV ID delivery route.

  2. Chenodeoxycholic acid reduces intestinal permeability in newly weaned piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Y; Gerrits, W J J; van den Bosch, M

    2012-01-01

    weaned (21 d) piglets offered a diet with or without 60 mg CDCA/kg feed (n = 24/treatment). Upon weaning, piglets were fasted for 16 h and then intragastrically dosed with 20 g test feed in 40 g water. Subsequently, a jugular blood sample was taken on 45, 90, 135, or 180 min for analysis of GLP-2......, peptide YY (PYY), and glucose. Afterwards, piglets were offered the experimental diets ad libitum. On days 3.5, 7.5, and 10.5 after weaning, serum responses to an intragastric dose of lactulose and Co-EDTA were tested at 2 h after dosing in 8 piglets per treatment. Immediately thereafter, piglets were...... to newly weaned piglets, implying that CDCA deserves further study as a means for improving intestinal health. The positive correlation found between Co-EDTA and lactulose indicates that both marker molecules measure similar change in permeability....

  3. Behaviour and growth performance of low-birth-weight piglets cross-fostered in multiparous sows with piglets of higher birth weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the behaviour, pre-weaning survival rate and growth performance of low birth weight (BW piglets cross-fostered with piglets of higher weights. Piglets were transferred to 60 foster sows, and divided in three groups (G; n=20: G1- 12 low BW piglets (0.80 - 1.25kg; G2- six low BW piglets and six intermediate BW piglets (1.40 - 1.60kg, and G3- six low BW piglets and six high BW piglets (>1.70kg. For the analysis, groups G2 and G3 were subdivided in LG2 (six G2 light piglets; IG2 (six G2 intermediate piglets, LG3 (six G3 light piglets, and HG3 (six G3 heavy piglets. Behavioural observations were carried out on days 1, 2, 4 and 6 (visual direct observation and on days 3 and 5 (video recording after birth. The percentage of missed nursings was higher in LG3 piglets than in LG1, IG2 and HG3 piglets, on days 1 and 2. On day 4, light piglets (LG1, LG2 and LG3 missed more nursings than IG2 and HG3 piglets. On day 3, video recording showed a higher percentage of missed nursings in LG1, LG2, and LG3 piglets as compared to HG3 piglets. On day 1, the number of fights during nursing was higher in IG2 than in LG1 and LG3 piglets. Also on day 1, number of fights and percentage of piglets engaged in fights, during 15min after nursing, were higher in LG1, LG3 and HG3 than in LG2 piglets. More playful behaviours were observed on day 2 in IG2 and HG3 piglets compared to LG1, LG2 and LG3 piglets. Light piglets (LG1, LG2, and LG3 presented similar body weight on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 after birth, regardless of being mixed with piglets of higher weights or not; however, the survival rate until day 16 was most compromised in LG3 piglets compared to the other groups. Despite the lack of influence of littermates' weight on the growth of low BW piglets, their survival rate indicates that they should not be mixed with high BW piglets.

  4. Prevention of diarrhoea using pathogen specific monoclonal antibodies in an experimental enterotoxigenic E. coli infection in germfree piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, de B.; Harmsen, M.; Zijderveld, van F.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study we describe the effect of oral application of mAB specific for ETEC F4(ac) fimbriae in an experimental ETEC challenge model in neonatal germfree piglets. The results show that mAB, specific for different F4(ac) epitopes protect animals against ETEC specific pathology. Moreover,

  5. Oral iron administration in suckling piglets – a review

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    Martin Svoboda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is presently a serious problem in suckling piglets on pig farms. The most often used method of anaemia prevention in piglets is parenteral administration of iron dextran. Oral iron represents an alternative to this method. The goal of this article is to review current knowledge on oral iron administration in suckling piglets. The substances that can be used for this purpose include iron dextran, iron salts, iron chelates, carbonyl iron, an iron polymaltose complex and iron microparticles. The different methods of oral iron administration in piglets are discussed.

  6. A Review of Success Factors for Piglet Fostering in Lactation

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    Jena G. Alexopoulos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Piglet movement from one sow to another, or fostering, is required in modern pig farming but there is little available literature on the most effective strategy. In this review, we focus on the behavioural and physiological mechanisms responsible for piglet survival and growth, and have identified six key principles. (1 Colostrum provides piglets with warmth, energy and immunity. It is most accessible during the first 12 h from the birth sow, therefore no piglet should be moved before this; (2 To ensure even intake of birth sow colostrum, techniques such as split suckling prior to piglet movement should be implemented; (3 Udder assessment for functional teats should occur at farrowing, with number of fostered piglets not exceeding teat number; (4 Primiparous sows should receive as many piglets as the udder allows to maximise mammary stimulation, although older parities should be assessed for rearing ability; (5 Piglet fostering should occur between 12 and 24 h and movement kept to a minimum to prevent transfer of disease; Litter outliers should be moved and relocated to a litter of similar size; (6 Piglet movement after 24 h should be minimised. When required, strategies such as nurse usage should be employed. These principles will result in improved farrowing house performance by increasing the litter weight weaned per sow.

  7. Socializing piglets before weaning: effects on behavior of lactating sows, pre- and postweaning behavior, and performance of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, E F; Reiners, K; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2006-10-01

    This study evaluated how socializing piglets before weaning affects behavior of lactating sows and the pre- and postweaning behavior and performance of piglets. Two farrowing rooms, each with 6 pens, and 1 nursery with 4 pens were used. In total, data were obtained from 24 sows and their litters. In each farrowing room, the solid barriers between 3 farrowing pens were removed on d 12 after farrowing, and the sows remained confined in their crates (experimental group). In the other 3 farrowing pens of each farrowing room, sows and their litters were kept under conventional conditions until weaning (control group). All piglets were weaned 28 d after birth. After weaning, piglets from each group remained together in 1 pen of the nursery. The behavior of sows (lying, standing, sitting, nursing) and piglets (lying, active, suckling) in the farrowing rooms was observed for 24 h before and for 48 h after removal of the barriers between the pens. In addition, behavior (active, lying, feeding, agonistic behavior) of piglets was observed in the nursery during the initial 48-h period after weaning. Each piglet was weighed on d 5, 12, and 28 after birth and thereafter weekly until the fifth week of rearing. In the farrowing room, mixing of litters did not influence behavior of piglets and sows. Preweaning weight gain of the piglets did not differ (P = 0.60) between the treatments. In the initial 48 h after weaning, less agonistic behavior (P group. During 5 wk of rearing, piglets in the experimental group gained more weight compared with the control group (P = 0.05). The advantage shown by the experimental group became especially conspicuous in the first week after weaning (P = 0.05). By socializing unfamiliar piglets before weaning, stress due to mixing could at least be distanced in time from the other burdens of weaning, thereby improving performance.

  8. Stress and recognition of humans in weanling piglets

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    Renato Irgang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating whether after weaning, piglets recognize persons that have handled them aversively during the lactation period, and whether such treatment intensifies the stress of weaning. Before weaning, five litters received aversive handling treatment involving an aggressive and intimidating voice; six litters were treated conventionally. After weaning, the piglets’ behavior was compared in a series of tests. Compared to day 10 after weaning, in the first two days after weaning higher frequencies of escape attempts, vocalizations, and standing and sitting, accompanied by a lower frequency of feeding (p<0.05, were observed in both treatments. The piglets handled aversively showed a higher frequency of escape attempts, walking, and interaction with other piglets (p<0.05. In a test carried out individually with the piglets of the aversive treatment, an unknown experimenter was able to approach the piglets closer than the aversive experimenter (p<0.001. In a further test, only 36 % of the piglets handled aversively approached the aversive experimenter spontaneously. In contrast, 61 % approached the unknown experimenter spontaneously (p < 0.02. In conclusion, at four to five weeks of age piglets can recognize a person that has handled them aversively during the lactation period. The behavior of piglets at weaning indicates that this management is a significant source of stress and that aversive handling treatment during lactation increases this effect.

  9. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

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    Xianghua Yan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of 2 genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of 4 genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  10. Serotonin’s role in piglet mortality and thriftiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving piglet survivability rates is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortalities or failure to thrive in human infants. The aim of this research was to determine if a r...

  11. A role for serotonin in piglet preweaning mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving piglet survivability rate is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortality or failure to thrive (FTT) in human infants. The aim of this study was to examine the role...

  12. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winther, K.D.; Secher, Jan Ole Bertelsen

    2015-01-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large...... White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig...... in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17...

  13. Effect of additional heating, floor lenght, straw quantity and piglet nest accessibility on piglet losses in organic farrowing pens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, H.M.; Houwers, H.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Newborn piglets on organic pig farms have a lower chance to survive their first week than conventional piglets. Poorer climatic conditions, a loose housed mother, large litters with low birth weights are some of the causes. In a series of experiments the effect of housing and climate measures were

  14. Does light attract piglets to the creep area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M L V; Pedersen, L J

    2015-06-01

    Hypothermia, experienced by piglets, has been related to piglet deaths and high and early use of a heated creep area is considered important to prevent hypothermia. The aims of the present study were to investigate how a newly invented radiant heat source, eHeat, would affect piglets' use of the creep area and whether light in the creep area works as an attractant on piglets. A total of 39 sows, divided between two batches, were randomly distributed to three heat source treatments: (1) standard infrared heat lamp (CONT, n=19), (2) eHeat with light (EL, n=10) and (3) eHeat without light (ENL, n=10). Recordings of piglets' use of the creep area were made as scan sampling every 10 min for 3 h during two periods, one in daylight (0900 to 1200 h) and one in darkness (2100 to 2400 h), on day 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 postpartum. On the same days, piglets were weighted. Results showed an interaction between treatment and observation period (Pcreep area during darkness compared with daylight for CONT and EL litters, but not for ENL litters. Piglets average daily weight gain was not affected by treatment, but was positively correlated with piglets' birth weight and was lower in batch 1 compared with batch 2. Seen from the present results, neither eHeat nor light worked as an attractant on piglets; in contrast, piglets preferred to sleep in the dark and it would therefore be recommended to turn off the light in the creep area during darkness. Heating up the creep area without light can be accomplished by using a radiant heat source such as eHeat in contrast to the normally used light-emitting infrared heat lamp.

  15. Protective effects and immunomodulation on piglets infected with rotavirus following resveratrol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qiankun; Fu, Qiuting; Zhao, Xinghong; Song, Xu; Yu, Jiankang; Yang, Yi; Sun, Kai; Bai, Lu; Tian, Ye; Chen, Shufan; Jia, Renyong; Zou, Yuanfeng; Li, Lixia; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi; Ye, Gang; Lv, Cheng; Yue, Guizhou; Yin, Zhongqiong

    2018-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV), belonging to Reoviridae family, is the leading cause of acute severe viral diarrhea in children (under 5 years old) and infant animals worldwide. Although vaccines are commonly used to prevent infection, episodes of diarrhea caused by RV frequently occur. Thus, this study was conducted to determine whether resveratrol had protective effects against RV infection in piglets. Following pretreatment with resveratrol dry suspension through adding into the basal diet for 3 weeks, the piglets were orally challenged with RV. We found that resveratrol could alleviate diarrhea induced by RV infection. Resveratrol-treatment inhibited the TNF-α production, indicating that the anti-RV activity of resveratrol may be achieved by reducing the inflammatory response. The IFN-γ level was elevated in 10mg/kg/d resveratrol-treated group and 30mg/kg/d resveratrol-treated group after RV infection. The ratios of CD4+/CD8+ in resveratrol-treated groups were the same as that in mock infected group, suggesting that resveratrol could maintain the immune function in RV-infected piglets. It was found that resveratrol could alleviate diarrhea induced by RV infection. These results revealed that resveratrol dry suspension could be a new control measure for RV infection.

  16. The host defense peptide beta-defensin 1 confers protection against Bordetella pertussis in newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Shokrollah; Buchanan, Rachelle M; Attah-Poku, Sam; Townsend, Hugh G G; Babiuk, Lorne A; Gerdts, Volker

    2006-04-01

    Innate immunity plays an important role in protection against respiratory infections in humans and animals. Host defense peptides such as beta-defensins represent major components of innate immunity. We recently developed a novel porcine model of pertussis, an important respiratory disease of young children and infants worldwide. Here, we investigated the role of porcine beta-defensin 1 (pBD-1), a porcine defensin homologue of human beta-defensin 2, in conferring protection against respiratory infection with Bordetella pertussis. In this model, newborn piglets were fully susceptible to infection and developed severe bronchopneumonia. In contrast, piglets older than 4 weeks of age were protected against infection with B. pertussis. Protection was associated with the expression of pBD-1 in the upper respiratory tract. In fact, pBD-1 expression was developmentally regulated, and the absence of pBD-1 was thought to contribute to the increased susceptibility of newborn piglets to infection with B. pertussis. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens collected from older animals as well as chemically synthesized pBD-1 displayed strong antimicrobial activity against B. pertussis in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo treatment of newborn piglets with only 500 mug pBD-1 at the time of challenge conferred protection against infection with B. pertussis. Interestingly, pBD-1 displayed no bactericidal activity in vitro against Bordetella bronchiseptica, a closely related natural pathogen of pigs. Our results demonstrate that host defense peptides play an important role in protection against pertussis and are essential in modulating innate immune responses against respiratory infections.

  17. Effects of oregano on performance and immunmodulating factors in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Katrin; Frahm, Jana; Paulsen, Jana; Berk, Andreas; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Many health effects can be attributed to the Mediterranean herb oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and several studies demonstrated the improving effect on performance, changes in blood count, antibacterial, antifungal and immunmodulating abilities. The majority of these investigations were carried out with processed essential oil, while whole plant material was only used in a few studies. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to test the effect of increasing proportions of dried oregano in piglet feed on health and performance, with a special focus on immune modulation. A total of 80 male castrated weaned piglets (body weight [BW] 7.9 kg ± 1.0 kg) were used in a feeding experiment lasting 5 weeks. They were assigned to 4 experimental groups: a control diet, and three diets with an oregano supplementation at 2 g, 4 g and 8 g per kg feed, respectively, corresponding to 23.5 mg, 46.9 mg and 93.9 mg carvacrol/kg DM. After 3 weeks, half of each group was challenged with 5 µg lipopolysaccharides (LPS) per kg BW. Blood samples were collected 2 h after LPS stimulation and analysed for T-cell phenotypes, granulocyte activity, clinical-chemistry as well as white and red blood count. The results indicate no effects of oregano on performance. In contrast, oregano altered the lymphocyte proportion and the ratio of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells as well as the triglyceride concentration in the serum of non-stimulated and in LPS-stimulated piglets. In conclusion, whole plant supplementation of oregano to piglet feed altered immune-related parameters, but did not modulate the acute inflammatory response induced by LPS stimulation.

  18. Intramuscular versus Subcutaneous Administration of Iron Dextran in Suckling Piglets

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    M. Svoboda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the development of red blood cell indices after subcutaneous versus intramuscular administration of iron dextran to suckling piglets during early postnatal period. The piglets in group I (n = 17 were injected subcutaneously (into groin with 200 mg Fe3+ as iron dextran on day 3 of life. In group II (n = 16, the piglets received intramuscular injection (into gluteal muscles of 200 mg Fe3+ as iron dextran on day 3 of life. In group III (n = 10, the piglets did not receive any iron till the age of 3 days. The blood was taken and analyzed (Hb, PCV, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Fe on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Haematological indices of piglets in group III were characteristic for hypochromic anaemia. Anaemia in group III had a detrimental effect on the growth rate of piglets. The development of red blood cell indices and iron concentration in blood plasma in subcutaneously treated piglets did not differ significantly from that of intramuscularly-treated group. Both treatments prevented development of anaemia.

  19. The Way Humans Behave Modulates the Emotional State of Piglets.

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    Sophie Brajon

    Full Text Available The emotional state can influence decision-making under ambiguity. Cognitive bias tests (CBT proved to be a promising indicator of the affective valence of animals in a context of farm animal welfare. Although it is well-known that humans can influence the intensity of fear and reactions of animals, research on cognitive bias often focusses on housing and management conditions and neglects the role of humans on emotional states of animals. The present study aimed at investigating whether humans can modulate the emotional state of weaned piglets. Fifty-four piglets received a chronic experience with humans: gentle (GEN, rough (ROU or minimal contact (MIN. Simultaneously, they were individually trained on a go/no-go task to discriminate a positive auditory cue, associated with food reward in a trough, from a negative one, associated with punishments (e.g. water spray. Independently of the treatment (P = 0.82, 59% of piglets completed the training. Successfully trained piglets were then subjected to CBT, including ambiguous cues in presence or absence of a human observer. As hypothesized, GEN piglets showed a positive judgement bias, as shown by their higher percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue compared to ROU (P = 0.03 and MIN (P = 0.02 piglets, whereas ROU and MIN piglets did not differ (P > 0.10. The presence of an observer during CBT did not modulate the percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue (P > 0.10. However, regardless of the treatment, piglets spent less time in contact with the trough following positive cues during CBT in which the observer was present than absent (P < 0.0001. This study originally demonstrates that the nature of a chronic experience with humans can induce a judgement bias indicating that the emotional state of farm animals such as piglets can be affected by the way humans interact with them.

  20. Castration of piglets under CO2-gas anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritzen, M A; Kluivers-Poodt, M; Reimert, H G M; Hindle, V; Lambooij, E

    2008-11-01

    It has become common practice in pig fattening production systems to castrate young boar piglets without the use of anaesthesia. In this study, we examined whether or not CO2 gas is capable of inducing an acceptable anaesthetic state during which castration can be performed. The first step was to identify the most promising CO2/O2 mixture. Based on the results from this first experiment, a mixture of 70% CO2 + 30% O2 was chosen for further investigation as a potential anaesthetic during the castration of young piglets. Thereby, it was established whether the duration and depth of anaesthesia were acceptable for castration where the animal has to be insensible and unconscious. Physiological effects were assessed based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, blood gas values and behavioural responses. During the induction phase, the only typical behaviour the piglets exhibited when exposed to the 70/30 gas mixture was heavy breathing. All piglets (n = 25) lost consciousness after approximately 30 s according to the EEG. Heart rate decreased slowly during the induction phase, a serious drop occurred when piglets lost their posture. Immediately after this drop, the heart rate neared zero or showed a very irregular pattern. Shortly after loss of posture, most animals showed a few convulsions. None of the animals showed any reaction to castration in behaviour and/or on the EEG and ECG. On average, the piglets recovered within 59 s, i.e. EEG returned to its pre-induction pattern and piglets were able to regain a standing position. After 120 s, heart rate returned to pre-induction levels. In order to explore the usage range of CO2 concentration, 24 piglets were exposed to 60% CO2 + 20% O2 + 20% N2 for up to 30 s after loss of consciousness (as registered on EEG), and castrated after removal from the chamber. Sixteen of the 24 animals showed a reaction to the castration on the EEG. To establish the maximum time piglets survive in 70% CO2 + 30

  1. Effect of dietary protein source on piglet meat quality characteristics

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    Panagiotis E Simitzis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different dietary protein sources (soybean meal vs whey protein on piglet meat quality characteristics. Eighteen castrated male Large White × Duroc × Landrace piglets were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Piglets were kept in individual metabolic cages and fed ad libitum over a period of 38 days the following 2 diets: diet SB, which was formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of piglets using soybean meal as the main crude protein source and diet WP, where SB was totally replaced by a mixture of whey proteins on equal digestible energy and crude protein basis. At the end of the experiment, piglets were weighed and slaughtered. After overnight chilling, samples of Longissimus dorsi muscle were taken and were used for meat quality measurements.          No significant differences were observed in the values of pH, colour, water holding capacity, shear force and intramuscular fat content of L. dorsi muscle between the dietary treatments. Measurement of lipid oxidation values showed that dietary supplementation with different protein sources did not influence meat antioxidant properties during refrigerated storage. The SB piglets had lower 14:0 (P<0.01 and higher 18:3n-3 (P<0.001 levels in intramuscular fat in comparison with WP piglets. However, these changes were attributed to background differences in the dietary FA profile and not to a direct protein source effect. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the examined dietary protein sources (soybean meal or whey protein do not have a significant effect on meat quality characteristics of piglets.

  2. Dietary preferences of weaned piglets offered diets containing organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A preference test and a performance trial were carried out to examine weaned piglets’ feed intake response to diets containing either lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate (8 g kg-1 feed.In Experiment 1, throughout a 21-d post-weaning period,30 entire litters (306 piglets weaned at the age of 30 d were allowed to choose between two organic-acid-supplemented diets. All of the four different organic-acid-supplemented diets were tested in pairs against each other,and the six possible combinations were lactic acid +formic acid,lactic acid +calcium formate,lactic acid + sodium benzoate,formic acid +calcium formate,formic acid +sodium benzoate,and calcium for-mate +sodium benzoate.Piglets preferred diets supplemented with sodium benzoate to ones supplemented with formic acid or calcium formate.The acceptability of diets supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,or calcium formate was similar.In Experiment 2,until the age of 58 d,60 piglets from 10 litters weaned at the age of 28 or 38 d were fed non-acidified diets or ones supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate.Feed consumption did not differ between piglets fed non-acidified and those fed organic-acid-supplemented diets. Growth performance was reduced by dietary calcium formate supplementation, while the performance of piglets fed other organic-acid-supplemented diets did not differ significantly from those fed the non-acidified control diet.The frequency of post-weaning diarrhoea was highest in piglets fed diets supplemented with calcium formate and lowest in piglets fed diets supplemented with formic acid.;

  3. Modeling Pediatric Brain Trauma: Piglet Model of Controlled Cortical Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Jennifer C Munoz; Keeley, Kristen; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Dodge, Carter P

    2016-01-01

    The brain has different responses to traumatic injury as a function of its developmental stage. As a model of injury to the immature brain, the piglet shares numerous similarities in regards to morphology and neurodevelopmental sequence compared to humans. This chapter describes a piglet scaled focal contusion model of traumatic brain injury that accounts for the changes in mass and morphology of the brain as it matures, facilitating the study of age-dependent differences in response to a comparable mechanical trauma.

  4. Intestinal response to myeloablative chemotherapy in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko; Shen, René Liang; Petersen, Bodil L

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced myeloablation prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may be associated with severe toxicity. The current understanding of the pathophysiology of oral and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is largely derived from studies in rodents and very little...... is known from humans, especially children. We hypothesized that milk-fed piglets can be used as a clinically relevant model of GI-toxicity related to a standard conditioning chemotherapy (intravenous busulfan, Bu plus cyclophosphamide, Cy) used prior to HSCT. In study 1, dose-response relationships were....../kg) and bone marrow was collected on day 11. Histology of bone marrow samples showed total aplasia after treatment A. Using this treatment in study 2, Bu-Cy pigs showed lowered spleen and intestinal weights and variable clinical signs of dehydration, sepsis, and pneumonia at tissue collection. Oral mucositis...

  5. Does light attract piglets to the creep area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2015-01-01

    Hypothermia, experienced by piglets, has been related to piglet deaths and high and early use of a heated creep area is considered important to prevent hypothermia. The aims of the present study were to investigate how a newly invented radiant heat source, eHeat, would affect piglets' use...... of the creep area and whether light in the creep area works as an attractant on piglets. A total of 39 sows, divided between two batches, were randomly distributed to three heat source treatments: (1) standard infrared heat lamp (CONT, n=19), (2) eHeat with light (EL, n=10) and (3) eHeat without light (ENL, n......=10). Recordings of piglets' use of the creep area were made as scan sampling every 10 min for 3 h during two periods, one in daylight (0900 to 1200 h) and one in darkness (2100 to 2400 h), on day 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 postpartum. On the same days, piglets were weighted. Results showed an interaction...

  6. Intrauterine growth-restricted piglets have similar gastric emptying rates but lower rectal temperatures and altered blood values when compared with normal-weight piglets at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Klarlund, M. V.; Pedersen, Janni Hales

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets have lower survival rates and are more likely to have empty stomachs 24 h after birth than normal piglets. Although hypoglycemia may result from low colostrum intake per se, it is not known if slow gastric emptying may be an additional risk factor...... that the gastric emptying rate and blood glucose would be lower in IUGR piglets. We investigated gastric emptying rates in normal and IUGR piglets and blood glucose and rectal temperatures at birth and after 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. In addition, blood parameters relevant for metabolism were studied. Forty......-eight piglets (24 normal and 24 IUGR) were classified at birth as either normal or IUGR on the basis of head morphology. Piglets were removed from the sow at birth before suckling, and birth weight was recorded. Pooled porcine colostrum was tube-fed to all piglets at 12 mL/kg BW as soon as possible after birth...

  7. Dietary alpha-Lipoic Acid Alters Piglet Neurodevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alpha-lipoic acid (a-LA is an antioxidant shown to ameliorate age-associated impairments of brain and cardiovascular function. Human milk is known to have high antioxidant capacity, however the role of antioxidants in the developing brain is largely uncharacterized. This exploratory study aimed to examine the dose response effects of a-LA on piglet growth and neurodevelopment. Methods: Beginning at 2 d of age, 31 male pigs received one of three diets: control (CONT [0 mg a-LA/100g], low a-LA (LOW [120 mg a-LA/100g], or high a-LA (HIGH [240 mg a-LA/100g]. From 14 to 28 d of age, pigs were subjected to spatial T-maze assessment and macrostructural and microstructural neuroimaging procedures were performed at 31 d of age.Results: No differences due to diet were observed for bodyweight gain or intestinal weight and length. Spatial T-maze assessment did not reveal learning differences due to diet in proportion of correct choices or latency to choice measures. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed decreased (P = 0.01 fractional anisotropy (FA in the internal capsule of HIGH fed pigs compared with both the CONT (P < 0.01 and LOW (P = 0.03 fed pigs, which were not different from one another. Analysis of axial diffusivity (AD within the internal capsule revealed a main effect of diet (P < 0.01 in which HIGH fed piglets exhibited smaller (P < 0.01 rates of diffusion compared with CONT piglets, but HIGH fed piglets were not different (P = 0.12 than LOW fed piglets. Tract-based spatial statistics, a comparison of FA values along white matter tracts, revealed 1,650 voxels where CONT piglets exhibited higher (P < 0.05 values compared with HIGH fed piglets. Conclusion: The lack of differences in intestinal and bodyweight measures among piglets indicate a-LA supplementation does not impact overall growth, regardless of concentration. Additionally, no observed differences between CONT and LOW fed piglets in behavior and neuroimaging measures indicate a

  8. Struggling to survive: early life challenges in relation to the backtest in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Ursinus, W.W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Intensively reared piglets may face many early life challenges and these may affect behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between piglets’ early life circumstances and their behavioral response in a backtest. Hereto, 992 piglets of 14 d of age were subjected to a

  9. Preweaning mortality in piglets in loose-housed herds: etiology and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielland, C; Wisløff, H; Valheim, M; Fauske, A K; Reksen, O; Framstad, T

    2018-01-08

    Preweaning mortality in piglets is a welfare issue, as well as an ethical and economic concern in commercial pig farming. Studying the causes of preweaning mortality and their prevalence is necessary to reduce losses. Preweaning piglet mortality was investigated in a field study including 347 sows from 14 loose-housed Norwegian piglet-producing herds. A total of 5254 piglets were born in these herds during the study period, and 1200 piglets were necropsied. The cause of death was based on pathoanatomical diagnosis (PAD). Preweaning mortality of all piglets in the study was 23.4%, including 6.3% stillborn. The two main causes of preweaning mortality in live-born piglets (n=4924) were trauma (7.1%) and starvation (2.7%). Piglets dying of an infection accounted for 2.0%. Among the necropsied piglets (n=1200), 29.1% had died due to trauma, 26.8% were categorized as stillborn and 11% had died of starvation. Piglets that had died of trauma, had a mean time of death of 1 lactation day (LD 1), ranging from LD 0 to LD 21. The mean time of death of piglets that died due to bacterial infection was LD 9, ranging from LD 0 to LD 31, with Escherichia coli accounting for most infections found in necropsied piglets. Farmers were able to identify death by trauma in piglets, but were less able to identify death due to hunger. Most piglets that died in the preweaning period, died of trauma. Surprisingly, this included large and well-fed piglets. The second most prevalent cause of preweaning mortality was starvation. Improved monitoring may reveal piglets with low body mass index, and additional nutrition may contribute to increase the survival rate.

  10. Fermented wheat in liquid diets : effects on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.H.J.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Hartog, den L.A.; Balk, M.; Schrama, J.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of adding fermented wheat to liquid diets on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets were studied. Gastrointestinal characteristics of 40 28-d-old weanling piglets were measured at the day of weaning (d 0) and at d 4 and 8 after weaning. Piglets were group-housed and fed twice

  11. Variance and covariance components for liability of piglet survival during different periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, G; Sorensen, D; Lund, M S

    2008-01-01

    Variance and covariance components for piglet survival in different periods were estimated from individual records of 133 004 Danish Landrace piglets and 89 928 Danish Yorkshire piglets, using a liability threshold model including both direct and maternal additive genetic effects. At the individu...

  12. Fentanyl bolus induces muscle tremors in sevoflurane-anaesthetized piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, S K; Spielmann, N; Weiss, M; Mauch, J Y

    2016-08-01

    Intravenous fentanyl (10 mcg/kg) or saline (control) was randomly administered to 10 healthy sevoflurane-mono-anaesthetized piglets. Trembling was assessed by two blinded observers using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a simple ordinal scale at baseline and 5 min (T5) after drug administration. If no trembling was observed at that time point, the opposite treatment was administered and piglets were re-evaluated after another 5 min (T10). Four out of five piglets showed trembling after fentanyl (T5), while none given saline showed any trembling. With fentanyl the VAS scores were significantly higher at T5 compared either with baseline or with the control treatment. Control animals received fentanyl after the 5 min evaluation and all piglets showed clear trembling afterwards. The median time after fentanyl administration until first muscle tremors was 51 (20-840) s. In summary, nine out of 10 sevoflurane-anaesthetized piglets showed muscle tremors after intravenous fentanyl. Tremors subsided over time and no specific treatment was necessary. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The conductivity of neonatal piglet skulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Shilpa; Te, Tang; Tucker, Aaron; Sadleir, Rosalind J

    2011-01-01

    We report the first measured values of conductivities for neonatal mammalian skull samples. We measured the average radial (normal to the skull surface) conductivity of fresh neonatal piglet skull samples at 1 kHz and found it to be around 30 mS m −1 at ambient room temperatures of about 23 °C. Measurements were made on samples of either frontal or parietal cranial bone, using a saline-filled cell technique. The conductivity value we observed was approximately twice the values reported for adult skulls (Oostendorp et al 2000 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47 1487–92) using a similar technique, but at a frequency of around 5 Hz. Further, we found that the conductivity of skull fragments increased linearly with thickness. We found evidence that this was related to differences in composition between the frontal and parietal bone samples tested, which we believe is because frontal bones contained a larger fraction of higher conductivity cancellous bone material

  14. Body composition of piglets from sows fed the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate in late gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flummer, Christine; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    piglets were weighed at day 28 and water content was assessed by deuterium oxide dilution. Piglets were euthanized, organ weights and lengths were recorded, the empty carcass was analyzed for dry matter, ash, and crude protein content, and body fat content was calculated. Two litters were treated......% heavier in HMB piglets (P carcasses of HMB piglets had a lower DM and fat content (P

  15. Radiotelemetry recording of electroencephalogram in piglets during rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Yasuko; Nemoto, Tetsu; Kasuya, Etsuko; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2005-04-13

    A wireless recording system was developed to study the electroencephalogram (EEG) in unrestrained, male Landrace piglets. Under general anesthesia, ball-tipped silver/silver chloride electrodes for EEG recording were implanted onto the dura matter of the parietal and frontal cortex of the piglets. A pair of miniature preamplifiers and transmitters was then mounted on the surface of the skull. To examine whether other bioelectrical activities interfere with the EEG measurements, an electrocardiogram (ECG) or electromyogram (EMG) of the neck was simultaneously recorded with the EEG. Next, wire electrodes for recording movement of the eyelid were implanted with EEG electrodes, and EEG and eyelid movements were simultaneously measured. Power spectral analysis using a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) algorithm indicates that EEG was successfully recorded in unrestrained piglets, at rest, during the daytime in the absence of interference from ECG, EMG or eyelid movements. These data indicate the feasibility of using our radiotelemetry system for measurement of EEG under these conditions.

  16. Hypothermia in neonatal piglets: Interactions and causes of individual differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Trine S; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jørgensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Hypothermia is a major cause of mortality in neonatal piglets. However, there are considerable individual differences in the successful recovery from postnatal hypothermia in the common farrowing environment, and so far the causes and interactions of causes have not been studied in detail. Using...... 635 crossbred neonatal piglets, the aim of this study was to identify the links among different physiological and behavioral measures and their connections to the piglets’ ability to overcome initial postnatal hypothermia, with rectal temperature at 2 h as the response variable. The data included......: birth weight, hypoxia at birth (viability score and lactate in umbilical cord blood), latency to first udder contact and first suckle, scans of individual piglet position during the first 2 h after birth, and rectal temperature at birth and 2 h post partum. A graphical chain model was used to analyze...

  17. Maternal endometrial oedema may increase perinatal mortality of cloned and transgenic piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winter, K.D.; Dantzer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    The perinatal mortality of cloned animals is a well-known problem. In the present retrospective study, we report on mortality of cloned transgenic or non-transgenic piglets produced as part of several investigations. Large White (LW) sows (n = 105) received hand-made cloned LW or minipig...... endometrial oedema in sows pregnant with cloned and transgenic piglets, as well as in empty recipients, at term. The growth of certain organs in some of the cloned piglets was reduced and the rate of stillborn piglets was greater in cloned and transgenic piglets delivered vaginally, possibly because of oedema...

  18. Establishing a model of supratentorial hemorrhage in the piglet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuanhong; Li Zaiwang; Zhang Suming; Xie Minjie; Meng Xiangwu; Xu Jinzhi; Liu Na; Tang Zhouping

    2010-01-01

    The most common site of hemorrhage is the basal ganglia, which exhibits the obvious neurological deficits. In the present study, we aimed to develop a model of supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with neurological deficits in piglets (6.0 to 8.8 kg). A pediatric urinary catheter with two passages and one balloon was introduced through a burr hole into the right striatum. All the animals received balloon inflation, which was performed by injecting 2.5 ml saline into the balloon through one passage. Then each piglet in experimental group (n=18) received an injection of 1.0-ml autologous arterial blood through the other passage over 2 min and maintained for 5 min. Then, additional 1.5-ml blood was injected over 15 min. Piglets in control group (n=6) received only balloon inflation without blood injection. CT scanning was performed immediately after surgery. A deep hematoma was successfully induced in 16 out of 18 piglets and the hematoma volume was 1.74±0.22 ml (n=5) at 24 hours after surgery. All the piglets with hematoma had behavioral deficits (lame or could not walk) at 24 hours. Tissue damages, such as cell swelling, necrosis and demyelination, appeared at 24 hours in the brain tissues, adjacent to the hematoma, and was aggravated at 48 hours and ameliorated at 7 days after hematoma induction. In conclusion, we have established a simple model of supratentorial ICH in piglets with marked neurological deficits, which is suitable for study of the pathophysiology and treatment of ICH. (author)

  19. Immunogenicity of recombinant Lactobacillus casei-expressing F4 (K88) fimbrial adhesin FaeG in conjunction with a heat-labile enterotoxin A (LTAK63) and heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as an oral adjuvant in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M; Qi, R; Chen, C; Yin, J; Ma, S; Shi, W; Wu, Y; Ge, J; Jiang, Y; Tang, L; Xu, Y; Li, Y

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were to develop an effective oral vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection and to design new and more versatile mucosal adjuvants. Genetically engineered Lactobacillus casei strains expressing F4 (K88) fimbrial adhesin FaeG (rLpPG-2-FaeG) and either co-expressing heat-labile enterotoxin A (LTA) subunit with an amino acid mutation associated with reduced virulence (LTAK63) and a heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) subunit of E. coli (rLpPG-2-LTAK63-co-LTB) or fused-expressing LTAK63 and LTB (rLpPG-2-LTAK63-fu-LTB) were constructed. The immunogenicity of rLpPG-2-FaeG in conjunction with rLpPG-2-LTAK63-co-LTB or rLpPG-2-LTAK63-fu-LTB as an orally administered mucosal adjuvant in mice was evaluated. Results showed that the levels of FaeG-specific serum IgG and mucosal sIgA, as well as the proliferation of lymphocytes, were significantly higher in mice orally co-administered rLpPG-2-FaeG and rLpPG-2-LTAK63-fu-LTB compared with those administered rLpPG-2-FaeG alone, and were lower than those co-administered rLpPG-2-FaeG and rLpPG-2-LTAK63-co-LTB. Moreover, effective protection was observed after challenge with F4+ ETEC strain CVCC 230 in mice co-administered rLpPG-2-FaeG and rLpPG-2-LTAK63-co-LTB or rLpPG-2-FaeG and rLpPG-2-LTAK63-fu-LTB group compared with those that received rLpPG-2-FaeG alone. rLpPG-2-FaeG showed greater immunogenicity in combination with LTAK63 and LTB as molecular adjuvants. Recombinant Lactobacillus provides a promising platform for the development of vaccines against F4+ ETEC infection. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Mechanical and vasomotor properties of piglet isolated middle cerebral artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Vibeke R.; Abdolalizadeh, Bahareh; Trautner, Simon

    2017-01-01

    in newborns, is not characterized in piglets’ MCA. Finally, the influence of preterm birth on the dopamine response is not known. The aim of this current was to compare by wire myography the active and passive mechanical characteristics and dopamine concentration–response relations of MCAs isolated from......Piglets are often used as experimental models for studying cerebrovascular responses in newborn infants. However, the mechanical characteristics of piglets’ middle cerebral arteries (MCA) are not well characterized. Additionally, the vessels’ response to dopamine, the most commonly used vasopressor...... preterm and term newborn piglets. Second-order branches of the MCA with a diameter

  1. Piglet use of the creep area - Effects of breeding value and farrowing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasdal, Guro; Andersen, Inger Lise; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate piglet use of the creep area, comparing litters of sows with a high vs. low breeding value for piglet survival in the first 5 days postpartum, that were either housed in crates or individual pens during farrowing and lactation. Seventy-five Yorkshire...... × Danish Landrace sows were video recorded for 4 days after farrowing, and the analysis was conducted using instantaneous sampling every 10 min commencing 24 h after the birth of the first piglet for a period of 72 h. Breeding value for piglet survival had no effect on piglet use of the creep area or time spent...... in any location of the farrowing environment. Farrowing environment had significant effects on piglet location; during all days there were significantly more piglets in the creep area in the crates compared to the pens (P 

  2. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Lun Chiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05 body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry.

  3. The assessment of facial expressions in piglets undergoing tail docking and castration: towards the development of the Piglet Grimace Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Di Giminiani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many piglets are exposed to potentially painful husbandry procedures within the first week of life, including tail docking and castration, without the provision of either anaesthesia or analgesia. The assessment methods used to evaluate pain experienced by piglets are often affected by low specificity and practical limitations, prompting the investigation of alternative methodologies. The assessment of changes in facial expression following a painful event has been successfully applied to several species. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of a Grimace Scale applied to neonatal pigs to evaluate pain evoked by tail docking and castration.Eight female piglets, sus scrofa domesticus (Landrace/Large White X synthetic sire line underwent tail docking and 15 male piglets (75% Large White and 25% Belgian Landrace were exposed to the castration procedure. Clear images of the faces of the piglets were collected immediately pre- and post-procedure. The images were used by experienced observers to identify Facial Action Units (FAU which changed in individuals over this period and a scoring scale was depicted in a training manual. A set of randomly selected images were then combined in a scorebook, which was evaluated after training by 30 scorers, blind to the treatment. The scale for most FAU was used with a high level of consistency across all observers. Tail docking induced a significant change (P<0.05 only in the ‘orbital tightening’ Action Unit, whereas no change in any unit was observed in castrated piglets. In this initial stage of development, orbital tightening at least seems to have the potential to be applied to investigate painful conditions in neonatal pigs. Nonetheless, more studies are needed to assess its full effectiveness and to evaluate the influence of possible confounds (e.g. handling stress on the observed changes in facial expressions.

  4. Curcumin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Disorder by Modification of m6 A RNA Methylation in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Li, Xingmei; Yu, Jiayao; Li, Yi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian; Zhong, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) regulates gene expression and affects cellular metabolism. In this study, we checked whether the regulation of lipid metabolism by curcumin is associated with m 6 A RNA methylation. We investigated the effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury and lipid metabolism disorder, and on m 6 A RNA methylation in weaned piglets. A total of 24 Duroc × Large White × Landrace piglets were randomly assigned to control, LPS, and CurL (LPS challenge and 200 mg/kg dietary curcumin) groups (n = 8/group). The results showed that curcumin reduced the increase in relative liver weight as well as the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase induced by LPS injection in the plasma and liver of weaning piglets (p < 0.05). The amounts of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols were decreased by curcumin compared to that by the LPS injection (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin reduced the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA, whereas it increased the p53 mRNA level in the liver (p < 0.05). Curcumin inhibited the enhancement of SREBP-1c and SCD-1 mRNA levels induced by LPS in the liver. Notably, dietary curcumin affected the expression of METTL3, METTL14, ALKBH5, FTO, and YTHDF2 mRNA, and increased the abundance of m 6 A in the liver of piglets. In conclusion, the protective effect of curcumin in LPS-induced liver injury and hepatic lipid metabolism disruption might be due to the increase in m 6 A RNA methylation. Our study provides mechanistic insights into the effect of curcumin in protecting against hepatic injury during inflammation and metabolic diseases. © 2018 AOCS.

  5. Effect of Genotype and Sex of Piglets on Their Losses Before Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevrkla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to analyze selected reproductive characteristics in sows and losses of piglets according to their age and to evaluate the effect of sex on survivability of piglets before weaning. The experimental observation involved 80 sows with their second litters (40 sows of genotye I and 40 sows of genotype II. The sows were mated with a boar of Danish Duroc. No significant difference was found between the evaluated genotypes of sows in numbers of live‑born piglets and reared piglets, however it is evident that better results were reached by the sows of the genotype II. Also the losses of piglets per litter were lower, by 0.65 piece (P ≤ 0.05. In sows of the genotype I a high correlation (P ≤ 0.01 was confirmed between the number of live‑born piglets and the number of reared piglets per litter (r = 0.750. Another correlation was found between the number of live‑born piglets and their losses before weaning (r = 0.716. Similar trend was observed in the genotype II, however without significant correlation between the number of live‑born piglets and the losses of piglets before weaning. The results also revealed that the piglets died mostly before the 14th day of age, while the losses of male piglets were more frequent than of female piglets. Losses of female piglets of the genotype I before the 14th day of age were 6.82 %, in the genotype II they were 3.01 %. In this period, the losses of male piglets reached 9.56 % in the genotype I and 4.49 % in the genotype II. From the 14th day to weaning the losses of female piglets counted 2.39 % vs. 0.75 %, the losses of male piglets 1.37 % vs. 2.88 %. The total losses from birth to weaning were 9.22 % vs. 3.76 % in female piglets and 10.92 % vs. 7.37 % in male piglets.

  6. Blood parameters as biomarkers in a Salmonella spp. disease model of weaning piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emili Barba-Vidal

    Full Text Available The weaning pig is used as an experimental model to assess the impact of diet on intestinal health. Blood parameters (BP are considered a useful tool in humans, but there is very scarce information of such indicators in the weaning pig. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the use of different BP as indicators in an experimental model of salmonellosis.Seventy-two 28-day-old piglets were divided into four groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement, with animals receiving or not a probiotic combination based on B. infantis IM1® and B. lactis BPL6 (109 colony forming units (cfu/d and orally challenged or not a week later with Salmonella Typhimurium (5x108 cfu. Blood samples of one animal per pen (N = 24 were taken four days post-inoculation for the evaluation of different BP using an I-stat® System and of plasmatic concentrations of zinc, iron and copper.Results reported marginal deficiencies of zinc in piglets at weaning. Moreover, plasmatic zinc, copper and iron presented good correlations with weight gain (r 0.57, r -0.67, r 0.54 respectively; P < 0.01. Blood electrolytes (Na+, Cl- and K+ decreased (P < 0.01 only when the performance of the animals was seriously compromised and clinical symptoms were more apparent. Acid-base balance parameters such as HCO3-, TCO2 and BEecf significantly correlated with weight gain, but only in the challenged animals (r -0.54, r -0.55, and r -0.51, respectively; P < 0.05, suggesting metabolic acidosis depending on Salmonella infection. Glucose was affected by the challenge (P = 0.040, while Htc and Hgb increased with the challenge and decreased with the probiotic (P < 0.05. Furthermore, correlations of Glu, Htc and Hgb with weight gain were observed (P < 0.05. Overall, BP could be regarded as simple, useful indexes to assess performance and health of weaning piglets.

  7. Prebiotics in piglet nutrition? Fermentation kinetics along the GI tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awati, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: fermentation, gas production, pigletsThe generalized theory behind the carbohydrate to protein fermentation in the GIT is that in presence of fermentable carbohydrate substrate, microbes prefer to ferment carbohydrate source to derive energy and use the nitrogen available for their own

  8. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine Dalby; Schramm, Andreas; Purup, Stig

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Although a genetic contribution has been proven, dietary factors have also shown to play a role in the development of IBD. This study aims to investigate the effect of adding red meatto t...... the diet of piglets in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model....

  9. Clostridium difficile in piglets in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldová, Jana; Malinová, A.; Indra, A.; Vítek, L.; Branny, Pavel; Jirásková, Alena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2012), s. 159-161 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500200901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : clostridium * piglets Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2012

  10. Chenodeoxycholic acid reduces intestinal permeability in newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Y.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Bosch, van den M.; Holst, J.J.; Moreto, M.; Buurman, W.A.; Kulik, W.; Kempen, van T.A.T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Piglets are highly susceptible to gut health-related problems. Intravenously administered chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) affects gut health mediated through glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). To test whether CDCA is a suitable feed additive for improving gut health, a trial was performed with newly

  11. Can prenatal social stress impact sex characteristics in piglets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal stress (PNS) alters sex traits in rodents by androgenizing offspring resulting in reduced reproduction. In production, gestating sows are often exposed to social stress of mixing. This study examined if mixing gestating sows alters sexual development in piglets. At 34 ± 10 d of gestation, 6...

  12. Gas alternatives to carbon dioxide for euthanasia: A piglet perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification and validation of a humane method to euthanize piglets is critical to address concern that current methods are not acceptable. This research sought to: 1) identify a method of scientifically determining if pigs find a specific euthanasia method aversive, and 2) develop an innovati...

  13. Individual piglets' contribution to the development of tail biting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Kemp, B.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting hypotheses exist about the contribution of individual pigs to the development of a tail-biting outbreak, but there is limited quantitative information to support or dismiss them. This study aims to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour at pen and individual piglet level,

  14. DNA damage and decrease of cellular oxidase activity in piglet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA damage and decrease of cellular oxidase activity in piglet sertoli cells exposed to gossypol. Ming Zhang, Hui Yuan, Zuping He, Liyun Yuan, Jine Yi, Sijun Deng, Li Zhu, Chengzhi Guo, Yin Lu, Jing Wu, Lixin Wen, Qiang Wei, Liqun Xue ...

  15. Passive and active immunity against parvovirus infection in piglets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the given results, we conclude that colostral immunity to parvovirus infection in swine lasts for about one month and that antibodies found in the blood serum of piglets after the first month of life are a result of the activation of the immune system. Keywords: Porcine parvovirus, colostral immunity, reproductive ...

  16. What is good for small piglets might not be good for big piglets: The consequences of cross-fostering and creep feed provision on performance to slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huting, A M S; Almond, K; Wellock, I; Kyriazakis, I

    2017-11-01

    Major improvements in sow prolificacy have resulted in larger litters but, at the same time, increased the proportion of piglets born light weight. Different management strategies aim to enhance the performance of, and limit light-weight piglet contribution to, BW variation within a batch; however, consequences on heavy-weight littermates are often neglected. This study investigated the effects of different litter compositions, created through cross-fostering, and the provision of creep feed on preweaning behavior and short- and long-term performance of piglets born either light weight (≤1.25 kg) or heavy weight (1.50-2.00 kg). Piglets were cross-fostered at birth to create litters with only similar-sized piglets (light weight or heavy weight; UNIFORM litters) and litters with equal numbers of light-weight and heavy-weight piglets (MIXED litters); half of the litters were offered creep feed and the remaining were not. Piglet behavior during a suckling bout and at the creep feeder was assessed; a green dye was used to discern between consumers and nonconsumers of creep feed. The interaction between litter composition and birth weight (BiW) class influenced piglet BW at weaning ( Creep feed provision did not affect BW at weaning ( > 0.05) for either BiW class. However, litter composition significantly affected daily creep feed consumption ( = 0.046) and fecal color ( = 0.022), with heavy-weight piglets in UNIFORM litters consuming the highest amount of creep feed and having the greenest feces. In addition, a lower number of heavy-weight piglets in UNIFORM litters were classified as nonconsumers ( = 0.002). The weight advantage heavy-weight and light-weight piglets had at weaning when reared in MIXED and UNIFORM litters, respectively, was sustained throughout the productive period. In conclusion, reducing BW variation within litter (UNIFORM litters) was beneficial for piglets born light weight but not for piglets born heavy weight; the latter were disadvantaged up

  17. Neutral detergent fibre in piglet diets: performance and gastrointestinal implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Carlos Nepomuceno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The intestinal health of piglets depends on the balance between diet, microflora and mucosal integrity. Disruption of this balance can compromise the digestive functions, leading to diarrhoeal frame and decline in performance of piglets. However, the level and type of fibre can limit digestive disorders. Thirty newly weaned piglets were used to evaluate the levels of neutral detergent fibre (NDF in diets regarding performance, pH, viscosity and concentration of short chain fatty acids of digestive contents, gastrointestinal transit time, morphology of the intestinal mucosa, weights of organs and occurrence of diarrhoea. NDF level had quadratic effect on weight gain and feed conversion ratio of piglets, estimating best results at the level of 10.4%. NDF level had no effect on the pH, viscosity and concentration of short chain fatty acids. NDF levels below 10.2% or above 13.5% reduced the transit time of digesta. There was quadratic effect on villus height in the duodenum and jejunum and in the crypt depth of jejunum. There was linear increase in stomach, caecum and colon weights and linear decrease in the occurrence of diarrhoea according to increasing NDF levels. It is concluded that levels below 10.2% and above 13.5% reduce the transit time of digesta, whereas 12.2% NDF level results in better mucosa structure of the small intestinal, with an increase in the weights of the stomach, caecum and colon and a reduction in the occurrence of diarrhoea with increasing NDF level in diets, resulting in better performance of weaned piglets with 10.4% of NDF.

  18. The effects of clinoptilolite on piglet and heavy pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archimede Mordenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of clinoptilolite on piglet and heavy pig production two separated trials have been performed. In the first trial 40 pigs of the initial body weight of 55 kg were used. Animals were homogeneously allocated to two groups: a control group traditionally fed and a clinoptilolite group in which feed contained the additive at 2%. Pigs were slaugh- tered at about 160 kg body weight. Blood samples were taken to determine blood urea nitrogen (BUN. In the second trial a total of 116 piglets from 12 litters was used. Six litters were fed from the 7th day of life a diet containing clinoptilolite at 2%. According to the dietary treatment of the suckling period, 84 weaned piglets were homogeneously allocated to two groups fed up to 33 kg body weight a diet containing or not clinoptilolite at 2%. In both trials daily weight gain, feed intake and pigs’ health were regularly recorded. The dietary inclusion of clinoptilolite at 2% did not resulted in any modification either of growing performances or of uraemia. Piglets on clinoptilolite diet showed a significant (P<0.05 improvement of faecal dry matter content. At slaughtering the dietary inclusion of clinoptilolite resulted in a trend towards an improvement of lean cuts yield and in a significant increase (P<0.05 of the ratio between lean and fat cuts. From our data it is sug- gested that clinoptilolite does not impair pig growing performances, determines a higher dry matter content of piglet fae- ces and improves carcass quality of heavy pigs with particular regard to lean cuts yield and lean to fat cuts ratio.

  19. The behaviour and welfare of sows and piglets in farrowing crates or lactation pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C; Verdon, M; Cronin, G M; Hemsworth, P H

    2017-07-01

    Temporary confinement during parturition and early postpartum may provide an intermediary step preceding loose housing that offers improvement in sow and piglet welfare. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the implications of replacing farrowing crates (FCs) with an alternative housing system from 3 days postpartum until weaning. In each experiment sows farrowed in FCs and were randomly allocated at day 3 of lactation to either a FC or a pen with increased floor space (lactation pen (LP)) until weaning. In experiment 1, piglet growth and sow and piglet skin injuries were recorded for 32 sows and 128 focal piglets in these litters. Behaviour around nursing and piglet behavioural time budgets were also recorded for 24 of these litters (96 focal piglets for time budgets). In experiment 2, measures of skin injury and behavioural time budgets were conducted on 28 sows and 112 focal piglets. The behavioural response of sows to piglet vocalisation (maternal responsiveness test (MRT)) was also assessed. In experiment 3, piglet mortality from day 3 of lactation until weaning was recorded in 672 litters over 12 months. While housing did not affect piglet weight gain in experiment 1, or piglet skin injuries in experiments 1 or 2, sows in both experiments sustained more injuries in LP than FC (experiment 1, 2.9 v. 1.4; experiment 2, 2.5 v. 0.8 lesions/sow; P0.05). Thus, housing sows and litters in LP from day 3 of lactation minimises piglet mortality while improving maternal behaviour in sows and social behaviour in piglets.

  20. Tagging Piglets at the Farrowing Nest in the Wild: Some Preliminary Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAUBET, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonate ungulate often show high rates of mortality due to predation, starvation, orexposure to bad weather, leading to losses frequently exceeding 50%. Wild boar piglets are known tosuffer from thermoregulation insufficiency, which probably explain the nest construction behaviour insows. We thus tried to develop a method for tagging piglets inside their farrowing (or birth nest toassess piglet survival from few days after their birth onwards. Sows fitted-out with VHF collars wereradio-tracked to determine parturition time, and to get a rough idea of the possible birth nest location.Then, with a handled antenna we approached on foot the birth nest, and piglets were caught, taggedand fitted-out with a backpack transmitter and released inside the nest. Temporal movements ofmother and litter association were monitored, as long as possible. Results on sow behaviour and tacticagainst human approach, piglets body mass, piglet reaction, and survival in their early lifetime weredescribed.

  1. Transfer of maternal immunity to piglets is involved in early protection against Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Hagedorn-Olsen, Tine; Jungersen, Gregers

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyosynoviae causes arthritis in pigs older than 12 weeks. The role of colostrum in protection of piglets against M. hyosynoviae infection is not clear. Our objective was therefore to investigate whether transfer of maternal immunity to piglets was involved in early protection against...... immune response that complements the maternally transferred immune factors. Evident from this study is that the general absence of M. hyosynoviae arthritis in piglets can be ascribed mainly to their immunological status....

  2. The effect of supplementing sow and piglet diets with different forms of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Kétilim Novais

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chelated iron supplementation on gestating and lactating sows and on their suckling and weaned piglets. Reproductive traits, piglet performance, hematological parameters, and the iron concentrations in colostrum, milk, and stillborn livers were measured. Ninety-six sows were subjected to one of three treatment groups. Group T1 comprised pregnant and lactating sows treated with diets supplemented with inorganic iron (551 mg Fe/kg and suckling piglets administered 200 mg of injectable iron dextran. Group T2 was the same as T1, except that sows after 84 days of gestation, lactating sows, and suckling piglets were fed a diet supplemented with 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron, and suckling piglets were administered injectable iron dextran. Group T3 was the same as T2 but without injectable iron dextran for suckling piglets. During the nursery phase, all of the weaned piglets were penned with their original groups or treatments and received isonutritive and isocaloric feeds. Piglets from the T2 and T3 groups also received an additional 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron via their feed. There were no differences among the treatments for reproductive traits or the iron concentrations in the colostrum, milk, or liver. The piglets that did not receive the injectable iron dextran showed the poorest performance during the pre-and post-weaning phases and showed the poorest hematological parameters of the suckling piglets. The chelated iron supplementation is insufficient to meet piglet demand. The iron dextran supply is necessary for suckling and weaned piglets.

  3. Effect of litter size on the variation in birth and weaning weights of Landrace piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Duarte Prazeres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the size class of the litter at birth on the variation in birth and weaning weights and on the survival rate of piglets from birth to weaning. For this purpose, records of individual weight at birth and weaning of piglets obtained from a database of 295 Landrace litters born between 2000 and 2010 on a pig farm in the western region of the State of Paraná were used. The litters were classified as small (up to 7 piglets, medium (8 to 13 piglets, and large (> 14 piglets according to the total number of piglets born. The data were analyzed considering the effects of the year of sow mating and size class of the litter at birth. The correlations between mean weight and variance in litter weight and size were higher for medium and large litters. The size class of the litter significantly influenced the mean weight of piglets at birth and weaning and the variance in birth weight. Piglets born in medium and large litters weighed less and exhibited greater birth weight variation and a lower survival rate until weaning than piglets born in small litters.

  4. Sow-level risk factors for stillbirth of piglets in organic sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2017-01-01

    In Danish organic pig production, one-third of total born piglets die before weaning, and stillbirth has previously crudely been estimated to account for 27% of the total preweaning mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate season, litter size, parity and body condition of the sow...... as risk factors for stillbirth in nine commercial Danish organic pig herds. The study was conducted over a 1-year period, and the data included registrations on 5170 farrowings with 82 906 total born piglets. The average number of total born piglets per litter was 16.0, and the number of stillborn piglets...

  5. Milk diets influence doxorubicin-induced intestinal toxicity in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, R. L.; Pontoppidan, P. E.; Rathe, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We used preweaned piglets as models to test our hypothesis that the immunomodulatory and GI trophic effects of bovine colostrum would reduce the severity of GI complications associated with doxorub......Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We used preweaned piglets as models to test our hypothesis that the immunomodulatory and GI trophic effects of bovine colostrum would reduce the severity of GI complications associated...... to assess markers of small intestinal function and inflammation. All DOX-treated animals developed diarrhea, growth deficits, and leukopenia. However, the intestines of DOX-Colos pigs had lower intestinal permeability, longer intestinal villi with higher activities of brush border enzymes, and lower tissue...

  6. Maltodextrin and oils in the diet of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hauptli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of piglets fed two sources of oil (soybean and palm oil combined with maltodextrin and a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin, as well as the apparent digestibility coefficients of these diets. A total of 162 piglets weaned at 21 days, with a mean initial weight of 5.42 ± 0.55 kg, were allocated in a randomized block design consisting of three treatments and 18 replicates of three animals each. The following treatments were evaluated: T1: diet containing soybean oil [3.03% in the pre-initial (I and initial (II diets] and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T2: diet containing palm oil (3.03% in I and II and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T3: diet containing a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin (10.0% in I and II and maltodextrin added to the blend (4.07% in I so that the percentage of maltodextrin would be identical in the diets of the three treatments. The performance and digestibility data were submitted to analysis of variance using the MIXED and GLM procedures, respectively, of the SAS package and means were compared by the Tukey test (P0.05 in DFI, ADG or FC were observed between piglets submitted to the different treatments. The ADC of dry matter was 4.25% lower (P<0.05 for the diet containing palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin compared to the soybean oil diet. The ADC of ether extract was 54% higher (P<0.05 in the soybean oil diet compared to the palm oil diet, which negatively affected the ether extract digestibility coefficient. In conclusion, palm oil microencapsulated or not with maltodextrin can replace soybean oil in the diets of weaned piglets without compromising their performance.

  7. Myocardial contractile function in survived neonatal piglets after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Aron-Frederik

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodynamic function may be depressed in the early postoperative stages after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was the analysis of the myocardial contractility in neonates after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and mild hypothermia. Methods Three indices of left ventricular myocardial contractile function (dP/dt, (dP/dt/P, and wall thickening were studied up to 6 hours after CPB in neonatal piglets (CPB group; n = 4. The contractility data were analysed and then compared to the data of newborn piglets who also underwent median thoracotomy and instrumentation for the same time intervals but without CPB (non-CPB group; n = 3. Results Left ventricular dP/dtmax and (dP/dtmax/P remained stable in CPB group, while dP/dtmax decreased in non-CPB group 5 hours postoperatively (1761 ± 205 mmHg/s at baseline vs. 1170 ± 205 mmHg/s after 5 h; p max and (dP/dtmax/P there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Comparably, although myocardial thickening decreased in the non-CPB group the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions The myocardial contractile function in survived neonatal piglets remained stable 6 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass and mild hypothermia probably due to regional hypercontractility.

  8. Plasma metabolite score correlates with Hypoxia time in a newly born piglet model for asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kuligowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE secondary to perinatal asphyxia is a leading cause of mortality and acquired long-term neurologic co-morbidities in the neonate. The most successful intervention for the treatment of moderate to severe HIE is moderate whole body hypothermia initiated within 6 h from birth. The objective and prompt identification of infants who are at risk of developing moderate to severe HIE in the critical first hours still remains a challenge. This work proposes a metabolite score calculated based on the relative intensities of three metabolites (choline, 6,8-dihydroxypurine and hypoxanthine that showed maximum correlation with hypoxia time in a consolidated piglet model for neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. The metabolite score's performance as a biomarker for perinatal hypoxia and its usefulness for clinical grading and decision making have been assessed and compared to the performance of lactate which is currently considered the gold standard. For plasma samples withdrawn before and directly after a hypoxic insult, the metabolite score performed similar to lactate. However, it provided an enhanced predictive capacity at 2 h after resuscitation. The present study evidences the usefulness of the metabolite score for improving the early assessment of the severity of the hypoxic insult based on serial determinations in a minimally invasive biofluid. The applicability of the metabolite score for clinical diagnosis and patient stratification for hypothermia treatment has to be confirmed in multicenter trials involving newborns suffering from HIE. Keywords: Hypoxia, Perinatal asphyxia, Newborn, Metabolic biomarker, Neonatal piglet model, Liquid Chromatography – Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS

  9. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of

  10. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of

  11. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya

  12. Transmission of F4+ E. coli in groups of early weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, P.L.; Döpfer, D.; Meulen, van der J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate transmission parameters of enterotoxigenic F4+ Escherichia coli F4 (F4+ E. coli) in groups of early weaned piglets with F4-receptor-positive (F4R+) and F4-receptor-negative piglets (F4R[minus sign]). Transmission of F4+ E. coli was quantified in four

  13. Music during play-time: Using context conditioning as a tool to improve welfare in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de F.H.; Boleij, H.; Baars, A.M.; Dudink, S.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, we investigated whether music can facilitate play behaviour in piglets after weaning, when that music had been presented preweaning as a contextual cue associated with access to a playroom. One group of piglets was given daily access to a playroom preweaning while music was

  14. Maternal aptitude of Cinta Senese sows and behaviour of piglets throughout suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ania

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of ethological studies on swine species were carried out in order to test their productive and reproductive performances. Depending on genetic type, age, breeding and weaning system sows and piglets behaviour were studied. Maternal aptitude of sows was studied to get reasons of piglets mortality during weaning...

  15. Maternal immunity enhances Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination induced cell-mediated immune responses in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrick, Meggan; Theis, Kara; Molitor, Thomas W

    2014-06-05

    Passively acquired maternal derived immunity (MDI) is a double-edged sword. Maternal derived antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) are critical immediate defenses for the neonate; however, MDI may interfere with the induction of active immunity in the neonate, i.e. passive interference. The effect of antigen-specific MDI on vaccine-induced AMI and CMI responses to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) was assessed in neonatal piglets. To determine whether CMI and AMI responses could be induced in piglets with MDI, piglets with high and low levels of maternal M. hyopneumoniae-specific immunity were vaccinated against M. hyopneumoniae at 7 d of age. Piglet M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody, lymphoproliferation, and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were measured 7 d and 14 d post vaccination. Piglets with M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI failed to show vaccine-induced AMI responses; there was no rise in M. hyopneumoniae antibody levels following vaccination of piglets in the presence of M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI. However, piglets with M. hyopneumoniae-specific MDI had primary (antigen-specific lymphoproliferation) and secondary (DTH) M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI responses following vaccination. In this study neonatal M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI was not subject to passive interference by MDI. Further, it appears that both maternal derived and endogenous CMI contribute to M. hyopneumoniae-specific CMI responses in piglets vaccinated in the face of MDI.

  16. Does litter size affect emotionality, spatial learning and memory in piglets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijn, Lisa; Antonides, Alexandra; Aalderink, Dave; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2016-01-01

    Average litter size has steadily increased over the past decades in the pig farming industry. Large litters are associated with an increase of piglets born with a lower birth weight and reduced overall piglet viability. The aim of our study was to investigate whether litter size affects

  17. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A-II in Newborn Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groof, Ad; Deijs, Martin; Guelen, Lars; van Grinsven, Lotte; van Os-Galdos, Laura; Vogels, Wannes; Derks, Carmen; Cruijsen, Toine; Geurts, Victor; Vrijenhoek, Mieke; Suijskens, Janneke; van Doorn, Peter; van Leengoed, Leo; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tremor type A-II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently-described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms

  18. Characterization of the bacterial gut microbiota of piglets suffering from new neonatal porcine diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stockmarr, Anders

    2015-01-01

    . Results: NNPD was associated with a diminished quantity of bacteria from the phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes while genus Enterococcus was more than 24 times more abundant in diarrhoeic piglets. The number of bacteria from the phylum Fusobacteria was also doubled in piglets suffering from diarrhoea...

  19. Effects of altrenogest treatment in sows on the variation of piglet birth weight and pre-weaning piglet performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatee Kitkha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of altrenogest (ALT feeding combined with induced ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG in sows was evaluated on piglet birth weight (BW variation and pre-weaning performance. Sows were divided into four groups: the control (no ALT; without hCG induction; artificial inseminated (AI at 12 and 36 h after estrus; n = 40, ALT + hCG72 (ALT 20 mg/d, D-4–D2 (D0: weaning day; hCG 750 IU at 72 h post ALT; AI at 24 and 40 h after hCG; n = 41, ALT + hCG96 (ALT 20 mg/d, D-4–D2; hCG 750 IU at 96 h post ALT; AI at 24 and 40 h after hCG; n = 41 and ALT + no hCG (20 mg/d, D-4–D2; without hCG induction; AI at 12 and 36 h after estrus; n = 41. The results revealed that piglet BW was not different among the groups (p > 0.05. However, the standard deviation of piglet BW (SDBW was lower in ALT + hCG72 (0.32 ± 0.02 kg; p = 0.032, compared to ALT + hCG96 (0.40 ± 0.02 kg and ALT + no hCG (0.40 ± 0.02 kg, except for the control (0.39 ± 0.02 kg. In addition, the pre-weaning mortality rate (%PWM due to underweight elimination at weaning (below 3.50 kg was decreased in ALT + hCG72 (8.33% compared to the control (32.50%; p = 0.007 but similar to ALT + hCG96 (10.71% and ALT + no hCG (24.05%. Therefore, ALT + hCG72 treatment in sows could reduce piglet BW variation and the number of piglets eliminated at weaning.

  20. The ability of different thermal aids to reduce hypothermia in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Malmkvist, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether hypothermia in newborn piglets could be reduced by applying different thermal aids. The experiment was performed on 150 newborn piglets from 24 sows. Right after birth, the piglets were moved to a wire mesh cage for the first 2 h of life where they experienced 1 of 7...... floor (RadiantC; n = 22) or a slatted floor (RadiantSlat; n = 18); and provision of straw on a solid floor (Straw; n = 8). Piglets’ rectal temperature was measured both continuously and manually every 10 min for the first 2 h after birth using a thermal sensor inserted in the rectum of the piglets...... were analyzed. All statistical analyses were performed using a mixed model. All thermal aids/heat solutions resulted in a less steep drop in rectal temperature, a faster recovery, and, for the smaller piglets, also a greater average rectal temperature (except for built-in floor heating) and less time...

  1. Estimating transmission parameters of F4 + E. coli for F4-receptor-positive and -negative piglets: one-to-one transmission experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, P.L.; Meulen, van der J.; Bouma, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    F4+ Escherichia coli is an important agent of post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Piglets that express an adhesion site for F4+ E. coli in their small intestine (F4R+) shed higher numbers of F4+ E. coli than piglets lacking this site (F4R[minus sign]). We hypothesized that F4R+ piglets are more

  2. Dietary prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin affects structural neurodevelopment in the young piglet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas are consistently reported to be lower than human milk. This study sought to provide a novel combination of prebiotics, bovine-derived milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin and assess their influence on neurodevelopment. Methods: Twenty-four male piglets were provided either TEST (n=12 or CONT (n=12 diet from 2 to 31 d of age. Piglets underwent spatial T-maze assessment starting at 17 d of age, were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging at 30 d of age, and were euthanized for tissue collection at 31 d of age. Results: Diffusion tensor imaging revealed differences in radial (P = 0.032 and mean (P = 0.028 diffusivities in the internal capsule, where CONT piglets had higher rates of diffusion compared with TEST piglets. Voxel-based morphometry indicated larger (P < 0.05 differences in cortical grey and white matter concentrations, with CONT piglets having larger tissue clusters in these regions compared with TEST piglets. In the spatial T-maze assessment, CONT piglets exhibited shorter latency to choice compared with TEST piglets on d 2 of acquisition and d 3 and 4 of reversal. Conclusion: Observed differences in microstructure maturation of the internal capsule and cortical tissue concentrations suggest that piglets provided TEST diet were more advanced developmentally than piglets provided CONT diet. Therefore, supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin may support neurodevelopment in human infants.

  3. Energy utilization of light and heavy weaned piglets subjected to different dietary energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary metabolisable energy (ME: 3.25, 3.40, 3.55, or 3.70 Mcal kg−1 and weaning weight (WW: light 4.0±0.7 kg, and heavy: 6.3±0.6 kg on productive response and energy utilization of weaned piglets. Sixty-four male piglets were housed in 32 metabolic cages (two animals per cage during the first 14 d postweaning. At day 15, only one animal per cage was kept until day 28. Body composition, energy, and nutrient deposition rates and energy utilization efficiency were measured through a comparative slaughter procedure. Piglets with light WW had a poorer feed conversion ratio and lower weight gain and feed intake when expressed per live weight. Increased ME led to greater daily fat deposition in the empty bodies (defined as weighted mean of the carcass + organs + blood, no intestinal content, while light WW piglets had a reduced protein deposition. Light WW piglets increased heat production with increased ME, but no effect was seen for the heavy WW piglets. By contrast, heavy WW piglets increased empty body gross energy as ME increased, while no influence was observed on light WW piglets. Increasing dietary energy levels did not contribute to the subsequent growth performance of piglets that were lighter at weaning. The lack of interaction between weaning weight and dietary ME content on growth performance does not support the hypothesis that light piglets at weaning do not exhibit compensatory growth because of limitations in energy intake.

  4. The replacement of fishmeal by plant proteins in piglet production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to EC Commission Decision 9/2001 on BSE protection (OJEC, 2001, feedstuffs containing fishmeal can be produced only in establishments manufacturing animal feed which do not prepare feedstuffs for ruminant animals and which are authorised for this purpose by the competent authority. This fact, leading to a reduction of the productive capacity of small establishments, and the increasing aversion of consumers towards the use of animal protein in feedstuffs justify the studies about the possibility of excluding fishmeal from young animal formulations. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the total replacement of fishmeal by some vegetable protein sources in piglet diets.

  5. Weight gain of piglets subject to different protocols of castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Antunes de Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Lima M.P.A., Gehrcke M.I., Laskoski F., Cristani J. & Oleskovicz N. [Weight gain of piglets subject to different protocols of castration.] Desempenho de ganho de peso de leitões após diferentes protocolos de castração. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:209-214, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Av. Luiz de Camões 2090, Conta Dinheiro, Lages, SC 88520-000, Brasil. E-mail: marcos_paulo@hotmail.com The aim this study was to evaluate the performance of weight gain of piglets castrated, and three methods of sedation and or local anesthesia compared with the traditional method recommended by the standards of Good Practices in Swine Production. We used 100 male pigs, seven days old, weighing 2.9 ± 0.50 kg, which were randomly divided into four groups: (BP Practice, in which the animals were castrated without anesthesia or analgesia, L (Lidocaine, which received 0.5 mL of lidocaine without epinephrine in each spermatic cord; SL (sedation/lidocaine which were sedated with tramadol 4mg.kg-1 and midazolam 1 mg.kg-1 intramuscular (IM, associated with the local block with 0.5 mL of lidocaine without epinephrine administered in each spermatic cord, and S (sedation, which received tramadol 4mg.kg-1 and midazolam 1mg.kg-1 IM. Recorded the weight of the animals at birth, the seventh day preceding the castration procedure, and 20 days old at the time of weaning. The data were evaluated by One Way ANOVA (ANOVA followed by Tukey test (P<0.05. The mean weights of animals at weaning were 6.15±0.86, 6.02±1.06, 5.96±0.19 and 5.51±1.14 and the average daily weight gain, the day of Castration at weaning was 0.23±0.05, 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.06 and 0.19±0.05 respectively, for BP groups, L, SL and S. There were no significant differences between the values of the groups studied. The use of sedation protocols and or anesthetic to perform the

  6. Comparison of brain development in sow-reared and artificially-reared piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeba M Jacob

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionProvision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has yet to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared or reared in an artificial setting. MethodsOver a 25-d feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0.2 kg initial bodyweight were either sow-reared (SR; n = 10 with ad libitum intake, or artificially-reared (AR; n = 29 receiving an infant formula modified to mimic the nutritional profile and intake pattern of sow’s milk. At study conclusion, piglets were subjected to a standardized set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI procedures to quantify structure and composition of the brain.ResultsDiffusion tensor imaging, an MRI sequence that characterizes brain microstructure, revealed that SR piglets had greater (P < 0.05 average whole-brain fractional anisotropy, and lower (P < 0.05 mean and radial and axial diffusivity values compared with AR piglets, suggesting differences in white matter organization. Voxel-based morphometric analysis, a measure of white and gray matter volumes concentrations, revealed differences (P < 0.05 in bilateral development of gray matter clusters in the cortical brain regions of the AR piglets compared with SR piglets. Region of interest (ROI analysis revealed larger (P < 0.05 whole brain volumes in SR animals compared with AR, and subcortical regions to be larger (P < 0.05 as a percentage of whole-brain volume in AR piglets compared with SR animals. Quantification of brain metabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed SR piglets had higher (P < 0.05 concentrations of myo-inositol, glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine, and creatine + phosphocreatine compared with AR piglets. However, glutamate + glutamine levels were higher (P < 0.05 in AR piglets when compared with SR animals

  7. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A‐II in Newborn Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad de Groof

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital tremor type A‐II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently‐described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV. Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms tested. Piglets on a farm with no history of congenital tremor were PCR‐negative for the virus. To demonstrate a causal relationship between APPV and disease, three gilts were inoculated via intramuscular injection at day 32 of pregnancy. In two of the three litters, vertical transmission of the virus occurred. Clinical signs of congenital tremor were observed in APPV‐infected newborns, yet also two asymptomatic carriers were among the offspring. Piglets of one litter were PCR‐negative for the virus, and these piglets were all without congenital tremors. Long‐term follow up of farm piglets born with congenital tremors showed that the initially high viremia in serum declines at five months of age, but shedding of the virus in feces continues, which explains why the virus remains present at affected farms and causes new outbreaks. We conclude that trans‐placental transmission of APPV and subsequent infection of the fetuses is a very likely cause of congenital tremor type A‐II in piglets.

  8. CT measurement of indomethacin-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes in the newborn piglet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derek W.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2003-05-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a common condition among preterm infants, increases the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and death in afflicted individuals. Current clinical treatment of PDA relies on use of the drug indomethacin to close the ductus arteriosus. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of indomethacin on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral mean transit time (MTT) in newborn piglets using computed tomography (CT) perfusion. Twenty newborn piglets divided by age into two groups, less than 12 hours of age (n = 10) and greater than 12 hours of age (n = 10) were studied. Five piglets in each group received indomethacin treatment (0.2 mg/kg infused over 30 min) while remaining piglets served as controls. No significant changes in CBF were observed in control groups. In both indomethacin treated groups, average CBF decreased 32.3% and 34.3% (P > 0.05) below baseline immediately post infusion in piglets less than and greater than 12 hours of age respectively. Piglets less than 12hours of age treated with indomethacin also exhibited a delayed increase in CBF, maximum average increase of 41.7% (P > 0.05) above baseline at 210 min post infusion, a response not observed in the corresponding group of piglets greater than 12 hours of age. The observed age dependent response may be due to functional/anatomical closure of the PDA.

  9. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A-II in Newborn Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groof, Ad; Deijs, Martin; Guelen, Lars; van Grinsven, Lotte; van Os-Galdos, Laura; Vogels, Wannes; Derks, Carmen; Cruijsen, Toine; Geurts, Victor; Vrijenhoek, Mieke; Suijskens, Janneke; van Doorn, Peter; van Leengoed, Leo; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-10-04

    Congenital tremor type A-II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently-described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms tested). Piglets on a farm with no history of congenital tremor were PCR-negative for the virus. To demonstrate a causal relationship between APPV and disease, three gilts were inoculated via intramuscular injection at day 32 of pregnancy. In two of the three litters, vertical transmission of the virus occurred. Clinical signs of congenital tremor were observed in APPV-infected newborns, yet also two asymptomatic carriers were among the offspring. Piglets of one litter were PCR-negative for the virus, and these piglets were all without congenital tremors. Long-term follow up of farm piglets born with congenital tremors showed that the initially high viremia in serum declines at five months of age, but shedding of the virus in feces continues, which explains why the virus remains present at affected farms and causes new outbreaks. We conclude that trans-placental transmission of APPV and subsequent infection of the fetuses is a very likely cause of congenital tremor type A-II in piglets.

  10. Husbandry practices and gut health outcomes in weaned piglets: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandar Jayaraman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The immediate post-weaning period is one of the most stressful phases in a pig's life, and during this period, piglets are usually exposed to environmental, social and psychological stressors which have direct or indirect effects on gut health and overall growth performance. In this review, the impact of husbandry practices on gut health outcomes and performance of piglets is discussed. Husbandry practices in the swine barn generally include nutrition and management practices, maintenance of hygienic standards and disease prevention protocols, and animal welfare considerations. Poor husbandry practices could result in reduced feed intake, stress and disease conditions, and consequently affect gut health and performance in weaned piglets. Reduced feed intake is a major risk factor for impaired gut structure and function and therefore a key goal is to maximize feed intake in newly weaned piglets. In weaned piglets, crowding stress could reduce pig performance, favor the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria resulting in diarrhea, stimulate immune responses and interfere with beneficial microbial activities in the gut. Sanitation conditions in the swine barn plays an important role for optimal piglet performance, because unclean conditions reduced growth performance, shifted nutrient requirements to support the immune system and negatively affected the gut morphology in weaned piglets. Appropriate biosecurity measures need to be designed to prevent disease entry and spread within a swine operation, which in turn helps to keep all pigs and piglets healthy. Collectively, husbandry practices relating to feeding and nutrition, animal welfare, biosecurity and disease prevention are important determinants of gut health and piglet performance. Thus, it is suggested that adopting high husbandry practices is a critical piece in strategies aimed at raising pigs without the use of in-feed antibiotics.

  11. Dopamine plasma clearance is increased in piglets compared to neonates during continuous dopamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin B; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Eriksen, Vibeke Ramsgaard

    2018-01-01

    pharmacokinetics. METHODS: Arterial blood samples were drawn from six neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Copenhagen University Hospital and 20 newborn piglets during continuous dopamine infusion. Furthermore, to estimate the piglet plasma dopamine half-life, blood samples were drawn at 2.......5-minute intervals after the dopamine infusion was discontinued. The plasma dopamine content was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. RESULTS: The dopamine displayed first-order kinetics in piglets and had a half-life of 2.5 minutes, while the median plasma...

  12. Comparisons of blood biochemical parameters, digestive enzyme activities and volatile fatty acid profile between Meishan and Yorkshire piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouqing Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare physiological characteristics between Meishan and Yorkshire piglets in their early lives. Six healthy purebred Meishan sows and Yorkshire sows with close farrowing dates were used in this research. The piglets sucked their respective sow's milk for 14 days, then they were slaughtered to collect samples of blood, pancreas, contents of stomach, jejunum, cecum, colon as well as feces for analysis of blood biochemical parameters, digestive enzymes, and volatile fatty acid (VFA. The results showed that Yorkshire piglets had higher concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC (P < 0.05. Gastric lipase activity was higher in Meishan piglets but Yorkshire piglets had higher lactase activity (P < 0.05. The total VFA together with acetate and propionate in cecum and colon were higher in Meishan piglets than in Yorkshire piglets (P < 0.05, but acetate in jejunum and ratio of acetate to propionate in colon were lower in Meishan piglets than in Yorkshire piglets (P < 0.05. In conclusion, in early suckling period, significant differences exist in host metabolism and intestinal microbial metabolism between Meishan and Yorkshire piglets.

  13. [The effect of birth weight on the early postnatal vitality of piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, S; Lutter, C; Wähner, M; Puppe, B

    1994-10-01

    Investigations with 1248 newborn piglets in 7 farms showed a high significant influence of birth weight on parameters of early postnatal vitality. The duration between birth and first standing up was by two times, the time between birth and first udder contact by 3.5 times and the duration between birth and first colostrum intake was by 4 times longer in piglets with a low birth weight ( 2200 g). The drop in rectal temperature up to 30 minutes after birth reached 4.5 Kelvin in lightweight piglets, whereas their litter mates with a high body weight at birth had a value of 0.85 K (p vitality of newborn piglets and has a high prognostic value in relation to the risk of losses and the live weight development of neonates.

  14. Intermittent suckling during an extended lactation period: Effects on piglet behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkeveld, M.; Langendijk, P.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Koets, A.P.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine how intermittent suckling (IS) affects nursing behavior, litter activity, and general behavioral patterns during lactation, and whether IS during an extended lactation period results in behavioral patterns associated with piglet distress.

  15. Comparison of expandable endotracheal stents in the treatment of surgically induced piglet tracheomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, E A; Parsons, D S; Lally, K P; Van Dellen, A F

    1991-09-01

    Present surgical alternatives for pediatric tracheobronchomalacia are limited and associated with many potentially undesirable complications. The feasibility of different intraluminal expandable endotracheal stents for the treatment of surgically induced tracheomalacia was analyzed in 27 piglets. A potentially fatal tracheomalacia was surgically created. Either a stainless steel "zig-zag" stent or a woven polymeric stent was then implanted. Tracheal patency, mucosal function, histopathologic respiratory tract changes, and effects of the stent on esophageal motility were evaluated over a 16-week period. Piglets with steel stents uniformly experienced intense inflammation leading to tracheal dysfunction and death. Piglets with polymeric stents experienced minimal respiratory symptoms. Expandable polymeric endotracheal stents alleviate surgically induced piglet tracheomalacia, were easy to insert, allowed for tracheal growth, and reduced the need for high-risk surgical procedures with prolonged ventilatory support.

  16. Effects of irradiated sow colostrum on some biochemical and haematological measurements in newborn piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellenga, L; Wensing, T; Breukink, H J; Hagens, F H

    1986-11-01

    Some biochemical and haematological variables were measured in piglets during the first 48 hours after birth. The piglets were reared either by the sow, or bottle-fed with colostrum (either natural or sterilised by irradiation), or a commercial milk replacer. Mean haemoglobin concentrations, packed cell volumes and erythrocyte counts decreased by approximately 45 per cent in all the groups between birth and 48 hours, but leucocyte counts increased more markedly in the colostrum-fed groups. All the colostrum-fed groups showed rapid increases in serum total protein concentrations which were almost entirely due to increases in gamma globulin concentrations. There was no difference in this respect between natural colostrum and colostrum sterilised by irradiation with 500 Krad of gamma rays. Colostrum sterilised by irradiation can protect piglets against infectious agents and simplify the rearing of piglets under specific pathogen free conditions.

  17. A neonatal piglet model for investigating brain and cognitive development in small for gestational age human infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Radlowski

    Full Text Available The piglet was investigated as a potential model for studying brain and cognitive deficits associated with being born small for gestational age (SGA. Naturally farrowed SGA (0.7-1.0 kg BW and average for gestational age (AGA, 1.3-1.6 kg BW piglets were obtained on postnatal day (PD 2, placed in individual cages, and provided a nutritionally adequate milk replacer diet (285 ml/kg/d. Beginning at PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, piglets were anesthetized for magnetic resonance (MR imaging to assess brain structure (voxel-based morphometry, connectivity (diffusion-tensor imaging and metabolites in the hippocampus and corpus callosum (proton MR spectroscopy. Piglets born SGA showed compensatory growth such that BW of SGA and AGA piglets was similar (P>0.05, by PD15. Birth weight affected maze performance, with SGA piglets taking longer to reach criterion than AGA piglets (p<0.01. Total brain volume of SGA and AGA piglets was similar (P<0.05, but overall, SGA piglets had less gray matter than AGA piglets (p<0.01 and tended to have a smaller internal capsule (p = 0.07. Group comparisons between SGA and AGA piglets defined 9 areas (≥ 20 clusters where SGA piglets had less white matter (p<0.01; 2 areas where SGA piglets had more white matter (p<0.01; and 3 areas where SGA piglets had more gray matter (p<0.01. The impact of being born SGA on white matter was supported by a lower (p<0.04 fractional anisotropy value for SGA piglets, suggesting reduced white matter development and connectivity. None of the metabolites measured were different between groups. Collectively, the results show that SGA piglets have spatial learning deficits and abnormal development of white matter. As learning deficits and abnormalities in white matter are common in SGA human infants, the piglet is a tractable translational model that can be used to investigate SGA-associated cognitive deficits and potential interventions.

  18. Corrigendum - Influence of Tiamulin Therapy on Weight Gain in Brachyspira Dysentery in Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru O. Doma; Andreia B. Chirila; Eugenia Dumitrescu; Florin Muselin; ROMEO TEODOR CRISTINA

    2014-01-01

    In the article Influence of Tiamulin Therapy on Weight Gain in Brachyspira Dysentery in Piglets first published in Vol 47, No 1 in Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies, by a clerical error instead Novartis was presented Dopharma as producer of Tiamutin 10% oily injectable solution (1ml of solution containing 100 mg of tiamulin fumarate). This article corrects: Influence of Tiamulin Therapy on Weight Gain in Brachyspira Dysentery in Piglets Vol. 47, Issue 1, p....

  19. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rafael A; Lin, Xi; Campbell, Joy M; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack

    2012-12-23

    Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Sow parity had a significant (P birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.

  20. Doxorubicin-Induced Gut Toxicity in Piglets fed Bovine Milk and Colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René Liang; Rathe, Mathias; Jiang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy-induced intestinal toxicity is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We hypothesized that a milk diet containing bovine colostrum (BC) would reduce intestinal toxicity in doxorubicin-treated piglets. METHODS: Study 1 investigated intestinal parameters nine days after...... Colostrum supplementation had limited effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in milk-fed piglets suggesting that colostrum and a bovine milk diet enriched with whey protein provided similar...

  1. Comparison of clinical and immunological findings in gnotobiotic piglets infected with Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain and EHEC O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöchtl, Bettina; Gunzer, Florian; Gerner, Wilhelm; Gasse, Hagen; Koch, Michaela; Bagó, Zoltán; Ganter, Martin; Weissenböck, Herbert; Dinhopl, Nora; Coldewey, Sina M; von Altrock, Alexandra; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Saalmüller, Armin; Zimmermann, Kurt; Steinmann, Jörg; Kehrmann, Jan; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Blom, Jochen; Ehricht, Ralf; Engelmann, Ines; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) (STEC) is the most frequent cause of diarrhoea-positive haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D + HUS) in humans. In 2011, a huge outbreak with an STEC O104:H4 strain in Germany highlighted the limited possibilities for causative treatment of this syndrome. The responsible STEC strain was found to combine Stx production with adherence mechanisms normally found in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Pathotypes of E. coli evolve and can exhibit different adhesion mechanisms. It has been shown previously that neonatal gnotobiotic piglets are susceptible for infection with STEC, such as STEC O157:H7 as well as for EAEC, which are considered to be the phylogenetic origin of E. coli O104:H4. This study was designed to characterise the host response to infection with the STEC O104:H4 outbreak strain in comparison to an STEC O157:H7 isolate by evaluating clinical parameters (scoring) and markers of organ dysfunction (biochemistry), as well as immunological (flow cytometry, assessment of cytokines/chemokines and acute phase proteins) and histological alterations (light- and electron microscopy) in a gnotobiotic piglet model of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. We observed severe clinical symptoms, such as diarrhoea, dehydration and neurological disorders as well as attaching-and-effacing lesions (A/E) in the colon in STEC O157:H7 infected piglets. In contrast, STEC O104:H4 challenged animals exhibited only mild clinical symptoms including diarrhoea and dehydration and HUS-specific/severe histopathological, haematological and biochemical alterations were only inconsistently presented by individual piglets. A specific adherence phenotype of STEC O104:H4 could not be observed. Flow cytometric analyses of lymphocytes derived from infected animals revealed an increase of natural killer cells (NK cells) during the course of infection revealing a potential role of this subset in the anti-bacterial activity in STEC disease. Unexpectedly, E

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a piglet model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nicola Groes; Spielmann, Nelly; Ringer, Simone K.

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a piglet model: readings are influenced by the colour of the cover Clausen NG1,2, Spielmann N1,3, Weiss M1,3, Ringer SK4 1Children’s Research Center, University Children’s Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland; 2Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Odense....... The rSO2 was measured by placing NIRS sensors in the supra glabellar region. In 12 animals sensors were covered with a uni-coloured pink (P) napkin and a turquoise (T) napkin in a random order (Setting A). In further 13 animals sensors were covered with blue-coloured surgical drape (SD) and a napkin...... with a reddish SantaClaus (SC) motive (Setting B). Uncovered (UC) baseline values were captured and measurements obtained for a period of three minutes. During measurements, the animals were kept in normoterm, normotensive, normoglycaemic and normoxic condition. Inspired oxygen fraction and ventilatory settings...

  3. Effect of Herbal Drugs on Survivability of Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on 75 pigs (gilts and sows of Tamworth and Desi (T&D breed distributed in six groups. Different herbal treatment viz. Clemenstol syrup, Femelin, Lecorin plus and Asoka cordial in various stages of reproduction namely pubertal stage, periparturient stage, post farrowing stage and around weaning stage were given, Group I (C for gilts and Group 2 (C1 for sows were kept as control, lower was observed during earlier ages i.e. during first seven days. Almost 100% survivability was recorded after 29th day of age. Piglet survivability was higher during latter ages i.e. 29th to 56th day of age in comparison to earlier ages i.e. from birth to 28th day of age. However, there was no definite trend observed in different treatment groups and were statistically non significant. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(7.000: 205-206

  4. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  5. [Correlations between the vitality of newborn piglets, teat order, mortality, and live weight development up to weaning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, S; Lutter, C; Puppe, B; Wähner, M

    1995-06-01

    Investigations with 693 piglets have shown, that suckling piglets with preference of cranial teat pairs were significantly superior to their littermates in all parameters of early postnatal vitality: they stood up and took in first colostrum earlier and showed a lower postnatal drop in rectal temperature in comparison with their siblings. Piglets in cranial teat position had the highest daily gain (205 g, p vitality of piglets post natum on live weight development and mortality up to 28th day of age were shown. The faster piglets took in colostrum after birth and the lower postnatal drop in rectal temperature was, the higher was the obtained daily gain during suckling period. Piglets which died within the first 7 or 28 days of age had needed a significantly longer time till first postnatal colostrum intake and a more pronounced drop in rectal temperature in comparison with their littermates.

  6. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Rafael A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG. The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Results Sow parity had a significant (P Conclusion We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.

  7. Pulmonary vascular responses during acute and sustained respiratory alkalosis or acidosis in intact newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J B; Rehorst-Paea, L A; Hoffman, G M; Nelin, L D

    1999-12-01

    Acute alkalosis-induced pulmonary vasodilation and acidosis-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction have been well described, but responses were generally measured within 5-30 min of changing pH. In contrast, several in vitro studies have found that relatively brief periods of sustained alkalosis can enhance, and sustained acidosis can decrease, vascular reactivity. In this study of intact newborn piglets, effects of acute (20 min) and sustained (60-80 min) alkalosis or acidosis on baseline (35% O2) and hypoxic (12% O2) pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared with control piglets exposed only to eucapnia. Acute alkalosis decreased hypoxic PVR, but sustained alkalosis failed to attenuate either baseline PVR or the subsequent hypoxic response. Acute acidosis did not significantly increase hypoxic PVR, but sustained acidosis markedly increased both baseline PVR and the subsequent hypoxic response. Baseline PVR was similar in all piglets after resumption of eucapnic ventilation, but the final hypoxic response was greater in piglets previously exposed to alkalosis than in controls. Thus, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was not attenuated during sustained alkalosis, but was accentuated during sustained acidosis and after the resumption of eucapnia in alkalosis-treated piglets. Although extrapolation of data from normal piglets to infants and children with pulmonary hypertension must be done with caution, this study suggests that sustained alkalosis may be of limited efficacy in treating acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and the risks of pulmonary hypertension must be considered when using ventilator strategies resulting in permissive hypercapnic acidosis.

  8. Serosal Zn2+ inhibits 8-Br-cAMP stimulated chloride secretion in piglet small intestinal epithelium in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Dorthe; Sehested, Jakob; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2010-01-01

    . Piglets (n = 24) were weaned at 28 days of age and allocated at two dietary treatments (ZnO0 and ZnO2500) and at 5-6 days after weaning the piglets were slaughtered and small intestinal epithelium from each piglet was mounted into 8 Ussing chambers. The effect of 23 μM serosal Zn2+ on 8-Br-cAMP (8...

  9. Deletion of a 197-Amino-Acid Region in the N-Terminal Domain of Spike Protein Attenuates Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yixuan; Lin, Chun-Ming; Yokoyama, Masaru; Yount, Boyd L; Marthaler, Douglas; Douglas, Arianna L; Ghimire, Shristi; Qin, Yibin; Baric, Ralph S; Saif, Linda J; Wang, Qiuhong

    2017-07-15

    We previously isolated a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain, PC177, by blind serial passaging of the intestinal contents of a diarrheic piglet in Vero cell culture. Compared with the highly virulent U.S. PEDV strain PC21A, the tissue culture-adapted PC177 (TC-PC177) contains a 197-amino-acid (aa) deletion in the N-terminal domain of the spike (S) protein. We orally inoculated neonatal, conventional suckling piglets with TC-PC177 or PC21A to compare their pathogenicities. Within 7 days postinoculation, TC-PC177 caused mild diarrhea and lower fecal viral RNA shedding, with no mortality, whereas PC21A caused severe clinical signs and 55% mortality. To investigate whether infection with TC-PC177 can induce cross-protection against challenge with a highly virulent PEDV strain, all the surviving piglets were challenged with PC21A at 3 weeks postinoculation. Compared with 100% protection in piglets initially inoculated with PC21A, 88% and 100% TC-PC177- and mock-inoculated piglets had diarrhea following challenge, respectively, indicating incomplete cross-protection. To investigate whether this 197-aa deletion was the determinant for the attenuation of TC-PC177, we generated a mutant (icPC22A-S1Δ197) bearing the 197-aa deletion from an infectious cDNA clone of the highly virulent PEDV PC22A strain (infectious clone PC22A, icPC22A). In neonatal gnotobiotic pigs, the icPC22A-S1Δ197 virus caused mild to moderate diarrhea, lower titers of viral shedding, and no mortality, whereas the icPC22A virus caused severe diarrhea and 100% mortality. Our data indicate that deletion of this 197-aa fragment in the spike protein can attenuate a highly virulent PEDV, but the virus may lose important epitopes for inducing robust protective immunity. IMPORTANCE The emerging, highly virulent PEDV strains have caused substantial economic losses worldwide. However, the virulence determinants are not established. In this study, we found that a 197-aa deletion in the N-terminal region

  10. The effect of heated mash on performance and feeding behavior of newly weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, K; Hessel, E F; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2008-12-01

    The influence of heated mash on growth and feeding behavior of newly weaned piglets was investigated. An automatically ventilated nursery with 4 identical pens was used. Twenty piglets weaned at 21 d were housed in each pen. The experiment was repeated 3 times. In total, data were obtained from 240 piglets of 12 pens. The pens were provided with a sensor-controlled, automatic feeding device, which dosed a ready-mixed mash in a trough. In each of 2 of the pens, the feed was mixed with warm water at 36 degrees C, during the first week of weaning. This heated mash had a temperature of 34 degrees C at the outlet of the automatic feeding device (experimental group). In the 2 control groups, the water was not heated and the temperature of the mash was 14 degrees C at the outlet of the automatic feeding device. From the second week of weaning, the mash had a temperature of 14 degrees C at the outlet of the automatic feeding device in all 4 pens. Piglets were weighed at weaning, at weekly intervals through 49 d after weaning, and on d 139 after weaning. Behavior of the whole group, as well as behavior of selected focal animals, was evaluated for the first 48 h after weaning. In addition, skin condition of piglets was assessed on day of weaning and on d 7, 14, and 21 after weaning. The amount of feed consumed by the piglets was recorded on a daily basis throughout the whole period of nursery. Over the total period of the study, piglets in the experimental group gained 3.98 +/- 1.66 kg (P = 0.047) more than the control group. The difference was particularly clear during the nursery period (49 d) when the experimental group gained 0.89 +/- 0.23 kg more than the control group (P = 0.03). Although piglets in the control group consumed 37.15 +/- 0.15 kg of feed over the complete nursery period, the experimental group consumed 42.56 +/- 0.15 kg per piglet (P = 0.023). By heating the mash feed in the first week after weaning, both growth performance as well as feed consumption of

  11. The LDsub(50/30) and the survival time in whole-body gamma-irradiated conventional and germfree Minnesota miniature piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, L.; Travnicek, J.; Talafantova, M.; Zahradnickova, M.

    1980-01-01

    The median lethal exposure causing the death in 30 days after single whole-body gamma-irradiation (the LD 50/30) was found to be 2731 MBq (73.8 mC/kg) for conventional piglets, but 3226 MBq (87.2 mC/kg) for germ-free piglets both irradiated 14 days after birth. After lethal exposures, the survival time in germ-free piglets was prolonged for 7 days in comparison with conventional piglets. (author)

  12. Dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend enhances intestinal function in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dan; Li, Baocheng; Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Di; Chen, Hongbo; Wu, Tao; Zhou, Ying; Ding, Binying; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-05-16

    The traditionally classified nutritionally non-essential amino acids are now known to be insufficiently synthesized for maximal growth and optimal health in piglets. This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend (AAB; glutamate:glutamine:glycine:arginine:N-acetylcysteine = 5:2:2:1:0.5) on piglet growth performance and intestinal functions. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.99% alanine (isonitrogenous control) or 1% AAB. On day 20 of the trial, blood and intestinal tissue samples were obtained from piglets. Compared with the control, AAB supplementation reduced (P sodium-independent amino acid transporters (b 0,+ AT and y + LAT1), aquaporin (AQP) 3, AQP8, AQP10, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and glutathione S-transferase omega-2, and protein abundances of AQP3, AQP4, claudin-1, occludin and myxovirus resistance 1; and the numbers of Bifidobacterium genus and Lactobacillus genus in the colon digesta. Collectively, these comprehensive results indicate that dietary AAB supplementation plays an important role in improving piglet growth and intestinal function.

  13. Alternative for improving gut microbiota: use of Jerusalem artichoke and probiotics in diet of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovska, A; Jemeljanovs, A; Pilmane, M; Zitare, I; Konosonoka, I H; Lazdins, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Jerusalem artichoke and probiotics on defence activity of intestinal cells of weaning pigs. One hundred eighty piglets (7 weeks old) were fed with basal feed supplemented with Jerusalem artichoke, Lactobacillus reuteri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. After 5 weeks, the piglets were slaughtered and the gastrointestinal contents and intestine samples were taken for analysis. Results demonstrated that in pigs fed basal diet with both probiotics and Jerusalem artichoke (5% of basal diet) (T3 group) had less (PJerusalem artichoke powder (T2 group), but Salmonella enteritidis - only in T1 group. In jejunum of T2 group piglets, large deterioration of crypts, a moderate inflammation process and plasmocytes were seen, but in jejunum of T3 group piglets - branching of apical surface of villi, moderate degeneration and mitosis of enterocytes were observed. A moderate number of apoptotic cells in T2 group was found mainly in colon inflammation cells and plasmocytes, but for T3 group piglets--both in jejunum enterocytes and migrating cells. Our study indicated that beta-defensin 2 and 3 expression in jejunum and colon segments were incresed in T1 and T2 groups. Findings suggest that feeding with probiotics and Jerusalem artichoke significantly improves the microbial contents, defence and regeneration processes in the intestine of pigs.

  14. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Small Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Neonatal Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Zhong, Xiang; Ahmad, Hussain; Li, Wei; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a very common problem in both piglet and human neonate populations. We hypothesized that IUGR neonates have impaired intestinal mucosal immunity from birth. Using neonatal piglets as IUGR models, immune organ weights, the weight and length of the small intestine (SI), intestinal morphology, intraepithelial immune cell numbers, levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins, and the relative gene expression of cytokines in the SI were investigated. IUGR neonatal piglets were observed to have lower absolute immune organ weight and SI length, decreased relative weights of the thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph node, and thinner but longer SIs. Damaged and jagged villi, shorter microvilli, presence of autophagosomes, swelled mitochondria, and decreased villus surface areas were also found in the SIs of IUGR neonatal piglets. We also found a smaller number of epithelial goblet cells and lymphocytes in the SIs of IUGR neonates. In addition, we detected reduced levels of the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ and decreased gene expression of cytokines in IUGR neonates. In conclusion, IUGR was shown to impair the mucosal immunity of the SI in neonatal piglets, and the ileum was the major site of impairment. PMID:24710659

  15. Growth of Cinta Senese piglets as affected by location of the suckled teat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental animals were 18 Cinta Senese sows (7 primiparous and 11 multiparous and relative purebred off-  spring. Individual weight of piglets was recorded at birth (or shortly afterwards to the nearest 50 g and subsequently  every 3-5 days up to weaning. At each recording, piglets were ranked in decreasing order according to weight within their  respective litters. The behavior of a subsample of 8 sows and litters was observed during suckling, by recording the  teat–piglet coupling. The sows had 12 functional teats, equally distributed in the two symmetric rows, that were num-  bered as pairs in the antero-posterior direction.  Starting from the third week, piglets of multiparous sows showed a faster growth rate than those of the primiparous ones.  Repeatability of the piglets’ weight during the suckling period was high (r = 0.56 and repeatability of rank was even  higher, but decreased up to weaning. Anterior teats were the most occupied and showed the highest suckling fidelity  (consistency of suckling position. Various statistical analyses about the dependence of piglet weight (or weight rank with-  in litter on teat order indicated the highest milk productivity of the first teats and the lowest of the 5th & 6th teat pairs.

  16. Neonatal piglet traits of importance for survival in crates and indoor pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Berg, Peer; Jørgensen, Grete

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the same piglet traits contributed to the same causes of neonatal piglet mortality in crates (CT) and pens (PN). Gilts originating from 2 distinct genetic groups that differed in breeding value for piglet survival rate at d 5 (SR5......) were used. These were distributed to farrow in either PN or CT as follows: high-SR5 and CT (n = 30); low-SR5 and CT (n = 27); high-SR5 and PN (n = 22); and low-SR5 and PN (n = 24). Data on individual piglets were collected at birth, including interbirth interval; birth order; birth weight; rectal...... with a logit link function. No significant effect (NS) of housing was observed on the odds of a piglet being stillborn (F1,73 = 0.1, NS), being crushed (F1,53 = 1.4, NS), or dying of starvation (F1,53 = 0.3, NS). No significant differences were observed between the 2 genetic groups for any category...

  17. Alteration of metabolomic markers of amino-acid metabolism in piglets with in-feed antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Yu, Kaifan; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Chuanjian; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-04-01

    In-feed antibiotics have been used to promote growth in piglets, but its impact on metabolomics profiles associated with host metabolism is largely unknown. In this study, to test the hypothesis that antibiotic treatment may affect metabolite composition both in the gut and host biofluids, metabolomics profiles were analyzed in antibiotic-treated piglets. Piglets were fed a corn-soy basal diet with or without in-feed antibiotics from postnatal day 7 to day 42. The serum biochemical parameters, metabolomics profiles of the serum, urine, and jejunal digesta, and indicators of microbial metabolism (short-chain fatty acids and biogenic amines) were analyzed. Compared to the control group, antibiotics treatment did not have significant effects on serum biochemical parameters except that it increased (P Antibiotics treatment increased the relative concentrations of metabolites involved in amino-acid metabolism in the serum, while decreased the relative concentrations of most amino acids in the jejunal content. Antibiotics reduced urinary 2-ketoisocaproate and hippurate. Furthermore, antibiotics decreased (P Antibiotics significantly affected the concentrations of biogenic amines, which are derived from microbial amino-acid metabolism. The three major amines, putrescine, cadaverine, and spermidine, were all increased (P antibiotics-treated piglets. These results identified the phenomena that in-feed antibiotics may have significant impact on the metabolomic markers of amino-acid metabolism in piglets.

  18. METABOLIC AND BEHAVIORAL PARAMETERS IN NEWBORN PIGLETS IN RELATION TO BIRTH ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SĂRĂNDAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment had 2 phases:During the first phase 19 sows were monitored during farrowing; the piglets were numbered according to birth order, they were weighed and there were recorded the time each piglet was born and when it first suckled. There was calculated the time from the beginning of the farrowing until the time each piglet was born (TNPP and the time from birth until the first suckle (TPS. A statistical correlation was established between these parameters.During the second experimental phase, for 49 piglets from 5 sows were determined: birth weight, TPS, glycemia at birth (G0 and after the first suckle (G1, rectal temperature at birth (T0 and after the first suckles (T1. This data was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test.Respecting the birth order, TPS is shorter for piglets born last (p<0.05. Average TPS was 23.04±2.49 minutes; during this time glycemia rises from 58.35 mg% to 64.35 mg% and rectal temperature drops from 38.58°C to 37.35°C. T0 is positively correlated with G0 (p<0.01 with G1 (p<0.01 and T1 (p<0.01. G0 is highly correlated to G1 (r=0.8855; p=0.

  19. Proper Timing of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination of Piglets with Maternally Derived Antibodies Will Maximize Expected Protection Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.; Chénard, G.; Stockhofe, N.; Eble, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. Groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points

  20. A two-step process of nitrous oxide before carbon dioxide for humanely euthanizing piglets: on-farm trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current methods of euthanizing neonatal piglets are raising concerns from the public and scientists. Our experiment tests the use of a two-step euthanasia method using nitrous oxide (N2O) for six minutes and then carbon dioxide (CO2) as a more humane way to euthanize piglets compared to just usi...

  1. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON, walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN, or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE or ramp (RAM. Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05. Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05; however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p < 0.05. After treatment, drinking behavior was increased in RAM piglets (p < 0.05. The heart rate of ELE piglets decreased 6.3% after treatment; whereas the heart rate of RAM piglets remained elevated 2.4% (p < 0.05. In terms of heart rate, loading by elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp.

  2. Raapzaadeiwitconcentraat en erwteneiwitconcentraat in biologisch biggenvoer = Canola protein concentrate and pea protein concentratrate in diets for organically housed piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    At the Experimental Farm Raalte it was investigated whether canola protein concentrate and pea protein concentrate are suitable protein-rich feedstuffs for organically housed piglets. It is concluded that both protein concentrates are suitable protein-rich feedstuffs for piglets. Feed intake and

  3. Simulated epidemiological and economic effects of measures to reduce piglet supply during a classical swine fever epidemic in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M.J.J.; Nielen, M.; Burrell, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of additional measures adopted during a classical swine fever (CSF) epidemic to reduce piglet supply, namely, an insemination ban, abortion of sows and killing of young piglets, are studied using a stochastic, spatial, dynamic epidemiological simulation model of the pig sector in the

  4. Imbalance of intestinal immune function in piglets infected by porcine circovirus type 2 during the fetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Li, Jin Jun; Liu, Yuan; Dong, Wei; Pang, Pei; Deng, Zhi Bang

    2017-03-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2- (PCV2-) associated reproductive disorders and enteritis have commonly been observed on PCV2-contaminated pig farms in recent years. In order to investigate disorders of intestinal immunity in piglets infected by PCV2 during the fetal period, 9 PCV2b-infected piglets and 6 non-infected piglets at one day of age were selected and euthanised prior to suckling. Samples of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and duodena were collected to investigate factors related to intestinal immunity and to detect lymphocytic apoptosis. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in the levels of IL-2, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the PCV2b-infected piglets but IFN-γ levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01) and IL-4 levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in infected piglets than in the controls. Furthermore, lymphocytic apoptosis increased in PCV2b-infected piglets and CD4+ to CD8+ ratios were lower in these piglets than in the controls. These findings suggest vertical transmission of PCV2b to fetuses, leading to an imbalance of intestinal immune function in piglets.

  5. Association between butyrate and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in gut contents and faeces in weaning piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    of citrus pectin (soluble fibre) and barley hulls (insoluble fibre) and gastrointestinal contents were collected at euthanasia 9 days after weaning. In Trial 2, 120 pair-wise penned piglets were allocated to the same experimental diets as in Trial 1 (24 piglets per treatment), and fresh faecal samples were...

  6. Effect of iron dextran injection on growth performance of crossbred and desi piglets under farm and village conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuvir Ranjan

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of iron dextran injection on growth performance of crossbred and desi piglets under farm and village conditions. Materials and Methods: The experiments were conducted in Pig Breeding Farm, Ranchi Veterinary College, Ranchi and different villages on crossbred and desi preweaned piglets. The piglets were divided into three treatment groups as T 1 (control, T2 (injected iron dextran @ 1 ml (50mg I/M twice at 3rd and 14th days of age and T3 (injected iron dextran @ 2 ml 2 3 (100mg I/M once at 3rd day of age. Results: The average body weight of crossbred piglets in farm condition of T1 , T2 and T3 groups at weaning (8 week were 7.162±0.365, 9.985±0.281 and 9.572±0.295 kg, respectively. The piglets of T2 group showed better performance over T3 and T1 groups in farm and village conditions on crossbred and desi piglets. Conclusion: On the basis of present findings it may be concluded that irondextran (50mg/ ml injection should be given to all piglets @ 1 ml I/M during preweaning period at 3rd and 14th day of age for better growth of piglets. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 599-602

  7. Intramural Injection with Botulinum Toxin Type A in Piglet Esophagus. The Influencer on Maximum Load and Elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Qvist, Niels; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2016-01-01

    until bursting point. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the influence of different amounts of intramural BTX-A on the stretch-tension characteristics and histological changes of the esophagus in piglets. Materials and Methods A total of 52 piglets were randomized to four groups...

  8. Facilitating ‘learning from mom how to eat like a pig’ to improve welfare of piglets around weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Piglets in commercial husbandry are weaned abruptly and at a rather young age. Many weanling piglets are poorly adapted to ingest solid food, often resulting in a period of underfeeding. The underfeeding generally leads to a poor growth, diarrhoea occurrence and the development of damaging

  9. Effects of environmental enrichment and loose housing of lactating sows on piglets behaviour before and after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Weaning of piglets in commercial husbandry systems is earlier and more abrupt than would happen under natural conditions, resulting in low feed intakes and health and welfare problems in the immediate postweaning period. Piglets in commercial systems generally have limited opportunities to learn how

  10. Cultivation independent analysis of the development of the Lactobacillus spp. Community in the intestinal tract of newborn piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Zhu, W.Y.; Smidt, H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular diversity and development of the Lactobacillus community in the intestinal tract, as influenced by age and intestinal compartment, were studied in one litter of 12 conventionally raised piglets. Piglets were euthanized at each week (3 animals per time). Digesta and tissue samples from

  11. The microbial community of the gut differs between piglets fed sow milk, milk replacer or bovine colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; de Jonge, Nadieh; Sugiharto, Sugiharto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the gut microbiota composition of piglets fed bovine colostrum (BC), milk replacer (MR) or sow milk (SM) in the post-weaning period. Piglets (n 36), 23-d old, were randomly allocated to the three diets. Faecal samples were collected at 23, 25, 27 and 30 d...

  12. In vitro propagation of male germline stem cells from piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Tian, Xiue; Zhang, Yaqing; Qin, Jinzhou; An, Junhui; Zeng, Wenxian

    2013-07-01

    To study the effects of serum and growth factors on propagation of porcine male germline stem cells (MGSCs) in vitro and develop a culture system for these stem cells. Fresh testicular cells from neonatal piglets were obtained by mechanical dissociation and collagenase-trypsin digestion. After differential plating, non-adhering cells were cultured in media supplemented with different concentrations of serum (0, 1 %, 2 %, 5 %, 10 %). After 10 days of primary culture, the cells were maintained in media supplemented with different concentrations of growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor at 1, 5, 10 ng/ml). The number of MGSC-derived colonies with different sizes was determined in each treatment to assess the effects of serum concentrations and growth factors. The number of MGSC-derived colonies was significantly higher in the presence of 1 % rather than 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS). Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) at 1, 5 ng/ml and epidermal growth factor (EGF) at 5, 10 ng/ml significantly promoted colony formation. Immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and xenotransplantation assays demonstrated the presence of functional stem cells in cultured cell population. In vitro propagation of porcine MGSCs could be maintained in the presence of 1 % FBS and supplementation of growth factors for 1 month.

  13. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi

    2014-09-11

    Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON)), walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN)), or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE) or ramp (RAM). Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05). Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05); however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p elevated 2.4% (p elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp.

  14. Detecção de cepas patogênicas pela PCR multiplex e avaliação da sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isoladas de leitões diarréicos Detection of pathogenic strains by multiplex PCR and antimicrobial sensitivity of Escherichia coli isolated from piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Macêdo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a freqüência dos genes de fímbrias (K88, K99, 987P, F18 e F41 e toxinas (LT, Stb, StaP e Stx2e de cepas de E. coli isoladas de leitões com diarréia usando a técnica de PCR multiplex com primers específicos para esses genes, e estudou-se o padrão de sensibilidade das cepas patogênicas pelo método de difusão em disco ao florfenicol, ceftiofur sódico, colistina, fosfomicina, neomicina, norfloxacina, sulfa + trimetoprim, doxiciclina, tetraciclina e lincomicina. Foram utilizadas 144 amostras de E.coli isoladas de leitões com diarréia, provenientes de granjas localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais. Dessas, 42 (29,2% foram positivas para pelo menos um dos fatores de virulência testados. Dentre essas 42 amostras, 23 (54,8% apresentaram genes de fímbria e toxina, sete (16,6% apresentaram somente genes de toxinas e 12 (28,6% amostras somente genes de fímbria. O resultado do teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos demonstrou que o florfenicol (89,5 % e o ceftiofur sódico (84,2% foram as drogas de melhor eficácia in vitro sobre cepas de E. coli com fatores de virulência.The frequency of virulence determinants genes for fimbrial adhesions (K88, K99, 987P, F18 and F41 and toxins (LT, Stb, StaP and Stx2e in E. coli strains isolated from diarrheic piglets using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay with specific primers for these genes was studied. The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of pathogenic isolates for florfenicol, sodium ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, neomycin, norfloxacin, sulfa + trimetoprim, doxycycline, tetracycline and lincomycin was also tested using the disk diffusion method. E. coli were isolated from 144 diarrheic piglets from farms in the state of Minas Gerais. Forty-two out of 144 studied samples (29.2% were positive for at least one tested virulence factor. Out of these 42, 23 samples (54.8% contained fimbria and toxin genes, seven (16.6% samples had genes for toxins only and 12 (28.6% samples

  15. Nutrient-intake-level-dependent regulation of intestinal development in newborn intrauterine growth-restricted piglets via glucagon-like peptide-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, Z; Gao, L; Chen, L; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the intestinal development of newborn intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets subjected to normal nutrient intake (NNI) or restricted nutrient intake (RNI). Newborn normal birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets were allotted to NNI or RNI levels for 4 weeks from day 8 postnatal. IUGR piglets receiving NNI had similar growth performance compared with that of NBW piglets. Small intestine length and villous height were greater in IUGR piglets fed the NNI than that of piglets fed the RNI. Lactase activity was increased in piglets fed the NNI compared with piglets fed the RNI. Absorptive function, represented by active glucose transport by the Ussing chamber method and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of two main intestinal glucose transporters, Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), were greater in IUGR piglets fed the NNI compared with piglets fed the RNI regimen. The apoptotic process, characterized by caspase-3 activity (a sign of activated apoptotic cells) and mRNA expressions of p53 (pro-apoptotic), bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) (pro-apoptotic) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) (anti-apoptotic), were improved in IUGR piglets fed the NNI regimen. To test the hypothesis that improvements in intestinal development of IUGR piglets fed NNI might be mediated through circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), GLP-2 was injected subcutaneously to IUGR piglets fed the RNI from day 8 to day 15 postnatal. Although the intestinal development of IUGR piglets fed the RNI regimen was suppressed compared with those fed the NNI regimen, an exogenous injection of GLP-2 was able to bring intestinal development to similar levels as NNI-fed IUGR piglets. Collectively, our results demonstrate that IUGR neonates that have NNI levels could improve intestinal function via the regulation of GLP-2.

  16. Piglets born from handmade cloning, an innovative cloning method without micromanipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Y.; Kragh, P.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Porcine handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified alternative of micromanipulation based traditional cloning (TC) has been developed in multiple phases during the past years, but the final evidence of its biological value, births of piglets was missing. Here we report the first births of healthy piglets......) of HMC reconstructed embryos developed to blastocysts with an average cell number of 77 ± 3 (n = 26) after 7 days in vitro culture (IVC). According to our knowledge, this is the highest in vitro developmental rate after porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). A total of 416 blastocysts from HMC......, mixed with 150 blastocysts from TC using a cell line from a different breed were transferred surgically to nine synchronized recipients. Out of the four pregnancies (44.4%) two were lost, while two pregnancies went to term and litters of 3 and 10 piglets were delivered by Caesarean section, with live...

  17. Growth performance and oxidative status in piglets supplemented with verbascoside and teupolioside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pastorelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred forty piglets, half female and half barrows, 8.1 ± 1.40 kg LW, were divided into 6 experimental groups and fed ad libitum with a diet supplemented with the following levels of antioxidants: 0 (CON + = positive control added with 100 mg lincomicine/kg, 5 (LT = low teupolioside or LV = low verbascoside, 10 (HT = high teupolioside; HV = high verbascoside; LT+LV mg/kg of diet for 56 days. Body weight and feed intake were recorded on d0, 14 and 56 of the trial. Ten piglets from each group were selected and blood collected by anterior vena cava puncture at 0, 14 and 56 d for reactive oxygen metabolite (ROMs determination. HV showed final weight higher than the other groups (P<0.05, and oxidative stability was improved by both integrations of verbascoside. These results support the view that Verbascoside influences the growth performances and oxidative status of piglets.

  18. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eAntonides

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction due to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients supply to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (short-term and reference memory (long-term in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46-54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed a better reference memory performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, the vLBW piglets fell back less in working memory scores than the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition.

  19. Effect of Ultrafine Pulverization of Senecio Scandens on Growth, Immune System and Faecal Microorganisms in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Yue1, CQ Lu1, HY Lin1, XN Wang, JQ Zheng1, JJ Chen1* and R Gooneratne2*

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is increased interest in using naturally occurring compounds subjected to new technologies for enhancing pig nutrition to replace antibiotic usage in swine production. The effects of ultrafine pulverization on the size distribution, morphology of Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham., and the growth performance, serum immunity parameters and faecal microorganisms of piglets fed this powder were investigated. The size distribution and morphology of S. scandens were characterized by using a laser diffraction analyser and scanning electron microscopy respectively. Ninety Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire piglets (average body weight of 10.43kg were randomly assigned to six treatments with three pens of five pigs per treatment. Group 1 (Control piglets were fed the basal diet only. Groups 2 to 5 were fed with the basal diet supplemented with ultrafine powder (median diameter [d0.5] of 8.89μm of S. scandens at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2% of the basal diet, respectively, for 30 days. For group 6, 1.2% of ordinary S. scandens powder (d0.5=88.59μm was added to the basal diet. Both S. scandens ordinary and ultrafine powder increased piglet body weight and reduced the feed to gain ratio, but the performance of piglets fed the ultrafine powder was better. In groups 4 to 6, the number of Escherechia coli in faeces and the diarrhoeal incidence were significantly lower (P<0.05 and the serum IgA, IgG, IgM contents significantly higher (P<0.05. Feeding S. scandens ultrafine powder in the diet improved piglet performance and the diet supplemented with 0.9% of the ultrafine powder was the most effective.

  20. Comparative analysis of mucosal immunity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and DLY piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, L Z; Wu, Y Z; Bai, F F; William, K K; Feng, Z X; Liu, M J; Yao, J T; Zhang, X; Shao, G Q

    2014-07-07

    The Jiangquhai porcine lean strain (JQHPL) is a new pork meat-type strain that has been developed in recent years from the parent lines Duroc, Fengjing, and Jiangquhai pigs (DurocxFengjing pigxJiangquhai pig). Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a chronic respiratory disease of pigs, generating high economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the degree of resistance to M. hyopneumoniae for the Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and the Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire (DLY) pigs, which are Western commercial pigs that have been introduced in China. A total of 209 DLY piglets and 221 JQHPL piglets from 19 Landrace x Yorkshire and 22 JQHPL M. hyopneumoniae positive gestating sows with different expected dates of confinement were selected and raised in the same M. hyopneumoniae positive farrowing barn. When the oldest suckling piglets were 37 days old, nasal swabs were collected from all the piglets (ranging from 4 to 37 days old) to detect the M. hyopneumoniae pathogen using n-PCR and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA using ELISA. Positive M. hyopneumoniae infection rates in both the strains increased with age; however, positive rates for JQHPL were lower compared to DLY at 14 to 35 days old. The level of the specific SIgA rose rapidly in JQHPL respiratory tracts, particularly in piglets 21 to 35 days in age compared to DLY piglets of the same age; however, the level of the specific SIgA in DLY also marginally increased. In conclusion, JQHPL pigs exhibits higher resistance to M. hyopneumoniae compared to DLY. It is possible that this characteristic is caused by the faster and stronger mucosal immunity phenotype of the JQHPL strain.

  1. Effects of prefeeding a prebiotic on diarrhea and colonic cell proliferation in piglets fed lactulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, C Lawrence; Chang, J C; Cooper, James R; Frankel, Wendy L

    2004-01-01

    Severe lactulose malabsorption causes osmotic diarrhea and decreased cecal cell proliferation. We tested the hypothesis that prefeeding with inulin, a prebiotic, would attenuate these effects. Piglets aged 10 days were randomized to 3 feeding groups (n = 6 each group): Control (CON), fed sow-milk replacement formula (SMR; lactose, 60 g/L) for 14 days; a lactulose-challenged group (LAC) that was fed SMR for 7 days and then a formula containing lactose (30 g/L) and lactulose (60 g/L) for 7 days; and a group prefed SMR containing inulin (3 g/L) for 7 days and then fed the lactulose-supplemented formula (INULIN). Groups CON and INULIN were pair-fed to LAC. Then, cecal tissue was collected for histology, determination of crypt cell proliferation index, apoptosis, and Western blot determination of expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein. The fraction of days when diarrhea was present (mean +/- SD) was greater for LAC (0.87 +/- 0.14; p = .004) than CON (0.28 +/- 0.22; INULIN: 0.52 +/- 0.44; p = .058 vs LAC). Cell proliferation index for the total crypt was less for LAC (0.12 +/- 0.04; p = .016) compared with CON (0.20 +/- 0.04; INULIN: 0.15 +/- 0.04; p = .06 vs LAC). BAX protein expression and apoptosis were similar in the 3 groups. We observed trends consistent with the hypothesis that prefeeding inulin attenuates diarrhea and the reduction in cell proliferation caused by lactulose.

  2. Electron microscopic observation of the respiratory tract of SPF piglets inoculated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, B.; Vena, M.M.; Cavalier, A.; Lannic, J. Le; Gouranton, J.; Kobisch, M.

    1992-01-01

    Seven hysterectomy derived piglets were repeatedly challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during the first week of life. Samples of trachea, bronchi and lung tissue collected 2-11 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.) were examined using light and electron microscopy. Autoradiography was used to study in more detail the site of M. hyopneumoniae multiplication. Gross lesions were observed in lung tissue and were characterized by hyperplasia of the epithelium and an increased mononuclear cell accumulation in perivascular and peribronchiolar areas. Mild lesions of the trachea and the bronchi, including epithelial hyperplasia and infiltration of the lamina propria by inflammatory cells, were noted. Electron microscopy showed that, 2-6 weeks p.i., changes in the mid-trachea and bronchi surface consisted of the loss of cilia. Mycoplasmas covered tufts of cilia remaining on the epithelial cell surface. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs showed that they were predominantly found closely associated with the top of cilia. No specialized terminal structure could be seen and no mycoplasma cells were identified lying free in the lumen nor in close contact with the plasma membrane of cells or microvilli. Some fine fibrils radiating from one mycoplasma to another or to cilia were seen at higher magnification by scanning electron microscopy. Six to eleven weeks p.i., a disrupted epithelial surface lacking cilia was observed. Cells were desquamated and shed into the lumen with cellular remains containing droplets of mucus. Autoradiography revealed that label corresponded to the observed mycoplasma distribution. At the top of cilia, a high density of labeling was visible in the zone of high mycoplasma concentration. Therefore, incorporation of the label in the mycoplasma is proof or their multiplication in the trachea. The intimate association between the mycoplasma and cilia may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the disease caused by M. hyopneumoniae (swine

  3. Corrigendum - Influence of Tiamulin Therapy on Weight Gain in Brachyspira Dysentery in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru O. Doma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article Influence of Tiamulin Therapy on Weight Gain in Brachyspira Dysentery in Piglets first published in Vol 47, No 1 in Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies, by a clerical error instead Novartis was presented Dopharma as producer of Tiamutin 10% oily injectable solution (1ml of solution containing 100 mg of tiamulin fumarate. This article corrects: Influence of Tiamulin Therapy on Weight Gain in Brachyspira Dysentery in Piglets Vol. 47, Issue 1, p. 372-376. Article first published online: 30 May 2014

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from piglets with or without diarrhea in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otávio; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; da Costa Cruz Júnior, Eduardo Coulaud; Albefaro, Isabella Silva; de Carvalho Guedes, Roberto Maurício; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 13 antibiotics against Clostridium perfringens isolated from Brazilian piglets. The collection of isolates was performed in June to October 2010. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftiofur, whereas most were resistant to tetracycline and lincomycin. Avilamycin and narasin were more effective against isolates from non-diarrheic than from diarrheic piglets. The other antimicrobials were less active in need of high concentrations to inhibit the growth of the C. perfringens type A. These results suggest the need for further studies evaluating molecular factors related to the antimicrobial resistance of C. perfringens. PMID:24031924

  5. Assessment of the probiotic potential of a dairy product fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Foligné, Benoît; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Massart, Sébastien; Parayre, Sandrine; Le Loir, Yves; Boudry, Gaëlle; Jan, Gwénaël

    2012-08-15

    Dairy propionibacteria, including Propionibacterium freudenreichii , display promising probiotic properties, including immunomodulation. These properties are highly strain-dependent and rarely studied in a fermented dairy product. We screened 10 strains, grown in a newly developed fermented milk ultrafiltrate, for immunomodulatory properties in vitro. The most anti-inflammatory strain, P. freudenreichii BIA129, was further tested on piglets. P. freudenreichii -fermented product improved food intake and growth of piglets. Colonic mucosa explants of treated pigs secreted less interleukin 8 (-25%, P dairy propionibacteria-fermented products, which are promising for the prevention or healing of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  6. Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Bailey L; Arruda, Paulo H; Magstadt, Drew R; Schwartz, Kent J; Dohlman, Tyler; Schleining, Jennifer A; Patterson, Abby R; Visek, Callie A; Victoria, Joseph G

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1) detect potential pathogen(s) in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2) develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control) by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets) to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets). The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41), mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41

  7. Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey L Arruda

    Full Text Available Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1 detect potential pathogen(s in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2 develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets. The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41, mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41

  8. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after oral administration in recently weaned piglets with experimentally induced Escherichia coli subtype O149 : F4 diarrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G.M.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Frydendahl, K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective-To measure the effect of Escherichia coli subtype 0149:F4-induced diarrhea on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered amoxicillin in affected piglets relative to that of uninfected piglets. Animals-22 healthy 4-week-old recently weaned Danish crossbred piglets. Procedure-12 piglets...... were orally inoculated through gastric intubation with 10(9) CFUs of an E coli 0149:F4 strain and responded by developing diarrhea 12 to 16 hours later. Piglets were dosed with amoxicillin trihydrate solution (20 mg/kg) by gastric intubation. A control group of 10 age-matched piglets without signs...... that the concentration of the antimicrobial at the site of infection reflects the systemic concentration, higher doses of amoxicillin in the treatment of piglets with E coli 0149:F4-induced diarrhea may be appropriate....

  9. Preclinical incorporation dosimetry of (+)-[18F) flubatine in piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, B.; Patt, M.; Sabri, O.; Kranz, M.; Donat, C.K.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Fischer, S.; Brust, P.; Sattler, T.; Smits, R.; Hoepping, A.; Steinbach, J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: (+)-[ 18 F] flubatine is the mirror image isomer of (-)-[ 18 F] flubatine, which is successfully used for neuroimaging of alpha4beta2 nAChRs with PET. To assess the radiation risk by this new radiotracer, biodistribution, organ doses (OD) and the effective dose (ED) were investigated in a preclinical trials using piglets. Method: whole body dosimetry of (+)-[ 18 F] flubatine was performed in 3 female piglets (age: 43 ± 1.2 days, weight: 14 ± 1.0 kg). The animals were narcotized using 20 mg/kg Ketamine, 2 mg/kg Azaperone; 1.5% Isoflurane in 70% N 2 O/30% O 2 and sequentially PET-imaged up to 5 hours post i.v. injection of 183.5 ± 9.0 MBq on a SIEMENS Biograph16 PET/CT-system on 7 bed positions (BP) per frame, 1.5 to 6 min/BP, CT-attenuation correction (AC) and iterative reconstruction. All relevant organs were defined by volumes of interest. Exponential curves were fitted to the time-activity-data (%ID/g, and %ID/organ). Time- and mass-scales were adapted to the human order of magnitude. The ODs were calculated using the adult male model with OLINDA. The ED was calculated using tissue weighting factors as published in the ICRP103. Results: The highest OD was received by the urinary bladder (71.7 ± 26.3 μSv/MBq), the kidneys (45.1 ± 6.5 μSv/MBq) and the brain (32.3 ± 3.24 μSv/MBq). The highest contribution to the ED was by the urinary bladder (2.9 ± 1.1 μSv/MBq), the lungs (1.7 ± 0.02 μSv/MBq) and the red marrow (1.4 ± 0.1μSv/MBq). According to this data, the ED to humans is 14.3 ± 0.3 μSv/MBq. Conclusion: considering 40% underestimation of the ED to humans by preclinical dosimetry [1] the expected ED to humans after 300 MBq i.v. is 7.2 mSv, which is about the ED by (-)-[ 18 F]flubatine (6.8 mSv/300 MBq) and well within the range of what other 18 F-labeled compounds cause to humans. This risk assessment encourages to transfer (+)-[F 18 ] flubatine from preclinical to clinical study phases and to further develop

  10. Isolation and characterization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from calves and piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Foditsch

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to isolate and characterize Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from fecal samples of healthy calves and piglets, in order to develop a novel probiotic for livestock animals. We identified 203 isolates of Faecalibacterium sp., which were clustered in 40 genetically distinct groups. One representative isolate from each cluster was selected for further characterization. The concentrations of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA acetate, butyrate, propionate and isobutyrate in the culture media were measured by gas chromatography. We observed reduction in the concentration of acetate followed by concomitant increase in the concentration of butyrate, suggesting that the isolates were consuming acetate present in the media and producing butyrate. Butyrate production correlated positively with bacterial growth. Since butyrate has many benefits to the colonic epithelial cells, the selection of strains that produce higher amounts of butyrate is extremely important for the development of this potential probiotic. The effect of pH and concentration of bile salts on bacterial growth was also evaluated in order to mimic the conditions encountered by F. prausnitzii in vivo. The optimal pH for growth ranged between 5.5 and 6.7, while most isolates were inhibited by of the lowest concentration of bile salts tested (0.1%. Antimicrobial resistance profile showed that most isolates of Faecalibacterium sp. were resistant against ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, amikacin, cefepime and cefoxitin. A total of 19 different combinations of multidrug resistance were observed among the isolates. Our results provide new insights into the cultural and physiological characteristics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii illustrating large variability in short chain fatty acid production, in vitro growth, sensitivity to bile salts, and antibiotic resistance and suggesting that future

  11. Dietary Tributyrin Supplementation Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Abnormal Lipid Metabolism in Suckling Piglets with Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jintian; Dong, Li; Xu, Wen; Bai, Kaiwen; Lu, Changhui; Wu, Yanan; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with insulin resistance and lipid disorder. Tributyrin (TB), a pro-drug of butyrate, can attenuate dysfunctions in body metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of TB supplementation on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in neonatal piglets with IUGR. Eight neonatal piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and 16 neonatal piglets with IUGR were selected, weaned on the 7th day, and fed basic milk diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic milk diets supplemented with 0.1% tributyrin (IT group, IUGR piglets) until day 21 (n = 8). Relative parameters for lipid metabolism and mRNA expression were measured. Piglets with IUGR showed higher (P insulin in the serum, higher (P insulin, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, and the concentrations of TG and NEFA in the liver, and increased (P insulin signal transduction pathway and hepatic lipogenic pathway (including transcription factors and nuclear factors) was significantly (P insulin resistance and abnormal lipid metabolism in IUGR piglets by increasing enzyme activities and upregulating mRNA expression, leading to an early improvement in the metabolic efficiency of IUGR piglets. PMID:26317832

  12. The Course of Parturition Affects Piglet Condition at Birth and Survival and Growth through the Nursery Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk, Pieter; Fleuren, Marleen; van Hees, Hubèrt; van Kempen, Theo

    2018-04-24

    The aim of this study was to relate the course of parturition to the condition of piglets at birth, based on umbilical cord blood acid-base values, and relate the condition at birth to neonatal survival and performance up to 10 weeks of life. Data were collected from 37 spontaneous unassisted parturitions, and neonatal performance was based on observations of 516 piglets. Stillbirth rate increased from 2% in the first piglets, to 17% in piglets born 13th in the litter or later. This was aggravated in sows with longer than average stage II of parturition. Umbilical cord blood values also reflected the effect of birth order, with pH decreasing and lactate increasing in the course of parturition. Interestingly, sows that had a long expulsion stage of parturition also took longer to give birth to the first four piglets (r = 0.74), suggesting that sows with complicated parturition were already experiencing problems at the start of expulsion of piglets. Piglets with signs of asphyxia, based on umbilical blood lactate higher than 4.46 mmol/L, were slower to start suckling, had a higher risk of neonatal mortality, and had a slower growth rate over the first 10 weeks of life.

  13. The Use of a Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt for the Euthanasia of Neonate Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grist, Andrew; Lines, Jeff A; Knowles, Toby G; Mason, Charles W; Wotton, Stephen B

    2018-04-02

    The most common method for the on-farm euthanasia of neonate piglets is reported to be manual blunt force trauma. This paper presents the results of research to evaluate a mechanical non-penetrating captive bolt (the Accles and Shelvoke CASH small animal tool, Birmingham, UK) to produce an immediate stun/kill with neonate piglets. One hundred and forty-seven piglets (average dead weight = 1.20 kg ± 0.58 (standard deviation, SD), mean age = 5.8 days (median = 3)) were euthanized with the device and demonstrated immediate loss of consciousness, subjectively assessed by behavioural signs and no recovery. The result that 147 out of 147 animals were effectively stun/killed gives a 95% confidence interval for the true percentage of animals that would be effectively stun/killed of 97.5-100% with the use of the CASH small animal tool under the conditions of the current study. This research concludes that the CASH small animal tool, using a 1 grain brown coded cartridge, is suitable for producing a stun/kill in neonate piglets when applied in a frontal/parietal position.

  14. Studying the Differences of Bacterial Metabolome and Microbiome in the Colon between Landrace and Meihua Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijuan Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the microbiome and metabolome differences in the colon lumen from two pig breeds with different genetic backgrounds. Fourteen weaned piglets at 30 days of age, including seven Landrace piglets (a lean-type pig breed with a fast growth rate and seven Meihua piglets (a fatty-type Chinese local pig breed with a slow growth rate, were fed the same diets for 35 days. Untargeted metabolomics analyses showed that a total of 401 metabolites differed between Landrace and Meihua. Seventy of these 401 metabolites were conclusively identified. Landrace accumulated more short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs and secondary bile acids in the colon lumen. Moreover, expression of the SCFAs transporter (solute carrier family 5 member 8, SLC5A8 and receptor (G protein-coupled receptor 41, GPR41 in the colon mucosa was higher, while the bile acids receptor (farnesoid X receptor, FXR had lower expression in Landrace compared to Meihua. The relative abundances of 8 genera and 16 species of bacteria differed significantly between Landrace and Meihua, and were closely related to the colonic concentrations of bile acids or SCFAs based on Pearson's correlation analysis. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that there were differences in the colonic microbiome and metabolome between Meihua and Landrace piglets, with the most profound disparity in production of SCFAs and secondary bile acids.

  15. Predicted high-performing piglets exhibit more and larger skeletal muscle fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredes Escobar, S.P.; Kalbe, C.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hees, van H.M.J.; Lösel, D.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Rehfeldt, C.

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal (muscle) growth potential in pigs depends on the total number and hypertrophy of myofibers in skeletal muscle tissue. In a previous study an algorithm was developed to predict piglet BW at the end of the nursery period (10 wk of age) on the basis of BW at birth, at weaning, and at 6 wk of

  16. Early cytokine response of gnotobiotic piglets to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šplíchal, Igor; Trebichavský, Ilja; Muneta, Y.; Mori, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2002), s. 291-297 ISSN 0928-4249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/0917 Grant - others:Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries(JP) RCP3260 Keywords : typhimurium * gnotobiotic piglet Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.031, year: 2002

  17. Plasma lipopolysaccharide level and enterocyte brush border enzymes in gnotobiotic piglets infected with Salmonella typhimurium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trebichavský, Ilja; Kozáková, Hana; Šplíchal, Igor

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, - (2002), s. 289-294 ISSN 8750-7943 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/0917; GA AV ČR IAA5020101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : swine * gnotobiotic piglet * salmonella typhimurium Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.107, year: 2002

  18. The Use of a Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt for the Euthanasia of Neonate Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grist

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common method for the on-farm euthanasia of neonate piglets is reported to be manual blunt force trauma. This paper presents the results of research to evaluate a mechanical non-penetrating captive bolt (the Accles and Shelvoke CASH small animal tool, Birmingham, UK to produce an immediate stun/kill with neonate piglets. One hundred and forty-seven piglets (average dead weight = 1.20 kg ± 0.58 (standard deviation, SD, mean age = 5.8 days (median = 3 were euthanized with the device and demonstrated immediate loss of consciousness, subjectively assessed by behavioural signs and no recovery. The result that 147 out of 147 animals were effectively stun/killed gives a 95% confidence interval for the true percentage of animals that would be effectively stun/killed of 97.5–100% with the use of the CASH small animal tool under the conditions of the current study. This research concludes that the CASH small animal tool, using a 1 grain brown coded cartridge, is suitable for producing a stun/kill in neonate piglets when applied in a frontal/parietal position.

  19. Nitrous oxide as a humane method for piglet euthanasia: behavior and electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for humane methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address public concern that current methods are not optimal. Blunt force trauma is considered humane but aesthetically objectionable. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used but criticized as aversive. This research sought to: 1) evaluate the av...

  20. Change in lameness risk estimates in piglets due to the modelling of herd-level variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, M.K.; Christensen, J.

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study (Christensen, 1996. Prev. Vet. Med. 26, 107-118), an effect parameter changed from positive to negative depending on the model used. The study considered lameness in suckling piglets and the dataset included 7632 litters from 35 herds from the Health and Production Surveillanc...

  1. Early-postnatal iron deficiency impacts plasticity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, Ellis; De Vry, Jochen; Antonides, Alexandra; Paes, Dean; Schepers, Melissa; van der Staay, Franz Josef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074262653; Prickaerts, Jos; Vanmierlo, Tim

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether alterations in plasticity markers such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) are underlying iron deficiency (ID)-induced cognitive impairments in iron depleted piglets. Newborn

  2. F4+ Escherichia coli in piglets: effect of host characteristics on population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) is a multifactorial disease of newly-weaned piglets that occurs in the first two weeks after weaning. PWD causes growth retardation and increased mortality, resulting in reduced animal welfare and economical damage. The main causative agent of PWD is enterotoxigenic

  3. Electrical energy use in different heating systems for early weaned piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbi, J. [Federal Univ. of Santa Maria, Palmeira das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Animal Science; Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). College of Agricultural Engineering; Rossi, L.A.; Moura, D.J.; Oliveira, R.A.; David, E. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). College of Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study compared the electrical energy use and thermal comfort conditions associated with 3 heating technologies used in piglet farms. Heating systems for piglets in nursery and farrowing can be improved to conserve energy without affecting the welfare of the animals. The evaluation was conducted at a commercial farm in a subtropical climate area of Brazil. Each treatment involved 150 weaned piglets at 21 days-old. The systems were designed to keep the piglets at 28 to 30 degrees C for 14 days. Suspended electrical resistors, heated floors and convection heating were the 3 heating technologies examined during this study which evaluated the electrical energy consumption, maximum power demand requirements and dry-bulb temperature. The study also assessed the specific consumption in terms of kWh/kg of live produced body mass as well as the efficiency of heating system in terms of degrees C per cubic metre of air. In terms of electrical energy use, the best heating system was the heated floor. However, the electrical resistance heating system was the best in terms of thermal comfort.

  4. Prenatal Flavor Exposure Affects Flavor Recognition and Stress-Related Behavior of Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during

  5. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  6. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study

  7. Endothelin receptor antagonist attenuates oxidative stress in a neonatal sepsis piglet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tatenobu; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Kato, Shin; Daoud, Ghada Abdel-Hamid; Kato, Takenori; Sugiura, Takahiro; Kakita, Hiroki; Nobata, Masanori; Kamei, Michi; Mizuno, Haruo; Imai, Masaki; Ito, Tetsuya; Kato, Ineko; Suzuki, Satoshi; Okada, Noriko; Togari, Hajime; Okada, Hidechika

    2012-12-01

    Oxidative stress (oxidant-antioxidant imbalance) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neonatal sepsis. This study evaluated whether an antisense peptide endothelin receptor antagonist, ETR-P1/fl, could attenuate oxidative stress in a neonatal sepsis model. A total of 18 3-d-old piglets were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Six piglets received cecal ligation and perforation (CLP group) for induction of sepsis. Six piglets also received continuous infusion (0.05 mg/kg/h) of ETR-P1/fl 30 min after CLP (ETR-P1/fl group). Six piglets received a sham operation. Serum total hydroperoxide (TH), biological antioxidant potentials (BAPs), oxidative stress index (OSI, calculated as TH/BAP), interleukin (IL)-6, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and creatinine were measured before CLP and at 1, 3, and 6 h after CLP. CLP evoked a state of shock resulting in elevated TH, OSI, and IL-6 levels. ETR-P1/fl administration after CLP resulted in lower serum TH at 1 and 3 h after CLP, OSI at 1 and 3 h after CLP, IL-6 at 1 and 3 h after CLP, and GOT at 3 and 6 h after CLP as compared with the CLP group. ETR-P1/fl treatment significantly attenuated the elevation of serum oxidative stress markers (TH and OSI), IL-6, and GOT in a progressive neonatal sepsis CLP model.

  8. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Roura, E.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently

  9. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive, an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin, and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract. The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P<0.05. The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics.

  10. Modulation of plasma antioxidant activity in weaned piglets by plant polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai J. Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant polyphenols (PP on antioxidant activity in weaned piglets. First, a uniform design, one optimising an experimental technique that can rationally arrange the concentrations of mixture components, was used to obtain the best PP mixture of apple, grape seed, green tea and olive leaf polyphenols based on in vitro antioxidant capacity and inhibitory action on bacterial growth. Second, the optimised PP mixture was tested in vivo with an efficacy trial on piglets. The optimal effects of the mix were observed in vitro when apple, grape seed, green tea, olive leaf polyphenols and a carrier (silicon dioxide accounted for 16.5, 27.5, 30, 2.5 and 23.5%, respectively, of the mixture. Forty-eight weaned piglets were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments (6 replicates of 4 piglets each per treatment and fed a control diet (CTR or CTR supplemented with 0.1% of the optimised PP mixture. Dietary PP did not affect growth performance compared to the CTR group. Plasma total protein, urea nitrogen and lysozyme content were not affected by dietary treatment. No differences of E. coli or Clostridia counts in the faeces and caecum content between the CTR and PP groups were observed. A reduced malondialdehyde concentration in the PP group was observed on day 21 compared to the CTR group (P=0.02. In conclusion, the prepared PP mixture has the potential to improve plasma antioxidant activity.

  11. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Hansmann, Florian; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam; Derking, Sarah; Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Herder, Vanessa; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael; Becher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses belonging to the continuously growing family Flaviviridae. A genetically very distinct pestivirus was recently discovered in the USA, designated atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, a screening of 369 sera from apparently healthy adult pigs demonstrated the existence of APPV in Germany with an estimated individual prevalence of 2.4% and ~10% at farm level. Additionally, APPV genomes were detected in newborn piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT), but genomes were absent in unaffected piglets. High loads of genomes were identified in glandular epithelial cells, follicular centers of lymphoid organs, the inner granular cell layer of the cerebellum, as well as in the trigeminal and spinal ganglia. Retrospective analysis of cerebellum samples from 2007 demonstrated that APPV can be found in piglets with CT of unsolved aetiology. Determination of the first European APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence revealed 88.2% nucleotide identity to the APPV sequence from the USA. APPV sequences derived from different regions in Germany demonstrated to be highly variable. Taken together, the results of this study strongly suggest that the presence of APPV genomes in newborn piglets correlates with CT, while no association with clinical disease could be observed in viremic adult pigs. PMID:27292119

  12. Rotavirus type A associated diarrhoea in neonatal piglets: importance and biodymanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, C. B.; Rasmussen, Martin; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Background. Rotavirus A (RVA) is a well-known course of diarrhoea in piglets, but the infection dynamics and clinical impact are not fully elucidated. The aim was to determine the significance of infection with RVA in relation to neonantal diarrhoea. Material/Methods. Two commercial swine herds...

  13. The influence of Metisevit on biochemical and morphological indicators of blood of piglets under nitrate loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gutyj

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the influence of the developed complex preparation Metisevit on the dynamics of morphological and biochemical blood indicators of piglets under nitrate loading. The research established that sodium nitrate intoxication causes disbalance of the physiological level of hematological indicators of the tested animals’ organisms. This was indicated by the manifestations of subclinical chronic nitrate-nitrite toxicosis: the increase in the level of nitrates, nitrites and methemoglobin in the blood. After prolonged feeding of the piglets with sodium nitrate at a dose of 0.3 g nitrate ion/kg, the concentration of nitrates and nitrites in the blood serum reached its maximum on the 60th day of the experiment. Also, the number of leukocytes and erythrocytes in the blood increased, and the activity of aspartate- and alanineaminotransferase in the blood serum increased. We rank the extent of liver intoxication with nitrates according to intensity of aminotransferase in the blood serum of the tested piglets. The normalization of morphological and biochemical blood indicators of piglets under nitrate-nitrite intoxication requires usage of a preparation which contains vitamins, zeolites and antioxidants. If the fodder contains high doses of nitrates, 1.0 mg/kg dose of Metisevit is added to the fodder for preventing subclinical nitrate-nitrite toxicosis. Metisevit contains the following agents: phenozan acid, methionine, zeolite, selenium, vitamins E and C. The research conducted proved the feasibility of using Metisevit for preventing chronic nitrate-nitrite toxicosis in piglets. This preparation caused a decrease in the concentration of nitrates, nitrites and in the level of methemoglobin in the blood of piglets. Usage of Metisevit on piglets showed normalization of the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood on the 10th day, and normalization of ASAT and ALAT on 30th and 90th days. The mechanism of

  14. Change in tidal volume during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Elliott S; Cheung, Po-Yin; O'Reilly, Megan; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of inflations during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is to deliver an adequate tidal volume (VT) to facilitate gas exchange. However, no study has examined VT delivery during chest compression (CC) in detail to understand the effect of CC on lung aeration. The aim of the study was to examine VT changes during CC and their effect on lung aeration. Piglets were anaesthetised, instrumented and intubated with zero leak. They were then randomly assigned to CPR using either 3:1 compression:ventilation ratio (C:V) (n=6), continuous CC with asynchronous ventilations (CCaV) (90 CC/min with 30/min asynchronous ventilations) (n=6) or continuous CC superimposed with 30 s sustained inflations (CC+SI) with a CC rate of 120/min (n=5). A respiratory function monitor (NM3, Respironics, Philips, Andover, Massachusetts, USA) was used to continuously measure inspiration tidal volume (VTi) and expirational tidal volume (VTe). ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test were used to compare variables of all three groups. During the inflation in the 3:1 C:V group, the mean (SD) VTi and VTe was 23.5 (5.3) mL/kg and 19.4 (2.7) mL/kg (p=0.16), respectively. During the CC, we observed a significant VT loss in the 3:1 group with VTi and VTe being 4.1 (1.2) mL/kg and 11.1 (3.3) mL/kg (p=0.007), respectively. In the CCaV group, VTe was higher compared with VTi, but this was not significant. In the CC+SI group, a VT gain during each CC with VTi and VTe of 16.3 (3.2) mL/kg and 14 (3) mL/kg (p=0.21), respectively, was observed. VT delivery is improved using CC+SI compared with 3:1 C:V. This improvement in VT delivery may lead to better alveolar oxygen delivery and lung aeration. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Whole-body iron-59 retention measurements for estimating the iron status of piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfau, A.; Rudolphi, K.; Heinrich, H.C.; Gabbe, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    A large-volume, 4π whole-body liquid scintillation detector was used to determine 59 Fe absorption in 173 one-to-six-weeks-old piglets with normal and depleted iron stores. Values of intestinal absorption from a 10 μmole (corresponds to 0.558 mg) 59 Fe 2+ test dose were compared with levels of haemoglobin, haematocrit, and serum iron as well as with stainable diffuse iron of bone marrow reticuloendothelial cells, and the dose relationship of intestinal iron absorption from 59 Fe-labelled FeSO 4 and methaemoglobin was measured. The investigations indicated that neither blood parameters, cytochemical gradings nor absorption levels from the 59 Fe test dose alone were sufficient to describe quantitatively the various stages of iron deficiency in piglets. A synopsis of all parameters appeared to be necessary for defining normal iron status and prelatent, latent and manifest iron deficiency. Piglets fed on sows' milk only developed manifest iron deficiency within the first three weeks of age. After an access to soil and/or creep feed from the eighth day of age, or intramuscular injections of 200 mg Fe as iron-dextran at three days of age, or injections of 200 or 400 mg Fe combined with access to creep feed, stages of manifest, latent or prelatent iron deficiency could be observed. For an iron-dextran dose of 800 mg Fe injected in amounts of 400 mg Fe at 3 and 10 days of age, a normal iron status was obtained in three-week-old piglets. The iron dose relationship indicated that 20 mg Fe administered orally as FeSO 4 or 40 mg Fe as methaemoglobin-Fe daily should cover the iron requirement of piglets for the first three weeks of life, whereas a three-week total of iron given orally in a single dose would lead to unphysiological or fatal conditions in nursing pigs. (author)

  16. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Wen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg-1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  17. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Feng Mei

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg–1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  18. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to a shortage of oxygen and supply of nutrients to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW) piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW) siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (WM) (short-term memory) and reference memory (RM) (long-term memory) in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46-54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed better RM performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, WM scores in the vLBW were less disrupted than in the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition.

  19. Effect of local anaesthesia and/or analgesia on pain responses induced by piglet castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Görel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical castration in male piglets is painful and methods that reduce this pain are requested. This study evaluated the effect of local anaesthesia and analgesia on vocal, physiological and behavioural responses during and after castration. A second purpose was to evaluate if herdsmen can effectively administer anaesthesia. Methods Four male piglets in each of 141 litters in five herds were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: castration without local anaesthesia or analgesia (C, controls, analgesia (M, meloxicam, local anaesthesia (L, lidocaine, or both local anaesthesia and analgesia (LM. Lidocaine (L, LM was injected at least three minutes before castration and meloxicam (M, LM was injected after castration. During castration, vocalisation was measured and resistance movements judged. Behaviour observations were carried out on the castration day and the following day. The day after castration, castration wounds were ranked, ear and skin temperature was measured, and blood samples were collected for analysis of acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A concentration (SAA. Piglets were weighed on the castration day and at three weeks of age. Sickness treatments and mortality were recorded until three weeks of age. Results Piglets castrated with lidocaine produced calls with lower intensity (p p p = 0.06, n.s. and the following day (p = 0.02. Controls had less swollen wounds compared to piglets assigned to treatments M, L and LM (p p = 0.005; p = 0.05 for C + L compared to M + LM. Ear temperature was higher (p Conclusions The study concludes that lidocaine reduced pain during castration and that meloxicam reduced pain after castration. The study also concludes that the herdsmen were able to administer local anaesthesia effectively.

  20. Lactobacillus frumenti Facilitates Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function Maintenance in Early-Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Chen, Lingli; Zheng, Wenyong; Shi, Min; Liu, Liu; Xie, Chunlin; Wang, Xinkai; Niu, Yaorong; Hou, Qiliang; Xu, Xiaofan; Xu, Baoyang; Tang, Yimei; Zhou, Shuyi; Yan, Yiqin; Yang, Tao; Ma, Libao; Yan, Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    Increased intestinal epithelial barrier function damages caused by early weaning stress have adverse effects on swine health and feed utilization efficiency. Probiotics have emerged as the promising antibiotic alternatives used for intestinal barrier function damage prevention. Our previous data showed that Lactobacillus frumenti was identified as a predominant Lactobacillus in the intestinal microbiota of weaned piglets. However, whether the intestinal epithelial barrier function in piglets was regulated by L. frumenti is still unclear. Here, piglets received a PBS vehicle or PBS suspension (2 ml, 108 CFU/ml) containing the L. frumenti by oral gavage once a day during the period of 6–20 days of age prior to early weaning. Our data demonstrated that oral administration of L. frumenti significantly improved the intestinal mucosal integrity and decreased the serum endotoxin and D-lactic acid levels in early-weaned piglets (26 days of age). The intestinal tight junction proteins (including ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1) were significantly up-regulated by L. frumenti administration. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels were significantly increased by L. frumenti administration. Furthermore, our data revealed that oral administration of L. frumenti significantly increased the relative abundances of health-promoting microbes (including L. frumenti, Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, Parabacteroides distasonis, and Kazachstania telluris) and decreased the relative abundances of opportunistic pathogens (including Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Candida humilis). Functional alteration of the intestinal bacterial community by L. frumenti administration was characterized by the significantly increased fatty acids and protein metabolism and decreased diseases-associated metabolic pathways. These findings suggest that L. frumenti facilitates intestinal epithelial barrier function maintenance

  1. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Summary:Background and aims: Bone-promoting effect of different proteins in early life, under immunocompromised conditions, is unknown. We investigated effects of milk- and plantderived proteins on bone development in immunocompromised piglets. Methods: Newborn, colostrum-deprived piglets were...... assigned to a formula based on either casein (n=11), whey (n=11) or soy (n=10) as the protein source (each 55 g/L), and equal amounts of fat, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus. Results & Conclusion: Despite efforts to sustain immuno-protection (sow serum and antibiotic injections), some piglets became...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  2. An in vivo three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based averaged brain collection of the neonatal piglet (Sus scrofa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Conrad

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that morphology and perinatal growth of the piglet brain is similar to humans, use of the piglet as a translational animal model for neurodevelopmental studies is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be a powerful tool to study neurodevelopment in piglets, but many of the MRI resources have been produced for adult humans. Here, we present an average in vivo MRI-based atlas specific for the 4-week-old piglet. In addition, we have developed probabilistic tissue classification maps. These tools can be used with brain mapping software packages (e.g. SPM and FSL to aid in voxel-based morphometry and image analysis techniques. The atlas enables efficient study of neurodevelopment in a highly tractable translational animal with brain growth and development similar to humans.

  3. Effect of radiant heat at the birth site in farrowing crates on hypothermia and behaviour in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    It has been documented that floor heating of the farrowing area in loose housed sows improves survival of piglets significantly. However, today, the majority of farrowing pens are designed with crating of sows and slatted floor at the birth site. The aim of this study was to investigate whether...... providing radiant heat at the birth site to new-born piglets in pens with crated sows reduced hypothermia, time to first milk intake and growth of the piglets during the 1st week. Second parity Danish Landrace×Yorkshire sows (n=36) were randomly divided into two groups: Control (CG) and heat (HG......). In the area behind the sow (zone 1), two radiant heat panels were mounted above the slatted floor in the HG. The farrowings were attended, and the heaters were turned on at birth of first piglet and turned off 12 h after. Birth time, time to leave zone 1, time to first contact with udder and time to first...

  4. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on intestinal morphology and energy metabolism of intrauterine growth retarded weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Li; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Wang, Tian

    2017-06-01

    It has been shown that there is a relationship between intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal intestinal damage involved in energy deficits. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on the intestinal morphology, intestinal function and energy metabolism of piglets with IUGR. At weaning (21 ± 1.1 d of age), 24 IUGR piglets and 24 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weights (BW) (IUGR: 0.95 ± 0.04 kg BW; NBW: 1.58 ± 0.04 kg BW) and their weights at the time of weaning (IUGR: 5.26 ± 0.15 kg BW; NBW: 6.98 ± 0.19 kg BW). The piglets were fed a diet of either long-chain triglycerides (LCT) (containing 5% LCT) or MCT (containing 1% LCT and 4% MCT) for 28 d. Then, the piglets' intestinal morphology, biochemical parameters and mRNA abundance related to intestinal damage and energy metabolism were determined. IUGR was found to impair intestinal morphology, with evidence of decreased villus height and increased crypt depth; however, these negative effects of IUGR were ameliorated by MCT treatment. IUGR piglets showed compromised intestinal digestion and absorption functions when compared with NBW piglets. However, feeding MCT increased the maltase activity in the jejunum and alleviated IUGR-induced reductions in plasma d-xylose concentrations and jejunal sucrase activity. IUGR decreased the efficiency of the piglets' intestinal energy metabolism; however, piglets fed an MCT diet exhibited increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and ATP synthase F1 complex beta polypeptide expression, as well as decreased adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase alpha 1 expression in the jejunum of piglets. In addition, up-regulation of the piglets' citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase levels was found to occur following MCT treatment at both the activity and the transcriptional levels of the jejunum. Therefore, it can be postulated that

  5. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eAntonides

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency (ID is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life ID can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated long-term effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance and brain histology. Ten male sibling pairs of piglets were removed from the sow 4-6 days after birth. Ten piglets were given an iron dextran injection and were fed a control milk diet for 28 days (100 mg Fe/kg; their ten siblings were given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient milk diet (10 mg Fe/kg. Then, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190-240 mg Fe/kg. From 8 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term memory and reference (long-term memory (RM simultaneously. All piglets received 40-60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus. The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with acquisition RM performance for all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early ID leads to lasting cognitive deficits. The piglet as a model animal, tested in the holeboard, can be useful in future research for assessing long-term cognitive effects of early-life diets or diet

  6. Onset of small intestinal atrophy is associated with reduced intestinal blood flow in TPN-fed neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niinikoski, Harri; Stoll, Barbara; Guan, Xinfu

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the speed of onset of total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-induced mucosal atrophy, and whether this is associated with changes in intestinal blood flow and tissue metabolism in neonatal piglets. Piglets were implanted with jugular venous and duodenal catheters and either......-phenylalanine to measure crypt cell proliferation and protein synthesis, respectively. After 8 h of TPN, portal and SMA blood flow decreased 30% compared with enteral feeding (P reduced jejunal inducible nitric oxide...

  7. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that piglets congenitally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be viremic at birth, and that preweaning mortality due to secondary infections often increases during acute outbreaks of PRRS. Therefore, an immunosuppressive effect of in utero...... infection has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to characterise the changes of leukocyte populations in piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. A total of 27 liveborn uninfected control piglets and 22 piglets infected transplacentally with a Danish strain of PRRSV were included. At 2...... and 4 weeks of age, 21 of 22 (96%) and 7 of 14 (50%) examined infected piglets were still viremic, whereas PRRSV could not be detected in the six infected piglets examined at 6 weeks of age. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the phenotypic composition of leukocytes in peripheral blood...

  8. Relationship between birth order, birth weight, colostrum intake, acquisition of passive immunity and pre-weaning mortality of piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Le Dividich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between birth order (BO, birth weight (BW0, colostrum intake (CI, level of passive immunity and pre-weaning mortality of piglets. The animals used were 551 cross-bred piglets [Piétrain × (Large-White × Landrace] born from 40 sows. Colostrum immunoglobulins G (IgG determinations were made from 17 sows. Colostrum samples were obtained at birth of the first piglet then at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h later, and on the first-two and the last-two piglets born. Serum IgG determinations from 68 piglets were made at 2d of age and at weaning. Individual CI was estimated from body weight gain. Relative birth order (RBO and BW0 within-litter were weakly (R20.10 but increased by 26 ± 1.6 g per 100 g increase in BW0 (p0.10. It was concluded that despite last-born piglets obtained less passive immunity than first-born, they were not at higher risk of dying before weaning. Major causes of mortality were low birth weight and insufficient colostrum (energy intake.

  9. Dietary fat preference and effects on performance of piglets at weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Chee Weng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was to evaluate the interplay of dietary lipid sources and feeding regime in the transition from sow milk to solid food of abruptly weaned piglets. Methods Soon after weaning, 144 piglets were selected and were trained over a 15 day period to experience gradually reducing dietary fat content from 12% to 6% for lard (L, soybean oil (S, and coconut oil (C and their feeding behavior and diet preference then tested in a behavior observation experiment. Another 324 weaned piglets were used in three consecutive feeding experiments to measure the effect of different dietary fats on performance and feed choice in the four weeks after abrupt weaning. The lipid sources were used as supplements in a 3% crude fat corn/soya basal diet, with 6% of each being included to form diets 9C, 9S, and 9L respectively, and their effects on performance measured. Combinations of these diets were then further compared in fixed blends or free choice selection experiments. Results Piglets pre-trained to experience reducing lipid inclusion showed different subsequent preferences according to lipid source, with a preference for lard at 9%, soybean oil at 3%, and coconut oil at 6% inclusion rate (p<0.001. Following abrupt weaning, whilst after 4 weeks those fed 9C had the heaviest body weights (18.13 kg, p = 0.006. Piglets fed a fixed 1:1 blend of 9C+9S had a poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR = 1.80 than those fed a blend of 9C+9L (FCR = 1.4. The 9C and 9L combination groups showed better performance in both fixed blend and free choice feeding regimes. Conclusion After abrupt weaning, they still have dependence on high oleic acid lipids as found in sow milk. A feeding regime offering free choice combination of lipids might give the possibility for piglets to cope better with the transition at weaning, but further research is needed.

  10. Findings of bacterial microflora in piglets infected with conventional swine plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.

  11. Minimal Enteral Nutrition to Improve Adaptation After Intestinal Resection in Piglets and Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Qvist, Niels; Sangild, Per Torp

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) may induce a diet-dependent stimulation of gut adaptation following intestinal resection. Bovine colostrum is rich in growth factors, and we hypothesized that MEN with colostrum would stimulate intestinal adaptation, compared with formula, and would...... be well tolerated in patients with short bowel syndrome. METHODS: In experiment 1, 3-day-old piglets with 50% distal small intestinal resection were fed parenteral nutrition (PN, n = 10) or PN plus MEN given as either colostrum (PN-COL, n = 5) or formula (PN-FORM, n = 9) for 7 days. Intestinal nutrient......, enteral colostrum supplementation was well tolerated, and no infants developed clinical signs of cow's milk allergy. CONCLUSION: Minimal enteral nutrition feeding with bovine colostrum and formula induced similar intestinal adaptation after resection in piglets. Colostrum was well tolerated by newly...

  12. Neuroprotective intervention after hypoxia-ischemia may change intracerebral metabolic measures in a newborn piglet model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andelius, Ted Carl; Bøgh, Nikolaj; Pedersen, Mette Vestergaard

    Introduction Hypoxic-Ischemic Neonatal Encephalopathy (HIE) is a major contributor to neurological impairment and death in children. Due to the similarity with the human brain, newborn piglets are often used in studies of new treatments for HIE. Cell death after hypoxia ischemia (HI) occurs...... measured intracranial pressure (ICP), flow, temperature, and oxygen tension. By microdialysis we measured lactate, glucose, glycerol, and pyruvate. A NIRS-probe was placed on the right side of the head and aEEG electrodes were placed on each side. After 24 hours of stabilisation, HI was induced for 45....... Lactate/pyruvate ratio and ICP showed a parabolic pattern in the HI piglet. Conclusion We present a novel take on an already well-established animal model for HIE. We expect to provide basic knowledge of how interventions may affect intracerebral metabolic measures, pressure and gas...

  13. [Septicaemia in piglets associated with a positive finding of a methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graage, R; Ganter, M; Verspohl, J; Strommenger, B; Waldmann, K-H; Baumgärtner, W; Hennig-Pauka, I

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus has been associated with septicaemia, mastitis, vaginitis, metritis, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis. This case report demonstrates S. aureus-induced septicaemia in suckling pig- lets. Three days after birth, littermates displayed severe ecchymosis and cyanosis, with a 50% mortality rate. The surviving littermates were cross-fostered, but died 1 day later. Other piglets, which were allowed to suck at the sow, developed similar clinical signs. Haematological findings were anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia; therefore, neither isohaemolytic anaemia nor septicaemia could be excluded as differential diagnoses. At necropsy, petechial bleeding on inner organ surfaces and free blood in body cavities were found. Bacteriological examination of the sow's milk and of the spleen of one piglet detected a methicillin-resistent S. aureus strain (MRSA CC398), which was in all likelihood the cause of the disease. Potential differential diagnoses are discussed.

  14. [Effects of socializing piglets in lactation on behaviour, including tail-biting, in growing and finishing pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sandrina; Patzkéwitsch, Dorian; Reese, Sven; Erhard, Michael

    2016-06-16

    The aim of this study was to determine whether early socialising of piglets influences the later behaviour and the risk of tail biting in growing and finishing pigs. The behaviour of 183 animals (divided in three successive runs) was recorded from birth until the end of the fattening period. Furthermore, the condition of the teats of the sows as well as the integument and tails of the growing and finishing pigs were evaluated. To socialize the piglets, four litters of the experimental group (V) were provided with additional space (walkway) by opening "piglet-doors" (day 10 postpartum of the youngest litter). The piglets of the control group (K) were reared in conventional farrowing crates located in the same compartment of the stable. Post-weaning, the piglets were assigned to three groups: the experimental group (V/V, two litters of group V), the control group (K/K, two litters of group K) and the mixed group (V/K, one litter of group V and one litter of group K). After opening the "piglet-doors", piglets of group V displayed significantly more playing behaviour than piglets of group K. Additionally, the agonistic behaviour increased in group V. Post-weaning, at allocation and mixing, animals of group V/V showed significantly less agonistic behaviour than pigs of group K/K. Tail-biting behaviour occurred in all three groups, but only in runs two and three. On the 100th day of the fattening period, 58.7% of the pigs of group V/V, 51.7% of group V/K and 43.3% of group K/K still had intact tails. In pigs of group K/K, the tails were significantly shorter compared to the other two groups. Early socialization enhances piglet welfare in farrowing pens by encouraging playing behaviour. Less agonistic behaviour at allocation could furthermore reduce stress at mixing and allocation. The aim to reduce the incidence of tail-biting could not be achieved. However, socializing piglets in lactation could contribute, in accordance with other measures, to an influence on biting

  15. Effects of KN-42 on Growth Performance, Diarrhea and Faecal Bacterial Flora of Weaned Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanliang Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the effects of different doses of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, faecal bacterial flora, and the relative number of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in faeces of weaned piglets to determine whether the strain can serve as a candidate antimicrobial growth promoter. A total of 360 piglets (initial body weight 7.14±0.63 kg weaned at 26±2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 treatment groups (4 pens per treatment with 18 pigs per pen for a 28-day trial. Dietary treatments were basal diet without any antimicrobial (negative control; NC, basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg feed of neomycin sulfate (positive control; PC and basal diet supplemented with 2×109 (L, 4×109 (M and 20×109 (H CFU/kg feed of B. subtilis KN-42. During the overall period, average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets were higher in groups PC, M, and H than those in group NC (p<0.05, and all probiotics and antibiotics groups had a lower diarrhea index than group NC (p<0.05. The 16S rDNA gene-based methods were used to analyze faecal bacterial flora on day 28 of experiment. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that supplementation of B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet changed the bacterial communities, with a higher bacterial diversity and band number in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the relative number of Lactobacillus were higher in groups PC and H than in group NC (p<0.05, and the supplemented B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet also reduced the relative number of E. coli (p<0.05. These results suggest that dietary addition of B. subtilis KN-42 can improve the growth performance and gastrointestinal health of piglets.

  16. Postnatal development of intestinal immune system in piglets: implications for the process of weaning

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes , Christopher; Bailey , Michael; Haverson , Karin; Harris , Cecilla; Jones , Philip; Inman , Charlotte; Pié , Sandrine; Oswald , Isabelle; Williams , Barbara; Akkermans , Antoon; Sowa , Eveline; Rothkötter , Hermann-Josef; Miller , Bevis

    2004-01-01

    International audience; European-wide directives are in place to establish a sustainable production of pigs without using production enhancers and chemotherapeutics. Thus, an economically-viable pig production is now only possible when the physiological mechanisms of defense against pathogens and tolerance against nutrients and commensal bacteria in the intestinal immune system are taken into account. During the postnatal period the piglet is facing first the time large amounts of new antigen...

  17. Intestinal epithelial apoptosis initiates gut mucosal injury during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the newborn piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MohanKumar, Krishnan; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; McIlwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Kurundkar, Ashish R; Kelly, David R; Garzon, Steven A; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2014-02-01

    Neonates and young infants exposed to extracorporeal circulation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and cardiopulmonary bypass are at risk of developing a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with multi-organ dysfunction. We used a piglet model of ECMO to investigate the hypothesis that epithelial apoptosis is an early event that precedes villous damage during ECMO-related bowel injury. Healthy 3-week-old piglets were subjected to ECMO for up to 8 h. Epithelial apoptosis was measured in histopathological analysis, nuclear imaging, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Intestinal mast cells were isolated by fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. Cleaved caspase-8, caspase-9, phospho-p38 MAPK, and fas ligand expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry, western blots, and reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR. Piglet ECMO was associated with increased gut epithelial apoptosis. Extensive apoptotic changes were noted on villus tips and in scattered crypt cells after 2 h of ECMO. After 8 h, the villi were denuded and apoptotic changes were evident in a majority of crypt cells. Increased circulating I-FABP levels, a marker of gut epithelial injury, showed that epithelial injury occurred during ECMO. We detected increased cleaved caspase-8, but not cleaved caspase-9, in epithelial cells indicating that the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was active. ECMO was associated with increased fas ligand expression in intestinal mast cells, which was induced through activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. We conclude that epithelial apoptosis is an early event that initiates gut mucosal injury in a piglet model of ECMO.

  18. Maternal immunity enhances systemic recall immune responses upon oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2015-06-23

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrhoea and mortality in piglets leading to severe economic losses. Oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae induces a protective intestinal immune response evidenced by an F4-specific serum and intestinal IgA response. However, successful oral immunization of pigs with F4 fimbriae in the presence of maternal immunity has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal immunity on the induction of a systemic immune response upon oral immunization of piglets. Whereas F4-specific IgG and IgA could be induced by oral immunization of pigs without maternal antibodies and by intramuscular immunization of pigs with maternal antibodies, no such response was seen in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Since maternal antibodies can mask an antibody response, we also looked by ELIspot assays for circulating F4-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs). Enumerating the F4-specific ASCs within the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the number of F4-specific IgA ASCs within the circulating IgA(+) B-cells revealed an F4-specific immune response in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Interestingly, results suggest a more robust IgA booster response by oral immunization of pigs with than without maternal antibodies. These results demonstrate that oral immunization of piglets with F4-specific maternal antibodies is feasible and that these maternal antibodies seem to enhance the secondary systemic immune response. Furthermore, our ELIspot assay on enriched IgA(+) B-cells could be used as a screening procedure to optimize mucosal immunization protocols in pigs with maternal immunity.

  19. Low Tidal Volume Reduces Lung Inflammation Induced by Liquid Ventilation in Piglets With Severe Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijun; Feng, Huizhen; Chen, Xiaofan; Liang, Kaifeng; Ni, Chengyao

    2017-05-01

    Total liquid ventilation (TLV) is an alternative treatment for severe lung injury. High tidal volume is usually required for TLV to maintain adequate CO 2 clearance. However, high tidal volume may cause alveolar barotrauma. We aim to investigate the effect of low tidal volume on pulmonary inflammation in piglets with lung injury and under TLV. After the establishment of acute lung injury model by infusing lipopolysaccharide, 12 piglets were randomly divided into two groups, TLV with high tidal volume (25 mL/kg) or with low tidal volume (6 mL/kg) for 240 min, respectively. Extracorporeal CO 2 removal was applied in low tidal volume group to improve CO 2 clearance and in high tidal volume group as sham control. Gas exchange and hemodynamic status were monitored every 30 min during TLV. At the end of the study, pulmonary mRNA expression and plasmatic concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by collecting lung tissue and blood samples from piglets. Arterial blood pressure, PaO 2 , and PaCO 2 showed no remarkable difference between groups during the observation period. Compared with high tidal volume strategy, low tidal volume resulted in 76% reduction of minute volume and over 80% reduction in peak inspiratory pressure during TLV. In addition, low tidal volume significantly diminished pulmonary mRNA expression and plasmatic level of IL-6 and IL-8. We conclude that during TLV, low tidal volume reduces lung inflammation in piglets with acute lung injury without compromising gas exchange. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Farm characteristics and management routines related to neonatal porcine diarrhoea: a survey among Swedish piglet producers

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Jenny; Fall, Nils; Lindberg, Maria; Jacobson, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years reports from a number of countries, including Sweden, describe problems with diarrhoea in newborn piglets despite the use of previously effective preventive measures. This seemingly altered disease pattern of neonatal porcine diarrhoea (NPD) warrants investigations on the magnitude and manifestation of the problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the herd-level prevalence of NPD in Sweden and to describe disease characteristics and intervention strat...

  1. Characterisation of Bergeyella spp. isolated from the nasal cavities of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo de Arriba, M; Lopez-Serrano, S; Galofre-Mila, N; Aragon, V

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise bacteria in the genus Bergeyella isolated from the nasal passages of healthy piglets. Nasal swabs from 3 to 4 week-old piglets from eight commercial domestic pig farms and one wild boar farm were cultured under aerobic conditions. Twenty-nine Bergeyella spp. isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 11 genotypes were discriminated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Bergeyella zoohelcum and Bergeyella porcorum were identified within the 11 genotypes. Bergeyella spp. isolates exhibited resistance to serum complement and phagocytosis, poor capacity to form biofilms and were able to adhere to epithelial cells. Maneval staining was consistent with the presence of a capsule. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was present in 9/11 genotypes, including one genotype isolated from wild boar with no history of antimicrobial use. In conclusion, Bergeyella spp. isolates from the nasal cavities of piglets showed some in vitro features indicative of a potential for virulence. Further studies are necessary to identify the role of Bergeyella spp. in disease and within the nasal microbiota of pigs. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Fermented soybean meal improves the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and microbial flora in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase nutritive values of soybean meal (SBM, 3 species of microbes were used to ferment SBM. Through a 3 × 3 orthogonal design and parameter measurements of soybean peptide and anti-nutritional factor contents in the fermented soybean meal (FSBM, it was estimated that the best microbial proportion of Bacillus subtilis, Hansenula anomala and Lactobacillus casei was 2:1:2 for SBM fermentation (P  0.05. However, newly-weaned piglets (d 28–38 fed 10% FSBM and different levels of plasma protein obtained higher average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, compared with those without FSBM but with 6% plasma protein (P < 0.05. Piglets (d 38–68 fed diets supplemented with FSBM and soybean protein concentrate (SBPC at 3.75% and 7.5% respectively increased nutrient digestibility, fecal enzyme activity and lactic acid bacteria counts, and decreased fecal Escherichia coli counts (P < 0.05, compared with the control. These data indicated that FSBM had positive effects on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora for piglets.

  3. Experimental infection with Escherichia coli 0149 : F4ac in weaned piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gerda M.; Frydendahl, Kai; Svendsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    adhesion test made after slaughter of piglets. However, in an experimental infection study with the purpose to obtain diarrhoeic piglets, it would be an advantage to test for susceptibility prior to experimentation. The Mucin 4 gene on porcine chromosome 13 has been proposed as a candidate gene...... for the production of the specific ETEC F4ab/ac receptor, and a DNA marker-based test has been developed to allow genotyping for ETEC F4ab/ac resistance/susceptibility [Jorgensen, C.B., Cirera, S., Archibald, A.L., Anderson, L., Fredholm, M., Edfors-Lilja, I., 2004. Porcine polymorphisms and methods for detecting...... them. International application published under the patent cooperation treaty (PCT). PCT/DK2003/000807 or WO2004/048606-A2]. The aim of this study was to test an experimental model for ETEC O149:F4ac-induced diarrhoea in piglets, selected for susceptibility towards ETEC O149:F4ac adhesion prior...

  4. Structural Modulation of Gut Microbiota during Alleviation of Suckling Piglets Diarrhoea with Herbal Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether the traditional Chinese herbal formula of Shen Ling Baizhu (SLB could modulate the composition of the gut microbiota and alleviate diarrhoea in suckling piglets, twenty-four newly born piglets (Large White × Landrace × Duroc were selected and allocated to 4 groups (control group and experimental groups I, II, and III randomly. Faecal microbiome composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. The result indicated that experimental groups I and II exhibited significantly different gut microbiota from the control group. Most notably, the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly elevated in experimental group II compared with the control group (P<0.05. Collinsella and Faecalibacterium were also enhanced in experimental group II compared with the control group (P<0.05. The results showed that SLB treatment could modulate the gut microbiota composition of suckling piglets, enriching the amount of beneficial bacteria in particular. The observed changes in the gut microbiota could provide the basis for further research on the pharmacological mechanism of the tested Chinese herbal formula.

  5. Reliability of pulse oximetry during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a piglet model of neonatal cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohammad Ahmad; Mendler, Marc; Maurer, Miriam; Waitz, Markus; Huang, Li; Hummler, Helmut D

    2015-01-01

    Pulse oximetry is widely used in intensive care and emergency conditions to monitor arterial oxygenation and to guide oxygen therapy. To study the reliability of pulse oximetry in comparison with CO-oximetry in newborn piglets during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In a prospective cohort study in 30 healthy newborn piglets, cardiac arrest was induced, and thereafter each piglet received CPR for 20 min. Arterial oxygen saturation was monitored continuously by pulse oximetry (SpO2). Arterial blood was analyzed for functional oxygenation (SaO2) every 2 min. SpO2 was compared with coinciding SaO2 values and bias considered whenever the difference (SpO2 - SaO2) was beyond ±5%. Bias values were decreased at the baseline measurements (mean: 2.5 ± 4.6%) with higher precision and accuracy compared with values across the experiment. Two minutes after cardiac arrest, there was a marked decrease in precision and accuracy as well as an increase in bias up to 13 ± 34%, reaching a maximum of 45.6 ± 28.3% after 10 min over a mean SaO2 range of 29-58%. Pulse oximetry showed increased bias and decreased accuracy and precision during CPR in a model of neonatal cardiac arrest. We recommend further studies to clarify the exact mechanisms of these false readings to improve reliability of pulse oximetry during the marked desaturation and hypoperfusion found during CPR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. An automatic colour-based computer vision algorithm for tracking the position of piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Jover, J. M.; Alcaniz-Raya, M.; Gomez, V.; Balasch, S.; Moreno, J. R.; Grau-Colomer, V.; Torres, A.

    2009-07-01

    Artificial vision is a powerful observation tool for research in the field of livestock production. So, based on the search and recognition of colour spots in images, a digital image processing system which permits the detection of the position of piglets in a farrowing pen, was developed. To this end, 24,000 images were captured over five takes (days), with a five-second interval between every other image. The nine piglets in a litter were marked on their backs and sides with different coloured spray paints each one, placed at a considerable distance on the RGB space. The programme requires the user to introduce the colour patterns to be found, and the output is an ASCII file with the positions (column X, lineY) for each of these marks within the image analysed. This information may be extremely useful for further applications in the study of animal behaviour and welfare parameters (huddling, activity, suckling, etc.). The software programme initially segments the image in the RGB colour space to separate the colour marks from the rest of the image, and then recognises the colour patterns, using another colour space [B/(R+G+B), (G-R), (B-G)] more suitable for this purpose. This additional colour space was obtained testing different colour combinations derived from R, G and B. The statistical evaluation of the programmes performance revealed an overall 72.5% in piglet detection, 89.1% of this total being correctly detected. (Author) 33 refs.

  7. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.

  8. Effects of Outdoor Housing of Piglets on Behavior, Stress Reaction and Meat Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yonezawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed housing systems are important from the viewpoint of animal welfare and improvement of meat production. In this study, we investigated the effects of outdoor housing of pigs on their behavior, cortisol levels, and meat characteristics. Two groups that were born and raised in a spacious outdoor pen (4×10 m for every two sows or a minimum-sized standard pen in a piggery (1.9×2.2 m for every sow were studied. When their behaviors at the age of 2 to 3 wk were observed, the number of rooting episodes tended to be larger (p = 0.0509 and the total time of rooting tended to be longer (p = 0.0640 in the outdoor-housed piglets although the difference was not significant. Basal salivary cortisol levels of the outdoor piglets at the age of 4 wk were significantly lower than those of the indoor piglets (5.0±0.59 ng/ml vs. 11.6±0.91 ng/ml, 30 min after treatment, although their plasma cortisol levels were similar (53.3±3.54 ng/ml vs. 59.9±4.84 ng/ml, 30 min after treatment. When the ears were pierced at weaning, plasma and salivary cortisol levels were increased in both groups, even at 15 min after piercing. However, the increase in the outdoor-housed group was significantly less than that in the indoor-housed group. Throughout their lives, body weight and daily gain of the pigs were not significantly different between the two groups. In a meat taste preference test taken by 20 panelists, saltiness, flavor, and color of the outdoor-housed pork were found to be more acceptable. Moreover, when an electronic taste-sensing device was utilized, the C00 and CPA-C00 outputs (3.78±0.07 and −0.20±0.023, which correspond to compounds of bitterness and smells, respectively, were significantly lower in the outdoor-housed pork (5.03±0.16 and −0.13±0.009. Our results demonstrate that the outdoor housing system for piglets induces natural behaviors such as rooting and suppresses the strongest stress reaction of piglets, which could be important

  9. [Comparison of novel infrared heating plates and conventional warm water plates for piglets' creep areas in farrowing pens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch-Sürken, L; Wendt, M

    2015-01-01

    On a conventionally managed piglet-producing farm, novel infrared (IR) heating plates for piglets in the farrowing pens were tested for their suitability and compared with common warm-water (WW) heating plates. In total, 134 litters (summer n = 82, winter n = 52) were investigated, which were housed on IR or WW heating plates, respectively, with or without an extra cover plate (groups 1-4). To determine the influence of the different heat sources, the wound healing after castration and tail docking, the umbilical regression and the weight gain of the piglets were investigated. Additionally, the lying behavior of the piglets and the position of the sows' udder at the time of farrowing were examined with regard to the heating plates. Furthermore, the energy consumption and costs were compared. The piglets housed on IR heating plates displayed better wound healing after castration and tail docking than the piglets housed on WW plates. The best results were obtained in piglets kept on IR heating plates with an extra cover plate. In addition, significant benefits were demonstrated for the usage of IR heating plates regarding umbilical regression. The piglets kept on IR heating plates had a slightly better weight gain in summer, whereas there were no differences between groups during winter. The lying behavior in the creep areas was similar in all groups. In general, with increasing age the percentage of time piglets spent in the lying position on the plates decreased. The percentage of time lying on the plates was higher in winter than in summer. At farrowing, 74.6% of all investigated sows directed their udder towards the heating plates. With the IR heating plates, this behavior occurred significantly more often. The energy consumption (kWh) per litter was significantly lower for the IR heating plates (electric power) both in winter and summer in comparison with the WW plates (gas). The energy costs were comparable in summer, but were higher for the IR heating plates

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation with an expressed fusion peptide bovine lactoferricin-lactoferrampin on performance, immune function and intestinal mucosal morphology in piglets weaned at age 21 d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiru; Yin, Yulong; Zhang, Youming; Huang, Ruilin; Sun, Zhihong; Li, Tiejun; Chu, Wuying; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Lili; Geng, Meimei; Tu, Qiang

    2009-04-01

    Lactoferrin has antimicrobial activity associated with peptide fragments lactoferricin (LFC) and lactoferrampin (LFA) released on digestion. These two fragments have been expressed in Photorhabdus luminescens as a fusion peptide linked to protein cipB. The construct cipB-LFC-LFA was tested as an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters in pig production. Sixty piglets with an average live body weight of 5.42 (sem 0.59) kg were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and randomly assigned to four treatment groups fed a maize-soyabean meal diet containing either no addition (C), cipB at 100 mg/kg (C+B), cipB-LFC-LFA at 100 mg/kg (C+L) or colistin sulfate at 100 mg/kg (C+CS) for 3 weeks. Compared with C, dietary supplementation with C+L for 3 weeks increased daily weight gain by 21 %, increased recovery from diarrhoea, enhanced serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxidase (POD) and total antioxidant content (T-AOC), liver GPx, POD, superoxide dismutase and T-AOC, Fe, total Fe-binding capacity, IgA, IgG and IgM levels (P < 0.05), decreased the concentration of E. coli in the ileum, caecum and colon (P < 0.05), increased the concentration of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the ileum, caecum and colon (P < 0.05), and promoted development of the villus-crypt architecture of the small intestine. Growth performance was similar between C+L- and C+CS-supplemented pigs. The present results indicate that LFC-LFA is an effective alternative to the feed antibiotic CS for enhancing growth performance in piglets weaned at age 21 d.

  11. Intramural Injection with Botulinum Toxin Type A in Piglet Esophagus. The Influencer on Maximum Load and Elongation: A Dose Response Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellebæk, Mark Bremholm; Qvist, Niels; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Rasmussen, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The treatment of esophageal atresia (OA) is challenging. The main goal is to achieve primary anastomosis. We have previously demonstrated in a pig model that intramural injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) resulted in significant elongation of the esophagus during tensioning until bursting point. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the influence of different amounts of intramural BTX-A on the stretch-tension characteristics and histological changes of the esophagus in piglets. Materials and Methods A total of 52 piglets were randomized to four groups receiving 2, 4, or 8 units/kg of BTX-A or isotonic saline (placebo). After a 1-hour of rest the esophagus was harvested and subjected to a stretch-tension test and histological examination to assess changes in the density of presynaptic vesicles in the nerve cells. Results Overall, 9 of the 52 animals were excluded from analysis due to problems with the stretch-tension test or death from anesthesia. The maximum loads were higher in the BTX-A groups (2 units/kg: +2.1 N; 4 units/kg: +1.3 N; 8 units/kg: +1.9 N) than the placebo (p = 0.046). There were no significant differences in percentage elongation, or histology. Conclusions This study demonstrated that injection of 2 units/kg BTX-A into a nonanastomosed esophageal wall resulted in a modest increase in the maximum load achieved before bursting; this may be due to the muscle-relaxant effect of BTX-A. BTX-A injection produced no significant effects on elongation or esophageal histology. The clinical usefulness of BTX-A in treatment of OA is still unclear. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Milrinone is preferred to levosimendan for mesenteric perfusion in hypoxia-reoxygenated newborn piglets treated with dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouchehri, Namdar; Bigam, David L; Churchill, Thomas; Joynt, Chloe; Vento, Maximo; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2012-03-01

    There is little information regarding the comparative hemodynamic effects of adding milrinone or levosimendan to dopamine infusion in hypoxia-reoxygenated (H-R) newborns. Severely hypoxic piglets had cardiogenic shock with depressed cardiac index (CI) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). The hemodynamics deteriorated gradually after initial recovery upon reoxygenation. Heart rate and CI improved with milrinone (D+M) and levosimendan (D+L) administration (P milrinone or levosimendan to dopamine similarly improved systemic hemodynamics in H-R newborn piglets. Milrinone also improved mesenteric perfusion and attenuated myocardial oxidative stress. Twenty-eight piglets (1-4 d, 1.5-2.5 kg) were instrumented for continuous monitoring of systemic MAP and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), CI, and carotid, superior mesenteric, and renal arterial flows. Piglets were randomized with blinding to sham-operated, H-R control (saline), and H-R dopamine (10 μg/kg/min) with D+M or D+L groups. H-R piglets underwent H-R followed by 2 h of drug infusion after reoxygenation. Tissue was collected for biochemical/oxidative stress testing and histological analysis.

  13. Extensive Literature Search on the “Effects of Copper intake levels in the gut microbiota profile of target animals, in particular piglets"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bent Borg

    74%, the urease activity in the colon, and decarboxylation and deamination of amino acidsin the small intestine. No effect of Cu as CuSO4 on the population of streptococci and on ureaseactivity is seen in piglets. Supplementing piglet diets with 100 to 250 mg/kg Cu as CuSO4 significantlychange...

  14. Opinion of the scientific panel on animal health and welfare on a request from the commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Michael; Allen, Paul; Bonneau, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Report - Annex to the Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets......Report - Annex to the Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets...

  15. A cross sectional study of prevalence, risk factors, population attributable fractions and pathology for foot and limb lesions in preweaning piglets on commercial farms in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossent Pete

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a cross sectional study of 88 indoor and outdoor English pig farms, the prevalence of foot and limb lesions in 2843 preweaning piglets aged 1–4 weeks from 304 litters was recorded. The environmental risks for the prevalence of lesions and population attributable fractions were calculated. The risks for lesions in piglets were compared with those for limb and body lesions in their mothers. A small number of piglets with each type of lesion were examined post mortem to elucidate the pathology of the clinical lesions observed. Results The prevalence of sole bruising, sole erosion, skin abrasion and swollen joints or claws in 2843 piglets was 49.4% (1404, 15.5% (441, 43.6% (1240 and 4.7% (143 respectively. The prevalence of all foot and limb lesions was higher in indoor housed piglets than in outdoor housed piglets. The prevalence of sole bruising (OR 0.3 and skin abrasion (OR 0.6 decreased with each week of age from 1–4 weeks, but there was no significant association between piglet age and the prevalence of sole erosion or swollen joints and claws. There was an increased prevalence of sole bruising (OR 3.0 and swollen joints or claws (OR 3.0 and a decreased prevalence of skin abrasion (OR 0.3, piglets ≤ 1-week old, in piglets housed on slatted floors, compared with those on solid concrete floors with bedding. There was an increased risk of sole erosion associated with piglets housed on partly slatted floors with no bedding (OR 2.4 and partly slatted floors with small amounts of bedding (OR 2.9 compared with piglets housed on solid concrete floors with bedding in all areas of the pen. Post mortem examination of feet with lesions indicated that internal pathological changes were frequently more severe than the degree of external damage suggested. Conclusion Piglets housed outdoors had a very low prevalence of foot and limb injuries. Indoors, no one floor type was ideal to minimise all piglet foot and limb injuries and the

  16. Supplementation of the sow diet with chitosan oligosaccharide during late gestation and lactation affects hepatic gluconeogenesis of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunyan; Guo, Xiaoyun; Long, Cimin; Fan, Zhiyong; Xiao, Dingfu; Ruan, Zheng; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-08-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) has a blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats and is widely used as a dietary supplement. However, the effect of COS on the offspring of supplemented mothers is unknown. This experiment investigates the effect of supplementing sows during gestation and lactation on the levels of plasma glucose on suckling piglets. From day 85 of gestation to day 14 of lactation, 40 pregnant sows were divided into two treatment groups and fed either a control diet or a control diet containing 30mgCOS/kg. One 14 day old piglet per pen was selected to collect plasma and tissue (8pens/diet). Performance, hepatic gluconeogenesis genes and proteins expression, amino acids contents in sow milk, hepatic glycogen and free fatty acid were determined. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with COS improved daily gain and weaning weight (Pgluconeogenesis and improved the growth rate of suckling piglets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Selection of Bacillus species for targeted in situ release of prebiotic galacto-rhamnogalacturonan from potato pulp in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Cantor, Mette D

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that galacto-rhamnogalacturonan fibers can be enzymatically extracted from potato pulp and that these fibers have potential for exerting a prebiotic effect in piglets. The spore-forming Bacillus species are widely used as probiotics in feed supplements for pigs. In this s......We have previously shown that galacto-rhamnogalacturonan fibers can be enzymatically extracted from potato pulp and that these fibers have potential for exerting a prebiotic effect in piglets. The spore-forming Bacillus species are widely used as probiotics in feed supplements for pigs....... In this study, we evaluated the option for further functionalizing Bacillus feed supplements by selecting strains possessing the enzymes required for extraction of the potentially prebiotic fibers. We established that it would require production and secretion of pectin lyase and/or polygalacturonase...... of producing prebiotic fibers via a feed containing Bacillus spores and potato pulp and identified candidates for future in vivo evaluation in piglets....

  18. Effect of insertion of Bt gene in corn and different fumonisin content on growth performance of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Rossi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effect of Bt corn and isogenic corn on the growth of weaned piglets. One hundred twenty-eight weaned piglets weighing 8.8 ±1.27 kg live weight were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 32 animals each (16 castrated males and 16 females. Bt corn (line MON810 and isogenic corn were produced at two farms located in the Lodi and Venezia provinces (northern Italy. Bt corn had the same chemical composition as the isogenic corn but a lower content of fumonisin B1 (FB1. The experimental period (35 days was divided into two phases: 0-14 d and 15-35 d. There was no significant difference in average daily gain (ADG among groups during the first feeding phase. Compared to animals fed isogenic corn, the piglets fed Bt maize gained more weight during the second feeding phase (Bt: 464.1 g/d, isogenic: 429.1 g/d; P < 0.05. Also, the ADG over the entire trial was higher in piglets fed Bt corn versus piglets fed isogenic corn (Bt: 396.4 g/d, isogenic: 374.1 g/d; P < 0.05. The ADG of the whole period decreased linearly (P<0.05 with respect to FB1 content of diet. Final weight was higher in piglets fed the diet containing Bt corn (Bt: 22.68 kg, isogenic: 21.83 kg; P < 0.05. No differences in feed intake and in the feed:gain ratio were observed, however a linear response between FB1 and feed:gain ratio in first 14 days of the experiment was detected.

  19. Marked Response in Microbial Community and Metabolism in the Ileum and Cecum of Suckling Piglets After Early Antibiotics Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern swine husbandry systems, antibiotics have been used as growth promoters for piglets during suckling or weaning period. However, while early colonization of intestinal microbiota has been regarded crucial for the host’s later life performance and well-being, little is known about the impact of antibiotics on intestinal microbiota in suckling piglets. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of early antibiotics exposure on gut microbiota and microbial metabolism of suckling piglets. Sixteen litters of suckling piglets were fed a creep feed diet with (Antibiotic or without (Control antibiotics from postnatal days 7–23 (n = 8. The ileal and cecal digesta were obtained for microbial composition and microbial metabolites analysis. The results showed that the antibiotics significantly altered the bacterial community composition by decreasing (P < 0.05 the diversity and richness in the ileum. The antibiotics significantly reduced the abundance of Lactobacillus in both the ileum and cecum, increased the abundance of Streptococcus, unclassified Enterococcaceae, unclassified Fusobacteriales, and Corynebacterium in the ileum, and the abundance of unclassified Ruminococcaceae and unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae in the cecum. The antibiotics decreased (P < 0.05 ileal lactate concentration and cecal concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs. But the antibiotics enhanced protein fermentation (P < 0.05 in the ileum and cecum, as ileal concentrations of putrescine and cadaverine, and cecal concentrations of isobutyrate, isovalerate, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, and spermidine were significantly increased (P < 0.05. These results indicated that early antibiotics exposure significantly altered the microbial composition of suckling piglets toward a vulnerable and unhealthy gut environment. The findings provide a new insight on the antibiotics impact on neonates and may provide new framework for designing alternatives to the

  20. Efficacy of sulfonamides and Baycox(®) against Isospora suis in experimental infections of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Anja; Mundt, Hans-Christian

    2011-12-01

    Sulfonamide treatment of piglets against neonatal coccidiosis has frequently been suggested in the literature. In order to evaluate the efficacy of sulfonamides against experimental Isospora suis infections in suckling piglets (oral infection with 1,500 sporulated oocysts of I. suis per piglet on the fourth day of life), two trials were conducted. In trial I, oral sulfadimidine (group Sulfa-Oral) was applied in doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight (BW) 1 day before infection and 75 mg/kg BW daily for the following 5 days, and sulfamethoxypyrimidine (SMP) was applied parenterally in daily doses of 75 mg/kg BW for the same time period. In trial II, SMP was applied parenterally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW (a) from the day of infection daily for 7 days (SMP-Standard), (b) for 2 days starting on the day of infection (SMP-Early), (c) for 3 days starting 2 days post-infection (d.p.i.; SMP-Middle), (d) for 2 days starting 5 d.p.i. (SMP-Late), and (e) every other day from the day of infection until 6 d.p.i. (SMP-Alternating), as well as (f) orally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW from the day of infection for 7 days (SMP-Oral). The sulfonamide-treated groups were compared to a toltrazuril-treated group (single oral treatment with Baycox® 5% suspension, 20 mg/kg BW 2 d.p.i.) and to a water-treated Control group. Each group consisted of seven to nine piglets. The parameters evaluated were oocyst excretion and fecal consistency/diarrhea from 4 to 15 d.p.i. Sulfa-Oral, SMP-Early, and SMP-Late had no significant effect in reduction of oocyst excretion and diarrhea, whereas treatment for 3-7 days with SMP reduced both parasite shedding and diarrhea significantly. Oral treatment with SMP was comparable to parenteral application. Baycox® in a single application had the most pronounced effect and completely suppressed oocyst excretion and diarrhea during the examination period. It could be shown that repeated application of sulfonamides, provided that the appropriate time period after infection

  1. Outbreak of variant pseudorabies virus in Bartha-K61-vaccinated piglets in central Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongfang; Zhang, Zhendong; Lv, Lin; Xiao, Yihong; Qu, Yajin; Ma, Haiying; Niu, Yujuan; Wang, Guangwen; Liu, Sidang

    2015-09-01

    An epidemic that mainly endangered 3-7-day-old piglets struck many farms in Shandong Province, China in 2013 and caused heavy losses. To identify the pathogenesis, the type of lesions, and the causative agent, systemic examinations were performed. Autopsy showed multiple lesions, including necrotic foci of the spleen and liver, punctate hemorrhage of the renal cortex, and interstitial pneumonia. Histological examinations showed typical nonsuppurative encephalitis, necrotic lymphocytes, and reticuloendothelial cells in lymphatic tissues, as well as eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the nuclei of reticuloendothelial cells, necrotic foci in liver cells, and hemorrhagic glomeruli. The average seroprevalence rate of field pseudorabies virus (PRV; Suid herpesvirus 1) of a representative farm tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 46%, indicating that the PRV infectious pressure was quite severe especially among gilts, young multiparous sows, boars, and growing-finishing pigs. The glycoprotein E (gE) gene of PRV was detected in 8 of 10 clinical samples, and the virus in the positive samples induced obvious cytopathic effects. An immunoperoxidase monolayer assay showed that PRV antigens were distributed both in the nucleoli and cytoplasm of infected cells. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the gE gene showed that the strain isolated herein, TaiAn SD 2013, was highly similar to previously isolated strains, especially those isolated in northern China in 2013, and was closely related to other isolates from Asia. Evidence confirmed that the variant PRV was the etiologic agent of this epidemic, suggesting that the Bartha-K61 vaccine does not provide complete protection against PRV infection. Further challenge tests are ongoing to investigate the virulence of variant PRV. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Incidence of lameness and abrasions in piglets in identical farrowing pens with four different types of floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Ebba

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lameness in piglets is a major animal welfare issue. Floor abrasiveness is a common cause of superficial injury in piglets in farrowing pens. The abrasion achieved may act as a gate for infections, which in turn may induce development of infectious arthritis. In this study, the influence of improvements of the floor quality and of increased ratios of straw in identical farrowing pens was measured. Methods The study was carried out at a herd with four identical farrowing units with solid concrete floor bedded with 1 kg chopped straw per sow and 1 hg per piglet and day. Nothing was changed in the management of the four identical farrowing units, but four experimental groups were created: Group I – control, Group II – the amount of bedding was doubled. The surface of the floor was repaired in two units, Group III – Piglet Floor®, Flowcrete Sweden AB, Perstorp, Sweden and Group IV – Thorocrete SL®, Växa Halland, Sweden. Three farrowing batches were studies in each unit. In total, 93 litters (1,073 piglets were examined for foot and skin lesions until the age of 3 weeks. The occurrence of lameness was registered until weaning at an average age of 4.5 weeks. Twenty seven lame piglets were culled instead of medicinally treated and subjected to necropsy including histopathological and microbiological examinations. Isolates of streptococci, staphylococci and E. coli were tested with respect to antimicrobial resistance. Results Piglet born on the repaired floors had the lowest prevalences of abrasions at carpus. Also the doubled straw ration decreased the abrasions. Skin lesions at carpus decreased significantly in magnitude in all four systems from day 10. At day 3, the sole bruising scores of the control unit were greater than the other three units (p Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (60%, Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus (35% and Escherichia coli (5%. These isolates were sensitive to all antibiotics

  3. Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were...... examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days...

  4. Selection for number of live piglets at five-days of age increased litter size and reduced mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjarne; Madsen, Per; Henryon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    . The heritabilities of maternal effect on litter size were 0.079 and 0.095 in Landrace and Yorkshir e. The heritabilities of maternal effect on piglet-mortality rates were 0.069 and 0.082 in Landrace and Yorkshire. The genetic correlation between litter size and mortality rate were unfavourable; and the estimates......-netic gain has reduced the piglet mortality rate by 4 %-points in Landrace and Yorkshire from 2004 to 2010. The genetics gain was confirmed by decreased phenotypic annual mortality rates in the breeding and multiplier herds....

  5. Microencapsulated acids associated with essential oils and acid salts for piglets in the nursery phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Callegari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of commercial blends of organic and inorganic acids combined with essential oils for piglets in the nursery phase. The formulations were administered as microcapsules or as acid salts. Ninety-six, Pen Ar Lan, barrow and female piglets, weaned at a body weight of 600 kg ± 12 kg and age of 23 days were subjected to four treatments. The animals were distributed in randomized blocks of three animals per pen and 8 replicates per treatment. The treatments consisted of four different diets: control (free of organic acids; acid and essential oil blends (fumaric acid 10,5%, malic acid 8.0%, essential oils; in microencapsulated form; microencapsulated acid blend (phosphoric acid 10%, citric acid 10%, malic acid 10%, fumaric acid 20%; in microencapsulated form; and acid salt blend (formic acid 40.5%, phosphoric acid 13.6%, propionic acid 4.9% and salts (23.2% calcium and 4.4% phosphorus available. The performance parameters, digestive transit time, weights of organs of the digestive tract, bacterial count of feces (Lactobacillus, E coli and Salmonella ssp and Clostridium, pH of the stomach and duodenal content did not differ between treatment groups (P > 005. All treatments containing organic acids exhibited positive effects on diarrhea control (P < 005. The cecal contents of volatile fatty acids (VFA were higher in piglets fed diets containing acids than in animals that received the control diet (P < 005, and blends containing essential oils improved the jejunum villus height compared with the control group. The use of diets containing acids improved diarrhea control and VFA production in the cecum, and specifically the diets containing microencapsulated acid blends required the lowest doses to be effective.

  6. Parenteral Lipid Dose Restriction With Soy Oil, Not Fish Oil, Preserves Retinal Function in Neonatal Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Marihan; Sauvé, Yves; Dimopoulos, Ioannis; Field, Catherine J; Suh, Miyoung; Wizzard, Pamela; Goruk, Susan; Lim, David; Muto, Mitsuru; Wales, Paul; Turner, Justine

    2018-03-13

    A dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) is critical for neonatal retinal development. Both are absent/minimal in parenteral nutrition (PN) using soy-oil emulsions ([SO] Intralipid®) traditionally used for neonatal intestinal failure. In contrast, fish-oil emulsions ([FO] Omegaven®) are enriched in DHA/AA. The aim of this study was to compare retinal function and fatty acid content in neonatal piglets fed PN with SO or FO. Two-5-day-old piglets were randomly allocated to SO (n = 4) or FO (n = 4), provided at equivalent doses (5g/kg/d). After 14 days of PN, retinal function was assessed by electroretinography and retinas were harvested for fatty acid content analysis. Sow-fed piglets served as a reference (REF). Light flash-elicited stoppage of cone and rod dark-currents (a-waves) and the ensuing postsynaptic activation of cone and rod ON bipolar cells (b-waves) were comparable between SO and REF. Responses recorded from FO were subnormal (P DHA content was similar in both groups (FO, 14.59% vs SO, 12.22%; P = 0.32); while AA was lower in FO (FO, 6.01% vs SO, 8.21%; P = .001). Paradoxically, FO containing more DHA and AA did not preserve retinal function when compared with the same low dose of SO. This may be due to the reduced AA enrichment in the retina with FO treatment. Further investigation into the ideal amounts of DHA and AA for optimal neonatal retinal function is required. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. Effects of alanyl-glutamine supplementation on the small intestinal mucosa barrier in weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Xing

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study was to investigate the effects of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln and glutamine (Gln supplementation on the intestinal mucosa barrier in piglets. Methods A total of 180 barrows with initial weight 10.01±0.03 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, and each treatment consisted of three pens and twenty pigs per pen. The piglets of three groups were fed with control diet [0.62% alanine (Ala], Ala-Gln diet (0.5% Ala-Gln, Gln diet (0.34% Gln and 0.21% Ala, respectively. Results The results showed that in comparison with control diet, dietary Ala-Gln supplementation increased the height of villi in duodenum and jejunum (p<0.05, Gln supplementation increased the villi height of jejunum (p<0.05, Ala-Gln supplementation up-regulated the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05, raised the mRNA expressions of Claudin-1, Occludin, zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1 and the protein levels of Occludin, ZO-1 in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05, Ala-Gln supplementation enlarged the number of goblet cells in duodenal and ileal epithelium (p<0.05, Gln increased the number of goblet cells in duodenal epithelium (p<0.05 and Ala-Gln supplementation improved the concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G in the jejunal mucosa (p<0.05. Conclusion These results demonstrated that dietary Ala-Gln supplementation could maintain the integrity of small intestine and promote the functions of intestinal mucosa barriers in piglets.

  8. Effect of different dietary strategies on gas emissions and growth performance in post- weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Montalvo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary strategies in post-weaned piglets on gas emissions and animal performance. Eighty piglets were allotted in ten environmentally-controlled chambers. Piglets were fed with five different isoenergetic diets: control, low protein (LP, inclusion of sugar beet pulp (SBP, addition of benzoic acid (BA and a combination of LP, SBP and BA (LP+SBP+BA. The gases analyzed were ammonia (NH3, methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. For NH3, the most effective treatment was LP, with a reduction of 61%. The LP+SBP+BA reduced NH3 emission by 51%, the inclusion of SBP by 43% and the least effective technique was BA, which decreased by 9.5%, compared to control. The CH4 emission was reduced by 30% for LP, but was increased by 23% for SBP and 24.6% for LP+SBP+BA. Benzoic acid did not differ from control group. The N2O emission did not show statistically differences, and CO2 and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq emission increased with LP+SBP+BA (14 and 15% respectively, but were not affected by other diets. No effect of dietary treatment was observed on the growth performances compared with control group (p >0.05. We can conclude that the best technique to reduce NH3 emission was LP. Inclusion of SBP decreases NH3 emission, but can increase greenhouse gas emissions. It would be interesting to evaluate the effect of higher percentages of BA because the promising results. Combining techniques is not a good strategy to obtain an additive effect in gas emissions reduction.

  9. Changes in event-related potential functional networks predict traumatic brain injury in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, Lorre S; Lan, Ingrid S; Smith, Colin; Margulies, Susan S

    2018-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of cognitive and behavioral deficits in children in the US each year. None of the current diagnostic tools, such as quantitative cognitive and balance tests, have been validated to identify mild traumatic brain injury in infants, adults and animals. In this preliminary study, we report a novel, quantitative tool that has the potential to quickly and reliably diagnose traumatic brain injury and which can track the state of the brain during recovery across multiple ages and species. Using 32 scalp electrodes, we recorded involuntary auditory event-related potentials from 22 awake four-week-old piglets one day before and one, four, and seven days after two different injury types (diffuse and focal) or sham. From these recordings, we generated event-related potential functional networks and assessed whether the patterns of the observed changes in these networks could distinguish brain-injured piglets from non-injured. Piglet brains exhibited significant changes after injury, as evaluated by five network metrics. The injury prediction algorithm developed from our analysis of the changes in the event-related potentials functional networks ultimately produced a tool with 82% predictive accuracy. This novel approach is the first application of auditory event-related potential functional networks to the prediction of traumatic brain injury. The resulting tool is a robust, objective and predictive method that offers promise for detecting mild traumatic brain injury, in particular because collecting event-related potentials data is noninvasive and inexpensive. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The weaker sex? The propensity for male-biased piglet mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Baxter

    Full Text Available For the most part solutions to farm animal welfare issues, such as piglet mortality, are likely to lie within the scientific disciplines of environmental design and genetic selection, however understanding the ecological basis of some of the complex dynamics observed between parent and offspring could make a valuable contribution. One interesting, and often discussed, aspect of mortality is the propensity for it to be sex-biased. This study investigated whether known physiological and behavioural indicators of piglet survival differed between the sexes and whether life history strategies (often reported in wild or feral populations relating to parental investment were being displayed in a domestic population of pigs. Sex ratio (proportion of males (males/males+females at birth was 0.54 and sex allocation (maternal investment measured as piglet birth weight/litter weight was statistically significantly male-biased at 0.55 (t(35 = 2.51 P = 0.017, suggesting that sows invested more in sons than daughters during gestation. Despite this investment in birth weight, a known survival indicator, total pre-weaning male mortality was statistically significantly higher than female mortality (12% vs. 7% respectively z = 2.06 P = 0.040. Males tended to suffer from crushing by the sow more than females and statistically significantly more males died from disease-related causes. Although males were born on average heavier, with higher body mass index and ponderal index, these differences were not sustained. In addition male piglets showed impaired thermoregulation compared to females. These results suggest male-biased mortality exists despite greater initial maternal investment, and therefore reflects the greater susceptibility of this sex to causal mortality factors. Life history strategies are being displayed by a domestic population of pigs with sows in this study displaying a form of parental optimism by allocating greater resources at birth

  11. Effect of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation of sows in late gestation and lactation on sow production of colostrum and milk and piglet performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flummer, Christine; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    diet from day 108 of gestation and until 28 d after parturition (weaning). Sows fed HMB (n = 8) were fed the CON diet topdressed with 2.5 g Ca(HMB)2 equally divided at each 2 daily meals throughout the experiment. Litters were standardized to 12 piglets per sow within experimental group on day 1......, and both groups weaned on average 11.3 piglets per sow. Blood samples were taken from the sows by jugular vein puncture on days –3, 1, 10, 17, and 28 relative to parturition. Piglets were weighed at birth, after 24 h, and repeatedly throughout lactation to estimate the colostrum and milk yield of the sows....... Samples of colostrum and milk were collected and analyzed. Sows fed HMB had a higher colostrum yield (512 vs. 434 ± 30 g/piglet; P = 0.05) estimated based on the piglet weight gain during the colostrum period (132 vs. 76 ± 21 g/piglet; P = 0.05) and the mortality rate of HMB piglets were lower during...

  12. Semipurified glycerins on starting piglets feeding‏ (15-30 kg - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.17264

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodoaldo de Lima Costa Filho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional value and the performance of piglets fed on diets with semipurified glycerin (SPGV and mixed (SPGM vegetable oil was determined and evaluated. Thirty-two crossbred piglets, allotted in a completely randomized block design, were used in the digestibility trial. Two types of glycerin (SPGV and SPGM and three levels of diet (4, 8 and 12% were studied. The experimental unit consisted of one piglet. Glycerins’ metabolizable energy (ME was estimated by regression of ME (kcal kg-1 intake associated with glycerin vs. glycerin intake (kg. ME as-feed-basis rates were 3,373 for SPGV and 2,932 for SPGM, or rather, the glycerins are highly available energy source for piglets. In the performance trial, 90 piglets were allotted in a completely randomized blocks design in a 2 x 4 + 1 factorial scheme, two glycerins, four levels (3, 6, 9 and 12%, five replicates (pens and two piglets per pen. A control diet with no glycerin (0% was additionally formulated. Since no effect of glycerin inclusion on pig performance occurred, it was feasible to use up to 12% of both types of glycerin on piglets feeding.    

  13. Neutral detergent fibre in piglet diets: digestibility, performance, and deposition of body nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL C. NEPOMUCENO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A total 120 piglets with an average live weight of 7.00 kg, weaned at 21 days, were used to evaluate the effect of neutral detergent fibre levels on the digestibility of nutrients and energy from the diets, productive performance, and the composition and rate of deposition of nutrients and energy in the bodies of piglets in the nursery phase. The animals were distributed according to a randomized-block design into five treatments, which consisted of neutral detergent fibre levels, with six replicates and four animals per plot. A quadratic effect was detected for the digestibility coefficients of nutrients and energy, feed intake and weight gain. The increase in fibre level promoted a linear increase in fat content in the carcass, blood, and body, whereas the energy in the carcass, organs, and body showed an inverse response. The results showed a quadratic effect on the nutrient deposition rate in the carcass, organs and body. In conclusion, the best digestibility of nutrients and energy from the diet is obtained with 10-11.5% neutral detergent fibre, as higher weight gain and greater protein deposition in the body are achieved at neutral detergent fibre levels of 10.6% and 10.3%, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of Fentanyl Disposition and Effects in Newborn Piglets as an Experimental Model for Human Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-i-Soler, Adolfo; Encinas, Esther; Lukas, John C.; Vozmediano, Valvanera; Suárez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background Fentanyl is widely used off-label in NICU. Our aim was to investigate its cerebral, cardiovascular and pulmonary effects as well as pharmacokinetics in an experimental model for neonates. Methods Fentanyl (5 µg/kg bolus immediately followed by a 90 minute infusion of 3 µg/kg/h) was administered to six mechanically ventilated newborn piglets. Cardiovascular, ventilation, pulmonary and oxygenation indexes as well as brain activity were monitored from T = 0 up to the end of experiments (T = 225–300 min). Also plasma samples for quantification of fentanyl were drawn. Results A “reliable degree of sedation” was observed up to T = 210–240 min, consistent with the selected dosing regimen and the observed fentanyl plasma levels. Unlike cardiovascular parameters, which were unmodified except for an increasing trend in heart rate, some of the ventilation and oxygenation indexes as well as brain activity were significantly altered. The pulmonary and brain effects of fentanyl were mostly recovered from T = 210 min to the end of experiment. Conclusion The newborn piglet was shown to be a suitable experimental model for studying fentanyl disposition as well as respiratory and cardiovascular effects in human neonates. Therefore, it could be extremely useful for further investigating the drug behaviour under pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24595018

  15. Effects of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage and partial liquid ventilation on meconium-aspirated newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Mei-Jy; Soong, Wen-Jue; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Hua-Lun; Shen, Chung-Min; Wang, Chua-Ho; Yang, Shyh-Sheng; Hwang, Betau

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with either diluted surfactant (SBAL) or perfluorochemical liquid (PBAL), followed by either conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) or partial liquid ventilation (PLV), on lung injury and proinflammatory cytokine production induced by meconium aspiration in newborn piglets. A prospective, randomized, experimental study. An animal research laboratory at a medical center. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated newborn piglets (n = 27). The animals were instilled with 3-5 mL/kg 25% human meconium via an endotracheal tube to induce meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). After stabilization, animals were randomly assigned to either CMV group (no BAL) or one of the treatment groups (SBAL-CMV, SBAL-PLV, PBAL-CMV, and PBAL-PLV). Cardiopulmonary variables were monitored, and interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 content of the serum and lung tissue was measured. The animals without any treatment (CMV group) displayed the worst outcome; the animals in the PBAL-PLV group had the best gas exchange, lung compliance, and least pulmonary damage; and the SBAL-CMV, PBAL-CMV, and SBAL-PLV groups had intermediate effects. The serum interleukin-1beta concentration of the CMV group was significantly higher than all other groups over time (p CMV group and lowest in the PBAL-PLV group. Initial therapeutic BAL and therapeutic BAL followed by PLV with the same perfluorochemical liquid provided significant therapeutic effects in treating an animal model with severe MAS and therefore warrant consideration in cases that are intractable to other therapies.

  16. Influence of tiamulin therapy on weight gain in Brachyspira dysentery in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Octavian Doma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to evaluate the therapeutic and economic efficiency (daily individual weight gain / observation period of two available tiamulin fumarate antibiotic conditionings (one oral and one injectable in a farm environment, were Brachyspira evolution was suspicioned and confirmed. The experiment was conducted in a pig growing and fattening unit from Timis County, constituted as an intensive system. The sick piglets manifested acute clinical signs, mainly: drowsiness, enophtalmia, kyphosis and the sanguinolent diarrhoea in all cases. Clinical and morphopathologic suspicion was confirmed by the laboratory and bacterioscopic examination, which ascertained the presence of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Consequently, were chosen 48 ill piglets from the age group of 35 to 45 days and three experimental therapeutic (T and one Control (C groups were constituted as follows: group T1 - oral way treatment for five consecutive days with Tiamutin 45% soluble granules (Ceva, at doses of 6 and 8 mg.kg.bw., (for group T2 and respectively Tiamutin 10% injectable (Dopharma (T3, 8mg.kg.bw-1 I.M., four consecutive days. Study duration was 21 days, revealing the economic superiority of the oral conditionings vs. injectable of tiamulin fumarate and also the therapeutic efficiency of this form as primal choice in the enteric disease outbreaks.

  17. Sex and intrauterine growth restriction modify brain neurotransmitters profile of newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Gómez, M; Valent, D; García-Contreras, C; Arroyo, L; Óvilo, C; Isabel, B; Bassols, A; González-Bulnes, A

    2016-12-01

    The current study aimed to determine, using a swine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), whether short- and long-term neurological deficiencies and interactive dysfunctions of Low Birth-Weight (LBW) offspring might be related to altered pattern of neurotransmitters. Hence, we compared the quantities of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines), which were determined by HPLC, at brain structures related to the limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala) in 14 LBW and 10 Normal Body-Weight (NBW) newborn piglets. The results showed, firstly, significant effects of sex on the NBW newborns, with females having higher dopamine (DA) concentrations than males. The IUGR processes affected DA metabolism, with LBW piglets having lower concentrations of noradrenaline at the hippocampus and higher concentrations of the DA metabolites, homovanillic acid (HVA), at both the hippocampus and the amygdala than NBW neonates. The effects of IUGR were modulated by sex; there were no significant differences between LBW and NBW females, but LBW males had higher HVA concentration at the amygdala and higher concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, the serotonin metabolite, at the hippocampus than NBW males. In conclusion, the present study shows that IUGR is mainly related to changes, modulated by sex, in the concentrations of catecholamine neurotransmitters, which are related to adaptation to physical activity and to essential cognitive functions such as learning, memory, reward-motivated behavior and stress. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multidrug resistance in Clostridium perfringens isolated from diarrheal neonatal piglets in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamwongsatit, Bhinyada; Tanomsridachchai, Wimonrat; Suthienkul, Orasa; Urairong, Supanee; Navasakuljinda, Wichian; Janvilisri, Tavan

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens causes diarrhea in neonatal piglets, thereby affecting commercial swine farming. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characterize antimicrobial resistance in C. perfringens isolated from diarrheal neonatal piglets in Thailand. A total of 260 rectal swab samples were collected from 13 farms and were subjected to C. perfringens isolation. A total of 148 samples were PCR-positive for C. perfringens toxin genes, from which 122 were recovered. All isolates were cpb2-encoding C. perfringens type A and enterotoxin gene negative. Most of the isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, bacitracin, chlorotetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline with MIC50 values ranging from 0.32 to 8 μg/ml. The high resistance rates were observed for ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, lincomycin, and tylosin. Among resistant isolates, 82% were resistant to more than one type of antibiotics. The distinct pattern of multiple drug resistance in C. perfringens was observed in different regions, potentially reflecting the farm specific usage of these agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of fentanyl disposition and effects in newborn piglets as an experimental model for human neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rey-Santano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fentanyl is widely used off-label in NICU. Our aim was to investigate its cerebral, cardiovascular and pulmonary effects as well as pharmacokinetics in an experimental model for neonates. METHODS: Fentanyl (5 µg/kg bolus immediately followed by a 90 minute infusion of 3 µg/kg/h was administered to six mechanically ventilated newborn piglets. Cardiovascular, ventilation, pulmonary and oxygenation indexes as well as brain activity were monitored from T = 0 up to the end of experiments (T = 225-300 min. Also plasma samples for quantification of fentanyl were drawn. RESULTS: A "reliable degree of sedation" was observed up to T = 210-240 min, consistent with the selected dosing regimen and the observed fentanyl plasma levels. Unlike cardiovascular parameters, which were unmodified except for an increasing trend in heart rate, some of the ventilation and oxygenation indexes as well as brain activity were significantly altered. The pulmonary and brain effects of fentanyl were mostly recovered from T = 210 min to the end of experiment. CONCLUSION: The newborn piglet was shown to be a suitable experimental model for studying fentanyl disposition as well as respiratory and cardiovascular effects in human neonates. Therefore, it could be extremely useful for further investigating the drug behaviour under pathophysiological conditions.

  20. Effects of a simple or a complex starter microbiota on the gastric transcriptome profile of caesarean derived piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priori, D.; Colombo, M.; Koopmans, S.J.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Schiavo, G.; Trevisi, P.; Bosi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that early exposure of piglets to a diverse microbiota can shape the skills of gut-associated lymphoid tissue to respond to exogenous molecules (Lewis et al., 2012). In pig, a short encounter with a complex microbiota in the early life can be sufficient to influence the

  1. Announcing the arrival of enrichment increases play behaviour and reduces weaning-stress-induced behaviours of piglets directly after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudink, S.; Simonse, H.; Marks, I.; Jonge, de F.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Piglets have difficulties with the abrupt changes at weaning associated with conventional pig production systems. Previously, it has been shown in rats that reward and announcement of reward counteracts impact of stress effects. In the present study, it was investigated if announcement of an

  2. Parturition in gilts: duration of farrowing, birth intervals and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal, piglet and placental traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Lende, van der T.

    2004-01-01

    Large White×Meishan F2 crossbred gilts (n=57) were observed continuously during farrowing while the placentae of their offspring were labeled in order to examine the duration of farrowing and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal-, piglet- and placental traits and the duration of birth interval

  3. The effect of dietary protein and fermentable carbohydrates levels on growth performance and intestinal characteristics in newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.; Dirkzwager, A.; Fledderus, J.; Trevisi, P.; Huërou-Luron, Le I.; Lallès, J.P.; Awati, A.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the CP content and increasing the fermentable carbohydrates (FC) content of the diet may counteract the negative effects of protein fermentation in newly weaned piglets fed high-CP diets. To study the synergistic effects of CP and FC on gut health and its consequences for growth

  4. A simplification of the deuterium oxide dilution technique using FT-IR analysis of plasma, for estimating piglet milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glencross, B.D.; Tuckey, R.C.; Hartmann, P.E.; Mullan, B.P.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies estimating milk intake using deuterium oxide (D 2 O) as a tracer have required sublimation of the sample fluid (usually plasma) to remove solids and retrieve total water. This procedure has been simplified by directly measuring the D 2 O content of plasma with a Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, removing the requirement for sample sublimation. Comparisons of samples that were split and then analysed as water of sublimation and as total plasma were performed. It was found that the direct analysis of the plasma could be achieved without a loss in fidelity of the results (sublimated v. plasma, r 2 = 0.976; n = 26). Linearity of assay standards was very high (r 2 > 0.997). The modified technique was used to determine the milk intake by piglets from litters of 7 sows during established lactation (Days 10-15). Water turnover (WTO) was shown to be the primary point by which differences in the piglet milk intakes were influenced. Differences in the milk composition had minimal effect on the milk intake determinations. Milk intake by each piglet was shown to be strongly correlated to piglet growth (r 2 = 0.59, P 2 = 0.84, P < 0.01). Copyright (1997) CSIRO Australia

  5. Changes in abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Y.; Yao, W.; Perez-Gutierrez, O.N.; Smidt, H.; Zhu, W.Y.

    2008-01-01

    This present study investigated the changes in bacterial community composition, with an emphasis on Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis populations as potentially beneficial and harmful groups, in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning (21 days postpartum) by 16S rRNA

  6. Assessment of local changes of cerebral perfusion and blood concentration by ultrasound harmonic B-mode contrast measurement in piglet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, M.C. van; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Hopman, J.C.W.; Liem, K.D.; Thijssen, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that changes in the blood concentration, and possibly in the perfusion, of different areas in the brain can be assessed by the use of ultrasound contrast agent (CA) and (linear) echo densitometry. The experiments were performed with piglets (n=3) under general

  7. Mineral absorption and excretion as affected by microbial phytase and their effect on energy metabolism in young piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kies, A.K.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Linden, van der K.L.; Zandstra, T.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Positive effects of dietary phytase supplementation on pig performance are observed not only when phosphorus is limiting. Improved energy utilization might be one explanation. Using indirect calorimetry, phytase-induced changes in energy metabolism were evaluated in young piglets with adequate

  8. Effects of a reduced dose of injected iron on health, iron status and growth of suckling piglets with access to iron enriched soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanner, S; Gutzwiller, A

    2018-02-01

    The effects of the recommended dose of 200 mg iron and of half that dose injected on the first day of life on health, iron status and performance during the 4 week suckling period were studied in 2'123 piglets. All piglets received creep feed and soil which was supplemented with 14 g iron per kg. Neither mortality nor the prevalence of arthritis, meningitis and foot abscess (each disease affecting about 1% of the piglets) differed between the two groups. The low dose of 100 mg iron decreased blood haemoglobin concentration at weaning (110 ± 19 vs.120 ± 15 g/l), but did not affect growth rate.

  9. Optimal sulfur amino acid to lysine ratio for post weaning piglets reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyn Kahindi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two 14-day experiments, each with 90 (Duroc × [Yorkshire × Landrace]; 7.3 ± 0.6 kg piglets, were conducted to determine the optimum sulfur amino acid (SAA to lysine (Lys ratio (SAA:Lys for piglets when reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions using performance and non-performance response criteria. Piglets were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments. The basal diet contained 1.18% standardized ileal digestible (SID Lys, and the SAA:Lys was 52%. In diets 2 to 5, the basal diet was supplemented with 4 graded levels of dl-Met to make SAA:Lys of 56%, 60%, 64% and 68%. In Exp. 1, piglets were housed in disinfected clean room. In Exp. 2, piglets were housed in a room previously occupied by other pigs and was not disinfected. On the last day, blood was collected to measure plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and one pig per pen was euthanized to collect jejunal tissue to measure villus height (VH, crypt depth (CD, and VH:CD. In Exp. 1, increasing SAA:Lys linearly and quadratically increased VH and VH:CD (P < 0.05. In Exp. 2, increasing SAA:Lys linearly increased (P < 0.05 VH and VH:CD and linearly and quadratically decreased PUN (P < 0.05. Estimated PUN and VH-based optimum SAA:Lys requirements for clean and unclean sanitary condition were 60%, 63% and 66%, respectively.

  10. Supplementation of diets for weaned piglets withL-Valine and L-Glutamine+ L-Glutamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Diedrich Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of diets for weaned piglets with L-valine and L-glutamine + L-glutamic acid on performance, frequency of diarrhea, organ weight, digesta pH, intestinal morphology, and economic viability. Seventy-two piglets with a live weight of 7.53 ± 0.84 kg and 24 days of age were used. The animals were submitted to the following four treatments from 24 to 46 days of age: diet not supplemented with amino acids (control diet, CD; diet supplemented with glutamine + glutamic acid (GD; diet supplemented with glutamine + glutamic acid + valine (GVD, and diet supplemented with valine (VD. Two sequential phases (pre-initial I and pre-initial II with a duration of 12 and 11 days, respectively, were established. A completely randomized design, consisting of six repetitions and three pigs per experimental unit, was used. Nine days after weaning, at 32 days of age, a piglet per pen was slaughtered for the evaluation of organ weight, digesta pH and intestinal morphology. All animals received a single diet from days 47 to 65. No effects on performance were observed during the pre-initial phases I and II; however, when the whole study period was considered (24 to 65 days of age, piglets fed GVD consumed less feed and exhibited better feed conversion than animals of the VD group. With respect to morphometric parameters, GD provided a greater ileal crypt depth than CD and VD. There was an economic advantage of diets supplemented with L-valine and L-glutamine + L-glutamic acid, validating their use in diets for weaned piglets until 46 days of age.

  11. Dopamine therapy does not affect cerebral autoregulation during hypotension in newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Ramsgaard Eriksen

    Full Text Available Hypotensive neonates who have been treated with dopamine have poorer neurodevelopmental outcome than those who have not been treated with dopamine. We speculate that dopamine stimulates adrenoceptors on cerebral arteries causing cerebral vasoconstriction. This vasoconstriction might lead to a rightward shift of the cerebral autoregulatory curve; consequently, infants treated with dopamine would have a higher risk of low cerebral blood flow at a blood pressure that is otherwise considered "safe".In anaesthetized piglets, perfusion of the brain, monitored with laser-doppler flowmetry, and cerebral venous saturation was measured at different levels of hypotension. Each piglet was studied in two phases: a phase with stepwise decreases in MAP and a phase with stepwise increases in MAP. We randomized the order of the two phases, whether dopamine was given in the first or second phase, and the infusion rate of dopamine (10, 25, or 40 μg/kg/min. In/deflation of a balloon catheter, placed in vena cava, induced different levels of hypotension. At each level of hypotension, fluctuations in MAP were induced by in/deflations of a balloon catheter in descending aorta.During measurements, PaCO2 and arterial saturation were stable. MAP levels ranged between 14 and 82 mmHg. Cerebral autoregulation (CA capacity was calculated as the ratio between %-change in cerebrovascular resistance and %-change in MAP induced by the in/deflation of the arterial balloon. A breakpoint in CA capacity was identified at a MAP of 38±18 mmHg without dopamine and at 44±18, 31±14, and 24±14 mmHg with dopamine infusion rates of 10, 25, and 40 μg/kg/min (p = 0.057. Neither the index of steady-state cerebral perfusion nor cerebral venous saturation were affected by dopamine infusion.Dopamine infusion tended to improve CA capacity at low blood pressures while an index of steady-state cerebral blood flow and cerebral venous saturation were unaffected by dopamine infusion. Thus

  12. Effect of pea and faba bean fractions on net fluid absorption in ETEC-infected small intestinal segements of weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Jansman, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    After weaning piglets frequently have diarrhoea associated with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. Alternative plant protein sources such as peas, faba beans and lupins may contribute in preventing gastrointestinal problems. In the small intestinal segment perfusion model, the

  13. Effects of administration of a local anaesthetic and/or an NSAID and of docking length on the behaviour of piglets during 5 h after tail docking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Thodberg, Karen

    2016-01-01

    cautery 2–4 days after birth and based on behaviour during docking as well as the following 5 h. The study involved three main factors: local anaesthetic (Lidocain), NSAID (Meloxicam) and docking length. Either 100%, 75%, 50% or 25% of the tails were left on the body of the piglets. Irrespective...... that effects of this management routine are more persistent than earlier suggested, and suggesting that docking length may influence the post-surgical behaviour of piglets. By use of the present sites of injection and dosages, neither local anaesthetic nor NSAID had marked effects on post-surgical behavioural......In many countries, piglets are tail docked to prevent tail biting. The aim of this study was 1) to evaluate the efficacy of a local anaesthetic and/or NSAID to reduce pain caused by tail docking; and 2) to examine interactions with docking length. This was examined in 295 piglets docked by hot iron...

  14. Intact brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) in diets of weaned piglets: Effects on performance, gut bacteria and morphology and plasma oxidative status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michiels, J.; Skřivanová, E.; Missotten, J.; Ovyn, A.; Mrázek, Jakub; De Smet, S.; Dierick, N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2012), s. 1101-1111 ISSN 0931-2439 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : antioxidant * gut function * weaning piglets Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.254, year: 2012

  15. The biomedical piglet: establishing reference intervals for haematology and clinical chemistry parameters of two age groups with and without iron supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Domenico; Dondi, Francesco; Barone, Francesca; Serafini, Federica; Elmi, Alberto; Giunti, Massimo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria L

    2017-01-17

    The similarities between swine and humans in physiological and genomic patterns, and the great correlation in size and anatomy, make pigs extremely useful in preclinical studies. New-born piglets can represent a model for congenital and genetic diseases in new-born children. It is known that piglets may have significant differences in clinicopathological results compared to adult pigs. Therefore, adult laboratory reference intervals cannot be applied to piglets. The aim of this study was to compare haematological and chemical variables in piglets of two ages and determinate age-related reference intervals for commercial hybrid young pigs. Blood samples were collected under general anaesthesia from 130 animals divided into five- (P5) and 30- (P30) day-old piglets. Only P30 animals were treated with parenteral iron after birth. Samples were analysed using automated haematology (ADVIA 2120) and chemistry analysers, and age-related reference intervals were calculated. Significant higher values of RBC, Hb and HCT were observed in P30 animals when compared to P5, with an opposite trend for MCV. These results were associated with a reduction of the RBC regeneration process and the thrombopoietic response. The TSAT and TIBC were significantly higher in P30 compared to P5; however, piglets remained iron deficient compared to adult reference intervals reported previously. In conclusion, this paper emphasises the high variability occurring in clinicopathological variables between new-born and 30-day-old pigs, and between piglets and adult pigs. This study provides valuable reference data for piglets at precise ages and could be used in the future as historical control improving the Reduction in animal experiments, as suggested by the 3Rs principle.

  16. Consumer attitudes towards castration of piglets and alternatives to surgical castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Bente; Johnsen, Anne Mette Sibeko; Skuterud, Ellen

    2011-04-01

    From three in-depth focus group studies and an internet based study concerning consumers attitudes towards surgical castration of piglets and alternatives, it can be concluded that Norwegian consumers are content with the current practice of castration using local anaesthesia. They accept castration as a necessary means to prevent the risk of boar taint in meat and thereby secure meat quality. Even though castration using anaesthesia is not a perfect solution, it is considered sufficient, and the consumers do not ask for alternatives. Most consumers were sceptical of immunocastration. The scepticism was mainly based on the fear of residuals in meat and unknown long-term consequences for the consumers. On the other hand the confidence in Norwegian control authorities is considerable, and will probably contribute to the maintenance of purchase habits even if immunocastration is to be introduced in Norwegian pig production. Castration without anaesthesia was characterized as completely unacceptable. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tryptophan provision by dietary supplementation of a Bacillus subtilis mutant strain in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Pitarch, A; Nielsen, B.; Canibe, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Supplementing Bacillus (B.) subtilis mutants selected to overproduce a specific amino acid (AA) may be an alternative method to provide essential AA in pig diets. Two experiments on a B. subtilis strain selected to overproduce Trp were conducted using 8-kg pigs fed Trp-deficient diets for 20 d. B....... subtilis were supplied in a low or high dose in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. The Trp-deficient diet (0.15 SID Trp:Lys) reduced (p subtilis strain was not able...... to counterbalance the Trp deficiency in any of the two experiments. No effect of B. subtilis supplementation to piglet diets was observed on the plasma AA profile. In conclusion, this mutant strain of B. subtilis was not able to compensate a Trp deficiency in the tested doses....

  18. Technique of fiber optics used to localize epidural space in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chien-Kun; Chang, Yin

    2010-05-24

    Technique of loss-of-resistance in epidural block is commonly used for epidural anesthesia in humans with approximately 90% successful rate. However, it may be one of the most difficult procedures to learn for anesthesia residents in hospital. A two-wavelength (650 nm and 532 nm) fiber-optical method has been developed according to the characteristic reflectance spectra of ex-vivo porcine tissues, which are associated with the needle insertion to localize the epidural space (ES). In an in-vivo study in piglets showed that the reflected lights from ES and its surrounding tissue ligamentum flavum (LF) are highly distinguishable. This indicates that this technique has potential to localize the ES on the spot without the help of additional guiding assistance.

  19. Dopamine therapy does not affect cerebral autoregulation during hypotension in newborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Vibeke Ramsgaard; Rasmussen, Martin Bo; Hahn, Gitte Holst

    2017-01-01

    measurements, PaCO2 and arterial saturation were stable. MAP levels ranged between 14 and 82 mmHg. Cerebral autoregulation (CA) capacity was calculated as the ratio between %-change in cerebrovascular resistance and %-change in MAP induced by the in/deflation of the arterial balloon. A breakpoint in CA...... capacity was identified at a MAP of 38±18 mmHg without dopamine and at 44±18, 31±14, and 24±14 mmHg with dopamine infusion rates of 10, 25, and 40 μg/kg/min (p = 0.057). Neither the index of steady-state cerebral perfusion nor cerebral venous saturation were affected by dopamine infusion. Conclusion......: Dopamine infusion tended to improve CA capacity at low blood pressures while an index of steady-state cerebral blood flow and cerebral venous saturation were unaffected by dopamine infusion. Thus, dopamine does not appear to impair CA in newborn piglets....

  20. In situ prebiotics for weaning piglets: In vitro production and fermentation of potato galactorhamnogalacturonan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Ravn, Helle Christine; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Post weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs is a leading cause of economic loss in pork production worldwide. The current practice of using antibiotics and zinc to treat PWD is unsustainable due to the potential of antibiotic resistance and ecological disturbance, and novel methods are required...... product, with a minimal enzyme dose in a simulated upper GI-model extracting 26.9 % of initial dry matter. The fiber was rich in galactose and galacturonic acid and was fermented at 2.5, 5 or 10 g/L in a glucose-free media inoculated with the gut contents of piglet terminal ileum. Fermentations of 5 g....... For animal studies, a dosage corresponding to the 5 g/L treatment is suggested....

  1. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Flummer, Christine; Hurley, W L

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how...... composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured...... CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g = –106 + 2.26 WG + 200 BWB + 0.111 D – 1,414 WG/D + 0.0182 WG/BWB (R2 = 0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum...

  2. A Topographical Atlas of Shiga Toxin 2e Receptor Distribution in the Tissues of Weaned Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Steil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx 2e of Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC is the primary virulence factor in the development of pig edema disease shortly after weaning. Stx2e binds to the globo-series glycosphingolipids (GSLs globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer, Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glcβ1-1Cer and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer, GalNAcβ1-3Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glcβ1-1Cer, the latter acting as the preferential Stx2e receptor. We determined Stx receptor profiles of 25 different tissues of a male and a female weaned piglet using immunochemical solid phase binding assays combined with mass spectrometry. All probed tissues harbored GSL receptors, ranging from high (category I over moderate (category II to low content (category III. Examples of Gb4Cer expression in category I tissues are small intestinal ileum, kidney pelvis and whole blood, followed by colon, small intestinal duodenum and jejunum belonging to category II, and kidney cortex, cerebrum and cerebellum as members of category III organs holding true for both genders. Dominant Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer lipoforms were those with ceramides carrying constant sphingosine (d18:1 and a variable C16:0, C22:0 or C24:1/C24:0 fatty acid. From the mapping data, we created a topographical atlas for Stx2e receptors in piglet tissues and organs, which might be helpful to further investigations on the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie infections of Stx2e-producing STEC in pigs and their zoonotic potential for humans.

  3. Intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia effects on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the developing piglet hippocampus and brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandarajah, Arunnjah; Aishah, Atqiya; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute (1 day) vs repeated (4 days) exposure to intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) on the immunohistochemical expression of α2, α3, α5, α7, α9 and β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the developing piglet hippocampus and brainstem medulla, and how prior nicotine exposure alters the response to acute IHH. Five piglet groups included: 1day IHH (1D IHH, n=9), 4days IHH (4D IHH, n=8), controls exposed only to air cycles for 1day (1D Air, n=6) or 4days (4D Air, n=5), and pre-exposed to nicotine for 13days prior to 1day IHH (Nic+1D IHH, n=7). The exposure period alternated 6min of HH (8%O 2 , 7%CO 2 , balance N 2 ) and 6min of air over 48min, while controls were switched from air-to-air. Results showed that: 1. repeated IHH induces more changes in nAChR subunit expression than acute IHH in both the hippocampus and brainstem medulla, 2. In the hippocampus, α2 and β2 changed the most (increased) following IHH and the CA3, CA2 and DG were mostly affected. In the brainstem medulla, α2, α5, α9 and β2 were changed (decreased) in most nuclei with the hypoglossal and nucleus of the solitary tract being mostly affected. 3. Pre-exposure to nicotine enhanced the changes in the hippocampus but dampened those in the brainstem medulla. These findings indicate that the nAChRs (predominantly with the α2/β2 complex) are affected by IHH in critical hippocampal and brainstem nuclei during early brain development, and that pre-exposure to nicotine alters the pattern of susceptibility to IHH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of tiamulin concentration in feed on its bioavailability in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riond, J L; Schreiber, F; Wanner, M

    1993-01-01

    Tiamulin pharmacokinetic parameters were determined in 8 2-month-old male improved Swiss Landrace piglets after intake of 2,000 mg/kg feed, 500 mg/kg feed, 12.5 mg/ml aqueous solution administered via a stomach tube and 180 mg/kg feed offered ad libitum. In all cases, the total tiamulin dose received was 10 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day. For the 2,000 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg treatments, animals were restrictively fed a commercial mix in amounts corresponding to 3-fold their maintenance requirement of digestible energy. The piglets first individually received the amount of medicated feed and immediately thereafter the rest of the daily ration. The highest tiamulin serum concentrations (Cmax), the largest area under the curve (AUC0-->infinity), the largest absorption rate constant (Ka), and the shortest time at which the maximum serum concentration occurred (tmax) were obtained after administration via stomach tube followed in the respective order by the 2,000 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 180 mg/kg treatments. Ad libitum feeding of the medicated mix at 180 mg/kg failed to provide tiamulin serum concentration above minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of some representative microorganisms. In conclusion, tiamulin concentration in medicated feed strongly influences its rate and extent of absorption and consequently serum concentrations. Larger tiamulin concentration in feed enhances its bioavailability. The common practice adopted by national regulatory agencies for the registration of a new drug is to conduct pharmacokinetic studies after administration agencies for the registration of a new drug is to conduct pharmacokinetic studies after administration via a stomach tube. This practice should be reevaluated because this mode of administration does not correspond to that in routine use.

  5. Differential induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes by clofibric acid and aspirin in piglet tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X X; Odle, J; Drackley, J K

    2001-11-01

    Peroxisomal beta-oxidation (POX) of fatty acids is important in lipid catabolism and thermogenesis. To investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferators on peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation in piglet tissues, newborn pigs (1-2 days old) were allowed ad libitum access to milk replacer supplemented with 0.5% clofibric acid (CA) or 1% aspirin for 14 days. CA increased ratios of liver weight to body weight (P < 0.07), kidney weight to body weight (P < 0.05), and heart weight to body weight (P < 0.001). Aspirin decreased daily food intake and final body weight but increased the ratio of heart weight to body weight (P < 0.01). In liver, activities of POX, fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (FAO), total carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT), and catalase were 2.7-, 2.2-, 1.5-fold, and 33% greater, respectively, for pigs given CA than for control pigs. In heart, these variables were 2.2-, 4.1-, 1.9-, and 1.8-fold greater, respectively, for pigs given CA than for control pigs. CA did not change these variables in either kidney or muscle, except that CPT activity was increased approximately 110% (P < 0.01) in kidney. Aspirin increased only hepatic FAO and CPT activities. Northern blot analysis revealed that CA increased the abundance of catalase mRNA in heart by approximately 2.2-fold. We conclude that 1) POX and CPT in newborn pigs can be induced by peroxisomal proliferators with tissue specificity and 2) the relatively smaller induction of POX in piglets (compared with that in young or adult rodents) may be related to either age or species differences.

  6. Farm characteristics and management routines related to neonatal porcine diarrhoea: a survey among Swedish piglet producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jenny; Fall, Nils; Lindberg, Maria; Jacobson, Magdalena

    2016-11-10

    In recent years reports from a number of countries, including Sweden, describe problems with diarrhoea in newborn piglets despite the use of previously effective preventive measures. This seemingly altered disease pattern of neonatal porcine diarrhoea (NPD) warrants investigations on the magnitude and manifestation of the problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the herd-level prevalence of NPD in Sweden and to describe disease characteristics and intervention strategies used in affected herds. To obtain this information a questionnaire was developed and sent out to 170 randomly selected herds. The presence of NPD in the herds was specified as "Yes", "No" or "Occasional cases" during the preceding year. A response rate of 58% (98/170) was achieved. The total prevalence of farmer experienced NPD, including occasional cases was 79.6% (95% CI 70.6-86.4%). Most herds (85%; 83/98) employed maternal vaccination against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The most common treatment regimens used in affected herds included antimicrobials only (43%; 18/42) or antimicrobials in combination with supplementary fluids (33%; 14/42). Trimethoprim in combination with a sulphonamide was the drug of choice in 57% (24/42) of the affected herds whereas the remaining herds used a broad range of other antimicrobials (neomycin, amoxicillin, fluoroquinolones, penicillin, and tylosin). Furthermore, the risk of experiencing NPD was found to be higher in herds with >200 sows (OR = 4.0) compared to herds with <200 sows and in herds where more ambitious efforts (such as providing supplemental colostrum or practicing split-suckling) were made to save weak-born piglets (OR = 4.4). The results of the present study indicate that Swedish farmers commonly experience NPD in their herds, often despite vaccination against ETEC. Considering the extent of this problem and its contribution to antimicrobial usage, improving alternative control strategies for NPD needs to be

  7. Identification of a novel picornavirus in healthy piglets and seroepidemiological evidence of its presence in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-mei Yu

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe a novel porcine parechovirus-like virus (tentatively named PLV-CHN from healthy piglets in China using 454 high-throughput sequencing. The complete genome of the virus comprises 6832 bp, encoding a predicted polyprotein of 2132 amino acids that is most similar to Ljungan virus (32% identity. A similar virus that belongs to a novel Picornaviridae genus, named swine pasivirus 1 (SPaV-1, was reported during the preparation of this paper. Sequence analysis revealed that PLV-CHN and SPaV1 shared 82% nucleotide identity and 89% amino acid identity. Further genomic and phylogenetic analyses suggested that both SPaV1 and PLV-CHN shared similar genomic characteristics and belong to the same novel Picornaviridae genus. A total of 36 (20.0% fecal samples from 180 healthy piglets were positive for PLV-CHN by RT-PCR, while no fecal samples from 100 healthy children and 100 children with diarrhea, and no cerebrospinal fluid samples from 196 children with suspected viral encephalitis, was positive for the virus. However, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant PLV-CHN VP1 polypeptide as an antigen showed a high seroprevalence of 63.5% in the healthy population. When grouped by age, the antibody-positivity rates showed that the majority of children under 12 years of age have been infected by the virus. It was suggested that PLV-CHN, SPaV1, or an as-yet-uncharacterized virus can infect humans early in life. Thus, investigation of the role of this novel virus is vital.

  8. Utilizing multiple scale models to improve predictions of extra-axial hemorrhage in the immature piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Gregory G; Margulies, Susan S; Coats, Brittany

    2016-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in the USA. To help understand and better predict TBI, researchers have developed complex finite element (FE) models of the head which incorporate many biological structures such as scalp, skull, meninges, brain (with gray/white matter differentiation), and vasculature. However, most models drastically simplify the membranes and substructures between the pia and arachnoid membranes. We hypothesize that substructures in the pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) contribute substantially to brain deformation following head rotation, and that when included in FE models accuracy of extra-axial hemorrhage prediction improves. To test these hypotheses, microscale FE models of the PAC were developed to span the variability of PAC substructure anatomy and regional density. The constitutive response of these models were then integrated into an existing macroscale FE model of the immature piglet brain to identify changes in cortical stress distribution and predictions of extra-axial hemorrhage (EAH). Incorporating regional variability of PAC substructures substantially altered the distribution of principal stress on the cortical surface of the brain compared to a uniform representation of the PAC. Simulations of 24 non-impact rapid head rotations in an immature piglet animal model resulted in improved accuracy of EAH prediction (to 94 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity), as well as a high accuracy in regional hemorrhage prediction (to 82-100 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity). We conclude that including a biofidelic PAC substructure variability in FE models of the head is essential for improved predictions of hemorrhage at the brain/skull interface.

  9. Dynamics of ceruloplasmin amd of some blood parameters in piglets suffering from acute radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladzhov, E.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin (CP) were followed up after treatment with gamma rays of 60 Co with a dose of 4 Ey (dose power 0.68 Ey/min) in the blood serum of male piglets of an average life weight of 18+-3 kg. CP level from 217 E/l raised to 376 E/l on the 16th hour after radiation and on the 16th day decreased to 296 e/l. Moreover, serum copper increased from 25 μmol/l to 42.3 μmol/l on the 16th hour following irradiation but on the 14th day its level dropped to 32.5 μmol/l. Erythrocyte and leucocyte count decreased from 5.83x10 12 /l and 19.94x10 12 /l to 2.47x10 12 /l and 2.0x10 9 /l, respectively. Besides, serum albumin decreased, but α-and β-globulins increased. Examination of ailing piglets showed a paraclinical pattern of an inflammatory process by acute radiation disease. CP as an antioxidant participates in reactions with toxic radiacals on radiation. By the rising of its level on radiation it again was characterized as an acute-phase protein. Serum CP was determined according to the method of Ravin using as substrate P-phenylendiamine dihydrochloride; serum copper - by the test of Boehringer Mannheim; serum proteins were studied electrophoretically on agarose gels using veronal buffer, pH 8.6

  10. Characterization of the Intestinal Lactobacilli Community following Galactooligosaccharides and Polydextrose Supplementation in the Neonatal Piglet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hoeflinger

    Full Text Available Recently, prebiotic supplementation of infant formula has become common practice; however the impact on the intestinal microbiota has not been completely elucidated. In this study, neonatal piglets were randomized to: formula (FORM, n = 8, formula supplemented with 2 g/L each galactooligosaccharides (GOS and polydextrose (PDX, F+GP, n = 9 or a sow-reared (SOW, n = 12 reference group for 19 days. The ileal (IL and ascending colon (AC microbiota were characterized using culture-dependent and -independent methods. 16S amplicon sequencing identified no differences at the genera level in the IL. Interestingly, six genera in the AC were significantly different between FORM and F+GP (P<0.05: Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium and Catabacter. In particular, the relative abundance of AC Lactobacillus was higher (P = 0.04 in F+GP as compared to FORM. Culture-dependent analysis of the IL and AC lactobacilli communities of FORM and F+GP revealed a Lactobacillus spp. composition similar to 16S amplicon sequencing. Additional analysis demonstrated individual Lactobacillus isolates were unable to ferment PDX. Conversely, a majority of lactobacilli isolates could ferment GOS, regardless of piglet diet. In addition, the ability of lactobacilli isolates to ferment the longer chain GOS fragments (DP 3 or greater, which are expected to be present in the distal intestine, was not different between FORM and F+GP. In conclusion, prebiotic supplementation of formula impacted the AC microbiota; however, direct utilization of GOS or PDX does not lead to an increase in Lactobacillus spp.

  11. PET/CT imaging of striatal dopamine transporters in a newborn piglet model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanfen; Wang Xiaoming; Wang Xiaoyu; Cao Li; Guo Qiyong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes of striatal DAT following hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injury in newborn piglets using 11 C-N-2-carbomethoxy-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-tropane (CFT) PET/CT, and to evaluate the value of 11 C-CFT PET/CT in brain injury. Methods: Newborn piglets with HI brain injury (n=20) were taken as a model group,and five piglets were used as a control group. Radioligand 11 C-CFT (55.5-74.0 MBq) was injected through the jugular vein, and PET/CT imaging was performed to observe the changes of striatal DAT in newborn piglets. The ST/occipital lobe (OC) ratio was calculated. Model group was divided into 0-6 h, 20-24 h, 44-48 h and 68-72 h sub-groups after HI in accordance with the imaging time. The piglets were sacrificed immediately after 11 C-CFT PET/CT scanning, and then the brains were removed for pathological analysis. Data analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance and Pearson linear correlation analysis. Results: After intravenous injection of 11 C-CFT, the radioactivity accumulation in cortical, striatum, and cerebellum was shown clearly in the control and model groups. The radioactivity accumulation was lower in the white matter. The radioactivity in cortical and cerebellum exhibited decreased with time, while the striatum was still clear. After HI, the ST/OC activity ratio in the striatum was initially increased, and the ratio of 0-6 h group (1.34 ± 0.04) was statistically significant compared with that of the control group (1.18 ± 0.06; F=4.658, P<0.05), followed by a gradual decrease. ST/OC ratios of other HI subgroups were 1.27 ±0.01, 1.27 ±0.10 and 1.18 ±0.05, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the number of DAT positive neurons ((13 ± 3), (13 ± 4), (8 ±3) and (4 ±4)/high power field) and 11 C-CFT ST/OC activity ratios (r=0.844, P<0.05). Conclusion: 11 C-CFT PET/CT study can accurately reflect the changes of DAT in the striatum, and the amount of DAT is related to the severity of the ischemic insult

  12. Optimal Chest Compression Rate and Compression to Ventilation Ratio in Delivery Room Resuscitation: Evidence from Newborn Piglets and Neonatal Manikins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solevåg, Anne Lee; Schmölzer, Georg M.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) influences survival and neurologic outcomes after delivery room (DR) CPR. High quality chest compressions (CC) improve cerebral and myocardial perfusion. Improved myocardial perfusion increases the likelihood of a faster ROSC. Thus, optimizing CC quality may improve outcomes both by preserving cerebral blood flow during CPR and by reducing the recovery time. CC quality is determined by rate, CC to ventilation (C:V) ratio, and applied force, which are influenced by the CC provider. Thus, provider performance should be taken into account. Neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend a 3:1 C:V ratio. CCs should be delivered at a rate of 90/min synchronized with ventilations at a rate of 30/min to achieve a total of 120 events/min. Despite a lack of scientific evidence supporting this, the investigation of alternative CC interventions in human neonates is ethically challenging. Also, the infrequent occurrence of extensive CPR measures in the DR make randomized controlled trials difficult to perform. Thus, many biomechanical aspects of CC have been investigated in animal and manikin models. Despite mathematical and physiological rationales that higher rates and uninterrupted CC improve CPR hemodynamics, studies indicate that provider fatigue is more pronounced when CC are performed continuously compared to when a pause is inserted after every third CC as currently recommended. A higher rate (e.g., 120/min) is also more fatiguing, which affects CC quality. In post-transitional piglets with asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest, there was no benefit of performing continuous CC at a rate of 90/min. Not only rate but duty cycle, i.e., the duration of CC/total cycle time, is a known determinant of CC effectiveness. However, duty cycle cannot be controlled with manual CC. Mechanical/automated CC in neonatal CPR has not been explored, and feedback systems are under-investigated in this

  13. Effect of bovine colostrum feeding in comparison with milk replacer and natural feeding on the immune responses and colonisation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tissue of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; Canibe, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to piglets in comparison with feeding a milk replacer (MR) and conventional rearing by the sow on the intestinal immune system and number of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonising the intestinal tissue. Piglets......-fed and Sow-Milk groups. The expression level of IL-2 was higher (P≤ 0·051) in piglets from the MR-fed group than in those from the other treatment groups. In conclusion, feeding BC rather than MR to the piglets reduced the colonisation of intestine by ETEC and modulated the intestinal immune system, whereas...

  14. Animal welfare versus food quality: factors influencing organic consumers' preferences for alternatives to piglet castration without anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Astrid; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-10-01

    Surgical piglet castration without pain relief has been banned in organic farming in the EU since the beginning of 2012. Alternative methods therefore need to be implemented that improve animal welfare and solve the underlying problem of boar taint. This paper explores German organic consumers' preferences for piglet castration without pain relief and three alternative methods. In an innovative approach using a multi-criteria decision making procedure, qualitative data from focus group discussions were compared with quantitative results from Vickrey auctions. Overall, participants preferred all alternatives to castration without pain relief. Different aspects influenced willingness-to-pay for the methods. Animal welfare was important for the evaluation of castration without pain relief and castration with anaesthesia. Food safety played a major role for willingness-to-pay for immunocastration, while taste and, to some extent, animal welfare were dominant factors for fattening of boars. These differences should be considered when communicating the alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically

  16. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age, piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age, all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age, response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT. During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06, but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05 than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05, and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10. Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by

  17. Cyclosporine treatment reduces oxygen free radical generation and oxidative stress in the brain of hypoxia-reoxygenated newborn piglets.

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    Richdeep S Gill

    Full Text Available Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It has previously been shown in traumatic brain injury animal models that treatment with cyclosporine reduces brain injury. However, the potential neuroprotective effect of cyclosporine in asphyxiated neonates has yet to be fully studied. Using an acute newborn swine model of hypoxia-reoxygenation, we evaluated the effects of cyclosporine on the brain, focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 production and markers of oxidative stress. Piglets (1-4 d, 1.4-2.5 kg were block-randomized into three hypoxia-reoxygenation experimental groups (2 h hypoxia followed by 4 h reoxygenation (n = 8/group. At 5 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. saline (placebo, controls or cyclosporine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg i.v. bolus in a blinded-randomized fashion. An additional sham-operated group (n = 4 underwent no hypoxia-reoxygenation. Systemic hemodynamics, carotid arterial blood flow (transit-time ultrasonic probe, cerebral cortical H(2O(2 production (electrochemical sensor, cerebral tissue glutathione (ELISA and cytosolic cytochrome-c (western blot levels were examined. Hypoxic piglets had cardiogenic shock (cardiac output 40-48% of baseline, hypotension (mean arterial pressure 27-31 mmHg and acidosis (pH 7.04 at the end of 2 h of hypoxia. Post-resuscitation cyclosporine treatment, particularly the higher dose (10 mg/kg, significantly attenuated the increase in cortical H(2O(2 concentration during reoxygenation, and was associated with lower cerebral oxidized glutathione levels. Furthermore, cyclosporine treatment significantly attenuated the increase in cortical cytochrome-c and lactate levels. Carotid blood arterial flow was similar among groups during reoxygenation. Conclusively, post-resuscitation administration of cyclosporine significantly attenuates H(2O(2 production and minimizes oxidative stress in newborn piglets following hypoxia-reoxygenation.

  18. Characterization of porcine cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein gene and its association with piglet diarrhea traits

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    Buyue Niu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein (CISH, which might play a role in porcine intestine immune responses, was one of the promising candidate genes for piglet anti-disease traits. An experiment was conducted to characterize the porcine CISH (pCISH gene and to evaluate its genetic effects on pig anti-disease breeding. Methods Both reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and PCR were performed to obtain the sequence of pCISH gene. A pEGFP-C1-CISH vector was constructed and transfected into PK-15 cells to analysis the distribution of pCISH. The sequences of individuals were compared with each other to find the polymorphisms in pCISH gene. The association analysis was performed in Min pigs and Landrace pigs to evaluate the genetic effects on piglet diarrhea traits. Results In the present research, the coding sequence and genomic sequence of pCISH gene was obtained. Porcine CISH was mainly localized in cytoplasm. TaqI and HaeIII PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assays were established to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; A-1575G in promoter region and A2497C in Intron1, respectively. Association studies indicated that SNP A-1575G was significantly associated with diarrhea index of Min piglets (p<0.05 and SNP A2497C was significantly associated with the diarrhea trait of both Min pig and Landrace piglets (p<0.05. Conclusion This study suggested that the pCISH gene might be a novel candidate gene for pig anti-disease traits, and further studies are needed to confirm the results of this preliminary research.

  19. Characterization of porcine cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein gene and its association with piglet diarrhea traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Buyue; Guo, Dongchun; Liu, Zhiran; Han, Xiaofei; Wang, Xibiao

    2017-12-01

    The cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein (CISH), which might play a role in porcine intestine immune responses, was one of the promising candidate genes for piglet anti-disease traits. An experiment was conducted to characterize the porcine CISH (pCISH) gene and to evaluate its genetic effects on pig anti-disease breeding. Both reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR were performed to obtain the sequence of pCISH gene. A pEGFP-C1-CISH vector was constructed and transfected into PK-15 cells to analysis the distribution of pCISH. The sequences of individuals were compared with each other to find the polymorphisms in pCISH gene. The association analysis was performed in Min pigs and Landrace pigs to evaluate the genetic effects on piglet diarrhea traits. In the present research, the coding sequence and genomic sequence of pCISH gene was obtained. Porcine CISH was mainly localized in cytoplasm. TaqI and HaeIII PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays were established to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); A-1575G in promoter region and A2497C in Intron1, respectively. Association studies indicated that SNP A-1575G was significantly associated with diarrhea index of Min piglets (p<0.05) and SNP A2497C was significantly associated with the diarrhea trait of both Min pig and Landrace piglets (p<0.05). This study suggested that the pCISH gene might be a novel candidate gene for pig anti-disease traits, and further studies are needed to confirm the results of this preliminary research.

  20. Ventilatory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia after extensive lesion of medullary serotonergic neurons in newborn conscious piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penatti, E M; Berniker, A V; Kereshi, B; Cafaro, C; Kelly, M L; Niblock, M M; Gao, H G; Kinney, H C; Li, A; Nattie, E E

    2006-10-01

    Acute inhibition of serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the medullary raphé (MR) using a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist had an age-dependent impact on the "CO(2) response" of piglets (33). Our present study explored the effect of chronic 5-HT neuron lesions in the MR and extra-raphé on the ventilatory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia in piglets, with possible implications on the role of 5-HT in the sudden infant death syndrome. We established four experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 11) did not undergo any treatment. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were injected with either vehicle or the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine in the cisterna magna during the first week of life (group 2, n = 9; group 4, n = 11) or second week of life (group 3, n = 10). Ventilation was recorded in response to 5% CO(2) (all groups) and 12% O(2) (group 2) during wakefulness and sleep up to postnatal day 25. Surprisingly, the piglets did not reveal changes in their CO(2) sensitivity during early postnatal development. Overall, considerable lesions of 5-HT neurons (up to 65% decrease) in the MR and extra-raphé had no impact on the CO(2) response, regardless of injection time. Postlesion raphé plasticity could explain why we observed no effect. 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine-treated males, however, did present a lower CO(2) response during sleep. Hypoxia significantly altered the frequency during sleep in lesioned piglets. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of plasticity, sex, and 5-HT abnormalities in sudden infant death syndrome.

  1. Infusing Sodium Bicarbonate Suppresses Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation and Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Hypoxic-Reoxygenated Newborn Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiang-Qin; Manouchehri, Namdar; Lee, Tze-Fun; Yao, Mingzhu; Bigam, David L.; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) has recently been questioned although it is often used to correct metabolic acidosis of neonates. The aim of the present study was to examine its effect on hemodynamic changes and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation in the resuscitation of hypoxic newborn animals with severe acidosis. Methods Newborn piglets were block-randomized into a sham-operated control group without hypoxia (n = 6) and two hypoxia-reoxygenation groups (2 h normocap...

  2. Effects of Piper sarmentosum extract on the growth performance, antioxidant capability and immune response in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D F; Zhou, L L; Zhou, H L; Hou, G Y; Zhou, X; Li, W

    2017-02-01

    The biological properties of Piper sarmentosum render it a potential substitute for antibiotics in livestock feed. This study evaluated the effects of P. sarmentosum extract (PSE) on the growth performance, antioxidant capability and immune response of weaned piglets. Eighty 21-d-old weaned piglets were selected and randomly allocated to one of four dietary treatments with five replicates of four pigs each. The dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with 0 (T0), 50 (T50), 100 (T100) or 200 (T200) mg/kg PSE. The feeding trial lasted 4 weeks. The results revealed that the T50 group had the highest average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) throughout the feeding trial (p < 0.05). Additionally, the T50 group had higher (p < 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) and lower (p < 0.05) serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels than the T0 group at 4 weeks post-weaning (p < 0.05). Serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) decreased, while serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) increased by PSE supplementation at 4 weeks post-weaning (p < 0.05). PSE supplementation upregulated the mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β and downregulated the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the ileal mucosal layer of piglets (p < 0.05). In summary, our study findings revealed that PSE supplementation improved the antioxidant capability, and reduced inflammation, which may be beneficial to weaned piglet health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Low birth weight and early-life iron deficiency in piglets : Post-weaning effects on cognition, development, and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Antonides, A.

    2016-01-01

    Proper cognitive, physical and anatomical development depend on the correct orchestration of developmental processes and the factors influencing them. Complications and disturbances around birth and during early development may negatively affect development permanently. In this thesis, we studied two complications during the early development of piglets, both as a model for these conditions in humans, and for gaining knowledge on and improving the welfare of pigs. The first part of this thesi...

  4. Platelet Arachidonic Acid Deficiency May Contribute to Abnormal Platelet Function During Parenteral Fish Oil Monotherapy in a Piglet Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Justine M; Field, Catherine J; Goruk, Sue; Wizzard, Pamela; Dicken, Bryan J; Bruce, Aisha; Wales, Paul W

    2016-05-01

    Fish oil monotherapy has been an advance for treating intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). However, such patients are at risk of bleeding complications from liver disease and because fish oil can inhibit thrombosis. We have previously reported abnormal platelet function in neonatal piglets given fish oil monotherapy during parenteral nutrition (PN). The purpose of this study was to determine if abnormal fatty acid composition of the platelets could explain the prior observed antiplatelet effect. Neonatal piglets were assigned to 2 treatments: PN with fish oil monotherapy (FO; n = 4) or PN with soy oil (SO; n = 5). On day 14, plasma was collected and platelets isolated by centrifuging. The fatty acid content in plasma and platelet plug were measured using gas liquid chromatography and compared with controls (CON; n = 5). The arachidonic acid (AA) content in the FO group was on average half that of the SO group, in both the platelets (FO, 3.5% vs SO, 7.6%; P = .021; CON, 4.5%-11%) and the plasma (FO, 3.8% vs SO, 9.2%; P = .002; CON, 6.1%-9.5%). No bleeding complications were observed for any piglets during PN treatment. Using platelet mapping, we have previously shown that neonatal piglets given fish oil monotherapy have abnormal platelet function in the AA pathway. This report demonstrates that such an abnormality can be explained by platelet AA deficiency. Platelet mapping and platelet fatty acid analysis should be undertaken in human infants treated with fish oil monotherapy during PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  5. Lysine supplementation in late gestation of gilts: effects on piglet birth weight, and gestational and lactational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Magnabosco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine requirements for gain in maternal body reserves and piglet birth weight, during pregnancy, in contemporary prolific genotypes, are not well established. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine in late pregnancy on piglet birth weight, and on the gestational and lactational performance of gilts. Pregnant gilts were uniformly distributed into two groups and received, from 85 to 110 days of gestation, either of two lysine levels in their diet: Control group - 28g lysine/day (n=136, and Lysine group - 35g lysine/day (n=141. There were no effects (P>0.10 of supplemental lysine on body weight and backfat (BF gain of females or on piglet birth weight. Gilts supplemented with lysine tended to have a lower percentage of stillbirths (P=0.077, reduced within-litter birth weight variation (P=0.094 and a lower percentage of piglets weighing less than 1100g (P=0.082 than in the Control group. During lactation, the performance of sows and litters was also evaluated in a subgroup of sows (n=26/group. There were no differences between the Control and Lysine groups (P>0.10 in voluntary feed intake, body reserve losses (weight and BF, weaning-to-estrus interval of the sows, and litter weaning weight. In conclusion, an increase in lysine (from 28 to 35g/day in late gestation of gilts (85 to 110 days tends to reduce the rate of stillbirths and to improve the uniformity of litter weight at birth, but does not affect the performance of females until farrowing or during subsequent lactation.

  6. Chemotherapy modulates intestinal immune gene expression including surfactant Protein-D and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Thomassen, Mads; Shen, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Information about chemotherapy-induced intestinal gene expression may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying gut toxicity and help identify biomarkers and targets for intervention. Methods: We analyzed jejunal tissue from piglets subjected to two different, clinically relevant...... the upregulated genes for both treatments. Conclusion: In the developing intestine, chemotherapy increases the expression of genes related to innate immune functions involved in surveillance, protection, and homeostasis of mucosal surfaces....

  7. Marker-assisted selection on E. coli F4ab/ac resistance and the effect on neonatal survival in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Anderson, Susan I.; Cirera, Susanna

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that express the F4ab or F4ac fimbriae (formerly known as K88ab/ac) are major causes of diarrhea and death in neonatal and young pigs. A locus controlling susceptibility towards ETEC F4ab/ac has previously been mapped to pig chromosome 13q41. A number...

  8. Changes in serotoninergic receptors 1A and 2A in the piglet brainstem after intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Meichien; Machaalani, Rita; Waters, Karen A

    2007-06-04

    We studied the effects of intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) and/or nicotine on the immunoreactivity of serotoninergic (5-HT) receptors 1A and 2A in the piglet brainstem. These exposures were developed to mimic two common risk factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS); prone sleeping (IHH) and cigarette smoke exposure (nicotine). Immunoreactivity for 5-HT(1A)R and 5-HT(2A)R were studied in four nuclei of the caudal medulla. Three exposure groups were compared to controls (n=14): IHH (n=10), nicotine (n=14), and nicotine+IHH (n=14). In control piglets, the immunoreactivity of 5-HT(1A)R was highest in the hypoglossal nucleus (XII), followed by inferior olivary nucleus (ION), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV), whereas for 5-HT(2A)R, the immunoreactivity was highest in DMNV/NTS and then ION. Compared to controls, IHH reduced 5-HT(1A)R immunoreactivity in all studied nuclei (pIHH reduced 5-HT(1A)R in DMNV, ION and NTS (pIHH and/or nicotine can reduce 5-HT receptor immunoreactivity within functionally important nuclei of the piglet medulla. The findings support our hypothesis that 5-HT receptor abnormalities may be caused by postnatal exposures to clinically-relevant stimuli such as cigarette smoke exposure and/or prone sleeping.

  9. Investigations on the Effects of Dietary Essential Oils and Different Husbandry Conditions on the Gut Ecology in Piglets after Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EO are being considered as possible alternatives to in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in pig nutrition. The effects of an EO mixture consisting of limonene, eugenol and pinene (10.0, 2.0, and 4.8 mg/kg diet, resp. on gut physiology and ecology were studied in piglets. The experiment was conducted at low (commercial farm and high hygienic conditions (experimental farm, to elucidate interactions between EO supplementation and husbandry methods. Piglets were weaned at 28 days of age, when they were offered either a control diet (C or C with EO. Four piglets were sacrificed in each group on day 29, 30, 33 and 39. Digesta from the third distal part of the small intestine and from the colon were sampled and analysed for pH, dry matter, lactic acid, short chain fatty acids and ammonia concentrations. Enterobacteria, enterococci, lactobacilli and yeast counts were obtained by plating. Genomic DNA was extracted from digesta and polymerase chain reaction—denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed. Individual microbial communities were identified at each farm. Age affected the intestinal parameters. No effects of the EO with exception for a significant reduction in colon bacterial diversity at 39 days of age could be recorded at experimental farm.

  10. Betaine is as effective as folate at re-synthesizing methionine for protein synthesis during moderate methionine deficiency in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreairty, Laura E; Robinson, Jason L; Harding, Scott V; Randell, Edward W; Brunton, Janet A; Bertolo, Robert F

    2016-12-01

    Both folate and betaine (synthesized from choline) are nutrients used to methylate homocysteine to reform the amino acid methionine following donation of its methyl group; however, it is unclear whether both remethylation pathways are of equal importance during the neonatal period when remethylation rates are high. Methionine is an indispensable amino acid that is in high demand in neonates not only for protein synthesis, but is also particularly important for transmethylation reactions, such as creatine and phosphatidylcholine synthesis. The objective of this study was to determine whether supplementation with folate, betaine, or a combination of both can equally re-synthesize methionine for protein synthesis when dietary methionine is limiting. Piglets were fed a low methionine diet devoid of folate, choline, and betaine, and on day 6, piglets were supplemented with either folate, betaine, or folate + betaine (n = 6 per treatment) until day 10. [1- 13 C]-phenylalanine oxidation was measured as an indicator of methionine availability for protein synthesis both before and after 2 days of supplementation. Prior to supplementation, piglets had lower concentrations of plasma folate, betaine, and choline compared to baseline with no change in homocysteine. Post-supplementation, phenylalanine oxidation levels were 20-46 % lower with any methyl donor supplementation (P = 0.006) with no difference among different supplementation groups. Furthermore, both methyl donors led to similarly lower concentrations of homocysteine following supplementation (P folate to remethylate methionine for protein synthesis, as indicated by lower phenylalanine oxidation.

  11. Dietary hemoglobin rescues young piglets from severe iron deficiency anemia: Duodenal expression profile of genes involved in heme iron absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Staroń

    Full Text Available Heme is an efficient source of iron in the diet, and heme preparations are used to prevent and cure iron deficiency anemia in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for heme absorption remain only partially characterized. Here, we employed young iron-deficient piglets as a convenient animal model to determine the efficacy of oral heme iron supplementation and investigate the pathways of heme iron absorption. The use of bovine hemoglobin as a dietary source of heme iron was found to efficiently counteract the development of iron deficiency anemia in piglets, although it did not fully rebalance their iron status. Our results revealed a concerted increase in the expression of genes responsible for apical and basolateral heme transport in the duodenum of piglets fed a heme-enriched diet. In these animals the catalytic activity of heme oxygenase 1 contributed to the release of elemental iron from the protoporphyrin ring of heme within enterocytes, which may then be transported by the strongly expressed ferroportin across the basolateral membrane to the circulation. We hypothesize that the well-recognized high bioavailability of heme iron may depend on a split pathway mediating the transport of heme-derived elemental iron and intact heme from the interior of duodenal enterocytes to the bloodstream.

  12. Evaluation of Ensiled Brewer's Grain in the Diet of Piglets by One Way Multiple Analysis of Variance, MANOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amang A Mbang, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of feeding trials is to find the optimum level of feed ingredients which give the highest economical returns to the farmers. This can be achieved through estimation and comparison of means of different rations. The example we have is a study of incorporation of different levels of ensiled brewers grains in the diet of 24 hybrids weaned piglets from Landrace x Duroc x Berkshire x Large White. They were randomly divided into four groups with three replicates of two piglets per pen. They were fed 0, 10, 20, 30% incorporation of ensiled brewer's grains on dry matter basis during post-weaning period followed by 0, 30, 40 and 50% during growing period and 0, 50, 60 and 70% during finishing period. We have one explanatory variable: initial weight, and four post treatment outcome variables recorded per piglets: final weight, dry matter consumption, weight gain and index of consumption. Comparing of several multivariate treatment means model design analysis is adapted. We obtain the MANOVA (Multiple Analyse of Variance table of each phase, where the treatment differences exist by using Wilk's lambda distribution, and we find the treatment effect by using a confidence interval method of MANOVA. This model has the advantage of computing the responses of all variables in the matrix of sum of squares and more precisely in separation of the different means percentage of Ensiled Brewer's grain.

  13. Developmental changes of protein, RNA, DNA, lipid, and glycogen in the liver, skeletal muscle, and brain of the piglet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkarainen, J.

    1975-01-01

    A scheme for the sequential quantitative separation and determination of protein, RNA, DNA, lipid, and glycogen from rat-liver homogenate is modified for application to frozen tissues of the piglet. The biochemical methods, including the biuret method, used in the present investigation are described and thoroughly checked. The effects of freezing and storage on the recovery of major tissue constituents are recorded. The modified scheme is applied to the determination of protein, RNA, DNA, lipid, and glycogen in the liver, skeletal muscle, and brain of the developing piglet. Developmental changes for these major tissue constituents, including the biuret protein, are described with special reference to protein synthesis and physiology of growth at the cellular level from 45 days of foetal age to 35-42 days of postnatal age for liver and skeletal muscle, and from birth to 31-40 days of postnatal age for the cerebrum and cerebellum. The uniformly labelled amino acid, 14 C-L-leucine, is used to study protein synthesis. Developmental patterns of labelling of protein and lipid in the liver, skeletal muscle, cerebrum, and cerebellum of the piglet from birth up to the age of two weeks are described. The results of the methodological, developmental, and experimental studies are thoroughly discussed in the light of the relevant literature and compared with those obtained in developmental and experimental studies on rats and other mammal species. (author)

  14. Genetic parameters of the piglet mortality traits stillborn, weak at birth, starvation, crushing, and miscellaneous in crossbred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, T.; Ask, B.; Nielsen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters for the mortality causes stillborn, weak at birth, starvation, crushing, and miscellaneous in crossbred piglets produced by crossbred dams. Data were collected in a single Danish commercial herd from October 2006 to July 2008 and consisted of 34......,194 piglets (2,152 litters), which originated from 195 Danish Duroc sires and 955 crossbreds between Danish Landrace and Danish Yorkshire dams. Of the 34,194 piglets born, 11.5% were stillborn, 4.2% were crushed by the sow, 2.7% died due to starvation, 2.3% were weak at birth, and 2.2% died of miscellaneous...... traits based on the sire component ranged from -0.05 between stillborn and starvation to 0.35 between stillborn and weak at birth whereas genetic correlations based on the dam component ranged from -0.11 between weak at birth and starvation to 0.76 between crushing and starvation. There seemed...

  15. Expression of genes of the cardiac and renal renin-angiotensin systems in preterm piglets: is this system a suitable target for therapeutic intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eleanor; Eiby, Yvonne; Lumbers, Eugenie; Boyce, Amanda; Gibson, Karen; Lingwood, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The newborn circulating, cardiac and renal renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) are essential for blood pressure control, and for cardiac and renal development. If cardiac and renal RASs are immature this may contribute to cardiovascular compromise in preterm infants. This study measured mRNA expression of cardiac and renal RAS components in preterm, glucocorticoid (GC) exposed preterm, and term piglets. Renal and cardiac RAS mRNA levels were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genes studied were: (pro)renin receptor, renin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R). All the genes studied were expressed in the kidney; neither renin nor AT2R mRNA were detected in the heart. There were no gestational changes in (pro)renin receptor, renin, ACE or AT1R mRNA levels. Right ventricular angiotensinogen mRNA levels in females were lower in preterm animals than at term, and GC exposure increased levels in male piglets. Renal angiotensinogen mRNA levels in female term piglets were lower than females from both preterm groups, and lower than male term piglets. Left ventricular ACE2 mRNA expression was lower in GC treated preterm piglets. Renal AT2R mRNA abundance was highest in GC treated preterm piglets, and the AT1R/AT2R ratio was increased at term. Preterm cardiac and renal RAS mRNA levels were similar to term piglets, suggesting that immaturity of these RASs does not contribute to preterm cardiovascular compromise. Since preterm expression of both renal and cardiac angiotensin II-AT1R is similar to term animals, cardiovascular dysfunction in the sick preterm human neonate might be effectively treated by agents acting on their RASs. © The Author(s), 2015.

  16. Spatial molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant and New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase (blaNDM)-producing Escherichia coli in the piglets of organized farms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvishree, B S; Vinodh Kumar, O R; Sinha, D K; Malik, Y P S; Dubal, Z B; Desingu, P A; Shivakumar, M; Krishnaswamy, N; Singh, B R

    2017-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government-organized pig farms between 2014 and 2016 representing seven states of India to understand the epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in the Escherichia coli. In this study, fecal sample (n = 673) from non-diarrheic (n = 501) and diarrheic (n = 172) piglets were processed for isolation of carbapenem resistant E. coli. Of 673, E. coli isolate (n = 112) was genotyped for confirming the carbapenem resistance and associated virulence factors. Of the 112 isolates, 23 were phenotypically resistant to carbapenem and 8 were carrying the New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase (blaNDM) gene. The carbapenem-resistant isolates also produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases and were multidrug resistant. The PCR-based pathotyping revealed the presence of stx1, stx2, eae and hlyA genes. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR dendrogram analysis of the isolates yielded three distinct clusters. The statistical analysis revealed no association between carriages of carbapenem-resistant E. coli in different breed of piglets however, location, sex, health status of piglets and age showed significant difference. The spatial analysis with SaTScan helped in identification of carbapenem-resistant clusters. The presence of carbapenem resistant E. coli isolates with virulence genes in the piglet poses a potential public health risk through possible access and spread via the food chain and environment. Efflux pump may also play an important role in carbapenem resistance in piglet E. coli isolates. Furthermore, identification of risk factors in relation to spatial clusters will help in designing preventive strategies for reducing the risk of spread of carbapenem resistant bacteria. 1. Piglets harbor carbapenem resistant E. coli and have great public health significance. 2. Apart from carbapenemase, efflux pump is also important for carbapenem resistance. 3. This is the first report of blaNDM in the piglets from India. © 2017

  17. Piglet nasal microbiota at weaning may influence the development of Glässer's disease during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Fiz, Florencia; Fraile, Lorenzo; Aragon, Virginia

    2016-05-26

    The microbiota, the ensemble of microorganisms on a particular body site, has been extensively studied during the last few years, and demonstrated to influence the development of many diseases. However, these studies focused mainly on the human digestive system, while the populations in the respiratory tract have been poorly assessed, especially in pigs. The nasal mucosa of piglets is colonized by an array of bacteria, many of which are unknown. Among the early colonizers, Haemophilus parasuis also has clinical importance, since it is also the etiological agent of Glässer's disease. This disease produces economical losses in all the countries with pig production, and the factors influencing its development are not totally understood. Hence, the purpose of this work was to characterize the nasal microbiota composition of piglets, and its possible role in Glässer's disease development. Seven farms from Spain (4 with Glässer's disease and 3 control farms without any respiratory disease) and three farms from UK (all control farms) were studied. Ten piglets from each farm were sampled at 3-4 weeks of age before weaning. The total DNA extracted from nasal swabs was used to amplify the 16S RNA gene for sequencing in Illumina MiSeq. Sequencing data was quality filtered and analyzed using QIIME software. The diversity of the nasal microbiota was low in comparison with other body sites, showing a maximum number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per pig of 1,603, clustered in five phyla. Significant differences were found at various taxonomical levels, when the microbiota was compared regarding the farm health status. Healthy status was associated to higher species richness and diversity, and UK farms demonstrated the highest diversity. The composition of the nasal microbiota of healthy piglets was uncovered and different phylotypes were shown to be significantly altered in animals depending on the clinical status of the farm of origin. Several OTUs at genus level were

  18. Medicinal plants--prophylactic and therapeutic options for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrle, Hannah; Mevissen, Meike; Kaske, Martin; Nathues, Heiko; Gruetzner, Niels; Melzig, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2016-06-06

    Gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in calves and piglets lead to significant economic losses in livestock husbandry. A high morbidity has been reported for diarrhea (calves ≤ 35%; piglets ≤ 50%) and for respiratory diseases (calves ≤ 80%; piglets ≤ 40%). Despite a highly diverse etiology and pathophysiology of these diseases, treatment with antimicrobials is often the first-line therapy. Multi-antimicrobial resistance in pathogens results in international accordance to strengthen the research in novel treatment options. Medicinal plants bear a potential as alternative or additional treatment. Based on the versatile effects of their plant specific multi-component-compositions, medicinal plants can potentially act as 'multi-target drugs'. Regarding the plurality of medicinal plants, the aim of this systematic review was to identify potential medicinal plant species for prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases and for modulation of the immune system and inflammation in calves and piglets. Based on nine initial sources including standard textbooks and European ethnoveterinary studies, a total of 223 medicinal plant species related to the treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases was identified. A defined search strategy was established using the PRISMA statement to evaluate 30 medicinal plant species starting from 20'000 peer-reviewed articles published in the last 20 years (1994-2014). This strategy led to 418 references (257 in vitro, 84 in vivo and 77 clinical trials, thereof 48 clinical trials in veterinary medicine) to evaluate effects of medicinal plants and their efficacy in detail. The findings indicate that the most promising candidates for gastrointestinal diseases are Allium sativum L., Mentha x piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L.; for diseases of the respiratory tract Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH, Thymus vulgaris L. and Althea officinalis L. were found most promising, and Echinacea purpurea (L

  19. Association between Brain and Kidney Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Early Postresuscitation Mortality in Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solevåg, Anne Lee; Schmölzer, Georg M; Nakstad, Britt; Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Early outcome predictors after delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of asphyxiated newborns are needed. To investigate if cerebral (rScO2) and renal (rSrO2) tissue oxygen saturation 30 min after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) are different between surviving versus nonsurviving piglets with asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest and CPR. Further, to investigate the relationship of rScO2 and rSrO2 to cardiac output (CO), blood pressure (BP), and biochemical variables 30 min and 4 h after ROSC. Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated piglets (1-3 days, 1.7-2.4 kg) were used. rScO2, rSrO2, SpO2, right common carotid artery flow, and arterial BP were measured continuously. CO was measured with echocardiography. The piglets were asphyxiated until cardiac arrest and resuscitated. Piglets that survived 4 h after ROSC (n = 12) were compared with piglets that died before planned euthanasia at 4 h (n = 13). Left ventricular, and kidney and brain tissue lactate were analyzed. Correlations between variables were assessed. Thirty minutes after ROSC, median rSrO2 (43% [n = 10] vs. 25% [n = 2], p = 0.003) but not rScO2 (46% [41-55] [n = 10] vs. 40% [22-45] [n = 5], p = 0.08) was higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors. Arterial lactate was negatively correlated and pH positively correlated with rScO2 and rSrO2. Left ventricular, but not kidney or brain lactate was negatively correlated with rScO2 and rSrO2. There was no correlation between CO or BP and rScO2 or rSrO2. Despite satisfactory CO and BP vital organ oxygenation can be poor. Tissue oxygen saturation, pH, and lactate, as measures of anaerobic metabolism, may reflect vital organ oxygenation and outcome. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Synergistic effects of remote perconditioning with terminal blood cardioplegia in an in vivo piglet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takayuki; Morita, Kiyozo; Shinohara, Gen; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Nishikawa, Masako

    2017-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that remote perconditioning offers effective and synergistic cardioprotection to terminal warm blood cardioplegia for prompt ventricular recovery after prolonged cardioplegic arrest in an in vivo piglet model. Twenty-four piglets were subjected to 120 min of single-dose cardioplegic arrest and were divided into 4 groups according to the mode of reperfusion: control (simple aortic unclamp), remote perconditioning, terminal warm blood cardioplegia or remote perconditioning + terminal warm blood cardioplegia; remote perconditioning (4 cycles of 5-min ischaemia-reperfusion of the lower limb) was applied prior to aortic unclamping. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were assessed by pressure-volume loop analysis at baseline and after 60 min of reperfusion. Biochemical injury was evaluated by plasma troponin T level. The control group showed decreased end-systolic elastance, preload recruitable stroke work and inverse of end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship of 51.3 ± 14.0%, 46.1 ± 22.5% and 34.8 ± 14.9%, respectively. Percentage recovery of end-systolic elastance and preload recruitable stroke work were significantly better with terminal warm blood cardioplegia (with or without remote perconditioning) (end-systolic elastance: 95% confidence interval, 38.6-84.1; preload recruitable stroke work: 95% confidence interval, 0.4-54.3). Percentage recovery of inverse of end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship was significantly better in the remote perconditioning groups (with or without terminal warm blood cardioplegia) (95% confidence interval, 1.6-41.6). No synergistic effects of remote perconditioning and terminal warm blood cardioplegia on troponin T release were noted. Remote perconditioning offers promising synergistic cardioprotection to terminal warm blood cardioplegia, implicating potential clinical benefit by contributing to prompt left ventricular functional recovery during paediatric open

  1. CO2 sensitivity of the complexity of phrenic neurograms in the piglet during early maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Metin

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of hypercapnia on the dynamics of the phrenic neurogram in the piglet in two different age groups: 3-7 days (n = 11) and 10-16 days (n = 9). The phrenic neurogram was recorded from 17 piglets (3-16 days old) during control (40% O2 with 3-5% end-tidal CO2), mild hypercapnia (40% O2 with 7% CO2) and severe hypercapnia (40% O2 with 15% CO2) and analyzed using the approximate entropy (ApEn) method. The mean values of the approximate entropy (complexity) of phrenic neurograms during the first 7 days of the postnatal age were 1.56 ± 0.1 (standard deviation) during normal breathing, 1.51 ± 0.1 during mild hypercapnia and 1.37 ± 0.08 during severe hypercapnia. These values for the 10-16 days age group were 1.51 ± 0.1 during control, 1.49 ± 0.11 during mild hypercapnia and 1.38 ± 0.05 during severe hypercapnia. The mean values of phrenic neurogram durations during the first 7 days of the postnatal age were 0.82 ± 0.03 (standard deviation) s during normal breathing, 0.85 ± 0.007 s during mild hypercapnia and 0.65 ± 0.05 s during severe hypercapnia. These values for the 10-16 days age group were 0.97 ± 0.09 s during control, 1.10 ± 0.05 during mild hypercapnia and 0.78 ± 0.05 s during severe hypercapnia. Our results show that the complexity values of the phrenic neurogram were significantly decreased when the CO2 concentration was shifted from control or mild to severe hypercapnia (p phrenic neurogram decreased when the concentration was shifted from control or mild to severe hypercapnia (p phrenic neurogram were observed between control and mild hypercapnia concentration. These results suggest that severe hypercapnia can be characterized with a significant decrease of the complexity values and durations of the phrenic neurogram during inspiration during early maturation.

  2. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Sørensen, M T

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g=-106+2.26 WG+200 BWB+0.111 D-1,414 WG/D+0.0182 WG/BWB (R2=0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n=500, mean=437 g, SD=153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean=305 g, SD=140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n=10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n=8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil+4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (Pcoconut oil decreased lactose and increased DM concentrations of colostrum compared with other prefarrowing diets (P

  3. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and Zinc Oxide Stimulate Immune Reactions to Trivalent Influenza Vaccination in Pigs but Do Not Affect Virological Response upon Challenge Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenya; Burwinkel, Michael; Chai, Weidong; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Breithaupt, Angele; Hoffmann, Bernd; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Znhigh; 50 ppm, Znlow). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Znhigh and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Znlow) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Znhigh+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Znhigh and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Znlow control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology. PMID:24489827

  4. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and zinc oxide stimulate immune reactions to trivalent influenza vaccination in pigs but do not affect virological response upon challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenya; Burwinkel, Michael; Chai, Weidong; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Breithaupt, Angele; Hoffmann, Bernd; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Zn(high); 50 ppm, Zn(low)). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Zn(high) and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Zn(low)) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Zn(high)+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Zn(high) and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Zn(low) control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology.

  5. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and zinc oxide stimulate immune reactions to trivalent influenza vaccination in pigs but do not affect virological response upon challenge infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenya Wang

    Full Text Available Swine influenza viruses (SIV regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E. faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Zn(high; 50 ppm, Zn(low. Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Zn(high and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Zn(low lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI titers were also observed in the Zn(high+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Zn(high and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Zn(low control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology.

  6. Comparison of casein and whey in diets on performance, immune responses and metabolomic profile of weaning pigs challenged with E.coli F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Jensen, Bent Borg; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2014-01-01

    challenged with E. coli F4. Two factorial experiments involving 24 weanling pigs were conducted. Diets containing casein or whey, and challenge with E. coli O149:F4 or not, were the two factors. Blood was sampled at the day before challenge and 4 and 7 days postchallenge. For measurement of mucosal immune...... of pigs. Challenge of the pigs with E. coli F4 increased the diarrhea and appeared to modulate the immune function of the piglets through changes in T cells populations and plasma metabolite profile....... with unchallenged pigs. The challenge reduced (PE...

  7. Effects of octacosanol extracted from rice bran on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase in weaning piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Long

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of octacosanol to the body of animals and the effects of octacosanol on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK in liver and muscle tissue of weaning piglets. A total of 105 crossbred piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc with an initial BW of 5.70 ± 1.41 kg (21 d of age were used in a 6-wk trial to evaluate the effects of octacosanol and tiamulin supplementation on contents of triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4, growth hormone (GH, glucagon (GU and adrenaline (AD in blood and gene expressions of GLUT-4 and AMPK in liver and muscle. Piglets were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments on the basis of BW and sex. Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 5 piglets per pen. Treatments were as followed: control group, tiamulin group and octacosanol group. The results showed that compared with control group and tiamulin group, octacosanol greatly promoted the secretion of T3, GH, GU and AD (P  0.05. Results of the present study has confirmed that octacosanol affects energy metabolism of body by regulating secretion of blood hormones and related gene expression in tissue of weaning piglets, which can reduce stress response and has an impact on performance.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study of Piglet Uniformity and Farrowing Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Piglet uniformity (PU and farrowing interval (FI are important reproductive traits related to production and economic profits in the pig industry. However, the genetic architecture of the longitudinal trends of reproductive traits still remains elusive. Herein, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS to detect potential genetic variation and candidate genes underlying the phenotypic records at different parities for PU and FI in a population of 884 Large White pigs. In total, 12 significant SNPs were detected on SSC1, 3, 4, 9, and 14, which collectively explained 1–1.79% of the phenotypic variance for PU from parity 1 to 4, and 2.58–4.11% for FI at different stages. Of these, seven SNPs were located within 16 QTL regions related to swine reproductive traits. One QTL region was associated with birth body weight (related to PU and contained the peak SNP MARC0040730, and another was associated with plasma FSH concentration (related to FI and contained the SNP MARC0031325. Finally, some positional candidate genes for PU and FI were identified because of their roles in prenatal skeletal muscle development, fetal energy substrate, pre-implantation, and the expression of mammary gland epithelium. Identification of novel variants and candidate genes will greatly advance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms of PU and FI, and suggest a specific opportunity for improving marker assisted selection or genomic selection in pigs.

  9. An experimental randomized study of six different ventilatory modes in a piglet model with normal lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Sjöstrand, U H; Henneberg, S W

    1991-01-01

    A randomized study of 6 ventilatory modes was made in 7 piglets with normal lungs. Using a Servo HFV 970 (prototype system) and a Servo ventilator 900 C the ventilatory modes examined were as follows: SV-20V, i.e. volume-controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV); SV-20VIosc, i...... ventilatory modes. Also the mean airway pressures were lower with the HFV modes 8-9 cm H2O compared to 11-14 cm H2O for the other modes. The gas distribution was evaluated by N2 wash-out and a modified lung clearance index. All modes showed N2 wash-out according to a two-compartment model. The SV-20P mode had.......e. volume-controlled ventilation (IPPV) with superimposed inspiratory oscillations; and SV-20VEf, i.e. volume-controlled ventilation (IPPV) with expiratory flush of fresh gas; HFV-60 denotes low-compressive high-frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV) and HVF-20 denotes low-compressive volume...

  10. A heating system for piglets in farrowing house using waste heat from biogas engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payungsak Junyusen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design and test a heating system for piglets in farrowing house by utilising the waste heat from a biogas engine as a heat source. The study was separated into three parts: the study on the biogas combined heat and power plant, the investigation on the properties of the heat panel, and the installation and testing of the heating system. From the experiment, the condition producing 60 kW of electrical power was a proper one, in which electrical efficiency and specific fuel consumption were 14% and 1.22 m3/kWh respectively. Generating both electricity and heat increased the overall efficiency to 37.7% and decreased the specific fuel consumption to 0.45 m3/kWh. The heat panel, which was made of a plastic material, had a thermal conductivity of 0.58 W/mC and the maximum compressive force and operating pressure of 8.1 kN and 0.35 bar respectively. The surface temperature of the panel was dependent on the inlet water temperature. When hot water of 44C was supplied into the farrowing house with room temperature of 26C, the average surface temperature was 33C. The developed heating system could provide heat for 4.3 farrowing houses. The payback period of this project was 2.5 years.

  11. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation causes loss of intestinal epithelial barrier in the newborn piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurundkar, Ashish R; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; McIlwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Hartman, Yolanda E; He, Dongning; Karnatak, Rajendra K; Neel, Mary L; Clancy, John P; Anantharamaiah, G M; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2010-08-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an important life-support system used in neonates and young children with intractable cardiorespiratory failure. In this study, we used our porcine neonatal model of venoarterial ECMO to investigate whether ECMO causes gut barrier dysfunction. We subjected 3-wk-old previously healthy piglets to venoarterial ECMO for up to 8 h and evaluated gut mucosal permeability, bacterial translocation, plasma levels of bacterial products, and ultrastructural changes in gut epithelium. We also measured plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in a small cohort of human neonates receiving ECMO. In our porcine model, ECMO caused a rapid increase in gut mucosal permeability within the first 2 h of treatment, leading to a 6- to 10-fold rise in circulating bacterial products. These changes in barrier function were associated with cytoskeletal condensation in epithelial cells, which was explained by phosphorylation of a myosin II regulatory light chain. In support of these findings, we also detected elevated plasma LPS levels in human neonates receiving ECMO, indicating a similar loss of gut barrier function in these infants. On the basis of these data, we conclude that ECMO is an independent cause of gut barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation may be an important contributor to ECMO-related inflammation.

  12. Infection-induced coronary dysfunction and systemic inflammation in piglets are dampened in hypercholesterolemic milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene M.; Pesonen, Erkki; Odermarsky, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The synergism of infection with conventional cardiovascular risk factors in atherosclerosis is much debated. We hypothesized that coronary arterial injury correlates with infection recurrence and pathogen burden and is further aggravated by hypercholesterolemia. Forty-two Göttingen minipigs were ...... = 0.08). Coinfection of piglets appears to be associated with more pronounced coronary muscarinic vasomotor dysfunction. In monoinfected animals, use of chol-diet seems to dampen both coronary dysfunction and systemic inflammation induced by infection....... assigned to repeated intratracheal inoculation of PBS, Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn), or both Cpn and influenza virus at 8, 11, and 14 wk of age. Animals were fed either standard or 2% cholesterol diet (chol-diet). At 19 wk of age coronary vasomotor responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine were assessed...... in vivo and blood and tissue samples were collected. Nonparametric tests were used to compare the groups. In cholesterol-fed animals, total cholesterol/HDL was significantly increased in infected animals compared with noninfected animals [3.13 (2.17–3.38) vs. 2.03 (1.53–2.41), respectively; P = 0.01]. C...

  13. Real-time imaging of subarachnoid hemorrhage in piglets with electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meng; Wang, Liang; Xu, Canhua; Li, Lianfeng; Gao, Guodong; Dong, Xiuzhen

    2010-09-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is one of the most severe medical emergencies in neurosurgery. Early detection or diagnosis would significantly reduce the rate of disability and mortality, and improve the prognosis of the patients. Although the present medical imaging techniques generally have high sensitivity to identify bleeding, the use of an additional, non-invasive imaging technique capable of continuously monitoring SAH is required to prevent contingent bleeding or re-bleeding. In this study, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) was applied to detect the onset of SAH modeled on eight piglets in real time, with the subsequent process being monitored continuously. The experimental SAH model was introduced by one-time injection of 5 ml fresh autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna. Results showed that resistivity variations within the brain caused by the added blood could be detected using the EIT method and may be associated not only with the resistivity difference among brain tissues, but also with variations of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. In conclusion, EIT has unique potential for use in clinical practice to provide invaluable real-time neuroimaging data for SAH after the improvement of electrode design, anisotropic realistic modeling and instrumentation.

  14. Bone apatite composition of necrotic trabecular bone in the femoral head of immature piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruwajoye, Olumide O; Kim, Harry K W; Aswath, Pranesh B

    2015-04-01

    Ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (IOFH) can lead to excessive resorption of the trabecular bone and collapse of the femoral head as a structure. A well-known mineral component to trabecular bone is hydroxyapatite, which can be present in many forms due to ionic substitution, thus altering chemical composition. Unfortunately, very little is known about the chemical changes to bone apatite following IOFH. We hypothesized that the apatite composition changes in necrotic bone possibly contribute to increased osteoclast resorption and structural collapse of the femoral head. The purpose of this study was to assess the macroscopic and local phosphate composition of actively resorbed necrotic trabecular bone to isolate differences between areas of increased osteoclast resorption and normal bone formation. A piglet model of IOFH was used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology, X-ray absorbance near edge structure (XANES), and Raman spectroscopy were performed on femoral heads to characterize normal and necrotic trabecular bone. Backscattered SEM, micro-computed tomography and histology showed deformity and active resorption of necrotic bone compared to normal. XANES and Raman spectroscopy obtained from actively resorbed necrotic bone and normal bone showed increased carbonate-to-phosphate content in the necrotic bone. The changes in the apatite composition due to carbonate substitution may play a role in the increased resorption of necrotic bone due to its increase in solubility. Indeed, a better understanding of the apatite composition of necrotic bone could shed light on osteoclast activity and potentially improve therapeutic treatments that target excessive resorption of bone.

  15. Occurrence and identification of yeast species in fermented liquid feed for piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Bjørklund, Marina Kryger; Canibe, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and identity of yeast species in fermented liquid feed (FLF) used for feeding piglets. In total, 40 different Danish farms were included in the analysis. The preparation and composition of FLF was found to be very...... heterogeneous with high variations in both yeast counts and yeast species composition. The yeast population varied between 6.0 × 10(3) and 4.2 × 10(7) cfug(-1) with an average yeast count of 8.7 × 10(6) ± 1.1 × 10(7) cfug(-1). A total of 766 yeasts were isolated and identified by conventional and/or molecular...... typing techniques. The predominant yeast species in the FLF samples were found to be Candida milleri (58.4%), Kazachstania exigua (17.5%), Candida pararugosa (6.40%) and Kazachstania bulderi (5.09%). No clear separation between isolates of C. milleri and Candida humilis could be obtained based...

  16. Effects of oral micellized natural vitamin E (D-α-tocopherol) v. syntheric vitamin E (DL-α-tocopherol) in feed on α-tocopherol levels, stereoisomer distribution, oxidative stress and the immune response in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amazan, D; Cordero, G; López-Bote, C J

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the strategy of supplementing oral micellized natural vitamin E (d-α-tocopherol) to either piglets and/or sows on α-tocopherol concentrations in piglets serum and tissues after weaning. One first experiment tested the influence of the vitamin E supplementation source (natural...... supplementation on some of these parameters in piglets. Oral supplementation to sows with natural vitamin E as a micellized form (d-α-tocopherol) at the lowest dose produced a similar concentration of α-tocopherol in serum at days 2, 14 and 28 postpartum to those supplemented with threefold higher dose.......001) and lower (Pimportance of sow over piglet vitamin E supplementation was observed on stereoisomer distribution in piglets. Low doses of oral natural vitamin E supplementation...

  17. The effect of a diet with fructan-rich chicory roots on intestinal helminths and microbiota with special focus on Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter in piglets around weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Mejer, Helene; Mølbak, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The restrictions on the use of antibiotic and anthelmintic treatments in organic pig farming necessitate alternative non-medical control strategies. Therefore, the antibiotic and parasite-reducing effect of a fructan-rich (prebiotic) diet of dried chicory was investigated in free-ranging piglets...... either chicory (30% dry matter) or a control diet. The effect of chicory on intestinal helminths, intestinal microbiota, especially Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter spp. and E. coli post-weaning diarrhoea was assessed. The weight gain of the piglets was not impaired significantly by chicory...... the time of weaning caused complex changes of the microbiota and parasite communities within the intestinal tract, and feeding piglets chicory may therefore serve as an animal-friendly strategy to control pathogens....

  18. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysate in diets for weaning piglets ─ effect on growth performance, intestinal morphometry and microbiota composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opheim, Margareth; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Sterten, Hallgeir

    2016-01-01

    Salmon protein hydrolysates (SPH) from two different rest raw materials were evaluated in diets for weaning piglets. Four experimental diets were included in the study: a diet based on plant protein with soy protein as the main protein source (Diet PP), a diet based on fishmeal in exchange for soy...... protein (Diet FM) and two diets in which different SPH replaced fishmeal in the FM diet. The experimental diets were fed to piglets from the day of weaning until 32 d postweaning. In addition to the record of performance data, an intestinal sampling for mucosal morphometry and microbiota 16S rRNA gene...... sequencing were performed at day 11 on a subset of the animals. The duodenal villi absorption area was significantly larger in piglets receiving Diets SPH compared with Diet PP (p

  19. Estimating challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges using reproduction records of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, P K; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Alexandri, P; Knol, E F; ten Napel, J; Rashidi, H; Mulder, H A

    2014-12-01

    A method was developed and tested to estimate challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges in sows using reproduction records. The method was based on reproduction records from a farm with known disease outbreaks. It was assumed that the reduction in weekly reproductive output within a farm is proportional to the magnitude of the challenge. As the challenge increases beyond certain threshold, it is manifested as an outbreak. The reproduction records were divided into 3 datasets. The first dataset called the Training dataset consisted of 57,135 reproduction records from 10,901 sows from 1 farm in Canada with several outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). The known disease status of sows was regressed on the traits number born alive, number of losses as a combination of still birth and mummified piglets, and number of weaned piglets. The regression coefficients from this analysis were then used as weighting factors for derivation of an index measure called challenge load indicator. These weighting factors were derived with i) a two-step approach using residuals or year-week solutions estimated from a previous step, and ii) a single-step approach using the trait values directly. Two types of models were used for each approach: a logistic regression model and a general additive model. The estimates of challenge load indicator were then compared based on their ability to detect PRRS outbreaks in a Test dataset consisting of records from 65,826 sows from 15 farms in the Netherlands. These farms differed from the Canadian farm with respect to PRRS virus strains, severity and frequency of outbreaks. The single-step approach using a general additive model was best and detected 14 out of the 15 outbreaks. This approach was then further validated using the third dataset consisting of reproduction records of 831,855 sows in 431 farms located in different countries in Europe and America. A total of 41 out of 48 outbreaks detected

  20. Longitudinal study of Senecavirus a shedding in sows and piglets on a single United States farm during an outbreak of vesicular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, Steven J P; Bruner, Laura; Schwartz, Jake; Vannucci, Fabio; Rossow, Stephanie; Marthaler, Douglas G

    2017-08-31

    The study highlights the shedding pattern of Senecavirus A (SVA) during an outbreak of vesicular disease in a sow farm from the South-central Minnesota, USA. In this study, 34 individual, mixed parity sows with clinical signs of vesicular lesions and 30 individual piglets from 15 individual litters from sows with vesicular lesions were conveniently selected for individual, longitudinal sampling. Serum, tonsil, rectal, and vesicular swabs were collected on day1 post outbreak, and then again at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9 weeks post outbreak. Samples were tested at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for SVA via Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) RESULTS: In sows, vesicular lesions had the highest concentration of SVA, but had the shortest duration of detection lasting only 2 weeks. Viremia was detected for 1 week post outbreak, and quickly declined thereafter. SVA was detected at approximately the same frequency for both tonsil and rectal swabs with the highest percentage of SVA positive samples detected in the first 6 weeks post outbreak. In suckling piglets, viremia quickly declined 1 week post outbreak and was prevalent in low levels during the first week after weaning (4 weeks post outbreak) and was also detected in piglets that were co-mingled from a SVA negative sow farm. Similar to sows, SVA detection on rectal and tonsil swabs in piglets lasted approximately 6 weeks post outbreak. The study illustrates the variation of SVA shedding patterns in different sample types over a 9 week period in sows and piglets, and suggests the potential for viral spread between piglets at weaning.

  1. Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA, gut microbiota and fat mass in early postnatal piglet development—exploring a potential interplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.D.; Mølbak, Lars; Thymann, T.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary n-3PUFA and gut bacteria, particularly Bacteroidetes, have been suggested to be related to adiposity. We investigated if n-3PUFA affected fat storage and cecal bacteria in piglets. Twenty-four 4-day-old piglets were allocated to formula rich in n-3PUFA (∼3E%) from fish oil (FO) or n-6PUFA...... from sunflower oil (SO) for 14 days. We assessed body weight, fat accumulation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and microbial molecular fingerprints. Dietary PUFA-composition was reflected in higher erythrocyte n-3PUFA in the FO- than the SO-group (P...

  2. A cross-sectional study on the prevalence and risk factors for foot and limb lesions in piglets on commercial farms in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Amy Jean; Boyle, L. A.; Kilbride, A. L. (Amy L.); Green, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 68 integrated Irish pig farms was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for foot and limb lesions in 2948 piglets from 272 litters. One litter was selected per age category; 3–7 days, 8–14 days, 15–21 days and 22–28 days per farm. All piglets were examined for sole bruising, sole erosion, coronary band injuries, limb abrasions, alopecia, swollen limbs and swollen feet and scored from 0 to 3 based on relative size. Environmental parameters were reco...

  3. Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantini, S.; Franceschini, M.A.; Gratton, E.; Hueber, D.; Rosenfeld, W.; Maulik, D.; Stubblefield, P.G.; Stankovic, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    We have used continuous-wave (CW) and frequency-domain spectroscopy to investigate the optical properties of the newborn piglet brain in vivo and non-invasively. Three anaesthetized, intubated, ventilated and instrumented newborn piglets were placed into a stereotaxic instrument for optimal experimental stability, reproducible probe-to-scalp optical contact and 3D adjustment of the optical probe. By measuring the absolute values of the brain absorption and reduced scattering coefficients at two wavelengths (758 and 830 nm), frequency-domain spectroscopy provided absolute readings (in contrast to the relative readings of CW spectroscopy) of cerebral haemoglobin concentration and saturation during experimentally induced perturbations in cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation. Such perturbations included a modulation of the inspired oxygen concentration, transient brain asphyxia, carotid artery occlusion and terminal brain asphyxia. The baseline cerebral haemoglobin saturation and concentration, measured with frequency-domain spectroscopy, were about 60% and 42 μM respectively. The cerebral saturation values ranged from a minimum of 17% (during transient brain asphyxia) to a maximum of 80% (during recovery from transient brain asphyxia). To analyse the CW optical data, we have (a) derived a mathematical relationship between the cerebral optical properties and the differential pathlength factor and (b) introduced a method based on the spatial dependence of the detected intensity (dc slope method). The analysis of the cerebral optical signals associated with the arterial pulse and with respiration demonstrates that motion artefacts can significantly affect the intensity recorded from a single optode pair. Motion artefacts can be strongly reduced by combining data from multiple optodes to provide relative readings in the dc slope method. We also report significant biphasic changes (initial decrease and successive increase) in the reduced scattering coefficient measured

  4. Maillard neoglycans as inhibitors for in vitro adhesion of F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to piglet intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia-Sainz, Héctor Manuel; Mata Haro, Verónica; Sarabia Sainz, José Andre-I; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz; Montfort, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont

    2017-01-01

    Adhesion of enterotoxigenic (ETEC) E. coli to host intestinal cells is mediated by lectin-like fimbriae that bind to specific glycan moieties on the surfaces of enterocytes. To prevent in vitro binding of E. coli F4 fimbriae (F4 ETEC + ) to piglet enterocytes, neoglycans were synthesized by the Maillard reaction conjugating lactose (Lac), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) or chitin oligosaccharides (Ochit) to porcine serum albumin (PSA). Neoglycans were characterized by SDS-PAGE, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and recognition by plant lectins, as well as by F4 ETEC variants. Electrophoretic patterns suggested the binding to PSA of 63, 13 and 2 molecules of Lac, GOS and Ochit, respectively. All neoglycans displayed quenching of tryptophan fluorescence consistent with the degree of glycation estimated by SDS-PAGE. Plant lectins recognized the neoglycans according to their specificity, whereas antigenic variants of F4 ETEC (ab, ac and ad) recognized PSA-Ochit and PSA-Lac with higher affinity than that for GOS. Neoglycans partially hindered the in vitro binding of F4 + ETEC to piglet enterocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The most effective blocking was observed with PSA-Lac that partially inhibited the adhesion of bacteria to enterocytes in a dose dependent manner, as quantified by flow cytometry. Increased production of the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was observed in response to F4 + ETEC infection of enterocytes and production was reduced in the presence of PSA-Ochit and PSA-GOS. These results suggest that neoglycans synthesized by the Maillard reaction could be useful in the prophylaxis of diarrhea in piglets.

  5. Mild hypothermia increases pulmonary anti-inflammatory response during protective mechanical ventilation in a piglet model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruces, Pablo; Erranz, Benjamín; Donoso, Alejandro; Carvajal, Cristóbal; Salomón, Tatiana; Torres, María Fernanda; Díaz, Franco

    2013-11-01

    The effects of mild hypothermia (HT) on acute lung injury (ALI) are unknown in species with metabolic rate similar to that of humans, receiving protective mechanical ventilation (MV). We hypothesized that mild hypothermia would attenuate pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses in piglets with ALI managed with a protective MV. Acute lung injury (ALI) was induced with surfactant deactivation in 38 piglets. The animals were then ventilated with low tidal volume, moderate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and permissive hypercapnia throughout the experiment. Subjects were randomized to HT (33.5°C) or normothermia (37°C) groups over 4 h. Plasma and tissue cytokines, tissue apoptosis, lung mechanics, pulmonary vascular permeability, hemodynamic, and coagulation were evaluated. Lung interleukin-10 concentrations were higher in subjects that underwent HT after ALI induction than in those that maintained normothermia. No difference was found in other systemic and tissue cytokines. HT did not induce lung or kidney tissue apoptosis or influence lung mechanics or markers of pulmonary vascular permeability. Heart rate, cardiac output, oxygen uptake, and delivery were significantly lower in subjects that underwent HT, but no difference in arterial lactate, central venous oxygen saturation, and coagulation test was observed. Mild hypothermia induced a local anti-inflammatory response in the lungs, without affecting lung function or coagulation, in this piglet model of ALI. The HT group had lower cardiac output without signs of global dysoxia, suggesting an adaptation to the decrease in oxygen uptake and delivery. Studies are needed to determine the therapeutic role of HT in ALI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Insect succession on a decomposing piglet carcass placed in a man-made freshwater pond in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Mohamad, A M; John, J; Baharudin, O

    2008-04-01

    This entomological study was conducted in a man-made freshwater pond in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor from 23 July 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model. A 1.5 month old piglet (5 kg), which died of asphyxia after being accidentally crushed by its mother, was thrown into a pond. Observation was made for ten days; one visit per day and climatological data were recorded. On the first two days, the piglet carcass sunk to the bottom of the pond. The carcass floated to the surface on the third day but no fly activities were seen. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies started to oviposit on the fourth day. Other than adult flies, a spider (Arachnida) was also observed on the carcass. Bubbles accumulated at the mouthpart, and the abdomen was greenish black. A lot of blow fly eggs were seen on the body surface on the fifth day (floating decay), along with first and second instars C. megacephala crawling under the piglet's skin. On the sixth day, adult blow fly, C. megacephala,and C. rufifacies,and muscid flies, Ophyra spinigera and Musca domestica were observed on to the carcass. High numbers of first and second instars of flies were observed wandering around the body surface with C. megacephala larvae being the predominant species. Two prominent maggot masses occurred on seventh and eighth days. Bloated deterioration stage began on day eighth exposing rib bones, humerus bones and intestines. Carcass was partially sinking and the maggot masses were at the water level. On day ninth, the carcass was partially sinking and three maggot masses were observed on the exposed surface. There were very few adult flies, including a scarab beetle was sighted on the carcass at this stage. The carcass along with the maggots sunk on day tenth, leaving an oily layer on the water surface.

  7. Effects of cellulase supplementation to corn soybean meal-based diet on the performance of sows and their piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi D; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-07-01

    A total of 15 primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) and their litters were used in the current study to evaluate the efficacy of cellulase supplementation on the production performance of sows and piglets. Pigs were randomly allocated into one of three treatments with five replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) CON (corn-soybean meal-based control); (ii) EZ1 (CON + 0.05% cellulase); and (iii) EZ2 (CON + 0.10% cellulase). The supplementation of cellulase had no effect (P > 0.05) on body weight and feed intake of lactating sows. At weaning, back fat thickness loss decreased (P = 0.04) linearly in EZ1 and EZ2 treatments. The average daily gain (ADG) of piglets increased (linear P = 0.06, quadratic P = 0.04)) during days 14 to 21 as well as at days 21 to 25 (linear P = 0.03 and quadratic P = 0.01) with the increase in the level of supplemented enzyme. Dry matter and nitrogen digestibility increased (linear P = 0.01) in lactating sows fed EZ1 and EZ2 diet compared with CON. In conclusion, it is suggested that cellulase supplementation to corn-soybean meal based diet exerts beneficial effects to sows in reducing their back fat thickness loss at weaning and also helps to improve nutrient digestibility. It also helped to improve the ADG of piglets. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Weanling piglet cerebellum: a surrogate for tolerance to MRT (microbeam radiation therapy) in pediatric neuro-oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Blattmann, Hans; Di Michiel, Marco; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Guzman, Raphael; Zimmermann, Werner; Birrer, Stephan; Bley, Tim; Kircher, Patrick; Stettler, Regina; Fatzer, Rosmarie; Jaggy, Andre; Smilowitz, Henry; Brauer, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Thomlinson, William C.; Stepanek, Jiri; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    2001-12-01

    The cerebellum of the weanling piglet (Yorkshire) was used as a surrogate for the radiosensitive human infant cerebellum in a Swiss-led program of experimental microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) at the ESRF. Five weanlings in a 47 day old litter of seven, and eight weanlings in a 40 day old litter of eleven were irradiated in November, 1999 and June, 2000, respectively. A 1.5 cm-wide x 1.5 xm-high array of equally space approximately equals 20-30 micrometers wide, upright microbeams spaced at 210 micrometers intervals was propagated horizontally, left to right, through the cerebella of the prone, anesthetized piglets. Skin-entrance intra-microbeam peak adsorbed doses were uniform, either 150, 300, 425, or 600 gray (Gy). Peak and inter-microbeam (valley) absorbed doses in the cerebellum were computed with the PSI version of the Monte Carlo code GEANT and benchmarked using Gafchromic and radiochromic film microdosimetry. For approximately equals 66 weeks [first litter; until euthanasia], or approximately equals 57 weeks [second litter; until July 30, 2001] after irradiation, the littermates were developmentally, behaviorally, neurologically and radiologically normal as observed and tested by experienced farmers and veterinary scientists unaware of which piglets were irradiated or sham-irradiated. Morever, MRT implemented at the ESRF with a similar array of microbeams and a uniform skin-entrance peak dose of 625 Gy, followed by immunoprophylaxis, was shown to be palliative or curative in young adult rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas. These observations give further credence to MRT's potential as an adjunct therapy for brain tumors in infancy, when seamless therapeutic irradiation of the brain is hazardous.

  9. Hypoxic-preconditioning enhances the regenerative capacity of neural stem/progenitors in subventricular zone of newborn piglet brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Jahan; De Montpellier, Sybille

    2013-09-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) results in brain injury, whereas mild hypoxic episodes result in preconditioning, which can significantly reduce the vulnerability of the brain to subsequent severe hypoxia-ischemia. Hypoxic-preconditioning (PC) has been shown to enhance cell survival and differentiation of progenitor cells in the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether pretreatment with PC prior to HI stimulates subventricular zone (SVZ) proliferation and neurogenesis in newborn piglets. One-day-old piglets were subjected to PC (8% O2/92% N2) for 3h and 24h later were exposed to HI produced by combination of hypoxia (5% FiO2) for a pre-defined period of 30min and ischemia induced by a period of 10min of hypotension. Here we demonstrate that SVZ derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs) from PC, HI and PC+HI piglets proliferated as neurospheres, expressed neural progenitor and neurodevelopmental markers, and that greater proportion of the spheres generated are multipotential. Neurosphere assay revealed that preconditioning pretreatment increased the number of NSP-derived neurospheres in SVZ following HI compared to normoxic and HI controls. NSPs from preconditioned SVZ generated twice as many neurons and astrocytes in vitro. Injections with 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) after PC revealed a robust proliferative response within the SVZ that continued for one week. PC also increased neurogenesis in vivo, doublecortin positive cells with migratory profiles were observed streaming from the SVZ to striatum and neocortex. These findings show that the induction of proliferation and neurogenesis by PC might be a positive adaptation for an efficient repair and plasticity in the event of a hypoxic-ischemic insult. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecophysiology of the developing total bacterial and lactobacillus communities in the terminal small intestine of weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Robert; Janczyk, Pawel; Zeyner, Annette; Smidt, Hauke; Guiard, Volker; Souffrant, Wolfgang Bernhard

    2008-10-01

    Weaning of the pig is generally regarded as a stressful event which could lead to clinical implications because of the changes in the intestinal ecosystem. The functional properties of microbiota inhabiting the pig's small intestine (SI), including lactobacilli which are assumed to exert health-promoting properties, are yet poorly described. Thus, we determined the ecophysiology of bacterial groups and within genus Lactobacillus in the SI of weaning piglets and the impact of dietary changes. The SI contents of 20 piglets, 4 killed at weaning (only sow milk and no creep feed) and 4 killed at 1, 2, 5, and 11 days post weaning (pw; cereal-based diet) were examined for bacterial cell count and bacterial metabolites by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Lactobacilli were the predominant group in the SI except at 1 day pw because of a marked reduction in their number. On day 11 pw, bifidobacteria and E. coli were not detected, and Enterobacteriaceae and members of the Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale cluster were only found occasionally. L. sobrius/L. amylovorus became dominant species whereas the abundance of L. salivarius and L. gasseri/johnsonii declined. Concentration of lactic acid increased pw whereas pH, volatile fatty acids, and ammonia decreased. Carbohydrate utilization of 76 Lactobacillus spp. isolates was studied revealing a shift from lactose and galactose to starch, cellobiose, and xylose, suggesting that the bacteria colonizing the SI of piglets adapt to the newly introduced nutrients during the early weaning period. Identification of isolates based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence data and comparison with fermentation data furthermore suggested adaptation processes below the species level. The results of our study will help to understand intestinal bacterial ecophysiology and to develop nutritional regimes to prevent or counteract complications during the weaning transition.

  11. Evaluation of natural porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subclinical infection and seroconversion dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Ferrando, Salvador; Segalés, Joaquim; López-Soria, Sergio; Callén, Antonio; Merdy, Olivier; Joisel, François; Sibila, Marina

    2016-12-03

    This study aimed to determine the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) serological and virological dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages in a PCV2 subclinical infection (PCV2-SI) scenario. Six hundred and forty-four 2 week-old healthy piglets were selected and distributed into four treatment groups: vaccination at 3, 6 or 10 weeks of age (3W-VAC, 6W-VAC and 10W-VAC groups, respectively) and unvaccinated pigs (NON-VAC group). Blood (n = 112 pigs) and oral fluid (OF) (n = 40 pens) samples were taken throughout the study to assess PCV2 load, humoral immunity and viral genotyping. Percentage of PCV2-DNA positive sera mainly raised by 10 weeks of age, being maximum at 14 weeks of age, and then started to decrease at 18 and 25 weeks of age. Specifically, PCV2 vaccination at 3 or 6 weeks of age yielded similar results, since they produced an earlier seroconversion and reduced, at different sampling points, the proportion of viremic animals in comparison to the unvaccinated group. In contrast, PCV2 vaccination at 10 weeks of age only achieved such reduction at 25 weeks of age; in this case, vaccination coincided with the increase of the percentage of viremic pigs in the population. Both serological techniques used in sera and OF offered similar results with a high and statistically significant correlation. In contrast, a higher percentage of PCV2 DNA positivity was detected in OF in comparison with sera. In conclusion, under the present study conditions, the optimal time for PCV2 piglet vaccination was at either 3 or 6 weeks of age.

  12. Effects of soybean isoflavone on intestinal antioxidant capacity and cytokines in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Ma, Xian-Yong; Jiang, Zong-Yong; Hu, You-Jun; Zheng, Chun-Tian; Yang, Xue-Fen; Wang, Li; Gao, Kai-Guo

    To investigate the effect of glycitein, a synthetic soybean isoflavone (ISF), on the intestinal antioxidant capacity, morphology, and cytokine content in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil, 72 4-d-old male piglets were assigned to three treatments. The control group was fed a basal diet containing fresh fish oil, and the other two groups received the same diet except for the substitution with the same dosage of oxidized fish oil alone or with ISF (oxidized fish oil plus ISF). After 21 d of feeding, supplementation of oxidized fish oil increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO, and Caspase-3 in jejunal mucosa, and decreased the villous height in duodenum and the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IL-4 in the jejunal mucosa compared with supplementation with fresh oil. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF partially alleviated this negative effect. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF increased the villous height and levels of sIgA and IL-4 in jejunal mucosa, but decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-2 in jejunal mucosa (Poil. Collectively, these results show that dietary supplementation of ISF could partly alleviate the negative effect of oxidized fish oil by improving the intestinal morphology as well as the antioxidant capacity and immune function in young piglets.

  13. The influence of nutritional and management factors on piglet weight gain to weaning in a commercial herd in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, J; Halas, D; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    The effects of weaning age, type of creep diet and the classification of piglets as ‘eaters' or ‘non eaters' of creep feed on weight gain to weaning were examined. Four antimicrobial-free diets were offered from day 14 of lactation: (i) wheat-soy based diet with animal and vegetable (‘mixed......') protein sources (COMM), (ii) heat-processed rice (HPR) with barley hulls and potato starch and mixed protein sources (RBPS), (iii) HPR with sugar-beet pulp and mixed protein sources (RSBP), and (iv) HPR with mixed protein sources (R). Pigs were weaned at an average of either 27 (early) or 33 (late) days...

  14. Studies on the absorption of iron after oral administration in piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoren-Tolling, K.

    1975-01-01

    72 newborn piglets from 9 litters were used to determinate the retention and distribution in the body of labelled iron given either orally as ferrous fumarate (100 mg Fe 2+ ) or iron dextran (200 mg Fe 3+ ), or by injection as iron dextran (100 mg Fe 3+ ). About 25-30 % of the radioiron from a single oral dose of labelled ferrous fumarate (100 mg Fe 2+ ), and about 55-60 % from a single oral dose of labelled iron dextran (200 mg Fe 3+ ) were absorbed by the body. As iron is excreted throughout the experiment, only about 20% and 40-50% respectively of the radio-iron from these iron compounds were recovered 3 weeks after treatment. The total amounts of labelled iron retained in the body after oral administration of the same doses of these iron compounds, alone or in combination, were compared. A slight retardation of the absorption of ferrous iron was observed when iron dextran was administered simultaneeously. The absorption of iron dextran was not influenced by the simultaneous administration of ferrous fumarate. The importance of the liver as the main iron storage site was shown, and the rapid utilization of iron from storage sites, about 2-3 weeks after treatment was demonstrated. The concentration of labelled iron in urine and some lymphglands was measured. Only minute quantities of radio-iron were excreted in the urine throughout the entire experiment. The lymph nodes seem to act as iron stones after administration of iron dextran. The importance of the lymphatic tissue in absorption and storage of labelled iron is discussed. (author)

  15. Corrosion casting of the subglottis following endotracheal tube intubation injury: a pilot study in Yorkshire piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Subglottic stenosis can result from endotracheal tube injury. The mechanism by which this occurs, however, is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of angiogenesis, hypoxia and ischemia in subglottic mucosal injury following endotracheal intubation. Methods Six Yorkshire piglets were randomized to either a control group (N=3, ventilated through laryngeal mask airway for corrosion casting) or accelerated subglottic injury group through intubation and induced hypoxia as per a previously described model (N=3). The vasculature of all animals was injected with liquid methyl methacrylate. After polymerization, the surrounding tissue was corroded with potassium hydroxide. The subglottic region was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy looking for angiogenic and hypoxic or degenerative features and groups were compared using Mann–Whitney tests and Friedman’s 2-way ANOVA. Results Animals in the accelerated subglottic injury group had less overall angiogenic features (P=.002) and more overall hypoxic/degenerative features (P=.000) compared with controls. Amongst angiogenic features, there was decreased budding (P=.000) and a trend toward decreased sprouting (P=.037) in the accelerated subglottic injury group with an increase in intussusception (P=.004), possibly representing early attempts at rapid revascularization. Amongst hypoxic/degenerative features, extravasation was the only feature that was significantly higher in the accelerated subglottic injury group (P=.000). Conclusions Subglottic injury due to intubation and hypoxia may lead to decreased angiogenesis and increased blood vessel damage resulting in extravasation of fluid and a decreased propensity toward wound healing in this animal model. PMID:24401165

  16. EFFECT OF THE USE OF MOS AND ORGANIC ACIDS IN PERFORMANCE PIGLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The production chain of swine has been developed to meet the consumer market , seeking a more lean meat and produced cleanly. Faced with this demand , key areas of swine as genetics, nutrition , health , ambience , animal welfare, management of costs and environmental management are increasingly studied and debated to the organs concerned . Have advances in the field of nutrition has also contributed to a cleaner animal production through the use of enhancers efficiency as prebiotics and organic acids in the diets of pigs as potential substitutes for conventional growth promoters . The mannan oligosaccharides ( MOS along with organic acids , are able to maintain the integrity of the digestive tract , by benefiting the multiplication of beneficial bacteria and also in the specific case of MOS , act as adsorbents of pathogenic bacteria , preventing their adhesion in the intestinal epithelium and causing their elimination . Since these effects improve the absorption of nutrients with gains in production rates . Given the above , the objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of MOS and organic acid in the performance parameters of piglets during 15-30 Kg The experiment will be conducted in the UEP on Swine Campuses Two Neighbors - UTFPR . Crusaders 18 pigs with an initial average weight of 15kg with 50 days of age , distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments will be used : T1 - basal ration T2 - ration + 0.2% MOS + organic acid , with 3 replications and 3 animals per experimental unit . The parameters evaluated were weight gain , feed intake , feed conversion , stool consistency and feed cost per kg of produced pig . There was no difference ( P > 0.05 on growth performance and fecal consistency between treatments . However , the cost per kg pig was highest in treatment 2 (with additives compared to Treatment 1 (control. In the conditions of the present study was conducted , it can be concluded that the use of MOS and

  17. Microenvironments in swine farrowing rooms: the thermal, lighting, and acoustic environments of sows and piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Munhoz Morello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present research hypothesized that the thermal, lighting and acoustic environments in commercial swine farrowing rooms vary over time and from crate to crate. This study was conducted on 27 replicates in two commercial farrowing rooms in North Central Indiana, each equipped with 60 farrowing crates. Temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, sound intensity, and air velocity were continuously monitored and estimated for each crate at the sow level, for 48 h post-farrowing, which is usually a critical period for piglet survivability. Average daily temperature for all the crates in Room 1 was 24.1 ± 2.0 °C, 1.0 °C lower (p < 0.05 than in Room 2. Although the overall mean temperature was similar between rooms and seasons, frequency distribution diagrams revealed that the proportion of time spent within distinct limits of mean daily temperature ranged from 15.0 °C to 28.0 °C and varied substantially between rooms and seasons. Similar results were found for all variables measured in this study. Differences in temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, air velocity, and sound intensity in crates were as high as 9.6 °C, 57 %, 3,847.3 Lx, 0.87 m s–1, and 38.7 dBC, respectively, in the same farrowing room when measured at the same instant. The results of the present research indicate that aspects that go beyond the physical environment of the sows, such as thermal, lighting, and acoustic environment can vary substantially over time and between crates of automatically climate controlled farrowing rooms. These differences should be taken into consideration in production setting and research.

  18. The hemodynamic effects of prolonged respiratory alkalosis in anesthetized newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jundi, K; Barrington, K J; Henderson, C; Allen, R G; Finer, N N

    2000-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that prolonged alkalosis decreases cardiac output and, furthermore, exacerbates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, as respiratory alkalosis is frequently induced as a therapy for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn despite a lack of controlled evidence of improved outcomes. Potential adverse effects of prolonged alkalosis have been demonstrated. Two groups (control, n = 6, and hypocapnic alkalosis, n = 6) of 1-3 day old fentanyl-anesthetized, vecuronium-paralyzed piglets were instrumented to measure cardiac index (CI) and mean systemic (MAP) and pulmonary (PAP) arterial pressures. Baseline values were recorded. Alveolar hypoxia was then induced to achieve an arterial oxygen saturation of between 50 and 60% for 15 min. Respiratory alkalosis was then induced, by increasing ventilation to achieve a pH between 7.55-7.60, and was continued for 240 min. Inspired carbon dioxide was used with hyperventilation in the control group to maintain pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) at 35-45 mmHg and pH of 7.35-7.45. Hypoxia was induced again at 15 and 240 min. Pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances (PVR and SVR) were calculated. Prolonged alkalosis led to a significant and progressive fall in mean MAP from 61 (SD 7) mmHg at the start of the study falling to 50 (SD 6.9, p = 0.043), with no effect on CI. Calculated SVR decreased (0.45 SD 0.03 vs 0.36 SD 0.05). There were no statistically significant changes in any of the variables in the control group. Neither acute nor prolonged respiratory alkalosis had a significant effect on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Prolonged hyperventilation leads to systemic hypotension, however it does not exacerbate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  19. THE PROBIOTIC Enterococcus faecium MODIFIES THE INTESTINAL MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS IN WEANING PIGLETS

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    Johana Andrea Ciro Galeano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global trends for animal production have seen a decrease in the use of antimicrobial compounds in feed, generating the need to implement new nutritional strategies that stimulate growth and promote intestinal health. This study aimed to determine whether the addition of E. faecium in drinking water improves intestinal morphometric parameters in post- weaning pigs compared with the probiotics strains L. acidophilus and L. casei on days 1 (21 days of age, 15 and 30 postweaning. The small intestine was completely removed to evaluate the morphometric parameters (length and width of villi and crypts in the different intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. They were fed for 30 days with two diets: commercial diet with or without antibiotics. The different probiotics, L. acidophillus, L. casei and E. faecium, were administered in the drinking water of the animals that consumed the commercial diet without antibiotics. A randomized block design in split-plot arrangement was used. There was a significant increase (P<0.01 in the width and length of villi, and a decrease (P<0.01 in the values obtained for the width and depth of crypts in the animals that consumed E .faecium, as compared to those that consumed the diet with addition of antibiotics. The use of probiotics, especially E. faecium, is a nutritional treatment strategy when antimicrobial compound are used, improving the intestinal morphometric parameters and, at the same time, the digestive and productive parameters of the animals. Work is in progress to investigate the effects of probiotic supplementation on the mofication of gut microbiota of post-weaning piglets

  20. Cerebral effects of commonly used vasopressor-inotropes: a study in newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte H Hahn

    Full Text Available Despite widespread use in sick infants, it is still debated whether vasopressor-inotropes have direct cerebral effects that might affect neurological outcome. We aimed to test direct cerebrovascular effects of three commonly used vasopressor-inotropes (adrenaline, dopamine and noradrenaline by comparing the responses to those of nonpharmacologically induced increases in blood pressure. We also searched for reasons for a mismatch between the response in perfusion and oxygenation.Twenty-four piglets had long and short infusions of the three vasopressor-inotropes titrated to raise mean arterial blood pressure (MAP 10 mmHg in random order. Nonpharmacological increases in MAP were induced by inflation of a balloon in the descending aorta. We measured cerebral oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy, perfusion (laser-Doppler, oxygen consumption (co-oximetry of arterial and superior sagittal sinus blood, and microvascular heterogeneity (side stream dark field video microscopy.Vasopressor-inotropes increased cerebral oxygenation significantly less (p≤0.01 compared to non-pharmacological MAP increases, whereas perfusion was similar. Furthermore, cerebral total hemoglobin concentration increased significantly less during vasopressor-inotrope infusions (p = 0.001. These physiologic responses were identical between the three vasopressor-inotropes (p>0.05. Furthermore, they induced a mild, although insignificant increase in cerebral metabolism and microvascular heterogeneity (p>0.05. Removal of the scalp tissue did not influence the mismatch (p>0.05.We demonstrated a moderate vasopressor-inotrope induced mismatch between cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Scalp removal did not affect this mismatch, why vasopressor-inotropes appear to have direct cerebral actions. The statistically nonsignificant increases in cerebral metabolism and/or microvascular heterogeneity may explain the mismatch. Alternatively, it may simply reflect a vasopressor

  1. Cytokine mRNA profiles in bronchoalveolar cells of piglets experimentally infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Association of sustained expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 after viral clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C. K.; Bøtner, Anette; Kamstrup, Søren

    2002-01-01

    An experimental model was used to investigate mRNA cytokine profiles in bronchoalvolar cells (BALC) from piglets, infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The BALC's were analyzed for the cytokines TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12(p40) by real......-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction in 2-, 4-, and 6-week-old piglets, respectively. High levels of IFN-gamma mRNA was detected in all piglets, while IL-10 was upregulated in 2-week-old piglets, was at normal levels in 4-week-old piglets, and elevated again in 6-week-old piglets. IL-12 was weakly...... elevated in all three age groups. Virus was reduced by 50% in 4-week-old piglets and cleared by 6 weeks of age. The sustained expression of IFNgamma and reduction of IL-10 production indicate an important role for these cytokines in immunity to PRRSV....

  2. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual ...

  3. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos: a meta-analysis related to transfers, pregnancies and piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter; Schmidt, Mette; Larsen, Knud; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial insemination. Therefore, a review of the overall efficiency for the developmental competence of embryos produced by these in vitro methods would be useful in order to obtain a more thorough overview of this growing area with respect to its development and present status. In this review a meta-analysis was used to analyse data collected from all published articles with a focus on zygotes and embryos for transfer, pregnancy, full-term development and piglets born. It was generally concluded that an increasing level of in vitro manipulation of porcine embryos decreased the overall efficiency for production of piglets. The techniques of nuclear transfer have been developed markedly through the increasing number of studies performed, and the results have become more stable. Prolonged in vitro culture period did not lead to any negative effect on nuclear transfer embryos after their transfer and it resulted in a similar or even higher litter size. More complete information is needed in future scientific articles about these in vitro manipulation techniques to establish a more solid basis for the evaluation of their status and to reveal and further investigate any eventual problems.

  4. Standardized ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids in sesame expeller and soya bean meal in weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, A; Reis de Souza, T C; Mariscal-Landín, G; Escobar, K; Montaño, S; Bernal, M G

    2015-08-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of diets containing sesame expeller (SE) and soya bean meal (SBM) was determined using 15 piglets (Genetiporc(®)), weaned at 17 ± 0.4 days with average body weight of 6.4 ± 0.7 kg (Fertilis 20 × G Performance, Genetiporc(®), PIC México, Querétaro, México). Piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) a reference diet with casein as the sole protein source; (ii) a mixed diet of casein-SE; and (iii) a mixed diet of casein-SBM. The chemical composition of SE and SBM was determined, and AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AAs) were determined for each protein source. SE contained greater quantities of ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, phytic acid, methionine and arginine than SBM. Lysine and proline contents and trypsin inhibitor activity were higher in SBM than in SE. The AID and SID of CP and AA (except for lysine and proline) were similar in SE and SBM. The AID of lysine and proline was higher in SBM than in SE (p < 0.05), and the SID of proline was higher in SE than in SBM (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that SE is an appropriate alternative protein source for early weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Genetic relatedness between Japanese and European isolates of Clostridium difficile originating from piglets and their risk associated with human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru eUsui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile colonization in pig intestine has been a public health concern. We analyzed C. difficile prevalence among piglets in Japan to clarify their origin and extent of the associated risk by using molecular and microbiological methods for both swine and human clinical isolates and foreign isolates. C. difficile was isolated from 120 neonatal piglet faecal samples. Toxin gene profile, antimicrobial susceptibilities, PCR ribotype, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA type of swine isolates were determined and compared with those of human clinical and foreign isolates. One-hundred C. difficile strains were isolated from 69 (57.5% samples, and 61 isolates (61% were toxin gene-positive. Some isolates were resistant to antimicrobials, contributing to antibiotic-associated diarrhoea by C. difficile. These results suggest that C. difficile, prevalent among Japanese pigs, is a potential risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Furthermore, PCR ribotype 078 (12 isolates, which has been linked to multiple outbreaks worldwide, was the third-most frequently isolated of the 14 PCR ribotypes identified. Moreover, MLVA revealed that all 12 PCR ribotype 078 isolates were genetically related to European PCR ribotype 078 strains found in both humans and pigs. To date, in Japan, many breeding pigs have been imported from European countries. The genetic relatedness of C. difficile isolates of Japanese swine origin to those of European origin suggests that they were introduced into Japan via imported pigs.

  6. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase: Potential Roles in Promoting Gut Health in Weanling Piglets and Its Modulation by Feed Additives - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, A D B; Silveira, H; Luciano, F B; Andrade, C; Costa, L B; Rostagno, M H

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal environment plays a critical role in maintaining swine health. Many factors such as diet, microbiota, and host intestinal immune response influence the intestinal environment. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is an important apical brush border enzyme that is influenced by these factors. IAP dephosphorylates bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides, and flagellin, reducing bacterial toxicity and consequently regulating toll-like receptors (TLRs) activation and inflammation. It also desphosphorylates extracellular nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate, consequently reducing inflammation, modulating, and preserving the homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota. The apical localization of IAP on the epithelial surface reveals its role on LPS (from luminal bacteria) detoxification. As the expression of IAP is reported to be downregulated in piglets at weaning, LPS from commensal and pathogenic gram-negative bacteria could increase inflammatory processes by TLR-4 activation, increasing diarrhea events during this phase. Although some studies had reported potential IAP roles to promote gut health, investigations about exogenous IAP effects or feed additives modulating IAP expression and activity yet are necessary. However, we discussed in this paper that the critical assessment reported can suggest that exogenous IAP or feed additives that could increase its expression could show beneficial effects to reduce diarrhea events during the post weaning phase. Therefore, the main goals of this review are to discuss IAP's role in intestinal inflammatory processes and present feed additives used as growth promoters that may modulate IAP expression and activity to promote gut health in piglets.

  7. Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy-Associated Liver Fatty Degeneration and the Effects of Therapeutic Hypothermia in Newborn Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hiroyuki; Shimono, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shinji; Koyano, Kosuke; Jinnai, Wataru; Yamato, Satoshi; Yasuda, Saneyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Tanaka, Aya; Fujii, Takayuki; Kanenishi, Kenji; Chiba, Yoichi; Miki, Takanori; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Although liver can be injured under the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) condition, there is currently no histopathological evidence. Therapeutic hypothermia is used to protect the brain; however, the therapeutic potential for concomitant liver injury is unknown. This study aimed to histopathologically prove HIE-associated liver injury and to investigate the influence of therapeutic hypothermia in a newborn piglet HIE model. Eighteen newborn piglets were divided into 3 groups: control (n = 4), HIE (n = 8), and therapeutic hypothermia (n = 6) groups. The hypoxic insult was induced by decreasing the fraction of inspiratory oxygen from 21 to 2-4% over 40 min while monitoring cerebral blood volume and cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation. For therapeutic hypothermia, whole-body cooling at 33-34°C was administered for 24 h after the hypoxic insult. We hematologically and histopathologically investigated the liver injury in all groups. Alanine transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the HIE group were significantly elevated compared with those in the control group. Micro-lipid droplet accumulation in the periportal zone, but not in the perivenous zone, was significantly greater in the HIE group than in the control group and significantly smaller in the therapeutic hypothermia group than in the HIE group. We demonstrated that micro-lipid droplet accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in the periportal zone occurs under the HIE condition and that this accumulation is suppressed by therapeutic hypothermia. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Sildenafil prevents the increase of extravascular lung water and pulmonary hypertension after meconium aspiration in newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvera, F E; Blasina, M F; Vaamonde, L; Tellechea, S; Godoy, C; Zabala, S; Mañana, G; Martell, M; Olivera, W

    2011-08-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome causes respiratory failure after birth and in vivo monitoring of pulmonary edema is difficult. The objective of the present study was to assess hemodynamic changes and edema measured by transcardiopulmonary thermodilution in low weight newborn piglets. Additionally, the effect of early administration of sildenafil (2 mg/kg vo, 30 min after meconium aspiration) on this critical parameter was determined in the meconium aspiration syndrome model. Thirty-eight mechanically ventilated anesthetized male piglets (Sus scrofa domestica) aged 12 to 72 h (1660 ± 192 g) received diluted fresh human meconium in the airway in order to evoke pulmonary hypertension (PHT). Extravascular lung water was measured in vivo with a PiCCO monitor and ex vivo by the gravimetric method, resulting in an overestimate of 3.5 ± 2.3 mL compared to the first measurement. A significant PHT of 15 Torr above basal pressure was observed, similar to that of severely affected humans, leading to an increase in ventilatory support. The vascular permeability index increased 57%, suggesting altered alveolocapillary membrane permeability. Histology revealed tissue vessel congestion and nonspecific chemical pneumonitis. A group of animals received sildenafil, which prevented the development of PHT and lung edema, as evaluated by in vivo monitoring. In summary, the transcardiopulmonary thermodilution method is a reliable tool for monitoring critical newborn changes, offering the opportunity to experimentally explore putative therapeutics in vivo. Sildenafil could be employed to prevent PHT and edema if used in the first stages of development of the disease.

  9. Potential probiotic attributes of a new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shao-Bin; Zhao, Li-Na; Wu, Ying; Li, Shi-Chang; Sun, Jian-Rui; Huang, Jing-Fang; Li, Dan-Dan

    2015-06-01

    A new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9551, which has a broad range of antibacterial activities against six main pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O8, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis, Streptococcus suis, Listeria monocytogenes and Pasteurella multocida, was isolated from healthy piglet feces. In adhesion assay, the isolate exhibited a stronger adhesion to pig intestinal mucus than that of B. subtilis JT143 and L. acidophilus LY24 respectively isolated from BioPlus(®)2B and FloraFIT(®) Probiotics (P coagulans CGMCC 9551 was reduced by only 20% at 4 h exposure under 0.9% w/v bile salt. The strain was fully resistant to pH 2 for 2 h with 90.1 ± 3.5% survival and susceptible to 15 antibiotics commonly used in veterinary medicine. Additionally, the bacteria showed amylase, protease and cellulase activities. The safety assessment demonstrated the lack of toxicity potential in B. coagulans CGMCC 9551 by ligated rabbit ileal loop assay, acute and subchronic toxicity test. These results implied that that the new strain of B. coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces has promising probiotic characteristics and offers desirable opportunities for its successful commercialization as one excellent candidate probiotic.

  10. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of a Desmopressin Oral Lyophilisate in Growing Piglets as a Model for the Pediatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Gasthuys

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmopressin is used to treat primary nocturnal enuresis in children. Over the years, various formulations of desmopressin were commercialized of which the sublingual melt tablet is preferred in the pediatric population, despite the lack of full PK studies in this population. A full PK study was performed in growing conventional piglets to evaluate if this juvenile animal model can provide supplementary information to complement the information gap in the pediatric population. A desmopressin sublingual melt tablet (120 μg was administered to 32 male piglets aged 8 days, 4 weeks, 7 weeks, and 6 months (each group n = 8. Population PK (pop-PK analysis was performed to derive the PK parameters, the between- and within-subject variabilities and the effects of covariates. Desmopressin demonstrated two-compartmental PK, with a dual, sequential absorption process, and linear elimination. Body weight was the only significant covariate on clearance and on apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment. In human pediatric trials, no double peak in the absorption phase was observed in the plasma concentration-time curves, possibly due to the sparse sampling strategy applied in those pediatric studies. Therefore, it is recommended to perform additional studies, based on the sampling protocol applied in the current study.

  11. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris lectin stimulation increases the number of enterochromaffin cells in the small intestine of suckling piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharko-Siembida Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantities and distribution patterns of serotonin-immunoreactive (serotonin-IR enterochromaffin cells (EC were studied immunohistochemically in the small intestine of suckling piglets stimulated with red kidney bean lectin, and in nonstimulated, control animals. The co-expression patterns of serotonin with somatostatin (SOM or corticotropin releasing-factor (CRF were also studied. After the lectin treatment, the increased numbers of EC were noted in the duodenum of experimental animals. Lectin stimulation did not change the proportions of EC in the jejunum and ileum. In the duodenal epithelium of the lectin-stimulated piglets, the vast majority of serotonin-IR EC were distributed at the basis of crypts. After the lectin administration, the proportions of serotonin-IR/SOM-IR EC were statistically similar in all sections of the small intestine. No upregulation of CRF was found in duodenal, jejunal, and ileal EC of lectin-treated animals. The findings demonstrated that red kidney bean lectin increased the serotonin reservoir in the duodenum, and thus may be an effective stimulant of the gut maturation in suckling mammals.

  12. Effects of dietary Centella asiatica (L.) Urban on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood composition in piglets vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneewan, Chamroon; Mekbungwan, Apichai; Charerntantanakul, Wasin; Yamauchi, Kohsho; Yamauchi, Koh-en

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of Centella asiatica (L.) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood composition in piglets, 32 nursery pigs were fed 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% dietary C. asiatica (L.) from 15 to 90 kg BW. At 30 kg BW, nutrient digestibility was measured and at 35 kg BW piglets were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Hematological parameters were checked at 40 and 80 kg BW. Compared with the control, growth performance was not affected. The ether extract, ash and calcium digestibility were lower at 0.5%, and dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, phosphorus and energy digestibility were lower at 1.0% (Phyopneumoniae did not differ except that at 40 kg the cholesterol of 0.5% was lower (Phyopneumoniae-specific antibodies tended to be higher with increasing levels of C. asiatica (L.) (Pmycoplasma immunity to M. hyopneumoniae might suggest that C. asiatica (L.) has no function to elevate body weight but has the potential to enhance innate immunity. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Effect of variable protein contents in diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans on performance, organ weights and blood variables in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.; Weerden, E.J. van

    1990-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effects of antinutritional factors present in Phaseolus vulgaris on piglets, rats and chickens. Also the hypothesis of whether the negative effect on weight gain due to the inclusion of raw Phaseolus vulgaris in the diet can be attributed to an insufficient supply of

  14. Dietary specific antibodies in spray-dried immune plasma prevent enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC) post weaning in diarrhoea in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewold, T.A.; Dijk, van A.D.J.; Geenen, P.L.; Roodink, H.; Margry, R.; Meulen, van der J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to establish the mechanism of spray dried plasma powder (SDPP) in improving pig health and performance, a diet containing either 8% SDPP, spray dried immune plasma powder (SDIPP), or control protein (soybean and whey) ration was fed to piglets in an experimental model of enterotoxigenic

  15. Minimal sampling protocol for accurate estimation of urea production: a study with oral [13C]urea in fed and fasted piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, Michiel J. S.; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Dainty, Jack R.; Kulik, Willem; Jakobs, Cornelis; de Meer, Kees

    2005-01-01

    An oral [13C]urea protocol may provide a simple method for measurement of urea production. The validity of single pool calculations in relation to a reduced sampling protocol was assessed. In eight fed and five fasted piglets, plasma urea enrichments from a 10 h sampling protocol were measured

  16. Development of piglets raised in a new multi-litter housing system vs. conventional single-litter housing until 9 weeks of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwamerongen, van S.E.; Soede, N.M.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the development until 9 wk of age of piglets raised in either a multi-litter (ML) system or a conventional single-litter (SL) system. The ML system consisted of a multi-suckling system with 5 sows and their litters before weaning, followed by housing in a pen with enrichment in a

  17. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2013-01-01

    compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative...

  18. Methodisch ontwerpen voor een integraal duurzaam houderijsysteem voor zeugen en biggen = Structured design of an integral sustainable husbandry system for sows and piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Weeghel, van H.J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Results of the followed course 'Structured Design' with the Farm Technology Group at the Wageningen University. Assignment was to design an integral sustainable husbandry system for sows and piglets. This report describes the structured design process in which the heterogeneous needs of the actors

  19. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets: XIX. Undiversifed B-cells with hydrophobic HCDR3s preferentially proliferate in the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Lemke, C. D.; Weber, P.; Šinkora, Marek; Lager, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, č. 10 (2007), s. 6320-6331 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/07/0088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : neonatal piglets * prrsv * autoimmunity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.068, year: 2007

  20. Pain management in the neonatal piglet during routine management procedures. Part 2: Grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piglets reared in swine production in the US undergo painful procedures that include castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and identification with ear notching or tagging. These procedures are usually performed without pain mitigation. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations...

  1. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XXII. Lambda rearrangement precedes kappa rearrangement during B-cell lymphogenesis in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCR was used to detect VDJ and VJ rearrangement, expression of RAG-1, TdT and VpreB and the presence of signal joint circles (SJC) in an effort to identify sites of B cell lymphogenesis in tissue lysates and sorted leukocytes of fetal and newborn piglets. VDJ, VlambdaJlambda but not VkappaJkappa re...

  2. Estimating the incidence of influenza-virus infections in Dutch weaned piglets using blood samples from a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.; Nodelijk, G.; Heinen, P.P.; Leengoed, van L.A.M.G.; Hunneman, W.A.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on 32 Dutch breeding herds to estimate the incidence of influenza-virus infections in piglets before the start of the finishing period, at the age of approximately 10 weeks. Longitudinal studies on two herds (8 and 10 litters, respectively) were done to obtain

  3. Specific response of a novel and abundant Lactobacillus amylovorus-like phylotype to dietary prebiotics in the guts of weaning piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinov, S.R.; Awati, A.A.; Smidt, H.; Williams, B.A.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vos, de W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Using 16S rRNA gene-based approaches, we analyzed the responses of ileal and colonic bacterial communities of weaning piglets to dietary addition of four fermentable carbohydrates (inulin, lactulose, wheat starch, and sugar beet pulp). An enriched diet and a control diet lacking these fermentable

  4. Growth and clinical variables in nitrogen-restricted piglets fed an adjusted essential amino acid mix: Effects using free amino acid-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess protein intake in early life has been linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Yet, protein, and in particular the essential amino acids (EAA), need to be present in adequate quantity to support growth. Using a piglet model restricted in dietary amino acids (AA), our objective...

  5. Monitoring Activity for Recognition of Illness in Experimentally Infected Weaned Piglets Using Received Signal Strength Indication ZigBee-based Wireless Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Tabasum Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we proposed and implemented a disease forecasting system using a received signal strength indication ZigBee-based wireless network with a 3-axis acceleration sensor to detect illness at an early stage by monitoring movement of experimentally infected weaned piglets. Twenty seven piglets were divided into control, Salmonella enteritidis (SE infection, and Escherichia coli (EC infection group, and their movements were monitored for five days using wireless sensor nodes on their backs. Data generated showed the 3-axis movement of piglets (X-axis: left and right direction, Y-axis: anteroposterior direction, and Z-axis: up and down direction at five different time periods. Piglets in both infected groups had lower weight gain and feed intake, as well as higher feed conversion ratios than the control group (p<0.05. Infection with SE and EC resulted in reduced body temperature of the piglets at day 2, 4, and 5 (p<0.05. The early morning X-axis movement did not differ between groups; however, the Y-axis movement was higher in the EC group (day 1 and 2, and the Z-axis movement was higher in the EC (day 1 and SE group (day 4 during different experimental periods (p<0.05. The morning X and Y-axis movement did not differ between treatment groups. However, the Z-axis movement was higher in both infected groups at day 1 and lower at day 4 compared to the control (p<0.05. The midday X-axis movement was significantly lower in both infected groups (day 4 and 5 compared to the control (p<0.05, whereas the Y-axis movement did not differ. The Z-axis movement was highest in the SE group at day 1 and 2 and lower at day 4 and 5 (p<0.05. Evening X-axis movement was highest in the control group throughout the experimental period. During day 1 and 2, the Z-axis movement was higher in both of the infected groups; whereas it was lower in the SE group during day 3 and 4 (p<0.05. During day 1 and 2, the night X-axis movement was lower and the Z

  6. Perfil de natimortalidade de acordo com ordem de nascimento, peso e sexo de leitões Stillbirth pattern according to birth order, birth weight, and gender of piglets

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    V.F. Borges

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram acompanhados 575 partos para avaliar a influência da ordem de nascimento, do sexo e do peso dos leitões na ocorrência de natimortos. Dos 7061 leitões, 90,2%, 6,0% e 3,8% nasceram vivos, natimortos ou mumificados, respectivamente. O percentual de partos com natimortos foi 44,5%. Partos com dois ou mais natimortos foram responsáveis por 63,1% das perdas por natimortalidade, embora tenham sido responsáveis por 17,2% das leitegadas. O percentual de natimortos aumentou com a ordem de nascimento; a maior taxa de natimortos, 21,7%, ocorreu a partir da 14ª ordem. A taxa de natimortalidade foi de 3,6% e 10,1% nos leitões de primeira a nona e de 10ª a 13ª ordem, respectivamente. Em leitões com até 500g a taxa de natimortos foi de 52,1%, mais alta que a de leitões mais pesados. Em leitões com 501 a 1200g foi de 10,1%, maior que entre os com mais de 1200g (4,0%. Não houve efeito de sexo dos leitões na ocorrência de natimortos, que foi de 6,2% e 5,8% para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. A natimortalidade é maior entre os leitões com baixo peso ou com ordem de nascimento elevada.To examine the influence of birth order, gender, and birth weight of piglets on stillbirth, records of 575 farrowings were analyzed. Out of 7,061 piglets, 90.2%, 6.0%, and 3.8% were born alive, stillborns and mummified, respectively. The percentage of farrowings with stillborns was 44.5%. Farrowings with two or more stillborns accounted for 63.1% of losses, although they produced 17.2% of the litters. Stillbirth rate increased with the increase of the birth order. Piglets born from the 14th order onward had the highest stillbirth rate (21.7%. Piglets born from the 1st to the 9th and from the 10th to the 13th order had stillbirth rates of 3.6% and 10.1%, respectively. For piglets weighting up to 500g, the stillbirth rate was 52.1%, which was higher than that recorded for heavier piglets. Piglets weighting from 501 to 1,200g had a stillbirth rate of 10

  7. Piglets produced by transfer of vitrified porcine embryos after stepwise dilution of cryoprotectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Takei, M; Kano, M; Tomita, M; Leibo, S P

    1998-02-01

    A total of 498 porcine embryos at various stages of development collected from superovulated gilts was used to investigate cryopreservation. First, blastocysts (BL), expanded blastocysts (ExB), and hatched blastocysts (HB) were used to determine the effect of exposure to concentrated solutions of ethylene glycol as cryoprotective additives (CPAs) on embryo survival. Then, survival of other embryos after vitrification by rapid cooling was determined. Based on their development after 48 h in culture, embryos were not injured by being exposed to 2.0 M ethylene glycol (EG) for 15 min or to 2.0 M EG for 5 min and then to a solution of 8.0 M EG in 7% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) for 1 min. The CPAs were removed from the embryos by diluting them with 1.7 M galactose. To vitrify the embryos, they were exposed to 2.0 M EG for 5 min and then were pipetted directly into short columns of 8.0 M EG-PVP contained within (1.25-ml plastic straws and separated from long columns of 1.7 M galactose by an air bubble. The straws were plunged directly into LN2. After the straws were warmed rapidly in a 25 degrees C water bath, the embryos were immediately mixed with galactose within the straws by shaking them vigorously to mix the contents. In sequential experiments, three methods were used to dilute the CPA solutions. Method 1: Embryos in the EG-PVP-galactose mixture were expelled from the straws and rinsed and cultured in modified CZB medium (mCZB). Method II: Embryos in the mixture were placed briefly into 1.5 M EG and then rinsed and cultured in mCZB. Method III: Embryos in the mixture were rinsed in 1.0 M EG and then in 0.5 M EG and finally rinsed with mCZB and cultured. After 48 h in culture, the respective percentages of survival of embryos vitrified as BL, ExB, or HB were: Method I, 21, 32, and 13%; Method II, 9, 40, and 24%; Method III, 35, 85, and 71%. Of 20 additional ExB vitrified embryos diluted by Method III and transferred into a recipient, four developed into live piglets

  8. Arachidonic acid-and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched formulas modulate antigen-specific T cell responses to influenza virus in neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Guri, Amir J; Noble, Alexis M; Reynolds, Kathryn A; King, Jennifer; Wood, Cynthia M; Ashby, Michael; Rai, Deshanie; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2007-03-01

    Whereas the immunomodulatory effects of feeding either arachidonic acid (AA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) separately have been previously investigated, little is known about the immunomodulatory efficacy of AA or DHA when they are fed in combination as infant formula ingredients. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of AA- and DHA(AA/DHA)-enriched infant formula to modulate immune responses in the neonate in response to an inactivated influenza virus vaccine. Neonatal piglets (n = 48) were weaned on day 2 of age and distributed into 16 blocks of 3 littermate piglets each. Within each block, piglets were randomly assigned to a control formula, AA/DHA-enriched formula (0.63% AA and 0.34% DHA), or sow milk for 30 d. On day 9, 8 blocks of piglets were immunized with an inactivated influenza virus vaccine. On days 0, 9, 16, 23, and 30 after weaning, we measured influenza virus-specific T cell proliferation and phenotype of T subsets in peripheral blood. A delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction test was administered on day 28. Cytokine messenger RNA expression was determined by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on day 30. The influenza virus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell ex vivo lymphoproliferative responses were significantly lower on day 23 after immunization in piglets receiving dietary AA/DHA supplementation and sow milk than in those receiving the unsupplemented control formula. The immunomodulatory effects of AA/DHA-enriched formulas were consistent with up-regulation of interleukin 10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Overall, it appears that the AA/DHA-enriched formula modulated antigen-specific T cell responses in part through an interleukin 10-dependent mechanism.

  9. Measurement of Lactate Content and Amide Proton Transfer Values in the Basal Ganglia of a Neonatal Piglet Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury Model Using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Wang, X-M

    2017-04-01

    As amide proton transfer imaging is sensitive to protein content and intracellular pH, it has been widely used in the nervous system, including brain tumors and stroke. This work aimed to measure the lactate content and amide proton transfer values in the basal ganglia of a neonatal piglet hypoxic-ischemic brain injury model by using MR spectroscopy and amide proton transfer imaging. From 58 healthy neonatal piglets (3-5 days after birth; weight, 1-1.5 kg) selected initially, 9 piglets remained in the control group and 43 piglets, in the hypoxic-ischemic brain injury group. Single-section amide proton transfer imaging was performed at the coronal level of the basal ganglia. Amide proton transfer values of the bilateral basal ganglia were measured in all piglets. The ROI of MR spectroscopy imaging was the right basal ganglia, and the postprocessing was completed with LCModel software. After hypoxic-ischemic insult, the amide proton transfer values immediately decreased, and at 0-2 hours, they remained at their lowest level. Thereafter, they gradually increased and finally exceeded those of the control group at 48-72 hours. After hypoxic-ischemic insult, the lactate content increased immediately, was maximal at 2-6 hours, and then gradually decreased to the level of the control group. The amide proton transfer values were negatively correlated with lactate content ( r = -0.79, P < .05). This observation suggests that after hypoxic-ischemic insult, the recovery of pH was faster than that of lactate homeostasis. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Expression of Na+/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) is enhanced by supplementation of the diet of weaning piglets with artificial sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Andrew W; Al-Rammahi, Miran A; Arora, Daleep K; Batchelor, Daniel J; Coulter, Erin A; Daly, Kristian; Ionescu, Catherine; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2010-09-01

    In an intensive livestock production, a shorter suckling period allows more piglets to be born. However, this practice leads to a number of disorders including nutrient malabsorption, resulting in diarrhoea, malnutrition and dehydration. A number of strategies have been proposed to overcome weaning problems. Artificial sweeteners, routinely included in piglets' diet, were thought to enhance feed palatability. However, it is shown in rodent models that when included in the diet, they enhance the expression of Na+/glucose co-transporter (SGLT1) and the capacity of the gut to absorb glucose. Here, we show that supplementation of piglets' feed with a combination of artificial sweeteners saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone enhances the expression of SGLT1 and intestinal glucose transport function. Artificial sweeteners are known to act on the intestinal sweet taste receptor T1R2/T1R3 and its partner G-protein, gustducin, to activate pathways leading to SGLT1 up-regulation. Here, we demonstrate that T1R2, T1R3 and gustducin are expressed together in the enteroendocrine cells of piglet intestine. Furthermore, gut hormones secreted by the endocrine cells in response to dietary carbohydrates, glucagon-like peptides (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic peptide (GIP), are co-expressed with type 1 G-protein-coupled receptors (T1R) and gustducin, indicating that L- and K-enteroendocrine cells express these taste elements. In a fewer endocrine cells, T1R are also co-expressed with serotonin. Lactisole, an inhibitor of human T1R3, had no inhibitory effect on sweetener-induced SGLT1 up-regulation in piglet intestine. A better understanding of the mechanism(s) involved in sweetener up-regulation of SGLT1 will allow the identification of nutritional targets with implications for the prevention of weaning-related malabsorption.

  11. IgY antibodies protect against human Rotavirus induced diarrhea in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina G Vega

    Full Text Available Group A Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhea in children worldwide. The aim of the present work was to evaluate protection against rotavirus (RV diarrhea conferred by the prophylactic administration of specific IgY antibodies (Ab to gnotobiotic piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] human rotavirus (HRV. Chicken egg yolk IgY Ab generated from Wa HRV hyperimmunized hens specifically recognized (ELISA and neutralized Wa HRV in vitro. Supplementation of the RV Ab free cow milk diet with Wa HRV-specific egg yolk IgY Ab at a final ELISA Ab titer of 4096 (virus neutralization -VN- titer = 256 for 9 days conferred full protection against Wa HRV associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. This protection was dose-dependent. The oral administration of semi-purified passive IgY Abs from chickens did not affect the isotype profile of the pig Ab secreting cell (ASC responses to Wa HRV infection, but it was associated with significantly fewer numbers of HRV-specific IgA ASC in the duodenum. We further analyzed the pigś immune responses to the passive IgY treatment. The oral administration of IgY Abs induced IgG Ab responses to chicken IgY in serum and local IgA and IgG Ab responses to IgY in the intestinal contents of neonatal piglets in a dose dependent manner. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that IgY Abs administered orally as a milk supplement passively protect neonatal pigs against an enteric viral pathogen (HRV. Piglets are an animal model with a gastrointestinal physiology and an immune system that closely mimic human infants. This strategy can be scaled-up to inexpensively produce large amounts of polyclonal IgY Abs from egg yolks to be applied as a preventive and therapeutic passive Ab treatment to control RV diarrhea.

  12. Changes in orexinergic immunoreactivity of the piglet hypothalamus and pons after exposure to chronic postnatal nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Nicholas J; Russell, Benjamin; Du, Man K; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2016-06-01

    We recently showed that orexin expression in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants was reduced by 21% in the hypothalamus and by 40-50% in the pons as compared with controls. Orexin maintains wakefulness/sleeping states, arousal, and rapid eye movement sleep, abnormalities of which have been reported in SIDS. This study examined the effects of two prominent risk factors for SIDS, intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) (prone-sleeping) and chronic nicotine exposure (cigarette-smoking), on orexin A (OxA) and orexin B (OxB) expression in piglets. Piglets were randomly assigned to five groups: saline control (n = 7), air control (n = 7), nicotine [2 mg/kg per day (14 days)] (n = 7), IHH (6 min of 7% O2 /8% CO2 alternating with 6-min periods of breathing air, for four cycles) (n = 7), and the combination of nicotine and IHH (N + IHH) (n = 7). OxA/OxB expression was quantified in the central tuberal hypothalamus [dorsal medial hypothalamus (DMH), perifornical area (PeF), and lateral hypothalamus], and the dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus of the pons. Nicotine and N + IHH exposures significantly increased: (i) orexin expression in the hypothalamus and pons; and (ii) the total number of neurons in the DMH and PeF. IHH decreased orexin expression in the hypothalamus and pons without changing neuronal numbers. Linear relationships existed between the percentage of orexin-positive neurons and the area of pontine orexin immunoreactivity of control and exposure piglets. These results demonstrate that postnatal nicotine exposure increases the proportion of orexin-positive neurons in the hypothalamus and fibre expression in the pons, and that IHH exposure does not prevent the nicotine-induced increase. Thus, although both nicotine and IHH are risk factors for SIDS, it appears they have opposing effects on OxA and OxB expression, with the IHH exposure closely mimicking what we recently found in SIDS. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John

  13. Ulinastatin Protects against Acute Kidney Injury in Infant Piglets Model Undergoing Surgery on Hypothermic Low-Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocou Wang

    Full Text Available Infants are more vulnerable to kidney injuries induced by inflammatory response syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion injury following cardiopulmonary bypass especially with prolonged hypothermic low-flow (HLF. This study aims to evaluate the protective role of ulinastatin, an anti-inflammatory agent, against acute kidney injuries in infant piglets model undergoing surgery on HLF cardiopulmonary bypass.Eighteen general-type infant piglets were randomly separated into the ulinastatin group (Group U, n = 6, the control group (Group C, n = 6, and the sham operation group (Group S, n = 6, and anaesthetized. The groups U and C received following experimental procedure: median thoracotomy, routine CPB and HLF, and finally weaned from CPB. The group S only underwent sham median thoracotomy. Ulinastatin at a dose of 5,000 units/kg body weight and a certain volume of saline were administrated to animals of the groups U and C at the beginning of CPB and at aortic declamping, respectively. Venous blood samples were collected at 3 different time points: after anesthesia induction in all experimental groups, 5 minutes, and 120 minutes after CPB in the Groups U and C. Markers for inflammation and acute kidney injury were tested in the collected plasma. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG from urine, markers of oxidative stress injury and TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues were also detected.The expressions of plasma inflammatory markers and acute kidney injury markers increased both in Group U and Group C at 5 min and 120 min after CPB. Also, numbers of TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney rose in both groups. At the time point of 120-min after CPB, compared with the Group C, some plasma inflammatory and acute kidney injury markers as well as TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney were significantly reduced in the Group U. Histologic analyses showed that HLF promoted acute tubular necrosis and dilatation

  14. Proteomic View of Interactions of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli with the Intestinal Environment in Gnotobiotic Piglets.

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    Rembert Pieper

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx-producing Escherichia coli cause severe intestinal infections involving colonization of epithelial Peyer's patches and formation of attachment/effacement (A/E lesions. These lesions trigger leukocyte infiltration followed by inflammation and intestinal hemorrhage. Systems biology, which explores the crosstalk of Stx-producing Escherichia coli with the in vivo host environment, may elucidate novel molecular pathogenesis aspects.Enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain 86-24 produces Shiga toxin-2 and belongs to the serotype O157:H7. Bacterial cells were scrapped from stationary phase cultures (the in vitro condition and used to infect gnotobiotic piglets via intestinal lavage. Bacterial cells isolated from the piglets' guts constituted the in vivo condition. Cell lysates were subjected to quantitative 2D gel and shotgun proteomic analyses, revealing metabolic shifts towards anaerobic energy generation, changes in carbon utilization, phosphate and ammonia starvation, and high activity of a glutamate decarboxylase acid resistance system in vivo. Increased abundance of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase (PntA and PntB suggested in vivo shortage of intracellular NADPH. Abundance changes of proteins implicated in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis (LpxC, ArnA, the predicted acyltransferase L7029 and outer membrane (OM assembly (LptD, MlaA, MlaC suggested bacterial cell surface modulation in response to activated host defenses. Indeed, there was evidence for interactions of innate immunity-associated proteins secreted into the intestines (GP340, REG3-γ, resistin, lithostathine, and trefoil factor 3 with the bacterial cell envelope.Proteomic analysis afforded insights into system-wide adaptations of strain 86-24 to a hostile intestinal milieu, including responses to limited nutrients and cofactor supplies, intracellular acidification, and reactive nitrogen and oxygen species-mediated stress. Protein and lipopolysaccharide compositions of the OM

  15. Feeding weaned piglets and growing-finishing pigs with diets based on mainly home-grown organic feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, EU regulations for organic animal production set new guidelines for organic pig feeding requiring that this be based on mainly home-grown organic feedstuffs. Doubts were however raised whether these feeding regimes can maintain good growth performance and carcass quality of pigs. Three experiments were carried out to study different organic feeding regimes in weaned piglets and fattening pigs. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the use of peas and faba beans (0, 120, or 240 g kg-1 in diets for weaned piglets. Piglets fed pea diets performed as well as those fed the control diet, whereas the highest faba bean level resulted in reduced feed intake and growth performance. In Experiment 2, we studied the replacement (0, 33, or 67% of rapeseed cake with blue lupins in fattening pig diets. The dietary lupin level had a quadratic effect on the weight gain of growing pigs, the best performance being observed at the 33% replacement level. However, dietary lupin level did not influence weight gain during the finishing period and total fattening. Back fat became softer with increasing dietary lupin levels. In Experiment 3, different protein supplements were compared in organic diets from weaning to slaughter. In two-phase feeding, the best performance was observed when whey protein was used as the protein supplement, followed by soya bean cake + whey protein and rapeseed cake + fish meal. The effects of a one-phase organic feeding regime with cold-pressed rapeseed cake + whey protein did not differ from those of the two-phase organic feeding regimes. Fattening pigs fed organic diets required from two to seven days longer to reach slaughter weight than those fed conventional diets. Pigs fed organic diets had fatter carcasses, but the eating quality of organic pork did not differ from that of pork from pigs fed conventional diets. Feed costs and the circulation rate of pigs, weaners in particular, were greater and carcass prices lower in the organic

  16. Confinement of sows for different periods during lactation: effects on behaviour and lesions of sows and performance of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, C; Petig, M; Elkmann, A; Gauly, M

    2015-08-01

    Alternatives to farrowing crates with continuous confinement of the sow are urgently needed because the animal welfare is negatively impacted. Given the increase of herd sizes, practical experience with loose-housing is needed to force the implementation of these systems in the field. Next to aspects of labour efficiency, detrimental piglet mortality rates that may occur during the first days postpartum (pp) is a major criticism. Therefore, loose-housing after a crating period limited to the first days pp might be a feasible alternative to improve welfare under intensive production conditions. The aim was to investigate the effect of crating sows during lactation for different periods on their behaviour and integument alterations and on piglets' performance. Gilts from a commercial herd were observed from 5 to 26 days pp and housed in farrowing crates (1.85×2.50 m) that could be altered between confinement crates and loose-housing pens. Animals were divided into three groups, that were either crated continuously from birth until weaning (Group A, n=55), until 14 days pp (Group B; n=54) or 7 days pp (Group C, n=59). The behaviour of six randomly selected gilts per group was video recorded from 5 to 26 days pp and analysed by time sampling technique. Lesions on the legs, shoulder and lumbar vertebra were scored on days 7, 14 and 25 pp. Piglets were weighed weekly, causes of losses recorded and weight losses of gilts measured. Not different between groups (P>0.05), animals spent 72 to 76% lying laterally, 14 to 17% lying in abdominal or semi-abdominal position, 9 to 10% standing and 1 to 3% sitting. B-sows were lying longer in week 3 and 4 of lactation compared to A- and C-sows (P0.05), whereas almost 90% of the losses occurred in the first week pp. In conclusion, loose-housing of lactating gilts after a reduced postnatal crating period of 7 days affected neither the activity level of the gilts and lesions on the integument nor pre-weaning mortality. Therefore, it is

  17. Infusing sodium bicarbonate suppresses hydrogen peroxide accumulation and superoxide dismutase activity in hypoxic-reoxygenated newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Qin Liu

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB has recently been questioned although it is often used to correct metabolic acidosis of neonates. The aim of the present study was to examine its effect on hemodynamic changes and hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 generation in the resuscitation of hypoxic newborn animals with severe acidosis.Newborn piglets were block-randomized into a sham-operated control group without hypoxia (n = 6 and two hypoxia-reoxygenation groups (2 h normocapnic alveolar hypoxia followed by 4 h room-air reoxygenation, n = 8/group. At 10 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. SB (2 mEq/kg, or saline (hypoxia-reoxygenation controls in a blinded, randomized fashion. Hemodynamic data and blood gas were collected at specific time points and cerebral cortical H(2O(2 production was continuously monitored throughout experimental period. Plasma superoxide dismutase and catalase and brain tissue glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, nitrotyrosine and lactate levels were assayed.Two hours of normocapnic alveolar hypoxia caused cardiogenic shock with metabolic acidosis (PH: 6.99 ± 0.07, HCO(3(-: 8.5 ± 1.6 mmol/L. Upon resuscitation, systemic hemodynamics immediately recovered and then gradually deteriorated with normalization of acid-base imbalance over 4 h of reoxygenation. SB administration significantly enhanced the recovery of both pH and HCO(3- recovery within the first hour of reoxygenation but did not cause any significant effect in the acid-base at 4 h of reoxygenation and the temporal hemodynamic changes. SB administration significantly suppressed the increase in H(2O(2 accumulation in the brain with inhibition of superoxide dismutase, but not catalase, activity during hypoxia-reoxygenation as compared to those of saline-treated controls.Despite enhancing the normalization of acid-base imbalance, SB administration during resuscitation did not provide any beneficial effects on hemodynamic recovery in

  18. Evaluation of even- and odd-chain medium-chain triglycerides as energy sources for neonatal piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odle, J.

    1989-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were evaluated as a supplemental energy source for the newborn piglet. In three experiments, piglets were force-fed 12 mi of MCT, varying in fatty acid (FA) composition. Blood fatty acid and ketone body concentrations peaked 1-2 h after force feeding then returned to baseline by 4 h, illustrating rapid digestion, absorption and oxidation. Peak 3-OH-butyrate concentrations never exceeded 80 μM which is dramatically lower than observed in rats (>2 mM). Improved clinical energy status was also documented by elevated blood glucose concentration and lower nitrogen excretion than observed in fasted controls. Piglets showed an improvement in ability to utilize MCT between 6 and 18 h of age based on a two fold increase in blood concentration of FA and 3-OH-butyrate but no further change between 18 and 48 h. Peak plasma FA concentration decreased progressively as triglyceride-FA chain length increased from C7 (2.1 mM) to C10 (0.4 mM). In two subsequent experiments, hepatocyte metabolism of FA was studied. Hepatocytes oxidized [1- 14 C]- C7 or C9 (1 mM) greater than 40% faster and consumed oxygen 7% faster than cells given C8 or C10. L-carnitine (1 mM) was without effect. Theoretical calculations from FA flux accounted for 95-140% of observed O 2 consumption, indicating the FA were the major fuel source for the cells. Hepatocytes from 2 d pigs oxidized FA 48% faster than cells from 6 h pigs, but this was likely due to an increased metabolic rate observed in the older animals. No differences were detected in ability of small (700-950 g) pigs to oxidize FA relative to large (1,050-1,800 g) littermates. In a final in vivo experiment, pigs were continuously infused with 10 μCi of [1- 14 C]-C7,C8, C9 or C10 via a catheter passed through the umbilical artery to the heart at a rate of 20, 50 or 100 mole FA/min for 5 h

  19. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ... myths Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ...

  20. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... section Back to section menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Common questions ...

  1. Real-time imaging and detection of intracranial haemorrhage by electrical impedance tomography in a piglet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C H; Wang, L; Shi, X T; You, F S; Fu, F; Liu, R G; Dai, M; Zhao, Z W; Gao, G D; Dong, X Z

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to detect and image acute intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in an animal model. Blood was infused into the frontal lobe of the brains of anaesthetized piglets and impedance was measured using 16 electrodes placed in a circle on the scalp. The EIT images were constructed using a filtered back-projection algorithm. The mean of all the pixel intensities within a region of interest--the mean resistivity value (MRV)--was used to evaluate the relative impedance changes in the target region. A symmetrical index (SI), reflecting the relative impedance on both sides of the brain, was also calculated. Changes in MRV and SI were associated with the injection of blood, demonstrating that EIT can successfully detect ICH in this animal model. The unique features of EIT may be beneficial for diagnosing ICH early in patients after cranial surgery, thereby reducing the risk of complications and mortality.

  2. Evaluation of an ompA-based phage-mediated DNA vaccine against Chlamydia abortus in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Changbo; Tian, Deyu; Ling, Yong; Pan, Qing; He, Qing; Eko, Francis O; He, Cheng

    2013-08-01

    Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes abortion in pigs and poses a zoonotic risk in pregnant women. Although attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available, they do not provide complete protection in animals underlining the need to develop new vaccines. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that intramuscular immunization with an ompA-based phage-mediated DNA chlamydial vaccine candidate will induce significant antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Thus, groups of piglets (five per group) were immunized intramuscularly with the phage-MOMP vaccine (λ-MOMP) or a commercial live-attenuated vaccine (1B vaccine) or a GFP-expressing phage (λ-GFP) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (control) and antigen-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses were evaluated. By day 63 post-immunization, the λ-MOMP vaccine elicited significantly higher (Pabortus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Applicability of near-infrared spectroscopy to measure cerebral autoregulation noninvasively in neonates: a validation study in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Hahn, Gitte; Heiring, Christian; Pryds, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA) is common and is associated with brain damage in sick neonates. Frequency analysis using spontaneous changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to measure CA in several clinical studies. Coherence...... of the NIRS and ABP signals (i.e. correlation in the frequency domain) detects impairment of CA, whereas gain (i.e. magnitude of ABP variability passing from systemic to cerebral circulation) estimates the degree of this impairment. So far, however, this method has not been validated. In 12 newborn piglets......, we compared NIRS-derived measures of CA with a conventional measure of CA: cerebral blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, and changes in ABP were induced by inflating a thoracic aorta balloon. CA capacity was calculated as %¿CVR/%¿ABP (i.e. percentage of full autoregulatory capacity...

  4. Applicability of near-infrared spectroscopy to measure cerebral autoregulation noninvasively in neonates: a validation study in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Hahn, Gitte; Heiring, Christian; Pryds, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA) is common and is associated with brain damage in sick neonates. Frequency analysis using spontaneous changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to measure CA in several clinical studies. Coherence...... of the NIRS and ABP signals (i.e. correlation in the frequency domain) detects impairment of CA, whereas gain (i.e. magnitude of ABP variability passing from systemic to cerebral circulation) estimates the degree of this impairment. So far, however, this method has not been validated. In 12 newborn piglets......, we compared NIRS-derived measures of CA with a conventional measure of CA: cerebral blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, and changes in ABP were induced by inflating a thoracic aorta balloon. CA capacity was calculated as %ΔCVR/%ΔABP (i.e. percentage of full autoregulatory capacity...

  5. A note on the relationship between the behavioural response of lactating sows to humans and the survival of their piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemsworth, P.H.; Pedersen, V.; Cox, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships, based on unit averages, between the behavioural responses of lactating sows to humans and the performance of sows in 25 farrowing units at a large commercial farm. The behavioural responses of 25 sows in each farrowing unit were observed...... at 2-4 and 16-18 days of lactation and a correlation analysis, using unit averages, was used to examine the behaviour-productivity relationships. Moderate and significant between-unit correlations were found between the behavioural response of lactating sows at days 16-18 to an approaching experimenter...... and the percentage of stillborn piglets. Units in which test sows were quicker to withdraw in the presence of the experimenter had a higher stillbirth rate than those units in which a reduced withdrawal response was displayed. The withdrawal response of sows in the close presence of the experimenter accounted...

  6. Interaction between dietary protein content and the source of carbohydrates along the gastrointestinal tract of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Robert; Boudry, Christelle; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Although fermentable carbohydrates (CHO) can reduce metabolites derived from dietary protein fermentation in the intestine of pigs, the interaction between site of fermentation and substrate availability along the gut is still unclear. The current study aimed at determining the impact of two different sources of carbohydrates in diets with low or very high protein content on microbial metabolite profiles along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. Thirty-six piglets (n = 6 per group) were fed diets high (26%, HP) or low (18%, LP) in dietary protein and with or without two different sources of carbohydrates (12% sugar beet pulp, SBP, or 8% lignocellulose, LNC) in a 2 × 3 factorial design. After 3 weeks, contents from stomach, jejunum, ileum, caecum, proximal and distal colon were taken and analysed for major bacterial metabolites (D-lactate, L-lactate, short chain fatty acids, ammonia, amines, phenols and indols). Results indicate considerable fermentation of CHO and protein already in the stomach. HP diets increased the formation of ammonia, amines, phenolic and indolic compounds throughout the different parts of the intestine with most pronounced effects in the distal colon. Dietary SBP inclusion in LP diets favoured the formation of cadaverine in the proximal parts of the intestine. SBP mainly increased CHO-derived metabolites such as SCFA and lactate and decreased protein-derived metabolites in the large intestine. Based on metabolite profiles, LNC was partly fermented in the distal large intestine and reduced mainly phenols, indols and cadaverine, but not ammonia. Multivariate analysis confirmed more diet-specific metabolite patterns in the stomach, whereas the CHO addition was the main determinant in the caecum and proximal colon. The protein level mainly influenced the metabolite patterns in the distal colon. The results confirm the importance of CHO source to influence the formation of metabolites derived from protein fermentation along the intestinal

  7. Short-Term Interferential Transabdominal Electrical Stimulation Did Not Change Oral-Rectal Transit Time in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andre Y F; Sourial, Magdy; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2018-03-02

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) using interferential current (IFC) is a new therapeutic treatment for constipation. Clinical studies show that TES-IFC for 3-6 months improves colonic transit, but it is not clear if short-term stimulation affects transit or the effect requires longer to develop. The aim of this study was to determine if TES-IFC for only four days affects oral-rectal transit time in healthy pigs. Twenty-two 4-5-week old large white female piglets had transit studies during week 4 and week 5 by placing a capsule containing 18 radiopaque plastic markers in the esophagus under anesthetic followed by x-rays at 6, 30, 54, and 78 hours. Animals were randomly assigned to active or control groups. The active group received TES for 30 min daily for four days. Interferential current was applied through four electrodes (4 × 4 cm), with two para-spinal just below the last rib and two on the belly at the same level. Stimulation was at 4000 Hz and 4080-4160 Hz with currents crossing through the abdominal cavity. Whole bowel transit times ranged from 7.7 to 72.2 hours, stomach transit from transit time from 5 to 53 hours. Transit times were the same for the control (median 28.4 hours) and TES-IFC (23.0 hours) groups in the prestimulation and stimulation weeks (control 23.0, TES-IFC 19.8 hours) with no change within or between groups. Four days of half-hour TES-IFC daily in healthy 5-week-old piglets did not change oral-rectal transit time. © 2018 International Neuromodulation Society.

  8. Sildenafil prevents the increase of extravascular lung water and pulmonary hypertension after meconium aspiration in newborn piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Silvera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Meconium aspiration syndrome causes respiratory failure after birth and in vivo monitoring of pulmonary edema is difficult. The objective of the present study was to assess hemodynamic changes and edema measured by transcardiopulmonary thermodilution in low weight newborn piglets. Additionally, the effect of early administration of sildenafil (2 mg/kg vo, 30 min after meconium aspiration on this critical parameter was determined in the meconium aspiration syndrome model. Thirty-eight mechanically ventilated anesthetized male piglets (Sus scrofa domestica aged 12 to 72 h (1660 ± 192 g received diluted fresh human meconium in the airway in order to evoke pulmonary hypertension (PHT. Extravascular lung water was measured in vivo with a PiCCO monitor and ex vivo by the gravimetric method, resulting in an overestimate of 3.5 ± 2.3 mL compared to the first measurement. A significant PHT of 15 Torr above basal pressure was observed, similar to that of severely affected humans, leading to an increase in ventilatory support. The vascular permeability index increased 57%, suggesting altered alveolocapillary membrane permeability. Histology revealed tissue vessel congestion and nonspecific chemical pneumonitis. A group of animals received sildenafil, which prevented the development of PHT and lung edema, as evaluated by in vivo monitoring. In summary, the transcardiopulmonary thermodilution method is a reliable tool for monitoring critical newborn changes, offering the opportunity to experimentally explore putative therapeutics in vivo. Sildenafil could be employed to prevent PHT and edema if used in the first stages of development of the disease.

  9. Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Broken Rice Fed to Postweaned Piglets with or without Multicarbohydrase and Phytase Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadalt, J C; Gallardo, C; Polycarpo, G V; Budiño, F E L; Rogiewicz, A; Berto, D A; Trindade Neto, M A

    2016-10-01

    Most of amino acid (AA) digestibility values for feed ingredients are obtained using pigs cannulated in the distal ileum. The ileal-cannulated pig model uses pigs older than six weeks due to difficulties related to implanting the T-cannula in distal ileum of younger pigs and complications during the post-surgical recovery. However, to properly formulate the diet of weaned pigs, the nutritive value of feed ingredients should be determined with younger pigs. Thus, 25 weaned pigs were used to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) ileal AA digestibility of broken rice (BR), with or without multicarbohydrase (MC) and phytase (Phy) supplementation. Piglets were weaned at 23 d of age and individually housed in digestibility cages until 45 d of age. The trial consisted of 7 d of adaptation to the experimental diets and 3 d of excreta (feces and urine) collection. Ileal digesta was collected at slaughter (about 6 weeks of age). A completely randomized experimental design was used to determine the effects of MC and Phy. Reference diets (RD, 5% casein) was replaced by 30% of BR with or without MC, Phy, or MC+Phy. The RD was used to quantify endogenous AA losses. BR with Phy supplied had increased the ATTD of dry matter (pdigestible energy and protein and SID for histidine (pdigestibilities. Standardized amino acid digestibilities of BR, without enzymes, were lower than those values reported in the literature. The MC and Phy improved the digestibility of some nutrients and energy of BR in post-weaned piglet diets.

  10. Reliability of Pulse Oximetry during Progressive Hypoxia, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, and Recovery in a Piglet Model of Neonatal Hypoxic Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohammad Ahmad; Weber, Claudia; Waitz, Markus; Huang, Li; Hummler, Helmut D; Mendler, Marc Robin

    2017-01-01

    Pulse oximetry is widely used in intensive care and emergency conditions to monitor arterial oxygenation and to guide oxygen therapy. To study the reliability of pulse oximetry in comparison with CO-oximetry in newborn piglets during progressive hypoxia, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Thirty-three newborn piglets were exposed to hypoxia until asystole occurred and then resuscitated until ROSC. Arterial oxygen saturation was monitored continuously by pulse oximetry (SpO2) with one sensor applied to the wrist of the right forelimb (FL) and another to the thigh of the left hind limb (HL). Arterial functional oxygen saturation (SaO2) was measured at baseline and at predefined intervals during each phase of the experiment. SpO2 was compared with coinciding SaO2 values and bias considered whenever the difference (SpO2 - SaO2) was beyond ±5%. Bias values were lower at the baseline measurements (-3.7 ± 2.3% in FL and -4.1 ± 3.4% in HL) as well as after ROSC (1.5 ± 4.2% in FL and 0.2 ± 4.6% in HL) with higher precision and accuracy than during other experiment phases. During hypoxia induction, cardiac arrest, and CPR, there was a marked decrease in precision and accuracy as well as an increase in bias up to 43 ± 26 and 56 ± 27% in FL and HL, respectively, over a range of SaO2 from 13 to 51%. Pulse oximetry showed increased bias and decreased accuracy and precision during marked hypoxemia in a model of neonatal hypoxic cardiac arrest. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Resuscitation of newborn piglets. short-term influence of FiO2 on matrix metalloproteinases, caspase-3 and BDNF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønnaug Solberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of mortality and cerebral morbidity, and using oxygen during newborn resuscitation may further harm the brain. The aim was to examine how supplementary oxygen used for newborn resuscitation would influence early brain tissue injury, cell death and repair processes and the regulation of genes related to apoptosis, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Anesthetized newborn piglets were subjected to global hypoxia and then randomly assigned to resuscitation with 21%, 40% or 100% O(2 for 30 min and followed for 9 h. An additional group received 100% O(2 for 30 min without preceding hypoxia. The left hemisphere was used for histopathology and immunohistochemistry and the right hemisphere was used for in situ zymography in the corpus striatum; gene expression and the activity of various relevant biofactors were measured in the frontal cortex. There was an increase in the net matrix metalloproteinase gelatinolytic activity in the corpus striatum from piglets resuscitated with 100% oxygen vs. 21%. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining revealed no significant changes. Nine hours after oxygen-assisted resuscitation, caspase-3 expression and activity was increased by 30-40% in the 100% O(2 group (n = 9/10 vs. the 21% O(2 group (n = 10; p<0.04, whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF activity was decreased by 65% p<0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The use of 100% oxygen for resuscitation resulted in increased potentially harmful proteolytic activities and attenuated BDNF activity when compared with 21%. Although there were no significant changes in short term cell loss, hyperoxia seems to cause an early imbalance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic mechanisms that might compromise the final pathological outcome.

  12. Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Broken Rice Fed to Postweaned Piglets with or without Multicarbohydrase and Phytase Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Dadalt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of amino acid (AA digestibility values for feed ingredients are obtained using pigs cannulated in the distal ileum. The ileal-cannulated pig model uses pigs older than six weeks due to difficulties related to implanting the T-cannula in distal ileum of younger pigs and complications during the post-surgical recovery. However, to properly formulate the diet of weaned pigs, the nutritive value of feed ingredients should be determined with younger pigs. Thus, 25 weaned pigs were used to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients, energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID ileal AA digestibility of broken rice (BR, with or without multicarbohydrase (MC and phytase (Phy supplementation. Piglets were weaned at 23 d of age and individually housed in digestibility cages until 45 d of age. The trial consisted of 7 d of adaptation to the experimental diets and 3 d of excreta (feces and urine collection. Ileal digesta was collected at slaughter (about 6 weeks of age. A completely randomized experimental design was used to determine the effects of MC and Phy. Reference diets (RD, 5% casein was replaced by 30% of BR with or without MC, Phy, or MC+Phy. The RD was used to quantify endogenous AA losses. BR with Phy supplied had increased the ATTD of dry matter (p<0.05 and SID of histidine (p = 0.05, arginine, leucine, lysine, valine, alanine, and proline (p<0.05. BR with MC had been increased digestible energy and protein and SID for histidine (p<0.05. There was no interaction between Phy and MC on the BR nutrient digestibilities. Standardized amino acid digestibilities of BR, without enzymes, were lower than those values reported in the literature. The MC and Phy improved the digestibility of some nutrients and energy of BR in post-weaned piglet diets.

  13. Electrical energy use in different heating systems for weaned piglets; Utilizacao de energia eletrica em diferentes sistemas de aquecimento para leitoes desmamados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbi, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CESNORS/UFSM), Palmeiras das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte-RS. Dept. de Zootecnia], E-mail: jusarubbi@hotmail.com; Rossi, Luiz A.; Moura, Daniella J. de; Oliveira, Rafael A. de; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: rossi@agr.unicamp.br, daniella.moura@agr.unicamp.br, augustus@agr.unicamp.br, eduardo.david@agr.unicamp.br

    2010-11-15

    Heating piglets in nursery and farrowing may be improved to save energy, without affecting the animals' welfare. The objective of this research was to compare the electrical energy use and thermal environment promoted by three heating technologies for piglets in nursery. The heating technologies studied were: suspended electrical resistors, heated floor and convection heating. Electrical energy consumption (kWh), maximum power demand requirements (kW), specific consumption (kWh/kg of produced live body weight), efficiency of heating system (deg C /m{sup 3} air) and dry-bulb temperature (deg C) and temperature-humidity index were evaluated. The heated floor system was better under the aspect of electrical energy use. The electrical resistance heating system was the best regarding to the animals' thermal comfort needs. (author)

  14. The effects of weaning age, diet composition, and categorisation of creep feed intake by piglets on diarrhoea and performance after weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, J; Halas, D; Thorup, F

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of weaning age, diet, and classification of piglets as ‘eaters' or ‘non eaters' of creep feed in lactation, on production and diarrhoea after weaning. Four antimicrobial-free diets were offered in lactation and for 14 days after weaning: (i) wheat-soy based diet...... with animal and vegetable (‘mixed') protein sources (COMM), (ii) heat-processed rice (HPR) with barley hulls and potato starch and mixed protein sources (RBHPS), (iii) HPR with sugar-beet pulp and mixed protein sources (RSBP), and (iv) HPR with mixed protein sources (R). Piglets were individually examined...... for diarrhoea daily for 14 days after weaning, and antibiotic treatments were individually recorded. Faecal swabs were taken on day 10 after weaning and scored for β-haemolytic Escherichia coli. There were significant main effects of weaning age and diet (both P 

  15. Differences in Microbiota Membership along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Piglets and Their Differential Alterations Following an Early-Life Antibiotic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlong Mu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Early-life antibiotic interventions can change the predisposition to disease by disturbing the gut microbiota. However, the impact of antibiotics on gut microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract is not completely understood, although antibiotic-induced alterations in the distal gut have been reported. Here, employing a piglet model, the microbial composition was analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function. The present study showed clear spatial variation of microbial communities in the stomach and intestine, and found that the administration of antibiotics (a mixture of olaquindox, oxytetracycline calcium, kitasamycin in early life caused markedly differential alterations in the compartmentalized microbiota, with major alterations in their spatial variation in the lumen of the stomach and small intestine. In piglets fed an antibiotic-free diet, most of the variation in microbial communities was concentrated in gut segments and niches (lumen/mucosa. The microbial diversity was higher in the lumen of stomach and duodenum than that in ileum. The early-life antibiotic intervention decreased the abundance of some Lactobacillus species and increased the abundance of potentially pathogenic Streptococcus suis in the lumen of the stomach and small intestine. Interestingly, the intervention increased the abundance of Treponema only in the colonic lumen and that of Faecalibacterium only in the ileal mucosa. Furthermore, the antibiotic intervention exerted location-specific effects on the functional potential involved in the phosphotransferase system (decreased sucrose phosphotransferase in the stomach and antibiotic-resistance genes (increased in the colon. These results point to an early-life antibiotic-induced dramatic and location-specific shift in the gut microbiota, with profound impact in the foregut and less impact in the hindgut. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the

  16. Farnesoid X Receptor Agonist Treatment Alters Bile Acid Metabolism but Exacerbates Liver Damage in a Piglet Model of Short-Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Fantini, Prue M; Lapthorne, Susan; Gahan, Cormac G M; Joyce, Susan A; Charles, Jenny; Fuller, Peter J; Bines, Julie E

    2017-07-01

    Options for the prevention of short-bowel syndrome-associated liver disease (SBS-ALDs) are limited and often ineffective. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a newly emerging pharmaceutical target and FXR agonists have been shown to ameliorate cholestasis and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of obeticholic acid (OCA) treatment in preventing SBS-ALDs. Piglets underwent 75% small-bowel resection (SBS) or sham surgery (sham) and were assigned to either a daily dose of OCA (2.4 mg/kg/day) or were untreated. Clinical measures included weight gain and stool studies. Histologic features were assessed. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine bile acid composition in end point bile and portal serum samples. Gene expression of key FXR targets was assessed in intestinal and hepatic tissues via quantitative polymerase chain reaction. OCA-treated SBS piglets showed decreased stool fat and altered liver histology when compared with nontreated SBS piglets. OCA prevented SBS-associated taurine depletion, however, further analysis of bile and portal serum samples indicated that OCA did not prevent SBS-associated alterations in bile acid composition. The expression of FXR target genes involved in bile acid transport and synthesis increased within the liver of SBS piglets after OCA administration whereas, paradoxically, intestinal expression of FXR target genes were decreased by OCA administration. Administration of OCA in SBS reduced fat malabsorption and altered bile acid composition, but did not prevent the development of SBS-ALDs. We postulate that extensive small resection impacts the ability of the remnant intestine to respond to FXR activation.

  17. Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 Modulates Intestinal Host Defense Peptide Expression in the Model of IPEC-J2 Cells and Neonatal Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin; Hou, Chengli; Wang, Gang; Jia, Hongmin; Yu, Haitao; Zeng, Xiangfang; Thacker, Philip A.; Zhang, Guolong; Qiao, Shiyan

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) by probiotics represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections in human and animals. However, the extent of HDP modulation by probiotics is species dependent and strain specific. In the present study, The porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) cells and neonatal piglets were used as in-vitro and in-vivo models to test whether Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression. Gene expressions of HDPs, toll-like receptors, and fatty acid receptors were determined, as well as colonic short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbiota. Exposure to 108 colony forming units (CFU)/mL of L. reuteri I5007 for 6 h significantly increased the expression of porcine β-Defensin2 (PBD2), pBD3, pBD114, pBD129, and protegrins (PG) 1-5 in IPEC-J2 cells. Similarly, L. reuteri I5007 administration significantly increased the expression of jejunal pBD2 as well as colonic pBD2, pBD3, pBD114, and pBD129 in neonatal piglets (p reuteri I5007 in the piglets did not affect the colonic microbiota structure. Our findings suggested that L. reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression and improve the gut health of neonatal piglets, probably through the increase in colonic butyric acid concentration and the up-regulation of the downstream molecules of butyric acid, PPAR-γ and GPR41, but not through modifying gut microbiota structure. PMID:28561758

  18. Effect of feeding different cereal-based diets on the performance and gut health of weaned piglets with or without previous access to creep feed during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrallardona, D; Andrés-Elias, N; López-Soria, S; Badiola, I; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M

    2012-12-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different cereals on the performance, gut mucosa, and microbiota of weanling pigs with or without previous access to creep feed during lactation. A total of 108 newly weaned pigs (7.4 kg BW; 26 d of age; half with and half without creep feed) were used. Piglets were distributed by BW into 36 pens according to a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement of treatments with previous access to creep feed (with or without) and cereal source in the experimental diet [barley (Hordeum vulgare), rice (Oryza sativa)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran, corn (Zea mays), naked oats (Avena sativa), oats, or rice] as main factors. Pigs were offered the experimental diets for 21 d and performance was monitored. At day 21, 4 piglets from each treatment were killed and sampled for the histological evaluation of jejunal mucosa and the study of ileal and cecal microbiota by RFLP. The Manhattan distances between RFLP profiles were calculated and intragroup similarities (IGS) were estimated for each treatment. An interaction between cereal source and previous creep feeding was observed for ADFI (P creep feeding increased ADFI for the rice-wheat bran diet it reduced it for naked oats. No differences in mucosal morphology were observed except for deeper crypts in pigs that did not have previous access to creep feed (P creep feeding and cereal was also observed for the IGS of the cecal microbiota at day 21 (P creep feed reduced IGS in the piglets fed oats or barley but no differences were observed for the other cereal sources. It is concluded that the effect of creep feeding during lactation on the performance and the microbiota of piglets after weaning is dependent on the nature of the cereal in the postweaning diet.

  19. Branched-chain Amino Acids are Beneficial to Maintain Growth Performance and Intestinal Immune-related Function in Weaned Piglets Fed Protein Restricted Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, H; Qiao, S Y

    2015-12-01

    As a novel approach for disease control and prevention, nutritional modulation of the intestinal health has been proved. However, It is still unknown whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is needed to maintain intestinal immune-related function. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCAA supplementation in protein restricted diet affects growth performance, intestinal barrier function and modulates post-weaning gut disorders. One hundred and eight weaned piglets (7.96±0.26 kg) were randomly fed one of the three diets including a control diet (21% crude protein [CP], CON), a protein restricted diet (17% CP, PR) and a BCAA diet (BCAA supplementation in the PR diet) for 14 d. The growth performance, plasma amino acid concentrations, small intestinal morphology and intestinal immunoglobulins were tested. First, average daily gain (ADG) (pBCAA group improved ADG (pBCAA groups was not different (p>0.05). The PR and BCAA treatments had a higher (pBCAA supplementation significantly increased BCAA concentrations (pBCAA supplementation increased villous height in the duodenum (pBCAA supplementation increased levels of jejunal and ileal immunoglobulin mentioned above. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation to protein restricted diet improved intestinal immune defense function by protecting villous morphology and by increasing levels of intestinal immunoglobulins in weaned piglets. Our finding has the important implication that BCAA may be used to reduce the negative effects of a protein restricted diet on growth performance and intestinal immunity in weaned piglets.

  20. Dietary supplementation with bovine lactoferrampin-lactoferricin produced by Pichia pastoris fed-batch fermentation affects intestinal microflora in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiang-Shan; Shao, Hua; Li, Tie-Jun; Tang, Zhi-Ru; Huang, Rui-Ling; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Kong, Xiang-Feng; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yu-Long

    2012-10-01

    This work is aimed at investigating the effects of recombinant bovine lactoferrampin-lactoferricin (LFA-LFC) instead of chlortetracycline on intestinal microflora in weaned piglets. The high cost of peptide production from either native digestion or chemical synthesis limits the clinical application of antimicrobial peptides. The expression of recombinant peptides in yeast may be an effective alternative. In the current study, recombinant LFA-LFC was produced via fed-batch fermentation in recombinant strain Pichia pastoris (KM71) XS10. Uniform design U6(6(4)) was used to optimize the fermentation conditions. The target peptide purified via cation-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography was added into the dietary of weaned piglets. After 21 days, the Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, and Enterobacteria in the chyme of the gut were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that approximately 82 mg of LFA-LFC was secreted into 1 L of medium under optimized conditions. Moreover, purified peptide showed strong antimicrobial activities against all the tested microorganisms. Compared with the control group, the LFA-LFC group increased the amount of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria (P<0.05) in the chyme of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and caecum. These results show that dietary supplementation with LFA-LFC can affect intestinal microflora in weaned piglets.

  1. Changes in plasma amino acid profiles, growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity of piglets following increased consumption of methionine as its hydroxy analogue

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hao; Mercier, Yves; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Caimei; Wu, Xiuqun; Tang, Li; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Tian, Gang; Wu, De; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether early weaning-induced growth retardation could be attenuated by increased consumption of methionine as DL-methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate (HMTBA) in both lactating sows and weaned piglets. Therefore, diets containing DLM and HMTBA at 25\\% of the total sulphur-containing amino acids (AA) present in the control (CON) diet were fed to lactating sows and weaned piglets and their responses were evaluated. Compared with the CON diet-fed sows, the HMTBA diet-fed sows exhibited a tendency (P<0.10) towards higher plasma taurine concentrations and the DLM diet-fed sows had higher (P<0.05) plasma taurine concentrations, but lower (P<0.05) isoleucine concentrations. Suckling piglets in the HMTBA treatment group had higher (P<0.05) intestinal reduced glutathione (GSH) content, lower (P<0.05) oxidised glutathione (GSSG): GSH ratio, and higher (P<0.05) plasma cysteine and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than those in the CON ...

  2. Global Liver Proteome Analysis Using iTRAQ Reveals AMPK-mTOR-Autophagy Signaling Is Altered by Intrauterine Growth Restriction in Newborn Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Baisheng; Yin, Cong; Fan, Qiwen; Yan, Guokai; Wang, Zhichang; Li, Xiuzhi; Chen, Changqing; Yang, Xingya; Liu, Lu; Zheng, Zilong; Shi, Min; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs fetal growth and development, perturbs nutrient metabolism, and increases the risk of developing diseases in postnatal life. However, the underlying mechanisms by which IUGR affects fetal liver development and metabolism remain incompletely understood. Here, we applied a high-throughput proteomics approach and biochemical analysis to investigate the impact of IUGR on the liver of newborn piglets. As a result, we identified 78 differentially expressed proteins in the three biological replicates, including 31 significantly up-regulated proteins and 47 significantly down-regulated proteins. Among them, a majority of differentially expressed proteins were related to nutrient metabolism and mitochondrial function. Additionally, many significantly down-regulated proteins participated in the mTOR signaling pathway and the phagosome maturation signaling pathway. Further analysis suggested that glucose concentration and hepatic glycogen storage were both reduced in IUGR newborn piglets, which may contribute to AMPK activation and mTORC1 inhibition. However, AMPK activation and mTORC1 inhibition failed to induce autophagy in the liver of IUGR neonatal pigs. A possible reason is that PP2Ac, a potential candidate in autophagy regulation, is significantly down-regulated in the liver of IUGR newborn piglets. These findings may provide implications for preventing and treating IUGR in human beings and domestic animals.

  3. Effects of hypoxic–ischemic brain injury on striatal dopamine transporter in newborn piglets: evaluation of 11C-CFT PET/CT for DAT quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanfen; Wang Xiaoyu; Cao Li; Guo Qiyong; Wang Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Alterations of dopamine in striatal presynaptic terminals play an important role in the hypoxic–ischemic (HI) brain injury. Quantification of DAT levels in the presynaptic site using 11 C-N-2-carbomethoxy-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-tropane ( 11 C-CFT) with positron emission tomography (PET) was applied in studies for Parkinson's disease. The current study investigated the changes in striatal DAT following HI brain injury in newborn piglets using 11 C-CFT PET. Methods: Newborn piglets were subjected to occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min and simultaneous peripheral hypoxia. Brain DAT imaging was performed using PET/CT with 11 C-CFT as the probe in each group (including the control group and HI insult groups). Brain tissues were collected for DAT immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis at each time point post the PET/CT procedure. Sham controls had some operation without HI procedure. Results: A few minutes after intravenous injection of 11 C-CFT, radioactive signals for DAT clearly appeared in the cortical area, striatum and cerebellum of newborn piglets of sham control group and HI insult groups. HI brain insult markedly increased striatal DAT at an early period (P 11 C-CFT PET imaging data and IHC DAT staining data were highly correlated (r=0.844, P 11 C-CFT PET/CT imaging data reflected the dynamic changes of DAT in the striatum in vivo.

  4. The significance of fertile pigs vaccination against porcine parvovirus infection in the prevention of intrauterine infection and formation of colostrum piglets immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanac Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to come closer to the knowledge of piglets protection during intrauterine life, as well as formation of colostrum immunity against Porcine Parvovirus Infection (PPV, on the basis of detailed antibody titer analysis from the blood serum of pigs 7 days before previous weaning, 30 days before mating and their piglets during first 3 days of life. The research included 60 fertile pigs and 300 of their offspring. For that purpose we have examined antibody titer specific for PPV in blood serum of vaccinated fertile pigs on 70th and 113th day of gestation, and in the blood serum of piglets originated from itemized fertile pigs during first day of life, before colostrums consummation and also during 3rd day of life. On the 70th day of gestation, in the fertile pigs blood serum, average antibody titer specific for PPV, value of 12.60 was determined, what represents adequate level for solid protection against PPV infection. This was confirmed undoubtedly by examination results of antibodies in the blood serum of piglets before colostrum consummation, which was 100% negative. Titer drop in the blood serum of fertile pigs, on 113th day of gestation (on the level of 8.7 came as a result of specific antibodies transfer from the mother’s blood flow to the colostrum. The above-mentioned is supported by the fact that on the 3rd day of life there was confirmed high average body titer level (13.37 in newborn piglets body serum has been confirmed. The principle of fertile pigs vaccination 7 days before weaning and one month before gilts insemination is an efficient measure which prevents intrauterine infection occurrence during the entire gestation process. The level of antibodies specific for PPV which is determined in gilts blood serum after vaccination can be a result of both primary and secondary immune response (animal infected before first vaccination, as well as absence of gilts revaccination, what is usually recommended by

  5. Effects of deoxynivalenol- and zearalenone-contaminated feed on the gene expression profiles in the kidneys of piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondreddy Eswar Reddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN, common contaminants in the feed of farm animals, cause immune function impairment and organ inflammation. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to elucidate DON and ZEN effects on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune related genes in the kidneys of piglets. Methods Fifteen 6-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments for 4 weeks: control diet, and diets contaminated with either 8 mg DON/kg feed or 0.8 mg ZEN/kg feed. Kidney samples were collected after treatment, and RNA-seq was used to investigate the effects on immune-related genes and gene networks. Results A total of 186 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were screened (120 upregulated and 66 downregulated. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the immune response, and cellular and metabolic processes were significantly controlled by these DEGs. The inflammatory stimulation might be an effect of the following enriched Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analysis found related to immune and disease responses: cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, chemokine signaling pathway, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, tuberculosis, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and chemical carcinogenesis. The effects of DON and ZEN on genome-wide expression were assessed, and it was found that the DEGs associated with inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 receptor, beta, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 9, CXCL10, chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 4, proliferation (insulin like growth factor binding protein 4, IgG heavy chain, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C, cytochrome P450 1A1, ATP-binding cassette sub-family 8, and other immune response networks (lysozyme, complement component 4 binding protein alpha, oligoadenylate synthetase 2, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-9, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase

  6. Different Techniques of Respiratory Support Do Not Significantly Affect Gas Exchange during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Newborn Piglet Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Marc R; Maurer, Miriam; Hassan, Mohammad A; Huang, Li; Waitz, Markus; Mayer, Benjamin; Hummler, Helmut D

    2015-01-01

    There are no evidence-based recommendations on the use of different techniques of respiratory support and chest compressions (CC) during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We studied the short-term effects of different ventilatory support strategies along with CC representing clinical practice on gas exchange [arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)], hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation. We hypothesized that in newborn piglets with cardiac arrest, use of a T-piece resuscitator (TPR) providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves gas exchange as measured by SaO2 during CPR as compared to using a self-inflating bag (SIB) without PEEP. Furthermore, we explored the effects of a mechanical ventilator without synchrony to CC. Thirty newborn piglets with asystole were randomized into three groups and resuscitated for 20 min [fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.21 for 10 min and 1.0 thereafter]. Group 1 received ventilation using a TPR [peak inspiratory pressure (PIP)/PEEP of 20/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min] with inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio). Group 2 received ventilation using a SIB (PIP of 20 cm H2O without PEEP, rate 30/min) with inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio). Group 3 received ventilation using a mechanical ventilator (PIP/PEEP of 20/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min). CC were applied with a rate of 120/min without synchrony to inflations. We found no significant differences in SaO2 between the three groups. However, there was a trend toward a higher SaO2 [TPR: 28.0% (22.3-40.0); SIB: 23.7% (13.4-52.3); ventilator: 44.1% (39.2-54.3); median (interquartile range)] and a lower PaCO2 [TPR: 95.6 mm Hg (82.1-113.6); SIB: 100.8 mm Hg (83.0-108.0); ventilator: 74.1 mm Hg (68.5-83.1); median (interquartile range)] in the mechanical ventilator group. We found no significant effect on gas exchange using different respiratory support strategies

  7. Effect of dietary calcium level and source on mineral utilisation by piglets fed diets containing exogenous phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, P; Gutzwiller, A

    2017-10-01

    Calcium and phosphorus are essential minerals, closely linked in digestive processes and metabolism. With widespread use of low P diets containing exogenous phytase, the optimal dietary Ca level was verified. The 40-day study evaluated the effects of Ca level (4, 7 and 10 g/kg diet) and Ca source (Ca from CaCO 3 and from Lithothamnium calcareum) on mineral utilisation in 72 piglets (7.9 ± 1.0 kg BW) fed an exogenous phytase containing diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg. Measured parameters were growth performance, stomach mineral solubility, bone breaking strength and urinary, serum and bone mineral concentration. The apparent total tract digestibility of minerals was also assessed in the two diets with 7 g Ca/kg, using 12 additional pigs. Regardless of Ca source, increasing dietary Ca impaired feed conversion ratio, increased urinary pH, increased serum and urinary Ca, decreased serum and urinary P, decreased serum Mg and increased urinary Mg, increased serum AP activity, decreased bone Mg increased bone Zn. Bone breaking strength was improved with 7 compared to 4 g Ca/kg. Compared to CaCO 3 , Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum increased serum Mg and with, 10 g Ca/kg, it limited body weight gain. The dose response of Ca in a diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg and including exogenous phytase indicated that: (i) a low dietary Ca was beneficial for piglet growth, but was limiting the metabolic use of P; (ii) a high dietary Ca level impaired P utilisation; (iii) the optimal P utilisation and bone breaking strength was obtained with a dietary Ca-to-digestible P ratio of 2.1 to 2.4:1; (iv). Increasing dietary Ca reduced Mg utilisation, but not Zn status, when fed at adequate level. Finally, Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum had similar effects on Ca and P metabolism as CaCO 3 , but impaired growth when fed at the highest inclusion level. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch ...

  9. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding ... in the African-American community Incredible facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about ...

  10. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support It takes a village: Building ...

  11. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alliance Our Story Our Vision Our Team Our Leadership Our Results Our Corporate Policies FAQs Careers Contact Us Media Store Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC ...

  12. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding means to them. Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Overcoming challenges Breastfeeding has a long list ... breastfeeding means to them. Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit All material contained on ...

  13. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  14. Effects of early weaning and social isolation on the expression of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mRNAs in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, R; Steibel, J P; Siegford, J M; Zanella, A J

    2006-01-05

    Pigs weaned at young ages show more abnormal and aggressive behaviors and cognitive deficits compared to later weaned pigs. We investigated the effects of age, weaning and/or social isolation on the expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid response [glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2)] in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Early- (EW; n = 6) and conventionally-weaned (CW; n = 6) piglets were weaned at 10 and 21 days after birth, respectively. Non-weaned (NW) piglets of both ages (NW; n = 6/group) remained with their dams. Immediately before euthanasia, half of CW, EW and NW animals were socially isolated for 15 min at 12 (EW, NW) and 23 (CW, NW) days of age. Differences in amounts of 11beta-HSD1, 11beta-HSD2, GR and MR mRNA were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and data subjected to multivariate linear mixed model analysis. When compared with NW piglets at 12 days of age, the hippocampi of EW piglets showed decreased gene expression (P Social isolation decreased gene expression (P social isolation affected frontal cortex regardless of age. These results may be correlated with behavioral and cognitive changes reported in EW piglets.

  15. Metabolism and sites of effects of uranium after incorporation along different routes in mice, rabbits and piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walinder, G. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    The present experiments comprise i.p. injections of uranyl nitrate and sodium uranyl tricarbonate (mice, piglets), inhalation of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ aerosols (mice), and absorption of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ and uranyl acetate from cutaneous and subcutaneous pockets in the skin of rabbits and pigs. The following results were remarkably consistent in the three species. (1) The kidney is the critical organ only after massive incorporation of uranium. At lower amounts of absorbed U and/or at lower incorporation rates from U depots in lungs or in the skin, the highest uptake and retention was found in the spleen and on the bone surfaces. (2) Intravenous injections of 30 {mu}g U or more, cause a pronounced ischaemia in the renal cortex. The highest initial deposition of uranium was found in the juxtamedullary zone of the cortex where the earliest and most severe lesions were found. (3) The connective tissue barrier and particularly the hyaluronic acid in the loose connective tissue does play an important role for the permeability of the skin. A hyaluronidase inhibitor (polyphloretinphosphate) was shown substantially to reduce the absorption of U from skin depots. (author).

  16. Metabolism and sites of effects of uranium after incorporation along different routes in mice, rabbits and piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1989-01-01

    The present experiments comprise i.p. injections of uranyl nitrate and sodium uranyl tricarbonate (mice, piglets), inhalation of U 3 O 8 aerosols (mice), and absorption of U 3 O 8 and uranyl acetate from cutaneous and subcutaneous pockets in the skin of rabbits and pigs. The following results were remarkably consistent in the three species. (1) The kidney is the critical organ only after massive incorporation of uranium. At lower amounts of absorbed U and/or at lower incorporation rates from U depots in lungs or in the skin, the highest uptake and retention was found in the spleen and on the bone surfaces. (2) Intravenous injections of 30 μg U or more, cause a pronounced ischaemia in the renal cortex. The highest initial deposition of uranium was found in the juxtamedullary zone of the cortex where the earliest and most severe lesions were found. (3) The connective tissue barrier and particularly the hyaluronic acid in the loose connective tissue does play an important role for the permeability of the skin. A hyaluronidase inhibitor (polyphloretinphosphate) was shown substantially to reduce the absorption of U from skin depots. (author)

  17. Effect of Bacillus subtilis mutants on growth performance of piglets fed tryptophan- and valine-deficient diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Canibe, Nuria; Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the concentration of l-Trp and l-Val to be substituted by feeding piglets Bacillus subtilis strains developed to overproduce Trp (B. subtilis Trp mutant [BsTrp]) and Val (B. subtilis Val mutant [BsVal]) and by using equations obtained in 3 dose–response studies......-Val per kilogram feed using curvilinear plateau and broken-line equations obtained by modeling the 6 AA levels. Bacillus subtilis Val mutant increased animal performance corresponding to 0.88 and 0.39 g l-Leu and 0.17 and 0.44 g l-Val per kilogram feed for 10x and 100x doses, respectively. Bacillus...... subtilis Trp mutant was equivalent to 0.02 and 0.11 g l-Trp/kg feed for 10x and 100x doses, respectively. Bacillus subtilis Val mutant (10x dose) increased (P Bacillus subtilis Trp mutant tended (P = 0.06) to increase Trp plasma concentrations...

  18. A Genome-Wide Association Study in Large White and Landrace Pig Populations for Number Piglets Born Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfelder-Drüing, Sarah; Grosse-Brinkhaus, Christine; Lind, Bianca; Erbe, Malena; Schellander, Karl; Simianer, Henner; Tholen, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The number of piglets born alive (NBA) per litter is one of the most important traits in pig breeding due to its influence on production efficiency. It is difficult to improve NBA because the heritability of the trait is low and it is governed by a high number of loci with low to moderate effects. To clarify the biological and genetic background of NBA, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed using 4,012 Large White and Landrace pigs from herdbook and commercial breeding companies in Germany (3), Austria (1) and Switzerland (1). The animals were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Because of population stratifications within and between breeds, clusters were formed using the genetic distances between the populations. Five clusters for each breed were formed and analysed by GWAS approaches. In total, 17 different significant markers affecting NBA were found in regions with known effects on female reproduction. No overlapping significant chromosome areas or QTL between Large White and Landrace breed were detected. PMID:25781935

  19. A genome-wide association study in large white and landrace pig populations for number piglets born alive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bergfelder-Drüing

    Full Text Available The number of piglets born alive (NBA per litter is one of the most important traits in pig breeding due to its influence on production efficiency. It is difficult to improve NBA because the heritability of the trait is low and it is governed by a high number of loci with low to moderate effects. To clarify the biological and genetic background of NBA, genome-wide association studies (GWAS were performed using 4,012 Large White and Landrace pigs from herdbook and commercial breeding companies in Germany (3, Austria (1 and Switzerland (1. The animals were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Because of population stratifications within and between breeds, clusters were formed using the genetic distances between the populations. Five clusters for each breed were formed and analysed by GWAS approaches. In total, 17 different significant markers affecting NBA were found in regions with known effects on female reproduction. No overlapping significant chromosome areas or QTL between Large White and Landrace breed were detected.

  20. Comparison of time-resolved and continuous-wave near-infrared techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow in piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Migueis, Mark; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lawrence, Keith St.

    2010-09-01

    A primary focus of neurointensive care is monitoring the injured brain to detect harmful events that can impair cerebral blood flow (CBF), resulting in further injury. Since current noninvasive methods used in the clinic can only assess blood flow indirectly, the goal of this research is to develop an optical technique for measuring absolute CBF. A time-resolved near-infrared (TR-NIR) apparatus is built and CBF is determined by a bolus-tracking method using indocyanine green as an intravascular flow tracer. As a first step in the validation of this technique, CBF is measured in newborn piglets to avoid signal contamination from extracerebral tissue. Measurements are acquired under three conditions: normocapnia, hypercapnia, and following carotid occlusion. For comparison, CBF is concurrently measured by a previously developed continuous-wave NIR method. A strong correlation between CBF measurements from the two techniques is revealed with a slope of 0.79+/-0.06, an intercept of -2.2+/-2.5 ml/100 g/min, and an R2 of 0.810+/-0.088. Results demonstrate that TR-NIR can measure CBF with reasonable accuracy and is sensitive to flow changes. The discrepancy between the two methods at higher CBF could be caused by differences in depth sensitivities between continuous-wave and time-resolved measurements.

  1. Deoxynivalenol (DON Contamination of Feed and Grinding Fineness: Are There Interactive Implications on Stomach Integrity and Health of Piglets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dänicke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The common feed contaminant deoxynivalenol (DON was reported to influence the morphology of the pars nonglandularis (PN of porcine stomach. Moreover, finely ground feed is known to trigger the development of ulcers and other pathologies of PN while coarsely ground feed protects from such lesions. The interactions between grinding fineness and DON contamination of feed were not examined so far. Therefore, both finely and coarsely ground feeds were tested either in the absence or presence of a DON contaminated wheat on growth performance and health of rearing piglets, including stomach integrity. DON contamination significantly reduced feed intake and serum albumin concentration with this effect being more pronounced after feeding the coarsely ground feed. Albeit at a higher level, albumin concentration was also reduced after feeding the finely ground and uncontaminated feed. Finely ground and DON-contaminated feed caused a significantly more pronounced lymphoplasmacytic infiltration both of PN and pars glandularis, partly paralleled by lymph follicle formation and detritus filled foveolae and tubes suggesting a local immune response probably triggered by epithelial lesions. It is concluded that DON contamination of feed exacerbates the adverse effects of finely ground feed on stomach mucosal integrity.

  2. Determination of fumonisin B1 levels in body fluids and hair from piglets fed fumonisin B1-contaminated diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Pollyana C M C; Jager, Alessandra V; Tonin, Fernando G; Petta, Tânia; Di Gregório, Mayra C; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Pinton, Philippe; Oswald, Isabelle P; Rottinghaus, George E; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2017-10-01

    The levels of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) residues in plasma, urine, feces and hair from 24 piglets fed FB 1 -contaminated diets containing 3.1, 6.1 or 9.0 μg FB 1 .g -1 for 28 days were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The levels of FB 1 in plasma, urine, feces and pooled hair (n = 3) samples varied from 0.15 to 1.08 μg.L -1 , 16.09-75.01 μg.L -1 , 1.87-13.89 μg.g -1 and 2.08-8.09 ng.g -1 , respectively. Significant correlations (r = 0.808-0.885; P 14 days). The possibility to evaluate hair as a biomarker of fumonisin exposure was established, although further studies are needed to provide physiologically based toxicokinetics of residual FB 1 in the pig hair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Degradation of Zearalenone-Contaminated Feed by Bacillus licheniformis CK1 on Postweaning Female Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEA, an estrogenic mycotoxin, is mainly produced by Fusarium fungi. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis CK1 isolated from soil with the capability of degrading ZEA was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the adverse effects of ZEA in piglets. The gilts were fed one of the following three diets for 14 days: a basic diet for the control group; the basic diet supplemented with ZEA-contaminated basic diet for the treatment 1 (T1 group; and the basic diet supplemented with fermented ZEA-contaminated basic diet by CK1 for the treatment 2 (T2 group. The actual ZEA contents (analyzed were 0, 1.20 ± 0.11, 0.47 ± 0.22 mg/kg for the control, T1, and T2 diets, respectively. The results showed that the T1 group had significantly increased the size of vulva and the relative weight of reproductive organs compared to the control group at the end of the trial. The T1 group significantly decreased the concentration of the luteinizing hormone (LH compared with the control and T2 groups. Expression of ERβ was significantly up-regulated in the T2 group compared with the control. In addition, expression of ERβ was not different between the control and the T1 group. In summary, our results suggest that Bacillus licheniformis CK1 could detoxify ZEA in feed and reduce the adverse effects of ZEA in the gilts.

  4. Effect of Degradation of Zearalenone-Contaminated Feed by Bacillus licheniformis CK1 on Postweaning Female Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guanhua; Ma, Junfei; Wang, Lihong; Yang, Xin; Liu, Jeruei; Zhao, Xin

    2016-10-17

    Zearalenone (ZEA), an estrogenic mycotoxin, is mainly produced by Fusarium fungi. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis CK1 isolated from soil with the capability of degrading ZEA was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the adverse effects of ZEA in piglets. The gilts were fed one of the following three diets for 14 days: a basic diet for the control group; the basic diet supplemented with ZEA-contaminated basic diet for the treatment 1 (T1) group; and the basic diet supplemented with fermented ZEA-contaminated basic diet by CK1 for the treatment 2 (T2) group. The actual ZEA contents (analyzed) were 0, 1.20 ± 0.11, 0.47 ± 0.22 mg/kg for the control, T1, and T2 diets, respectively. The results showed that the T1 group had significantly increased the size of vulva and the relative weight of reproductive organs compared to the control group at the end of the trial. The T1 group significantly decreased the concentration of the luteinizing hormone (LH) compared with the control and T2 groups. Expression of ERβ was significantly up-regulated in the T2 group compared with the control. In addition, expression of ERβ was not different between the control and the T1 group. In summary, our results suggest that Bacillus licheniformis CK1 could detoxify ZEA in feed and reduce the adverse effects of ZEA in the gilts.

  5. Deoxynivalenol (DON) Contamination of Feed and Grinding Fineness: Are There Interactive Implications on Stomach Integrity and Health of Piglets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Beineke, Andreas; Berk, Andreas; Kersten, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The common feed contaminant deoxynivalenol (DON) was reported to influence the morphology of the pars nonglandularis (PN) of porcine stomach. Moreover, finely ground feed is known to trigger the development of ulcers and other pathologies of PN while coarsely ground feed protects from such lesions. The interactions between grinding fineness and DON contamination of feed were not examined so far. Therefore, both finely and coarsely ground feeds were tested either in the absence or presence of a DON contaminated wheat on growth performance and health of rearing piglets, including stomach integrity. DON contamination significantly reduced feed intake and serum albumin concentration with this effect being more pronounced after feeding the coarsely ground feed. Albeit at a higher level, albumin concentration was also reduced after feeding the finely ground and uncontaminated feed. Finely ground and DON-contaminated feed caused a significantly more pronounced lymphoplasmacytic infiltration both of PN and pars glandularis, partly paralleled by lymph follicle formation and detritus filled foveolae and tubes suggesting a local immune response probably triggered by epithelial lesions. It is concluded that DON contamination of feed exacerbates the adverse effects of finely ground feed on stomach mucosal integrity. PMID:28045426

  6. Determination of Bile Acids in Piglet Bile by Solid Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Si; Lim, David W; Turner, Justine M; Wales, Paul W; Curtis, Jonathan M

    2016-03-01

    An LC/MS/MS-based method was developed for the determination of individual bile acids (BA) and their conjugates in porcine bile samples. The C18-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure was optimized so that all 19 target BA and their glycine and taurine conjugates were collected with high recoveries for standards (89.1-100.2%). Following this, all 19 compounds were separated and quantified in a single 12 min chromatographic run. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and recovery. An LOD in the low ppb range with measured precisions in the range of 0.5-9.3% was achieved. The recoveries for all of the 19 analytes in bile samples were all >80%. The validated method was successfully applied to the profiling of BA and their conjugates in the bile from piglets treated with exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in a preclinical model of neonatal parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). The method developed is rapid and could be easily implemented for routine analysis of BA and their conjugates in other biofluids or tissues.

  7. An inactivated gE-deleted pseudorabies vaccine provides complete clinical protection and reduces virus shedding against challenge by a Chinese pseudorabies variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jichun; Guo, Rongli; Qiao, Yongfeng; Xu, Mengwei; Wang, Zhisheng; Liu, Yamei; Gu, Yiqi; Liu, Chang; Hou, Jibo

    2016-12-07

    Since the end of 2011 an outbreak of pseudorabies affected Chinese pig herds that had been vaccinated with the commercial vaccine made of Bartha K61 strain. It is now clear that the outbreak was caused by an emergent PRV variant. Even though vaccines made of PRV Bartha K61 strain can confer certain cross protection against PRV variants based on experimental data, less than optimal clinical protection and virus shedding reduction were observed, making the control or eradication of this disease difficult. An infectious clone of PRV AH02LA strain was constructed to generate a gE deletion mutant PRV(LA-A B ) strain. PRV(LA-A B ) strain can reach a titer of 10 8.43 TCID 50 /mL (50% tissue culture infectious dose) on BHK-21 cells. To evaluate the efficiency of the inactivated vaccine made of PRV(LA-A B ) strain, thirty 3-week-old PRV-negative piglets were divided randomly into six groups for vaccination and challenge test. All five piglets in the challenge control showed typical clinical symptoms of pseudorabies post challenge. Sneezing and nasal discharge were observed in four and three piglets in groups C(vaccinated with inactivated PRV Bartha K61 strain vaccine) and D(vaccinated with live PRV Bartha K61 strain vaccine) respectively. In contrast, piglets in both groups A(vaccinated with inactivated PRV LA-AB strain vaccine) and B(vaccinated with inactivated PRV LA-A B strain vaccine with adjuvant) presented mild or no clinical symptoms. Moreover, viral titers detected via nasal swabs were approximately 100 times lower in group B than in the challenge control, and the duration of virus shedding (3-4 days) was shorter than in either the challenge control (5-10 days) or groups C and D (5-6 days). The infectious clone constructed in this study harbors the whole genome of the PRV variant AH02LA strain. The gE deletion mutant PRV(LA-A B )strain generated from PRV AH02LA strain can reach a high titer on BHK-21 cells. An inactivated vaccine of PRV LA-A B provides clinical

  8. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  9. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social...

  10. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths ...

  11. Overcoming challenges

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  12. Purified natural pig immunoglobulins can substitute dietary zinc in reducing piglet post weaning diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2017-01-01

    antibiotic resistance and pose environmental problems. Recently, in an experimental model of PWD, we observed that oral administration of purified porcine immunoglobulin G (ppIgG) from pooled natural pig plasma could reduce enteric infection. In the present study we were able to reproduce these results...... as it was observed that oral ppIgG accelerated clearance of faecal haemolytic bacteria in pigs challenged with E. coli in comparison with pigs not receiving ppIgG. This effect was observed upon feeding ppIgG for seven days postweaning suggesting that ppIgG does not have to be used prophylactically for several days...

  13. [The merit of using untreated, HCl-treated amd partly-hydrolyzed straw meal in the feeding regime for piglets after early weaning. 3. Parameters of protein, fat, carbohydrates and mineral metabolism in the blood serum of the piglet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchow, H

    1989-10-01

    In parallel studies with piglets of the country race the applicability of variously treated straw materials was tested in comparison with the conventional feeding of concentrate (I) after an early weaning date (30th-35th day of life) over a feeding period of 8 weeks (1st-8th week of keeping). In the rations containing 10% straw (concentrate-straw mixtures), untreated (II), HCl treated (III:HCl treatment without steaming) and partly hydrolyzed straw meal (IV:HCl treatment with subsequent steaming) were tested. In the 2nd and 8th weeks of keeping blood samples were taken from 4 animals of each group and selected parameters of the protein, fat, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism were subsequently ascertained from the blood serum. About half of the total of the 13 selected parameters showed reactions of the intermediary metabolism of the test groups caused by the feeding. With the parameters on the whole varying in the normal physiologic range, a decrease in the blood urea and creatinine concentration and an increase in the blood glucose level were detected after the use of the concentrate-straw mixtures (III and IV) in comparison with the sole feeding of concentrate (I) and partly also in comparison with untreated straw meal (II), their intensity varying in dependence on feeding and test duration. Particularly towards the end of the experiment, an increase of the activity of alkaline phosphatase was also characteristic, which was in negative correlation with the P content of the serum and in positive correlation with growth performance. The physiologic parameters are discussed in connection with the higher growth performance at reduced concentrate expenditure achieved in III and IV in comparison to I and II.

  14. The effects of starter microbiota and the early life feeding of medium chain triglycerides on the gastric transcriptome profile of 2- or 3-week-old cesarean delivered piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Trevisi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stomach is an underestimated key interface between the ingesta and the digestive system, affecting the digestion and playing an important role in several endocrine functions. The quality of starter microbiota and the early life feeding of medium chain triglycerides may affect porcine gastric maturation. Two trials (T1, T2 were carried out on 12 and 24 cesarean-delivered piglets (birth, d0, divided over two microbiota treatments, but slaughtered and sampled at two or three weeks of age, respectively. All piglets were fed orally: sow serum (T1 or pasteurized sow colostrum (T2 on d0; simple starter microbiota (Lactobacillus amylovorus, Clostridium glycolicum and Parabacteroides spp. (d1-d3; complex microbiota inoculum (sow diluted feces, CA or a placebo (simple association, SA (d3-d4 and milk replacer ad libitum (d0-d4. The The T1 piglets and half of the T2 piglets were then fed a moist diet (CTRL; the remaining half of the T2 piglets were fed the CTRL diet fortified with medium chain triglycerides and 7% coconut oil (MCT. Total mRNA f