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Sample records for k88 challenged piglet

  1. A novel watery diarrhoea caused by the co-infection of neonatal piglets with Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli (K88, 987P).

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    Wang, Xiaocen; Ren, Wenzhi; Nie, Ying; Cheng, Liqing; Tan, Wei; Wang, Chong; Wei, Libin; Zhang, Rui; Yan, Guangmou

    2013-09-01

    In 2011, a novel watery diarrhoea in 1-7 day-old piglets occurred in Changchun, China, characterized by high pathogenicity and mortality. Investigation of clinical signs, examination for viruses, and isolation and identification of bacteria showed that co-infection by Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli (K88, 987P) was the most likely cause of the disease. Newborn piglets challenged with a mixture of Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli (K88, 987P) died within 3 days with clinical signs and gross lesions similar to those in the piglets that died in the outbreak. A subsequent study showed that the use in sows of an inactivated vaccine against the two causal bacteria was effective at reducing the incidence of the watery diarrhoea in piglets. Piglets from sows given the inactivated vaccine had a incidence of watery diarrhoea of 8% (14/175), much lower than the 95% (192/201) seen in piglets from control sows. This is the first report of diarrhoea in piglets resulting from co-infection of Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli (K88, 987P). Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The detection of K88, K99 fimbrial antigen and enterotoxin genes of Escherichia coli isolated from piglets and calves with diarrhoea in Indonesia

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    Supar

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains cause diarrhoeal disease in piglets and calves in Indonesia. These strains possess two virulence factors namely attachment and enterotoxin antigens . These factors could be detected phenotypically and genetically. Haemolytic Escherichia coli (E coli isolates possessing K88 fimbrial antigen associated with 0-group 108 and 149. They were positive for K88 gene and demonstrated their ability to produce heat labile enterotoxin (LT and genetically were all positive for LT gene . Seventeen isolates ofE coli K88 which associated with 0-group 149 were positive forSTb gene, other O-serotypes were negative . Ten isolates of Ecoli K88 which associated with 0-group 108 possessed K88, K99, LT and STa genes, but negative for STb gene . However, phenotypically the K99 antigen and STa toxin were not expressed under laboratory conditions, the reason was not well understood . E. coli K99 strains isolated from calves wit h diarrhoea were all associated with 0-group 9 and produced STa toxin when tested by suckling mousse bioassay. The E. coli K99 calf isolates were all hybridized with K99 and STa gene only . It is likely that K99 gene is associated with STa gene . The DNA hybridization technique is more convenience to be used for confirmation diagnosis of colibacillosis, however, not all veterinary laboratories could perform these tests .

  3. Effect of different butyrate supplementations on growth and health of weaning pigs challenged or not with E. coli K88

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    Paolo Trevisi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a full factorial design (4 diets X challenge, Yes/No, 72 weaning pigs were assigned to one of the diets: Control; experimental diets, obtained with the addition of 2 g/kg free sodium butyrate (fNaB, or 0.6 g/kg fat-protected sodium butyrate (pNaB, or 2 g/kg INVE-NutriAd commercial mixture (Mix, based on 75 g/kg protected butyrate. Oral challenge with Escherichia coli K88 was done on 2/3 of pigs on d 7. Pigs were slaughtered on d 13. The mortality in challenged pigs, tended to be higher in control group (50.0% than in the three supplemented groups (23.5%. Growth tended to be increased averagely by the supplements (p=0.100 after the challenge, that also significantly reduced growth. In general the diet did not affect the fecal shedding of Escherichia coli and Lactobacilli, the K88-specific IgA activity in blood, the morphology of oxyntic mucosa and the expression of H+/K+-ATPase gene. The supplementations tended to increase villous length of jejunum (p=0.101. On the whole, growth, villous height and surviving rate can be positively affected either when the supplementation is done by free butyrate, by protected butyrate or by the special Inve Nutri-Ad product and these effects are distributed both on pigs infected or not with Escherichia coli K88.

  4. Chito-oligosaccharide reduces diarrhea incidence and attenuates the immune response of weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli K88.

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    Liu, P; Piao, X S; Thacker, P A; Zeng, Z K; Li, P F; Wang, D; Kim, S W

    2010-12-01

    Seventy-two barrows (Landrace × Large White, initial BW of 4.9 ± 0.3 kg and 17 ± 3 d old) were used to determine if dietary chito-oligosaccharides can replace antibiotics as a means to reduce signs associated with infection in weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli. Pigs were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design using 6 pens per treatment with 3 pigs per pen. The treatments consisted of pigs fed the unsupplemented corn-soybean meal diet challenged or unchallenged with E. coli K88 and pigs fed the same diet supplemented with 160 mg of chito-oligosaccharides or 100 mg of cyadox/kg and challenged with E. coli K88. On d 7, 1 group of pigs fed the unsupplemented diet, as well as all pigs fed diets containing chito-oligosaccharides or cyadox, were orally dosed with 30 mL of an alkaline broth containing E. coli K88. Another group of pigs fed the unsupplemented diet was orally dosed with 30 mL of sterilized alkaline broth. Fecal consistency was visually assessed each morning from d 7 to 14. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 168 h postinfection. On d 14 postchallenge, all pigs were killed to evaluate intestinal morphology and determine E. coli concentrations in the intestine. During the postchallenge period (wk 2), unsupplemented pigs challenged with E. coli had decreased (P diarrhea incidence, E. coli counts in the intestine, plasma interleukin-1β, plasma IL-10, and IGA-positive cells in the jejunal and ileal lamina propria, compared with unchallenged pigs. Supplementation with cyadox largely mitigated these effects. Although chito-oligosaccharide reduced the incidence of diarrhea, the growth performance of E. coli-challenged pigs supplemented with chito-oligosaccharide was not better than that of unsupplemented pigs challenged with E. coli. Therefore, chito-oligosaccharide, at the amount used in this experiment, does not seem to be an effective substitute for antibiotics as a growth promoter for newly weaned pigs

  5. 枯草芽孢杆菌对大肠杆菌K88感染仔猪小肠健康的影响%Effects of Bacillus subtilis on the Small Intestine Healthy of Piglet Administered with Escherichia coli K88

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    李海花; 陈海明; 吴崇义; 朱琪; 王文杰

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to study the effects of Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis) on small intestine devel-opment and microflora of piglet administered with Escherichia coli (E. coli) K88. All eight castrated "Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire"male piglet used in this experiment had similar initial body weight (6.8±0.5) kg, they were divided into two groups (control group and test group) of 4 replicates of 1 pigs fed in single pen. Test group was fed the basal diet, and the test group was fed basal diet with 0.1% B. subtilis, and there were seven-day test period. All piglets were administered orally with E. coli K88. The result showed that piglet fed B. subtilis had greater villus height in jejunum and ileum(P<0.05), lower crypt depth(P<0.05) in ileum, and greater ratio of villus height and crypt depth (P<0.01) in duodenum, jejunum and ileum compared to piglets fed the unsupplemented diet. Feeding a Bacillus subtilis diet decreased the E. coli amount (P<0.05) and increased the Lactobacillus amount(P<0.05) in jejunum and ileum. The results indicated that feeding a Bacillus subtilis diet could modify the small intestine development and microflora.%试验主要探讨饲粮中添加枯草芽孢杆菌对大肠杆菌K88感染仔猪小肠发育和微生物区系的影响。选取体重(6.8±0.5) kg的杜长大三元杂种去势公仔猪8头,随机区组均分为2组,每组4个重复,每头猪单栏饲养,对照组饲喂基础饲粮,试验组饲喂基础饲粮+0.1%枯草芽孢杆菌制剂,饲养试验结束前每头猪灌服致病性大肠杆菌K88菌液(1×1011 CFU)。试验结果表明,试验组仔猪比对照组显著提高空肠和回肠绒毛高度(P<0.05),显著降低回肠部位隐窝深度(P<0.05),极显著提高十二指肠、空肠和回肠绒毛高度/隐窝深度(P<0.01);显著降低空肠和回肠大肠杆菌数量(P<0.05),显著增加空肠和回肠乳酸杆菌数量(P<0.05)。结果提示,在仔猪感染致病性大肠杆菌K

  6. Oral challenge with E.coli K88 as a tool to assess growth and health performance in feeding trials of-weaned pigs

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    P. Bonilauri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of dietary solutions for weaning pigs is problematic. In field situations, an accurate control of replications is difficult and disturbing factors are hardly removed; in experimental farm, hygienic conditions are in general superior to practical farms. In the study of alternatives to in-feed antibiotics the challenge with K88 E.coli has been often proposed. The predisposition to this colibacillosis is, at least partially, genetically controlled and depends on the presence of intestinal receptors for the F4 fimbrial antigens of K88 E.coli...

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation of bacteriophages against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 on clinical symptoms of post-weaning pigs challenged with the ETEC pathogen.

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    Lee, C Y; Kim, S J; Park, B C; Han, J H

    2017-02-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of bacteriophages (phages) against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 as a therapy against the ETEC infection in post-weaning pigs. Two groups of post-weaning pigs aged 35 days, eight animals per group, were challenged with 3.0 × 10(10) colony forming units of ETEC K88, a third group given the vehicle. The unchallenged group and one challenged group were fed a basal nursery diet for 14 days while the remaining challenged group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 1.0 × 10(7) plaque forming units of the phage per kg. Average daily gain (ADG), goblet cell density and villous height:crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio in the intestine were less in the challenged group than in the unchallenged group within the animals fed the basal diet (p therapy is effective for alleviation of acute ETEC K88 infection in post-weaning pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effect of dietary addition of free or fat-protected calcium formate on growth, intestinal morphology and health of Escherichia coli k88 challenged weaning pigs

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    G. Merialdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of adding organic acid to diets for weaning pigs is quite established. An improvement of growth after weaning has been averagely demonstrated with a meta-analysis of feeding trials (Partanen and Mroz, 1999. However data showing that organic acids can positively counteract the presence of post-weaning diarrhoea and of enterotoxigenic E. coli k88 (ETEC (Tsiloyiannis et al., 2001 contrast with the absence of positive results in ETEC challenged pigs (Risley et al., 1993.

  9. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation Boosts Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Escherichia coli Challenged Piglets.

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    Zhang, Fengrui; Zeng, Xiangfang; Yang, Fengjuan; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Hong; Ma, Xi; Qiao, Shiyan

    2013-01-01

    N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has been shown to enhance performance in neonatal piglets. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of NCG on the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary NCG supplementation on intestinal mucosal immunity in neonatal piglets after an Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge. New-born piglets (4 d old) were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (n = 7), including (I) sham challenge, (II) sham challenge +50 mg/kg NCG, (III) E. coli challenge, and (IV) E. coli challenge +50 mg/kg NCG. On d 8, pigs in the E. coli challenge groups (III and IV) were orally challenged with 5 mL of E. coli K88 (10(8) CFU/mL), whereas pigs in the sham challenge groups (I and II) were orally dosed with an equal volume of water. On d 13, all piglets were sacrificed, and samples were collected and examined. The results show that average daily gain in the E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV) was decreased (PE.coli<0.05). However, it tended to be higher in the NCG treated piglets (II and IV). Ileum secretory IgA, as well as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in ileal homogenates, were increased in E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV). Similarly, ileum SIgA and IL-10 levels, and CD4(+) percentage in NCG treated piglets (II and IV) were higher than no-NCG treated piglets (PNCG<0.05). However, the IL-2 level was only decreased in the piglets of E. coli challenge + NCG group (IV) compared with E. coli challenge group (III) (P<0.05). No change in the IL-2 level of the sham challenged piglets (III) was observed. In conclusion, dietary NCG supplementation has some beneficial effects on intestinal mucosal immunity in E. coli challenged piglets, which might be associated with stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis. Our findings have an important implication that NCG may be used to reduce diarrhea in neonatal piglets.

  10. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation Boosts Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Escherichia coli Challenged Piglets.

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    Fengrui Zhang

    Full Text Available N-carbamylglutamate (NCG has been shown to enhance performance in neonatal piglets. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of NCG on the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary NCG supplementation on intestinal mucosal immunity in neonatal piglets after an Escherichia coli (E. coli challenge. New-born piglets (4 d old were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (n = 7, including (I sham challenge, (II sham challenge +50 mg/kg NCG, (III E. coli challenge, and (IV E. coli challenge +50 mg/kg NCG. On d 8, pigs in the E. coli challenge groups (III and IV were orally challenged with 5 mL of E. coli K88 (10(8 CFU/mL, whereas pigs in the sham challenge groups (I and II were orally dosed with an equal volume of water. On d 13, all piglets were sacrificed, and samples were collected and examined. The results show that average daily gain in the E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV was decreased (PE.coli<0.05. However, it tended to be higher in the NCG treated piglets (II and IV. Ileum secretory IgA, as well as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in ileal homogenates, were increased in E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV. Similarly, ileum SIgA and IL-10 levels, and CD4(+ percentage in NCG treated piglets (II and IV were higher than no-NCG treated piglets (PNCG<0.05. However, the IL-2 level was only decreased in the piglets of E. coli challenge + NCG group (IV compared with E. coli challenge group (III (P<0.05. No change in the IL-2 level of the sham challenged piglets (III was observed. In conclusion, dietary NCG supplementation has some beneficial effects on intestinal mucosal immunity in E. coli challenged piglets, which might be associated with stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis. Our findings have an important implication that NCG may be used to reduce diarrhea in neonatal piglets.

  11. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Boulardii and β-galactomannan oligosaccharide on porcine intestinal epithelial and dendritic cells challenged in vitro with Escherichia coli F4 (K88

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    Badia Roger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Probiotic and prebiotics, often called "immune-enhancing" feed additives, are believed to deal with pathogens, preventing the need of an immune response and reducing tissue damage. In this study, we investigated if a recently developed β-galactomannan (βGM had a similar protective role compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Boulardii (Scb, a proven probiotic, in the context of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC infection. ETEC causes inflammation, diarrhea and intestinal damage in piglets, resulting in large economic loses worldwide. We observed that Scb and βGM products inhibited in vitro adhesion of ETEC on cell surface of porcine intestinal IPI-2I cells. Our data showed that Scb and βGM decreased the mRNA ETEC-induced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, GM-CSF and chemokines CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL8 on intestinal IPI-2I. Furthermore, we investigated the putative immunomodulatory role of Scb and βGM on porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs per se and under infection conditions. We observed a slight up-regulation of mRNA for TNF-α and CCR7 receptor after co-incubation of DC with Scb and βGM. However, no differences were found in DC activation upon ETEC infection and Scb or βGM co-culture. Therefore, our results indicate that, similar to probiotic Scb, prebiotic βGM may protect intestinal epithelial cells against intestinal pathogens. Finally, although these products may modulate DC activation, their effect under ETEC challenge conditions remains to be elucidated.

  12. Effect of added dietary threonine on growth performance, health, immunity and gastrointestinal function of weaning pigs with differing genetic susceptibility to Escherichia coli infection and challenged with E. coli K88ac.

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    Trevisi, P; Corrent, E; Mazzoni, M; Messori, S; Priori, D; Gherpelli, Y; Simongiovanni, A; Bosi, P

    2015-06-01

    Threonine (Thr) is important for mucin and immunoglobulin production. We studied the effect of added dietary Thr on growth performance, health, immunity and gastrointestinal function of weaning pigs with differing genetic susceptibility to E. coli K88ac (ETEC) infection and challenged with ETEC. Forty-eight 24-day-old weaned pigs were divided into two groups by their ETEC susceptibility using mucin 4 (MUC4) gene as a marker (2 MUC4(-/-) , not-susceptible, and 2 MUC4(+/+) , susceptible, pigs per litter). Within genotype, pigs were fed two different diets: 8.5 (LThr) or 9.0 (HThr) g Thr/kg. Pigs were orally challenged on day 7 after weaning and slaughtered on day 12 or 13 after weaning. Before ETEC challenge, HThr pigs ate more (p pigs excreted less E. coli (p pigs responded to the challenge with more diarrhoea, ETEC excretion and anti-K88 IgA in blood and jejunal secretion (p pigs had a higher increase of anti-K88 IgA values in jejunal secretion (p = 0.089) and in blood (p = 0.089, in MUC4(+/+) pigs only). Thr did not affect total IgA and IgM values, morphometry of jejunum, goblet cells count in colon, total mucin from jejunum and colon, but varied jejunal goblet cells counts (p pig genetic susceptibility to ETEC infection.

  13. Phytogenic feed additives in piglets challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium

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    Daniel Gonçalves Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of phytogenic feed additives on piglet performance and fecal score (FDD, as well as on lipid oxidation of pork meat were evaluated. One hundred and twenty crossbred weaned piglets were randomly assigned to six treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial design with five replicates per treatment. Factors were: challenge with Salmonella Typhimurium at 35 days of age or no challenge, and three different additives (control (CTR, basal diet; phytogenic feed additives (PHY, basal diet plus 2000 ppm of phytogenic feed additives - Rosmarinus officinalis, Mentha piperita, Lippia sidoides and Porophyllum ruderale; and antimicrobial agent (ATB, basal diet plus 100 ppm of tylosin, 2000 ppm of zinc and colistin sulfate, 30 ppm in the pre-starter basal diet, 10 ppm in the starter basal diet I and II, and 5 ppm in growth and finishing basal diet. Body weight (BW of the piglets of ATB was greater throughout the experimental period, without any differences detected between CTR and PHY. Nevertheless, from 96 to 106 days of age, the BW of the CTR group was greater than PHY. From 21 to 34 days of age, feed conversion of ATB was lower than CTR; however, PHY showed an intermediate result, which did not differ from either ATB or CTR. Challenged animals reduced feed intake from day 35 to 48 compared with unchallenged animals. Piglet performance and fecal score from 21 to 48 days of age were lower in piglets that received ATB compared with the other treatments. However, from 35 to 48 days of age, the FDD of PHY was lower than CTR. Lipid oxidation was not reduced in treated animals. Antimicrobial agent improved the growth performance of piglets until 63 days of age, and no difference was observed between the treatments from 64 to 131 days of age. Antimicrobial agent reduced FDD; the FDD of PHY was similar to that of ATB after 48 days. None of the treatments affected lipid oxidation of pork meat.

  14. A standardised challenge model with an enterotoxigenic F4+ Escherichia coli strain in piglets assessing clinical traits and faecal shedding of fae and est-II toxin genes.

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    Spitzer, Franz; Vahjen, Wilfried; Pieper, Robert; Martinez-Vallespin, Beatriz; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of five feed additives on post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets challenged 3 d after weaning with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain (ETEC). In three experimental runs, a total of 84 piglets was weaned at 21 days of age and randomly assigned to seven treatments. As dietary treatment, piglets were fed a basal diet or diets with addition of bovine colostrum (0.2%), pineapple stem extract containing bromelain (0.2%), an autolysed yeast preparation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (0.1%), a combination of organic acids (0.7%) and a phytogenic product with thyme essential oil (0.015%). A porcine ETEC, serotype O149:K91:K88ac was given twice via oral infection on day 3 after weaning at 10(10) colony forming units/animal. One group of piglets was fed the basal diet without ETEC challenge. Traits included clinical sores, body temperature, faecal scoring and determination of faecal dry matter and the shedding of fae and est-II ETEC toxin genes. After weaning, non-challenged control piglets did not show signs of diarrhoea or impaired health, while the majority of infected piglets had a drop in body temperature, signs of diarrhoea and impaired general health. Mortality, the decrease of faecal dry matter and shedding of the toxin genes fae and est-II were not affected by the different additives. In conclusion, the ETEC challenge model induced distinct clinical signs of PWD in piglets, but the tested feed additives had no preventive effect under these conditions.

  15. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation Boosts Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Escherichia coli Challenged Piglets

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    Fengrui Zhang; Xiangfang Zeng; Fengjuan Yang; Zhimin Huang; Hong Liu; Xi Ma; Shiyan Qiao

    2013-01-01

    N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has been shown to enhance performance in neonatal piglets. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of NCG on the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary NCG supplementation on intestinal mucosal immunity in neonatal piglets after an Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge. New-born piglets (4 d old) were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (n = 7), including (I) sham challenge, (II) sham challenge +50 mg...

  16. Effects of doses of ZnO or Zn-Glutamate on growth performance, gut characteristics, health and immunity of early-weaned pigs orally challenged with E. coli K88

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    P. Trevisi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that dietary zinc oxide (ZnO at pharmacological level improves growth and/or reduces diarrhoea in weaned pigs (Mavromichaelis et al., 2000. However, the theories to explain ZnO action conflict with experimental data, and it is not clear if other zinc sources supplied over requirements can improve growth or health of piglet. Thus, dietary strategies to supplement zinc within the EU rules are difficulty identified. Recent findings show also that dietary glutamate reduces villus atrophy after weaning (Ewtushik et al., 2000 and is an important fuel for the enterocyte (Reeds et al., 2000...

  17. A diet containing dried chicory root does not protect against post-weaning diarrhoea in an E. coli challenge model using piglets weaned at 7 weeks of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether fructan from dried chicory root provided protection against E. coli induced post-weaning diarrhoea in an experimental challenge model. Piglets from 6 litters, 8 piglets per litter, were included in the experiment. Starting 10 d prior to weaning, 4 piglets per...... litter received a control diet (0.9% fructan of DM) and 4 piglets received an experimental diet containing 20% dried chicory root (11.6% fructan of DM). The piglets were weaned at 7 weeks of age. On d 2 and 3 post-weaning half of the piglets were orally challenged with E. coli O149, the remaining piglets...

  18. Intermittent suckling and extended lactation : Improving adaptation of piglets to postweaning challenges

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    Berkeveld, M.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional weaning of piglets at the young age of 3 to 4 wk is associated with reduced nutrient intake, reduced growth, altered behavioral patterns, and a greater susceptibility to diarrhoea. It is known that an older age at weaning is associated with an improved adaptation to postweaning challeng

  19. Therapeutic effects of glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

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    Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (Pglutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition.

  20. Effect of L-glutamine levels in piglets diets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysacharides

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    Arturo Pardo L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of different levels of L-glutamine on weaned and immunologically challenged piglets with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS on performance parameters, serum cortisol and defense cells. Materials and methods. Four levels of L –glutamine were evaluated (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% as well as the addition, or no addition, of LPS (0.3μg. 96 piglets were used (48 castrated males and 48 females of Agroceres x PenArlan lineage, with an initial age of 21 days and 6.06±0.852 kg live weight. An experimental design was used on randomized blocks in a factorial setting 4 x 2 (levels of L- glutamine with or without challenge. Results. Cubic effect was shown for daily weight gain of unchallenged animals, and was better with the addition of 0.41% L- glutamine. Feed conversion improved with increased levels of L -glutamine for challenged animals. In the evaluation of defense cells, there was interaction of leukocytes with the levels of L- glutamine and the immune challenge. Eosinophils and lymphocytes showed a quadratic effect for the levels of L –glutamine, with a maximum value of 1.30% and 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions. L -glutamine supplementation of up to 2% in the diet improves feed conversion and favors the immune serum of weaned piglets challenged with LPS of E. coli.

  1. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

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    Sugiharto Sugiharto; Mette SHedemann; Charlotte Lauridsen

    2014-01-01

    Background:The processes of weaning and exposure to pathogenic bacteria induce stress responses, which may alter the metabolism. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma metabolites and immune responses in piglets in response to the stress induced by weaning and Escherichia coli challenge. Results:Fecal dry matter decreased (P=0.003) and nearly half (44.4%) the piglets developed diarrhea on day 2 and 3 postweaning. The concentration of plasma immunoglobulin A was higher (P<0.001) on day 11 postweaning than on day 0 or 4 postweaning. The levels of white blood cells increased continuously (P<0.001) from day 0 to day 11 postweaning. Differences in the percentages of neutrophils (P=0.029) and lymphocytes (P=0.022) were seen, but the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio did not differ in the period after weaning. A clear separation of the metabolomic profile data for day 0 and day 4 postweaning was observed with a principal components analysis (PCA) scores plot, and the data for day 11 were located between those for day 0 and day 4 postweaning. The plasma levels of proline, taurine, and carnitine were higher, whereas those of betaine, creatine, L-arginine and acetylcarnitine were lower on day 4 postweaning than on day 0. Levels of lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine were either higher or lower after weaning, depending on the chain lengths or characters of these metabolites. Conclusions:Our results show a clear separation in the plasma metabolomic profiles of piglets that corresponded to the fecal responses to stress on the piglets induced by weaning or exposure to a pathogen (E. coli). These plasma metabolite profiles suggest that the challenges induced proinflammatory responses in the piglets, resulting in postweaning diarrhea, which was associated with higher concentrations of IgA in the plasma.

  2. Effects of immunological challenge induced by lipopolysaccharide on skeletal muscle fiber type conversion of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, A F; Feng, J H; Zhang, M H; Chang, Y; Li, Z Y; Hu, C H; Zhen, L; Zhang, S S; Peng, Q Q

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of immunological challenge on the skeletal muscle fiber type conversion of piglets. Sixteen Large White weaned barrows (28 ± 3 d, 8.22 ± 0.89 kg BW) were allotted by weight and litter to 2 groups: the control group and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group. Saline (control) or LPS was injected intravenously via a jugular catheter on d 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 at an initial dosage of 80 μg/kg BW, which was increased by 30% at each subsequent injection. Blood samples were collected via the jugular catheter 3 h after the LPS challenge on d -1, 1, 5, 9, and 13. Muscle tissue samples were collected from the LM after exsanguination on d 15. The LPS challenge increased the plasma IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cortisol, IL-1β, and haptoglobin concentrations on d 1 and 5 ( 19.47% ( < 0.05) during d 1 to 4, d 5 to 8, and d 9 to 15, respectively. In the LM of LPS-challenged piglets, myosin heavy chain 1 (MyHC1) mRNA and protein expression tended to be reduced ( = 0.08, 0.09), whereas mRNA, mRNA, and MyHC2 protein expression increased ( < 0.05). The LPS challenge reduced succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity ( < 0.05) and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity ( < 0.05) in the LM of piglets. Compared with those in the control group, transcriptional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-α () mRNA ( < 0.05), calcineurin (CaN) mRNA, and protein expression were reduced ( < 0.05), and PGC-α protein expression tended to be reduced ( = 0.08) in the LM of LPS-challenged piglets. These results show that immunological challenge induced by LPS resulted in a shift from type I to type II fibers in the LM of piglets, which may be mediated by the downregulation of the CaN/PGC-α signaling pathway.

  3. Effects of composite antimicrobial peptides in weanling piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol: II. Intestinal morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H; Tan, B E; Wu, M M; Yin, Y L; Li, T J; Yuan, D X; Li, L

    2013-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) affects animal and human health and targets the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of composite antimicrobial peptides (CAP) to repair intestinal injury in piglets challenged with DON. A total of 28 piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large Yorkshire) weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments (7 pigs/treatment): negative control, basal diet (NC), basal diet + 0.4% composite antimicrobial peptide (CAP), basal diet + 4 mg/kg DON (DON), and basal diet + 4 mg/kg DON + 0.4% CAP (DON + CAP). After an adaptation period of 7 d, blood samples were collected on d 15 and 30 after the initiation of treatment for determinations of the concentrations of D-lactate and diamine oxidase. At the end of the study, all piglets were slaughtered to obtain small intestines for the determination of intestinal morphology, epithelial cell proliferation, and protein expression in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The results showed that DON increased serum concentrations of D-lactate and diamine oxidase, and these values in the CAP and DON + CAP treatments were less than those in the NC and DON treatments, respectively (P morphology and promoted intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and protein synthesis, indicating that CAP may repair the intestinal injury induced by DON.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of a Lytic Bacteriophage of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88%大肠杆菌K88噬菌体的分离鉴定及其生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冉; 韩晗; 张辉; 包红朵; 王恬

    2012-01-01

    分离鉴定裂解性产肠毒素性大肠杆菌( ETEC) K88噬菌体,并研究其生物学特性及裂菌效力.用双层平板法从猪场污水中分离噬菌体,通过透射电镜和酶切基因组对获得的噬菌体进行鉴定;同时测定了噬菌体最佳感染复数、一步生长曲线、酸碱稳定性、热稳定性等噬菌体的生物学特性及其体外裂菌效力.结果表明分离获得了一株产肠毒素性大肠杆菌K88强裂解性噬菌体,命名为PK88-4;其噬菌斑清晰透亮,周围无晕环;电镜显示:其头部呈正多面体对称,有可伸缩性尾部;核酸类型为双链DNA(基因组大小约60 kb);该噬菌体能耐受60℃左右高温、在pH值为5 ~10内效价稳定;最佳感染复数为0.01;潜伏期为10 min,暴发期为40 min,裂解量为40;在5h内对培养液中的大肠杆菌杀灭率将近100%.PK88-4是一株强裂解性肌尾科大肠杆菌K88噬菌体,具有裂解周期短、杀菌能力强等特点,为畜牧业防治产肠毒素性大肠杆菌K88感染提供了新的思路.%To isolate and characterize the lytic bacteriophage that might be used in prevention and treatment of porcine postweaning diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic E. coli K88 (ETEC-K88). E. coli expressing the K88 adhesin on their surface is a common cause of diarrhea in newborn and weaned piglets. Mixtures of 3 strains of ETEC K88 were used as hosts for isolation of phages in sewage from 22 pig farms. The isolated phage was characterized at the microbiological and molecular levels. The optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) , one-step growth curve, Thermo-and pH stability, lytic effective in vitro of the isolated bacteriophage were investigated. One phages that lysed ETEC K88 was isolated by double-layer agar plate method and named PK88-4. The phage produced large,clear plaques. The electron microscope showed the phage had necks and contractile tails and therefore belonged to the Myoviridae. The estimated genome size was about 60 kb

  5. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    challenge. Results Fecal dry matter decreased (P = 0.003) and nearly half (44.4%) the piglets developed diarrhea on day 2 and 3 postweaning. The concentration of plasma immunoglobulin A was higher (P blood cells increased...... continuously (P Differences in the percentages of neutrophils (P = 0.029) and lymphocytes (P = 0.022) were seen, but the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio did not differ in the period after weaning. A clear separation of the metabolomic profile data for day 0 and day 4...... postweaning was observed with a principal components analysis (PCA) scores plot, and the data for day 11 were located between those for day 0 and day 4 postweaning. The plasma levels of proline, taurine, and carnitine were higher, whereas those of betaine, creatine, L-arginine and acetylcarnitine were lower...

  6. [Isolation of an agglutinating anti-E. coli K 88+ serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, M; Belchev, K; Ganovski, D

    1981-01-01

    An agglutinating anti-K 88+ serum was obtained through immunizing rabbits with geometrically rising amounts of cell-free K 88 antigenic extraction. Use was made of bacterial suspensions cultured in Minka agar and homogenized at 8000 r. p. m. to remove the K 88 pili. The cell depot was removed by centrifugation at 15 000 r. p. m., and the protein in the supernatant was determined by the method of Kingsey. The titer of the K88 serum was within the 1:320-1:640 range. The specificity and activity of the serum was evaluated by the hemagglutination test, immunoelectrophoresis, and immunodiffusion. The serum is highly specific and yields positive agglutination results with all K 88+ Escherichia coli strains. It does not react with antigen - K 88-negative E. coli organisms as well as with the O antigen of the investigated strains.

  7. The effects of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on postweaning diarrhea, immune response, and growth performance in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trckova, M; Faldyna, M; Alexa, P; Sramkova Zajacova, Z; Gopfert, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; D'Inca, R

    2014-02-01

    The effects of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain CNCM I-4407, 10(10) cfu/g; Actisaf; Lesaffre Feed Additives, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) on the severity of diarrhea, immune response, and growth performance in weaned piglets orally challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain O149:K88 were investigated. Live yeast was fed to sows and their piglets in the late gestation, suckling, and postweaning periods. Sows were fed a basal diet without (Control; n = 2) or with (Supplemented; n = 2) 1 g/kg of live yeast from d 94 of gestation and during lactation until weaning of the piglets (d 28). Suckling piglets of the supplemented sows were orally treated with 1 g of live yeast in porridge carrier 3 times a week until weaning. Weaned piglets were fed a basal starter diet without (Control; n = 19) or with (Supplemented; n = 15) 5 g of live yeast/kg feed for 2 wk. Significantly lower daily diarrhea scores (P diarrhea (P diarrhea in yeast-fed weaned piglets positively affected their growth capacity in the postweaning period (P diarrhea caused by ETEC.

  8. An NMR-based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of supplementation with glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Miaomiao; Xiao, Hao; Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Hu, Jiayu; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Adeola, Olayiwola; Yao, Kang; Yin, Yulong; Li, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation with glutamic acid on piglets challenged with DON. A total of 20 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments (5 piglets/treatment): 1) basal diet, negative control (NC); 2) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON (DON); 3) basal diet +2% (g/g) glutamic acid (GLU); 4) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON +2% glutamic acid (DG). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 days of treatment. A metabolite analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomic technology and the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities for plasma, as well as the activity of Caspase-3 and the proliferation of epithelial cells were conducted. The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (Pglutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (Pglutamic acid to DON treatment increased the plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes for the jejunum and ileum (Pglutamic acid has the potential to repair the injuries associated with oxidative stress as well as the disturbances of energy and amino acid metabolism induced by DON.

  9. A preliminary study of the effects of individual response to challenge tests and stress induced by humans on learning performance of weaned piglets (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether individual behavioural characteristics of piglets and stress induced by experience with humans can influence learning performance. After weaning, piglets received a chronic experience with humans to modulate their emotional state: rough (ROU), gentle (GEN), or minimal (MIN) experience. Simultaneously, they were trained on a discrimination task. Afterward, their behaviour during challenge tests was assessed. The first learning step of the task involved associating a positive sound cue with a response (approach a trough) and success of piglets depended mostly on motivation to seek for reward. Although the experience with humans did not have direct effect, the degree of fear of handler, measured based on their reactivity to a human approach test, was related to motivation to seek rewards and learning speed of this first step in stressed ROU piglets, but not in MIN and GEN piglets. In contrast, the second learning step was more cognitively challenging, since it involved discrimination learning, including negative cues during which piglets had to learn to avoid the trough. Locomotion activity, measured during an open-field test, was associated with performance of the discrimination learning. To conclude, fearfulness towards humans and locomotion activity are linked with learning performance in relation to task complexity, highlighting the necessity to take into account these factors in animal research and management.

  10. Effect of maternal seaweed extract supplementation on suckling piglet growth, humoral immunity, selected microflora, and immune response after an ex vivo lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; O'Doherty, J V

    2012-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation (n = 10 sows/treatment) with seaweed extract (SWE: 0 vs. 10.0 g/d) from d 107 of gestation until weaning (d 26) on neonatal piglet growth, humoral immunity, intestinal morphology, selected intestinal microflora, and VFA concentrations. Furthermore, this study examined the effect of dietary treatment on the immune response after an ex vivo Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tissue challenge at weaning in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The main factors consisted of sow dietary treatment (SWE or control) and immunological challenge (yes or no). The SWE supplement (10.0 g/d) contained laminarin (1.0 g), fucoidan (0.8 g), and ash (8.2 g) and was extracted from a Laminaria spp. The SWE-supplemented sows had greater colostrum IgA (P Piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had greater serum IgG (P piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had a decreased colonic E. coli population at weaning (P Piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had greater TNF-α mRNA expression after ex vivo LPS challenge compared with non-SWE-supplemented sows (P Piglet BW at birth and weaning, and small intestinal morphology were unaffected by sow dietary treatment under current experimental conditions. In summary, these results demonstrate an important immunomodulatory role of SWE supplementation characterized by enhanced colostral IgA and IgG concentrations, greater piglet circulatory IgG concentrations on d 14 of lactation, and enhanced TNF-α mRNA expression in the ileum after an ex vivo LPS challenge. These results indicate that SWE supplementation enhanced piglet immune function and colonic microflora at weaning.

  11. Intermittent suckling and extended lactation : Improving adaptation of piglets to postweaning challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkeveld, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834211

    2008-01-01

    Conventional weaning of piglets at the young age of 3 to 4 wk is associated with reduced nutrient intake, reduced growth, altered behavioral patterns, and a greater susceptibility to diarrhoea. It is known that an older age at weaning is associated with an improved adaptation to postweaning

  12. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre-i Sarabia-Sainz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88 was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-β (4-1 galactose was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3 were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10–17 µm. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections.

  13. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia-Sainz, Andre-i; Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Ramos-Clamont Montfort, Gabriela; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Guzman-Partida, Ana María; Guzman, Roberto; Garcia-Soto, Mariano; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2015-01-01

    The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88) was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-β (4-1) galactose) was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac) and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3) were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10–17 µm. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections. PMID:26389896

  14. Adsorptive property of Cu2+-loaded montmorillonite clays for Escherichia coli K88 in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Guo; Shoujun Cao; Rui Su; Zhiqiang Li; Ping Hu; Zirong Xu

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption properties of Cu2+-loaded montmorillonite clays (MMT-Cu) for Escherichia coli K88 as a function of time,bacteria concentrations,pH,ionic strength and temperature were investigated.The results showed that the bacteria adsorption onto MMT-Cu surface reached equilibrium after 90 min.The percentages of E.coli K88 adsorbed onto the surfaces of MMT-Cu and montmorillonite clays (MMT) at equilibrium were 88.9% and 56.5%,respectively.Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a lot of E.coli K88 adhered to the surface of MMT-Cu.The zeta potential of MMT-Cu was relatively high as compared to that of MMT.The adsorptive ability of MMT-Cu for E.coli K88 was higher than that of MMT (P < 0.05).Moreover,pH,ionic strength and temperature produced a strong influence on the extent of E.coli K88 adsorption to surface of MMT-Cu and MMT.The mechanism of adsorption of E.coli onto MMT-Cu may involve electrostatic attraction and physiochemical properties of bacterial cell walls and minerals surfaces.

  15. Antimicrobial effect of dietary nitrate in weaning piglets challenged or not with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Modesto, Monica; D'Aimmo, Maria Rosaria; Stefanini, Ilaria; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Bosi, Paolo; Biavati, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The maintenance of a beneficial bacteria balance in the gut is important to increase the animal’s resistance to diseases. Nitrite may kill gut pathogens representing a non-immune defence mechanism. Nitrite can be derived from dietary nitrate that is reduced under the acidic conditions of the oral cavity. An in vivo study was designed in order to establish the antimicrobial effects of dietary nitrate on the gut microbiota and on the health of 96 weaning piglets. The pigs were fed a diet co...

  16. Feed supplementation with arginine and zinc on antioxidant status and inflammatory response in challenged weanling piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bergeron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although supplementing the diet with zinc oxide and arginine is known to improve growth in weanling piglets, the mechanism of action is not well understood. We measured the antioxidant status and inflammatory response in 48 weanling castrated male piglets fed diets supplemented with or without zinc oxide (2,500 mg Zn oxide per kg and arginine (1% starting at the age of 20 days. The animals were injected with lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg on day 5. Half of them received another injection on day 12. Blood samples were taken just before and 6, 24 and 48 h after injection and the mucosa lining the ileum was recovered following euthanizing on days 7 and 14. Zinc supplementation increased reduced and total glutathione (GSH (reduced and total during days 5 to 7 and arginine decreased oxidized GSH measured on days 5 and 12 and the ratio of total antioxidant capacity to total oxidative status during days 12 to 14. Zinc decreased plasma malondialdehyde measured on days 5 and 12 and serum haptoglobin measured on day 12 and increased both metallothionein-1 expression and total antioxidant capacity measured in the ileal mucosa on day 14. Tumour necrosis factor α concentration decreased from days 5 to 12 (all effects were significant at P < 0.05. This study shows that the zinc supplement reduced lipid oxidation and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation during the post-weaning period, while the arginine supplementation had only a limited effect.

  17. Diosmectite-zinc oxide composite improves intestinal barrier restoration and modulates TGF-β1, ERK1/2, and Akt in piglets after acetic acid challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z-H; Ke, Y-L; Xiao, K; Jiao, L-F; Hong, Q-H; Hu, C-H

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the beneficial effect of diosmectite-zinc oxide composite (DS-ZnO) on improving intestinal barrier restoration in piglets after acetic acid challenge and explored the underlying mechanisms. Twenty-four 35-d-old piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire), with an average weight of 8.1 kg, were allocated to 4 treatment groups. On d 1 of the trial, colitis was induced via intrarectal injection of acetic acid (10 mL of 10% acetic acid [ACA] solution for ACA, DS-ZnO, and mixture of diosmectite [DS] and ZnO [DS+ZnO] groups) and the control group was infused with saline. Twenty-four hours after challenged, piglets were fed with the following diets: 1) control group (basal diet), 2) ACA group (basal diet), 3) DS-ZnO group (basal diet supplemented with DS-ZnO), and 4) DS+ZnO group (mixture of 1.5 g diosmectite [DS]/kg and 500 mg Zn/kg from ZnO [equal amount of DS and ZnO in the DS-ZnO treatment group]). On d 8 of the trial, piglets were sacrificed. The results showed that DS-ZnO supplementation improved (P acetic acid-induced colitis by improving mucosa barrier restoration, inhibiting apoptosis, and improving intestinal epithelial cells proliferation and modulation of TGF-β1 and ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathway.

  18. Vaccination of piglets up to 1 week of age with a single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine induces protective immunity within 2 weeks against virulent challenge in the presence of maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen; Van Brussel, Leen; Saunders, Gillian; Runnels, Paul; Taylor, Lucas; Fredrickson, Dan; Salt, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    Enzootic pneumonia, resulting from infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is of considerable economic importance to the pig industry and normally is controlled through active vaccination of piglets. We have demonstrated that administration of an inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to piglets less than 1 week old is efficacious under field conditions and reduces the level of lung lesions observed in comparison to that in control pigs. Here, the results of two separate studies, one in piglets with and the second one in piglets without maternal antibodies, conducted to satisfy the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia (monograph no. 07/2009:2448), are reported. Piglets received either minimal titer Suvaxyn MH-One or saline at less than 1 week of age and were challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 2 weeks later. The number of lung lesions was recorded 4 weeks after challenge, and bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens were analyzed for quantification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae DNA. In the presence and absence of maternal antibodies, vaccination of piglets at less than 1 week of age was efficacious, with vaccinated piglets having significantly lower percentages of lung with lesions and lower Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae counts detected in bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens at necropsy. In conclusion, the vaccination of piglets at 1 week of age with Suvaxyn MH-One is efficacious in the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies.

  19. Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi modulates the immune reaction and reduces the occurrence of diarrhea in piglets challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium DT104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharek-Tedin, L; Pieper, R; Vahjen, W; Tedin, K; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2013-12-01

    A feeding trial with sows and their piglets was performed with the probiotic feed additive Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi in two consecutive experimental periods. Sows (n = 8) were allocated into treatment (Bc) and control (CO) groups. Sows of Bc group (n = 4) were fed 3.14 × 10(5) cfu/g Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi with the diet from d 87 of pregnancy on. Their piglets received Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi supplemented feed (8.7 × 10(5) cfu/g) starting on d 14 of life and further on after weaning (6.5 × 10(5) cfu/g), whereas sows and piglets of the CO group remained untreated. One day after weaning, piglets from both groups (n = 24 each) were challenged orally with Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (3 × 10(9) viable bacteria). Health status, shedding of B. cereus in the feces, and performance of the piglets were monitored. At 24 h, 72 h, 6 d, and 28 d postinfection (PI), six piglets from each group were euthanized and cell counts of Salmonellae were determined in the colon contents, mesenteric lymph nodes, and tonsils. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and jejunal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The incidence of scours was lower in the Bc group than in the CO group (P = 0.004). In addition, the fecal shedding of Salmonella was significantly lower in the Bc group at 25 d PI (P = 0.004). Shortly after infection, the γδ T cells were significantly less frequent in the blood of Bc piglets. For both CD8-positive γδ T cells (P = 0.033) and CD8-negative γδ T cells (P = 0.028), significant differences were observed. Furthermore, 28 d PI piglets from the treated group showed lower numbers of γδ T cells in the jejunal epithelium (P = 0.036). To investigate the role of intestinal γδ T cells during the infection with S. Typhimurium, IEL were gained from six healthy 40-d-old piglets and infected in vitro with S. Typhimurium. CD8β cells and γδ T cells were detected by flow cytometry and the infection rates of both populations in the cell

  20. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbing Mao

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05 in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05, and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05, and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05 in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier

  1. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiangbing; Gu, Changsong; Hu, Haiyan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Luo, Junqiu; Tian, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function

  2. Heterologous challenge in the presence of maternally-derived antibodies results in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajao, Daniela S; Sandbulte, Matthew R; Gauger, Phillip C; Kitikoon, Pravina; Platt, Ratree; Roth, James A; Perez, Daniel R; Loving, Crystal L; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    Control of influenza A virus (IAV) in pigs is done by vaccination of females to provide maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) through colostrum. Our aim was to evaluate if MDA interfere with IAV infection, clinical disease, and transmission in non-vaccinated piglets. In the first study, naïve sows were vaccinated with H1N2-δ1 whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. In a follow-up study seropositive sows to 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) were boosted with H1N1pdm09 WIV or secondary experimental infection (EXP). MDA-positive pigs were challenged with homologous or heterologous virus, and MDA-negative control groups were included. WIV-MDA piglets were protected from homologous infection. However, piglets with WIV-derived MDA subsequently challenged with heterologous virus developed vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD), regardless of history of natural exposure in the sows. Our data indicates that although high titers of vaccine-derived MDA reduced homologous virus infection, transmission, and disease, MDA alone was sufficient to induce VAERD upon heterologous infection.

  3. Vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive B and T cell responses to a prototype monovalent attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and virulent human rotavirus challenge in a gnotobiotic piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep S Chattha

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RV are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFNα cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12 and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10 cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2 and IFNγ (PID6 compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more

  4. Immunogenicity of recombinant F4 (K88) fimbrial adhesin FaeG expressed in tobacco chloroplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huifeng; Qian, Bingjun; Chen, Weiwei; Liu, Zhenhua; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Liang, Wanqi

    2010-08-01

    To test the possibility of producing the novel vaccine in plants against diarrhea normally found in neonatal and newly weaned piglets, the faeG gene, encoding a major F4ac fimbrial subunit protein, was introduced into the tobacco chloroplast genome. After two rounds of selection under spectinomycin, we obtained the transgenic plants nearly homoplasmic. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that faeG and the antibiotic selective gene aminoglycoside 3' adenylyltransferase (aadA) were highly transcribed as a dicistron, while the translational level of recombinant FaeG in transplastomic tobacco was about 0.15% of total soluble protein. The immunogenicity of recombinant FaeG produced in tobacco chloroplasts was confirmed by the observation that FaeG-specific antibodies were elicited in mice immunized with total soluble protein of transgenic plants, as well as the result that mouse sera stimulated by chloroplast-derived recombinant FaeG could neutralize F4ac enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in vivo. This study provides a new alternative for producing the ETEC vaccine using the chloroplast expression system.

  5. In Vitro Effects of Thymol-β-D-Glucopyranoside on Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli K88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, G; Harvey, R B; Ciftcioglu, G; Beier, R C; Genovese, K J; He, H L; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J

    2016-02-01

    Although thymol is bactericidal against many pathogens in vitro, its in vivo effectiveness against pathogens in the lower gastrointestinal tract is limited because of its rapid absorption in the proximal gut. Thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside (β-thymol), a conjugated form of thymol, can deliver thymol to the lower gastrointestinal tract and has shown antibacterial effects. In the present study, we examined the in vitro effects of β-thymol on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) and Escherichia coli K88 (K88). We inoculated one-half strength Mueller-Hinton broth with 5.8 ± 0.09 log CFU/ml novobiocin- and naladixic acid-resistant (NN) ST (NVSL 95-1776) and 5.1 ± 0.09 log CFU ml(-1) NN-resistant K88, with or without porcine feces (0.1% [wt/vol]) (fecal incubations). The resultant bacterial suspensions were distributed under N2 to triplicate sets of tubes to achieve initial concentrations of 0, 3, 6, and 12 mM for ST treatments and 0, 3, 12, and 30 mM for K88 treatments. Samples were incubated at 39°C and then plated onto NN-containing brilliant green agar and NN-containing MacConkey agar; ST and K88 CFU concentrations were determined via 10-fold dilutions, and viable cell counts were performed at 0, 6, and 24 h. No differences in ST CFU counts were observed in β-thymol-treated tubes without the added porcine feces (i.e., pure culture) at 6 or 24 h. However, in tubes that contained fecal incubations, ST CFU counts were reduced (P < 0.05) from controls at 6 h in tubes treated with 6 and 12 mM β-thymol, whereas in tubes treated with 3, 6, and 12 mM β-thymol the CFU counts were reduced (P < 0.05) at 24 h. No differences were observed in K88 CFU counts in pure culture or in fecal incubations at 6 h, but K88 CFU counts were reduced (P < 0.05) in both pure and fecal incubations at 24 h. The results from this study demonstrate that β-thymol, in the presence of fecal suspensions, has anti-Salmonella and anti-E. coli effects, suggesting a role of

  6. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus dietary supplementation on the performance, intestinal barrier function, rectal microflora and serum immune function in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiayun; Li, Haihua; Wang, Zhixiang; Wang, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model to determine the effects of diets containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on the performance, intestinal barrier function, rectal microflora and serum immune function. A total of 150 piglets (initial body weight (BW) 7.53 ± 0.21 kg) were allotted to one of the following diets, including a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg Flavomycin, or basal diet plus 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 % L. acidophilus. On day 28 of the trial, the pigs were given an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (200 μg/kg body weight) followed by blood collection 3 h later. Diets with either antibiotics, 0.1 or 0.2 % Lactobacillus increased (P Lactobacillus had greater average daily gain (ADG) (P Lactobacillus counts for pigs fed diet containing Lactobacillus were significant higher (P Lactobacillus diets decreased the Escherichia coli counts of rectal content (P Lactobacillus decreased serum DAO activity (P Lactobacillus compared to pigs fed the control diet and antibiotic diet. Feeding a diet with Lactobacillus reduced (P Lactobacillus in diets fed to pigs reduced TNF-α concentration compared with pigs fed no Lactobacillus (P acidophilus improved growth performance and protected against LPS-induced inflammatory status.

  7. K88M METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  8. Transformation and Expression of gfp Gene into Escherich coli K88%动物病原大肠杆菌K88的绿色荧光蛋白基因标记及其稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车建美; 刘波; 蓝江林

    2010-01-01

    成功地将gfp/luxAB双标记基因整合到K88染色体上,得到绿色荧光蛋白基因标记的大肠杆菌K88:gfp/lux,其菌体和菌落形态与原始菌株K88完全一致,引入的新质粒不影响菌株的基本形态.从含gfp基因的质粒DNA和K88:gfp/lux基因组DNA上均可扩增出大小约700 bp的gfp基因片段.大肠杆菌特异性基因检测结果表明,从大肠杆菌K88K88:gfp/lux基因组DNA上均扩增出大小约260 bp的大肠杆菌特异性基因片段,说明gfp基因标记后的菌株均为大肠杆菌.在相同的培养条件下,K88:gfp/lux和K88的生长曲线的变化趋势基本相同.通过检测肠毒性基因(estA)发现,从大肠杆菌K88K88:gfp/lux基因组DNA上均扩增出大小约158 bp的肠毒性基因片段,说明gfp基因标记后的菌株在肠毒性方面未发生变化.在无选择压力条件下将K88:gfp/lux菌株每隔12 h连续转接10次后,所有菌落均保持着均匀并且强烈的绿色荧光,说明标记基因在K88:gfp/lux中的表达稳定性很高.K88:gfp/lux和K88在中性偏酸性的环境中生长较好,当初始pH值偏碱性时,生长较差.

  9. Whey protein concentrate enhances intestinal integrity and influences transforming growth factor-β1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in piglets after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kan; Jiao, Lefei; Cao, Shuting; Song, Zehe; Hu, Caihong; Han, Xinyan

    2016-03-28

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has been reported to have protective effects on the intestinal barrier. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important component in the WPC, but whether TGF-β1 plays a role in these processes is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of WPC on the intestinal epithelial barrier as well as whether TGF-β1 is involved in these protection processes in a piglet model after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. In total, eighteen weanling pigs were randomly allocated to one of the following three treatment groups: (1) non-challenged control and control diet; (2) LPS-challenged control and control diet; (3) LPS+5 %WPC diet. After 19 d of feeding with control or 5 %WPC diets, pigs were injected with LPS or saline. At 4 h after injection, pigs were killed to harvest jejunal samples. The results showed that WPC improved (P<0·05) intestinal morphology, as indicated by greater villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio, and intestinal barrier function, which was reflected by increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased mucosal-to-serosal paracellular flux of dextran (4 kDa), compared with the LPS group. Moreover, WPC prevented the LPS-induced decrease (P<0·05) in claudin-1, occludin and zonula occludens-1 expressions in the jejunal mucosae. WPC also attenuated intestinal inflammation, indicated by decreased (P<0·05) mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1β. Supplementation with WPC also increased (P<0·05) TGF-β1 protein, phosphorylated-Smad2 expression and Smad4 and Smad7 mRNA expressions and decreased (P<0·05) the ratios of the phosphorylated to total c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 (phospho-JNK:JNK and p-p38:p38), whereas it increased (P<0·05) the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (phospho-ERK:ERK). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary inclusion of WPC

  10. Risks Associated with High-Dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an Escherichia coli Model of Piglet Diarrhoea: Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Imbalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Cai, Zheng-Xing; Lu, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Lu; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Zhang, Fan-Jian; Zhou, Dong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic could be a promising alternative to antibiotics for the prevention of enteric infections; however, further information on the dose effects is required. In this study, weanling piglets were orally administered low- or high-dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus ACTT 7469 (1010 CFU/d or 1012 CFU/d) for 1 week before F4 (K88)-positive Escherichia coli challenge. The compositions of faecal and gastrointestinal microbiota were recorded; gene expression in the intestines was assessed by real-time PCR; serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations and intestinal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were detected by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Unexpectedly, high-dose administration increased the incidence of diarrhoea before F4+ETEC challenge, despite the fact that both doses ameliorated F4+ETEC-induced diarrhoea with increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts accompanied by reduced coliform shedding in faeces. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus administration reduced Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts in the colonic contents, and the high-dose piglets also had lower Lactobacillius and Bacteroides counts in the ileal contents. An increase in the concentration of serum TNF-α induced by F4+ETEC was observed, but the increase was delayed by L. rhamnosus. In piglets exposed to F4+ETEC, jejunal TLR4 expression increased at the mRNA and protein levels, while jejunal interleukin (IL)-8 and ileal porcine β-defensins 2 (pBD2) mRNA expression increased; however, these increases were attenuated by administration of L. rhamnosus. Notably, expression of jejunal TLR2, ileal TLR9, Nod-like receptor NOD1 and TNF-α mRNA was upregulated in the low-dose piglets after F4+ETEC challenge, but not in the high-dose piglets. These findings indicate that pretreatment with a low dose of L. rhamnosus might be more effective than a high dose at ameliorating diarrhoea. There is a risk that high-dose L. rhamnosus pretreatment may negate the preventative effects, thus

  11. Risks associated with high-dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an Escherichia coli model of piglet diarrhoea: intestinal microbiota and immune imbalances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiong Li

    Full Text Available Probiotic could be a promising alternative to antibiotics for the prevention of enteric infections; however, further information on the dose effects is required. In this study, weanling piglets were orally administered low- or high-dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus ACTT 7469 (10(10 CFU/d or 10(12 CFU/d for 1 week before F4 (K88-positive Escherichia coli challenge. The compositions of faecal and gastrointestinal microbiota were recorded; gene expression in the intestines was assessed by real-time PCR; serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α concentrations and intestinal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 were detected by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Unexpectedly, high-dose administration increased the incidence of diarrhoea before F4(+ETEC challenge, despite the fact that both doses ameliorated F4(+ETEC-induced diarrhoea with increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts accompanied by reduced coliform shedding in faeces. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus administration reduced Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts in the colonic contents, and the high-dose piglets also had lower Lactobacillius and Bacteroides counts in the ileal contents. An increase in the concentration of serum TNF-α induced by F4(+ETEC was observed, but the increase was delayed by L. rhamnosus. In piglets exposed to F4(+ETEC, jejunal TLR4 expression increased at the mRNA and protein levels, while jejunal interleukin (IL-8 and ileal porcine β-defensins 2 (pBD2 mRNA expression increased; however, these increases were attenuated by administration of L. rhamnosus. Notably, expression of jejunal TLR2, ileal TLR9, Nod-like receptor NOD1 and TNF-α mRNA was upregulated in the low-dose piglets after F4(+ETEC challenge, but not in the high-dose piglets. These findings indicate that pretreatment with a low dose of L. rhamnosus might be more effective than a high dose at ameliorating diarrhoea. There is a risk that high-dose L. rhamnosus pretreatment may negate the preventative

  12. Trough for piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A trough is disclosed for supplying piglets with mineral supplements in the suckling period. The trough is designed to awaken the piglets' curiosity and thus make them root in the bottom of the trough, where the mineral supplements are dispensed in form of a dry powder mixture, and thus reduce...

  13. Genetic aspects of piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, E.F.

    2001-01-01

    Piglet mortality is high. In the USA nearly 20% of the piglets do not survive between late gestation and weaning; 7% of the piglets die during farrowing and some 13% are lost during lactation. These statistics from the USA are no exception to the norm. Selection for increased piglet survival, if pos

  14. Oral administration of synthetic porcine beta-defensin-2 improves growth performance and cecal microbial flora and down-regulates the expression of intestinal toll-like receptor-4 and inflammatory cytokines in weaned piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiru; Xu, Ling; Shi, Baoshi; Deng, Huang; Lai, Xin; Liu, Jingyan; Sun, Zhihong

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic porcine beta-defensin-2 (pBD-2) was tested as an alternative to antimicrobial growth-promoters in pig production. Thirty 21-day weaned piglets were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and orally dosed with either sterile water (CON), pBD-2 (BD) or neomycin sulphate (NS) twice daily for 21 days. pBD-2 and NS led to higher growth performance, jejunum villus height and increased expression of insulin-like growth factor-I compared with the CON group (P growth performance, reduce inflammatory cytokine expression and affect intestinal morphological indices in the same way as probiotics. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Heterologous challenge in the presence of maternally-derived antibodies results in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease in weaned piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of influenza A virus (IAV) in pigs is done by vaccination of females to provide maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) through colostrum. Our aim was to evaluate if MDA interfere with IAV infection, clinical disease, and transmission in non-vaccinated piglets. In a first study, naïve sows were ...

  16. A proteinaceous fraction of wheat bran may interfere in the attachment of enterotoxigenic E. coli K88 (F4+) to porcine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortiz, Gemma; Bronsoms, Sílvia; Quarles Van Ufford, H C; Halkes, S Bart A; Virkola, Ritva; Liskamp, Rob M J; Beukelman, Cees J; Pieters, Roland J; Pérez, José Francisco; Martín-Orúe, Susana María

    2014-01-01

    Wheat bran (WB) from Triticum aestivum has many beneficial effects on human health. To the best of our knowledge, very little has been published about its ability to prevent pathogenic bacterial adhesion in the intestine. Here, a WB extract was fractionated using different strategies, and the obtained fractions were tested in different in vitro methodologies to evaluate their interference in the attachment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) with the aim of identifying the putative anti-adhesive molecules. It was found that a proteinaceous compound in the >300-kDa fraction mediates the recognition of ETEC K88 to IPEC-J2. Further fractionation of the >300-kDa sample by size-exclusion chromatography showed several proteins below 90 kDa, suggesting that the target protein belongs to a high-molecular-weight (MW) multi-component protein complex. The identification of some relevant excised bands was performed by mass spectrometry (MS) and mostly revealed the presence of various protease inhibitors (PIs) of low MW: Serpin-Z2B, Class II chitinase, endogenous alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM3. Furthermore, an incubation of the WB extract with ETEC K88 allowed for the identification of a 7S storage protein globulin of wheat, Globulin 3 of 66 kDa, which may be one of the most firmly attached WB proteins to ETEC K88 cells. Further studies should be performed to gain an understanding of the molecular recognition of the blocking process that takes place. All gathered information can eventually pave the way for the development of novel anti-adhesion therapeutic agents to prevent bacterial pathogenesis.

  17. Praktijkevaluatie van 'piglet snatching'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Bij piglet snatching worden biggen van een zeug direct bij de geboorte weggevangen en overgelegd naar een zeug op een ander bedrijf. In de praktijk is dit een goede, welzijnsvriendelijke manier om biggen van een bedrijf met een lage ziektevrij-status maar met een hoge genetische waarde over te breng

  18. 载锌凹凸棒石黏土中锌的解吸及抑菌作用研究%Zinc Desorption and Antibacterial Activity on E. coliK88 of Zinc-bearing Palygorskite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓晗; 朱玉萍; 温超; 周岩民

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of inclusion level of zinc-bearing palygorskite (ZnBP), desorption time and the concentration of Na+and NH4+on the zinc desorption of ZnBP prepared by solid or liquid ion exchange in an artiifcial gastrointestinal pH environment of piglet. Meanwhile, the antibacterial activity of ZnBP on E. coli K88 was also evaluated. The results showed that the desorption rate of zinc was negatively correlated with inclusion level of ZnBP, but was positively associated with the concentration of Na+and NH4+. However, the desorption rate was not affected by desorption time. The desorption rate of ZnBP prepared by solid ion exchange was higher than that of ZnBP made using liquid ion exchange. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ZnBP prepared by solid ion exchange were 12.5 and 15.625 mg/mL, respectively. The corresponding values for ZnBP prepared by liquid ion exchange were 100 and 125 mg/mL, respectively. It was concluded that the desorption capacity and antibacterial activity of ZnBP prepared by solid ion exchange were superior than that of ZnBP made under liquid enviroment.%通过体外模拟仔猪胃肠道pH环境,研究固相和液相载锌凹凸棒石黏土(载锌凹土)添加量、解吸时间、Na+、NH4+浓度对载锌凹土中锌解吸的影响,以及载锌凹土对大肠杆菌K88的抑制作用。结果表明,载锌凹土中锌的解吸率与载锌凹土添加量呈负相关,与Na+和NH4+浓度成正相关,但随时间的变化规律不明显,固相载锌凹土解吸率高于液相载锌凹土;固相载锌凹土的最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌质量浓度(MBC)分别为12.5 mg/mL和15.625 mg/mL,液相载锌凹土的MIC和MBC分别为100 mg/mL和125 mg/mL。结果表明,固相载锌凹土在体外模拟胃肠道环境条件下的解吸速度较快,对大肠杆菌的抑菌作用较强。

  19. Emerging Piglet Models of Neonatal Short Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, David W; Turner, Justine M; Wales, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a growing problem in the human neonatal population. In infants, SBS is the leading cause of intestinal failure, the state of being unable to absorb sufficient nutrients for growth and development. Neonates with SBS are dependent on long-term parenteral nutrition therapy, but many succumb to the complications of sepsis and liver disease. Research in neonatal SBS is challenged by the ethical limits of studying sick human neonates and the heterogeneous nature of the disease process. Outcomes in SBS vary depending on residual intestinal anatomy, intestinal length, patient age, and exposure to nutrition therapies. The neonatal piglet serves as an appropriate translational model of the human neonate because of similarities in gastrointestinal ontogeny, physiological maturity, and adaptive processes. Re-creating the disease process in a piglet model presents a unique opportunity for researchers to discover novel insights and therapies in SBS. Emerging piglet models of neonatal SBS now represent the entire spectrum of disease seen in human infants. This review aims to contextualize these emerging piglet models within the context of SBS as a heterogeneous disease. We first explore the factors that account for SBS heterogeneity and then explore the suitability of the neonatal piglet as an appropriate translational animal model. We then examine differences between the emerging piglet models of neonatal SBS and how these differences affect their translational potential to human neonates with SBS.

  20. Productive performance of weanling piglets was improved by administration of a mixture of bacteriophages, targeted to control Coliforms and Clostridium spp. shedding in a challenging environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseindoust, A R; Lee, S H; Kim, J S; Choi, Y H; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of bacteriophages in different environments on growth performance, digestibility, ileal and caecal microbiota, gut morphology and immunity of weanling pigs. Two hundred piglets were randomly assigned to four treatment groups with five replicate pens with 10 pigs per pen. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the response of weanling pigs to supplemental bacteriophages (0 and 1.0 g/kg of diet) in contaminated or hygienic environments. Bacteriophages supplementation did not affect average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain:feed in phases I and III; however, there was a significant improvement in ADG and gain:feed in phase II. The supplementation of bacteriophages increased the overall gain:feed of pigs. The overall result showed a greater ADG and ADFI in hygienic room. There were reductions in population of both ileal (p Contaminated environment decreased ileal Lactobacillus and caecal Bifidobacterium and tended to increase ileal Clostridium (p = 0.08) and coliforms (p = 0.08). Total anaerobic bacteria was tended to decrease (p = 0.06) in contaminated environment. Jejunal villus height increased in pigs received bacteriophages, but they did not affect other morphological items. The interaction between bacteriophages and environment tended to be significant (p = 0.06) for ileal villus height and ileal villus height to crypt depth ratio. The overall faecal score was significantly greater in hygienic environment and bacteriophages groups. The present findings indicate that there is an interactive effect on feed efficiency between bacteriophages and contaminated environment. In addition, bacteriophages improve jejunum morphology, and intestinal microbiota of pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. The anti-inflammatory effects of baicalin through suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in LPS-challenged piglet mononuclear phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chun; Li, Sali; Yao, Wenxu; Xu, Lei; Qiu, Yinsheng; Liu, Yu; Wu, Zhongyuan; Hou, Yongqing

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of baicalin on LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammatory pathway were investigated in piglet mononuclear phagocytes (control, LPS stimulation, LPS stimulation + 12.5 µg/ml baicalin, LPS stimulation + 25 µg/ml baicalin, LPS stimulation + 50 µg/ml baicalin and LPS stimulation + 100 µg/ml baicalin). The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the secretion levels of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α, mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and NLRP3, as well as the protein levels of cleaved caspase-1 p20 were significantly increased after LPS-challengein vitro However, LPS stimulation did not influence apoptosis-associated speck-like protein and caspase-1 mRNA levels, which are also components of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Baicalin at 50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml could inhibit the production of ROS, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18, and down-regulate mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and NLRP3, as well as expression of cleaved caspase-1 p20. These results showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of baicalin occurred via the regulation of the release of ROS and mRNA expression of NLRP3. The anti-inflammatory activity of baicalin could be related to the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome pathway under LPS stimulation.

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of Swine-Derived Lactobacillus reuteri: Probiotic Properties and Effects on Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells Challenged with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Li; Chen, Zhuang; Ma, Xianyong; Yang, Xuefen; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-06-28

    Probiotics are considered as the best effective alternatives to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic potential of lactobacilli for use in swine farming by using in vitro evaluation methods. A total of 106 lactic acid bacterial isolates, originating from porcine feces, were first screened for the capacity to survive stresses considered important for putative probiotic strains. Sixteen isolates showed notable acid and bile resistance, antibacterial activity, and adherence to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). One isolate, LR1, identified as Lactobacillus reuteri, was selected for extensive study of its probiotic and functional properties in IPEC-1 cell models. L. reuteri LR1 exhibited good adhesion to IPEC-1 cells and could inhibit the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to IPEC-1 cells. L. reuteri LR1 could also modulate transcript and protein expression of cytokines involved in inflammation in IPEC-1 cells; the Lactobacillus strain inhibited the ETEC-induced expression of proinflammatory transcripts (IL-6 and TNF-α) and protein (IL-6), and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Measurement of the permeation of FD-4 showed that L. reuteri LR1 could maintain barrier integrity in monolayer IPEC-1 cells exposed to ETEC. Immunolocalization experiments showed L. reuteri LR1 could also prevent ETEC-induced tight junction ZO-1 disruption. Together, these results indicate that L. reuteri LR1 exhibits desirable probiotic properties and could be a potential probiotic for use in swine production.

  3. Asparagine reduces the mRNA expression of muscle atrophy markers via regulating protein kinase B (Akt), AMP-activated protein kinase α, toll-like receptor 4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain protein signalling in weaning piglets after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuying; Liu, Yulan; Wang, Shuhui; Pi, Dingan; Leng, Weibo; Zhu, Huiling; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Haifeng; Li, Shuang; Lin, Xi; Odle, Jack

    2016-10-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines are critical in mechanisms of muscle atrophy. In addition, asparagine (Asn) is necessary for protein synthesis in mammalian cells. We hypothesised that Asn could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced muscle atrophy in a piglet model. Piglets were allotted to four treatments (non-challenged control, LPS-challenged control, LPS+0·5 % Asn and LPS+1·0 % Asn). On day 21, the piglets were injected with LPS or saline. At 4 h post injection, piglet blood and muscle samples were collected. Asn increased protein and RNA content in muscles, and decreased mRNA expression of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1). However, Asn had no effect on the protein abundance of MAFbx and MuRF1. In addition, Asn decreased muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α phosphorylation, but increased muscle protein kinase B (Akt) and Forkhead Box O (FOXO) 1 phosphorylation. Moreover, Asn decreased the concentrations of TNF-α, cortisol and glucagon in plasma, and TNF-α mRNA expression in muscles. Finally, Asn decreased mRNA abundance of muscle toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain protein (NOD) signalling-related genes, and regulated their negative regulators. The beneficial effects of Asn on muscle atrophy may be associated with the following: (1) inhibiting muscle protein degradation via activating Akt and inactivating AMPKα and FOXO1; and (2) decreasing the expression of muscle pro-inflammatory cytokines via inhibiting TLR4 and NOD signalling pathways by modulation of their negative regulators.

  4. 产肠毒素大肠杆菌K88菌毛蛋白与大肠杆菌不耐热肠毒素b亚单位的原核表达及其鼻腔免疫效果%Prokaryotic expressions of K88 fimbrial protein of enterotoxigenic E.coli and E.coli heatlabile enterotoxin b subunit and their immune effects by intranasal route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜柯安; 贺志良; 宋方洲; 马永平

    2012-01-01

    目的 原核表达产肠毒素大肠杆菌(Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli,ETEC)K88菌毛蛋白与大肠杆菌不耐热肠毒素(Heat-labile enterotoxin,LT)b亚单位(LTb),并评价其鼻腔免疫效果.方法 采用PCR技术分别扩增不含信号肽的K88和LTb基因,克隆至表达载体pQE30中,构建重组表达质粒pQE30-K88和pQE30-LTb,转化大肠杆菌M15,IPTG诱导表达.表达的重组K88和LTb蛋白纯化、复性后,进行SDS-PAGE分析.分别用K88单独、K88联合LTb滴鼻免疫BALB/c小鼠,以生理盐水作为对照,每次间隔1周,共4次,末次免疫后10d,分离血清,并收集鼻腔和小肠黏膜冲洗液,间接ELISA法检测各组血清特异性IgG和黏膜sIgA抗体水平.结果 重组表达质粒pQE30-K88和pQE30-LTb经双酶切和测序证实构建正确;表达的重组K88和LTb蛋白相对分子质量分别为28 100和12 500,表达量分别约占菌体总蛋白的35%和40%,主要以包涵体形式存在;纯化复性后的重组蛋白纯度均可达95%以上.K88联合LTb滴鼻免疫组血清特异性IgG及鼻腔、小肠黏膜冲洗液中特异性SIgA水平均较K88单独免疫组和对照组明显增高,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 在大肠杆菌中高效表达并纯化了重组K88和LTb蛋白,K88联合LTb滴鼻免疫BALB/c小鼠后,可增强特异性血清抗体反应,且诱导了黏膜免疫应答,为将来开发新型的ETEC基因工程疫苗奠定了基础.%Objective To express the K88 fimbrial protein of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin b subunit (LTb) in prokaryotic cells and evaluate their immune effect by intranasal route. Methods K88 and LTB genes, containing no signal peptides, were amplified by PCR and cloned into expression vector pQE30, respectively. The constructed recombinant plasmids pQE30-K88 and pQE30-LTb were transformed to E. coli M15 and induced with IPTG. The expressed recombinant K88 and LTb proteins were purified and re-naturalized, then identified by

  5. 饲粮添加叶酸对PCV-2攻击下断奶仔猪体重和组织病变的影响%Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Folic Acid on Body Weight and Histopathological Changes of Weanling Piglets with Porcine Circovirus-2 Challenging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高庆; 张克英; 陈代文; 徐志文; 彭西

    2012-01-01

    To detect the effects of dietary supplementation with folic acid (FA) on body weight and histopathological changes of weanling piglets with PCV-2 challenging, a 2x3 factorial (two states: PCV-2 challenge or not, three added FA levels: 0, 0.3, or 15 mg/kg) randomized block design was conducted in this study. Fourty-five PCV-2 negative, 8.44 ± 0.12 kg, crossbred (Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire) castrated piglets were weaned at (28 ±1) days of age, and fed ad libitum with three diets for 35 days, respectively. Seven piglets from each diet group were challenged with PCV-2 in the morning of d7. Blood and tissue samples were collected on d1, d7 (without PCV-2 challenge), d21 & d35. The bodyweight, diarrhea incidence, histopathological change, and serum levels of cytokines were measured, respectively. Results showed that immune tissue damages were induced by intense stress during weaning in piglets without PCV-2 infection, Dietary supplementation with FA 15 mg/kg obviously restored the tissue damage. After 14 days since PCV-2 challenge, the piglets had the depressed body weight (P<0.01) with the intensified immunosuppression and tissue damage, Compared with the basal diet, the Diet supplementation with FA 0.3 mg/kg relieved partly the immunosuppression and tissue damages, but the diet supplementation with 15 mg/kg FA disadvantaged restoration of immune system in piglets. It implied that the suitable level of dietary FA might be different for piglets with different PCV-2infection status.%试验旨在探明饲粮添加不同水平叶酸(FA)对圆环病毒-2(PCV-2)攻击下断奶仔猪增重和组织病变的影响.选用45头PCV-2阴性、初重8.44 kg的健康去势、28d断奶DLY仔猪,饲喂添加不同水平FA(0、0.3、15 mg/kg)的饲粮7d后,进行PCV-2攻毒,继续饲喂相应饲粮28 d.第1、7(攻毒前)、21天和第35天采集组织样品;测定体重、腹泻指数、组织病变、血清PCV-2特异抗体、猪瘟抗体和细胞

  6. A vaccine candidate for post-weaning diarrhea in swine constructed with a live attenuated Salmonella delivering Escherichia coli K88ab, K88ac, FedA, and FedF fimbrial antigens and its immune responses in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jin; Stein, Barry D; Lee, John Hwa

    2012-07-01

    In order to construct a novel vaccine candidate for preventing post-weaning diarrhea in swine, the individual genes for Escherichia coli K88ab, K88ac, FedA, and FedF fimbriae were inserted into a secretion plasmid pBP244 containing asd, lepB, secA, and secB. These were transformed into Salmonella Typhimurium Δlon ΔcpxR Δasd. Secretion of the individual recombinant fimbrial antigens was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Groups 1 and 2 mice received a single oral dose of the vaccine mixture and S. Typhimurium carrying pBP244 only as a control, respectively. In groups 3 and 4, mice were primed and boosted with the vaccine mixture and S. Typhimurium carrying pBP244 only as a control, respectively. In general, all immunized mice had significantly increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G (P immunized mice. Thus, the vaccine candidate can be highly immunogenic and be safe to the environment.

  7. Effect of age, dose and antibiotic therapy on the development of Clostridium difficile infection in neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Paulo H E; Madson, Darin M; Ramirez, Alejandro; Rowe, Eric; Lizer, Joshua T; Songer, J Glenn

    2013-08-01

    Piglet diarrhea is associated with increased pre-weaning mortality, poor growth rates, and variation in weight at weaning. Clostridium difficile is a known cause of enteric disease in neonatal piglets, yet risk factors associated with C. difficile infection in piglets are unknown. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the consistency and severity of lesions in piglets challenged with C. difficile at different bacterial doses (DOSAGE experiment), (2) evaluate the use of antibiotics as a contributing risk factor in 1-day-old piglets (ANTIMICROBIAL experiment), and (3) to provide a clinical and histological evaluation of C. difficile infection in 10-day-old piglets (AGE experiment). One hundred and eleven conventional neonatal pigs were snatch farrowed and divided into experimental groups addressing the objectives. In the DOSAGE experiment, 40 1-day-old piglets were sham inoculated or challenged with varying amounts of C. difficile heat shocked spores and euthanized 72 h post infection. Results indicate a clear trend for disease development as bacterial numbers increase. In the ANTIMICROBIAL experiment, 39 1-day-old piglets were challenged and then treated with one of four different antibiotics after 16 h. No significant difference in disease development was found. Thirty-three 10-day-old piglets were given varying doses of C. difficile in the AGE experiment. Disease and lesions were reproduced in 10-day-old piglets. Combined results indicate that C. difficile dosage appears to be an important factor that influences the appearance and severity of lesions, 10-day-old pigs can develop disease associated with C. difficile, and antibiotic administration following inoculation may not be a major contributor for disease in neonatal piglets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunization with Streptococcus suis bacterin plus recombinant Sao protein in sows conveys passive immunity to their piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Kai-Jen; Cheng, Li-Ting; Lee, Jai-Wei; Chung, Yao-Chi; Chung, Wen-Bin; Chu, Chun-Yen

    2017-01-07

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) causes arthritis, meningitis, septicemia, and sudden death in pigs and is also an zoonotic agent for humans. The present study demonstrated that immunization with recombinant Sao-L (surface antigen one-L, rSao-L) protein from a strain of S. suis serotype 2 in pigs was able to increase cross-serotype protection against S. suis serotype 1 and 2 challenge. Since weaning piglets are more susceptible to S. suis infections due to the stresses associated with weaning, prepartum immunization in sows may convey passive immunity to piglets and provide protection. Pregnant sows were immunized with a vaccine containing inactivated S. suis serotype 2 plus rSao as the antigens. Blood samples were collected from their piglets after birth for analysis of antigen-specific antibody titers and levels of various cytokines. Results demonstrated that the titers of S. suis and rSao-specific antibodies were significantly (p sows when compared to piglets from unvaccinated sows. In addition, piglets were challenged by heterologous and homologous S. suis. All piglets from unvaccinated sows developed severe symptoms of bacteremia, fever, anorexia, depression, and arthritis. On the other hand, piglets from vaccinated sows had significantly (p sows with the vaccine containing inactivated S. suis bacterin plus rSao as the antigens is able to enhance passive immunity against heterologous and homologous S. suis challenge in their piglets.

  9. Does the environmental background (intensive v. outdoor systems) influence the behaviour of piglets at weaning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y Y W; Pluske, J R; Fleming, P A

    2015-08-01

    Under intensive pig husbandry, outdoor systems offer a more complex physical and social environment compared with indoor systems (farrowing sheds). As the rearing environment affects behavioural development, it can, therefore, influence behavioural responses of pigs to stressful environments in later stages of production. We tested how the rearing environment influenced behavioural responses to a novel arena test in piglets on the day that they were weaned and mixed into large groups. We recorded video footage and compared the behavioural responses of 30 outdoor-raised and 30 farrowing shed-raised piglets tested in an experimental arena and sequentially exposed to four challenges (each for 5 min) on the day of weaning. Quantitative and qualitative behavioural measures were recorded using time budgets and scoring demeanour or 'qualitative behavioural expression' (using Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA)). When held in isolation (challenge 1), both groups were scored as more 'scared/worried', while outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating and jumping against the arena walls. Both groups interacted with a plastic ball (challenge 2: exposure to a novel object) during which they were scored as more 'playful/curious' than other challenges. When a food bowl was introduced (challenge 3), farrowing shed-raised piglets were more interested in playing with the food bowl itself, whereas outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating the feed. Finally, there were no significant differences in social behaviour (challenge 4: introduction of another piglet) between the two groups in terms of the latency to contact each other, amount of time recorded engaged in aggressive/non-aggressive social interactions or QBA scores. Although piglets spent 30% of their time interacting with the other piglet, and half of this time (47%) was engaged in negative interactions (pushing, biting), the levels of aggression were not different between the two groups. Overall, outdoor

  10. Efficacy of marker vaccine candidate CP7 E2alf in piglets with maternally derived C-strain antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangelova, Desislava Yordanova; Nielsen, Jens; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    2012-01-01

    virus (CSFV) strain “Koslov”. CP7_E2alf provided clinical protection upon challenge as no severe clinical signs or mortality was observed in the vaccinated piglets. Post mortem examination revealed pathological changes associated to CSFV only in the mock-vaccinated piglets. No infectious CSFV could...... intramuscularly with C-strain vaccine 4 weeks before farrowing. Thus, these piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly with CP7_E2alf at the age of 5 or 8 weeks. Subsequently, the piglets and their mock-vaccinated littermate controls were challenged 2 weeks post vaccination with highly virulent Classical swine fever...... to be effective in preventing mortality, severe clinical signs and pathological lesions in 5 or 8 weeks old piglets positive for maternal antibodies derived from sows vaccinated intramuscularly 4 weeks before farrowing with one dose of C-strain vaccine....

  11. Genetics of sow performance in piglet production

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Helena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to provide knowledge about the genetic relationships concerning sow performance in piglet production. During the last decades, selection in dam lines has focused on increasing litter size and piglet growth. Consequently, the demand on the sow to provide her piglets with enough milk increases. At the same time, breeding for animals with less fat limits the sow’s possibility to store body reserves to be used during lactation. Poor body condition is related to rep...

  12. Dose-Dependent Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on Serum Interleukin-17 Production and Intestinal T-Cell Responses in Pigs Challenged with Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao-Hong; Li, Xiao-Qiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dong; Liu, Hao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the dose effect of probiotics on ameliorating diarrhea has not been fully elucidated. Here, low (1 × 109 CFU/ml) or high (1 × 1011 CFU/ml) doses of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 were administered orally to piglets for 1 week before F4 (K88)-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4+ ETEC) challenge. Administration of a low, but not a high, dose of L. rhamnosus decreased the percentage of CD3+ CD4+ CD8− T cells in the peripheral blood. Notably, transiently increased serum concentrations of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) were observed after F4+ ETEC challenge in pigs pretreated with a high dose of L. rhamnosus. Administration of L. rhamnosus increased the percentage of the small intestinal lamina propria CD3+ CD4+ CD8− cells and Peyer's patch CD3+ CD4− CD8− and CD3− CD4− CD8+ cells. The percentage of ileal intraepithelial CD3+ CD4− CD8+ cells increased only in the high-dose piglets. Administration of L. rhamnosus downregulated expression of ileal IL-17A after F4+ ETEC challenge but had no effect on expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-12, IL-4, and FOXP3 mRNA in the small intestine. Expression of jejunal IL-2, ileal transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and ileal IL-10 was upregulated in the low-dose piglets after F4+ ETEC challenge. Our findings suggest that amelioration of infectious diarrhea in piglets by L. rhamnosus is associated with the generation of lamina propria CD3+ CD4+ CD8− T cells, the expansion of Peyer's patch CD3+ CD4− CD8− and CD3− CD4− CD8+ cells, and the attenuation of F4+ ETEC-induced increase in CD3+ CD4+ CD8+ T cells in the small intestine. However, consumption of high doses of L. rhamnosus may increase levels of serum IL-17A after F4+ ETEC challenge, thus eliciting a strong proinflammatory response. PMID:24389928

  13. Effect of CLA on performance and immune response of weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, M L; Ribeiro, A M L; Kessler, A M; Ledur, V S; Fischer, M M; Bockor, L; Cibulski, S P; Gava, D

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of CLA on the immune response and performance of piglets when subjected to an immune challenge. A total of 32 weanling pigs (17 to 23 d of age) with an initial BW of 8.9 kg were allotted to a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. There were 3 levels of dietary CLA (0%, 1%, and 2%) and 2 levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (unchallenged and challenged). Challenged pigs were challenged on d 7 and 21. On d 4 and 18, all pigs were inoculated with BSA for assessment of IgG production. There was no difference in growth performance among piglets receiving different CLA supplementation levels. However, LPS-challenged piglets had poorer BW (P CLA supplementation group (P CLA has an immunomodulatory effect. Supplementation with CLA did not affect lymphocyte proliferation, percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, plasma proteins, red and white blood cell count, respiratory rate, or rectal temperature after LPS challenge. Although CLA supplementation did not influence growth performance or certain immune system measurements, the increased IgG titers with 1% CLA dietary supplementation indicate that it has a beneficial effect on the humoral immune system of weaned piglets.

  14. Experimental infection with Escherichia coli O149:F4ac in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gerda M; Frydendahl, Kai; Svendsen, Ove; Jørgensen, Claus B; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete; Nielsen, Jens-Peter; Møller, Kristian

    2006-06-15

    The outcome of experimental intestinal infections with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is dependent on several factors. An important factor is adhesion of the challenge strain to the intestinal mucosa. The test for susceptibility towards ETEC adhesion has so far been made by an intestinal adhesion test made after slaughter of piglets. However, in an experimental infection study with the purpose to obtain diarrhoeic piglets, it would be an advantage to test for susceptibility prior to experimentation. The Mucin 4 gene on porcine chromosome 13 has been proposed as a candidate gene for the production of the specific ETEC F4ab/ac receptor, and a DNA marker-based test has been developed to allow genotyping for ETEC F4ab/ac resistance/susceptibility [Jørgensen, C.B., Cirera, S., Archibald, A.L., Anderson, L., Fredholm, M., Edfors-Lilja, I., 2004. Porcine polymorphisms and methods for detecting them. International application published under the patent cooperation treaty (PCT). PCT/DK2003/000807 or WO2004/048606-A2]. The aim of this study was to test an experimental model for ETEC O149:F4ac-induced diarrhoea in piglets, selected for susceptibility towards ETEC O149:F4ac adhesion prior to experimentation using a DNA marker-based test. Sixty-two healthy 25-32 days old recently weaned Danish crossbred piglets were used. All piglets were tested prior to experimentation for susceptibility or resistance towards ETEC O149:F4ac adhesion. Thirty-nine piglets, both susceptible and resistant, were oro-gastric intubated with 10(9)CFU of ETEC O149:F4ac and 23 age-matched piglets, both susceptible and resistant, were used as non-infected controls. Of susceptible piglets, challenged with ETEC O149:F4ac, 74% had ETEC O149:F4ac-associated diarrhoea first day after first challenge, which were significantly higher relatively to the resistant and challenged piglets where 20% had diarrhoea (p=0.04). This study suggests a model for experimental ETEC induced diarrhoea.

  15. Biological aspects of genetic differences in piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to gain insight in the biological background of differences in the direct genetic (piglet) component of piglet survival. Estimations of the direct genetic component of piglet survival were obtained by calculation of estimated breeding values for piglet survival (EBVp

  16. Associations between intrapartum death and piglet, placental, and umbilical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Farstad, W; Framstad, T

    2012-12-01

    Intrapartum death in multiparous gestations in sows (Sus scrofa) is often caused by hypoxia. There is little information in the literature on the assessment of the placenta in relation to intrapartum death in piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the placental area and weight upon piglet birth characteristics and intrapartum death. Litters from 26 Landrace-Yorkshire sows were monitored during farrowing and the status of each piglet was recorded, including blood parameters of piglets and their umbilical veins. Of 413 piglets born, 6.5% were stillborn. Blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, and CO(2) partial pressure were increased in the stillborn piglets (P piglets, whereas pH and base excess were decreased (P piglets born dead vs. live (P piglets born dead was not different from live-born piglets (P = 0.631), whereas mean body mass index was reduced (P piglets were not different from live-born piglets (P = 0.662 and P = 0.253, respectively). Blood concentrations of lactate, hemoglobin, and hematocrit recorded in all piglets pooled were associated with placental area (P 0.2). Piglet BW was positively correlated with placental area and placental weight (P piglet birth weight, but not with the probability of being born dead. Placental area was a better predictor of piglet vitality than placental weight. Because umbilical cord rupture and prolonged birth time were associated with being born dead, umbilical cord rupture and placental detachment seem to be probable causes of intrapartum death.

  17. Effect of inflammation stimulation on energy and nutrient utilization in piglets selected for low and high residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labussière, E; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Thibault, J N; Le Floc'h, N; Noblet, J; van Milgen, J

    2015-10-01

    Selection of animals for improved feed efficiency can affect sustainability of animal production because the most efficient animals may face difficulties coping with challenges. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an inflammatory challenge (using an intravenous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant - CFA) in piglets from two lines of pigs divergently selected during the fattening period for a low (RFI-) or a high (RFI+) residual feed intake (RFI; difference between actual feed intake and theoretical feed requirements). Nitrogen and energy balances (including heat production - HP - and its components: activity-related HP - AHP, thermic effect of feeding, and resting HP) were measured individually in thirteen 20-kg BW castrated male piglets (six and seven from RFI+ and RFI- line, respectively) fed at the same level (1.72 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day) from 3 days before to 3 days after CFA injection. Dynamics of dietary U-13C-glucose oxidation were estimated from measurements of 13CO2 production on the day before and 3 days after the CFA injection. Oxidation of dietary nutrients and lipogenesis were calculated based on HP and O2 consumption and CO2 production. The data were analyzed as repeated measurements within piglets in a mixed model. Before CFA injection, RFI- piglets had a lower resting energy expenditure than RFI+ piglets, which tended to increase energy retention because of a higher energy retention as fat. The CFA injection did not affect feed intake from the day following CFA injection onwards but it increased energy retention (P=0.04). Time to recover 50% of 13C from dietary glucose as expired 13CO2 was higher in RFI+ piglets before inducing inflammation but decreased after to the level of RFI- piglets (P<0.01). Oxidation of U-13C-glucose tended to slightly increased in RFI- piglets and to decreased in RFI+ piglets (P=0.10) because of CFA. Additionally, RFI- piglets had a lower respiratory quotient during the 1st day following the CFA

  18. A Piglet Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyng, Kasper J; Skajaa, Torjus; Kerrn-Jespersen, Sigrid; Andreassen, Christer S; Bennedsgaard, Kristine; Henriksen, Tine B

    2015-05-16

    Birth asphyxia, which causes hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), accounts for 0.66 million deaths worldwide each year, about a quarter of the world's 2.9 million neonatal deaths. Animal models of HIE have contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiology in HIE, and have highlighted the dynamic process that occur in brain injury due to perinatal asphyxia. Thus, animal studies have suggested a time-window for post-insult treatment strategies. Hypothermia has been tested as a treatment for HIE in pdiglet models and subsequently proven effective in clinical trials. Variations of the model have been applied in the study of adjunctive neuroprotective methods and piglet studies of xenon and melatonin have led to clinical phase I and II trials(1,2). The piglet HIE model is further used for neonatal resuscitation- and hemodynamic studies as well as in investigations of cerebral hypoxia on a cellular level. However, it is a technically challenging model and variations in the protocol may result in either too mild or too severe brain injury. In this article, we demonstrate the technical procedures necessary for establishing a stable piglet model of neonatal HIE. First, the newborn piglet (< 24 hr old, median weight 1500 g) is anesthetized, intubated, and monitored in a setup comparable to that found in a neonatal intensive care unit. Global hypoxia-ischemia is induced by lowering the inspiratory oxygen fraction to achieve global hypoxia, ischemia through hypotension and a flat trace amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) indicative of cerebral hypoxia. Survival is promoted by adjusting oxygenation according to the aEEG response and blood pressure. Brain injury is quantified by histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging after 72 hr.

  19. The combination effects of acetaminophen and N-acetylcysteine on cytokines production and NF-κB activation of lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglet mononuclear phagocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yinsheng; Zhang, Jiawei; Liu, Yu; Ma, Hongwei; Cao, Fangyuan; Xu, Jun; Hou, Yongqing; Xu, Lingyun

    2013-04-15

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a known activator of mononuclear phagocytes. LPS activates the pro-inflammatory gene expression and induces the release of mediators/cytokines by TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acetaminophen (AAP) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), individually as well as in combination on LPS-induced cytokines production and NF-κB activation in piglets. AAP (0.125-1.0mM) and NAC (0.0625-1.0mM) down-regulate the expression of cytokines and inhibit NF-κB p65 protein transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in vitro. NAC enhances the inhibition action of AAP on cytokines expression in vitro. IL-6 in piglet plasma of the AAP group (mixed feed concentration of 600 mg/kg) was significantly reduced (Ppiglet plasma of the NAC group (mixed feeding concentration of 1200 mg/kg) were significantly lower at 3h after LPS stimulation (Ppiglet plasma of AAP (mixed feed concentration of 600 mg/kg) plus NAC (mixed feeding concentration of 1200 mg/kg) group were significantly lower (P<0.05) at 3h after LPS activation. The level of IL-10 in the group with AAP plus NAC was significantly lower (P<0.05) at 24h after LPS stimulation, while the rest of the inflammatory cytokines were returned to the original levels. The NF-κB p65 concentration ratio had significantly reduced (P<0.05) when AAP and NAC were used in combination. In summary, NAC could enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of AAP both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Neonatal piglet survival: impact of sow nutrition around parturition on fetal glycogen deposition and production and composition of colostrum and transient milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Quesnel, H

    2014-01-01

    Piglet survival is a major problem, especially during the first 3 days after birth. Piglets are born deficient of energy, but at the same time they have a very high energy requirement because of high physical activity, high need for thermoregulation (because of their lean body with low insulation...... is born. Selection for large litters during the last two decades has challenged piglets even further during the critical neonatal phase because the selection programs indirectly decreased birth weight of piglets and because increased litter size has increased the competition between littermates. Different...... attempts have been made to increase the short-term survival of piglets, that is, survival until day 3 of lactation, by focusing on improving transfer of vital maternal energy to the offspring, either in utero or via mammary secretions. Thus, the present review addresses how sow nutrition in late gestation...

  1. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Yang, Gui-Yan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2) were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus treatment. Expression of TLR2 and NOD1 mRNA was up-regulated in cells pre-treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus counteracted F4+ ETEC-induced increases in TNF-α concentration. Increased PGE2. concentrations were observed in cells infected with F4+ ETEC and in cells treated with L. rhamnosus only. A decrease in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge in cells treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression. Our findings suggest that L. rhamnosus protects intestinal epithelial cells from F4+ ETEC-induced damage, partly through the anti-inflammatory response involving synergism between TLR2 and NOD1. In addition, L. rhamnosus promotes EGFR-independent Akt activation, which may activate intestinal epithelial cells in response to bacterial infection, in turn increasing tight junction integrity and thus enhancing the barrier function and restricting pathogen invasion. Pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus was superior to co-incubation in reducing the adhesion of F4+ ETEC to IPEC-J2 cells and subsequently attenuating F4+ ETEC-induced mucin layer destruction and suppressing apoptosis. Our data indicate that a selected L. rhamnosus strain interacts with porcine intestinal epithelial cells to maintain the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal epithelial cell activation in

  2. Postpartum deaths: piglet, placental, and umbilical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Farstad, W; Framstad, T

    2013-06-01

    The fetal growth of the piglet is highly dependent on its placenta, and the newborn piglet birth weight is highly associated with postpartum death. However, there is little information available in the literature on the assessment of the placenta in relation to postpartum death in piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the placental area and placental weight, status of the umbilical cord, and piglet birth characteristics, such as blood parameters, vitality score, and birth weight on postpartum death. All live born piglets in litters from 26 Landrace-Yorkshire sows were monitored during farrowing and the status of each was recorded, including placental area and placental weight and blood variables obtained from the piglets and umbilical veins. Out of the 386 live-born piglets, 16.8% died before weaning at 5 wk. Among these, 78.5% died within the first 3 d of life. Mean blood concentration of lactate was increased in piglets that did not survive to weaning (P = 0.003). Concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased (P Piglets born with a broken umbilical cord had a reduced vitality score vs. piglets born with an intact umbilical cord (P = 0.021), and they had an increased probability of dying before weaning (P = 0.050). Mean birth weight, body mass index, placental area (P piglets that died before weaning vs. those that survived. Birth weight and placental area were furthermore negatively associated with live litter size. Blood concentrations of IgG and albumin recorded at d 1 were decreased in piglets that died before weaning (P < 0.01), and blood concentration of albumin was positively associated with placental area (P < 0.001). We conclude that placental area and placental weight, status of the umbilical cord, birth weight, body mass index, blood concentrations of lactate, hemoglobin, and hematocrit recorded at birth, and blood concentrations of IgG and albumin recorded at d 1 were associated with postpartum death in this study

  3. Serotonin's role in piglet mortality and thriftiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R L; McMunn, K A; Cheng, H W; Marchant-Forde, J N; Lay, D C

    2014-11-01

    Improving piglet survivability rates is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin (5-HT) system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortalities, or failure to thrive in human infants. The aim of this research was to determine if a relationship exists between infant mortality and failure to thrive (or unthriftiness), and umbilical 5-HT concentration in piglets. Umbilical blood was collected from a total of 60 piglets from 15 litters for analysis of 5-HT and tryptophan (Trp; the AA precursor to 5-HT) concentrations. Behavior was scan sampled for the first 2 days after birth. Brain samples were also taken at 8 h after birth from healthy and unthrifty piglets (n = 4/group). The raphe nucleus was dissected out and analyzed for 5-HT and dopamine concentrations as well as their major metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Piglets that died within 48 h of birth (n = 14) had significantly lower umbilical blood 5-HT concentrations at the time of their birth compared to their healthy counterparts (n = 46, P = 0.003). However, no difference in Trp was detected (P 0.38). Time spent under the heat lamp and sleeping were positively correlated with umbilical 5-HT levels (P = 0.004 and P = 0.02, respectively), while inactivity had a negative correlation with 5-HT levels (P = 0.04). In the raphe nucleus, the center for brain 5-HT biosynthesis, unthrifty piglets had a greater concentration of 5-HIAA (P = 0.02) and a trend for higher concentrations of 5-HT (P = 0.07) compared with healthy piglets. Dopamine levels did not differ between thrifty and unthrifty piglets (P = 0.45); however, its metabolite HVA tended to be greater in unthrifty piglets (P = 0.05). Our results show evidence of serotonergic dysfunction, at both the central and peripheral levels, accompanying early piglet mortalities. These data suggest a possible route for

  4. Personality types and teat order in piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether piglets show different personality types due to teat position, a number ofexperiments were performed on 21 different litters, 9 to 31 days old. The tests included threefocal piglets in each litter with different teat position, anterior, middle and posterior, inobservations on suckling behaviour, undisturbed behaviours, a novel object test and a straw-testwhere thirteen behaviours were observed. The tests found an effect on teat position on frequencyof disputes between p...

  5. Effect of artificial rearing of piglets on the volume densities of M cells in the tonsils of the soft palate and ileal Peyer's patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prims, S; Pintens, N; Vergauwen, H; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C; Casteleyn, C

    2017-02-01

    The high prolificacy of modern hybrid sows has increased the mean litter size during the last decades. However, rearing large litters is challenging and has increased the use of alternative management strategies such as euthanasia of weak piglets, cross-fostering, supplementing piglets with milk, split-nursing and split-weaning. The latter includes artificial rearing on brooders where piglets have ad libitum access to milk replacer. The effect of this artificial rearing on the immune system of the piglet is the subject of various studies. The present study focused on the M cells in the tonsil of the soft palate and in the ileal Peyer's patch (iPP). These epithelial cells are specialized in antigen sampling and play a pivotal role in the induction of adaptive immune responses. The volume densities of the M cells were assessed by stereological analysis of tissue samples from piglets of 0, 3, 8 and 19days of age. During the first three days, piglets suckled the sow, permitting them to ingest colostrum. At the third day, the piglets were either allowed to continue to suckle the sow or were transferred to brooders. The six experimental groups, each containing six piglets, thus consisted of newborn piglets, 3-day-old sow-suckled piglets, and conventionally and artificially reared piglets of 8 and 19days of age. To identify M cells, tissue samples were immersed in 4% phosphate-buffered paraformaldehyde and paraffin sections were immunohistochemically stained against cytokeratin 18. The volume densities of M cells in both the crypt epithelium of the tonsils of the soft palate and the follicle-associated epithelium of the iPPs did not show any difference between the various age groups of conventionally reared piglets. However, values were twice as high in the iPPs compared to the tonsils of the soft palate. In contrast, a decrease in volume densities of M cells was observed in the iPPs of piglets after they had been transferred to commercial brooders (P=0.05), resulting in

  6. 甘氨酸对脂多糖刺激仔猪肝脏能量代谢及相关基因表达的调控作用%Regulatory Role of Glycine on Energy Metabolism and Its Related Genes’ Expression in Liver of Piglets after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 王秀英; 吴欢听; 王海波; 陈少魁; 朱惠玲; 刘玉兰

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of glycine ( Gly) on energy metabolism and the mRNA expression of the key enzymes and the regulatory factors involving in energy metabolism in liver of piglets after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Twenty four Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire piglets were ran⁃domly assigned into 4 groups with 6 replicates each and 1 pig in each replicate. The four groups were:1) con⁃trol group ( basal diet);2) LPS group ( LPS+basal diet);3) 1.0% Gly group ( LPS+basal diet+1.0% Gly);and 4) 2.0% Gly group (LPS+basal diet+2.0% Gly). On the 28th day, the piglets in experimental groups were injected intraperitoneally with 100μg/kg BW LPS, and the piglets in the control group were injected with the same dose of physiological saline. All piglets were slaughtered at 4 h after LPS or saline injection, and the liver samples were collected for further analysis. The results showed as follows:1) compared with LPS group, supplementation of 1.0% Gly significantly increased liver ATP concentration and energy charge ( EC) level of pigs ( P<0.05) , significantly decreased the ratio of AMP to ATP ( P<0.05) , and had a tendency to decrease AMP concentration ( P<0.10); supplementation of 2.0% Gly had a tendency to decrease the ratio of AMP to ATP ( P<0.10) . 2) Compared with LPS group, supplementation of 1.0% Gly significantly decreased the mR⁃NA expression of liver hexokinase 2 (Hexok2) and citroyl synthetase (CS) (P<0.05). In addition, supple⁃mentation of 2. 0% Gly significantly decreased the mRNA expression of liver Hexok2 and pyruvate kinase ( PK) ( P<0.05) , and had a tendency to decrease the mRNA expression of liver CS ( P<0.10) . 3) Compared with LPS group, supplementation of 1.0% Gly significantly increased the mRNA expression of hepatic AMP⁃activated protein kinase α1 ( AMPKα1) ( P<0.05) . These results indicate that dietary supplementation of Gly can attenuate energy metabolism disorder caused by LPS stimulation in liver of

  7. Sow postural changes, responsiveness to piglet screams, and their impact on piglet mortality in pens and crates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melišová, M; Illmann, G; Chaloupková, H; Bozděchová, B

    2014-07-01

    Free farrowing pens (pens) improve the welfare of sows but may increase sow activity and negatively influence piglet production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pens and crates on sow postural changes, piglet trapping, sow responses to piglet screams, piglet mortality, and piglet BW gain. It was predicted that provision of greater space (in pens) would increase not only the frequency of sow postural changes and the probability of trappisng but also sow responses to the screams of piglets; thus, the outcome would be no differences in fatal piglet crushing or overall mortality between the housing systems. Sows were randomly moved to either a farrowing pen (n = 20) or farrowing crate (n = 18). Sow behavior was recorded and analyzed for 72 h from the birth of the first piglet (BFP). Sow postural changes included rolling from a ventral to lateral position and vice versa and going from standing to sitting, standing to lying, and sitting to lying. Occurrences of piglet trapping and sow responsiveness to real crushing situations were analyzed. Sow responsiveness was assessed in response to audio playbacks (PB) of piglet screams on d 3 postpartum (48 to 72 h after BFP; PB crush calls) and real piglet crushing during the first 72 h after BFP (real crush calls). Piglet BW gain was estimated 24 h after BFP, piglet BW was recorded at weaning, and piglet crushing and piglet mortality were recorded during the 72 h after BFP. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED and PROC GENMOD of SAS. Sows in pens showed more postural changes (P = 0.04) and tended to have greater incidences of piglet trapping (P = 0.07) than those in crates. Sow response to PB crush calls was greater in pens (P = 0.04) but did not differ for real crush calls between pens and crates (P = 0.62). There was no effect on the probability of piglet crushing (P = 0.38) and mortality (P = 0.41) during the 72 h after BFP nor in piglet mortality at weaning (P = 0.81) between pens and crates. Piglet BW gain

  8. Invited review: piglet mortality: management solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkden, R D; Broom, D M; Andersen, I L

    2013-07-01

    Preweaning mortality varies greatly among herds and this is partly attributed to differences in farrowing house management. In this review, we describe the various management strategies than can be adopted to decrease mortality and critically examine the evidence that exists to support their use. First, we consider which management procedures are effective against specific causes of death: intrapartum stillbirth, hypothermia, starvation, disease, crushing, and savaging. The most effective techniques include intervention to assist dystocic sows, measures to prevent and treat sow hypogalactia, good farrowing house hygiene, providing newborn piglets with a warm microenvironment, early fostering of supernumerary piglets, methods that assist small and weak piglets to breathe and obtain colostrum, and intervention to prevent deaths from crushing and savaging. The provision of nest-building material and modifications to the pen to assist the sow when lying down may also be beneficial, but the evidence is less clear. Because most deaths occur around the time of farrowing and during the first few days of life, the periparturient period is a particularly important time for management interventions intended to reduce piglet mortality. A number of procedures require a stockperson to be present during and immediately after farrowing. Second, we consider the benefits of farrowing supervision for preweaning mortality in general, focusing particularly on methods for the treatment of dystocia and programs of piglet care that combine multiple procedures. Third, we discuss the need for good stockmanship if farrowing supervision is to be effective. Stockmanship refers not only to technical skills but also to the manner in which sows are handled because this influences their fearfulness of humans. We conclude that piglet survival can be improved by a range of management procedures, many of which occur in the perinatal period and require the supervision of farrowing by trained staff

  9. 乳铁蛋白素B和天蚕素P1对投喂大肠杆菌断奶仔猪生长及肠道微生物区系的影响%Effects of Lactoferricin B and Cecropin P1 on Growth and Gut Microflora in Weaned Piglets Challenged with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯振平; 印遇龙; 王文杰; 刘景喜; SOUFFRANT W B

    2011-01-01

    本研究旨在探讨投喂大肠杆菌后乳铁蛋白素B( Lfcin B)和天蚕素P1( Cec P1)对断奶仔猪生长及肠道微生物区系影响.选用48头28日龄断奶的德国大白杂交二代断奶仔猪[(7.18±1.32) kg],根据体重、窝别、性别将其随机分成4组:对照组、产肠毒素组(ETEC)、乳铁蛋白素组(Lfcin B)、天蚕素组(Cec P1),每组2个重复,每个重复6头猪,试验期为12 d.结果表明,1)试验期间对照组、ETEC组、Lfcin B组、Cec P1组仔猪体重及平均日增重均差异不显著(P>0.05).2)ETEC组仔猪腹泻率显著高于其他组(P<0.05),而其他组之间差异不显著(P>0.05).在进行第1次攻毒后,即仔猪29日龄,ETEC组、Lfcin B组和Cec P1组仔猪的粪便干物质均显著下降(P<0.05),第2次攻毒后的第2天,即仔猪31日龄,Lfcin B组和Cec P1组的仔猪分别饲喂了Lfcin B和Cec P1,对照组仔猪的粪便干物质仍显著高于ETEC组和LfcinB组(P<0.05),但已与Cec P1组差异不显著(P>0.05).3)各组仔猪的肠道微生物区系差异不显著(P>0.05).由此可知,各组仔猪生长及肠道微生物区系差异不显著,但Cec P1来源于猪肠道微生物寄生线虫,比Lfcin B更能适应肠道环境,更有利于仔猪健康.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of lactoferricin B (Lfcin B) and cecropin P1 (Cec P1) on growth and gut microflora in weaned piglets after orally challenged with enterotoxigenic Esche richia coli (ETEC). Forty-eight 28-day-old German Landrace x German Landrace weaned piglets with average body weight of (7.18 ± 1.32) kg were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (the control, ETEC, Lf cinB, Cec P1) with two replicates per treatment and six pigs per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 12 days. The results showed as follows: 1) there were no significant differences in body weight and average daily gain among control, ETEC, Lfcin B and Cec PI group (P > 0.05). 2 ) The incidence of diarrhea in ETEC group was

  10. Piglet behavior as a measure of vitality and its influence on piglet survival and growth during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muns, R; Manzanilla, E G; Sol, C; Manteca, X; Gasa, J

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a vitality scoring method, based on piglet behavior and relate it to piglet growth and survival. From 21 sows (Sus scrofa), 287 piglets were used. After farrowing (d 0), piglets were weighed and tested for 4 behavioral parameters in a circular enclosure (55 cm diam.): movement capacity (M), udder stimulation (U), number of completed circles around the enclosure (NCC), and screaming (Sc). Piglets were weighed again on d 1, 2, 3, and 17. Piglet rectal temperature (RT) was recorded on d 0, 1, 2, and 3. Farrowing information of the sow was also recorded. Multiple regression analyses for survival and BW gain at weaning as dependent variables were performed. Piglet BW gain at weaning was influenced by BW at birth (P piglets born alive per sow (P Piglet survival during lactation was influenced by BW at birth (P = 0.015), UNCC parameter (P = 0.026), and RT on d 3 (P = 0.085). The sum of U and NCC parameters, in combination with BW at birth and information of the sow, might be useful to predict piglet growth survival during lactation, thus becoming a useful tool to improve piglet management during the first days of lactation. In conclusion, UNCC parameter seems to be an easy and useful way to assess piglet vitality for both scientific and commercial purposes.

  11. Trial Production of Highly Immunized Yolk Antibody on Chicken against Yellow and White Diarrhea of Piglets%仔猪黄白痢高免卵黄抗体的试制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳林; 张微; 宋桂才; 谭守国; 刘军

    2009-01-01

    To overcome the disadvantages of low curative rate and easily produced drug resistance in treating yellow and white diarrhea of piglet with antibiotics, immunized healthy chickens by the mixture of proper amount of K88、K99、987P antigens in a certain proportion are used to prepare highly immunized yolk antibody for the treatment of piglets with yellow and white diarrhea. The results show that the method is feasible.%为了解决临床上应用抗生素治疗仔猪黄、白痢病治愈率低、细菌易产生耐药性的缺点,将适当数量的K88、K99、987P抗原按一定比例混合后免疫健康鸡,制备高免的卵黄抗体治疗发病仔猪,结果表明该方法是可行的.

  12. Piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuntapaitoon, Morakot; Tummaruk, Padet

    2015-12-01

    In the modern swine industry, the number of piglets born alive per litter is dramatically increasing due to genetic improvement of litter traits. However, knowledge on post-partum management is inadequate to reduce piglet preweaning mortality. The present study aimed to investigate piglet preweaning mortality in a commercial swine herd in Thailand in relation to the number of littermate pigs and piglet birth weight. Data included 11,154 litters from 3574 sows farrowed from January 2009 to December 2012. Littermate pig was defined as the number of piglets after cross-fostering. Number of littermate pigs was classified as 1-7, 8-10, 11-12, and 13-15 piglets per litter. Mean birth weight of the piglets was classified as low (Piglet preweaning mortality was calculated, logged transformed, and analyzed by general linear mixed models. On average, piglet preweaning mortality was 14.5 % (median = 10.0 %). Piglet preweaning mortality in the litter with 13-15 littermate pigs (24.1 %) was significantly higher than the litter with 1-7 (11.9 %, P piglet birth weight had a higher piglet preweaning mortality rate (18.8 %) than the litters with a medium (15.7 %, P piglet birth weight (12.1 %, P piglet preweaning mortality in commercial swine herds, special care needs to be taken in litters with more than 13 littermate pigs and with piglets with birth weight below 1.30 kg.

  13. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pereira Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline, feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger, with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  14. Dynamic NMR cardiac imaging in a piglet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, M.; Rzedzian, R.; Mansfield, P. (Nottingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Coupland, R.E. (Nottingham Univ. (UK). Queen' s Medical Centre)

    1983-12-01

    NMR echo-planar imaging (EPI) has been used in a real-time mode to visualise the thorax of a live piglet. Moving pictures are available on an immediate image display system which demonstrates dynamic cardiac function. Frame rates vary from one per cardiac cycle in a prospective stroboscopic mode with immediate visual output to a maximum of 10 frames per second yielding up to six looks in one piglet heart cycle, but using a visual playback mode. A completely new system has been used to obtain these images, features of which include a probe assembly with 22 cm access and an AP400 array processor for real-time data processing.

  15. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin against porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu ZUO; Jinghui FAN; Huixia FAN; Tanqing LI; Xiaobo ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is the causative agent of acute diarrhea of new-born piglets that provokes high mortality rates in affected farms. In this study, specific immunoglobulin from egg yolk against TGEV was produced by immunization of White leghorn hens. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization (VN) test revealed that the specific antibody titer started to increase on the tenth day post-immunization, reached its peak on the eighth week, and remained at a high level until the last week that we tested. The prophylactic and therapeutic effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was investigated in piglets. IgY was found effective to increase piglets sur-vival rate significantly after challenge exposures in pro-phylactic efficacy analysis. The therapeutic effects test revealed that the mortality was dramatically reduced by orally administered IgY. All these results in our study indicated that IgY specific to TGEV could be an alterna-tive prophylactic method like colostral antibodies against TGEV in piglets.

  16. Farmer's attitudes affect piglet production parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppinen, T; Valros, A.; Vesala, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Our results show that farmers' attitudes count: treating the animals humanely, investing in a favourable environment, and having a positive attitude towards new information and scientific research is associated with an above-average productivity on piglet farms. These attitudes, when implemented and concretized in practice, also benefit the animals through a higher standard of welfare.

  17. Nutritional Compound Additive Alleviates Jejunal Mucosal Structure Disruption of Piglets Challenged with Feed Containing Corn Contaminated with Mycotoxins%营养性复合添加剂缓解霉变玉米饲粮对仔猪空肠黏膜结构的损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亿清; 陈代文; 田刚; 郑萍; 虞洁; 毛湘冰; 何军; 黄能金; 余冰

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the protective effects of nutritional compound additive on je-junal mucosal structure and function, redox status and the numbers of bacteria in caecum and colon content of weaned piglets challenged-with feed contained corn naturally contaminated with mycotoxins. Eighteen“Duroc× Landrace×Large White” piglets were randomly allocated to control group, naturally contaminated corn group and naturally contaminated corn+0.2% nutritional compound additive group (6 replicates per group and 1 piglet per replicate) . The trial lasted for 30 d. The results showed that corn naturally contaminated with mycotoxins significantly increased the serum diamine oxidase (DAO) activity on day 30 (P<0.01) and the content of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde ( MDA) in jejuna mucosa ( P<0.01) , significantly decreased total antioxidation capability ( T-AOC) ( P<0.01) , superoxide dismutase ( SOD) ( P<0.01) and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px) ( P<0.05) activities in jejuna mucosa, as well as the number of Lactobacillus in caecum and colon chyme and the number of total bacteria in caecum chyme compared to the control group ( P<0.05) . The 0.2% nutri-tional compound additive significantly decreased the serum DAO activity ( P<0.01) and the content of MDA in jejuna mucosa ( P<0.05) , significantly increaed GSH-Px activity in jejuna mucosa ( P<0.01) , and significant-ly up-regulated the mRNA expression of jejunal occludin ( P<0.05) , zonula-1 ( ZO-1) ( P<0.01) and solute carrier family 7 member 1 (SLC7A1) (P<0.05), in comparison with the corn naturally contaminated with mycotoxins group. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary mycotoxins can increase the intestinal perme-ability, and decrease the antioxidant capacity of jejunum mucosa and the numbers of Lactobacillus in caecum and colon contents. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation with 0.2% nutritional compound additive can alleviate the damage of jejuna mucosal structure and lipid peroxidation

  18. A cohort study on Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae colonisation in suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, T J; Klinkenberg, D; Bouma, A; van den Broek, J; Daemen, A J J M; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A

    2014-06-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes respiratory disease in pigs and despite the use of preventive measures such as vaccination and antimicrobials clinical outbreaks still occur. At weaning often many piglets are not colonised. If differences in prevalence between litters are large and if factors were known that could explain these differences, this may provide an opportunity to raise groups of A. pleuropneumoniae free piglets. To this end, a cohort study was performed on two endemically infected farrow-to-finish farms. Seventy-six of 133 sows were selected using stratified random selection by parity. Farmers complied with a strict hygiene and animal management protocol to prevent transmission between litters. Tonsil brush and serum samples taken three weeks before parturition were tested for antigen with an apxIVA qPCR and antibodies with Apx and Omp ELISAs, respectively. Three days before weaning tonsil brush samples from all piglets (n=871) were collected and tested for antigen. Whereas all sows tested positive both in serology tests as well as qPCR, 0.41 of the litters tested fully negative and 0.73 of all piglets tested negative. The proportion of positively tested piglets in positive litters ranged from 0.08-1.0 (median=0.36). A grouped logistic regression model with a beta binomial distribution of the probability for piglets to become infected was fitted to the data and associations with explanatory variables were explored. To test the possibility that alternatively the clustering was caused by onwards transmission among the piglets, a transmission model was fitted to the data incorporating sow-piglet and piglet-piglet transmission, but this model did not fit better. The results of this study showed that the number of colonised suckling piglets was highly clustered and mainly attributable to the variability of infectiousness of the dam, but no dam related risk factor for colonisation status of litter or piglets within litters could be identified. Copyright

  19. Distribution of Clostridium perfringens Isolates from Piglets in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, Ki-Eun; Lim, Seong-In; SHIN, Seong-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Kim, Ha-Young; Song, Jae-Young; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium perfringens causes various digestive system disease symptoms in pigs. In the present study, 11 C. perfringens isolates were obtained from diarrheic piglets and 18 from healthy piglets. All of the C. perfringens isolates were shown to be type A using a multiplex PCR assay. The β2 toxin gene was detected in 27/29 C. perfringens isolates, i.e., 81% (9/11) of diarrheic piglets and 100% (18/18) of healthy piglets, and all of the genes had the same sequence. In conclusion, the ...

  20. Limits of fat utilization in the neonatal piglet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dosing corn oil on the colostrum consumption in neonatal piglets, the capacity of neonatal piglets to digest and absorb fish oil and the effect of fasting on that capacity, and the capacity of neonatal piglets to absorb and oxidize long chain and medium chain triacylglycerols to identify an appropriate source and dosage of fat for maximum amount of energy. In experiment 1, piglets were either dosed 8 ml corn oil per kg body weight or sham fed, and then the colostrum consumption of each piglet during next 24-h period was measured by an isotope dilution technique. In experiment 2, neonatal piglets were given an amount of fish oil calculated to provide the piglet's maintenance energy needs for 12 h. Twelve hours after administration of fish oil, contents of stomach, small intestine and large intestine and feces were collected for lipid analyses. In experiment 3, neonatal piglets were given one of three levels of either (1-/sup 14/C)-triolein or (1-/sup 14/C)-trioctanoin, which supplied about .5, 1.0 or 2.0 times piglet's maintenance energy needs for 12 h. The hourly /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production was measured to estimate the oxidation rate, and the contents of digestive tract were collected for radioactivity and lipid analyses for estimating the absorption rate of the dosed triacylglycerols.

  1. A role for serotonin in piglet preweaning mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving piglet survivability rate is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortality or failure to thrive (FTT) in human infants. The aim of this study was to examine the role...

  2. Serotonin’s role in piglet mortality and thriftiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving piglet survivability rates is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortalities or failure to thrive in human infants. The aim of this research was to determine if a r...

  3. Facial lesions in piglets with intact or grinded teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Monica

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piglets are born with eight sharp teeth that during nursing can cause facial lesions on littermates and teat lesions on the sow. Teeth grinding in piglets is therefore often practiced to reduce these lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of grinding piglet teeth in regard to the occurrence of lesions. In this study the piglets' teeth were grinded in 28 litters, and in 36 litters the piglets' teeth were kept intact. Twice, one time during the first week and one time during the second week after birth facial lesions of the piglets were scored and the teats of the sows were examined for lesions. The facial lesion score accounted for the amount and severity of lesions. The individual observations on piglets in the litter were synthesized in a litter facial lesion score. Findings 69.8% and 43.5% of the piglets had facial lesions in week 1 and week 2 respectively. The effect of treatment was not significant on litter facial lesion score. The litter facial lesion score was higher in week 1 than in week 2 (p p = 0.003 than in small litters. Mortality between week 1 and week 2 was higher in litters with intact teeth (p = 0.02. Sow teat lesions only occurred if litters had intact teeth. Conclusions According to our results teeth grinding is only justifiable in large litters.

  4. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Yan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of 2 genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of 4 genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  5. Administration of a novel plant extract product via drinking water to post-weaning piglets: effects on performance and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, V; Jiang, X R; Cheli, F; Lo Verso, L; Mantovani, G; Vitari, F; Domeneghini, C; Agazzi, A

    2014-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a novel plant extract (PE) product (GrazixTM) on the performance and gut health of weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli. The PE was a standardised mixture of green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) and pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) obtained by using the LiveXtract™ process. A total of 144 piglets were weaned at 24 days and allocated to 8 for a 35-day experiment with a 2×2×2 factorial design comparing different treatments (water without product (CT) or 8 μl/kg per day PE in drinking water (PE)), feeding regimens (ad libitum (AD) or restricted (RE)) and oral E. coli challenges on day 9 (sham (-) or infected (+)). There were six pens per group with three piglets per pen. On day 35, 24 of the RE feeding piglets were slaughtered. It was found that PE supplementation increased the average daily gain (ADG) from day 28 to day 35 (P=0.03) and increased the gain to feed ratio (G : F) from day 7 to day 14 (P=0.02). RE feeding led to lower feed intake in piglets during the 1st week (P<0.01), 2nd week (P=0.06), 3rd week (P=0.05), and throughout the course of the overall study period (P=0.05). E. coli challenge decreased the ADG and G : F ratio from day 7 to day 14 (P=0.08 and <0.01, respectively) and increased the faecal score (higher values indicate more severe diarrhoea) on days 14, 21, 28 and 35 (P<0.01). PE supplementation decreased the faecal score in the challenged piglets during the 1st week post-challenge (P<0.01). E. coli challenge increased the faecal E. coli level on day 14 (P=0.03) and increased the Enterobacteriaceae level on day 35 (P<0.01). Reduced faecal E. coli was observed on days 14 and 35 (P=0.05 and 0.02, respectively), and reduced Enterobacteriaceae (P<0.01) was found on day 35 in the PE animals. RE feeding increased the faecal Lactobacillus, Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli levels on day 35 (P=0.02, <0.01 and <0.01, respectively). These results suggest that PE supplementation may improve the gut

  6. Learning how to eat like a pig: effectiveness of mechanisms for vertical social learning in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Mendl, M.; Held, S.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated which mechanisms of learning about foraging from the mother are important in piglets, Sus scrofa. The first experiment compared observation of the sow versus participation during eating. Piglet pairs could observe (observation piglets) or participate (participation piglets) with the

  7. Hypothermia in neonatal piglets: Interactions and causes of individual differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Trine S; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jørgensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Hypothermia is a major cause of mortality in neonatal piglets. However, there are considerable individual differences in the successful recovery from postnatal hypothermia in the common farrowing environment, and so far the causes and interactions of causes have not been studied in detail. Using......: birth weight, hypoxia at birth (viability score and lactate in umbilical cord blood), latency to first udder contact and first suckle, scans of individual piglet position during the first 2 h after birth, and rectal temperature at birth and 2 h post partum. A graphical chain model was used to analyze...... to the birth process had no direct connection to thermoregulatory success but were additive in the explanation of piglet behavior. The individual piglet’s rectal temperature at 2 h depends largely on piglet birth weight and on piglet position in relation to sow and littermates. Birth weight is the most...

  8. Struggling to survive: early life challenges in relation to the backtest in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Ursinus, W.W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Intensively reared piglets may face many early life challenges and these may affect behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between piglets’ early life circumstances and their behavioral response in a backtest. Hereto, 992 piglets of 14 d of age were subjected to a back

  9. Effect of additional heating, floor lenght, straw quantity and piglet nest accessibility on piglet losses in organic farrowing pens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, H.M.; Houwers, H.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Newborn piglets on organic pig farms have a lower chance to survive their first week than conventional piglets. Poorer climatic conditions, a loose housed mother, large litters with low birth weights are some of the causes. In a series of experiments the effect of housing and climate measures were i

  10. Effects of oregano on performance and immunmodulating factors in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Katrin; Frahm, Jana; Paulsen, Jana; Berk, Andreas; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Many health effects can be attributed to the Mediterranean herb oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and several studies demonstrated the improving effect on performance, changes in blood count, antibacterial, antifungal and immunmodulating abilities. The majority of these investigations were carried out with processed essential oil, while whole plant material was only used in a few studies. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to test the effect of increasing proportions of dried oregano in piglet feed on health and performance, with a special focus on immune modulation. A total of 80 male castrated weaned piglets (body weight [BW] 7.9 kg ± 1.0 kg) were used in a feeding experiment lasting 5 weeks. They were assigned to 4 experimental groups: a control diet, and three diets with an oregano supplementation at 2 g, 4 g and 8 g per kg feed, respectively, corresponding to 23.5 mg, 46.9 mg and 93.9 mg carvacrol/kg DM. After 3 weeks, half of each group was challenged with 5 µg lipopolysaccharides (LPS) per kg BW. Blood samples were collected 2 h after LPS stimulation and analysed for T-cell phenotypes, granulocyte activity, clinical-chemistry as well as white and red blood count. The results indicate no effects of oregano on performance. In contrast, oregano altered the lymphocyte proportion and the ratio of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells as well as the triglyceride concentration in the serum of non-stimulated and in LPS-stimulated piglets. In conclusion, whole plant supplementation of oregano to piglet feed altered immune-related parameters, but did not modulate the acute inflammatory response induced by LPS stimulation.

  11. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: I. Development of neonatal piglets after reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J R; Vallet, J L; Ford, J J; Freking, B A; Cushman, R A; Oliver, W T; Rempel, L A

    2012-07-01

    In commercial pigs, the greatest susceptibility for pre-weaning mortality occurs in low birth-weight piglets. Despite their overall decreased birth weight, Meishan (MS) piglets have decreased pre-weaning mortality rates compared with contemporary Western breeds. The objective of the current study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment, piglet genotype, and their interaction on the development of neonatal piglets pertaining to pre-weaning survivability using reciprocal embryo transfer between MS and White crossbred (WC) pigs. Twenty-five successful pregnancies were produced from 2 farrowing seasons, generating litters of maternal uterine environment (MUE) by piglet genotype (PigG) combinations; MS × MS (n = 4 litters), MS × WC (n = 7 litters), WC × MS (n = 7 litters), and WC × WC (n = 7 litters). At approximately 24 h of age (Day 1), piglets (n = 173) were weighed and a blood sample was taken. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, plasma urea nitrogen, albumin, NEFA, lactate, and cortisol were measured in all blood samples. Representative piglets (n = 46) from each litter were harvested and body measurements (i.e., organ weights, tissue glycogen content, and body composition) were determined. Piglet data were analyzed by ANOVA using MIXED model procedures. Both MUE (P piglet BW, illustrating that piglets gestated in WC gilts were heavier than piglets gestated in MS gilts, and WC piglets were heavier than MS piglets. Serum albumin concentrations were increased (P piglets compared with WC piglets, indicating greater liver maturity. Significant MUE × PigG interactions were observed for hematocrit and hemoglobin, in which the greatest concentrations were observed in MS piglets gestated in MS and WC gilts, and the lowest concentrations were observed in WC piglets gestated in WC gilts, demonstrating increased oxygen-carrying capability. The percentage of fat and nitrogen, as well as the GE of the body, were greater (P piglets, indicating

  12. Maternal presence and environmental enrichment affect food neophobia of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Muñoz, Julia Mas; Van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2011-02-23

    Young omnivores show food neophobia in order to avoid the potential harmful effects of ingesting unfamiliar food items. We investigated whether the presence of the mother and an enriched rearing environment would reduce food neophobia in piglets. A mother may provide information on suitable food types to include in the diet, whereas an enriched environment may stimulate behavioural development and reduce reactivity towards novel stimuli (including food). Five barren-reared or enriched-reared piglets per litter were exposed to two novel food items in the presence, and the other five per litter in the absence, of the mother in a 7 min test. Maternal presence reduced food neophobia profoundly as reflected in a reduced latency to touching the food, a higher proportion of piglets sampling the two different food items and a higher intake. Latency to touch the food, however, was affected by maternal presence more strongly for barren-reared piglets than for enriched-reared piglets, and in the absence of the sow, consumption of one novel food type and time spent in the feeding area were higher for enriched-reared piglets. Environmental enrichment does have the potential to reduce food neophobia, but the presence of the mother during the encounter with novel food seems more efficient in decreasing food neophobia of piglets.

  13. Physiological response to hypoxia in piglets of different birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Ramírez-Necoechea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to extend the characterization of the proposed naturalistic experimental model of piglets born with hypoxia by assessing the relationship between birth weight, intra partum asphyxia and gross indicators of neurophysiological alterations in newborn piglets. Three groups of 50 piglets each were classified according to their birth weight into normal (1000-1350 g, low (below 1000 g, and high (over 1350 g. In comparison to piglets within normal weight, those born with high birth weights showed acid-base imbalance as reflected by lower pH levels (7.03±0.01, hypercapnia (88.50±13.20 mmHg, and lactic acidosis (lactate levels: 89.40±26.30. These piglets had lower viability scores (5.40±0.60 and longer periods of time to contact the udder (52.30±8.30 than piglets with normal birth weight. In conclusion, data show that piglets with birth weight over 1350 g are at a higher risk of gross neurophysiological deficits, probably secondary to neonatal hypoxia.

  14. Sows’ parity and coconut oil postnatal supplement on piglets performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan S Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of sows’ of different parities and the supplement of coconut oil for piglets, on the development of litter. Materials and methods. A total of 51 sows of different parities and their 642 piglets were used in the trial. Each piglet was weighed and identified at birth in a sequential order. They were randomly distributed in two treatments (CG=control group and TG=test group. TG piglets had the first access to a dosage of 3.0 ml of coconut oil 12 hours after birth, and the second at 36 h after the first. Piglets were weighed at 21 days. In order to analyze the effect of the coconut oil supplement as a function of the weight at birth, piglets were grouped according to their weight (0.600 to 0.900 kg; 1.000 to 1.499kg; 1.500 to 1.999 kg; and 2.000 to 2.499 kg. Results. Sows parity affected the number and weight of born piglets. Sows in 4th, 5th and 7th parity had a larger litter than those from the 2nd parity. Sows from 2nd and 3rd parity had a lower number of piglets but heavier litter. No effect of the coconut oil supplement on neonatal piglets’ performance was found. Conclusions. The coconut meal was neither beneficial to neonatal piglets nor to those with low weight at birth, which usually present low body energy.

  15. The Way Humans Behave Modulates the Emotional State of Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state can influence decision-making under ambiguity. Cognitive bias tests (CBT) proved to be a promising indicator of the affective valence of animals in a context of farm animal welfare. Although it is well-known that humans can influence the intensity of fear and reactions of animals, research on cognitive bias often focusses on housing and management conditions and neglects the role of humans on emotional states of animals. The present study aimed at investigating whether humans can modulate the emotional state of weaned piglets. Fifty-four piglets received a chronic experience with humans: gentle (GEN), rough (ROU) or minimal contact (MIN). Simultaneously, they were individually trained on a go/no-go task to discriminate a positive auditory cue, associated with food reward in a trough, from a negative one, associated with punishments (e.g. water spray). Independently of the treatment (P = 0.82), 59% of piglets completed the training. Successfully trained piglets were then subjected to CBT, including ambiguous cues in presence or absence of a human observer. As hypothesized, GEN piglets showed a positive judgement bias, as shown by their higher percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue compared to ROU (P = 0.03) and MIN (P = 0.02) piglets, whereas ROU and MIN piglets did not differ (P > 0.10). The presence of an observer during CBT did not modulate the percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue (P > 0.10). However, regardless of the treatment, piglets spent less time in contact with the trough following positive cues during CBT in which the observer was present than absent (P < 0.0001). This study originally demonstrates that the nature of a chronic experience with humans can induce a judgement bias indicating that the emotional state of farm animals such as piglets can be affected by the way humans interact with them.

  16. The Way Humans Behave Modulates the Emotional State of Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Brajon

    Full Text Available The emotional state can influence decision-making under ambiguity. Cognitive bias tests (CBT proved to be a promising indicator of the affective valence of animals in a context of farm animal welfare. Although it is well-known that humans can influence the intensity of fear and reactions of animals, research on cognitive bias often focusses on housing and management conditions and neglects the role of humans on emotional states of animals. The present study aimed at investigating whether humans can modulate the emotional state of weaned piglets. Fifty-four piglets received a chronic experience with humans: gentle (GEN, rough (ROU or minimal contact (MIN. Simultaneously, they were individually trained on a go/no-go task to discriminate a positive auditory cue, associated with food reward in a trough, from a negative one, associated with punishments (e.g. water spray. Independently of the treatment (P = 0.82, 59% of piglets completed the training. Successfully trained piglets were then subjected to CBT, including ambiguous cues in presence or absence of a human observer. As hypothesized, GEN piglets showed a positive judgement bias, as shown by their higher percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue compared to ROU (P = 0.03 and MIN (P = 0.02 piglets, whereas ROU and MIN piglets did not differ (P > 0.10. The presence of an observer during CBT did not modulate the percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue (P > 0.10. However, regardless of the treatment, piglets spent less time in contact with the trough following positive cues during CBT in which the observer was present than absent (P < 0.0001. This study originally demonstrates that the nature of a chronic experience with humans can induce a judgement bias indicating that the emotional state of farm animals such as piglets can be affected by the way humans interact with them.

  17. Utilization of milk minerals by Iberian suckling piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Castellano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available concerning mineral metabolism in suckling piglets. The utilization of milk minerals and the mineral composition of Iberian (IB suckling piglets were studied in two consecutive experiments at different ambient temperatures (trial 1, 27 ± 2°C; trial 2, 22 ± 2°C. Milk composition and the piglets’ performance were determined weekly over a 34 days lactation period and, at the end, body mineral contents were analyzed and mineral retention and bioavailability were calculated. The ash content in IB sows’ milk and in suckling IB piglets was found to be higher than that reported for lean genotypes. During lactation, mean ash content per unit of body weight gain in IB piglets (40.6 g kg-1 was 42% higher than that observed for lean breeds, and weaned IB piglets contained 60% more Ca (11-12.7 g kg-1 empty body weight and P (7-7.5 g kg-1 empty body weight, compared with conventional pigs. Minerals from milk were retained by the IB piglet with an overall efficiency of 78.3%, 66.3% and 48.7% for Ca, P and Mg, respectively. Significant differences between trials were observed in the mineral fraction composition of the milk, which were reflected in piglet body composition at weaning, presumably due to differences in ambient temperature. Present findings underline genotype differences in mineral composition of sow’s milk and suckling piglets and may provide a useful starting point for formulating milk-replacer diets for IB piglets.

  18. The piglet's behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  19. Congenital cutaneous histiocytosis in a piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélie, P; Kiupel, M; Drolet, R

    2014-07-01

    A 2-week-old crossbred male piglet with numerous congenital, variably sized macules, plaques, and papules distributed all over the body was submitted for necropsy. Significant gross and histological lesions were restricted to the skin. On light microscopic examination, these cutaneous lesions corresponded to dermal and/or subcutaneous masses composed of spindle-shaped to round cells that multifocally contained hemosiderin; epidermotropism was not observed. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for CD204; moderately positive for CD163, lysozyme, and vimentin; and negative for Mac 387, α-1-antitrypsin, S-100 protein and E-cadherin; frozen tissues were not available for CD1a and CD11c. Transmission electron microscopic examination of sections from formalin-fixed tissues did not reveal Birbeck's granules. The clinical, morphological, and immunohistochemical results were consistent with a congenital cutaneous histiocytosis of non-Langerhans cell origin. The condition most resembled juvenile xanthogranuloma in humans, a generally skin-limited non-Langerhans histiocytic disorder that can be congenital. Cutaneous and/or systemic histiocytic disorders are well characterized in dogs and have been described in cats, and a case with some similarities to ours has been reported in a neonatal piglet, but this is to our knowledge the first immunohistochemically supported report of histiocytosis in the pig and congenital histiocytosis in animals.

  20. Consequences for Piglet Performance of Group Housing Lactating Sows at One, Two, or Three Weeks Post-Farrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsson, Ola; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Magnusson, Ulf; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Wallenbeck, Anna; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi

    2016-01-01

    Housing lactating sows with piglets in a multi-suckling pen from around 14 days post-farrowing is common practice in Swedish organic piglet production. However, nursing-suckling interaction is less frequent in multi-suckling pens than in individual farrowing pens, thus affecting piglet performance, e.g., piglet growth. Moreover, piglet mortality is higher in systems using multi-suckling pens. Three management routines whereby lactating sows with piglets were moved from individual farrowing pens to multi-suckling pens at one, two, or three weeks post-farrowing were compared in terms of nursing-suckling interaction and piglet performance. Correlations between nursing-suckling interaction, piglet performance, and piglet mortality were also examined. In total, 43 Yorkshire sows with piglets were included in the study. Nursing-suckling interaction and all piglet performance parameters except piglet mortality did not differ between management routines. Piglet mortality in the individual farrowing pens did not differ between management routines, but piglet mortality in the multi-suckling pen was lower (Ppiglets were group housed at three weeks compared with one week post-farrowing. Overall piglet mortality was positively correlated with mortality in the multi-suckling pen for piglets group housed at one week (r = 0.61: Ppiglets group housed at three weeks post-farrowing. In conclusion, overall piglet mortality could be reduced if sows and piglets are group housed at three weeks post-farrowing and piglet survival the first week post-farrowing is improved.

  1. Transfer of maternal immunity to piglets is involved in early protection against Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Hagedorn-Olsen, Tine; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2017-01-01

    by immunoblotting and measurement of M. hyosynoviae-specific T-cell proliferation. The latter analysis may possibly indicate that M. hyosynoviae infection induces a T-cell response. The CCE piglets were significantly protected against development of lameness and pathology, as well as infection with M. hyosynoviae...... in tonsils, blood and joints, when compared to the two other groups. Raising the CCE pigs in an infected environment until weaning, with carrier sows as mothers, apparently made them resistant to M. hyosynoviae-arthritis when challenge-infected at 4½ weeks of age. More pigs in group NC had M. hyosynoviae...

  2. New fodder and herbal drug slash weaning piglet mortality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ One of the long-standing headaches for hog husbandry is the high mortality of weaning piglets. After four years of arduous study, a group of CAS scientists has made progress in solving this problem.

  3. Chenodeoxycholic acid reduces intestinal permeability in newly weaned piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Y; Gerrits, W J J; van den Bosch, M

    2012-01-01

    , peptide YY (PYY), and glucose. Afterwards, piglets were offered the experimental diets ad libitum. On days 3.5, 7.5, and 10.5 after weaning, serum responses to an intragastric dose of lactulose and Co-EDTA were tested at 2 h after dosing in 8 piglets per treatment. Immediately thereafter, piglets were......, and plasma GLP-2 and PYY. Serum cobalt and lactulose at day 10.5 tended to be lower in CDCA pigs compared with control pigs. Serum cobalt and lactulose concentrations were positively correlated (r = 0.67; P ... to newly weaned piglets, implying that CDCA deserves further study as a means for improving intestinal health. The positive correlation found between Co-EDTA and lactulose indicates that both marker molecules measure similar change in permeability....

  4. Induction of lactational estrus in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    The longer lactation period required in organic piglet producing herds reduces the potential number of produced litters per sow per year compared with that of conventional production. Induction and use of lactational estrus may be a way to increase the productivity in organic production. However...... in an organic outdoor system based on ad libitum feeding, individual housing until Day 35 in lactation, followed by grouping and introduction of a boar and weaning of piglets after 8 wk. Five groups with four sows ((Danish Yorkshire × Danish Landrace) × Danish Duroc) in each were observed, and rank...... study indicate that it is possible to combine lactational estrus and batch farrowing procedures to increase the number of weaned piglets per year per sow in organic piglet production based on 8 wk of lactation or more....

  5. Mechanical and vasomotor properties of piglet isolated middle cerebral artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Vibeke Ramsgaard; Abdolalizadeh, Bahareh; Trautner, Simon;

    2016-01-01

    Piglets are often used as experimental models for studying cerebrovascular responses in newborn infants. However, the mechanical characteristics of piglets’ middle cerebral arteries (MCA) are not well characterized. Additionally, the vessels’ response to dopamine, the most commonly used vasopress...

  6. Effect of dietary protein source on piglet meat quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis E Simitzis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different dietary protein sources (soybean meal vs whey protein on piglet meat quality characteristics. Eighteen castrated male Large White × Duroc × Landrace piglets were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Piglets were kept in individual metabolic cages and fed ad libitum over a period of 38 days the following 2 diets: diet SB, which was formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of piglets using soybean meal as the main crude protein source and diet WP, where SB was totally replaced by a mixture of whey proteins on equal digestible energy and crude protein basis. At the end of the experiment, piglets were weighed and slaughtered. After overnight chilling, samples of Longissimus dorsi muscle were taken and were used for meat quality measurements.         No significant differences were observed in the values of pH, colour, water holding capacity, shear force and intramuscular fat content of L. dorsi muscle between the dietary treatments. Measurement of lipid oxidation values showed that dietary supplementation with different protein sources did not influence meat antioxidant properties during refrigerated storage. The SB piglets had lower 14:0 (P<0.01 and higher 18:3n-3 (P<0.001 levels in intramuscular fat in comparison with WP piglets. However, these changes were attributed to background differences in the dietary FA profile and not to a direct protein source effect. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the examined dietary protein sources (soybean meal or whey protein do not have a significant effect on meat quality characteristics of piglets.

  7. Effects of antibacterial peptide on cellular immunity in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Z H; Yuan, W; Deng, H D; Deng, J L; Dan, Q X; Jin, H T; Tian, C L; Peng, X; Liang, Z; Gao, S; Xu, S H; Li, G; Hu, Y

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of antibacterial peptide (ABP) sufficiency on cellular immune functions by determining the spleen cell cycle and apoptosis, peripheral blood T cell subsets, and T cell proliferation function in weaned piglets. A total of 90 piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) of both sexes were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments. Each treatment consisted of 3 replicates with 6 piglets per replicate. The dietary treatments consisted of the negative control (NC; basal diet), positive control (PC; basal diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg Astragalus polysaccharide), and ABP (basal diet mixed with 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg ABP). The experimental lasted for 28 d. Two piglets from each replicate were selected randomly for blood samples extraction from the jugular vein to obtain peripheral blood T cell subsets, and T cell proliferation function analysis was performed on d 32, 39, 46, and 53. Two piglets from each replicate were selected and euthanized to observe the spleen cell cycle and apoptosis on d 39 and 53. In ABP-sufficient piglets, the G0/G1 phase of the spleen cell cycle was much lower (P ABP sufficiency (P ABP-sufficient piglets. Percentages of CD3 (+) and CD3 (+)CD4 (+) ratios (d 39, 46, and 53) and CD4 (+)CD8 (+) ratios (d 32, 39, 46, and 53) increased remarkably (P ABP sufficiency compared with NC. These results suggest that ABP sufficiency could increase the T cell population and proliferation function of T cells and could induce decreased percentages of apoptotic cells. Overall, the cellular immune function was evidently improved in weaned piglets. We suggest optimal dosages of 500 mg/kg ABP for 4-wk addition and 1,000 mg/kg ABP for 2-wk addition.

  8. Modeling Pediatric Brain Trauma: Piglet Model of Controlled Cortical Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Jennifer C Munoz; Keeley, Kristen; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Dodge, Carter P

    2016-01-01

    The brain has different responses to traumatic injury as a function of its developmental stage. As a model of injury to the immature brain, the piglet shares numerous similarities in regards to morphology and neurodevelopmental sequence compared to humans. This chapter describes a piglet scaled focal contusion model of traumatic brain injury that accounts for the changes in mass and morphology of the brain as it matures, facilitating the study of age-dependent differences in response to a comparable mechanical trauma.

  9. Utilization of milk fatty acids by the suckling Iberian piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinaga, M A; Haro, A; Lara, L; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2016-11-01

    A total of 16 pure-bred Iberian (IB) sows, all of them suckling six piglets, were used, eight of them in each of the two consecutive trials (1 and 2). Daily milk yield and composition were determined weekly over a 34-day lactation period. Within each litter, one piglet at birth and four piglets on day 35 of life were slaughtered. Milk intake per piglet tended to be greater in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P=0.066), but piglets grew at 168±3.3 g/day, irrespective of the trial. In the IB sow milk, the linoleic (LA) : linolenic (LNA) acid ratio averaged 14.6 and 15.2 in trial 1 and trial 2, respectively. A fivefold increase in piglet body fat content was observed over lactation (Pacids were very close to those in the milk consumed, suggesting direct deposition. Daily deposition of LA derivatives and of LNA and its derivatives was found to be extremely low (acid (ARA) in tissues of the IB piglet at birth disappeared throughout the lactating period. An overall fractional deposition for total fatty acids (FA) was 0.409. Fractional oxidation (disappearance) rates were 0.939 and 0.926 for n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The overall rate of disappearance for the major non-essential FA (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids), estimated as 1-the overall fractional deposition rate, was 0.546. It is concluded that the high degree of FA unsaturation, high oxidation rate of LA and LNA, and poor synthesis of ARA from LA and of docosahexaenoic acid from LNA found in the suckling piglet might increase the energy cost of whole-body fat accretion, a contributor to the observed low efficiency of use of milk energy for growth.

  10. Dietary preferences of weaned piglets offered diets containing organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A preference test and a performance trial were carried out to examine weaned piglets’ feed intake response to diets containing either lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate (8 g kg-1 feed.In Experiment 1, throughout a 21-d post-weaning period,30 entire litters (306 piglets weaned at the age of 30 d were allowed to choose between two organic-acid-supplemented diets. All of the four different organic-acid-supplemented diets were tested in pairs against each other,and the six possible combinations were lactic acid +formic acid,lactic acid +calcium formate,lactic acid + sodium benzoate,formic acid +calcium formate,formic acid +sodium benzoate,and calcium for-mate +sodium benzoate.Piglets preferred diets supplemented with sodium benzoate to ones supplemented with formic acid or calcium formate.The acceptability of diets supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,or calcium formate was similar.In Experiment 2,until the age of 58 d,60 piglets from 10 litters weaned at the age of 28 or 38 d were fed non-acidified diets or ones supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate.Feed consumption did not differ between piglets fed non-acidified and those fed organic-acid-supplemented diets. Growth performance was reduced by dietary calcium formate supplementation, while the performance of piglets fed other organic-acid-supplemented diets did not differ significantly from those fed the non-acidified control diet.The frequency of post-weaning diarrhoea was highest in piglets fed diets supplemented with calcium formate and lowest in piglets fed diets supplemented with formic acid.;

  11. Does light attract piglets to the creep area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2015-01-01

    Hypothermia, experienced by piglets, has been related to piglet deaths and high and early use of a heated creep area is considered important to prevent hypothermia. The aims of the present study were to investigate how a newly invented radiant heat source, eHeat, would affect piglets' use...... of the creep area and whether light in the creep area works as an attractant on piglets. A total of 39 sows, divided between two batches, were randomly distributed to three heat source treatments: (1) standard infrared heat lamp (CONT, n=19), (2) eHeat with light (EL, n=10) and (3) eHeat without light (ENL, n......=10). Recordings of piglets' use of the creep area were made as scan sampling every 10 min for 3 h during two periods, one in daylight (0900 to 1200 h) and one in darkness (2100 to 2400 h), on day 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 postpartum. On the same days, piglets were weighted. Results showed an interaction...

  12. Fiber sources in diets for newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp in the diet of weaned piglets. A total of 72 piglets (36 castrated males and 36 females weaned at 21 days of age (BW 6.45±0.66 kg was distributed according to a randomized block design, for evaluation of performance, transit time, diarrhea incidence and blood parameters of piglets which received diets containing different sources of fiber. The experimental diets were: control diet - diet composed of corn, soybean meal and a source of lactose; control + 1.5% purified cellulose; control + 3% soybean hull and control + 9% citrus pulp. The inclusion of purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp in diets of weaned piglets did not affect the performance or transit time of diets in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the use of purified cellulose reduced incidence of diarrhea. The use of purified cellulose, soybean hull and citrus pulp in the diet of weaned piglets does not affect performance or gastrointestinal transit time. The addition of purified cellulose promotes a beneficial effect to control the diarrhea in weaned piglets.

  13. Performance of weaned piglets fed diets containing spray dried plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Enrique Lemos Budinõ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of spray dried plasma (SDP on the performance and incidence of diarrhea in early weaned piglets. Fifty-six piglets from the same lineage, with an approximate live weight of 3.87 ± 0.65 kg and approximate age of 14 days, were used. Four levels of inclusion of SDP in the piglet diets were tested during two consecutive periods, 14 to 28 days of age (period 1 and 29 to 42 days of age (period 2. The levels of SDP used were 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% for period 1 and 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% for period 2. During period 3 (42 to 56 days of age, all piglets received a diet without SDP. For performance evaluation, the piglets were weighed fortnightly and on the last day of the trial when the age of the batch was 56 days. Daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, and feed conversion were analyzed. No significant difference (P<0.05 in feed intake, weight gain or feed conversion was observed between treatments. The inclusion of SDP in the diet did not influence the performance of early weaned piglets

  14. Marine macroalgal extracts to maintain gut homeostasis in the weaning piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, T; O'Doherty, J V

    2016-07-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a dynamic environment, where a symbiotic relationship exists between the resident microbiota and the digestive and immune systems of the host. The development of the immune system begins in-utero and is further developed after the colonization of the GIT with microbiota during birth and postnatal life. The early establishment of this relationship is fundamental to the development and long-term maintenance of gut homeostasis. Regulatory mechanisms ensure an appropriate level of immune reactivity in the gut to accommodate the presence of beneficial and dietary microorganisms, whereas allowing effective immune responses to clear pathogens. However, unfavorable alterations in the composition of the microbiota, known as dysbiosis, have been implicated in many conditions including post-weaning diarrhea in pigs. Weaning is a major critical period in pig husbandry. It involves complex dietary, social, and environmental stresses that interfere with gut development. Post-weaning complications in piglets are characterized by a reduction in-feed intake and growth, atrophy of small intestine architecture, upregulation of intestinal inflammatory cytokines, alterations in GIT microflora, diarrhea, and heightened susceptibility to infection. These challenges have been controlled with in-feed prophylactic antibiotics and dietary minerals. However, these strategies are under scrutiny because of their role in promoting multidrug resistant bacteria and the accumulation of minerals in the environment, respectively. Therefore, significant efforts are being made to identify natural alternatives to support homeostasis in the piglet GIT, in particular during the weaning period. Chemodiversity in nature; including microorganisms, terrestrial plants, seaweeds, and marine organisms, offers a valuable source for novel bioactives. In this review, we discuss the advances in our understanding of the immune mechanisms by which the dynamic interplay of

  15. Intestinal response to myeloablative chemotherapy in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko; Shen, René Liang; Petersen, Bodil L

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced myeloablation prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may be associated with severe toxicity. The current understanding of the pathophysiology of oral and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is largely derived from studies in rodents and very little...... is known from humans, especially children. We hypothesized that milk-fed piglets can be used as a clinically relevant model of GI-toxicity related to a standard conditioning chemotherapy (intravenous busulfan, Bu plus cyclophosphamide, Cy) used prior to HSCT. In study 1, dose-response relationships were....../kg) and bone marrow was collected on day 11. Histology of bone marrow samples showed total aplasia after treatment A. Using this treatment in study 2, Bu-Cy pigs showed lowered spleen and intestinal weights and variable clinical signs of dehydration, sepsis, and pneumonia at tissue collection. Oral mucositis...

  16. Effects of neoprene mat on diarrhea, mortality and foreleg abrasion of pre-weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhaobing; Xin, Hongwei; Wang, Chaoyuan; Shi, Zhengxiang; Liu, Zuohua; Yang, Feiyun; Lin, Baozhong; Wang, Chao; Li, Baoming

    2010-06-01

    Modern commercial swine farrowing crates are typically equipped with slatted iron floor to improve management efficiency (e.g., ease of manure handling, cleanliness of the farrowing crates and hence improved animal hygiene). However, the bare and hard floor surface can impair the welfare of the sow-litter because of some undesirable impacts on the pigs, such as foreleg abrasion, large temperature gradients between the cold floor surface and the abdomen of the piglets (hence higher susceptibility to diarrhea), and higher pre-weaning mortality or morbidity. Although straw bedding has been shown to be conducive to providing better environment for the sow-litter, use of straw creates challenges in terms of economics, hygiene and manure handling. This study investigates the use of neoprene mat (NM) in key areas of the farrowing crates - underneath the sow and in the piglet suckling area to improve the microenvironment and hence welfare of the sow-litter. Two experiments were conducted, each involving 12 sow-litters. The first experiment was to evaluate the thickness of a rectangular-shaped NM (7, 10 or 13 mm) vs. the slatted iron floor (control or Ctrl) and collect the corresponding animal response data; while the second follow-up experiment was to verify the benefits of supplying an improved, double concave (or H)-shaped NM with 10mm thick (CNM10) vs. Ctrl for the farrowing operation. Results of both experiments demonstrated considerable benefits of the NM placement in the farrowing crates. Specifically, the NM reduced the piglet foreleg lesion area and joint swellings (0% for NM vs. 8-10% for Ctrl during suckling periods in both Expts 1 and 2, P<0.001); reduced pre-weaning piglet crushing mortality (18.5+/-5.0%, 6.7+/-3.3% and 9.1+/-5.2% and for Ctrl, NM7 and NM10 and in Expt 1, P<0.05); and reduced piglet diarrhea morbidity (0.6+/-0.2% for CNM10 vs. 2.7+/-0.3% for Ctrl in Expt 2, P<0.01). Piglets in the NM litters had smaller temperature gradients between the abdomen

  17. Protective Immunity Induced by a Chimeric Porcine Circovirus in Piglets%嵌合猪圆环病毒对仔猪的免疫保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵小雪; 谢俊岭; 高峰; 周双海; 高洁; 王婷; 谭伟

    2012-01-01

    为分析嵌合猪圆环病毒(PCV 1-2)对仔猪的免疫效力,检测了PCV1-2免疫诱导仔猪产生抗猪圆环病毒Ⅱ型(PCV2)感染的保护性免疫.将10头28日龄健康普通仔猪随机平均分成两组,一组肌注免疫106.05 TCID50 PCV 1-2作为免疫组;另一组不予免疫作为对照.到免疫后28天,免疫组仔猪血清中PCV2ORF2蛋白抗体全部转为阳性.在免疫后28天,所有仔猪经口鼻予以106.95 TCID50 PCV2攻击.攻毒后,免疫组仔猪全部保持临床健康,而对照组仔猪全部出现了PCV2疾病的临床症状;免疫组血清和淋巴组织中PCV2 DNA载量均显著(P<0.05)减少;对照组仔猪淋巴组织普遍出现中度到重度的淋巴细胞减少与组织细胞浸润,而免疫组没有.研究数据表明:PCV1-2免疫诱发了仔猪对PCV2感染的保护性免疫,有望成为候选PCV2弱毒疫苗.%To explore the immunity efficacy of a chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV1-2) to piglets, the protective immunity induced by the PCV1-2 against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections in piglets were investigated. A total of 10 healthy conventional piglets were randomly and equally assigned to two groups of 5 piglets each. Piglets in group 1 were vaccinated by intramuscular injection with 106.05 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of the chimeric PCV1-2 live virus. Piglets in group 2 were not vaccinated and served as controls. By 28 days post-vaccination (DPV), all piglets in group 1 had seroconverted to PCV2 ORF2 antibody. At 28 DPV, all piglets were challenged orally and intranasally with 50625 TCID50 wild pathogenic PCV2 viruses. All vaccinated piglets remained clinically healthy after challenge, while unvaccinated animals developed clinical signs relative to PCV2 diseases. The PCV2 DNA loads in sera and lymphoid tissues were significantly (P<0.05) reduced in vaccinated piglets. Moderate to severe lymphoid depletion and histiocytic replacement were detected in most lymphoid tissues of unvaccinated

  18. Dietary alpha-Lipoic Acid Alters Piglet Neurodevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alpha-lipoic acid (a-LA is an antioxidant shown to ameliorate age-associated impairments of brain and cardiovascular function. Human milk is known to have high antioxidant capacity, however the role of antioxidants in the developing brain is largely uncharacterized. This exploratory study aimed to examine the dose response effects of a-LA on piglet growth and neurodevelopment. Methods: Beginning at 2 d of age, 31 male pigs received one of three diets: control (CONT [0 mg a-LA/100g], low a-LA (LOW [120 mg a-LA/100g], or high a-LA (HIGH [240 mg a-LA/100g]. From 14 to 28 d of age, pigs were subjected to spatial T-maze assessment and macrostructural and microstructural neuroimaging procedures were performed at 31 d of age.Results: No differences due to diet were observed for bodyweight gain or intestinal weight and length. Spatial T-maze assessment did not reveal learning differences due to diet in proportion of correct choices or latency to choice measures. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed decreased (P = 0.01 fractional anisotropy (FA in the internal capsule of HIGH fed pigs compared with both the CONT (P < 0.01 and LOW (P = 0.03 fed pigs, which were not different from one another. Analysis of axial diffusivity (AD within the internal capsule revealed a main effect of diet (P < 0.01 in which HIGH fed piglets exhibited smaller (P < 0.01 rates of diffusion compared with CONT piglets, but HIGH fed piglets were not different (P = 0.12 than LOW fed piglets. Tract-based spatial statistics, a comparison of FA values along white matter tracts, revealed 1,650 voxels where CONT piglets exhibited higher (P < 0.05 values compared with HIGH fed piglets. Conclusion: The lack of differences in intestinal and bodyweight measures among piglets indicate a-LA supplementation does not impact overall growth, regardless of concentration. Additionally, no observed differences between CONT and LOW fed piglets in behavior and neuroimaging measures indicate a

  19. Maternal endometrial oedema may increase perinatal mortality of cloned and transgenic piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winter, K.D.; Dantzer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    delivery (56% v. 24%, respectively; P organ weights were recorded for seven cloned LW piglets and six normal piglets. The relative weight of the heart, liver, kidneys and small intestine was found to be reduced in the cloned piglets (P ... endometrial oedema in sows pregnant with cloned and transgenic piglets, as well as in empty recipients, at term. The growth of certain organs in some of the cloned piglets was reduced and the rate of stillborn piglets was greater in cloned and transgenic piglets delivered vaginally, possibly because of oedema......The perinatal mortality of cloned animals is a well-known problem. In the present retrospective study, we report on mortality of cloned transgenic or non-transgenic piglets produced as part of several investigations. Large White (LW) sows (n = 105) received hand-made cloned LW or minipig...

  20. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: II. Piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J R; Vallet, J L; Ford, J J; Freking, B A; Oliver, W T; Rempel, L A

    2015-04-01

    Crossbreeding studies between Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs have illustrated that increased piglet growth before weaning is attributed to the maternal genotype of LW dams. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment (MUE), piglet genotype (PigG), piglet age (PA), and their interactions on piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between MS and White crossbred (WC) gilts. Twenty-five successful pregnancies were generated by embryo transfer in 2 farrowing years representing all MUE × PigG combinations: MS × MS (n = 4 litters), MS × WC (n = 7 litters), WC × MS (n = 7 litters), and WC × WC (n = 7 litters). At d 1 and 10 and at weaning, piglets (n = 147, n = 96, and n = 94, respectively) were weighed and blood samples were collected and measured for hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, nitrogen, NEFA, albumin, lactate, and cortisol. In addition, sows were manually milked from a medial mammary gland to determine milk composition. All data were analyzed by ANOVA using MIXED model procedures with the fixed effects of MUE, PigG, PA, and their interactions. Piglet weight was greater (P piglets from WC dams compared to MS dams at d 10 and weaning but not at d 1. In addition, ADG were greater (P piglets from WC dams compared to MS dams throughout lactation. However, milk composition was greater (P piglets, irrespective of MUE, at d 1 of lactation and in MS piglets from MS dams at d 10 of lactation. Blood glucose was greater (P = 0.01) at d 1 in piglets from WC dams regardless of PigG but, at weaning, glucose was greater (P = 0.01) in WC piglets regardless of MUE. Serum NEFA levels were greater (P = 0.02) in piglets from MS dams throughout the lactation period. This study demonstrated that WC dams were superior to MS dams for piglet growth during lactation, in agreement with previous crossbreeding studies. However

  1. The investigation of new forms of resistance to some antibiotics in E coli strains isolated from piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ašanin Ružica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of bacteria poses a significant problem everywhere in the world, and consequently in our country as well. The non-critical use of antibacterial medicines in human and veterinary medicine has contributed to the spreading of this resistance. Due to the topical importance of this problem, large numbers of states in the world are financing projects of which the objective is to follow and monitor bacterial resistance. The objective of this investigation was to isolate and identify pathogenic strains of E. coli from piglets with clinically manifest diarrhea and to examine the sensitivity of the isolated strains to a certain number of selected antibiotics. The material for these investigations were parts of intestines (jejunum, ileum from piglets that died, rectal smears and feces of diseased piglets sampled pig farms in the vicinity of Belgrade. Conventional methods of microbiological diagnostics were used for isolation, and conventional and commercial tests API 20E (bio Merieux, France were used for identification. Following biochemical identification using hyper immune serums for certain group (O antigens: (O8, O138, O139, O147, O149, and O157, the serological typization of the strains was carried out. Commercial antiserums: T K88 (F4, K99 (F5, and 987P (F6, Toxigenic E. coli pili antisera, Denka Seiken Co. Ltd. Tokyo, Japan were used to establish the presence and to identify fimbrial antigens-adhesions through slide agglutination reaction. The sensitivity of the antibiotics to the isolated strains of E. coli was examined using the disc diffusion method according to Kirby Bauer and the microdillution method in bouillon according to CLSI recommendations (2008. Examinations using the microdillution method in bouillon were performed with pure active antibiotic substances: ampicillin, apramycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin (Sigma, USA. A total of 400 E. coli strains were isolated, including 48 E

  2. Direct, maternal and nurse sow genetic effects on farrowing-pre-weaning- and total piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, E.F.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Lende, van der T.

    2002-01-01

    Peri- and postnatal survival data, including birth weights and cross-foster information from two line/farm combinations with 33717 and 29200 piglets, respectively, were analyzed to find the best genetic model to describe piglet survival. This was done in terms of direct (piglet), maternal and nurse

  3. Variance and covariance components for liability of piglet survival during different periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, G; Sorensen, D; Lund, M S

    2008-01-01

    Variance and covariance components for piglet survival in different periods were estimated from individual records of 133 004 Danish Landrace piglets and 89 928 Danish Yorkshire piglets, using a liability threshold model including both direct and maternal additive genetic effects. At the individual...

  4. Determination of piglet location in farrowing crates based on depth and digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding and properly managing behavioral responses of prewean piglets to the farrowing environment can improve well-being and pre-weaning performance of the piglets. This paper aims to quantify piglet location in the farrowing crate as affected by the lactating sow’s lying posture. Each farrow...

  5. Myokine interleukin-15 expression profile is different in suckling and weaning piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehui Duan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-15 (IL-15 is a cytokine highly expressed in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study was to investigate the development of muscle IL-15 expression in suckling piglets and in early weaning piglets (day 14 at each level, that is, mRNA, protein, and secretion. Eight litters (eight piglets per litter of newborn healthy piglets (Large × White × Landrace with a similar initial weight (1618.0 ± 140.1 g were chosen and divided into two groups. Group one used suckling piglets that were killed, respectively, at days 1, 7, 14, 21, and group two used early (day 14 weaning piglets that were killed respectively, at days 15, 17, 19, 21. In group one, IL-15 gene expression levels increased significantly (P  0.05 among piglets at other ages. These findings indicated that increased IL-15 mRNA expression did not result in a corresponding increase of its protein expression. In group two, which used early weaning piglets from days 15–19, IL-15 mRNA and protein expression levels increased constantly (P  0.05 compared with suckling piglets at day 14 of age. However, IL-15 protein expression levels in early weaning piglets at day 21 of age dropped significantly (P < 0.05 to the levels as suckling piglets at day 21 of age, while body weight increased (P < 0.05 markedly to the levels as suckling piglets at day 21 of age. In both groups, the serum IL-15 levels of piglets decreased significantly (P < 0.01 over time. Taken together, our results indicate that IL-15 expression differs in suckling piglets and in weaning piglets. It is speculated that IL-15 may play an important role in counteracting the effects of early weaning stress.

  6. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Caitlyn M; Dilger, Ryan N

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic profiles to rodents and humans when exposed to moderate choline deficiency.

  7. Postnatal auditory preferences in piglets differ according to maternal emotional experience with the same sounds during gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallet, Céline; Rakotomahandry, Marine; Guérin, Carole; Lemasson, Alban; Hausberger, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal sensory experience, notably auditory experience, is a source of fetal memories in many species. The contiguity between sensory stimuli and maternal emotional reactions provides opportunity for associative learning in utero but no clear evidence for this associative learning has been presented to date. Understanding this phenomenon would advance our knowledge of fetal sensory learning capacities. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that sounds (human voice) broadcast to pregnant sows while they experienced positive or negative emotional situations influences postnatal reactions of their offspring to these same sounds. The results show that: 1) from the first testing at the age of 2 days, the experimental piglets were less distressed by a social separation than controls if they heard the “familiar” voice, 2) piglets generalized to any human voice although the influence of novel voices was less pronounced, 3) in a challenging situation, piglets were more distressed if they heard the voice that was associated with maternal negative emotional state in utero. These findings open a whole line of new research on the long term effect of in utero associative learning that goes well beyond pigs, providing a framework for reconsidering the importance of sensory and emotional experiences during gestation. PMID:27857224

  8. Piglet use of the creep area - Effects of breeding value and farrowing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasdal, Guro; Andersen, Inger Lise; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate piglet use of the creep area, comparing litters of sows with a high vs. low breeding value for piglet survival in the first 5 days postpartum, that were either housed in crates or individual pens during farrowing and lactation. Seventy-five Yorkshire...... × Danish Landrace sows were video recorded for 4 days after farrowing, and the analysis was conducted using instantaneous sampling every 10 min commencing 24 h after the birth of the first piglet for a period of 72 h. Breeding value for piglet survival had no effect on piglet use of the creep area or time spent...... in any location of the farrowing environment. Farrowing environment had significant effects on piglet location; during all days there were significantly more piglets in the creep area in the crates compared to the pens (P 

  9. Utilization of milk amino acids by the suckling Iberian piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinaga, M A; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2011-12-01

    Sixteen pure-bred Iberian (IB) sows were used in two trials to determine the efficiency of utilization of milk protein and amino acid (AA) for growth in suckling piglets. It was hypothesized that there may be one or more strongly limiting essential AA (EAA) responsible for the slow rate of growth of the IB piglet. This AA will show the highest fractional retention. Daily milk yield and composition were determined weekly over a 34-day lactation period. Within each litter, one piglet at birth and four piglets on d 35 of life were slaughtered. The protein content of the IB sow milk was similar to that reported for conventional breeds. However, branched-chain AA, Thr, Pro, Asp and Ala were in concentrations somewhat below the range of literature values and Arg and Met, substantially above it. Milk intake per piglet tended to be greater in Trial 2 (832 vs. 893 g/day respectively; p = 0.066). However, the IB piglets grew at 168 ± 3.3 g/day, irrespective of the trial. The whole-body protein of piglets at weaning and the protein deposited in their body during the lactating period showed very close AA pattern. Among EAA, His and Arg show the highest fractional retentions (g AA retained/g AA ingested) in whole-body tissues (1.019 ± 0.025 and 0.913 ± 0.017 respectively) and also the highest body to milk ratios (1.50 and 1.41 respectively). Gly and Ala presented, among non essential AA, the highest efficiencies of utilization for tissue deposition (1.803 ± 0.057 and 1.375 ± 0.026 respectively) and body to milk ratios (2.75 and 2.12 respectively). These results suggest that the low efficiency of utilization of milk protein and the low rate of gain of the IB suckling piglet can be explained by a marked shortage in His supply, in addition to the suboptimal milk provision of Arg, Gly and Ala.

  10. Effect of Genotype and Sex of Piglets on Their Losses Before Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevrkla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to analyze selected reproductive characteristics in sows and losses of piglets according to their age and to evaluate the effect of sex on survivability of piglets before weaning. The experimental observation involved 80 sows with their second litters (40 sows of genotye I and 40 sows of genotype II. The sows were mated with a boar of Danish Duroc. No significant difference was found between the evaluated genotypes of sows in numbers of live‑born piglets and reared piglets, however it is evident that better results were reached by the sows of the genotype II. Also the losses of piglets per litter were lower, by 0.65 piece (P ≤ 0.05. In sows of the genotype I a high correlation (P ≤ 0.01 was confirmed between the number of live‑born piglets and the number of reared piglets per litter (r = 0.750. Another correlation was found between the number of live‑born piglets and their losses before weaning (r = 0.716. Similar trend was observed in the genotype II, however without significant correlation between the number of live‑born piglets and the losses of piglets before weaning. The results also revealed that the piglets died mostly before the 14th day of age, while the losses of male piglets were more frequent than of female piglets. Losses of female piglets of the genotype I before the 14th day of age were 6.82 %, in the genotype II they were 3.01 %. In this period, the losses of male piglets reached 9.56 % in the genotype I and 4.49 % in the genotype II. From the 14th day to weaning the losses of female piglets counted 2.39 % vs. 0.75 %, the losses of male piglets 1.37 % vs. 2.88 %. The total losses from birth to weaning were 9.22 % vs. 3.76 % in female piglets and 10.92 % vs. 7.37 % in male piglets.

  11. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Lun Chiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05 body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry.

  12. The assessment of facial expressions in piglets undergoing tail docking and castration: towards the development of the Piglet Grimace Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Di Giminiani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many piglets are exposed to potentially painful husbandry procedures within the first week of life, including tail docking and castration, without the provision of either anaesthesia or analgesia. The assessment methods used to evaluate pain experienced by piglets are often affected by low specificity and practical limitations, prompting the investigation of alternative methodologies. The assessment of changes in facial expression following a painful event has been successfully applied to several species. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of a Grimace Scale applied to neonatal pigs to evaluate pain evoked by tail docking and castration.Eight female piglets, sus scrofa domesticus (Landrace/Large White X synthetic sire line underwent tail docking and 15 male piglets (75% Large White and 25% Belgian Landrace were exposed to the castration procedure. Clear images of the faces of the piglets were collected immediately pre- and post-procedure. The images were used by experienced observers to identify Facial Action Units (FAU which changed in individuals over this period and a scoring scale was depicted in a training manual. A set of randomly selected images were then combined in a scorebook, which was evaluated after training by 30 scorers, blind to the treatment. The scale for most FAU was used with a high level of consistency across all observers. Tail docking induced a significant change (P<0.05 only in the ‘orbital tightening’ Action Unit, whereas no change in any unit was observed in castrated piglets. In this initial stage of development, orbital tightening at least seems to have the potential to be applied to investigate painful conditions in neonatal pigs. Nonetheless, more studies are needed to assess its full effectiveness and to evaluate the influence of possible confounds (e.g. handling stress on the observed changes in facial expressions.

  13. Gas alternatives to carbon dioxide for euthanasia: A piglet perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification and validation of a humane method to euthanize piglets is critical to address concern that current methods are not acceptable. This research sought to: 1) identify a method of scientifically determining if pigs find a specific euthanasia method aversive, and 2) develop an innovati...

  14. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Wieler, Lothar H; Taras, David; Herwig, Volker; Tachu, Babila; Hlinak, Andreas; Schmidt, Michael F G; Scharek, Lydia

    2007-07-15

    Probiotic bacteria have been suggested to stimulate the host immune system. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the systemic immunity of piglets. A pool of 70 piglets was divided into a probiotic or control group. We determined the ratios of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and measured proliferative responses and cytokine production of PBMCs and effects on vaccination responses. Blood samples of probiotic-treated piglets showed a significantly lower frequency of CD8(high)/CD3+ T cells and CD8(low)/CD3+ T cells and a significant higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio. IL-4 and IFN-gamma production of polyclonally stimulated PBMCs was on average higher in the probiotic group. Specific proliferative responses of PBMCs to Influenza vaccination antigens were significantly higher and antibody titers against H3N2 Influenza and Mycoplasma vaccination antigens were on average higher in the probiotic group. In conclusion, B. cereus var. toyoi therefore alters the immune status of piglets as indicated by changes in the ratios as well as functionalities of systemic immune cell populations.

  15. Persistent Classical Swine Fever infection in newborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Lohse, Louise; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    is anticipated to be epidemiologically important. To study the course of CSFV PI in pigs, four sows were infected with 2009-CSFV Lithuania between day 50-60 of gestation. The sows gave birth to 66 piglets of which 55 % were live-born. Out of these, thirty % were considered to be PI pigs, while 40% were acutely...

  16. Maternal presence and environmental enrichment affect food neophobia of piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Mas Muñoz, J.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Young omnivores show food neophobia in order to avoid the potential harmful effects of ingesting unfamiliar food items. We investigated whether the presence of the mother and an enriched rearing environment would reduce food neophobia in piglets. A mother may provide information on suitable food typ

  17. Diet composition and gut integrity in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwenberg, M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of dietary modulation of protein and carbohydrates under controlled energy intake on small intestinal integrity in weaned piglets. Small intestinal integrity is assessed on the basis of indicators regarding morphology (villus length, crypt depth), functionality (en

  18. Effect of Huzikang-duannaibao on piglets' ablactation stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shenglin; Jiang Zhengyun

    2003-01-01

    Piglets' alactation-stress with diarrhea as a main symptom is a serious problem in pig farming. The experiment indicates that the complex premix additive Huzikang-duannaibao can be used to control ablactation-stress syndromes and its effects are better than that of the common antibiotic ligomycin.

  19. Chenodeoxycholic acid reduces intestinal permeability in newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Y.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Bosch, van den M.; Holst, J.J.; Moreto, M.; Buurman, W.A.; Kulik, W.; Kempen, van T.A.T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Piglets are highly susceptible to gut health-related problems. Intravenously administered chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) affects gut health mediated through glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). To test whether CDCA is a suitable feed additive for improving gut health, a trial was performed with newly wean

  20. A single food bolus stimulates albumin synthesis in growing piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, K; Smolders, HC; Meesterburrie, J; de Sain-van der Velden, M; Voorbij, HAM; Okken, A; Reijngoud, DJ; Kulik, W

    2000-01-01

    Background: A stable isotope tracer method to quantify the synthesis of proteins of hepatic origin in response to feeding is described. The response of albumin synthesis on one mixed meal in a piglet model was investigated and the intragastric and intravenous administration modes of C-13-valine were

  1. Investigations of two oral rehydration solutions in treatment of piglets with acute gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukavić Tamara D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic disorder in acute gastroenteritis is the disrupted transport of water and electrolytes, to a different degree. The objective of these investigations was to evaluate the efficacy of two oral rehydration solutions (ORS in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in suckling piglets. Fifty piglets, 20 with acute gastroenteritis and 30 healthy controls aged 10 days were chosen at random upon the incidence of diarrhea, for one of two ORS treatments (ORS-1 and ORS-2. The piglets with diarrhea were administered a probiotic per os on the first day and an antibiotic parenterally, until the diarrhea disappeared. All the piglets were followed clinically from days 1-6 of the investigations. Faeces samples were taken for bacteriological culture on the first day. Clinical signs of hydration were better, as well as the difference in body mass of piglets with diarrhea under the ORS-2 treatment which was significantly higher (p=0.036 in comparison with the difference in piglets under the ORS-1 treatment. All piglets with diarrhea had normally formed faeces on the sixth day. Escherichia coli was isolated from faeces of 48 piglets. Piglets with acute gastroenteritis, treated with ORS with a higher osmolarity and which contained instead of citrate, bicarbonates in higher concentrations, with less potassium, more sodium and more chlorine had a better state of hydration, with a significantly bigger difference in body mass, and the results of their control group were not significantly different against those of piglets treated with ORS of a different composition.

  2. The behaviour and welfare of sows and piglets in farrowing crates or lactation pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C; Verdon, M; Cronin, G M; Hemsworth, P H

    2017-07-01

    Temporary confinement during parturition and early postpartum may provide an intermediary step preceding loose housing that offers improvement in sow and piglet welfare. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the implications of replacing farrowing crates (FCs) with an alternative housing system from 3 days postpartum until weaning. In each experiment sows farrowed in FCs and were randomly allocated at day 3 of lactation to either a FC or a pen with increased floor space (lactation pen (LP)) until weaning. In experiment 1, piglet growth and sow and piglet skin injuries were recorded for 32 sows and 128 focal piglets in these litters. Behaviour around nursing and piglet behavioural time budgets were also recorded for 24 of these litters (96 focal piglets for time budgets). In experiment 2, measures of skin injury and behavioural time budgets were conducted on 28 sows and 112 focal piglets. The behavioural response of sows to piglet vocalisation (maternal responsiveness test (MRT)) was also assessed. In experiment 3, piglet mortality from day 3 of lactation until weaning was recorded in 672 litters over 12 months. While housing did not affect piglet weight gain in experiment 1, or piglet skin injuries in experiments 1 or 2, sows in both experiments sustained more injuries in LP than FC (experiment 1, 2.9 v. 1.4; experiment 2, 2.5 v. 0.8 lesions/sow; P0.05). Thus, housing sows and litters in LP from day 3 of lactation minimises piglet mortality while improving maternal behaviour in sows and social behaviour in piglets.

  3. Sources of organic trace minerals in diets for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Mello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty six piglets from a commercial genetic strain weaned at 21 days of age (6.11±0.42 kg were used to evaluate the effects of supplementation levels of organic sources of trace minerals in the diets of weaned piglets on performance, occurrence of diarrhea, excretion of copper and zinc in the feces, and hematological parameters. A completely randomized block design was adopted, composed of six treatments (diets containing 100% of inorganic trace minerals premix at 3.00 kg/T; diets containing 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of organic trace minerals premix, equivalent to 0; 0.75; 1.50; 2.25 or 3.00 kg/T, respectively, seven replicates and three animals per plot. During the experimental period (from 21 to 63 days of age, the increasing levels of organic trace minerals premix in the diets determined a quadratic effect on daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion (FC, percentage of hematocrit (Ht, hemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, platelets (Pt, and a linear increase of Cu and Zn concentrations in feces. The comparison of means between the treatment with inorganic trace minerals premix and the other treatments showed that piglets fed diets without trace minerals premix had lower values of DWG, Ht, Hb, MCH, MCV, Pt and the worst FC value of piglets fed diets containing 25% of organic trace minerals premix presented lower values of Ht and Hb, in comparison with those fed diets with 100% of inorganic trace minerals premix. Inorganic trace minerals premix can be substituted by organic trace minerals premix at a lower level of inclusion in diets for weaned piglets.

  4. Piglets' surface temperature change at different weights at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva Dos Santos, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets' weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets' surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (-0.824 and -0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet's surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight.

  5. Neutral detergent fibre in piglet diets: performance and gastrointestinal implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Carlos Nepomuceno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The intestinal health of piglets depends on the balance between diet, microflora and mucosal integrity. Disruption of this balance can compromise the digestive functions, leading to diarrhoeal frame and decline in performance of piglets. However, the level and type of fibre can limit digestive disorders. Thirty newly weaned piglets were used to evaluate the levels of neutral detergent fibre (NDF in diets regarding performance, pH, viscosity and concentration of short chain fatty acids of digestive contents, gastrointestinal transit time, morphology of the intestinal mucosa, weights of organs and occurrence of diarrhoea. NDF level had quadratic effect on weight gain and feed conversion ratio of piglets, estimating best results at the level of 10.4%. NDF level had no effect on the pH, viscosity and concentration of short chain fatty acids. NDF levels below 10.2% or above 13.5% reduced the transit time of digesta. There was quadratic effect on villus height in the duodenum and jejunum and in the crypt depth of jejunum. There was linear increase in stomach, caecum and colon weights and linear decrease in the occurrence of diarrhoea according to increasing NDF levels. It is concluded that levels below 10.2% and above 13.5% reduce the transit time of digesta, whereas 12.2% NDF level results in better mucosa structure of the small intestinal, with an increase in the weights of the stomach, caecum and colon and a reduction in the occurrence of diarrhoea with increasing NDF level in diets, resulting in better performance of weaned piglets with 10.4% of NDF.

  6. The effects of clinoptilolite on piglet and heavy pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archimede Mordenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of clinoptilolite on piglet and heavy pig production two separated trials have been performed. In the first trial 40 pigs of the initial body weight of 55 kg were used. Animals were homogeneously allocated to two groups: a control group traditionally fed and a clinoptilolite group in which feed contained the additive at 2%. Pigs were slaugh- tered at about 160 kg body weight. Blood samples were taken to determine blood urea nitrogen (BUN. In the second trial a total of 116 piglets from 12 litters was used. Six litters were fed from the 7th day of life a diet containing clinoptilolite at 2%. According to the dietary treatment of the suckling period, 84 weaned piglets were homogeneously allocated to two groups fed up to 33 kg body weight a diet containing or not clinoptilolite at 2%. In both trials daily weight gain, feed intake and pigs’ health were regularly recorded. The dietary inclusion of clinoptilolite at 2% did not resulted in any modification either of growing performances or of uraemia. Piglets on clinoptilolite diet showed a significant (P<0.05 improvement of faecal dry matter content. At slaughtering the dietary inclusion of clinoptilolite resulted in a trend towards an improvement of lean cuts yield and in a significant increase (P<0.05 of the ratio between lean and fat cuts. From our data it is sug- gested that clinoptilolite does not impair pig growing performances, determines a higher dry matter content of piglet fae- ces and improves carcass quality of heavy pigs with particular regard to lean cuts yield and lean to fat cuts ratio.

  7. Intrauterine growth-restricted piglets have similar gastric emptying rates but lower rectal temperatures and altered blood values when compared with normal-weight piglets at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Klarlund, M. V.; Pedersen, Janni Hales

    2016-01-01

    for poor immunization and glucose absorption in IUGR piglets. It is estimated that IUGR piglets consume less colostrum per kilogram BW than normal-weight piglets within the first 24 h, which could be due to a slower gastric emptying rate and a compromised energy metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized......-eight piglets (24 normal and 24 IUGR) were classified at birth as either normal or IUGR on the basis of head morphology. Piglets were removed from the sow at birth before suckling, and birth weight was recorded. Pooled porcine colostrum was tube-fed to all piglets at 12 mL/kg BW as soon as possible after birth...... (t = 0 min). The piglets were randomly allocated to be euthanized at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min (all groups, n = 6) after bolus feeding, and the weights of the stomach and its residuals were recorded. There was no difference in gastric emptying rates between normal and IUGR piglets (P = 0.129); however...

  8. Effect of sow and piglet porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on piglet mortality, viraemia, antibody titre and production parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, Lorenzo; Sibila, Marina; Nofrarías, Miquel; López-Jimenez, Rosa; Huerta, Eva; Llorens, Anna; López-Soria, Sergio; Pérez, Diego; Segalés, Joaquim

    2012-12-28

    The present study describes the effects of sow and/or piglet porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on viraemia, antibody response and production parameters (average daily weight gain [ADWG] and mortality) of piglets from a PCV2 subclinically infected farm. Four hundred seventy-six piglets born from vaccinated (V) or non-vaccinated (NV) sows were further subdivided in a total of four groups: NV sows-NV pigs (NV-NV, n=134), NV sows-V pigs (NV-V, n=135);V sows-NV pigs (V-NV, n=104) and V sows-V pigs (V-V, n=103). A single vaccination of sows before mating was able to confer significantly higher antibody titres to their piglets at 4 weeks of age and a different PCV2 dynamics infection compared to piglets coming from NV sows. Piglet vaccination (independently of sow treatment) caused an earlier seroconversion and lower percentages of PCV2 infected pigs compared to the NV ones throughout their life. The double PCV2 vaccination strategy was able to reduce PCV2 infection but apparently caused some interference in piglet humoral response development. PCV2 vaccination was able to overcome this interference since the ADWG was improved in both groups of vaccinated piglets, independently of the sow treatment, being the highest ones obtained in the double vaccination group.

  9. Reducing sow confinement during farrowing and in early lactation increases piglet mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condous, P C; Plush, K J; Tilbrook, A J; van Wettere, W H E J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sow confinement and nonconfinement during parturition and early lactation on the performance of sows and piglets prior to weaning. Sows and their litters were housed in either a conventional farrowing crate (control; 1.7 × 2.4 m) or a swing-sided pen (2.8 × 2.15 m). Sows housed in the swing-sided pen had the crate open (open) or closed (closed) during farrowing and opened on d 3 (LAC3) or 7 (LAC7) of lactation. Data are means ± SEM. The numbers of total and live-born piglets were not different between treatments and averaged 13.1 ± 0.4 and 12.3 ± 0.2 piglets/litter, respectively. Sows housed in a farrowing crate had a greater ( = 0.03) number of stillborn piglets compared with open sows from pens (1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Live-born piglet mortality before litter equalization on d 1 was greater ( piglets/litter, respectively) and was largely explained by an increase in the incidence of piglets overlain ( piglets/litter, respectively). Overlay mortality between d 3 and 7 of lactation was greater ( = 0.03) in LAC3 sows compared to LAC7 and control sows (0.4 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Treatment did not affect either the incidence or cause of piglet mortality after d 7 of lactation ( > 0.05). Total live-born piglet mortality from birth until weaning for the control, closedLAC7, closedLAC3, openLAC7, and openLAC3 was 1.86 ± 0.19, 1.95 ± 0.23, 2.10 ± 0.39, 2.45 ± 0.27, and 3.74 ± 0.48, piglets/litter, respectively. Total live-born piglet mortality from birth until weaning was greater in the openLAC3 and openLAC7 treatments compared to control ( piglet mortality compared to a farrowing crate, and removing confinement on d 3 of lactation further increased total piglet mortality compared to removing sow confinement on d 7 of lactation in sows that farrowed open. Sows that were confined during farrowing and until d 3 or 7 of lactation in a

  10. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (ppiglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry.

  11. Pathogenicity of Vietnamese enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains in colostrum-deprived one-day-old piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T N; Wilkie, I; Driesen, S J; Fahy, V A; Trott, D J

    2006-03-01

    Preweaning colibacillosis is a major cause of economic loss to the swine industry in Vietnam. The aim of this study was to examine the enteropathogenicity of representative enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains obtained during an earlier epidemiologic survey conducted in five provinces in North Vietnam. This included isolates belonging to serotype O8 that produced heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins but did not produce any of the recognized fimbriae (F4, F5, F6, F41, F18). In vitro hemagglutination (unique mannose-resistant hemagglutination activity with guinea pig, sheep, human, and chicken red blood cells at 37 degrees C, but not at 18 degrees C) and enterocyte brush border attachment assays suggested that the F- ETEC strains produced an unidentified colonization factor that promoted adherence to the intestinal epithelium. Colostrum-deprived 1-day-old piglets challenged with an F- strain (1-2 x 10(9) bacteria) developed acute watery diarrhea within 4 hours of inoculation and suffered up to 20% weight loss, with comparable severity to piglets challenged with conventional F4 and F5 strains. At necropsy, viable counts and histopathologic examination of intestinal sections demonstrated colonization of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum by F4-positive strains. In comparison, the F- and F5-positive strains attached exclusively to the ileum. Transmission electron micrographs of negatively stained F- cells grown at 37 degrees C demonstrated the presence of fimbriae. These results confirm the presence of a potentially new pathogenic ETEC fimbrial type in piggeries in Vietnam, with a unique hemagglutination property and attachment characteristics similar to ETEC bearing F5 fimbriae.

  12. Tagging Piglets at the Farrowing Nest in the Wild: Some Preliminary Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAUBET, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonate ungulate often show high rates of mortality due to predation, starvation, orexposure to bad weather, leading to losses frequently exceeding 50%. Wild boar piglets are known tosuffer from thermoregulation insufficiency, which probably explain the nest construction behaviour insows. We thus tried to develop a method for tagging piglets inside their farrowing (or birth nest toassess piglet survival from few days after their birth onwards. Sows fitted-out with VHF collars wereradio-tracked to determine parturition time, and to get a rough idea of the possible birth nest location.Then, with a handled antenna we approached on foot the birth nest, and piglets were caught, taggedand fitted-out with a backpack transmitter and released inside the nest. Temporal movements ofmother and litter association were monitored, as long as possible. Results on sow behaviour and tacticagainst human approach, piglets body mass, piglet reaction, and survival in their early lifetime weredescribed.

  13. Diarrea neonatal porcina. Aislamiento de cepas de Escherichia coli toxigénicas productoras de STa, LT y VT Neonatal diarrhoea of piglets. Isolation of toxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing STa, LT, and VT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ZAMORA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Las cepas toxigénicas de Escherichia coli juegan un importante papel como causa de las enteritis colibacilar porcina, motivo por el cual se investigó la presencia de estos micoorganismos en fecas de cerditos con diarrea. Se aislaron 79 (27.33% cepas de Escherichia coli toxigénicas, 46 (58.2% produjeron STa, 20 (25.3% LT y 13 (16.5% VT, de las cuales 5 sintetizaban VT1, 3 VT2 y 5 expresaron simultáneamente VT1 y VT2. Una cepa que sintetizó simultáneamente VT1 y VT2 perteneció al serotipo O149: K91, K88 y 2 cepas STa+ correspondieron a los serotipos O9: K35 y la otra O149: K91Toxigenic Escherichia coli strains play an important role in the genesis of the enteric colibacillosis of swine., For this reason these mircoorganisms was investigated in faeces of piglets with diarrhoea. A total of 79 (27.3% toxigenic Escherichia coli strains were isolated, of which 46 (58.2% were STa, 20 (25.3% LT and 13 (16.5% VT. Five out of 13 VT strains synthesised VT1, 3 VT2 and 5 expressed VT1 and VT2 simultaneously. One strain that synthesised both VT1 and VT2 belonged to the serotype O149: K91; K88 and 2 strains STa+ corresponded to the serotypes O9: K35. The other one belonged to O149: K91

  14. The effect of supplementing sow and piglet diets with different forms of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Kétilim Novais

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chelated iron supplementation on gestating and lactating sows and on their suckling and weaned piglets. Reproductive traits, piglet performance, hematological parameters, and the iron concentrations in colostrum, milk, and stillborn livers were measured. Ninety-six sows were subjected to one of three treatment groups. Group T1 comprised pregnant and lactating sows treated with diets supplemented with inorganic iron (551 mg Fe/kg and suckling piglets administered 200 mg of injectable iron dextran. Group T2 was the same as T1, except that sows after 84 days of gestation, lactating sows, and suckling piglets were fed a diet supplemented with 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron, and suckling piglets were administered injectable iron dextran. Group T3 was the same as T2 but without injectable iron dextran for suckling piglets. During the nursery phase, all of the weaned piglets were penned with their original groups or treatments and received isonutritive and isocaloric feeds. Piglets from the T2 and T3 groups also received an additional 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron via their feed. There were no differences among the treatments for reproductive traits or the iron concentrations in the colostrum, milk, or liver. The piglets that did not receive the injectable iron dextran showed the poorest performance during the pre-and post-weaning phases and showed the poorest hematological parameters of the suckling piglets. The chelated iron supplementation is insufficient to meet piglet demand. The iron dextran supply is necessary for suckling and weaned piglets.

  15. Zootechnical performance of piglets submited or not to dental management

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    Mayna Mendes Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently the pig industry has undergone several adaptations, since the consumer is becoming more selective, especially with regard to food safety and animal welfare. Europe, the major consumer market of Brazilian pork, prohibits the practice of removing or wearing down of the teeth of piglets during the maternity, justifying this practice discourages the welfare of animals. On the other hand, in Brazil, this practice is still being performed routinely in most pig farms, which impairs the exportation of swine products to demanding markets. There is insuficient information about the harms and benefits of that management, so this study aimed to evaluate the influence of dental activity management on the performance of piglets during nursery. Twenty-six litters randomly distributed according to the order of birth of mother were investigated, being 13 litters subjected to dental management (control group, and 13 litters not subjected to the same management (treatment group. Each litter was evaluated for 21 days, undergoing piglets weighing on the day they were born and at 21 days  occurred when weaning, thus to obtain the variables average daily weight gain (ADG and weaning weight (WEIGHT. Regarding the ADG of piglets, the control group showed an average gain of 0.193 kg/day while the treatment group showed 0.200 kg/day, with no significant difference (P>0.05 between the experimental groups. For WEIGHT, the control group showed average of 5.685 kg, while the treatment group had 5.670 kg, also showing no statistically significant difference (P>0.05. There were no incidence of skin lesions and ceilings of the arrays and the skin of piglets evaluated that could be attributed to the implementation or not of dental management. Thus, by the results found in this study it may be recommended that the implementation of dental management happen only in cases where there is evidence of injury in piglets and/or on the ceilings of the arrays, thus avoiding

  16. Does the newly weaned piglet select a zinc oxide supplemented feed, when given the choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, F H; Forbes, J M; Miller, H M

    2010-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether weaned piglets would display preference for a food containing a pharmacological level of zinc oxide (ZnO). A total of 60 piglets were weaned at 7.8 kg ± 0.14 (s.e.m.) and 27.8 ± 0.11 days of age into eight mixed sex groups of seven or eight piglets per pen. Groups were balanced for litter origin, weaning weight and sex. Piglet feeding behaviour was constantly recorded by a multi-spaced feeding behaviour recording system (Leeds University Feeding Behaviour System) in each pen. Each pen of pigs was offered ad libitum access to two different foods (16.2 MJ digestible energy, 16 g lysine/kg), which differed only in the level of ZnO supplementation: unsupplemented (U) or supplemented (Z; ZnO 3100 mg/kg). Both foods contained a basal level of zinc (100 mg/kg). Feeding time was recorded for each individual at each trough. Piglets were weighed at weaning and at 7 and 13 days thereafter. The experiment ran for 13 days. Any piglet observed with post-weaning scour (Y) was recorded and treated appropriately whereas healthy piglets were categorised as N (no scour). Preference for a food was defined as being significantly different from 50% of total feed intake or time spent feeding. There was no difference between piglet numbers selecting each food as their first meal. However, within the first 24 h, piglets preferred (P time at food Z. Throughout the experiment, piglets showed aversion (P time spent on food Z in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Scouring piglets did not show any difference in feeding behaviour from healthy piglets in either week. Average piglet gain (of all piglets) was low, at 0.039 ± 0.03 and 0.272 ± 0.04 kg/day in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Given a choice, weaned piglets showed a clear preference for the food U even when exhibiting post-weaning scour. It can be concluded that the newly weaned, naïve, piglet is not able to recognise a food with clear health and performance benefits but selected the food U due

  17. Effect of litter size on the variation in birth and weaning weights of Landrace piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Duarte Prazeres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the size class of the litter at birth on the variation in birth and weaning weights and on the survival rate of piglets from birth to weaning. For this purpose, records of individual weight at birth and weaning of piglets obtained from a database of 295 Landrace litters born between 2000 and 2010 on a pig farm in the western region of the State of Paraná were used. The litters were classified as small (up to 7 piglets, medium (8 to 13 piglets, and large (> 14 piglets according to the total number of piglets born. The data were analyzed considering the effects of the year of sow mating and size class of the litter at birth. The correlations between mean weight and variance in litter weight and size were higher for medium and large litters. The size class of the litter significantly influenced the mean weight of piglets at birth and weaning and the variance in birth weight. Piglets born in medium and large litters weighed less and exhibited greater birth weight variation and a lower survival rate until weaning than piglets born in small litters.

  18. Inverted teats (Mammillae invertitae) in gilts - effect on piglet survival and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, H; Ekman, E; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Jacobson, M

    2014-06-01

    In the modern pig industry, the increasing number of piglets born per litter augments the importance of the number of functional teats in the sow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and importance of inverted teats during nursing and to analyze structural and functional differences between the mammary glands of inverted teats versus normal teats. Nine farrowing gilts (8 purebred Swedish Yorkshire gilts and 1 cross between Swedish Yorkshire and Norwegian Landrace) and 94 piglets (59 piglets suckling normal teats, 32 piglets suckling protruded teats [i.e., previously inverted], 2 piglets suckling inverted teats, and 3 piglets suckling considerably smaller teats) were included in the study. Teat fidelity (keeping the same teat between the nursings) was registered, excluding the first 48 h postpartum. Piglet weight was recorded daily during the first week of life and thereafter once a week until weaning at 4 wk of age. Weight and growth rate were analyzed using repeated observation mixed-model analysis of variance. The 2 piglets that suckled the inverted teats were not able to emerge the teats and they were euthanized 4 and 8 d after birth, respectively, due to loss of BW. The average weight at weaning (28 d of age) was 8.1 kg (range 3.2-13.8 kg). In the normal teats (n = 53), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue at necropsy was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.33, P piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.63, P piglets nursing normal teats, 82% kept fidelity to its teat and the corresponding percent for the protruded teats was 26%. In 7 of the 9 sows, the weaning weight of the piglets suckling protruded teats was numerically lower compared to the piglets suckling normal teats, although the difference was not statistically significant. Piglets nursing small teats had lower weaning weight (4.8 kg) and the corresponding mammary tissue also had lower weight (335 g). This study

  19. A piglet model for studying Candida albicans colonization of the human oro-gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Coleman, David A; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Miller, Michael J; Hoyer, Lois L

    2014-08-01

    Pigs from a variety of sources were surveyed for oro-gastrointestinal (oro-GIT) carriage of Candida albicans. Candida albicans-positive animals were readily located, but we also identified C. albicans-free pigs. We hypothesized that pigs could be stably colonized with a C. albicans strain of choice, simply by feeding yeast cells. Piglets were farrowed routinely and remained with the sow for 4 days to acquire a normal microbiota. Piglets were then placed in an artificial rearing environment and fed sow milk replacer. Piglets were inoculated orally with one of three different C. albicans strains. Piglets were weighed daily, and culture swabs were collected to detect C. albicans orally, rectally and in the piglet's environment. Stable C. albicans colonization over the course of the study did not affect piglet growth. Necropsy revealed mucosally associated C. albicans throughout the oro-GIT with the highest abundance in the esophagus. Uninoculated control piglets remained C. albicans-negative. These data establish the piglet as a model to study C. albicans colonization of the human oro-GIT. Similarities between oro-GIT colonization in humans and pigs, as well as the ease of working with the piglet model, suggest its adaptability for use among investigators interested in understanding C. albicans-host commensal interactions.

  20. Preparation and Application on the Inactivated Bacterins of Yellow and White Scour of Piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Jianhua; Hu Hui; Hu Yan; Xu Bu

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains were isolated from yellow and white scour samples in pig farms. The strains were used to make autologous inactivated bacterins,and the bacterins were applied to multiple infected farms. The results showed that in the group of inactivated bacterins,the infected piglet number was less,the course of disease was shorter and the symptoms was milder. The piglet E. coli inactivated bacterins could significantly reduced morbidity of yellow and white scour of piglets,the preventive effects of E. coli autologous inactivated bacterins against yellow and white scour of piglets were much better than that of genetically engineered vaccines.

  1. Total antiradical activity in male castrated piglets blood: reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from 146 male castrated piglets in the range of 10-47kg body weight were collected from the same farm and analysed for total antiradical activity in order to determine reference intervals. Data were tested for normality and then submitted to reference limit evaluation. The reference values found in piglets, expressed as half-hemolysis time (59.34 – 93.60 and 43.94 – 66.90 minutes for blood and red blood cell, respectively, are lower than those found in humans; further studies are needed to extend reference values study to female and to animals of different weight classes and different genetic type.

  2. The Splay Leg Syndrome in Piglets: A Review

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    Vassilis G. Papatsiros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The splay leg syndrome is the major congenital cause of lameness in suckling piglets. It is characterized by a temporarily impaired functionality of the hind leg muscles immediately after birth, resulting in an ability to stand and walk. Etiology and pathogenesis is complex and remain still poorly understood. Approach: The aim of the present study is to perform the update information about the etiology, clinical signs and control strategies of the syndrome. Results: A sex-affected inheritance of the splay leg syndrome is assumed since higher frequencies have been observed in male piglets. Several biochemical and histomorphological investigations indicate an immaturity of the skeletal muscle in the affected piglets at birth. Splay leg is caused by a reduction of the axonal diameter and myelin sheath thickness of the fiber that innervate the hindlimb adductors. The existence of one or more major genes for congenital splay leg seems possible. Among the fragments strongly displayed in the splay leg muscle, are identified the porcine CDKN3 gene. Various management and genetic factors have been connected with the etiology, such as the farrowing induction, low birth weight, short gestation lengths, slippery floors and breeds (e.g., Large White and Landrace. Moreover, nutrition can play a role to pathogenesis, as choline or methionine deficiency in sow diets and the fusarium toxicity. Furthermore, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV are also involved in etiological factors. Piglets suffering from splay leg should be kept in a warm place and be helped to take colostrums or artificial milk for 2-3 days. Conclusion: Management practices should be applied in order to be avoided the occurrence of splay leg syndrome, such as non-slip floors, use of anti-mycotoxins products in feed, avoiding the farrowing induction before day 113. Finally, a herd health management programme should be applied in order to prevent and

  3. Maltodextrin and oils in the diet of weaned piglets

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    L. Hauptli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of piglets fed two sources of oil (soybean and palm oil combined with maltodextrin and a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin, as well as the apparent digestibility coefficients of these diets. A total of 162 piglets weaned at 21 days, with a mean initial weight of 5.42 ± 0.55 kg, were allocated in a randomized block design consisting of three treatments and 18 replicates of three animals each. The following treatments were evaluated: T1: diet containing soybean oil [3.03% in the pre-initial (I and initial (II diets] and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T2: diet containing palm oil (3.03% in I and II and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T3: diet containing a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin (10.0% in I and II and maltodextrin added to the blend (4.07% in I so that the percentage of maltodextrin would be identical in the diets of the three treatments. The performance and digestibility data were submitted to analysis of variance using the MIXED and GLM procedures, respectively, of the SAS package and means were compared by the Tukey test (P0.05 in DFI, ADG or FC were observed between piglets submitted to the different treatments. The ADC of dry matter was 4.25% lower (P<0.05 for the diet containing palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin compared to the soybean oil diet. The ADC of ether extract was 54% higher (P<0.05 in the soybean oil diet compared to the palm oil diet, which negatively affected the ether extract digestibility coefficient. In conclusion, palm oil microencapsulated or not with maltodextrin can replace soybean oil in the diets of weaned piglets without compromising their performance.

  4. Maternal presence and environmental enrichment affect food neophobia of piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Oostindjer, Marije; Muñoz, Julia Mas; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Young omnivores show food neophobia in order to avoid the potential harmful effects of ingesting unfamiliar food items. We investigated whether the presence of the mother and an enriched rearing environment would reduce food neophobia in piglets. A mother may provide information on suitable food types to include in the diet, whereas an enriched environment may stimulate behavioural development and reduce reactivity towards novel stimuli (including food). Five barren-reared or enriched-reared ...

  5. Castration of piglets under general anaesthesia: a possible approach

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    Iwan Nussbaumer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since January 2010 the castration of piglets without pain relief has been forbidden in Switzerland. Swiss pig farmers now have two choices, either vet-performed anaesthesia and analgesia by intramuscular injection or farmer-administered isofluran anaesthesia by an inhalation device. Many smaller pig producers, with less than 60 sows, have chosen injected anaesthesia for economic, user safety and environmental reasons.

  6. Case-control study of pathogens involved in piglet diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vera L A; Bersano, Josete G; Carvalho, Aline F; Catroxo, Márcia H B; Chiebao, Daniela P; Gregori, Fábio; Miyashiro, Simone; Nassar, Alessandra F C; Oliveira, Trícia M F S; Ogata, Renato A; Scarcelli, Eliana P; Tonietti, Paloma O

    2016-01-11

    Diarrhea in piglets directly affects commercial swine production. The disease results from the interaction of pathogens with the host immune system and is also affected by management procedures. Several pathogenic agents such as Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., group A rotavirus (RV-A), coronaviruses (transmissible gastroenteritis virus; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus), as well as nematode and protozoan parasites, can be associated with disease cases. All bacterial, viral, protozoan, and parasitic agents here investigated, with the exception of Salmonella spp. as well as both coronaviruses, were detected in varying proportions in piglet fecal samples, and positive animals were equally distributed between case and control groups. A statistically significant difference between case and control groups was found only for Cystoisospora suis (p = 0.034) and Eimeria spp. (p = 0.047). When co-infections were evaluated, a statistically significant difference was found only for C. perfringens β2 and C. suis (p = 0.014). The presence of pathogens in piglets alone does not determine the occurrence of diarrhea episodes. Thus, the indiscriminate use of antibiotic and anthelminthic medication should be re-evaluated. This study also reinforces the importance of laboratory diagnosis and correct interpretation of results as well as the relevance of control and prophylactic measures.

  7. Effects of sevoflurane on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in anaesthetized piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbaul, F; Bellezza, M; Guidon, C; Roussel, L; Imbert, M; Carpentier, J P; Auffray, J P

    2000-09-01

    In vitro, halogenated agents reduce the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to alveolar hypoxia in isolated perfused lungs. However, studies in intact animals have been less convincing. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of sevoflurane on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in anaesthetized piglets using the pressure/cardiac index relationship (P/Q). Ten large white piglets were anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated, alternately in hyperoxia (FIO2 = 0.4) and hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.12). Multipoint plots of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) or differences between PAP and left atrial pressure (LAP) against Q were generated by gradual inflation of a balloon introduced into the inferior vena cava. P/Q relationships were established in hyperoxia and hypoxia at baseline, and then with sevoflurane. In hypoxia, pressure gradients (PAP-LAP) increased at every level of Q, thus demonstrating active pulmonary vasoconstriction. Sevoflurane at 1 MAC did not affect these P/Q relationships in hyperoxia or hypoxia as compared with baseline. Sevoflurane at a clinically relevant concentration (1 MAC) has no significant effect on HPV in anaesthetized piglets.

  8. Myocardial contractile function in survived neonatal piglets after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Aron-Frederik

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodynamic function may be depressed in the early postoperative stages after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was the analysis of the myocardial contractility in neonates after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and mild hypothermia. Methods Three indices of left ventricular myocardial contractile function (dP/dt, (dP/dt/P, and wall thickening were studied up to 6 hours after CPB in neonatal piglets (CPB group; n = 4. The contractility data were analysed and then compared to the data of newborn piglets who also underwent median thoracotomy and instrumentation for the same time intervals but without CPB (non-CPB group; n = 3. Results Left ventricular dP/dtmax and (dP/dtmax/P remained stable in CPB group, while dP/dtmax decreased in non-CPB group 5 hours postoperatively (1761 ± 205 mmHg/s at baseline vs. 1170 ± 205 mmHg/s after 5 h; p max and (dP/dtmax/P there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Comparably, although myocardial thickening decreased in the non-CPB group the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions The myocardial contractile function in survived neonatal piglets remained stable 6 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass and mild hypothermia probably due to regional hypercontractility.

  9. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagerle, L.C.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. ..cap alpha../sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet.

  10. Dietary inulin alters the intestinal absorptive and barrier function of piglet intestine after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha A; Ghareeb, Khaled; Paßlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary inulin supplementation on the electrophysiological properties of small intestine of suckling and weaned piglets as indicators for glucose absorption and barrier function. Ten sows were divided into two groups, receiving either a control diet, or a diet with 3% inulin. The diets were fed from 3 weeks ante partum to 6 weeks post partum. In the first 2 weeks of life, piglets received only sow's milk. Irrespective to sex and without castration of males, four piglets (one piglet of each litter) from each group were selected and sacrificed on day 10 of age. The gastrointestinal tract of each piglet was removed and segments were immediately taken from the mid-jejunum and mounted in Ussing chambers. Furthermore, at weaning (6 weeks old) 8 piglets were randomly selected irrespective to sex and males were un-castrated (4 animals from sows received control diet and 4 animals from sows received 3% inulin supplemented diet) and fed for 2 weeks either control weaning diet or inulin supplemented diet. Thereafter segments of the mid-jejunum were used to investigate the effect of inulin on the gut electrophysiology of weaned piglets. The increase in short-circuit current (Isc) after the addition of glucose is an indicator of higher glucose absorption and the higher tissue conductance (Gt) of the epithelium suggested a higher intestinal permeability to paracellular Na(+). In suckling piglets, the addition of d-glucose on the luminal side of the isolated jejunal mucosa increased (P<0.001) the Isc in the inulin-supplemented and control groups compared to basal values. Electrogenic glucose transport (ΔIsc) was similar in suckling piglets from sows fed inulin or control diet, suggesting that feeding of inulin to the mother sows had no effect on glucose absorption across the jejunal mucosa of suckling piglets. However, the dietary inulin supplementation after weaning increased the ΔIsc (P<0.001) compared with the controls

  11. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlyn M Getty

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention. Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter milk replacer (postnatal intervention for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P < 0.01 plasma choline and choline-containing phospholipid concentrations and higher (P < 0.05 liver enzyme (alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase values compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P < 0.01 compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01 plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01 than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and

  12. Sildenafil and an early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns-Loveman, Karen M; Kaplowitz, Mark R; Fike, Candice D

    2005-07-01

    Devising therapies that might prevent the onset or progression of pulmonary hypertension in newborns has received little attention. Our major objective was to determine whether sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, prevents the development of an early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn pigs. Another objective was to determine whether sildenafil causes pulmonary vasodilation without systemic vasodilation in piglets with chronic pulmonary hypertension. Piglets were raised in room air (control, n = 5) or 10-11% O(2) (hypoxic, n = 17) for 3 days. Some piglets (n = 4) received oral sildenafil, 12 mg/kg/day, throughout exposure to hypoxia. All piglets were anesthetized and catheterized, and pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), pulmonary wedge pressure (Pw), aortic pressure (Ao), and cardiac output (CO) were measured. Then for some piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, a single oral sildenafil dose (3 mg/kg, n = 6) or placebo (n = 5) was given, and hemodynamic measurements were repeated. For piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, mean Ppa and calculated PVR were elevated above respective values in control piglets. Mean Ppa and PVR did not differ between piglets that received sildenafil throughout exposure to hypoxia and those that did not. For piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension that received a single oral dose of sildenafil, mean Ppa and PVR decreased, while mean Pw, CO, mean Ao, and systemic vascular resistance remained the same. All hemodynamic measurements were unchanged after placebo. Oral sildenafil did not influence the early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. However, a single oral dose of sildenafil caused pulmonary vasodilation, without systemic vasodilation, in piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, which may have therapeutic implications.

  13. Climatic effects on sow fertility and piglet survival under influence of a moderate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, K; Lambertz, C; Daş, G; Reiner, G; Gauly, M

    2014-09-01

    Although the climate in Germany is moderate, heat stress conditions may occur during summer months. However, it is unknown to what extent sow fertility and piglet survival are affected under moderate climatic conditions in indoor systems. Therefore, this study estimated effects of temperature and temperature-humidity index (THI) on sow fertility and piglet survival under practical husbandry conditions. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded in six piglet-producing farms in Lower Saxony, Germany, from July 2011 to August 2012. Based on that, the THI was calculated. In one farrowing, waiting and servicing unit of each farm two data loggers were installed. Reproductive parameters of 8279 successful inseminations and 10 369 litters including total number of piglets born, liveborn, stillborn and weaned piglets as well as pre-weaning mortality were evaluated. The effects of temperature and THI on reproductive parameters were estimated for varying periods after breeding and before and after farrowing, respectively. Average daily temperature across all units ranged from 15.6°C to 29.0°C, and average THI from 62.4 to 75.1. Season and parity significantly affected total number of piglets born, number of liveborn, stillborn and weaned piglets (Ppiglets born increased with rising temperature and THI in the 1st week post breeding. Higher temperatures and THI values before farrowing resulted in a reduced number of liveborn piglets. Elevated temperature and THI values after farrowing were associated with a greater number of weaned piglets. The pre-weaning mortality significantly decreased with increasing temperature and THI values after farrowing (Ppiglets in different ways. While increased climatic values at the time of breeding positively affected the total number of piglets born, increased values at the time of farrowing had negative impacts on the reproductive performance of the sows. Piglets benefited from higher temperature and THI values after farrowing.

  14. Effect of oral polyamine supplementation pre-weaning on piglet growth and intestinal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wettere, W H E J; Willson, N-L; Pain, S J; Forder, R E A

    2016-10-01

    A high proportion of piglets fail to adapt to the changing composition of their diet at weaning, resulting in weight loss and increased susceptibility to pathogens. Polyamines are present in sow milk and promote neonatal maturation of the gut. We hypothesised that oral spermine and spermidine supplementation before weaning would increase piglet growth and promote gastrointestinal development at weaning. In Experiment One, one pair of liveweight (LW)-matched piglets per litter from first and third lactation sows received 2 ml of a 0 (Control) or 463 nmol/ml spermine solution at 14, 16, 18, 20 and 22 days of age (n=6 piglets/treatment per parity). Villus height and crypt depth in the duodenum and jejunum were measured at weaning (day 23 postpartum). In Experiment Two, piglets suckling 18 first and 18 third lactation sows were used. Within each litter, piglets received 2 ml of either water (Control), 463 nmol/ml spermine solution or 2013 nmol/ml spermidine solution at 14, 16, 18, 22 and 24 days of age (n=54 piglets/treatment per sow parity). Piglets were weighed individually at 14, 18, 24 (weaning) and 61 days of age. In Experiment One, oral spermine supplementation resulted in a 41% increase in villus height, a 21% decrease in crypt depth and 79% decrease in the villus height : crypt depth ratio compared with control piglets (Ppiglets suckling first lactation sows grew faster (Ppiglets: 0.230±0.011 and 0.227±0.012 v. 0.183±0.012 kg/day, respectively. Spermine supplementation tended (Ppiglet LW gain from weaning to day 37 post-weaning compared with control piglets (0.373±0.009 v. 0.341±0.010 kg/day). In conclusion, spermine supplementation increased villus height at weaning, and appears to have the potential to improve the pre- and post-weaning growth of conventionally weaned piglets.

  15. Newborn piglet traits associated with survival and growth performance until weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzardi, A; Bernardi, M L; Mellagi, A P; Bierhals, T; Bortolozzo, F P; Wentz, I

    2013-06-01

    Pre-weaning piglet mortality represents significant economic losses, and approximately half of this mortality occurs within the first 3 days after birth. Factors involved in postnatal mortality can also be associated with a poor growth performance until weaning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some variables measured right after birth on piglet survival during the first week of life and growth performance until weaning. Piglets included in the analysis (n=612) were born from 3 to 5 parity sows. Piglets were monitored for blood oxygen saturation (SatO2), heart rate (HR), blood glucose concentration, rectal temperature at birth (RT0 h) and at 24h after birth (RT24 h). Genetic line, birth following or not an obstetric intervention, birth order, sex, skin color, integrity of the umbilical cord, and time elapsed from birth until first attempts to stand were also recorded. Piglets were weighed at birth (BW), and at 7, 14 and 21 days after birth in order to evaluate their postnatal development. Cumulative mortality rates were 3.3%, 5.4% and 8.7% at 3, 7 and 21 days after birth, respectively. Body temperature at birth (RT0 h) did not affect (P>0.05) the survival nor the piglet growth performance. Piglets with cyanotic skin and those that took more than 5 min to stand showed higher chance of mortality (Ppiglets and to piglets which stood before 1 min, respectively. Piglets with broken umbilical cord had higher odds (P9), low BW (Piglets with BWpiglets had higher odds of a low weight at weaning (Ppiglets to survive during the first week after birth. The growth performance until weaning is compromised in piglets with a lower BW, a lower RT24 h and if they are female pigs.

  16. Factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage of parturition and piglet birth intervals in sows with uncomplicated, spontaneous farrowings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van A.D.J.; Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Lende, van der T.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Modern pig farming is still confronted with high perinatal piglet losses which are mainly contributed to factors associated with the progress of piglet expulsion. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify sow- and piglet factors affecting the duration of the expulsive stage of farrowing and pi

  17. Piglet growth and blood components during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfer between Meishan and White crossbred gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow productivity has a significant economic impact on the swine industry and is influenced by a number of factors including preweaning piglet mortality. In Western breeds, low birth weight piglets exhibit the greatest susceptibility to preweaning mortality. In contrast, Meishan (MS) piglets have dec...

  18. Adaptive capacity of faecal microbiota from piglets receiving diets with different types of inulin-type fructans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellikaan, W.F.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Shim, S.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to assess the microbial activity of faeces from unweaned and weaned piglets. Diets of weaned piglets were supplemented with various fructans. Weaned piglets received a corn¿soy based basal diet supplemented with either corn starch (control; CON), oligofructose (O

  19. In utero infection with PRRS virus modulates cellular functions of blood monocytes and alveolar lung macrophages in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Nielsen, Jens; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The putative immunosuppressive effect of PRRS virus (PRRSV) on innate immune responses was studied in piglets infected in utero with PRRSV. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacities in 2-, 4- and 6-week-old in utero infected piglets were investigated and compared with age-matched control piglets...

  20. Laboratory detection of Clostridium difficile in piglets in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Daniel R; Squire, Michele M; Riley, Thomas V

    2014-11-01

    Clostridium difficile is a well-known enteric pathogen of humans and the causative agent of high-morbidity enteritis in piglets aged 1 to 7 days. C. difficile prevalence in Australian piglets is as high as 70%. The current diagnostic assays have been validated only for human infections, and there are no published studies assessing their performance in Australian piglets. We evaluated the suitability of five assays for detecting C. difficile in 157 specimens of piglet feces. The assays included a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LMIA)-PCR for tcdA (illumigene C. difficile; Meridian), a real-time PCR for tcdB (GeneOhm Cdiff; Becton Dickinson), two-component enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (EIA-GDH) and TcdA/TcdB (EIA-TcdA/TcdB) (C. diff Quik Chek; Alere), and direct culture (DC) (C. difficile chromID agar; bioMérieux). The assays for detection of the organism were compared against enrichment culture (EC), and assays for detection of toxins/toxin genes were compared against EC followed by PCR for toxin genes (toxigenic EC [TEC]). The recovery of C. difficile by EC was 39.5% (n = 62/157), and TEC revealed that 58.1% (n = 36/62) of isolates were positive for at least one toxin gene (tcdA/tcdB). Compared with those for EC/TEC, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were, respectively, as follows: DC, 91.9, 100.0, 100.0, and 95.0%; EIA-GDH, 41.9, 92.6, 78.8, and 71.0%; EIA-TcdA/TcdB, 5.6, 99.2, 66.7, and 77.9%; real-time PCR, 42.9, 96.7, 78.9, and 85.4% and LMIA-PCR, 25.0, 95.9, 64.3, and 81.1%. The performance of the molecular methods was poor, suggesting that the current commercially available assays for diagnosis of C. difficile in humans are not suitable for use in piglets. C. difficile recovery by the DC provides a cost-effective alternative. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Transmission of F4+ E. coli in groups of early weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, P.L.; Döpfer, D.; Meulen, van der J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate transmission parameters of enterotoxigenic F4+ Escherichia coli F4 (F4+ E. coli) in groups of early weaned piglets with F4-receptor-positive (F4R+) and F4-receptor-negative piglets (F4R[minus sign]). Transmission of F4+ E. coli was quantified in four

  2. Music during play-time: Using context conditioning as a tool to improve welfare in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de F.H.; Boleij, H.; Baars, A.M.; Dudink, S.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, we investigated whether music can facilitate play behaviour in piglets after weaning, when that music had been presented preweaning as a contextual cue associated with access to a playroom. One group of piglets was given daily access to a playroom preweaning while music was playe

  3. Viral metagenomics analysis demonstrates the diversity of viral flora in piglet diarrhoeic faeces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Tang, Cheng; Yue, Hua; Ren, Yupeng; Song, Zhigang

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the diversity of viral flora, we used metagenomics to study the viral communities in a pooled faecal sample of 27 diarrhoeic piglets from intensive commercial farms in China. The 15 distinct mammalian viruses identified in the pooled diarrhoeic sample were, in order of abundance of nucleic acid sequence, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), sapovirus, porcine bocavirus-4 (PBoV-4), sapelovirus, torovirus, coronavirus, PBoV-2, stool-associated single-stranded DNA virus (poSCV), astrovirus (AstV), kobuvirus, posavirus-1, porcine enterovirus-9 (PEV-9), porcine circovirus-like (po-circo-like) virus, picobirnavirus (PBV) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV-2). The prevalence rate of each virus was verified from diarrhoeic and healthy piglets by PCR assay. A mean of 5.5 different viruses were shed in diarrhoeic piglets, and one piglet was in fact co-infected with 11 different viruses. By contrast, healthy piglets shed a mean of 3.2 different viruses. Compared with samples from healthy piglets, the co-infection of PEDV and PBoV had a high prevalence rate in diarrhoea samples, suggesting a correlation with the appearance of diarrhoea in piglets. Furthermore, we report here for the first time the presence of several recently described viruses in China, and the identification of novel genotypes. Therefore, our investigation results provide an unbiased survey of viral communities and prevalence in faecal samples of piglets.

  4. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of

  5. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of

  6. Promoting neonatal piglet survival in organic pig production through improved management and housing

    OpenAIRE

    Aagaard-Schild, Sarah-Lina

    2015-01-01

    Planned for next year So far the plan is: To provide access to a shaded/cooled hut Alternatives: Reducing cold stress of piglets during winter E.g. using different quantities (use during winter approx. 40 kg per hut) or lengths of straw Providing access to shaded wallow Providing birth supervision/assistance Obstetric aid, drying of piglets Nursing sows

  7. Oral "N"-Carbamylglutamate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the potential mechanisms by which oral supplementation of “N”-carbamylglutamate (NCG), an analogue of endogenous “N“-acetylglutamate (an activator of arginine synthesis) increases growth rate in sow-reared piglets. Two piglets of equal body weight (BW) and of the same gender...

  8. Pain behaviour after castration of piglets; effect of pain relief with lidocaine and/or meloxicam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluivers-Poodt, M.; Zonderland, J.J.; Verbraak, J.; Lambooij, E.; Hellebrekers, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural responses and the effect of lidocaine and meloxicam on behaviour of piglets after castration were studied. A total of 144 piglets of 2 to 5 days of age were allocated to one of six treatments: castration (CAST), castration with lidocaine (LIDO), castration with meloxicam (MELO),

  9. Pain behaviour after castration of piglets; effect of pain relief with lidocaine and/or meloxicam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluivers-Poodt, M.; Zonderland, J.J.; Verbraak, J.; Lambooij, E.; Hellebrekers, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural responses and the effect of lidocaine and meloxicam on behaviour of piglets after castration were studied. A total of 144 piglets of 2 to 5 days of age were allocated to one of six treatments: castration (CAST), castration with lidocaine (LIDO), castration with meloxicam (MELO), castrati

  10. Music during play-time: Using context conditioning as a tool to improve welfare in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de F.H.; Boleij, H.; Baars, A.M.; Dudink, S.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, we investigated whether music can facilitate play behaviour in piglets after weaning, when that music had been presented preweaning as a contextual cue associated with access to a playroom. One group of piglets was given daily access to a playroom preweaning while music was

  11. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya be

  12. The Maturing Development of Gut Microbiota in Commercial Piglets during the Weaning Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Early weaned piglets are vulnerable to diarrhea because of weaning stress and immaturity of intestinal tract. Compelling evidence suggests that gut microbiota is vital to host health. However, it is not well understood on the composition and succession of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. In our two trials, total 17 commercial piglets were studied in a pig farm in Jiangxi Province, China. Fresh feces were collected for four times (10 days before weaned, weaned day, 10 days after weaned, 21 days after weaned by rectal massage. Fecal bacterial composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene V3–V4 regions sequencing by Illumina Miseq platform. The results showed that the gut microbiota of piglets shifted quickly after weaned and reached relatively stable level in 10 days after weaned. The alpha diversity increased significantly with the age of piglets. The microbiota of suckling piglets was mainly represented by Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Escherichia/Shigella, and Megasphaera. This pattern contrasted with that of Clostridium sensu stricto, Roseburia, Paraprevotella, Clostridium XIVa, and Blautia, which were major representative genera after weaned. In summary, we delineated the development of piglet gut microbiota during the weaning transition. This study helps us understand the maturing development of gut microbiota in commercial piglets.

  13. The effects of non-uniform environmental conditions on piglet crushing and maternal behavior of sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crushing is one of the main causes of piglet death in swine farrowing systems. Studies have shown a wide variability of piglet mortality rate among distinct litters, which has been associated with maternal ability of sows. In an effort to understand factors that affect sow maternal ability, this stu...

  14. The ability of different thermal aids to reduce hypothermia in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Malmkvist, Jens

    2016-01-01

    eliminate the effect of birth weight on hypothermia. These results are especially important in countries where breeding for large litter sizes has resulted in a reduction in average birth weight of the piglets and, thus, creates a greater demand for an early, adequate thermal environment to secure piglet...

  15. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya

  16. Managing the developing gut microbiota of growing piglets - novel probiotic and prebiotic strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: creep feeding, weaning, intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus sobrius, prebiotics, daidzein, probiotics, 16S rRNA, DGGE, cloning, real-time PCR Nursing is a major critical period in the life of piglets. On one hand maternal antibodies are not able to cross the placenta, thus piglets are

  17. Estimating transmission parameters of F4 + E. coli for F4-receptor-positive and -negative piglets: one-to-one transmission experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, P.L.; Meulen, van der J.; Bouma, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    F4+ Escherichia coli is an important agent of post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Piglets that express an adhesion site for F4+ E. coli in their small intestine (F4R+) shed higher numbers of F4+ E. coli than piglets lacking this site (F4R[minus sign]). We hypothesized that F4R+ piglets are more

  18. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  19. The association between immunoglobulin G in sow colostrum and piglet plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielland, C; Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Framstad, T

    2015-09-01

    Colostrum provides newborn piglets with energy and passive immunity and is essential for survival of the piglets. The plasma concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in piglets is dependent on several factors, most importantly the concentration of IgG in sow colostrum (colostrum IgG). The main aims of this study were to investigate the variation in concentration of colostrum IgG between herds and the individual sows within herd and to investigate factors associated with plasma IgG concentrations in piglets (piglet IgG). From 4 herds (A to D), 876 piglets from 62 sows were included in the study. Colostrum was sampled from sows immediately after expulsion of the first piglet and before the first suckling (t1), midway through farrowing (just after the sixth piglet was born; t2), and after the last piglet was born (t3). At d 1, 0.5 mL blood from piglets was collected in tubes containing EDTA, and IgG concentrations were analyzed. Mean colostrum IgG concentration across all herds was 53.9 g/L. Herd A had mean colostrum IgG of 38.3 g/L, whereas the other 3 herds (B,C, and D) had mean colostrum IgG of 47.4, 60.4, and 67.8 g/L, respectively. Colostrum IgG at t1, t2, and t3 across all herds was 56.2, 53.7, and 42.5 g/L, respectively. Mean concentration of piglet IgG across all samplings was 21.7 g/L. Multilevel linear regression analysis was performed with piglet IgG (g/L) as outcome. In this model, the herd effect accounted for 9% of the total variance and 34% of the variance resided at sow level. Piglet IgG was associated with herd, birth order (), body mass index (BMI) > 17 (kg/m), and colostrum IgG at t1 (g/L) with an overall -value colostrum IgG in colostrum ( = 0.03). Piglets with a BMI above 17 kg/m had a greater piglet IgG (+4.5 g/L) than those with a BMI at 17 kg/m or below ( colostrum IgG varied largely between herds and between sows. The largest variation of piglet IgG was mainly on the piglet level, supporting the complex nature of IgG production and uptake

  20. Modulatory effects of Lactobacillus salivarius on intestinal mucosal immunity of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhua; Deng, Jun; Wang, Zhisheng; Che, Chuanyan; Li, Yun-Feng; Yang, Qian

    2011-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that lactobacilli or their cell components can improve certain immune function in animals. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of porcine lactobacilli on the intestinal mucosal immunity of piglets. Neonatal piglets were used as a model and were orally administrated with Lactobacillus salivarius B1 isolated from the duodenal mucosa of a healthy piglet. The feces of the piglets were collected on days 7, 14, and 21 for intestinal microflora analysis. On day 28, the piglets were sacrificed, and their intestinal mucosa samples were immediately collected to investigate the changes in intestinal morphological and immunocompetent cells. Finally, the expression of cytokines and TLRs was detected in the different intestinal segments. The results indicate that L. salivarius B1 can partially ameliorate the microflora of the feces and increase the number of intestinal immunocompetent cells, as the intraepithelial lymphocyte (P mucosal immunity mainly depend on its extracellular components.

  1. Dopamine plasma clearance is increased in piglets compared to neonates during continuous dopamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin B; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Eriksen, Vibeke R

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Piglets models have often been used to study the effects of dopamine infusion on hypotension in neonates. However, piglets need higher doses of dopamine than neonates to increase blood pressure. We investigated whether this difference was due to interspecific difference in dopamine...... pharmacokinetics. METHODS: Arterial blood samples were drawn from six neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Copenhagen University Hospital and 20 newborn piglets during continuous dopamine infusion. Furthermore, to estimate the piglet plasma dopamine half-life, blood samples were drawn at 2.......5-minute intervals after the dopamine infusion was discontinued. The plasma dopamine content was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. RESULTS: The dopamine displayed first-order kinetics in piglets and had a half-life of 2.5 minutes, while the median plasma...

  2. Relationships between piglet growth rate and mammary gland size of the sow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Sørensen, Martin Tang

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study whether piglet growth rate is related to mammary gland size. It involved three primiparous sows and four multiparous sows that were fed ad libitum during the lactation period. The piglets received no creep feed. The weight and teat order of the piglets were...... recorded. The sows were slaughtered after approximately 4 weeks of lactation (25–28 days). The amounts of mammary tissue and mammary DNA were larger in multiparous than in primiparous sows, and the concentrations and amounts of mammary RNA as well as mammary RNA/DNA ratios were highest in the front glands......, intermediate in the middle and lowest in the rear glands. Average daily gain of the piglets was of the same magnitude regardless of gland position in the primiparous sows. In the multiparous sows, the piglets suckling the front teats had the highest gain while those suckling the middle teats had intermediate...

  3. Post-mortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winther, Kjeld Dahl; Secher, Jan O

    2015-01-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large...... White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig...... in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17...

  4. Weaning markedly affects transcriptome profiles and Peyer’s patch formation in piglet ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eInoue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analyses were conducted on the ileal mucosa of 14-35 day-old piglets to investigate postnatal gut development during suckling and post-weaning. The transcriptome profiles of 14 day-old suckling piglets showed a considerably higher number of differentially expressed genes than did those of 21, 28 and 35 day olds, indicating an intensive gut development during the first 14-21 postnatal days. In addition, the analysis of biological pathways indicated that Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was the most significantly affected pathway in suckling piglets between 14 and 21 days of age. Weaning negatively affected pathways associated with acquired immunity, but positively affected those associated with innate immunity. Interestingly, pathway Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was found positively affected when comparing 14 and 21 day-old suckling piglets, but negatively affected in 28 day-old piglets weaned at 21 days of age, when compared with 28 day-old suckling piglets. Genes CXCL13, SLA-DOA (MHC class II, ICAM1, VAV1 and VCAM1 were involved in the pathway Chemotaxis Leukocyte chemotaxis and they were found to significantly change between 14 and 21 day-old suckling piglets, and between groups of suckling and weaned piglets. The expression of these genes significantly declined after weaning at 14, 21 and 28 days of age. This decline indicated that CXCL13, SLA-DOA, ICAM1, VAV1 and VCAM1 may be involved in the development of Peyer’s patches because lower gene expression clearly corresponded with smaller areas of Peyer’s patches in the ileal mucosa of piglets. Moreover, weaning piglets prior to a period of intensive gut development i.e., 14 days of age, caused significant adverse effects on the size of Peyer’s patches, which were not reverted even 14 days post-weaning.

  5. Neonatal piglet traits of importance for survival in crates and indoor pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, L J; Berg, P; Jørgensen, G; Andersen, I L

    2011-04-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the same piglet traits contributed to the same causes of neonatal piglet mortality in crates (CT) and pens (PN). Gilts originating from 2 distinct genetic groups that differed in breeding value for piglet survival rate at d 5 (SR5) were used. These were distributed to farrow in either PN or CT as follows: high-SR5 and CT (n = 30); low-SR5 and CT (n = 27); high-SR5 and PN (n = 22); and low-SR5 and PN (n = 24). Data on individual piglets were collected at birth, including interbirth interval; birth order; birth weight; rectal temperature at birth, 2 h after birth, and 24 h after birth; cordal plasma lactate; and latency to first suckle. Based on autopsy, causes of mortality were divided into stillborn, bitten to death, starvation, crushed, disease, and other causes. Potential risk factors of dying were estimated using a GLM with a logit link function. No significant effect (NS) of housing was observed on the odds of a piglet being stillborn (F(1,73) = 0.1, NS), being crushed (F(1,53) = 1.4, NS), or dying of starvation (F(1,53) = 0.3, NS). No significant differences were observed between the 2 genetic groups for any category of mortality. Piglet traits for pre- and postnatal survival were the same for CT and PN. The odds of being stillborn were increased in piglets born late in the birth order (F(1,1061) = 33.5, P piglets, the greater were the odds of being crushed (F(1,1050) = 18, P piglets. The results emphasize that the microclimate in the PN for newborn piglets and its heat-preserving properties are more important for survival than whether the sow is crated or penned.

  6. Dietary prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin affects structural neurodevelopment in the young piglet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas are consistently reported to be lower than human milk. This study sought to provide a novel combination of prebiotics, bovine-derived milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin and assess their influence on neurodevelopment. Methods: Twenty-four male piglets were provided either TEST (n=12 or CONT (n=12 diet from 2 to 31 d of age. Piglets underwent spatial T-maze assessment starting at 17 d of age, were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging at 30 d of age, and were euthanized for tissue collection at 31 d of age. Results: Diffusion tensor imaging revealed differences in radial (P = 0.032 and mean (P = 0.028 diffusivities in the internal capsule, where CONT piglets had higher rates of diffusion compared with TEST piglets. Voxel-based morphometry indicated larger (P < 0.05 differences in cortical grey and white matter concentrations, with CONT piglets having larger tissue clusters in these regions compared with TEST piglets. In the spatial T-maze assessment, CONT piglets exhibited shorter latency to choice compared with TEST piglets on d 2 of acquisition and d 3 and 4 of reversal. Conclusion: Observed differences in microstructure maturation of the internal capsule and cortical tissue concentrations suggest that piglets provided TEST diet were more advanced developmentally than piglets provided CONT diet. Therefore, supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin may support neurodevelopment in human infants.

  7. Energy utilization of light and heavy weaned piglets subjected to different dietary energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary metabolisable energy (ME: 3.25, 3.40, 3.55, or 3.70 Mcal kg−1 and weaning weight (WW: light 4.0±0.7 kg, and heavy: 6.3±0.6 kg on productive response and energy utilization of weaned piglets. Sixty-four male piglets were housed in 32 metabolic cages (two animals per cage during the first 14 d postweaning. At day 15, only one animal per cage was kept until day 28. Body composition, energy, and nutrient deposition rates and energy utilization efficiency were measured through a comparative slaughter procedure. Piglets with light WW had a poorer feed conversion ratio and lower weight gain and feed intake when expressed per live weight. Increased ME led to greater daily fat deposition in the empty bodies (defined as weighted mean of the carcass + organs + blood, no intestinal content, while light WW piglets had a reduced protein deposition. Light WW piglets increased heat production with increased ME, but no effect was seen for the heavy WW piglets. By contrast, heavy WW piglets increased empty body gross energy as ME increased, while no influence was observed on light WW piglets. Increasing dietary energy levels did not contribute to the subsequent growth performance of piglets that were lighter at weaning. The lack of interaction between weaning weight and dietary ME content on growth performance does not support the hypothesis that light piglets at weaning do not exhibit compensatory growth because of limitations in energy intake.

  8. Comparison of brain development in sow-reared and artificially-reared piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeba M Jacob

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionProvision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has yet to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared or reared in an artificial setting. MethodsOver a 25-d feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0.2 kg initial bodyweight were either sow-reared (SR; n = 10 with ad libitum intake, or artificially-reared (AR; n = 29 receiving an infant formula modified to mimic the nutritional profile and intake pattern of sow’s milk. At study conclusion, piglets were subjected to a standardized set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI procedures to quantify structure and composition of the brain.ResultsDiffusion tensor imaging, an MRI sequence that characterizes brain microstructure, revealed that SR piglets had greater (P < 0.05 average whole-brain fractional anisotropy, and lower (P < 0.05 mean and radial and axial diffusivity values compared with AR piglets, suggesting differences in white matter organization. Voxel-based morphometric analysis, a measure of white and gray matter volumes concentrations, revealed differences (P < 0.05 in bilateral development of gray matter clusters in the cortical brain regions of the AR piglets compared with SR piglets. Region of interest (ROI analysis revealed larger (P < 0.05 whole brain volumes in SR animals compared with AR, and subcortical regions to be larger (P < 0.05 as a percentage of whole-brain volume in AR piglets compared with SR animals. Quantification of brain metabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed SR piglets had higher (P < 0.05 concentrations of myo-inositol, glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine, and creatine + phosphocreatine compared with AR piglets. However, glutamate + glutamine levels were higher (P < 0.05 in AR piglets when compared with SR animals

  9. ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY LOW LEVELS OF DEOXYNIVALENOL IN WEANED PIGLETS

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    DANIELA ELIZA MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by different species of Fusarium genus that may contaminate feed and food. In the present study we investigated the effect of low levels of DON on the modulation of performance, hemodynamic parameters, cellular and humoral immune response in weaned pigs. Histological alterations in different organ tissues were also analyzed. Our results showed that a short in vivo exposure (14 days of weanling piglets to 0; 0.5; 1.5 mg/day of DON significantly induced a dose dependent increase of cellular immune response (lymphocytes proliferation and leucocytes numbers. The 0.5 and 1.5 mg/day of DON modulated also the humoral immune response by increasing the immunoglobulin A synthesis with 7.32 % and 37.98 % and by decreasing that of immunoglubulin G with 11.15 % and 36.87 %, respectively when compared with the control. DON produced also alterations in the hemodynamic parameters of intoxicated piglets; the activity of lactate dehydrogenase significantly increased while the activity of L-glutamate, alkaline phosphatase, urea and creatinine significantly decreased. Both doses of the toxin induced microscopic alterations of the internal organ structure. By contrast, ingestion of the contaminated material had no effect on the performance (weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency, organ weights, and total serum concentration of cholesterol, calcium, sodium and potassium. Taken together these results suggest that even when present at low level DON can affect blood parameters, humoral and cellular immune response in weaned piglets with a significant importance for the swine health.

  10. Effects of Co-Administration of Bacillus subtilis and Porcine Lactobacillus salivarius on Intestinal Villus of Piglets%枯草芽孢杆菌和猪源乳酸杆菌混合饲喂对仔猪肠绒毛发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 李云锋; 杨倩

    2013-01-01

    本研究主要探讨混合饲喂枯草芽孢杆菌RJGP16和猪源乳酸杆菌B1对仔猪肠道肠绒毛发育的影响,以及这两种益生菌在体内拮抗大肠埃希氏菌K88的能力.试验选取8窝新生仔猪为研究对象,分别于0、7、11和26日龄经口腔灌服枯草芽孢杆菌菌液(活菌数1.0×109 CFU· mL-1)、猪源乳酸杆菌菌液(活菌数1.0×109 CFU· mL-1)、枯草芽孢杆菌和猪源乳酸杆菌混合菌液(体积比1∶1),以及对饲喂混合菌液的试验组进行大肠埃希菌K88的攻毒试验.试验结果表明,同时饲喂枯草芽孢杆菌和猪源乳酸杆菌能显著提高十二指肠(P<0.05)和回肠(P<0.01)的肠绒毛高度,增加十二指肠(P<0.05)和空肠(P<0.0l)绒毛的数量,降低空肠(P<0.05)和回肠(P<0.01)的隐窝深度,以及增加十二指肠(P<0.05)、空肠(P<0.05)和回肠(P<0.0l)的绒腺比.此外,同时饲喂这两种益生菌能有效地拮抗大肠埃希菌K88对仔猪肠道上皮的损伤.笔者的研究提示枯草芽孢杆菌和猪源乳酸杆菌对肠道绒毛的发育起到了促进作用,并能有效地提高抗感染能力.%This study focused on the effects of co-administration of Bacillus subtilis RJGP16 and porcine Lactobacillus salivarius Bl on intestinal villus of piglets, as well as the antagonism between the probiotics and Escherichia coli K88 in vivo. Eight litters newborn piglets were orally administrated with B. subtilis (viable count 1.0×109 CFU · mL-1), procine L. salivarius (viable count 1. 0×109 CFU · mL-1), these two kinds of probiotics (volume ratio 1:1) respectively, at 0, 7, 11 and 26 days after birth. After co-administration of the two probiotics, the piglets were inoculated with E. coli K88. The results showed that the co-administration of the two probiotics could significantly promote the villus height (VH) of duodenum (P<0. 05) and ileum (P<0. 01) , increase the villus number of duodenum (P<0. 05) and jejunum (F<0. 01) , lower the crypt depth

  11. The replacement of fishmeal by plant proteins in piglet production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to EC Commission Decision 9/2001 on BSE protection (OJEC, 2001, feedstuffs containing fishmeal can be produced only in establishments manufacturing animal feed which do not prepare feedstuffs for ruminant animals and which are authorised for this purpose by the competent authority. This fact, leading to a reduction of the productive capacity of small establishments, and the increasing aversion of consumers towards the use of animal protein in feedstuffs justify the studies about the possibility of excluding fishmeal from young animal formulations. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the total replacement of fishmeal by some vegetable protein sources in piglet diets.

  12. Reduced neonatal mortality in Meishan piglets: a role for hepatic fatty acids?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan P Fainberg

    Full Text Available The Meishan pig breed exhibits increased prolificacy and reduced neonatal mortality compared to commercial breeds, such as the Large White, prompting breeders to introduce the Meishan genotype into commercial herds. Commercial piglets are highly susceptible to hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and death, potentially due to limited lipid stores and/or delayed hepatic metabolic ability. We therefore hypothesized that variation in hepatic development and lipid metabolism could contribute to the differences in neonatal mortality between breeds. Liver samples were obtained from piglets of each breed on days 0, 7, and 21 of postnatal age and subjected to molecular and biochemical analysis. At birth, both breeds exhibited similar hepatic glycogen contents, despite Meishan piglets having significantly lower body weight. The livers from newborn Meishan piglets exhibited increased C18∶1n9C and C20∶1n9 but lower C18∶0, C20∶4n6, and C22∶6n3 fatty acid content. Furthermore, by using an unsupervised machine learning approach, we detected an interaction between C18∶1n9C and glycogen content in newborn Meishan piglets. Bioinformatic analysis could identify unique age-based clusters from the lipid profiles in Meishan piglets that were not apparent in the commercial offspring. Examination of the fatty acid signature during the neonatal period provides novel insights into the body composition of Meishan piglets that may facilitate liver responses that prevent hypoglycaemia and reduce offspring mortality.

  13. Whole Blood Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression Differences between Dapulian and Landrace Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiaqing; Yang, Dandan; Chen, Wei; Li, Chuanhao; Wang, Yandong; Zeng, Yongqing; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    There is little genomic information regarding gene expression differences at the whole blood transcriptome level of different pig breeds at the neonatal stage. To solve this, we characterized differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the whole blood of Dapulian (DPL) and Landrace piglets using RNA-seq (RNA-sequencing) technology. In this study, 83 DEGs were identified between the two breeds. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses identified immune response and metabolism as the most commonly enriched terms and pathways in the DEGs. Genes related to immunity and lipid metabolism were more highly expressed in the DPL piglets, while genes related to body growth were more highly expressed in the Landrace piglets. Additionally, the DPL piglets had twofold more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alternative splicing (AS) than the Landrace piglets. These results expand our knowledge of the genes transcribed in the piglet whole blood of two breeds and provide a basis for future research of the molecular mechanisms underlying the piglet differences.

  14. CT measurement of indomethacin-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes in the newborn piglet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derek W.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2003-05-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a common condition among preterm infants, increases the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and death in afflicted individuals. Current clinical treatment of PDA relies on use of the drug indomethacin to close the ductus arteriosus. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of indomethacin on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral mean transit time (MTT) in newborn piglets using computed tomography (CT) perfusion. Twenty newborn piglets divided by age into two groups, less than 12 hours of age (n = 10) and greater than 12 hours of age (n = 10) were studied. Five piglets in each group received indomethacin treatment (0.2 mg/kg infused over 30 min) while remaining piglets served as controls. No significant changes in CBF were observed in control groups. In both indomethacin treated groups, average CBF decreased 32.3% and 34.3% (P > 0.05) below baseline immediately post infusion in piglets less than and greater than 12 hours of age respectively. Piglets less than 12hours of age treated with indomethacin also exhibited a delayed increase in CBF, maximum average increase of 41.7% (P > 0.05) above baseline at 210 min post infusion, a response not observed in the corresponding group of piglets greater than 12 hours of age. The observed age dependent response may be due to functional/anatomical closure of the PDA.

  15. Whole Blood Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression Differences between Dapulian and Landrace Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little genomic information regarding gene expression differences at the whole blood transcriptome level of different pig breeds at the neonatal stage. To solve this, we characterized differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the whole blood of Dapulian (DPL and Landrace piglets using RNA-seq (RNA-sequencing technology. In this study, 83 DEGs were identified between the two breeds. Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analyses identified immune response and metabolism as the most commonly enriched terms and pathways in the DEGs. Genes related to immunity and lipid metabolism were more highly expressed in the DPL piglets, while genes related to body growth were more highly expressed in the Landrace piglets. Additionally, the DPL piglets had twofold more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and alternative splicing (AS than the Landrace piglets. These results expand our knowledge of the genes transcribed in the piglet whole blood of two breeds and provide a basis for future research of the molecular mechanisms underlying the piglet differences.

  16. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A‐II in Newborn Piglets

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    Ad de Groof

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital tremor type A‐II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently‐described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV. Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms tested. Piglets on a farm with no history of congenital tremor were PCR‐negative for the virus. To demonstrate a causal relationship between APPV and disease, three gilts were inoculated via intramuscular injection at day 32 of pregnancy. In two of the three litters, vertical transmission of the virus occurred. Clinical signs of congenital tremor were observed in APPV‐infected newborns, yet also two asymptomatic carriers were among the offspring. Piglets of one litter were PCR‐negative for the virus, and these piglets were all without congenital tremors. Long‐term follow up of farm piglets born with congenital tremors showed that the initially high viremia in serum declines at five months of age, but shedding of the virus in feces continues, which explains why the virus remains present at affected farms and causes new outbreaks. We conclude that trans‐placental transmission of APPV and subsequent infection of the fetuses is a very likely cause of congenital tremor type A‐II in piglets.

  17. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A-II in Newborn Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groof, Ad; Deijs, Martin; Guelen, Lars; van Grinsven, Lotte; van Os-Galdos, Laura; Vogels, Wannes; Derks, Carmen; Cruijsen, Toine; Geurts, Victor; Vrijenhoek, Mieke; Suijskens, Janneke; van Doorn, Peter; van Leengoed, Leo; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tremor type A-II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently-described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms tested). Piglets on a farm with no history of congenital tremor were PCR-negative for the virus. To demonstrate a causal relationship between APPV and disease, three gilts were inoculated via intramuscular injection at day 32 of pregnancy. In two of the three litters, vertical transmission of the virus occurred. Clinical signs of congenital tremor were observed in APPV-infected newborns, yet also two asymptomatic carriers were among the offspring. Piglets of one litter were PCR-negative for the virus, and these piglets were all without congenital tremors. Long-term follow up of farm piglets born with congenital tremors showed that the initially high viremia in serum declines at five months of age, but shedding of the virus in feces continues, which explains why the virus remains present at affected farms and causes new outbreaks. We conclude that trans-placental transmission of APPV and subsequent infection of the fetuses is a very likely cause of congenital tremor type A-II in piglets. PMID:27782037

  18. Biological diversity of yeasts in the gastrointestinal tract of weaned piglets kept under different farm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urubschurov, Vladimir; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Souffrant, Wolfgang B

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine yeasts present in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of piglets kept under experimental farm (EF) and commercial farm (CF) conditions. Ninety five German Landrace full- and half-sibling piglets were sacrificed at 39 days of age. Sixty eight piglets were weaned at 28th day of life, when they were offered one diet ad libitum. Twenty seven piglets remained unweaned by their dams. None of the piglets received any creep feed before weaning. Digesta samples were collected from 1/3 distal small intestine (SI), caecum and proximal colon. One hundred seventy three colonies of isolated yeasts were characterized by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene with following alignment of the recovered sequences to GenBank entries. From the 17 phylotypes found, isolates most closely related to Galactomyces geotrichum, Kazachstania slooffiae and Candida catenulata dominated in the GIT of CF piglets. Kazachstania slooffiae and Candida glabrata dominated in GIT of EF piglets. Sørenson and Morisita-Horn similarity indices between farms were low (0.44 and 0.54 respectively) and the Simpson diversity index was higher for EF (7.58) than for CF (4.34). The study brings new data on yeasts composition in the pig GIT and shows differences in yeasts biodiversity between farms operated at different hygiene conditions.

  19. Oral N-carbamylglutamate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jason W; Escobar, Jeffery; Nguyen, Hanh V; Jobgen, Scott C; Jobgen, Wenjuan S; Davis, Teresa A; Wu, Guoyao

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the potential mechanisms by which oral supplementation of N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), an analogue of endogenous N-acetylglutamate (an activator of arginine synthesis) increases growth rate in sow-reared piglets. Two piglets of equal body weight (BW) and of the same gender from each lactating sow were allotted to receive oral administration of 0 (control) or 50 mg of NCG/kg BW every 12 h for 7 d. Piglets (n=32; BW=3 kg) were studied in the food-deprived or fed state following the 7 d of treatment. Overnight food-deprived piglets were given NCG or water (control) at time 0 and 60 min. Piglets studied in the fed state were gavage-fed sow's milk with their respective NCG treatment at 0 and 60 min. At 60 min, the piglets were administered a flooding dose of [3H]phenylalanine and killed at 90 min to measure tissue protein synthesis. Piglets treated with NCG gained 28% more weight than control pigs (P<0.001) over the 7-d period. Fed pigs had greater rates of protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi and gastrocnemius muscles and duodenum compared with food-deprived pigs (P<0.001). Absolute protein synthesis rates in longissimus dorsi (P=0.050) and gastrocnemius (P=0.068) muscles were 30 and 21% greater, respectively, in NCG-treated compared with control pigs. Piglets supplemented with NCG also had greater plasma concentrations of arginine and somatotropin than control pigs (P<0.001). The results suggest that oral NCG supplementation increases plasma arginine and somatotropin levels, leading to an increase in growth rate and muscle protein synthesis in nursing piglets.

  20. Husbandry practices and gut health outcomes in weaned piglets: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandar Jayaraman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The immediate post-weaning period is one of the most stressful phases in a pig's life, and during this period, piglets are usually exposed to environmental, social and psychological stressors which have direct or indirect effects on gut health and overall growth performance. In this review, the impact of husbandry practices on gut health outcomes and performance of piglets is discussed. Husbandry practices in the swine barn generally include nutrition and management practices, maintenance of hygienic standards and disease prevention protocols, and animal welfare considerations. Poor husbandry practices could result in reduced feed intake, stress and disease conditions, and consequently affect gut health and performance in weaned piglets. Reduced feed intake is a major risk factor for impaired gut structure and function and therefore a key goal is to maximize feed intake in newly weaned piglets. In weaned piglets, crowding stress could reduce pig performance, favor the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria resulting in diarrhea, stimulate immune responses and interfere with beneficial microbial activities in the gut. Sanitation conditions in the swine barn plays an important role for optimal piglet performance, because unclean conditions reduced growth performance, shifted nutrient requirements to support the immune system and negatively affected the gut morphology in weaned piglets. Appropriate biosecurity measures need to be designed to prevent disease entry and spread within a swine operation, which in turn helps to keep all pigs and piglets healthy. Collectively, husbandry practices relating to feeding and nutrition, animal welfare, biosecurity and disease prevention are important determinants of gut health and piglet performance. Thus, it is suggested that adopting high husbandry practices is a critical piece in strategies aimed at raising pigs without the use of in-feed antibiotics.

  1. Salmonella Typhimurium exploits inflammation to its own advantage in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eChirullo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is responsible for foodborne zoonotic infections that, in humans, induce self-limiting gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the wild-type strain S. Typhimurium (STM14028 is able to exploit inflammation fostering an active infection.Due to the similarity between human and porcine diseases induced by S. Typhimurium, we used piglets as a model for salmonellosis and gastrointestinal research. This study showed that STM14028 is able to efficiently colonize in vitro porcine mono-macrophages and intestinal columnar epithelial (IPEC-J2 cells, and that the colonization significantly increases with LPS pre-treatment. This increase was then reversed by inhibiting the LPS stimulation through LPS antagonist, confirming an active role of LPS stimulation in the STM14028-intracellular colonization. Moreover, LPS in vivo treatment induces increased cytokines blood level and body temperature at 4 hours post infection, which is consistent with an acute inflammatory stimulus, capable to influence the colonization of STM14028 in different organs and tissues. The present study proves for the first time that in acute enteric salmonellosis, S.Typhimurium exploits inflammation for its benefit in piglets.

  2. Oral administration of putrescine and proline during the suckling period improves epithelial restitution after early weaning in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Li, G R; Tan, B E; Xiong, X; Kong, X F; Xiao, D F; Xu, L W; Wu, M M; Huang, B; Kim, S W; Yin, Y L

    2015-04-01

    Polyamines are necessary for normal integrity and the restitution after injury of the gastrointestinal epithelium. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral administration of putrescine and proline during the suckling period on epithelial restitution after early weaning in piglets. Eighteen neonatal piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large Yorkshire) from 3 litters (6 piglets per litter) were assigned to 3 groups, representing oral administration with an equal volume of saline (control), putrescine (5 mg/kg BW), and proline (25 mg/kg BW) twice daily from d 1 to weaning at 14 d of age. Plasma and intestinal samples were obtained 3 d after weaning. The results showed that oral administration of putrescine or proline increased the final BW and ADG of piglets compared with the control (P putrescine- and proline-treated piglets compared with those of control piglets. The voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv) 1.1 protein expression in the jejunum of piglets administrated with putrescine and the Kv1.5 mRNA and Kv1.1 protein levels in the ileum of piglets administrated with proline were greater than those in control piglets (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that polyamine or its precursor could improve mucosal proliferation, intestinal morphology, as well as tight junction and potassium channel protein expressions in early-weaned piglets, with implications for epithelial restitution and barrier function after stress injury.

  3. Development of a Piglet Grimace Scale to Evaluate Piglet Pain Using Facial Expressions Following Castration and Tail Docking: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, Abbie V.; Hunniford, Michelle; Lawlis, Penny; Leach, Matthew; Turner, Patricia V.

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are increasingly being used to assess pain in non-human species, including rodents, horses, and lambs. The development of these species-specific grimace scales has allowed for more rapid pain detection, which can lead to better animal welfare if intervention promptly occurs. For grimace scales to ever be used as a stand-alone measure of pain, it is important they correlate with established pain assessment tools, such as behavioral analysis. This preliminary study aimed to determine whether piglets exhibit pain grimacing and if these facial expressions correlate with their behavior. It also assessed and compared the behavior of boar piglets given an analgesic and topical anesthetic prior to surgical castration and tail docking to piglets that did not receive anything for pain relief. Five-day-old male Yorkshire piglets (n = 19) from four pens were randomly assigned, within their pen, to one of five possible treatments: meloxicam (0.4 mg/kg, intramuscularly) + EMLA® cream, meloxicam (0.4 mg/kg, intramuscularly) + non-medicated cream, saline (intramuscularly) + EMLA® cream, saline (intramuscularly) + non-medicated cream, or no treatment prior to surgical castration and tail docking. Piglet behaviors were video recorded for 8 h immediately after castration, as well as for 1 h at 24 h pre- and post-castration. Their individual behaviors were scored continuously for the first 15 min of every hour of video collected. Facial images were also captured across all time points. A Piglet Grimace Scale (PGS) was developed and used by two observers blinded to treatment, time, and procedure to score over 600 piglet faces. All piglets displayed significant behavioral changes up to 7 h post-castration when compared to baseline, and the use of meloxicam and EMLA® cream was not associated with a reduction in painful behaviors. Significantly higher PGS scores were noted at 0, 3, 4, and 5 h post-castration when compared to PGS

  4. Risks Associated with High-Dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an Escherichia coli Model of Piglet Diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao-Qiong; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Zhang, Hong-Fu

    2012-01-01

    detected by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Unexpectedly, high-dose administration increased the incidence of diarrhoea before F4+ETEC challenge, despite the fact that both doses ameliorated F4+ETEC-induced diarrhoea with increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts accompanied...... by reduced coliform shedding in faeces. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus administration reduced Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts in the colonic contents, and the high-dose piglets also had lower Lactobacillius and Bacteroides counts in the ileal contents. An increase in the concentration of serum TNF...

  5. Effects of irradiated sow colostrum on some biochemical and haematological measurements in newborn piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellenga, L.; Wensing, T.; Breukink, H.J.; Hagens, F.H.

    1986-11-01

    Some biochemical and haematological variables were measured in piglets during the first 48 hours after birth. The piglets were reared either by the sow, or bottle-fed with colostrum (either natural or sterilised by irradiation), or a commercial milk replacer. Mean haemoglobin concentrations, packed cell volumes and erythrocyte counts decreased by approximately 45 per cent in all the groups between birth and 48 hours, but leucocyte counts increased more markedly in the colostrum-fed groups. All the colostrum-fed groups showed rapid increases in serum total protein concentrations which were almost entirely due to increases in gamma globulin concentrations. There was no difference in this respect between natural colostrum and colostrum sterilised by irradiation with 500 Krad of gamma rays. Colostrum sterilised by irradiation can protect piglets against infectious agents and simplify the rearing of piglets under specific pathogen free conditions.

  6. Fenugreek seed affects intestinal microbiota and immunological variables in piglets after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentek, Jürgen; Gärtner, Stefanie; Tedin, Lydia; Männer, Klaus; Mader, Anneluise; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2013-03-14

    Fenugreek seed has been shown to affect the intestinal microbiota and immunological responses in animals. A feeding trial with male castrated piglets was performed over 28 d without or with the addition of 1·5 g fenugreek seeds/kg complete diet in ten and eleven piglets, weaned at 21 d. In the intestinal tract, pH, lactate and SCFA were measured as major bacterial metabolites. Immune cell phenotypes, phagocytic activity and lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin M were measured by flow cytometry. Health status and performance of the piglets were not affected by fenugreek. The pH in the caecum and colon were reduced compared with the control (Pingredient for young piglets due to their effects on the intestinal microbiota and immunological variables. The impact on performance and animal health has to be further evaluated.

  7. Sow-level risk factors for stillbirth of piglets in organic sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2017-01-01

    In Danish organic pig production, one-third of total born piglets die before weaning, and stillbirth has previously crudely been estimated to account for 27% of the total preweaning mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate season, litter size, parity and body condition of the sow...... as risk factors for stillbirth in nine commercial Danish organic pig herds. The study was conducted over a 1-year period, and the data included registrations on 5170 farrowings with 82 906 total born piglets. The average number of total born piglets per litter was 16.0, and the number of stillborn piglets...... born during the summer months of May to August were found to be risk factors for stillbirth. Furthermore, an interaction between body condition and parity showed that thin sows with parity above 4 had a substantially increased risk of stillbirth compared with normal and fat sows with parity above 4...

  8. The suckling piglet as an agrimedical model for the study of pediatric nutrition and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Jack; Lin, Xi; Jacobi, Sheila K; Kim, Sung Woo; Stahl, Chad H

    2014-02-01

    The neonatal pig ranks among the most prominent research models for the study of pediatric nutrition and metabolism. Its precocial development at birth affords ready adaptation to artificial rearing systems, and research using this model spans a wide array of nutrients. Sophisticated in vitro and in vivo methodologies supporting both invasive, reduction-science research as well as whole-animal preclinical investigations have been developed. Potential applications may dually benefit both agricultural and medical sciences (e.g., "agrimedical research"). The broad scope of this review is to outline the fundamental elements of the piglet model and to highlight key aspects of relevance to various macronutrients, including lipids, carbohydrates, proteins/amino acids, and calcium/phosphorus. The review examines similarities between piglets and infants and also piglet idiosyncrasies, concluding that, overall, the piglet represents an adaptable and robust model for pediatric nutrition and metabolism research.

  9. Litter Size and Weight of Piglets of the Turopolje Pig Breed in the Suckling Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Đikić

    1999-06-01

    The size of the litters, the weight, and daily weight gain of the piglets until weaning were analysed, nine litters with a total of 77 piglets being considered. The average numbers of piglets in litters were determined: total 8.56, live 6.67, dead 1.89, female 3.56, male 3.11. Weight (in kg and daily weight gain (in g until weaning were: total 4.42; 101.22; for females 4.42 and 103.93, and for males 3.92 and 98.13, which demonstrates the possibility that sows can be kept and piglets survive until weaning in the open maintenance system.

  10. Purified natural pig immunoglobulins can substitute dietary zinc in reducing piglet post weaning diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2017-01-01

    Enteric infectious disease in weaner piglets, including postweaning diarrhoea (PWD), are usually treated and/or prevented with antibiotics and/or zinc oxide in the piglet feed. However extensive use of antibiotics and zinc oxide in intensive animal production is unwanted as it may promote microbial......IgG in intensive swine production units to establish its performance as an alternative to dietary antibiotics and zinc oxide for preventing PWD....

  11. Propagation of infantile gastroenteritis virus (orbi-group) in conventional and germfree piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, P J; Petric, M; Szymanski, M T

    1975-12-01

    Infantile gastroenteritis virus (orbi-group) recovered from stools of infants with acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis was administered per os to germfree and conventional piglets. Virus was found subsequently in stools and in the mucosal epithelial cells of the small intestine of these animals. Some animals developed diarrhea. Added proof of orbivirus replication was obtained through the use of tritiated uridine injections and the recovery of labeled virus in gut contents at the time of autopsy. Serological conversion was demonstrated in infected germfree piglets.

  12. Gut response induced by weaning in piglet features marked changes in immune and inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Lorenzo; Minuti, Andrea; Moisá, Sonia J; Trevisi, Erminio; Eufemi, Elisa; Lizier, Michela; Chegdani, Fatima; Lucchini, Franco; Rzepus, Marcin; Prandini, Aldo; Rossi, Filippo; Mazza, Raffaele; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Loor, Juan J; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    At weaning, piglets are exposed to many stressors, such as separation from the sow, mixing with other litters, end of lactational immunity, and a change in their environment and gut microbiota. The sudden change of feeding regime after weaning causes morphological and histological changes in the small intestine which are critical for the immature digestive system. Sixteen female piglets were studied to assess the effect of sorbic acid supplementation on the small intestine tissue transcriptome. At weaning day (T0, piglet age 28 days), four piglets were sacrificed and ileal tissue samples collected. The remaining 12 piglets were weighed and randomly assigned to different postweaning (T5, piglet age 33 days) diets. Diet A (n = 6) contained 5 g/kg of sorbic acid. In diet B (n = 6), the organic acids were replaced by barley flour. Total RNA was isolated and then hybridized to CombiMatrix CustomArray™ 90-K platform microarrays, screening about 30 K genes. Even though diet had no detectable effect on the transcriptome during the first 5 days after weaning, results highlighted some of the response mechanisms to the stress of weaning occurring in the piglet gut. A total of 205 differentially expressed genes were used for functional analysis using the bioinformatics tools BLAST2GO, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis 8.0, and Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that apoptosis, RIG-I-like, and NOD-like receptor signaling were altered as a result of weaning. Interferons and caspases gene families were the most activated after weaning in response to piglets to multiple stressors. Results suggest that immune and inflammatory responses were activated and likely are a cause of small intestine atrophy as revealed by a decrease in villus height and villus/crypt ratio.

  13. Effect of energy concentration of milk on voluntary intake of lean and obese piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, P J; Soroka, G H

    1978-04-01

    Voluntary intake responses of neonatal lean and obese pigs, fed high and low energy diets, were measured. Piglets were maintained in individual cages from 4 to 22 days of age. The 18-day trial was divided into six 3-day ad libitum feeding periods. All piglets received a purified high energy diet (1.12 kcal/ml) in periods 1, 3, 5, and low energy diet (0.57 kcal/ml) in periods 2, 4, and 6. Average daily volume intakes for periods 1 to 6 were 36.8, 55.2, 41.4, 56.2, 38.4, and 47.8 ml/100 g body weight (BW), respectively. Average daily energy intakes were 40.5, 28.7, 45.5, 29.2, 42.2, and 24.9 kcal/100 g BW. Even though piglets consumed greater volumes of low energy diet, energy intake was not maintained during periods 2, 4, and 6. It is possible that gastrointestinal capacity limited intake before energy demand was met. Compared to lean piglets, obese piglets were hyperphagic and consumed more volume (52.0 versus 39.8 ml/100 g BW/day) and more energy (40.0 versus 30.4 kcal/100 g BW/day). It is conclused that neonatal lean and obese piglets possess a sensitive mechanism (s) to control food intake in response to changes in energy content of the diet. The control mechanism in the obese piglets appears to function at a higher level of energy demand than in the lean piglets.

  14. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  15. Fermented wheat in liquid diets: effects on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, R H J; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Balk, M; Schrama, J W; Verstegen, M W A

    2002-05-01

    Effects of adding fermented wheat to liquid diets on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets were studied. Gastrointestinal characteristics of 40 28-d-old weanling piglets were measured at the day of weaning (d 0) and at d 4 and 8 after weaning. Piglets were group-housed and fed twice daily. Feeding level was based on the average metabolic BW of piglets per group. Groups were fed a liquid diet with either 45% unfermented wheat (FERM_0) or 45% fermented wheat (FERM_45). The other 55% of the diet was identical. To ferment wheat, water at 30 degrees C was added to milled wheat in a 1:2.2 ratio. The pH and contents of lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were measured in the digesta of the stomach, three parts of the small intestine, cecum, and large intestine. In addition, changes in microbial populations in the digesta were studied during the period after weaning. Moreover, villus height, crypt depth, and villus shape were studied in the small intestine. Piglets fed FERM_45 showed lower gastric pH (P feeding a partly fermented liquid diet to weanling piglets may be a concept to prevent undesirable changes in mucosal architecture after weaning.

  16. Increased intestinal barrier function in the small intestine of formula-fed neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygelen, V; De Vos, M; Willemen, S; Tambuyzer, B; Casteleyn, C; Knapen, D; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2012-12-01

    Within-litter birth weight variation is adversely correlated to piglet survival and postnatal growth. A less efficient epithelial barrier function in light piglets may partly explain this inverse relationship between birth weight and zootechnical performance. A compromised epithelial barrier increases paracellular permeability; consequently, toxins, allergenic compounds, or bacteria may enter systemic circulation and induce inflammatory responses. Dietary effects on function of gut epithelium of piglet are largely unknown. This study investigated epithelial barrier function of the small intestine of normal birth weight (NBW) piglets (1.46 ± 0.10 kg) and low birth weight (LBW) piglets (excretion was measured using enzymatic spectrophotometry. Irrespective of birth weight, lactulose levels of FOR10 (4.4 ± 2.3 mmol/L) tended to be lower (P = 0.07) than SOW10 (26.4 ± 10.2 mmol/L) indicating a reduced paracellular intestinal permeability in FOR10. This reduction was associated with a 6-fold elevated (P < 0.01) protein expression of occludin, an important tight junction protein, in FOR10 compared to SOW10. Mannitol levels in FOR10 (31.0 ± 18.2 mmol/L) did not differ (P = 0.28) from SOW10 (61.1 ± 10.2 mmol/L). However, shorter villi (P < 0.01) in FOR10 indicated a reduced absorptive capacity. In conclusion, formula feeding caused minor symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction compared to sow-fed piglets irrespective of their birth weight.

  17. Variance and covariance components for liability of piglet survival during different periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, G; Sorensen, D; Lund, M S

    2008-02-01

    Variance and covariance components for piglet survival in different periods were estimated from individual records of 133 004 Danish Landrace piglets and 89 928 Danish Yorkshire piglets, using a liability threshold model including both direct and maternal additive genetic effects. At the individual piglet level, the estimates of direct heritability in Landrace were 0.035, 0.057 and 0.027, and in Yorkshire the estimates were 0.012, 0.030 and 0.025 for liability of survival at farrowing (SVB), from birth to day 5 (SV5) and from day 6 to weaning (SVW), respectively. The estimates of maternal heritability for SVB, SV5 and SVW were, respectively, 0.057, 0.040 and 0.030 in Landrace, and 0.050, 0.038 and 0.019 in Yorkshire. Both direct and maternal genetic correlations between the three survival traits were low and not significantly different from zero, except for a moderate direct genetic correlation between SVB and SV5 and between SV5 and SVW in Landrace. Direct and maternal genetic correlations between piglet birth weight (BW) and SV5 were moderately high, but the correlations between BW and SVB and between BW and SVW were low and most of them were not significantly different from zero. These results suggest that effective genetic improvement in piglet survival before weaning by selection should be based on both direct and maternal additive genetic effects and treat survival in different periods as different traits.

  18. Pulmonary vascular responses during acute and sustained respiratory alkalosis or acidosis in intact newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J B; Rehorst-Paea, L A; Hoffman, G M; Nelin, L D

    1999-12-01

    Acute alkalosis-induced pulmonary vasodilation and acidosis-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction have been well described, but responses were generally measured within 5-30 min of changing pH. In contrast, several in vitro studies have found that relatively brief periods of sustained alkalosis can enhance, and sustained acidosis can decrease, vascular reactivity. In this study of intact newborn piglets, effects of acute (20 min) and sustained (60-80 min) alkalosis or acidosis on baseline (35% O2) and hypoxic (12% O2) pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were compared with control piglets exposed only to eucapnia. Acute alkalosis decreased hypoxic PVR, but sustained alkalosis failed to attenuate either baseline PVR or the subsequent hypoxic response. Acute acidosis did not significantly increase hypoxic PVR, but sustained acidosis markedly increased both baseline PVR and the subsequent hypoxic response. Baseline PVR was similar in all piglets after resumption of eucapnic ventilation, but the final hypoxic response was greater in piglets previously exposed to alkalosis than in controls. Thus, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was not attenuated during sustained alkalosis, but was accentuated during sustained acidosis and after the resumption of eucapnia in alkalosis-treated piglets. Although extrapolation of data from normal piglets to infants and children with pulmonary hypertension must be done with caution, this study suggests that sustained alkalosis may be of limited efficacy in treating acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and the risks of pulmonary hypertension must be considered when using ventilator strategies resulting in permissive hypercapnic acidosis.

  19. Pain behaviour after castration of piglets; effect of pain relief with lidocaine and/or meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluivers-Poodt, M; Zonderland, J J; Verbraak, J; Lambooij, E; Hellebrekers, L J

    2013-07-01

    Behavioural responses and the effect of lidocaine and meloxicam on behaviour of piglets after castration were studied. A total of 144 piglets of 2 to 5 days of age were allocated to one of six treatments: castration (CAST), castration with lidocaine (LIDO), castration with meloxicam (MELO), castration with lidocaine and meloxicam (L + M), handling (SHAM) and no handling (NONE). Behaviour was observed for 5 days after the procedure, growth until weaning was recorded and characteristics of the castration wound noted. MELO piglets showed significantly (P wagging, lasting for 3 days. This increase was not seen in L + M piglets. The occurrence of several behaviours changed with age, independent of treatment. A treatment effect on growth was not found. Wound healing was rapid in all treatments, but thickening of the heal was observed in several piglets, suggesting perturbation in the cicatrization process. Our study showed a pain-relieving effect of meloxicam after castration. Local anaesthesia resulted in piglets performing more tail wagging during the first few days after castration, which was prevented by administering meloxicam in combination with local anaesthesia.

  20. Salmonella Typhimurium infection primes a nutriprive mechanism in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarelli, Maria; Drumo, Rosanna; Signorelli, Federica; Marchitelli, Cinzia; Pavone, Silvia; Pesciaroli, Michele; Ruggieri, Jessica; Chirullo, Barbara; Ammendola, Serena; Battistoni, Andrea; Alborali, Giovanni L; Manuali, Elisabetta; Pasquali, Paolo

    2016-04-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important cause of acute food- borne zoonoses worldwide, typically carried by pigs. It is well known that Salmonella has evolved a wide array of strategies enabling it to invade the host, but little information is available on the specific host responses to Salmonella infections. In the present study, we used an in vivo approach (involving piglets infected with a virulent or an attenuated S. Typhimurium strain) coupled to histological and proteomic analysis of the cecum mucosa, to highlight the host pathways activated during S. Typhimurium infection. We confirm the complex host-pathogen interaction. Our data showed that the metabolic and the cytoskeleton organization functions were the most significantly altered. In particular, the modifications of energy metabolic pathway could suggest a "nutriprive" mechanism, in which the host reduce its metabolic and energetic status to limit Salmonella infection. This study could represent a preliminary approach, providing information useful to better understand the host-Salmonella interaction.

  1. Starfish (Asterias rubens) as feed ingredient for piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pia; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2016-01-01

    levels of SM (SM50 and SM100). All diets contained 174.4 g soybean meal/kg feed and were supplemented by up to 166-172 g standardised ileal digestible crude protein/kg feed with either FM, ESBM, SM or a combination giving rise to two SM + ESBM diets with different levels of SM and ESBM. One wk after...... weaning, 96 pigs with a body weight of 9.6 ± 0.4 kg were housed individually and allocated to one of the four diets (n = 24) and fed ad libitum for a 14 d period. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined. Pigs fed the SM100 diet had a 23...... for the maximum inclusion level of SM in diets for piglets may be the dietary Ca level and the resulting Ca:P in relation to the nutritional requirements....

  2. Physiological and pathological responses to head rotations in toddler piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nicole G; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin; Margulies, Susan S

    2010-06-01

    Closed head injury is the leading cause of death in children less than 4 years of age, and is thought to be caused in part by rotational inertial motion of the brain. Injury patterns associated with inertial rotations are not well understood in the pediatric population. To characterize the physiological and pathological responses of the immature brain to inertial forces and their relationship to neurological development, toddler-age (4-week-old) piglets were subjected to a single non-impact head rotation at either low (31.6 +/- 4.7 rad/sec(2), n = 4) or moderate (61.0 +/- 7.5 rad/sec(2), n = 6) angular acceleration in the axial direction. Graded outcomes were observed for both physiological and histopathological responses such that increasing angular acceleration and velocity produced more severe responses. Unlike low-acceleration rotations, moderate-acceleration rotations produced marked EEG amplitude suppression immediately post-injury, which remained suppressed for the 6-h survival period. In addition, significantly more severe subarachnoid hemorrhage, ischemia, and axonal injury by beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) were observed in moderate-acceleration animals than low-acceleration animals. When compared to infant-age (5-day-old) animals subjected to similar (54.1 +/- 9.6 rad/sec(2)) acceleration rotations, 4-week-old moderate-acceleration animals sustained similar severities of subarachnoid hemorrhage and axonal injury at 6 h post-injury, despite the larger, softer brain in the older piglets. We conclude that the traditional mechanical engineering approach of scaling by brain mass and stiffness cannot explain the vulnerability of the infant brain to acceleration-deceleration movements, compared with the toddler.

  3. A neonatal piglet model for investigating brain and cognitive development in small for gestational age human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Lezmi, Stephane; Dilger, Ryan N; Sutton, Brad; Larsen, Ryan; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    The piglet was investigated as a potential model for studying brain and cognitive deficits associated with being born small for gestational age (SGA). Naturally farrowed SGA (0.7-1.0 kg BW) and average for gestational age (AGA, 1.3-1.6 kg BW) piglets were obtained on postnatal day (PD) 2, placed in individual cages, and provided a nutritionally adequate milk replacer diet (285 ml/kg/d). Beginning at PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, piglets were anesthetized for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assess brain structure (voxel-based morphometry), connectivity (diffusion-tensor imaging) and metabolites in the hippocampus and corpus callosum (proton MR spectroscopy). Piglets born SGA showed compensatory growth such that BW of SGA and AGA piglets was similar (P>0.05), by PD15. Birth weight affected maze performance, with SGA piglets taking longer to reach criterion than AGA piglets (pdevelopment and connectivity. None of the metabolites measured were different between groups. Collectively, the results show that SGA piglets have spatial learning deficits and abnormal development of white matter. As learning deficits and abnormalities in white matter are common in SGA human infants, the piglet is a tractable translational model that can be used to investigate SGA-associated cognitive deficits and potential interventions.

  4. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed fish oil compared with those fed coconut oil or lard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, M S; Pedersen, A R; Engberg, R M

    2001-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later, they were surgically fitted with a catheter in the pancreatic duct for continuous collection of pancreatic juice. Collections of pancreatic juice were made every other day starting 4 d postsurgically. Piglets fed the fish oil diet secreted a significantly greater volume of pancreatic juice than piglets fed the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among the dietary treatment groups. The apparent digestibilities of nutrients and energy were measured in feces and did not differ among groups. Thus, the greater output of lipase in fish oil-fed piglets did not result in a greater digestibility of fat in this diet.

  5. Detecção de cepas patogênicas pela PCR multiplex e avaliação da sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isoladas de leitões diarréicos Detection of pathogenic strains by multiplex PCR and antimicrobial sensitivity of Escherichia coli isolated from piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Macêdo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a freqüência dos genes de fímbrias (K88, K99, 987P, F18 e F41 e toxinas (LT, Stb, StaP e Stx2e de cepas de E. coli isoladas de leitões com diarréia usando a técnica de PCR multiplex com primers específicos para esses genes, e estudou-se o padrão de sensibilidade das cepas patogênicas pelo método de difusão em disco ao florfenicol, ceftiofur sódico, colistina, fosfomicina, neomicina, norfloxacina, sulfa + trimetoprim, doxiciclina, tetraciclina e lincomicina. Foram utilizadas 144 amostras de E.coli isoladas de leitões com diarréia, provenientes de granjas localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais. Dessas, 42 (29,2% foram positivas para pelo menos um dos fatores de virulência testados. Dentre essas 42 amostras, 23 (54,8% apresentaram genes de fímbria e toxina, sete (16,6% apresentaram somente genes de toxinas e 12 (28,6% amostras somente genes de fímbria. O resultado do teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos demonstrou que o florfenicol (89,5 % e o ceftiofur sódico (84,2% foram as drogas de melhor eficácia in vitro sobre cepas de E. coli com fatores de virulência.The frequency of virulence determinants genes for fimbrial adhesions (K88, K99, 987P, F18 and F41 and toxins (LT, Stb, StaP and Stx2e in E. coli strains isolated from diarrheic piglets using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay with specific primers for these genes was studied. The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of pathogenic isolates for florfenicol, sodium ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, neomycin, norfloxacin, sulfa + trimetoprim, doxycycline, tetracycline and lincomycin was also tested using the disk diffusion method. E. coli were isolated from 144 diarrheic piglets from farms in the state of Minas Gerais. Forty-two out of 144 studied samples (29.2% were positive for at least one tested virulence factor. Out of these 42, 23 samples (54.8% contained fimbria and toxin genes, seven (16.6% samples had genes for toxins only and 12 (28.6% samples

  6. Post-mortem findings and piglet mortality in relation to strategic use of straw at farrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, Rebecka; Holmgren, Nils; Hultgren, Jan; Ortman, Kerstin; Linder, Anders; Algers, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Piglet survival is the outcome of complex interactions between the sow, the piglet and their environment. In order to facilitate nest-building and to provide a suitable environment for the newborn piglets, a strategic method to supply loose housed sows with large quantities of straw at farrowing has been developed by Swedish piglet-producing farmers. The objectives of this cohort study were to use post-mortem findings to assess the causes of death and to quantify the effect of a large quantity of straw provided before farrowing compared to limited small daily amounts on stillbirths, post-mortem findings in piglets dying within 5 days after birth and the pre-weaning mortality. On each of four commercial piglet-producing farms in South-West Sweden, one batch of sows was studied during two consecutive lactations. At inclusion, sows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, and sows remaining in the batch during the next lactation switched treatment group. In the STRAW group (n=181 litters) sows were provided with 15-20 kg of chopped straw 2 days prior to the calculated date of farrowing. Sows in the CONTROL group (n=182 litters) received 0.5-1 kg of chopped straw on a daily basis plus about 2 kg for nest-building when the stockperson judged the sow to be about to farrow. After onset of farrowing, additionally 1-2 kg was given. Post-mortem examination was performed in all piglets that died within 5 days after birth (n=798). The three major post-mortem findings were starvation (34%) crushing by the sow (28%), and enteritis (24%). In conclusion, strategic use of large quantities of straw reduced the number of stillborn piglets per litter by 27% (p=0.007). Under the conditions studied, the pre-weaning mortality of liveborn piglets was not affected by treatment; however, the distribution of post-mortem findings differed with fewer piglets dying due to starvation and more due to crushing and enteritis in STRAW litters.

  7. Relationship of sow udder morphology with piglet suckling behavior and teat access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani, Agnese; Cordell, Heather J; Edwards, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between the latency to the first suckling and udder and teat morphology and to assess the extent to which piglet and sow characteristics influence teat pair position preference. Udder morphology trait measurements, piglet suckling behavior, and sow productive and behavioral traits were recorded from a population of 74 Large White X Landrace sows of different parities. The interteat distance within the same row was larger between the teats that were suckled at the first contact with the udder compared with the unsuckled teats (P = 0.04). There was a tendency for piglets to suckle first from teats placed closer to the abdominal midline. A high proportion of siblings (64%) suckled for the first time on a teat previously chosen by another piglet. Most neonates suckled first from a teat located in the posterior part of the udder (41%) or in the anterior part (33%), rather than the middle section. Latency from birth to suckling and the time from the first udder contact to locate a teat and suckle was shorter for piglets first suckling the anterior (28:03 and 9:48 minutes) and posterior teats (26:31; 8:38 minutes) than for those sucking the midsection teats (34:30 minutes, F7,256 = 1.99, P = 0.05; 10:30, F7,256 = 2.37, P = 0.05). To avoid possible confounds, other potential causes of delay in successful suckling were studied. The latency to suckle was not influenced by piglet vitality score at birth, weight, or provision of human assistance to place it at the udder. It was shorter when the piglets were born later in the litter (P piglets born dead (P = 0.001) and from a sow with an induced farrowing (P = 0.007). Moreover, there was a tendency for piglets born from a multiparous sow (P = 0.06) and in a large litter size (P = 0.07) to have a longer latency to find a teat and suckle once they had made the first contact with the udder. Although suckling itself is clearly an instinctive

  8. Nitrous oxide as a humane method for piglet euthanasia: Behavior and electroencephalography (EEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Kells, Nikki; Johnson, Craig; Dennis, Rachel; Sutherland, Mhairi; Lay, Donald C

    2015-11-01

    The search for humane methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address public concern that current methods are not optimal. Blunt force trauma is considered humane but esthetically objectionable. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used but criticized as aversive. This research sought to: 1) evaluate the aversiveness of inhaling nitrous oxide (N2O; 'laughing gas') using an approach-avoidance test relying on the piglet's perspective, and 2) validate its humaneness to induce loss of consciousness by electroencephalography (EEG). The gas mixtures tested were N2O and air (90%:10%; '90 N'); N2O, oxygen and air (60%:30%:10%; '60 N'); and CO2 and air (90%:10%; '90 C'). Experiment 1 allowed piglets to walk freely between one chamber filled with air and another prefilled with 60 N or 90 N. All piglets exposed to 60 N lasted for the 10 min test duration whereas all piglets exposed to 90 N had to be removed within 5 min because they fell recumbent and unresponsive and then started to flail. Experiment 2 performed the same test except the gas chamber held N2O prefilled at 25%, 50%, or 75% or CO2 prefilled at 7%, 14%, or 21%. The test was terminated more quickly at higher concentrations due to the piglets' responses. Time spent ataxic was greater in the middle concentration gradients. Flailing behavior tended to correlate with increasing concentrations of CO2 but not N2O. Experiment 3, using the minimal anesthesia model, showed that both 90 N and 90 C induced isoelectric EEG, in 71 and 59 s respectively, but not 60 N within 15 min. The EEG results together with the observed behavioral changes reflect differences in the animal's perceptive experience. The implications for animal welfare are that N2O is much less aversive than CO2, and 90% N2O can euthanize piglets.

  9. Confinement of lactating sows in crates for 4 days after farrowing reduces piglet mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustsen, V A; Hales, J; Lahrmann, H P; Weber, P M; Hansen, C F

    2013-04-01

    To reduce mortality among suckling piglets, lactating sows are traditionally housed in farrowing crates. Alternatively, lactating sows can be housed in farrowing pens where the sow is loose to ensure more behavioural freedom and consequently a better welfare for the sow, although under commercial conditions, farrowing pens have been associated with increased piglet mortality. Most suckling piglets that die do so within the first week of life, so potentially lactating sows do not have to be restrained during the entire lactation period. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether confinement of the sow for a limited number of days after farrowing would affect piglet mortality. A total of 210 sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Yorkshire) were farrowed in specially designed swing-aside combination farrowing pens measuring 2.6 m × 1.8 m (combi-pen), where the sows could be kept loose or in a crate. The sows were either: (a) loose during the entire experimental period, (b) crated from days 0 to 4 postpartum, (c) crated from days 0 to 7 postpartum or (d) crated from introduction to the farrowing pen to day 7 postpartum. The sows and their subsequent litters were studied from introduction to the combi-pen ∼1 week before expected farrowing and until 10 days postpartum. Confinement period of the sow failed to affect the number of stillborn piglets; however, sows that were crated after farrowing had fewer live-born mortality deaths (P piglet mortality among the loose sows was because of higher mortality in the first 4 days after farrowing. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that crating the sow for 4 days postpartum was sufficient to reduce piglet mortality.

  10. Labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane-anaesthesia using shared and stationary inhaler devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sabrina; Das, Gürbüz; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Isoflurane-anaesthesia combined with an analgesic represents a welfare-friendly method of pain mitigation for castration of piglets. However, it requires an inhaler device, which is uneconomic for small farms. Sharing a device among farms may be an economical option if the shared use does not increase labour time and the resulting costs. This study aimed to investigate the amount and components of labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane anaesthesia performed with stationary and shared devices. Piglets (N = 1579) were anaesthetised with isoflurane (using either stationary or shared devices) and castrated.The stationary devices were used in a group (n = 5) of larger farms (84 sows/farm on an average), whereas smaller farms (n = 7; 32 sows/farm on an average) shared one device. Each farm was visited four times and labour time for each process-step was recorded. The complete process included machine set-up, anaesthesia and castration by a practitioner, and preparation, collection and transport of piglets by a farmer. Labour time of the complete process was increased (P = 0.012) on farms sharing a device (266 s/piglet) compared to farms using stationary devices (177 s/ piglet), due to increased time for preparation (P = 0.055), castration (P = 0.026) and packing (P = 0.010) when sharing a device. However, components of the time budget of farms using stationary or shared devices did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Cost arising from time spent by farmers did not differ considerably between the use of stationary (0.28 Euro per piglet) and shared (0.26 Euro) devices. It is concluded that costs arising from the increased labour time due to sharing a device can be considered marginal, since the high expenses originating from purchasing an inhaler device are shared among several farms.

  11. Temporary confinement of loose-housed hyperprolific sows reduces piglet mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, J; Moustsen, V A; Nielsen, M B F; Hansen, C F

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate piglet mortality in a commercial setting where sows were accommodated in a loose-housed system with an option to confine the sow for a few days around farrowing and during early lactation. The study was conducted in a Danish piggery where records were obtained from 2,139 farrowings. Sows were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments: loose-loose (LL), loose-confined (LC), and confined-confined (CC). In LL, sows were loose housed from the time they entered the farrowing pens to weaning. In LC, sows were loose housed until farrowing was finished and then confined to d 4 after farrowing. In CC, sows were confined at d 114 of gestation to d 4 after farrowing. All sows were loose housed from d 5 to weaning. Total piglet mortality was analyzed at batch level to include piglets fostered by nurse sows and at sow level to analyze the effects of confinement during different time periods. Total piglet mortality was greater in LL (26.0%) and LC (25.4%) compared with CC (22.1%; sows in CC were classified as "low mortality" compared with LL and LC both before ( < 0.001) and after ( = 0.002) litter equalization. The results in this study emphasize that the period of time from the birth of the first piglet to litter equalization is important in relation to piglet mortality. The results also suggest that confinement for 4 d after farrowing can reduce mortality in this specific period, but only confinement from d 114 of gestation to d 4 after farrowing reduced total piglet mortality.

  12. The Studies on the Grunting of Sows during Nursing and the Sucking??Behaviour of Piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the grunting of sows during nursing and the sucking behaviour of piglets. 牋牋牋In experimental I ,six Yorkshire sows and their litters were observed and managed in farrowing crates.In experimental ? ,six Harbin White sows and their litters were selected and housed in farrowing pens. The behaviours and activities of the sows during nursing and the activities of piglets during sucking were recorded with a portable video camera(Panasonic NV?VX22EN) 牋牋牋牋燭he results showed that the characteristic patterns of grunting by the sows consist of an initial period of rhythmic grunting at a fairly constant rate and followed by a period of more rapid grunting,and then a decline in grunting rate toward the completion of nursing. The pattern of vocalization showed by the mothers bears a reliable synchronization to the sucking behaviour of the piglets. The rate of grunting varied little during jostling for teat and nosing the udder. The beginning of slow sucking usually occurred during or just after the increase in grunt rate. The rapid sucking began 15?25 seconds after the period of most rapid grunting,following the decrease of grunt rate. afterwards the nursing ended. There were individualities found in sows'grunting patterns. 牋牋營t is found that vocalizations attracted the piglets to the sows and synchronized sucking activities of piglets, but the results indicated that the premassaging time and numbers of piglets engaging massaging influenced the grunting pattern and the onset of the milk ejection. As more piglets were involved the massaging,the higher the grunting rate peak ,the faster the milk ejection.

  13. Genetic relationships between boar feed efficiency and sow piglet production, body condition score, and stayability in Norwegian Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, K H; Ødegård, J; Aasmundstad, T; Olsen, D; Meuwissen, T H E

    2016-08-01

    Both feed efficiency and sow production are economically important traits in pig breeding. One challenge in a maternal line such as Norwegian Landrace is to breed for highly feed efficient fattening pigs and, at the same time, produce sows with high daily feed intake to maintain their BCS in multiple parities. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations among novel feed efficiency measurements on Norwegian Landrace boars and piglet production, stayability, and body condition in Norwegian Landrace sows. The feed efficiency measurements were lean meat and fat efficiency. These measurements were calculated using an extended residual feed intake model where total feed intake in the test period was the response variable and fat (kg) and lean meat (kg) on the carcass were included as both fixed and random regressions. The random regression coefficients that resulted from this model were breeding values, which represented the amount of feed used to produce an extra kilogram of lean meat and fat. The sow traits were stayability of the sow from first to second parity, BCS at weaning, litter weight at 3 wk, and total number of piglets born. All traits were recorded on first parity purebred Norwegian Landrace and analyzed using multivariate animal models. All genetic correlations between fat efficiency and sow traits were low. Significant genetic correlations were found only between fat efficiency and stayability (0.21 ± 0.11) and between fat efficiency and total litter weight at 3 wk (0.21 ± 0.10). The results indicate that selection for efficient deposition of fat could give poor stayability and lower litter weight at 3 wk in first parity sows. The genetic correlations between lean meat efficiency and sow traits were not significantly different from 0 and signified no genetic relationships between these traits. Selection for efficient deposition of lean meat should not affect the sow traits and is, therefore, beneficial.

  14. Effect of inclusion of fermentable carbohydrates in the diet on fermentation end-product profile in feces of weanling piglets1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awati, A.; Williams, B.A.; Bosch, M.W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to monitor the changes in fermentation end products in the feces of weaning piglets due to the inclusion of selected fermentable carbohydrates in the diet. The experiment involved 3 groups of 16 piglets each. Specially raised piglets (neither antibiotics nor creep

  15. Contributions…uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: II. Piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition…blood profiles…lactation…reciprocal embryo transfers…Meishan and White…gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossbreeding studies between Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs have illustrated that increased piglet growth prior to weaning is attributed to the maternal genotype of LW dams. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment (MUE), piglet geno...

  16. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON, walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN, or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE or ramp (RAM. Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05. Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05; however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p < 0.05. After treatment, drinking behavior was increased in RAM piglets (p < 0.05. The heart rate of ELE piglets decreased 6.3% after treatment; whereas the heart rate of RAM piglets remained elevated 2.4% (p < 0.05. In terms of heart rate, loading by elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp.

  17. Performance, intestinal microorganisms and organs weight of piglets in the initial phase receiving diets with simbiotic and probiotic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozza, Paulo Cesar; dos Santos Pozza, Magali Soares; Nunes, Ricardo Vianna; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Venturi, Iderson; Busanello, Marli

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing probiotic and simbiotic on the performance of piglets from 21 to 49 days, intestinal microorganisms and weight of organs. In this study there were used 120 crossbred piglets, weaned at 21 days of age, alloted in randomized

  18. Diagnostic value of phage typing, antibiogram typing and plasmid profiling of Staphylococcus hyicus from piglets with exudative epidermitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1993-01-01

    A total of 989 isolates of S. hyicus were recovered from the skin of 103 piglets (9.6 isolates per piglet) with exudative epidermitis (EE), and phage typed. Phage patterns of 806 typable isolates (81 %) could be divided into 44 distinct phage types. From 1 to 6 different phage types were found...

  19. Association between butyrate and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in gut contents and faeces in weaning piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    of citrus pectin (soluble fibre) and barley hulls (insoluble fibre) and gastrointestinal contents were collected at euthanasia 9 days after weaning. In Trial 2, 120 pair-wise penned piglets were allocated to the same experimental diets as in Trial 1 (24 piglets per treatment), and fresh faecal samples were...

  20. A simple novel measure of passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin is predictive of preweaning mortality in piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preweaning mortality of piglets represents a significant loss to swine producers. Two factors that contribute to this loss are the timely initiation of lactation by the sow, and the ability of individual piglets to nurse successfully within hours of birth. However, the contribution of these factors ...

  1. Relationships between day one piglet serum immunoglobulin immunocrit and subsequent growth, puberty attainment, litter size, and lactation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colostrum affects gut and uterine gland development in the neonatal piglet, suggesting that subsequent growth and reproductive performance may be affected. Measuring immunoglobulin in piglet serum using the immunoglobulin immunocrit on day 1 of age provides a simple inexpensive indication of the amo...

  2. Facilitating ‘learning from mom how to eat like a pig’ to improve welfare of piglets around weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Piglets in commercial husbandry are weaned abruptly and at a rather young age. Many weanling piglets are poorly adapted to ingest solid food, often resulting in a period of underfeeding. The underfeeding generally leads to a poor growth, diarrhoea occurrence and the development of damaging behaviour

  3. Effect of radiant heat at the birth site in farrowing crates on hypothermia and behaviour in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    suckling were registered by direct observation. The piglet’s rectal temperature (RT) was measured 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 min after birth and 12, 14 and 24 h after birth of first piglet. Piglets were weighed at birth, 24 and 48 h and 7 days after birth. Data were analysed in a mixed model in SAS...

  4. Cultivation independent analysis of the development of the Lactobacillus spp. Community in the intestinal tract of newborn piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Zhu, W.Y.; Smidt, H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular diversity and development of the Lactobacillus community in the intestinal tract, as influenced by age and intestinal compartment, were studied in one litter of 12 conventionally raised piglets. Piglets were euthanized at each week (3 animals per time). Digesta and tissue samples from stom

  5. Parenteral long-acting amoxicillin reduces intestinal bacterial community diversity in piglets even 5 weeks after the administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzcyk, P.; Pieper, R.; Souffrant, W.B.; Bimczok, D.; Rothkotter, H.J.; Smidt, H.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of a single intramuscular administration of amoxicillin (15 mg kg-1) 1 day after birth, on piglet intestinal microbiota. Animals received no creep feed before weaning on day 28 of age. For the next 11 days, the piglets received a wheat¿barley-based diet. Colon d

  6. Onset of small intestinal atrophy is associated with reduced intestinal blood flow in TPN-fed neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niinikoski, Harri; Stoll, Barbara; Guan, Xinfu

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the speed of onset of total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-induced mucosal atrophy, and whether this is associated with changes in intestinal blood flow and tissue metabolism in neonatal piglets. Piglets were implanted with jugular venous and duodenal catheters and either...... 24 h of TPN, and protein mass was lower (P parenteral nutrition induced a rapid (

  7. Simulated epidemiological and economic effects of measures to reduce piglet supply during a classical swine fever epidemic in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M.J.J.; Nielen, M.; Burrell, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of additional measures adopted during a classical swine fever (CSF) epidemic to reduce piglet supply, namely, an insemination ban, abortion of sows and killing of young piglets, are studied using a stochastic, spatial, dynamic epidemiological simulation model of the pig sector in the Net

  8. Glucagon-like peptide 2 dose-dependently activates intestinal cell survival and proliferation in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrin, Douglas G; Stoll, Barbara; Guan, Xinfu;

    2005-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a gut hormone that stimulates mucosal growth in total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-fed piglets; however, the dose-dependent effects on apoptosis, cell proliferation, and protein synthesis are unknown. We studied 38 TPN-fed neonatal piglets infused iv with either s...

  9. Use of clinoptilolite in piglet diets as a substitute for Colistine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Sciaraffia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of adding 2% of natural zeolite, containing a high percentage of clinoptilolite, to the  diet of piglets was eval-  uated by monitoring growing performance and plasma parameters. The diet was also deprived of Colistine, an antibiotic  usually added to piglet diets at subtherapeutic levels to prevent gastrointestinal pathology. Sixty-four piglets, weaned at  7.9 kg live weight, were divided in 2 groups of 32 each. The control group was given  commercial piglet feedstuffs; for  the treated group, 98% of the same feed, deprived of Colistine, was used, with the addition of 2% of a natural zeolite.  The trial lasted 36 days. The piglets fed the control diet exhibited greater weight in the first three weeks, after which the  differences were not significant. The average daily weight gain in the first week was higher in the control group (+37%;  P  between groups and, as a result, the Feed Efficiency at the end of the trial was higher in the control group (532 vs. 491,  P  weeks post-weaning the group fed the diet containing Colistine showed better ADG, subsequently it can be eliminated  and clinoptilolite could favour growth. 

  10. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Small Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Neonatal Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Zhong, Xiang; Ahmad, Hussain; Li, Wei; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2014-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a very common problem in both piglet and human neonate populations. We hypothesized that IUGR neonates have impaired intestinal mucosal immunity from birth. Using neonatal piglets as IUGR models, immune organ weights, the weight and length of the small intestine (SI), intestinal morphology, intraepithelial immune cell numbers, levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins, and the relative gene expression of cytokines in the SI were investigated. IUGR neonatal piglets were observed to have lower absolute immune organ weight and SI length, decreased relative weights of the thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph node, and thinner but longer SIs. Damaged and jagged villi, shorter microvilli, presence of autophagosomes, swelled mitochondria, and decreased villus surface areas were also found in the SIs of IUGR neonatal piglets. We also found a smaller number of epithelial goblet cells and lymphocytes in the SIs of IUGR neonates. In addition, we detected reduced levels of the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ and decreased gene expression of cytokines in IUGR neonates. In conclusion, IUGR was shown to impair the mucosal immunity of the SI in neonatal piglets, and the ileum was the major site of impairment.

  11. Transgenic milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin modulates the intestinal flora in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenping; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Yu, Tian; Wang, Jing; Li, Ning

    2012-06-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a beneficial multifunctional protein in milk. The objective of this study was to determine whether bovine transgenic milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) can modulate intestinal flora in the neonatal pig as an animal model for the human infant. We fed 7-day-old piglets (i) ordinary whole milk (OM), (ii) a 1:1 mixture of OM and rhLF milk (MM), or (iii) rhLF milk (LFM). LFM provided better average daily mass gain than OM (P = 0.007). PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that the LFM piglets exhibited more diversity of the intestinal flora than the OM group. Except for the colon in the LFM group, an increasing trend in microbial diversity occurred from the duodenum to the colon. Fecal flora was not different across different ages or different treatment groups, but a cluster analysis showed that the fecal flora of OM- and MM-fed piglets had a higher degree of similarity than that of LFM-fed piglets. Based on culture-based bacterial counts of intestinal content samples, concentrations of Salmonella spp. in the colon and of Escherichia coli throughout the intestine were reduced with LFM (P intestine were also increased with LFM (P ≤ 0.01). We suggest that rhLF can modulate the intestinal flora in piglets.

  12. Effect of thyroid hormone on cardiac function following orthotopic heart transplantation in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, T K Susheel; Mathis, Craig; Sathanandam, Shyam; Zurakowski, David; Subramanian, Saradha; Allen, Jerry; Solimine, Michael; Berrios, Lindsay; Jackson, Scott; Landers, Mark; Sullivan, Ryan; Barnett, Stacey; Rayburn, Mark; Loftis, Christopher; Price, Lauren; Tansey, James B; Hoskoppal, Deepthi; Knott-Craig, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Studies in adult HT have demonstrated improved cardiac function in the recipient following administration of T3 to the donor. The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effects of T3 on the function of the immature donor heart following HT in a piglet model. A total of 32 piglets were divided into 16 donors and 16 recipients. Following creation of brain death, half of the donor piglets were randomized to receive three doses of T3 (0.2 μg/kg) along with hydrocortisone (1 mg/kg). The donor hearts were then transplanted into the recipient piglets on CPB. Duration of survival off CPB, inotrope score, and EF of heart following CPB were evaluated. There were no differences between the two groups in age, weight, pre-brain death EF, T3 levels, and CPB times. Post-CPB survival times were inversely related to the ischemic times in both groups (Pearson r=-0.80, P<.001), and this relationship was not influenced by T3. There was no difference in inotrope score, EF, or biochemical assessment between the two groups. Administration of T3 in combination with hydrocortisone to the brain-dead donor confers no beneficial effect on myocardial function or survival following HT in a piglet model. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Alternative for improving gut microbiota: use of Jerusalem artichoke and probiotics in diet of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovska, A; Jemeljanovs, A; Pilmane, M; Zitare, I; Konosonoka, I H; Lazdins, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Jerusalem artichoke and probiotics on defence activity of intestinal cells of weaning pigs. One hundred eighty piglets (7 weeks old) were fed with basal feed supplemented with Jerusalem artichoke, Lactobacillus reuteri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. After 5 weeks, the piglets were slaughtered and the gastrointestinal contents and intestine samples were taken for analysis. Results demonstrated that in pigs fed basal diet with both probiotics and Jerusalem artichoke (5% of basal diet) (T3 group) had less (PJerusalem artichoke powder (T2 group), but Salmonella enteritidis - only in T1 group. In jejunum of T2 group piglets, large deterioration of crypts, a moderate inflammation process and plasmocytes were seen, but in jejunum of T3 group piglets - branching of apical surface of villi, moderate degeneration and mitosis of enterocytes were observed. A moderate number of apoptotic cells in T2 group was found mainly in colon inflammation cells and plasmocytes, but for T3 group piglets--both in jejunum enterocytes and migrating cells. Our study indicated that beta-defensin 2 and 3 expression in jejunum and colon segments were incresed in T1 and T2 groups. Findings suggest that feeding with probiotics and Jerusalem artichoke significantly improves the microbial contents, defence and regeneration processes in the intestine of pigs.

  14. Effects of glutamine supplementation on the immune status in weaning piglets with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiang; Li, Wei; Huang, Xuexin; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Zhou, Yanmin; Hussain, Ahmad; Wang, Tian

    2012-10-01

    Neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) often suffer from impaired cellular immunity, and weaning may further aggravate adverse effects of IUGR on development and function of the immune system. In this study, we investigated effects of glutamine supplementation on immune status in the intestines of weaning pigs with IUGR, focusing on molecular mechanisms underlying altered immune response. Piglets with IUGR were weaned at 21 days of age and received orally 1.22 g alanine or 1 g glutamine per kg body weight every 12 h. Weight gain and intestinal weight of weaning piglets were increased by glutamine supplementation. Levels of serum IgG in piglets supplemented with glutamine were increased compared with Control piglets. The production of IL-1 and IL-8 in the serum and jejunum was decreased by glutamine supplementation, whereas the levels of IL-4 in the serum and the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-10 in the jejunum were increased. The expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the jejunum was increased by glutamine supplementation, but the degradation of inhibitor κB and the activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were decreased. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation enhanced immune response in weaning piglets with IUGR. The effects of glutamine in IUGR are associated with increased Hsp70 expression and suppression of NF-κB activation.

  15. Heritability of shoulder ulcers and genetic correlations with mean piglet weight and sow body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, H; Zumbach, B; Lundeheim, N; Grandinson, K; Vangen, O; Olsen, D; Rydhmer, L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to estimate the heritability for shoulder ulcers and the genetic correlations between shoulder ulcers, mean piglet weight and sow body condition. The analyses were based on information on 5549 Norwegian Landrace sows and their 7614 purebred litters. The genetic analysis was performed using the Gibbs sampling method. Shoulder ulcers were analyzed as a threshold trait. Sow body condition and mean piglet weight were analyzed as linear traits. The heritability of shoulder ulcers was estimated at 0.25 (s.d. = 0.03). The heritability for sow body condition was estimated at 0.14 (s.d. = 0.02) and that for mean piglet weight at 0.23 (s.d. = 0.02). The genetic correlation between shoulder ulcers and sow body condition was negative (-0.59, s.d. = 0.09). The genetic correlation between shoulder ulcers and mean piglet weight was positive (0.23, s.d. = 0.10) and the genetic correlation between sow body condition and mean piglet weight was negative (-0.24, s.d. = 0.10).

  16. METABOLIC AND BEHAVIORAL PARAMETERS IN NEWBORN PIGLETS IN RELATION TO BIRTH ORDER

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    H. SĂRĂNDAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment had 2 phases:During the first phase 19 sows were monitored during farrowing; the piglets were numbered according to birth order, they were weighed and there were recorded the time each piglet was born and when it first suckled. There was calculated the time from the beginning of the farrowing until the time each piglet was born (TNPP and the time from birth until the first suckle (TPS. A statistical correlation was established between these parameters.During the second experimental phase, for 49 piglets from 5 sows were determined: birth weight, TPS, glycemia at birth (G0 and after the first suckle (G1, rectal temperature at birth (T0 and after the first suckles (T1. This data was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test.Respecting the birth order, TPS is shorter for piglets born last (p<0.05. Average TPS was 23.04±2.49 minutes; during this time glycemia rises from 58.35 mg% to 64.35 mg% and rectal temperature drops from 38.58°C to 37.35°C. T0 is positively correlated with G0 (p<0.01 with G1 (p<0.01 and T1 (p<0.01. G0 is highly correlated to G1 (r=0.8855; p=0.

  17. Bioavailability of Microencapsulated Iron from Fortified Bread Assessed Using Piglet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryszewska, Malgorzata A.; Laghi, Luca; Zannoni, Augusta; Gianotti, Andrea; Barone, Francesca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle L.; Bacci, Maria L.; Ventrella, Domenico; Forni, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oral iron supplementation, in the form of fortified breads, on the growth performance, health, iron status parameters, and fecal metabolome of anemic piglets. A study was conducted on 24 hybrid (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) piglets. From day 44, the post-natal 12 piglets were supplemented with 100 g of one of two experimental breads, each fortified with 21 mg of ferrous sulphate, either encapsulated or not. After one week of oral supplementation, hematological parameters (hematocrit value, hemoglobin, and red blood cells) showed statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05). Piglets fed with the fortified breads had higher iron concentrations in the heart, liver, and intestinal mucosa compared to anemic piglets fed with control bread. Gene expression of hepcidin, iron exporter ferroportin (IREG1), and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), together with concentrations of plasma ferritin, showed no significant statistical differences between groups. Both fortified breads could be used as sources of bioavailable iron. The seven-day intervention trial showed microencapsulation to have only a mild effect on the effectiveness of iron supplementation in the form of fortified bread. PMID:28335378

  18. L-Carnitine supplementation during suckling intensifies the early postnatal skeletal myofiber formation in piglets of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösel, D; Kalbe, C; Rehfeldt, C

    2009-07-01

    Piglets of low birth weight exhibit a reduced total number of skeletal myofibers at birth and throughout life compared with piglets of middle and heavy birth weight, which is associated with impaired (lean) growth and quality of carcass and meat at market weight. We investigated the effect of L-carnitine supplementation to suckling piglets of different birth weights on early postnatal myofiber formation, muscle growth, and body composition. A total of 48 piglets of low (LW) and middle (MDW) birth weight from 9 German Landrace gilts received 400 mg of L-carnitine (carnitine, n = 25) or a placebo (control, n = 23) once daily from d 7 to 27 of age and were slaughtered on d 28 of age (weaning). Carnitine-supplemented piglets deposited less fat as indicated by a reduced proportion of perirenal (P = 0.1) and intramuscular fat (P = 0.05). Circulating glucose concentrations tended to be greater in supplemented LW piglets (P = 0.13). The concentration of carnitine in semitendinosus (STN) muscle was approximately doubled (P supplementation, with emphasis on the proportion of esterified carnitine. The ratio of lactate dehydrogenase to isocitrate dehydrogenase tended (P = 0.12) to be smaller in STN muscle of supplemented piglets, indicating a more oxidative muscle metabolism. The total number of STN myofibers was increased by 13% (P = 0.02) in supplemented LW piglets, thereby reaching the unchanged level of MDW littermates. In addition, supplemented LW piglets displayed a 2.4-fold mRNA expression of the gene encoding the embryonic isoform of the myosin heavy chain in STN muscle than control piglets (P = 0.05), but there were no differences in the proportion of fibers positively staining for the embryonic myosin isoform. L-carnitine-supplemented piglets exhibited a greater DNA:protein ratio (P = 0.02) in STN muscle, which resulted from a greater DNA concentration (P = 0.04). However, the STN muscle of L-carnitine-supplemented piglets was not less mature as indicated by

  19. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi

    2014-09-11

    Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON)), walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN)), or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE) or ramp (RAM). Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05). Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05); however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p elevated 2.4% (p elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp.

  20. Fermented liquid feed enhances bacterial diversity in piglet intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Kiyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Aminov, Rustam I; Kobashi, Yuri; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2010-02-01

    Because of limitations imposed on the antibiotic use in animal industry, there is a need for alternatives to maintain the efficiency of production. One of them may be the use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) but how it affects gut ecology is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of three diets, standard dry feed (control), dry feed supplemented with antibiotics, and fermented liquid feed (FLF, fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum), on gut bacterial diversity in piglets. The structure of the ileal and caecal communities was estimated by sequencing the SSU rRNA gene libraries. Antibiotic-supplemented feed slightly increased bacterial diversity in the ileum but reduced it in the caecum while in FLF-fed animals bacterial diversity was elevated. The majority of bacterial sequences in the ileum of all three groups belonged to lactobacilli (92-98%). In the caecum the lactobacilli were still dominant in control and antibiotic-fed animals (59% and 64% of total bacterial sequences, respectively) but in FLF-fed animals they fell to 31% with the concomitant increase in the Firmicutes diversity represented by the Dorea, Coprococcus, Roseburia and Faecalibacterium genera. Thus FLF affects the gut ecology in a different way than antibiotics and contributes to the enhanced bacterial diversity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Recombinant porcine norovirus identified from piglet with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Quan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses (NoVs are members of the family Caliciviridae and are emerging enteric pathogens of humans and animals. Some porcine NoVs are genetically similar to human strains and are classified into GII, like most epidemic human NoVs. So far, PoNoV have been exclusively detected in fecal samples of adult pig without clinical signs. Results Result showed that 2 of the 12 evaluated fecal samples were positive for PoNoVs, one of which was positive for PoNoV alone, and the other was coinfected with porcine circovirus and PoNoV. Phylogenetic and recombination analysis showed that the PoNoV positive alone strain was a recombinant new genotype strain. Experimental infection of miniature pigs with fecal suspensions confirmed that this strain can cause gastroenteritis in piglets. Conclusion This is the first report that recombinant new genotype PoNoV exised in pig herd of China, which cause diarrhea in pigs in nature condition. This find raised questions about the putative epidemiologic role of PoNoV.

  2. Growth performance and oxidative status in piglets supplemented with verbascoside and teupolioside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pastorelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred forty piglets, half female and half barrows, 8.1 ± 1.40 kg LW, were divided into 6 experimental groups and fed ad libitum with a diet supplemented with the following levels of antioxidants: 0 (CON + = positive control added with 100 mg lincomicine/kg, 5 (LT = low teupolioside or LV = low verbascoside, 10 (HT = high teupolioside; HV = high verbascoside; LT+LV mg/kg of diet for 56 days. Body weight and feed intake were recorded on d0, 14 and 56 of the trial. Ten piglets from each group were selected and blood collected by anterior vena cava puncture at 0, 14 and 56 d for reactive oxygen metabolite (ROMs determination. HV showed final weight higher than the other groups (P<0.05, and oxidative stability was improved by both integrations of verbascoside. These results support the view that Verbascoside influences the growth performances and oxidative status of piglets.

  3. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-03-16

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of polymerization 4-7 were depleted within 12 h of fermentation, whereas fucosylated and phosphorylated PMOs were partially resistant to fermentation. GOS structures containing β1-3 and β1-2 linkages were preferably fermented over GOS containing β1-4 and β1-6 linkages. Upon in vitro fermentation, acetate and butyrate were produced as the main organic acids. GOS fermentation by piglet inoculum showed a unique fermentation pattern with respect to preference of GOS size and organic acids production.

  4. Doxorubicin-Induced Gut Toxicity in Piglets fed Bovine Milk and Colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René Liang; Rathe, Mathias; Jiang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy-induced intestinal toxicity is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We hypothesized that a milk diet containing bovine colostrum (BC) would reduce intestinal toxicity in doxorubicin-treated piglets. METHODS: Study 1 investigated intestinal parameters nine days after...... a single dose of doxorubicin (1 × 75 mg/m) in piglets fed bovine milk enriched with whey protein (BM). In Study 2, responses to doxorubicin treatment were investigated in piglets receiving either seven BC feedings per day (Only-BC, n = 13), four BC feedings (High-BC, n = 13), two BC feedings (Low-BC, n...... = 14) or no BC (only BM, n = 13). RESULTS: Doxorubicin treatment induced clinical signs of intestinal toxicity with diarrhea and weight loss, relative to controls (P 

  5. An outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in piglets in Brazil

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    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the substantial role of Clostridium difficile in causing diarrhea in piglets, there have been few reports of the disease caused by this bacterium in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In this paper, we describe an outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea in a pig farm in Brazil. The diarrhea rate increased in piglets 1-to-7 days old from an average of 2% to approximately 20%. Necropsied piglets showed mesocolon edema, and in a histological evaluation, severe necrotizing neutrophilic colitis was observed. The intestinal contents were positive for the A/B toxins of C. difficile and negative for other tested enteropathogens. The association between the clinical signs, post mortem findings and laboratory exams confirmed the diagnosis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. The present report confirms C. difficile as a pathogen in swine in Brazil and highlights the need for up to date routine laboratory protocols for the diagnosis of this disease in swine.

  6. Acetogenesis does not replace ketogenesis in fasting piglets infused with hexanoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S H; Odle, J

    1998-06-01

    The current studies were performed to better understand the physiological relevance of acetate in the poorly ketogenic piglet and to determine if endogenous acetogenesis rises with increased mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation, analogous to ketogenesis. Plasma acetate concentration values in newborn, fasted, or suckled piglets (230-343 microM) were at least 10-fold higher than the ketone bodies, a pattern opposite to that in 24- to 48-h suckled rats (77-175 microM). Employing continuous infusion techniques with sodium [3H]acetate tracer in fasting approximately 40-h-old piglets, acetate rate of appearance (Ra) was found to be 34 +/- 4 micromol . min-1 . kg body wt-1. This basal Ra was double that observed in animals coinfused with sodium [1-14C]hexanoate (P ketogenesis in vivo.

  7. A highly pathogenic strain of Staphylococcus sciuri caused fatal exudative epidermitis in piglets.

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    Shixi Chen

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus sciuri are important human pathogens responsible for endocarditis, peritonitis, septic shock, urinary tract infection, pelvic inflammatory disease and wound infections. However, little information is known regarding the pathogenicity of S. sciuri to animals. From the pericardial fluid of a diseased piglet with exudative epidermitis (EE, we isolated a strain of Staphylococcus in pure culture. Surprisingly, this isolate was a member of S. sciuri rather than S. hyicus as identified by its biochemical traits and also by analysis of 23S ribosomal DNA using Internal Transcribed Spacer PCR. In addition, inoculation of newborn piglets with 1x10(10 CFU of the isolate by oral feeding or intra-muscular injection successfully reproduced EE in piglets, which suggested that the oral intake of the pathogen by the animals is one of the major routes of exposure. These unexpected findings prioritized S. sciuri as important zoonotic agents, which may have ramifications for human medicine.

  8. Immediate Remote Ischemic Postconditioning Reduces Brain Nitrotyrosine Formation in a Piglet Asphyxia Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Rudge, Brogan; Hughes, Michael P; Rahim, Ahad A; Hristova, Mariya; Robertson, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) is a promising therapeutic intervention that could be administered as an alternative to cooling in cases of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In the current study we hypothesized that RIPostC in the piglet model of birth asphyxia confers protection by reducing nitrosative stress and subsequent nitrotyrosine formation, as well as having an effect on glial immunoreactivity. Postnatal day 1 (P1) piglets underwent HI brain injury and were randomised to HI (control) or HI + RIPostC. Immunohistochemistry assessment 48 hours after HI revealed a significant decrease in brain nitrotyrosine deposits in the RIPostC-treated group (p = 0.02). This was accompanied by a significant increase in eNOS expression (p piglet model of neonatal asphyxia, which appears to be mediated by modulation of nitrosative stress, despite glial activation.

  9. Neonatal piglet traits of importance for survival in crates and indoor pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Berg, Peer; Jørgensen, Grete

    2011-01-01

    ) were used. These were distributed to farrow in either PN or CT as follows: high-SR5 and CT (n = 30); low-SR5 and CT (n = 27); high-SR5 and PN (n = 22); and low-SR5 and PN (n = 24). Data on individual piglets were collected at birth, including interbirth interval; birth order; birth weight; rectal...... of mortality. Piglet traits for pre- and postnatal survival were the same for CT and PN. The odds of being stillborn were increased in piglets born late in the birth order (F1,1061 = 33.5, P birth weight (F1,1061 = 9...... temperature at birth, 2 h after birth, and 24 h after birth; cordal plasma lactate; and latency to first suckle. Based on autopsy, causes of mortality were divided into stillborn, bitten to death, starvation, crushed, disease, and other causes. Potential risk factors of dying were estimated using a GLM...

  10. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task

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    Alexandra eAntonides

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction due to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients supply to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (short-term and reference memory (long-term in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46-54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed a better reference memory performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, the vLBW piglets fell back less in working memory scores than the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition.

  11. Serological and molecular investigation of porcine sapovirus infection in piglets in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Qiao; Lulu, Tian; Qingling, Meng; Xingxing, Zhang; Haiting, Lu; Shasha, Gong; Zibing, Cheng; Xuepeng, Cai; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Porcine sapovirus (PoSaV) is one of the important pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis in piglets. A survey on the infection and epidemic status of PoSaV in Xinjiang Province, Northwest China, was conducted in this study. We applied indirect viral protein 1 (VP1)-ELISA method to detect specific antibodies in 1218 serum samples of 3-month-old piglets collected from eight regions in Xinjiang during 2013-2014 and also detected PoSaV in 146 diarrhea stools of piglets in these eight regions using RT-PCR technology. The results showed that the PoSaV-serological positive rates in piglets in eight different regions in Xinjiang were between 32.82 and 47.06% with a mean rate of 37.68%. The average positive rate of PCR in stools of piglets was 3.42%. Sequencing and comparative analysis of five PCR-amplified DNA fragments revealed that four epidemic strains of PoSaV (swine/XJ-KO1, swine/XJ-AK2, swine/XJ-KS1, and swine/XJ-SHZ1) shared high nucleotide and amino acid identities with Cowden strain, while strain swine/XJ-AK1 shared higher high identities with Po/OH-JJ681/2000/US isolate. Phylogenetic clustering further verified that the epidemic strains of PoSaVs, i.e., swine/XJ-KO1, swine/XJ-AK2, swine/XJ-KS1, and swine/XJ-SHZ1, belong to genogroup (GIII) while swine/XJ-AK1 belongs to GVI. This survey confirmed for the first time that PoSaV infection was common in piglets in Xinjiang, China, and that the epidemic strains exist at least in both GIII and GVI clusters. This study provided the useful epidemiological data for scientific control and prevention of this disease.

  12. Comparative analysis of mucosal immunity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and DLY piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, L Z; Wu, Y Z; Bai, F F; William, K K; Feng, Z X; Liu, M J; Yao, J T; Zhang, X; Shao, G Q

    2014-07-07

    The Jiangquhai porcine lean strain (JQHPL) is a new pork meat-type strain that has been developed in recent years from the parent lines Duroc, Fengjing, and Jiangquhai pigs (DurocxFengjing pigxJiangquhai pig). Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a chronic respiratory disease of pigs, generating high economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the degree of resistance to M. hyopneumoniae for the Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and the Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire (DLY) pigs, which are Western commercial pigs that have been introduced in China. A total of 209 DLY piglets and 221 JQHPL piglets from 19 Landrace x Yorkshire and 22 JQHPL M. hyopneumoniae positive gestating sows with different expected dates of confinement were selected and raised in the same M. hyopneumoniae positive farrowing barn. When the oldest suckling piglets were 37 days old, nasal swabs were collected from all the piglets (ranging from 4 to 37 days old) to detect the M. hyopneumoniae pathogen using n-PCR and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA using ELISA. Positive M. hyopneumoniae infection rates in both the strains increased with age; however, positive rates for JQHPL were lower compared to DLY at 14 to 35 days old. The level of the specific SIgA rose rapidly in JQHPL respiratory tracts, particularly in piglets 21 to 35 days in age compared to DLY piglets of the same age; however, the level of the specific SIgA in DLY also marginally increased. In conclusion, JQHPL pigs exhibits higher resistance to M. hyopneumoniae compared to DLY. It is possible that this characteristic is caused by the faster and stronger mucosal immunity phenotype of the JQHPL strain.

  13. Effects of providing preweaning diets to piglets: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Schultz Marcolla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing a solid diet in addition to sow milk during lactation (creep feed is a management commonly recommended to producers. This practice was introduced as a strategy to minimize the deleterious effects of abrupt and early weaning, as well as to standardize the litters to be weaned, to increase weaning weight, and to accelerate the adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets to solid diets. Creep feeds are formulated to present high levels of digestibility and palatability and to contain high-quality and high-cost ingredients. However, the results of studies indicating that the simple offer of creep feed is efficient in minimizing the deleterious effects of weaning or in facilitating the adaptation of piglets to early diets are still sparse and poorly consolidated. The objective of this study was to review factors that influence the consumption of creep feed and the effects of consumption of these diets on performance during lactation, as well as possible effects on enzyme production, occurrence of diarrhea episodes and postweaning performance of piglets weaned at 21 to 28 days of age. The results indicate that the intestinal maturity of suckling piglets is not sufficient to permit voluntary consumption and adequate digestion of the diets. Even animals ready for consumption did not ingest sufficient amounts to promote enzymatic adaptation or to improve postweaning performance. Contrary to expectations, the consumption of creep feed, especially in low amounts, may be associated with sensitization of the gastrointestinal tract which results in hypersensitivity reactions and postweaning diarrhea. It can be concluded that the simple offer of creep feed is not efficient in promoting growth during lactation and postweaning, nor does it facilitate the early adaptation of weaned piglets to solid diets. Studies in this area are therefore necessary to develop techniques that can effectively minimize losses resulting from the practice of early

  14. Corn types with different nutritional profiles, extruded or not, on piglets (6 to 15 kg feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina de Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and verify piglets' performance in the nursery phase fed with diets containing common corn (CC, extruded common corn (ECC, high-lysine corn (HLC, extruded high-lysine corn (EHLC, high-oil corn (HOC and extruded high-oil corn (EHOC. In the total digestibility trial 14 barrows averaging 6.49 ± 0.16 kg initial body weight were allotted in metabolism cages, distributed in a randomized design with seven diets, six replicates, and one piglet per experimental unit. The values of digestible energy (DE, as well as metabolizable energy (ME as-fed basis for CC, ECC, HLC, EHLC, HOC and EHOC were: 3,428 and 3,327 kcal/kg; 3,439 and 3,355 kcal/kg; 3,533 and 3,414 kcal/kg; 3,515 and 3,427 kcal/kg; 3,483 and 3,377 kcal/kg; 3,585 and 3,482 kcal/kg, respectively. In the performance experiment, 84 piglets, weaned at 21 days old, initial live weight of 6.06 ± 0.54 kg were used. Animals were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, using three types of corn (CC, HLC and HOC, two forms of processing (processed or not by extrusion, seven replicates and two piglets per experimental unit. Six diets containing CC, ECC, HLC, EHLC, HOC and EHOC were studied. There were no advantages in the digestibility and performance by extruding the types of corn with different nutritional profiles, for their use in commercial diets for piglets. The results of the two experiments emphasize the importance of segregating the types of corn, extruded or not, in their real chemical and energetic composition as well as the values of true digestible amino acids for the formulation of piglet diets in the nursery phase.

  15. Effect of Oral Administration of Enterococcus faecium Ef1 on Innate Immunity of Sucking Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-fen Li, Yi Huang§, Ya-li Li, Qin Huang, Zhi-wen Cui, Dong-you Yu, Imran R. Rajput and Cai-hong Hu*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of orally administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on innate immune responses of jejunal mucosa in newborn piglets. Twenty-four commercial crossbred healthy newborn piglets were randomly divided into two groups, control (T0 and treatment (T1 group. Each group consists of 12 piglets. T1 was administered sterilized skim milk 2 ml piglet-1 day-1 with addition of E. faecium EF1 (5~6×108 cfu/ml by oral gavage on alternative odd days (1st, 3rd and 5th after birth. T0 fed with the same volume of sterilized skim milk without probiotics. The merciful killing of piglets at the 25th day after birth was performed to collect the samples of jejunal mucosa to measure the innate cytokine responses and the Toll-like receptors gene expression by quantitative real time PCR. The results showed that TGF-β1 and TNF-α concentrations increased and mRNA expression levels also improved significantly in T1 as compared to T0. While, the production of IFN-γ and IL-8 decreased significantly in T1 and gene expression modification was not observed. In addition, TLR (Toll-like receptor 2 and TLR 9 transcription levels were up-regulated in treatment (T1 group. These findings revealed that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 was effective to activate innate immunity and could modulate the TLRs expression in jejunal mucosa of piglets.

  16. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (fiber in late pregnancy affected sow colostrum composition but not colostrum yield, increased colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets, and decreased preweaning mortality, but these effects were not related to changes in peripartum concentrations of the main hormones involved in lactogenesis.

  17. Experimental transmission of intestinal coccidiosis to piglets: clinical, parasitological and pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Y; Morin, M; Girard, C; Higgins, R

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight piglets coming from a "specific pathogen free" herd were inoculated at three days of age with 50 000 or 100 000 sporulated oocysts of Isospora suis. Fecal samples were examined for oocyst shedding daily and several clinical parameters were recorded. Ten piglets were used as normal controls. Groups of piglets were euthanized from three days to 12 days postinoculation and routine necropsies were performed. Bacteriological, virological, parasitological and histopathological examinations were made on the intestinal tracts. The incubation period was four to five days. Clinical signs and microscopic intestinal lesions observed in the experimentally infected animals were similar to those reported in spontaneous cases of porcine neonatal coccidiosis. Lesions of villous atrophy in the small intestine seemed to result from the destruction of villous epithelial cells mainly during the peak of asexual reproduction which occurred around four to five days postinoculation. Intracellular coccidial organisms were difficult to find during the late atrophic and villous regrowth stages of the intestinal lesions. The prepatent period varied from four to seven days and the most common was five days. Eighty percent of the piglets kept alive more than four days postinoculation have shed oocysts. Piglets dosed with old sporulated oocysts (ten months old) shed many more oocysts than those infected with a fresh inoculum (less than two months old). The patent period was not determined precisely with the design of the experiment but some of the infected piglets shed oocysts for at least five days. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6230142

  18. Weight gain, behavioral and cortisol changes after orchiectomy with or without local anaesthesia in piglets

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    Leticia Sturlini Barticciotto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intratesticular local anesthesia on weight gain and behavioral and cortisol changes in piglets submitted to castration. Study design was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-nine male Landrace crossbred piglets aged 3 to 6 days were used. The piglets were randomly divided into two groups: orchiectomy with anesthesia (A, n = 15 and orchiectomy without anesthesia (NOA, n = 14. Piglets in the A and NOA groups were treated with 0.5 mL of intratesticular 2% lidocaine with a vasoconstrictor in each testicle and 0.5 mL of intratesticular 0.9% sodium chloride, respectively. Blood samples were collected from all animals immediately after surgery and at 3 and 6 days postoperatively for measurement of the serum cortisol concentration. Behavior was assessed daily for 6 days by two observers blinded to the treatment. Weight was measured at the same time as cortisol measurement. Analysis of variance followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test was used to investigate differences in time within and between the two groups. Mean times of six evaluations done for 90 minutes during 6 days of each behavior were compared by Tukey t test. The level of statistical significance was 5%. The serum cortisol concentration was higher immediately after surgery than at 3 and 6 days postoperatively in both groups. Weight gain was greater at 3 and 6 days postoperatively in the A group than in the NOA group. Intratesticular local anesthesia before castration in piglets is technically practical, is in accordance with good welfare practice, and improves short-term weight gain in piglets submitted to castration.

  19. A longitudinal study of Staphylococcus hyicus colonization of vagina of gilts and transmission to piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Skov Jensen, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    High Staphylococcus hyicus colonization rates were found in vaginal samples of healthy breeding sows and in skin samples of their offspring. Twenty-two different phage types were identified among the 720 isolates of S. hyicus examined. Two to 13 different phage types were isolated per herd. Phage...... identical as regards to phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiogram patterns during the entire investigation period. Isolates from the skin of piglets were of the same type as their mothers, indicating that vertical transmission had taken place. S. hyicus strains isolated from the skin of piglets within...

  20. Welfare and behavior of piglets at different types of heating in farrowing house

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this work analysis was made of some indicators of welfare of piglets and their behavior in farrowing house, depending on heating type. It was used two methods of heating: classical, with infrared lamps and a floor heating panels. Surveys were taken during the winter months in the years 2006-2007, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The values of the microclimatic parameters in farrowing house were within the optimal norms for sows. Analysis of the investigating indicators of piglets welfare, as the p...

  1. Dietary inulin affects the intestinal microbiota in sows and their suckling piglets

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have focused on the effects of dietary inulin on the intestinal microbiota of weaned piglets. In the present study, inulin was added to a diet for gestating and lactating sows, expecting not only effects on the faecal microbiota of sows, but also on the bacterial cell numbers in the gastrointestinal tract of their piglets during the suckling period. Sows were fed a diet without (n = 11) or with (n = 10) 3% inulin, and selected bacterial groups were determined in the...

  2. Virus Location and Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Lymph Nodes of Piglets Infected with PCV-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lü-juan; HAN Hui-li; ZHANG Shu-xia

    2008-01-01

    The present study has been performed to understand the location of the virus, type of apoptotic cells, and their relation to lymph nodes of piglets infected with porcine circovirus type II (PCV-2). Nine 32-day-old conventional piglets free of infection with PCV-2 were used, and distributed into three groups: control group (n=3), piglets inoculated with PCV-2 alone (PCV-2, n = 3), and PCV-2 inoculated and KLH immunostimulated group (PCV-2+KLH, n=3). Superficial inguinal lymph nodes from all piglets were collected for histological examination after 32 days postinoculation, and immunohistochemistry for PCV-2 detection. Location of apoptotic cells was detected with TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and cell cycle, and the apoptotic rates were measured by flow cytometry. The characteristic histopathological lesions of the piglets in PCV-2 and PCV-2 + KLH were lymphocyte depletions in the cortex and paracortex of the lymph nodes, epithelioid-like macrophage infiltration, and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies presented in epithelioid-like macrophages. PCV-2 was mainly found in epithelioid-like macrophages by immunohistochemistry. In the lymph nodes, lymphocytes presented higher apoptotic rates in the cortex by TUNEL, special B-cell areas, and similar apoptotic cells were found in this compartment in the control. The apoptotic rates of the lymph nodes were 0.41, 3.34, and 4.88% in the control, PCV-2, and PCV-2 + KLH groups by flow cytometry, respectively. The apoptotic rates of lymph nodes for PCV-2 and PCV-2 + KLH piglets were significantly higher than those for the control group (P<0.05 and P<0.01). The proliferation index (PI) was 0.17±0.01,0.12±0.01 and 0.12±0.04 in the control, PCV-2, and PCV-2 + KLH group, the PI of the control group was higher than that of the other groups, but without the statistical difference. PCV-2 can induce lymphocyte depletion in lymph nodes of piglets by blocking cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. This is one of the

  3. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Mason, Andrew Z; Sharma, Neha; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. However, there is a paucity of controlled studies in this area. Here, piglets were fed soy infant formula (soy), cow’s milk formula (milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum iron concentrations were higher in formula-fed compared to breastfed piglets (P supplementation, allows strong causal inference that significant differences in serum zinc after cow’s milk formula compared to soy formula consumption result in compensatory changes in expression of zinc transporters, binding proteins, and zinc-regulated genes. PMID:25179632

  4. Risk factors associated with the different categories of piglet perinatal mortality in French farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, F; Edwards, S A; Robert, F; Kyriazakis, I

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to identify mortality patterns and to establish risk factors associated with different categories of piglet perinatal mortality in French farms. At farm level, the analyses were performed on data from 146 farms that experienced perinatal mortality problems. At piglet level, the analyses were performed on data from 155 farms (7761 piglets). All data were collected over a period of 10 years (2004-14) by a consulting company, using a non-probability sampling at farm level and a random sampling at sow level. Six main categories of mortality, determined by standardised necropsy procedure, represented 84.5% of all the perinatal deaths recorded. These six categories were, in order of significance: Death during farrowing, Non- viable, Early sepsis, Mummified, Crushing and Starvation. At farm level, the percentage of deaths due to starvation was positively correlated to the percentage of deaths due to crushing and the percentage of deaths during farrowing (r>0.30, P0.30, Pperinatal mortality at farm level were identified using a principal component analysis. Based on these, the farms could be classified, using ascending hierarchical classification, into three different clusters, highlighting issues that underlie farm differences. Risk factors were compared at piglet level for the different categories of death. Compared to other categories of death, deaths during farrowing were significantly fewer during the night than during the day. Compared to other categories of death, the likelihood of non-viable piglets tended to be higher in summer than other seasons. A smaller number of deaths in the litter was also identified for the piglets classified as non-viable or mummified. For the six main categories of perinatal mortality, the piglets which died from a specific category tended to have more littermates which died from the same category. Parity and litter size also had more significant effects on certain categories of death compared to others. The study provides novel

  5. Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey L Arruda

    Full Text Available Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1 detect potential pathogen(s in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2 develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets. The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41, mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41

  6. The effect of birth weight and age at tail docking and ear notching on the behavioral and physiological responses of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovey, K E; Widowski, T M; Dewey, C E; Devillers, N; Farmer, C; Lessard, M; Torrey, S

    2014-04-01

    Selection for high prolificacy has resulted in litters comprising a large number of low-birth-weight (LBW) piglets. Given their presence in over 75% of litters and increased mortality rate, it is clear that a greater understanding of LBW piglet management is required for both animal welfare and productivity. In this study, we compared the effects of tail docking and ear notching LBW and average-birth-weight (ABW) piglets at 1 or 3 d of age on suckling, behavior, passive transfer of immunoglobulins, and growth. Six piglets per litter from 20 litters (n = 120 piglets) were used in a 2 × 2 complete block design. Piglets were weighed at birth and designated as LBW (0.6 to 1.0 kg) or ABW (≥ 1.2 kg) and "processed" (tail docked and ear notched) at either 1 or 3 d of age. Vocalizations were recorded during the procedures. The acute behavioral responses were observed for 10 min after the procedure. Piglets were observed for 6 h after birth and after the procedure to determine their presence at nursing bouts. On d 5, blood samples were collected to determine concentrations of serum immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) and IGF-I. Piglet weights were recorded at birth and on d 5, 14, and 21. During the procedures, LBW piglets produced fewer (P = 0.03) calls than ABW piglets. Piglets from either birth weight category produced a similar number (calls/s; P = 0.29) of high-frequency calls (≥ 1,000 Hz), which are indicative of pain and distress, although the average frequency (Hz) of these calls was greatest (P = 0.05) for ABW piglets processed on d 3. Immediately following the procedures, LBW piglets spent more (P = 0.005) time dog-sitting and less (P = 0.005) time lying than ABW piglets. When observed with the sow, LBW males spent more (P = 0.001) time alone and had the lowest (P = 0.007) attendance at nursing bouts compared with LBW females and all ABW piglets. Concentrations of serum IgA (P = 0.06) and IgG (P = 0.04) and plasma IGF-I (P = 0.003) were lower for LBW than ABW

  7. Acute neurologic disease in Porcine rubulavirus experimentally infected piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Jenifer; Gómez-Núñez, Luis; Lara-Romero, Rocío; Diosdado, Fernando; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Jasso, Miguel; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco

    2017-02-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical disease, humoral response and viral distribution of recent Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates in experimentally infected pigs. Four, 6-piglet (5-days old) groups were employed (G1-84, G2-93, G3-147, and G4-T). Three viral strains were used for the experimental infection: the reference strain LPMV-1984 (Michoacán 1984) and two other strains isolated in 2013, one in Queretaro (Qro/93/2013) and the other in Michoacán (Mich/147/2013). Each strain was genetically characterized by amplification and sequencing of the gene encoding hemagglutinin-neuroamidase (HN). The inoculation was performed through the oronasal and ocular routes, at a dose of 1×10(6)TCID50/ml. Subsequently, the signs were evaluated daily and necropsies were performed on 3 different days post infection (dpi). We recorded all micro- and macroscopic lesions. Organs from the nervous, lymphatic, and respiratory system were analyzed by quantifying the viral RNA load and the presence of the infectious virus. The presence of the viral antigen in organs was evidenced through immunohistochemistry. Seroconversion was evaluated through the use of a hemagglutination inhibition test. In the characterization of gene HN, only three substitutions were identified in strain Mich/147/2013, two in strain LPMV/1984 (fourth passage) and one in strain Qro/93/2013, with respect to reference strain LPMV-84, these changes had not been identified as virulence factors in previously reported strains. Neurological alterations associated with the infection were found in all three experimental groups starting from 3dpi. Groups G1-84 and G3-147 presented the most exacerbated nervous signs. Group G2-93 only presented milder signs including slight motor incoordination, and an increased rectal temperature starting from day 5 post infection (PI). The main histopathological findings were the presence of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate (lymphocytic/monocytic) surrounding the

  8. Isolation and characterization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from calves and piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Foditsch

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to isolate and characterize Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from fecal samples of healthy calves and piglets, in order to develop a novel probiotic for livestock animals. We identified 203 isolates of Faecalibacterium sp., which were clustered in 40 genetically distinct groups. One representative isolate from each cluster was selected for further characterization. The concentrations of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA acetate, butyrate, propionate and isobutyrate in the culture media were measured by gas chromatography. We observed reduction in the concentration of acetate followed by concomitant increase in the concentration of butyrate, suggesting that the isolates were consuming acetate present in the media and producing butyrate. Butyrate production correlated positively with bacterial growth. Since butyrate has many benefits to the colonic epithelial cells, the selection of strains that produce higher amounts of butyrate is extremely important for the development of this potential probiotic. The effect of pH and concentration of bile salts on bacterial growth was also evaluated in order to mimic the conditions encountered by F. prausnitzii in vivo. The optimal pH for growth ranged between 5.5 and 6.7, while most isolates were inhibited by of the lowest concentration of bile salts tested (0.1%. Antimicrobial resistance profile showed that most isolates of Faecalibacterium sp. were resistant against ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, amikacin, cefepime and cefoxitin. A total of 19 different combinations of multidrug resistance were observed among the isolates. Our results provide new insights into the cultural and physiological characteristics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii illustrating large variability in short chain fatty acid production, in vitro growth, sensitivity to bile salts, and antibiotic resistance and suggesting that future

  9. Characterization of neural stem/progenitor cells expressing VEGF and its receptors in the subventricular zone of newborn piglet brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Jahan; Fekete, Saskia; Zhu, Anli; Frank, Melissa

    2010-09-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSP) biology and neurogenesis in adult central nervous system (CNS) are important both towards potential future therapeutic applications for CNS repair, and for the fundamental function of the CNS. In the present study, we report the characterization of NSP population from subventricular zone (SVZ) of neonatal piglet brain using in vivo and in vitro systems. We show that the nestin and vimentin-positive neural progenitor cells are present in the SVZ of the lateral ventricles of neonatal piglet brain. In vitro, piglet NSPs proliferated as neurospheres, expressed the typical protein of neural progenitors, nestin and a range of well-established neurodevelopmental markers. Upon dissociation and subculture, piglet NSPs differentiated into neurons and glial cells. Clonal analysis demonstrates that piglet NSPs are multipotent and retain the capacity to generate both glia and neurons. These cells expressed VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and Neuropilin-1 and -2 mRNAs. Real time PCR revealed that SVZ NSPs from newborn piglet expressed total VEGF and all VEGF splice variants. These findings show that piglet NSPs may be helpful to more effectively design growth factor based strategies to enhance endogenous precursor cells for cell transplantation studies potentially leading to the application of this strategy in the nervous system disease and injury.

  10. Effects of Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecalis on growth performance, immune function and gut microbiota of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoqi; Zhu, Qun; Chang, Juan; Yin, Qingqiang; Song, Andong; Li, Zhentian; Wang, Erzhu; Lu, Fushan

    2017-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of orally administrated Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecalis on performance, immune function and gut microbiota of suckling piglets. Neonatal piglets (n = 120) were randomly assigned to 4 groups, with 30 suckling piglets in each group. The piglets were from 15 litters, one male and one female piglet were selected for each group in each litter. The Control group was administrated with normal saline, the other groups with L. casei or E. faecalis or a combination of L. casei and E. faecalis at a ratio of 3:1. Each piglet was orally administrated with 1, 2, 3 and 4 ml probiotics or normal saline at the age of 1, 7, 14 and 21 d, respectively. The piglets were weaned at the age of 21 d. The results showed that compared with the Control group, the average daily gain of piglets administrated with probiotics was significantly increased, and the diarrhoea rate and mortality were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). After supplementation of the combined probiotics, the protease activity in stomach, duodenum and colon was increased and in all supplemented groups, the immunoglobulin A concentration in plasma was significantly higher (p < 0.05). The combined probiotics significantly increased villus length and the expression level of transforming growth factor-β in the jejunum (p < 0.05) but decreased the expression level of the jejunal tumour necrosis factor-α (p < 0.05). In addition, probiotics could regulate gut microbiota and increase microbial similarity coefficients for keeping piglet gut microbiota stable.

  11. Evaluation of the anaesthetic depth during piglet castration under an automated isoflurane-anaesthesia at farm level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwennen, Cornelia; Kolbaum, Nina; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Höltig, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Piglet castration under isoflurane-anaesthesia could represent an alternative to the practice of castration without anaesthesia. The objective of this study was to evaluate practicality and effectiveness of an automated isoflurane-anaesthesia for castration. A field study on three different farms in Germany (farm A, B: 200 sows; C: 540 sows) was performed. In total, 1429 (1166 anaesthetised and 263 conventionally castrated) male piglets (age: 1-8 days; bodyweight: 0.7-3.7 kg) were monitored. All piglets were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs directly before castration. Castration and anaesthesia were performed by the farm-manager in presence of a veterinarian. All farmers used the PIGNAP Pro® (Agrosystems GmbH, CH) anaesthetic device (5 vol.% isoflurane, 30% oxygen; flow rate: 2 l/min). Vocalisation and defensive movements of 1166 anaesthetised piglets was rated using a scoring system. Presence or absence of the palpebral- and flexor-reflex was noted. Approximately every second piglet was weighed and oxygen-saturation and pulse- frequency of 231 animals were measured during treatment. Rectal temperatures before and after castration of 264 anaesthetised and 263 conventionally castrated piglets were compared. Only 77% of the anaesthetised piglets showed a sufficient anaesthetic depth based on the assessment of reflexes as well as vocalisations and defensive movements. It was found that the probability for a sufficient depth of anaesthesia decreases with increasing age and weight. The measurements of the pulse-frequency and oxygen-saturation showed an average oxygen-saturation of 98% and an average heart rate of 270/min during anaesthesia. The conventionally castrated piglets had significantly higher rectal temperatures in comparison to the anaesthetised (p piglets is not adequate for commercial application of this technology.

  12. Associations between intestinal lesions and detection of Clostridium perfringens type A or beta-2 toxin in neonatal piglets with diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hanne; Jonach, Beata Renata; Kokotovic, Branko

    Objective: To evaluate associations between gross and histopathological lesions and the presence of Clostridium perfringens type A (CpA) and beta-2 toxin in piglets from 4 herds with outbreaks of diarrhoea. Methods: Pathological examinations on 51 diarrhoeic piglets aged 3-7 days were carried out....... CpA was cultured and typed by PCR. A Clostridium perfringens spp targeted probe was used for flourescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and detection of beta-2 toxin in intestinal contents was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Piglets without intestinal lesions had...

  13. Prenatal Flavor Exposure Affects Flavor Recognition and Stress-Related Behavior of Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during

  14. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Hansmann, Florian; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam; Derking, Sarah; Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Herder, Vanessa; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael; Becher, Paul

    2016-06-13

    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses belonging to the continuously growing family Flaviviridae. A genetically very distinct pestivirus was recently discovered in the USA, designated atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, a screening of 369 sera from apparently healthy adult pigs demonstrated the existence of APPV in Germany with an estimated individual prevalence of 2.4% and ~10% at farm level. Additionally, APPV genomes were detected in newborn piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT), but genomes were absent in unaffected piglets. High loads of genomes were identified in glandular epithelial cells, follicular centers of lymphoid organs, the inner granular cell layer of the cerebellum, as well as in the trigeminal and spinal ganglia. Retrospective analysis of cerebellum samples from 2007 demonstrated that APPV can be found in piglets with CT of unsolved aetiology. Determination of the first European APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence revealed 88.2% nucleotide identity to the APPV sequence from the USA. APPV sequences derived from different regions in Germany demonstrated to be highly variable. Taken together, the results of this study strongly suggest that the presence of APPV genomes in newborn piglets correlates with CT, while no association with clinical disease could be observed in viremic adult pigs.

  15. Sow and piglet skin, claw and nipple lesions on two concrete flooring materials during lactation period

    OpenAIRE

    Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna; Munksgaard, Lene; Saloniemi, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the skin, claw and nipple lesions of sows and their piglets while they were kept on two different flooring materials: concrete cement and concrete covered with polyurethane and graveled with sand (particles 0.5-1.2 mm).

  16. Transcriptome profiling of the small intestinal epithelium in germfree versus conventional piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To gain insight into host-microbe interactions in a piglet model, a functional genomics approach was used to address the working hypothesis that transcriptionally regulated genes associated with promoting epithelial barrier function are activated as a defensive response to the intestinal microbiota....

  17. Nitrous oxide as a humane method for piglet euthanasia: behavior and electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for humane methods to euthanize piglets is critical to address public concern that current methods are not optimal. Blunt force trauma is considered humane but aesthetically objectionable. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is used but criticized as aversive. This research sought to: 1) evaluate the av...

  18. Infant formula promotes bone growth in neonatal piglets by enhancing osteoblastogenesis through bone morphogenic protein signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relatively few studies have examined the effects of formula feeding relative to breast-feeding on bone in the neonate. Using peripheral quantitative CT scan and histomorphometric analysis, we demonstrated that neonatal piglets fed with soy-based formula (SF) and cow milk-based formula (MF) for 21 or...

  19. High dietary fiber during late gestation reduces the rate of stillborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyera, Takele; Højgaard, Camilla Kaae; Vinther, Jens

    2017-01-01

    to investigate the impact of increasing dietary fiber supply during the last 2 weeks of gestation on rate of stillborn and survival of live born piglets during lactation. From continuous weekly batch inseminated sows in a commercial herd, sows with odd ear number (n=298) and even ear number (n=322) were randomly...

  20. Effect of dietary lysine supplement on the performance of Mong Cai sows and their piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, K.T.; Duc, le N.; Hendriks, W.H.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal lysine requirement of lactating Mong Cai sows and their piglets. An experiment was conducted using 30 Mong Cai sows in a factorial randomized design with 5 dietary total lysine levels (0.60, 0.70, 0.85, 1.0 and 1.15%) for one-week pre-partum and 5

  1. Effects of quinoa hull meal on piglet performance and intestinal epithelial physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Dorthe; Fernández, José Adalberto; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard;

    2012-01-01

    of South American (SA) origin (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg) and one dosage of Danish (DK) quinoa (300 mg/kg). In addition, the effect of dietary SA-QHM and SA-QHM-extract on jejunal epithelial physiology was studied ex vivo in Ussing chambers. The experiment included 400 piglets weaned at 28 ± 2 days of age...

  2. Prenatal Flavor Exposure Affects Flavor Recognition and Stress-Related Behavior of Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during

  3. Effect of Weaning Ages on Pancreatic and Intestinal Chymotrypsin Activity in Piglet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-fu; LI Chang-zhong; GU Xian-hong; FANG Lu; MA Yong-xi; GONG Li-ming; FENG Guang-ming

    2002-01-01

    Twelve litters of new born piglets were divided randomly into groups Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ, and weaned at 17, 21, 28 and 35 days of age, respectively, to determine the effect of weaning age on pancreatic and intestinal chymotrypsin activity in piglets. The results showed that the relative and specific activity of pancreatic chymotrypsin increased significantly 12h after weaning compared with that of sucking piglets at the same age and then decreased and remained low for 2 - 3 weeks after weaning. Total pancreatic chymotrypsin activity had no change with the increase of pancreas weight during day 18 - 50 regardless of weaning (P >0.05). Chymotrypsin activity of jejunum had the same change as that of pancreas during sulking stage.Jejunum chymotrypin activity decreased in the first week post-weaning in the piglets weaned before day 28, but had no change in groups weaned at 28 or 35 days. The earlier the weaning age, the longer the restoring time.Chymotrypsin activity in jejunum is more sensitive to the effects of weaning age than in duodenum and ileum.

  4. Total liquid ventilation reduces oleic acid-induced lung injury in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yao-bin; LIU Dong-hai; ZHANG Yan-bo; LIU Ai-jun; FAN Xiang-ming; QIAO Chen-hui; WANG Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients are susceptible to lung injury that does not respond to traditional therapies.Total liquid ventilation has been developed as an alternative ventilatory strategy for severe lung injury.The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of total liquid ventilation on oleic acid (OA)-induced lung injury in piglets.Methods Twelve Chinese immature piglets were induced acute lung injury by OA.Twelve piglets were randomly treated with conventional gas ventilation (control group) or total liquid ventilation (study group) for 240 minutes.Samples for blood gas analysis were collected before,and at 60-minute intervals after OA-induced lung injury.The degree of lung injury was quantified by histologic examination.The inflammatory cells and the levels of IL-1β,IL-6,IL-10 and TNF-α in plasma,tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage were analyzed.Results Neutrophil and macrophage counts in bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly decreased in the study group (P<0.05).The total lung injury score was also reduced in the study group (P<0.05).The cconcentrations of IL-1β,IL-6,IL-10and TNF-α in plasma,tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly reduced in the study group (P<0.05).Conclusions Total liquid ventilation reduces biochemical and histologic OA-induced lung injury in piglets.

  5. Studying the Differences of Bacterial Metabolome and Microbiome in the Colon between Landrace and Meihua Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijuan Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the microbiome and metabolome differences in the colon lumen from two pig breeds with different genetic backgrounds. Fourteen weaned piglets at 30 days of age, including seven Landrace piglets (a lean-type pig breed with a fast growth rate and seven Meihua piglets (a fatty-type Chinese local pig breed with a slow growth rate, were fed the same diets for 35 days. Untargeted metabolomics analyses showed that a total of 401 metabolites differed between Landrace and Meihua. Seventy of these 401 metabolites were conclusively identified. Landrace accumulated more short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs and secondary bile acids in the colon lumen. Moreover, expression of the SCFAs transporter (solute carrier family 5 member 8, SLC5A8 and receptor (G protein-coupled receptor 41, GPR41 in the colon mucosa was higher, while the bile acids receptor (farnesoid X receptor, FXR had lower expression in Landrace compared to Meihua. The relative abundances of 8 genera and 16 species of bacteria differed significantly between Landrace and Meihua, and were closely related to the colonic concentrations of bile acids or SCFAs based on Pearson's correlation analysis. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that there were differences in the colonic microbiome and metabolome between Meihua and Landrace piglets, with the most profound disparity in production of SCFAs and secondary bile acids.

  6. Piglets born from handmade cloning, an innovative cloning method without micromanipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yutao; Kragh, Peter; Zhang, Yunhai

    2007-01-01

    , mixed with 150 blastocysts from TC using a cell line from a different breed were transferred surgically to nine synchronized recipients. Out of the four pregnancies (44.4%) two were lost, while two pregnancies went to term and litters of 3 and 10 piglets were delivered by Caesarean section, with live...

  7. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Roura, E.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently

  8. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Roura, E.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently

  9. Use of ground and extruded canola seeds in feed for 15-30 kg piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Scherer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the nutritional values of ground (SCI or extruded (SCE canola seed and evaluate its use in the performance of piglets from 15 to 30 kg. Materials and methods. Two experimental diets with canola seed were evaluated in a digestibility trial. We used 15 barrows with an initial weight of 19.79±1.43kg, distributed in a completely randomized design. In the performance, four experimental diets were evaluated consisting of a diet with soybean oil added (RAS, one with the of addition of canola oil (RAC and two oil-free; one with 11% SCI included and one with 6% SCE (RSCE included. 40 commercial hybrid piglets were used that had 15.25±1.5kg initial body weight, randomly distributed, in four treatments and five replicates; two animals per experimental unit. Results. The digestible energy values for SCI and SCE were 4.197 kcal/kg and 5.234 kcal/kg, respectively. The extrusion process improved the digestibility coefficients. Piglets fed with RSCI showed less daily weight gain (DWG and F:G ratio. Conclusion. Results suggest that SCE can be included in diets of piglets from 15 to 30 kg until 6% without negatively affecting performance.

  10. Dietary tryptophan and threonine supply to 28 days old weaned piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, José Adalberto; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2009-01-01

    The effects of dietary levels of tryptophan (TRP) and threonine (THR) on appetite, growth performance and faecal score were assessed in an experiment with 360 weaned piglets. Littermate male castrates and females (1:1), weaned at 28 days of age, were given free access to feed during 28 days. Six...

  11. Effect of tannins on growth performance and intestinal ecosystem in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagia, Giacomo; Cipollini, Irene; Paulicks, Brigitte R; Roth, Franz X

    2010-04-01

    Tannins are natural polyphenolic compounds that can reduce digestibility of dietary protein but also display antibacterial effects. The present study investigated, in vitro and in vivo, the effect of different levels of tannins (using a chestnut wood extract containing 75% tannins) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota and wall morphology in piglets. During a 24 h in vitro caecal fermentation, the utilisation of tannins at 0.75, 1.5, 3, and 6 g/l significantly reduced total gas production and concentrations of ammonia and volatile fatty acids and increased viable counts of enterococci and coliforms. When fed to piglets at 1.13, 2.25, and 4.5 g/kg, tannins significantly improved feed efficiency and reduced caecal concentrations of ammonia, iso-butyric, and iso-valeric acid. Viable counts of lactobacilli tended to be increased by tannins in the jejunum, while bacterial caecal counts were not affected. Depth of ileal crypts tended to decrease in piglets fed tannins at 2.25 and 4.5 g/kg. The present study showed that feeding weaned piglets with a tannin-rich wood extract can result in improved feed efficiency and reduction of intestinal bacterial proteolytic reactions. The growth-enhancing effect that tannins had on enterococci and coliforms under in vitro conditions deserves further investigation.

  12. Efficacy of bentonite clay in ameliorating aflatoxicosis in piglets fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieu, Nguyen Quang; Ogle, Brian; Pettersson, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The efficacy of locally produced bentonite was evaluated with respect to ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxins (AF) in piglets fed AF contaminated diets. Forty eight piglets were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 1) 0 g of bentonite and 0 microg AF/kg feed (control); 2) 4 g of bentonite plus 200 microg AF/kg feed (AF + Bento 4); 3) 5 g of bentonite plus 200 microg AF/kg feed (AF + Bento 5) and 4) 0 g of bentonite plus 200 microg AF/kg feed (AFA). Piglets in the AFA treatment had lower overall average daily weight gain (ADG), feed conversion efficiency, albumin (ALB) and total protein (TP) compared to the control diet, while mean serum leukocyte and enzyme activities (glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)) were significant increased. The inclusion of bentonite at 0.4% or 0.5% in the AF contaminated diet restored the lower performance, feed efficiency and abnormal blood profiles of the piglets given AF and no differences between 0.4 and 0.5% inclusion of bentonite. The findings in the present study provide critically needed confirmation that bentonite has the ability to reduce the adverse effects of AF.

  13. Weaning Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Aminotransferases through MAPK Signaling Pathways in Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Guo, Qi; Luo, Wenli; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Weina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of weaning on the hepatic redox status, apoptosis, function, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways during the first week after weaning in piglets. A total of 12 litters of piglets were weaned at d 21 and divided into the weaning group (WG) and the control group (CG). Six piglets from each group were slaughtered at d 0 (d 20, referred to weaning), d 1, d 4, and d 7 after weaning. Results showed that weaning significantly increased the concentrations of hepatic free radicals H2O2 and NO, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), while significantly decreasing the inhibitory hydroxyl ability (IHA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and altered the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). The apoptosis results showed that weaning increased the concentrations of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in liver homogenates increased after weaning. The phosphorylated JNK and ERK1/2 increased, while the activated p38 initially decreased and then increased. Our results suggested that weaning increased the hepatic oxidative stress and aminotransferases and initiated apoptosis, which may be related to the activated MAPK pathways in postweaning piglets.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype welfare monitoring system for sows and piglets (Welfare Quality (R) project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Edwards, S.A.; Gu, J.H.; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, van M.C.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(R) project aims to develop a European on-form welfare assessment standard for pigs, amongst other species. A prototype monitoring system was developed for sows and piglets using predominantly animal-based measures of behaviour, health and physiology to assess welfare. The

  15. Measurement, evaluation and control of the microclimate in rooms for weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The Animal Occupied Zone (AOZ), or the microclimate, in a room for weaned piglets is roughly the zone between 0 and 50 cm above the floor of the pen. It is distinguished from the macroclimate, which is the average climate of a pig room. The ability to create and maintain an optimal climate in the AO

  16. Influence of enteroguard on the performance and health of weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Plagge, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    In a 39 day 2 x 2 factorial study, 660 crossbred piglets were used to examine whether Enteroguard (a combination of freeze-dried garlic and cinnamon oil) is an alternative feed additive to growth promoting antibiotics. Four experimental treatments were tested at the Experimental Farm for Pig Husband

  17. Maternal endometrial edema may increase perinatal mortality of cloned and transgenic piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mette; Winter, Kjeld Dahl; Dantzer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    The perinatal mortality of cloned animals is a well-known problem. In the present retrospective study, we report on mortality of cloned transgenic or non-transgenic piglets produced as part of several investigations. Large White (LW) sows (n = 105) received hand-made cloned LW or minipig blastocy...

  18. Early Methanogenic Colonisation in the Faeces of Meishan and Yorkshire Piglets as Determined by Pyrosequencing Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Y.; Bian, G.R.; Zhu, Z.G.; Smidt, H.; Zhu, W.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Gut methanogenic archaea of monogastric animals are considered to be related to energy metabolism and adipose deposition of the host; however, information on their development in young piglets is limited. Thus, to investigate early methanogenic colonisation in the faeces of Meishan and Yorkshire pig

  19. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  20. Toltrazuril and sulphonamide treatment against naturally Isospora suis infected suckling piglets: is there an actual profit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Antonio; Demontis, Francesca; Varcasia, Antonio; Pipia, Anna Paola; Poglayen, Giovanni; Ferrari, Nicola; Genchi, Marco

    2009-08-26

    A study was carried out to assess the efficacy and the economic profit of prophylactic treatment against Isopsora suis with toltrazuril or with a sulfamethazine/trimethoprim combination in piglets from an intensive pig farm. Thirty-one litters were included in study. Eight litters were treated once with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg b.w.) at 3 days of age (Toltra group); 8 litters were treated with 2 ml/animal of a [corrected] sulphonamide combination (sodium sulfamethazine 250 [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] mg and trimethoprim 50 [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] mg/kg b.w.) for 3 consecutive days starting at 3 days of age (Sulfa group), and 15 litters were untreated (control group). Counts of oocyst per gram on pooled feces sampled from each litter were carried out on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28 and diarrhea was registered daily from pooled samples. Piglets were weighed on Days 1, 7 and 28 and mean weight gain (WG) and daily weight gain (DWG) were evaluated. The economic profit of treatment was evaluated comparing the WG of piglets of each treatment group from the day of birth to Day 28. On Days 14, 21 and 28, toltrazuril showed a better efficacy in controlling fecal oocyst output, diarrhea and weight gain compared with sulphamidic treatment (Psulphonamide-treated piglets.

  1. Alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase M307A polymorphism improves piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungtae; Nguyen, Dinh Truong; Choi, Minkyung; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Han Geuk; Dadi, Hailu; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Seo, Kunho; Lee, Yun-Mi; Kim, Jong-Joo; Park, Chankyu

    2013-01-01

    To confirm the beneficial effects of alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase (FUT1) M307 (A) on piglet survival on commercial farms, we performed PCR-RFLP analysis of FUT1 M307 in successfully marketed (n = 245) and disease affected/deceased pigs during weaning (n = 252) at a commercial farm. We also evaluated the FUT1 genotypes of 190 healthy pigs from three different genetic backgrounds. The distribution of genotypes differed between the successfully marketed and disease affected/deceased pig groups. The frequency of the A allele, associated with resistance to edema and post-weaning diarrhea, was higher in the post-weaning survival group (0.21) than in the non-survival group (0.16, P piglet survival between AA and GG genotypes was 1.98; thus, piglet survival for individuals with the AA genotype was almost two-fold greater than for GG individuals. The FUT1 gene polymorphism can be used as an effective marker for selection programs to improve post-weaning piglet survival.

  2. Piglet mortality: the impact of induction of farrowing using prostaglandins and oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkden, R D; Broom, D M; Andersen, I L

    2013-04-01

    Induction is usually carried out by administering prostaglandins (prostaglandin F2α or a synthetic analogue). Other hormones, most commonly oxytocin, may also be given. The primary objective is to increase the synchrony of farrowing. This facilitates farrowing supervision, early fostering and 'all in, all out' management of the farrowing house, all of which have the potential to decrease piglet mortality. However, there are also risks, including decreased piglet viability when farrowing is induced too early and an increased probability of dystocia associated with oxytocin use. What are the effects of induction procedures on mortality in pigs? With respect to prostaglandins, studies show that the date of induction and the level of supervision provided are important factors affecting piglet mortality. We recommend administering prostaglandins no earlier than 2d before the expected farrowing date for the herd. Some studies have reported that prostaglandin induction decreases stillbirth and live-born mortality and this is probably due to increased farrowing supervision. The incidence of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome is also decreased in herds with a high prevalence of this condition. Inconsistent effects on the progress of farrowing are reported following the routine administration of oxytocin 20-24h after prostaglandin. Although there is generally no effect on stillbirth rate, dystocia may increase. Earlier administration of low doses may decrease stillbirths, but this requires further research. Carbetocin, a long-acting analogue of oxytocin, is a possible alternative. We recommend that prostaglandin induction be used in conjunction with skilled farrowing supervision to decrease piglet mortality.

  3. An experimental randomized study of six different ventilatory modes in a piglet model with normal lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Sjöstrand, U H; Henneberg, S W

    1991-01-01

    A randomized study of 6 ventilatory modes was made in 7 piglets with normal lungs. Using a Servo HFV 970 (prototype system) and a Servo ventilator 900 C the ventilatory modes examined were as follows: SV-20V, i.e. volume-controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV); SV-20VIosc, i...

  4. Impact of two different colistin dosing strategies on healthy piglet fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, M A; Jouy, E; Eono, F; Cariolet, R; Couet, W; Gobin, P; Le Goff, O; Blanquet-Diot, S; Alric, M; Kempf, I

    2016-08-01

    Colistin is often used in piglets but underdosing and overdosing are frequent. The impact of such administrations on fecal microbiota was studied. Piglets were given either underdoses of colistin by oral gavage for five days or overdoses by in-feed medication for 14days. The composition of fecal microbiota was studied by quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing, culture of Enterobacteriaceae, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The mean colistin concentrations during the treatment for underdosed and overdosed groups were 14.4μg/g and 64.9μg/g of feces respectively. Whatever the piglet and the sampling day, the two main phyla were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, The main families were Lactobacillaceae, Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. The main perturbation was the significant but transitory decrease in the Escherichia coli population during treatment, yet all the E. coli isolates were susceptible to colistin. Moreover, colistin did not affect the production of SCFAs. These results show that under- or overdoses of colistin do not result in any major disturbance of piglet fecal microbiota and rarely select for chromosomal resistance in the dominant E. coli population.

  5. Electrical energy use in different heating systems for early weaned piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbi, J. [Federal Univ. of Santa Maria, Palmeira das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Animal Science; Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). College of Agricultural Engineering; Rossi, L.A.; Moura, D.J.; Oliveira, R.A.; David, E. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). College of Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study compared the electrical energy use and thermal comfort conditions associated with 3 heating technologies used in piglet farms. Heating systems for piglets in nursery and farrowing can be improved to conserve energy without affecting the welfare of the animals. The evaluation was conducted at a commercial farm in a subtropical climate area of Brazil. Each treatment involved 150 weaned piglets at 21 days-old. The systems were designed to keep the piglets at 28 to 30 degrees C for 14 days. Suspended electrical resistors, heated floors and convection heating were the 3 heating technologies examined during this study which evaluated the electrical energy consumption, maximum power demand requirements and dry-bulb temperature. The study also assessed the specific consumption in terms of kWh/kg of live produced body mass as well as the efficiency of heating system in terms of degrees C per cubic metre of air. In terms of electrical energy use, the best heating system was the heated floor. However, the electrical resistance heating system was the best in terms of thermal comfort.

  6. Prenatally stressed piglets 'shut down' in response to separation, oxytocin modulates some effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal stress (PNS) effects may enhance offspring’s survival traits. Yet, PNS could be maladaptive for captive animals, causing anxiety and abnormal social development. Oxytocin (OT) reduces anxiety while OT deficiency results in social behavior alteration. We hypothesized that PNS piglets would b...

  7. Change in lameness risk estimates in piglets due to the modelling of herd-level variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, M.K.; Christensen, J.

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study (Christensen, 1996. Prev. Vet. Med. 26, 107-118), an effect parameter changed from positive to negative depending on the model used. The study considered lameness in suckling piglets and the dataset included 7632 litters from 35 herds from the Health and Production Surveillanc...

  8. Cardiac C-type natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse H; Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    and cardiac tissue extracts were quantified by a porcine-specific radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Cardiac CNP mRNA contents (n=24) were low compared to sites of known expression, where porcine seminal vesicle CNP mRNA contents were 200-fold higher. In addition, plasma proCNP concentrations in the newborn piglets...

  9. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study compare

  10. Effect of Dietary Inulin Source on Piglet Performance, Immunoglobulin Concentration, and Plasma Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grela Eugeniusz R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an inulin source (aqueous or aqueous-alcoholic extract, dried chicory root, or dried Jerusalem artichoke tubers on piglet performance, plasma lipid profile, and immunoglobulin concentration. The study was conducted on 534 piglets (44 litters allocated to five nutritional groups: group I (control - fed basal diet, groups II and III receiving basal diet supplemented with 2% of inulin (aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic extract respectively, and groups IV and V -4% additive of dried artichoke or dried chicory respectively. During the trial, piglets’ body weight, feed intake, diarrhoea incidence, and mortality were controlled. Blood samples were collected twice from six animals of each group. In blood plasma, indices of lipid profile and concentrations of IgA, IgG and IgM were measured. The addition of inulin, regardless of its form (extracts or dried plants, significantly improved the rearing indices. In piglets of groups III, IV and V a significant improvement of daily weight gains and feed efficiency was noted. Inulin showed hypolipidemic activity (lowered total cholesterol level and stimulated piglet immune system manifested by elevated IgA and IgG concentrations. Irrespective of the inulin source, a lower mortality rate resulting from the improvement of animal health was noted in all experimental groups.

  11. Experimental infection with Escherichia coli 0149 : F4ac in weaned piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gerda M.; Frydendahl, Kai; Svendsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    for the production of the specific ETEC F4ab/ac receptor, and a DNA marker-based test has been developed to allow genotyping for ETEC F4ab/ac resistance/susceptibility [Jorgensen, C.B., Cirera, S., Archibald, A.L., Anderson, L., Fredholm, M., Edfors-Lilja, I., 2004. Porcine polymorphisms and methods for detecting...... them. International application published under the patent cooperation treaty (PCT). PCT/DK2003/000807 or WO2004/048606-A2]. The aim of this study was to test an experimental model for ETEC O149:F4ac-induced diarrhoea in piglets, selected for susceptibility towards ETEC O149:F4ac adhesion prior...... to experimentation using a DNA marker-based test. Sixty-two healthy 25-32 days old recently weaned Danish crossbred piglets were used. All piglets were tested prior to experimentation for susceptibility or resistance towards ETEC 0149:F4ac adhesion. Thirty-nine piglets, both susceptible and resistant, were oro...

  12. Characterization of the bacterial gut microbiota of piglets suffering from new neonatal porcine diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stockmarr, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, new neonatal porcine diarrhoea (NNPD) of unknown aetiology has emerged in Denmark. NNPD affects piglets during the first week of life and results in impaired welfare, decreased weight gain, and in the worst-case scenario death. Commonly used preventative interventions...

  13. Modulation of plasma antioxidant activity in weaned piglets by plant polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai J. Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant polyphenols (PP on antioxidant activity in weaned piglets. First, a uniform design, one optimising an experimental technique that can rationally arrange the concentrations of mixture components, was used to obtain the best PP mixture of apple, grape seed, green tea and olive leaf polyphenols based on in vitro antioxidant capacity and inhibitory action on bacterial growth. Second, the optimised PP mixture was tested in vivo with an efficacy trial on piglets. The optimal effects of the mix were observed in vitro when apple, grape seed, green tea, olive leaf polyphenols and a carrier (silicon dioxide accounted for 16.5, 27.5, 30, 2.5 and 23.5%, respectively, of the mixture. Forty-eight weaned piglets were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments (6 replicates of 4 piglets each per treatment and fed a control diet (CTR or CTR supplemented with 0.1% of the optimised PP mixture. Dietary PP did not affect growth performance compared to the CTR group. Plasma total protein, urea nitrogen and lysozyme content were not affected by dietary treatment. No differences of E. coli or Clostridia counts in the faeces and caecum content between the CTR and PP groups were observed. A reduced malondialdehyde concentration in the PP group was observed on day 21 compared to the CTR group (P=0.02. In conclusion, the prepared PP mixture has the potential to improve plasma antioxidant activity.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype welfare monitoring system for sows and piglets (Welfare Quality (R) project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Edwards, S.A.; Gu, J.H.; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, van M.C.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(R) project aims to develop a European on-form welfare assessment standard for pigs, amongst other species. A prototype monitoring system was developed for sows and piglets using predominantly animal-based measures of behaviour, health and physiology to assess welfare. The prototy

  15. Effects of Weaning on Intestinal Upper Villus Epithelial Cells of Piglets.

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    Huansheng Yang

    Full Text Available The intestinal upper villus epithelial cells represent the differentiated epithelial cells and play key role in digesting and absorbing lumenal nutrients. Weaning stress commonly results in a decrease in villus height and intestinal dysfunction in piglets. However, no study have been conducted to test the effects of weaning on the physiology and functions of upper villus epithelial cells. A total of 40 piglets from 8 litters were weaned at 14 days of age and one piglet from each litter was killed at 0 d (w0d, 1 d (w1d, 3 d (w3d, 5 d (w5d, and 7 d (w7d after weaning, respectively. The upper villus epithelial cells in mid-jejunum were isolated using the distended intestinal sac method. The expression of proteins in upper villus epithelial cells was analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or Western blotting. The expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, Golgi vesicle transport, protein amino acid glycosylation, secretion by cell, transmembrane transport, ion transport, nucleotide catabolic process, translational initiation, and epithelial cell differentiation and apoptosis, was mainly reduced during the post-weaning period, and these processes may be regulated by mTOR signaling pathway. These results indicated that weaning inhibited various cellular processes in jejunal upper villus epithelial cells, and provided potential new directions for exploring the effects of weaning on the functions of intestine and improving intestinal functions in weaning piglets.

  16. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study

  17. Determination of the extent of Clostridium difficile colonisation and toxin accumulation in sows and neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grześkowiak, Łukasz; Zentek, Jürgen; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important spore-forming, opportunistic pathogen in animal husbandry and health care. In pig farming, only neonatal piglets are affected, and diarrhoea and necrotising lesions are common symptoms leading to dehydration and in some cases death. This study aimed at the assessment of the quantitative development of C. difficile colonisation in neonatal piglets by determining the shedding of spores and C. difficile toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) concentrations in sow (n = 5-6) and piglet pen faeces (n = 5-6) at different time points. Spores were quantified on selective agar plates and toxins using ELISA method. C. difficile was not detected in the faeces of all but one sow during the perinatal period. Faeces of 2- and 4-day-old piglets contained 0.65 log cells/g and 5.88 log cells/g of C. difficile, respectively. Toxins were detected on day 4 at a concentration of 2.13 log ng/g (TcdA) and 2.06 log ng/g (TcdB). On day 6, concentration of C. difficile reached 6.14 log CFU/g and toxins 2.02 log ng/g (TcdA) and 2.20 log ng/g (TcdB). Two-week-old piglets showed 4.72 log CFU/g of C. difficile but toxins could not be detected. At 21 days of age, both C. difficile and toxins were undetectable. The concentration and the prevalence of C. difficile were positively associated with the prevalence of toxins in piglets. A very short time window for colonisation by C. difficile, including toxin-producing strains can be observed in neonatal piglets. The significance for animal health and the risk of a carrier status need to be addressed in future studies.

  18. Behavior analysis, from grinding or not of the teeth of piglets in nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Dela Ricci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the social hierarchy of piglets after birth is one of the factors responsible for aggressive disputes among swine. This behavior results in lesions on the face of piglets and on the nipple of sows. Methods such as clipping or grinding of teeth procedures are conducted to the reduction of losses related to the welfare and growth performance of the animals. However, this management has been questioned about the pain and stress. Since 2001, The European Union legislation which describes patterns of animal welfare prohibits the handling of clipping or grinding of teeth of piglets as a routine measure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grinding or not of teeth in piglet behavior in the nursery. Were used to obtain the data: 34 sows and their piglets, with 11.3 on average. The study was conducted during the summer, in the city of Concordia, SC. At birth, the piglets were separated into rooms according to the order of birth and type of treatment directed to the litters. The management of tooth grind was always held on the second day postpartum along with weighing, the tail docking and castration of male piglets. The behavior was obtained with the aid of an ethogram with variables like sleeping, breastfeeding, eating and drinking water, stereotypies, aggression, standing, lying or sitting, playfulness and exploratory behavior. The observations were made during the twenty one and twenty eight days, until weaning. Data were collected in periods of three days during each week, six hours a day and every five minutes. The data were analyzed on a complete randomized block design with repeated measures. We used a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment, shift, week, and their interactions block using the MIXED procedure (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC. The behavior studied is the percentage of animals in the activity when evaluated. The comparison of the mean was performed by Fisher's least significant difference

  19. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

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    Dai-Wen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg-1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  20. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Feng Mei

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg–1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  1. Betaine supplementation in maternal diet modulates the epigenetic regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic genes in neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Demin; Jia, Yimin; Song, Haogang; Sui, Shiyan; Lu, Jingyu; Jiang, Zheng; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, gestational sows were fed control or betaine-supplemented diets (3 g/kg) throughout the pregnancy, and the newborn piglets were used to elucidate whether maternal dietary betaine affected offspring hepatic gluconeogenic genes through epigenetic mechanisms. Neonatal piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows had significantly higher serum and hepatic betaine contents, together with significantly greater expression of methionine metabolic enzymes in the liver. Interestingly, significantly higher serum concentrations of lactic acid and glucogenic amino acids, including serine, glutamate, methionine and histidine, were detected in the piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows, which were coincident with higher hepatic glycogen content and PEPCK1 enzyme activity, as well as greater protein expression of gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytoplasmic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK1), mitochondrional phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK2) and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBP1). Moreover, maternal betaine significantly changed the methylation status of both CpGs and histones on the promoter of gluconeogenic genes. The lower PEPCK1 mRNA was associated with DNA hypermethylation and more enriched repression histone mark H3K27me3, while the up-regulated PEPCK2 and FBP1 mRNA was associated with DNA hypomethylation and more enriched activation histone mark H3K4me3. Furthermore, the expression of two miRNAs predicted to target PC and 6 miRNAs predicted to target PEPCK1 was dramatically suppressed in the liver of piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows. Our results provide the first evidence that maternal betaine supplementation affects hepatic gluconeogenic genes expression in newborn piglets through enhanced hepatic methionine metabolism and epigenetic regulations, which involve DNA and histone methylations, and possibly miRNAs-mediated post-transcriptional mechanism.

  2. Production of piglets from in vitro-produced embryos following non-surgical transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Koji; Noguchi, Michiko; Suzuki, Chie

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance procedures for producing piglets derived from in vitro-produced (IVP) pig embryos by non-surgical embryo transfer (ET). The effects of insertion length for the catheter, asynchrony between the age of donor IVP blastocysts and the recipient estrous cycle, and volume of transfer medium were investigated. The IVP blastocysts at 5 days after in vitro fertilization were placed into porcine zygote medium (PZM)-5 supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (PZM+FBS) in a 0.25 mL plastic straw (21-40 blastocysts per straw) and then transferred into one uterine horn of recipients using the Takumi(®) catheter for deep intrauterine insertion. Successful production of piglets derived from IVP embryos was achieved following non-surgical ET when the catheter was inserted at more than 30 cm anterior to the spiral guide spirette. The efficiency of piglet production (percentage number of piglet(s) born based on the number of embryos transferred) was greater (P<0.05) in recipients whose estrous cycle was asynchronous to that of donors with a 1-day delay (8.3%) than in those with a 2-day (1.5%) or 3-day (0.9%) delay, while pregnancy and farrowing rates (10-40%) did not differ among treatments. When blastocysts were transferred into recipients with 1.0 or 2.5 mL PZM+FBS, there were no significant differences in farrowing rate (30-40%) or average litter size (4.5-6.7) between treatments. The results of the present study indicate that the insertion length of the deep intrauterine catheter and the degree of asynchrony between donor embryos and recipient estrous cycle influenced on pregnancy and birth outcome following non-surgical transfer of IVP blastocysts.

  3. Dietary canola oil alters hematological indices and blood lipids in neonatal piglets fed formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innis, S M; Dyer, R A

    1999-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of canola oil on platelet characteristics, blood lipids and growth in exclusively formula-fed piglets. Piglets were fed from birth to 10 or 18 d with formula containing 51% energy from fat, with 100% fat as canola or soybean oil; 26% soybean, 59% high oleic acid sunflower and 12% flax oil (canola mimic); or 26% canola (canola blend) or soybean (soybean blend) with high oleic acid sunflower, palm and coconut oil. The canola mimic provided similar carbon chain 16 and 18 fatty acids without the sterol or 20:1 and erucic acid (22:1) of canola oil. The oil blends provided formula resembling infant formulas but with higher 16:0 and lower unsaturated fatty acid levels than in canola or soybean oil. Body weight, weight gain and heart and liver weight were not different after 10 or 18 d feeding canola when compared to soybean oil alone or blended oil formulas. Piglets fed formulas with 100% canola oil had lower platelet counts than piglets fed formula soybean oil or the canola oil mimic. Platelet counts were lower, and platelet distribution width and volume were higher, when formulas with 100% canola or soybean rather than the blended oil formulas were fed. The results show that formula fat composition influences the developing hematological system and that canola oil suppresses the normal developmental increase in platelet count in piglets by a mechanism apparently unrelated to the formula 16:0, 18:1, 18:2(n-6) or 18:3(n-3), or plasma phospholipid 20:4(n-6) or 20:5(n-3).

  4. Observations on pathological and histochemical changes in piglet livers infected with Taenia saginata asiatica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINGHU Yan; ZHU Wujun; BAO Huai'en; CHEN Yan

    2007-01-01

    To study the pathological and histochemical characteristies of lesions in piglet livers infected with Taenia saginata asiatica (T.saginata asiatica)throughout the different stages,piglets were fed with eggs of T.saginata asiatica and raised in isolation in an animal center to establish the T.saginata asiatica infection model with normal piglets as control.The pathological changes in the piglet livers were observed after the infection using liver sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin.Histochemical methods were used to check the changes in lipid,glycogen and protein content in the liver.The data collected by image analysis were analyzed statistically with Statistical Package for the Social Science.The results show that T.saginata asiatica-exposed piglets were indeed infected.Inflammatory reactions began on the fourth day and progressed rapidly.Kupffer cell hyperplasia,hepatic hydropic degeneration and ballooning degeneration were found in the 10th-20th days after infection.Hepatic central veins and hepatic sinusoids were dilated and congested.Spotty necrosis occurred in some local liver tissues.In the 40th-60th days,granulomatous reactions and mild hepatocirrhosis were the main lesions.In the 70th-80th days,hepatocirrhosis and bile duct proliferation were observed in the liver.In the difierent stages,lipid drops were increased while glycogen and protein levels were decreased to some degree.There was a significant difierence in metabolism between the infected group and the control group(P<0.01).It is concluded that pigs are the favorable intermediate host of T.saginata asiatica and its infection can result in serious pathological and histochemical lesions in host organs.

  5. Lung microRNA profile in chronic cyanotic piglets with decreased pulmonary blood flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; LIU Ying-long; L(U) Xiao-dong; LING Feng; LIU Ai-jun; DU Jie; HAN Ling

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyanotic congenital heart defects with decreased pulmonary blood flow due to lung ischemia,hypoxia,and others lead to infant morbidity and mortality more than acyanotic heart disease does.Despite the great effort of medical research,their genetic link and underlying microRNAs molecular mechanisms remain obscure.In this study,we aimed to investigate microRNAs regulation during cyanotic defects in lung of immature piglets.Methods Cyanotic piglet model was induced by main pulmonary artery-left atrium shunt with distal pulmonary artery banding.Four weeks later,hemodynamic parameters confirmed the development of cyanotic defects and pulmonary lobe RNA was extracted from all animals.We studied the repertoire of porcine lung microRNAs by Solexa deep sequencing technology and quantified highly expressed microRNAs by microarray hybridization.Furthermore,we quantitated selected microRNAs from cyanotic and control piglets by quantitative RT-PCR.Results After surgical procedure 4 weeks later,the cyanotic model produced lower arterial oxygen tension,arterial oxygen saturation,and higher arterial carbon dioxide tension,hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration than controls (all P <0.05).In 1273 miRNAs expressed in the immature piglets lungs,2 most abundant microRNAs (miR-370 and miR-320) demonstrated significant difference between cyanotic and control group (all P <0.05).Conclusion Our results extended lung microRNA profile in immature piglets and suggested that miR-370 and miR-320 are significantly up-regulated in cyanotic lung tissues.

  6. Effect of local anaesthesia and/or analgesia on pain responses induced by piglet castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Görel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical castration in male piglets is painful and methods that reduce this pain are requested. This study evaluated the effect of local anaesthesia and analgesia on vocal, physiological and behavioural responses during and after castration. A second purpose was to evaluate if herdsmen can effectively administer anaesthesia. Methods Four male piglets in each of 141 litters in five herds were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: castration without local anaesthesia or analgesia (C, controls, analgesia (M, meloxicam, local anaesthesia (L, lidocaine, or both local anaesthesia and analgesia (LM. Lidocaine (L, LM was injected at least three minutes before castration and meloxicam (M, LM was injected after castration. During castration, vocalisation was measured and resistance movements judged. Behaviour observations were carried out on the castration day and the following day. The day after castration, castration wounds were ranked, ear and skin temperature was measured, and blood samples were collected for analysis of acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A concentration (SAA. Piglets were weighed on the castration day and at three weeks of age. Sickness treatments and mortality were recorded until three weeks of age. Results Piglets castrated with lidocaine produced calls with lower intensity (p p p = 0.06, n.s. and the following day (p = 0.02. Controls had less swollen wounds compared to piglets assigned to treatments M, L and LM (p p = 0.005; p = 0.05 for C + L compared to M + LM. Ear temperature was higher (p Conclusions The study concludes that lidocaine reduced pain during castration and that meloxicam reduced pain after castration. The study also concludes that the herdsmen were able to administer local anaesthesia effectively.

  7. Purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp as a source of fiber for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber is an important component, which has a direct effect on intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients; and also alters intestinal microbiota and morphology according to solubility. One digestibility trial and one performance experiment were performed to evaluate the effects of sources of fiber in diets for 21 day weaned piglets. The experimental diets used in both trials consisted of a control diet and diets with purified cellulose, soybean hulls or citrus pulp as a main source of dietary fiber. To evaluate the digestibility of nutrients (Assay 1, the total feces and urine collection method was used. The fiber sources did not affect nutrient digestibility, except for soluble fiber, which increased with the inclusion of citrus (Citrus sinensisL. pulp. To evaluate performance, morphophysiology and microbiology of the digestive tract of weaned piglets, a total of 32 castrated male piglets was used. Slaughter of animals was implemented at 35 and 50 days of age. The use of soybean (Glycine max L. hulls and citrus pulp in diets increased the number of goblet cells and the density of villi in the jejunum. The viscosities of stomach and cecum contents increased due to the addition of citrus pulp. Soybean hulls and the citrus pulp included in diets reduced the occurrence of E. coli in the small intestines of piglets slaughtered at 35 days of age. Among the fiber sources, purified cellulose in piglet diets promotes better performance of animals, due to the modulation of the small intestine microbiota, with lower E. coli occurrence resulting in higher villus density.

  8. Expression of adrenoceptor subtypes in preterm piglet heart is different to term heart.

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    Min Young Kim

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery increases the risk of inadequate systemic blood flow and hypotension, and many preterm infants fail to respond to conventional inotrope treatments. If the profile of cardiac adrenoceptor subtypes in the preterm neonate is different to that at term this may contribute to these clinical problems. This study measured mRNA expression of β1, β2, α1A, α2A and α2B-adrenoceptor subtypes by real time PCR in term (113d, preterm (91d and preterm piglets (91d exposed to maternal glucocorticoid treatment. Abundance of β-adrenoceptor binding sites in the left ventricle was measured using saturation binding assays. Relative abundance of β1-adrenoceptor mRNA in untreated preterm hearts was ∼50% of term abundance in both left and right ventricles (P0.1. Relative abundance of α1A-adrenoceptor mRNA was the same in preterm and term piglet hearts (P = >0.1 but was reduced by maternal glucocorticoid treatment (P<0.01; α2A-adrenoceptor mRNA abundance was higher in untreated and glucocorticoid exposed preterm piglet hearts than in term piglets (P<0.001. There was no difference between male and female piglets in mRNA abundance of any of the genes studied. In conclusion, there is reduced mRNA abundance of β1-adrenoceptors in the preterm pig heart. If this lower expression of β-adrenoceptors occurs in human preterm infants, it could explain their poor cardiovascular function and their frequent failure to respond to commonly used inotropes.

  9. Analysis of the effect of dietary protected organic acid blend on lactating sows and their piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Mohana Devi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of blends of dietary protected organic acid supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, faecal microflora, and gas emission on sows and piglets with emphasis on their modes of action to improve pig performance. A total of 12 sows with an average initial body weight (BW of 252.40±11.7 kg were used in this trial. Growth performance, blood profiles, and nutrient digestibility of sows and piglets fed protected organic acid were evaluated. The dietary treatments included a basal diet (CON; CON + 0.1% protected organic acid; and CON + 0.2% protected organic acid. The BW and back fat of sows was checked four days prior to farrowing and at the weaning day to calculate BW loss and back fat loss during that period. Inclusion of 0.2% protected organic acid provided a greater digestibility than CON diets throughout the experimental period in lactating sows. Dietary supplementation with 0.2% protected organic acid led to a higher white blood cell and lymphocyte concentration than CON treatment in sucking piglets. Immunoglobulin G concentration observed was greater in protected organic acid groups in lactating sow and sucking piglets. Increased faecal Lactobacillus counts with decreased E. coli concentrations were observed with the diets of protected organic acid fed to lactating sows. The E. coli counts were decreased in weaning piglets. The faecal H2S contents were decreased in 0.2% protected organic acid diets during farrowing on day 1. Dietary supplementation with protected organic acid blends beneficially affects the nutrient digestibility, ileal noxious gas (NH3 and H2S emission, as well as intestinal microbial balance in lactating sows.

  10. Human milk oligosaccharides shorten rotavirus-induced diarrhea and modulate piglet mucosal immunity and colonic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Monaco, Marcia H; Wang, Mei; Comstock, Sarah S; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Fahey, George C; Miller, Michael J; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-08-01

    The impact of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) on mucosal immunity, gut microbiota and response to rotavirus (RV) infection was investigated in the piglet model. Newborn piglets were fed with formula alone (FF) or formula supplemented with 4 g l(-1) HMO (HMO) or a prebiotic mixture of 9:1 short-chain galactooligosaccharides (3.6 g l(-1)) and long-chain fructooligosaccharides (0.4 g l(-1)) (PRE) (n=19-21 per group) for 15 days. Piglets (n=7-8) in each dietary group were orally infected with porcine rotavirus (RV) OSU strain on d10, and stool consistency was assessed daily. Blood, small intestine and colonic contents were collected at day 15. Serum RV-specific antibody concentrations, intestinal histomorphology, RV non-structural protein-4 (NSP4) and cytokine mRNA expression were assessed. Colonic content pH, dry matter (DM) and short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured. Ascending colonic microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene v1-3 region pyrosequencing. HMO- and PRE-fed groups had shorter duration of diarrhea than FF piglets. Infection changed intestinal histomorphology, increased serum RV-specific antibody response and intestinal RV NSP4 expression, and modulated ileal cytokine expression. HMO enhanced T helper type 1 (interferon-gamma) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10) cytokines in the ileum, while prebiotics promoted RV-specific immunoglobulin M response to the infection. RV infection and HMO supplementation altered intraluminal environment and gut microbiota. HMO increased pH and lowered DM of colonic contents and enhanced the abundance of unclassified Lachnospiraceae, which contains numerous butyrate-producing bacteria. In conclusion, HMO and prebiotics did not prevent the onset of RV infection but reduced the duration of RV-induced diarrhea in piglets, in part, by modulating colonic microbiota and immune response to RV infection.

  11. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XXIV. Hypothesis: The ileal Peyer patches (IPP) are the major source of primary, undiversified IgA antibodies in newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John E; Santiago-Mateo, Kristina; Wertz, Nancy; Sun, Xiuzhu; Sinkora, Marek; Francis, David L

    2016-12-01

    The ileal Peyers patches (IPP) of newborn germfree (GF) piglets were isolated into blind loops and the piglets colonized with a defined probiotic microflora. After 5 weeks, IgA levels in the intestinal lavage (IL) of loop piglets remained at GF levels and IgM comprised ∼70% while in controls, IgA levels were elevated 5-fold and comprised ∼70% of total Igs. Loop piglets also had reduced serum IgA levels suggesting the source of serum IgA had been interrupted. The isotype profile for loop contents was intermediate between that in the IL of GF and probiotic controls. Surprisingly, colonization alone did not result in repertoire diversification in the IPP. Rather, colonization promoted pronounced proliferation of fully switched IgA(+)IgM(-) B cells in the IPP that supply early, non-diversified "natural" SIgA antibodies to the gut lumen and a primary IgA response in serum.

  12. Effect of supplementing sows' feed with alpha-tocopherol acetate and vitamin C on transfer of alpha-tocopherol to piglet tissues, colostrum, and milk: aspects of immune status of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli-Saavedra, A; Calderón de la Barca, A M; Hernández, J; Valenzuela, R; Scaife, J R

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sows with alpha-tocopherol acetate (ATA) and vitamin C on deposition of alpha-tocopherol (AT) in piglet lymphoid organs, such as bone marrow, thymus, and spleen at birth and at weaning, as well as on indicators of immune response in piglets. Sows were given the following treatment diets: control, vitamin C 10 g/day, ATA 500 mg/kg feed, and combined vitamins (ATA 500+Vit-C 10). Supplementation with vitamins started at the beginning of pregnancy and lasted until weaning at 21+/-3 days of age. AT was determined in colostrum, milk, piglet plasma (cord blood) and tissues at birth and on day 21. Immunoglobulins were measured in piglet plasma, milk, and colostrum. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to PHA and ConA was determined in sow and piglet blood. ATA supplementation resulted in a significant increase (Ppiglet plasma, liver, thymus, bone marrow, and spleen at weaning. The AT content of colostrum and milk significantly (Ppiglet plasma and tissues at weaning (day 21). Total Ig and IgG concentrations in piglet plasma were significantly increased in piglets given the combined vitamin treatment. No effect of AT supplementation was observed on IgG and IgA in colostrum and milk. In sows, vitamin C given alone significantly increased lymphocyte response to ConA and PHA; whereas, in piglets, there was no significant effect of treatments on lymphocyte response to PHA and ConA.

  13. Effect of birth weight and colostrum intake on mortality and performance of piglets after cross-fostering in sows of different parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, C V; Sbardella, P E; Bernardi, M L; Coutinho, M L; Vaz, I S; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of colostrum intake on mortality and growth performance of piglets until 42 days of age, taking into account the birth weight, and parity order of sows. Colostrum intake from birth to 24h after birth was estimated in 300 piglets each from primiparous and multiparous sows. The piglets were cross-fostered in 25 primiparous and 25 multiparous sows at 25.9±0.09 h after farrowing. The concentration of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) was determined in the sows after the end of farrowing and in the piglets before cross-fostering (24h after farrowing), at 10 and 20 days of age. For high birth weight piglets (HBW - >1.3-1.7 kg) the probability of death was low regardless of their colostrum intake. Intermediate birth weight (IBW - >1.2-1.3 kg) and low birth weight (LBW - 1.1-1.2 kg) piglets had the same probability of death compared to HBW piglets, when colostrum intake reached 200 and 250 g, respectively. The probability of low performance (colostrum intake. HBW piglets had higher weight at 14, 20, 28 and 42 days of age (PColostrum intake >250 g increased (Pcolostrum (P0.05). Piglets suckled by primiparous foster sows showed lower weight (Pcolostrum intake and serum IgG at 24 h after birth compared to surviving piglets, and lower values were also observed in piglets with low performance compared to high (>9.5 kg) performance piglets. There were no differences in serum IgG concentrations at 10 and 20 days of age (P>0.05) between high and low performance piglets. In conclusion, both colostrum intake and birth weight are important for survival and growth of suckling piglets. LBW and IBW piglets are more dependent on colostrum intake than HBW piglets to assure higher survival and better development up to 42 days of age. Piglets suckled by multiparous sows have better development than those suckled by primiparous sows.

  14. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    assigned to a formula based on either casein (n=11), whey (n=11) or soy (n=10) as the protein source (each 55 g/L), and equal amounts of fat, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus. Results & Conclusion: Despite efforts to sustain immuno-protection (sow serum and antibiotic injections), some piglets became......Summary:Background and aims: Bone-promoting effect of different proteins in early life, under immunocompromised conditions, is unknown. We investigated effects of milk- and plantderived proteins on bone development in immunocompromised piglets. Methods: Newborn, colostrum-deprived piglets were...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  15. An in vivo three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based averaged brain collection of the neonatal piglet (Sus scrofa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Conrad

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that morphology and perinatal growth of the piglet brain is similar to humans, use of the piglet as a translational animal model for neurodevelopmental studies is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be a powerful tool to study neurodevelopment in piglets, but many of the MRI resources have been produced for adult humans. Here, we present an average in vivo MRI-based atlas specific for the 4-week-old piglet. In addition, we have developed probabilistic tissue classification maps. These tools can be used with brain mapping software packages (e.g. SPM and FSL to aid in voxel-based morphometry and image analysis techniques. The atlas enables efficient study of neurodevelopment in a highly tractable translational animal with brain growth and development similar to humans.

  16. Factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage of parturition and piglet birth intervals in sows with uncomplicated, spontaneous farrowings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A J; van Rens, B T T M; van der Lende, T; Taverne, M A M

    2005-10-15

    Modern pig farming is still confronted with high perinatal piglet losses which are mainly contributed to factors associated with the progress of piglet expulsion. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify sow- and piglet factors affecting the duration of the expulsive stage of farrowing and piglet birth intervals in spontaneous farrowing sows originating from five different breeds. In total 211 litters were investigated. Breed affected duration of the expulsive stage significantly: the shortest duration was found in Large White x Meishan F2 crossbred litters and the longest duration in Dutch Landrace litters. No effect of parity on the duration of the expulsive stage was found. An increase in littersize (Pgestation length (Ppigs.

  17. Serosal Zn2+ inhibits 8-Br-cAMP stimulated chloride secretion in piglet small intestinal epithelium in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Dorthe; Sehested, Jakob; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2010-01-01

    . Piglets (n = 24) were weaned at 28 days of age and allocated at two dietary treatments (ZnO0 and ZnO2500) and at 5-6 days after weaning the piglets were slaughtered and small intestinal epithelium from each piglet was mounted into 8 Ussing chambers. The effect of 23 μM serosal Zn2+ on 8-Br-cAMP (8...... improved piglet performance and zinc status, but did not affect the in vitro results. Serosal Zn2+ reduced 8-Br-cAMP and 5-HT induced secretion. But FSK induced secretion was only reduced by serosal Zn2+ when the K+ channel blocker was present indicating interactions between 293B and Zn2+. These data...

  18. An in vivo three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based averaged brain collection of the neonatal piglet (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Matthew S; Sutton, Bradley P; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Due to the fact that morphology and perinatal growth of the piglet brain is similar to humans, use of the piglet as a translational animal model for neurodevelopmental studies is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a powerful tool to study neurodevelopment in piglets, but many of the MRI resources have been produced for adult humans. Here, we present an average in vivo MRI-based atlas specific for the 4-week-old piglet. In addition, we have developed probabilistic tissue classification maps. These tools can be used with brain mapping software packages (e.g. SPM and FSL) to aid in voxel-based morphometry and image analysis techniques. The atlas enables efficient study of neurodevelopment in a highly tractable translational animal with brain growth and development similar to humans.

  19. Encoding of situations in the vocal repertoire of piglets (Sus scrofa): a comparison of discrete and graded classifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tallet, Céline; Linhart, Pavel; Policht, Richard; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Šimeček, Petr; Kratinova, Petra; Špinka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    .... The division of the vocal repertoire of piglets into two call types has previously been used in many experimental studies into pig acoustic communication and the five call types correspond well...

  20. Impact of transmammary-delivered meloxicam on biomarkers of pain and distress in piglets after castration and tail docking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Bates

    Full Text Available To investigate a novel route for providing analgesia to processed piglets via transmammary drug delivery, meloxicam was administered orally to sows after farrowing. The objectives of the study were to demonstrate meloxicam transfer from sows to piglets via milk and to describe the analgesic effects in piglets after processing through assessment of pain biomarkers and infrared thermography (IRT. Ten sows received either meloxicam (30 mg/kg (n = 5 or whey protein (placebo (n = 5 in their daily feedings, starting four days after farrowing and continuing for three consecutive days. During this period, blood and milk samples were collected at 12-hour intervals. On Day 5 after farrowing, three boars and three gilts from each litter were castrated or sham castrated, tail docked, and administered an iron injection. Piglet blood samples were collected immediately before processing and at predetermined times over an 84-hour period. IRT images were captured at each piglet blood collection point. Plasma was tested to confirm meloxicam concentrations using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Meloxicam was detected in all piglets nursing on medicated sows at each time point, and the mean (± standard error of the mean meloxicam concentration at castration was 568.9±105.8 ng/mL. Furthermore, ex-vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 synthesis inhibition was greater in piglets from treated sows compared to controls (p = 0.0059. There was a time-by-treatment interaction for plasma cortisol (p = 0.0009, with meloxicam-treated piglets demonstrating lower cortisol concentrations than control piglets for 10 hours after castration. No differences in mean plasma substance P concentrations between treatment groups were observed (p = 0.67. Lower cranial skin temperatures on IRT were observed in placebo compared to meloxicam-treated piglets (p = 0.015. This study demonstrates the successful transfer of meloxicam from

  1. Impact of transmammary-delivered meloxicam on biomarkers of pain and distress in piglets after castration and tail docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jessica L; Karriker, Locke A; Stock, Matthew L; Pertzborn, Kelly M; Baldwin, Luke G; Wulf, Larry W; Lee, C J; Wang, Chong; Coetzee, Johann F

    2014-01-01

    To investigate a novel route for providing analgesia to processed piglets via transmammary drug delivery, meloxicam was administered orally to sows after farrowing. The objectives of the study were to demonstrate meloxicam transfer from sows to piglets via milk and to describe the analgesic effects in piglets after processing through assessment of pain biomarkers and infrared thermography (IRT). Ten sows received either meloxicam (30 mg/kg) (n = 5) or whey protein (placebo) (n = 5) in their daily feedings, starting four days after farrowing and continuing for three consecutive days. During this period, blood and milk samples were collected at 12-hour intervals. On Day 5 after farrowing, three boars and three gilts from each litter were castrated or sham castrated, tail docked, and administered an iron injection. Piglet blood samples were collected immediately before processing and at predetermined times over an 84-hour period. IRT images were captured at each piglet blood collection point. Plasma was tested to confirm meloxicam concentrations using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Meloxicam was detected in all piglets nursing on medicated sows at each time point, and the mean (± standard error of the mean) meloxicam concentration at castration was 568.9±105.8 ng/mL. Furthermore, ex-vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis inhibition was greater in piglets from treated sows compared to controls (p = 0.0059). There was a time-by-treatment interaction for plasma cortisol (p = 0.0009), with meloxicam-treated piglets demonstrating lower cortisol concentrations than control piglets for 10 hours after castration. No differences in mean plasma substance P concentrations between treatment groups were observed (p = 0.67). Lower cranial skin temperatures on IRT were observed in placebo compared to meloxicam-treated piglets (p = 0.015). This study demonstrates the successful transfer of meloxicam from sows to

  2. Non-anemic Iron Deficiency from Birth to Weaning Does Not Impair Growth or Memory in Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, Alexandra; van Laarhoven, Serana; van der Staay, Franz J.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Early iron deficiency is associated with impaired (cognitive) development, the severity of which depends on the timing and duration of the under-supply of iron. To design effective treatment and prevention strategies for iron deficiency in humans, suited animal models are needed. In an earlier study (Antonides et al., 2015b) we separated 10 pairs of piglets from their mothers within a few days after birth and reared one sibling with artificial iron-deficient (ID) and the other with balanced control milk until weaning. ID piglets grew slower and showed poorer reference memory (RM) performance than their controls in a spatial holeboard task, even weeks after iron repletion. One putative intervening factor in that study was pre-weaning maternal deprivation. In an attempt to refine the piglet iron-deficiency model, we assessed whether piglets reared by sows, but withheld iron supplementation, can serve as animal model of iron deficiency. As sow milk is inherently ID, piglets normally receive a prophylactic iron injection. Ten pairs of piglets were housed with foster sows until weaning (4 weeks). One sibling per pair was randomly assigned to the control group (receiving iron dextran injections: 40 mg iron per kilogram body mass on days 3 and 10), the other to the ID group. From weaning, all pigs were fed a balanced commercial diet. Blood samples were taken in week 1, 3.5, 6, and 12. Pre-weaning blood iron values of ID piglets were lower than those of controls, but recovered to normal values after weaning. Hemoglobin of ID piglets did not reach anemic values. Hematocrit and hemoglobin of ID animals did not decrease, and serum iron even increased pre-weaning, suggesting that the piglets had access to an external source of iron, e.g., spilled feed or feces of the foster sows. Growth, and spatial memory assessed in the holeboard from 10 to 16 weeks of age, was unaffected in ID pigs. We conclude that sow-raised piglets are not a suitable model for iron-deficiency induced

  3. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eAntonides

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency (ID is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life ID can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated long-term effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance and brain histology. Ten male sibling pairs of piglets were removed from the sow 4-6 days after birth. Ten piglets were given an iron dextran injection and were fed a control milk diet for 28 days (100 mg Fe/kg; their ten siblings were given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient milk diet (10 mg Fe/kg. Then, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190-240 mg Fe/kg. From 8 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term memory and reference (long-term memory (RM simultaneously. All piglets received 40-60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus. The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with acquisition RM performance for all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early ID leads to lasting cognitive deficits. The piglet as a model animal, tested in the holeboard, can be useful in future research for assessing long-term cognitive effects of early-life diets or diet

  4. Implementing drinking water feed additive strategies in post-weaning piglets, antibiotic reduction and performance impacts: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mesonero Escuredo, Juan Antonio; van der Horst, Yvonne; Carr, John; Maes, Dominiek

    2016-01-01

    Background Piglets at weaning suffer many stressors such as sudden change of feed, change in group composition and the end of lactogenic immunity. These stressors may cause poor growth performance. There is a need for alternatives to support piglets during the weaning period. Organic acids are known to have a positive effect on performance through reducing the pH and their antimicrobial action. Context & purpose The purpose was to study the effect of the inclusion of a free and buffered organ...

  5. Folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy affects the skeletal muscle transcriptome of piglets from a reciprocal cross.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    Full Text Available Folate deficiency (FD during pregnancy can cause fetal intrauterine growth restriction in pigs, of which the skeletal dysplasia is a major manifestation. Factors influencing muscle development are very important in the formation of porcine meat quality trait. However, the effect of folate deficiency on skeletal muscle development and its molecular mechanisms are unknown. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of maternal folate deficiency on the skeletal muscle transcriptome of piglets from a reciprocal cross, in which full-sibling Landrace (LR and full-sibling Chinese local breed Laiwu (LW pigs were used for reciprocal cross matings, and sows were fed either a folate deficient or a normal diet during early-mid gestation. In addition, the difference in the responsiveness of the piglets to folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy between reciprocal cross groups was investigated. Longissimus dorsi (LD muscle samples were collected from newborn piglets and a 4 × 44K Agilent porcine oligo microarray was used for transcriptome analysis of porcine LD muscle. The results showed that folate deficiency during early-mid pregnancy affected piglet body weight, LD muscle fiber number and content of intramuscular triglyceride. The microarray results indicated that 3154 genes were differentially expressed between folate deficient and normal piglets from the LR♂ × LW♀ cross, and 3885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the ones from the LW♂ × LR♀ cross. From functional analyses, sow folate deficiency affected almost all biological processes in the progeny. Lipid metabolism-related genes and associated metabolic pathways were regulated extensively by folate deficiency, especially in LR♂ × LW♀ cross piglets. Most of the genes that are regulated by folate deficiency in the LD muscle of piglets were different between LR♂ × LW♀ and LW♂ × LR♀ crosses, suggesting some epigenetic effects of FD exist in genes underlying

  6. Use of modified halloysite nanotubes in the feed reduces the toxic effects of zearalenone on sow reproduction and piglet development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Rui; Liu, Min; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Cheng, Baojing

    2015-03-15

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a blend of corn contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on the physical condition of pregnant and suckling sows and the development of their offspring. Halloysite nanotubes modified using the surfactant, stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, were tested for its efficacy in protecting against the detrimental effects of zearalenone (ZEN) exposure. A total of 18 pregnant second parity Yorkshire sows (six per treatment) were fed control diet, contaminated grain diet (ZEN, 2.77 mg/kg), and contaminated grain + 1% modified halloysite nanotube (MHNT) diet (ZEN, 2.76 mg/kg) from 35 to 70 days in pregnancy (DIP), which is the critical period in development of fetuses. The results show that consumption of ZEN led to a reduction in sow's mass gain during 35 to 70 DIP and mass at 110 DIP, backfat at 70 DIP and weaning, placenta weight at 70 DIP and farrowing, the lactation average daily feed intake, and an increase in the weight of ovary at 70 DIP of sows (P piglets born, the litter birth weight, the average BW of piglet at birth, the number of piglets born alive, the born alive litter weight, and born alive piglet BW at farrowing were also decreased by ZEN exposure (P piglet uterus at weaning (P piglets born, the litter birth weight, the born alive piglet BW at farrowing, the average piglet BW, the litter weaned weight, and the average day gain at weaning were increased by adding 1% MHNTs, compared with the ZEN-treated group (P < 0.05). The MHNTs significantly reduced the damage to the fat in the colostrum and the protein and lactose in the milk induced by the ZEN-contaminated feed (P < 0.05). Modified halloysite nanotubes could be used as adsorbent in the feed to reduce the toxic effects of ZEN.

  7. Relationships between day one piglet serum immunoglobulin immunocrit and subsequent growth, puberty attainment, litter size, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, J L; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A; Nonneman, D J; Lents, C A

    2015-06-01

    Colostrum affects gut and uterine gland development in the neonatal piglet, suggesting that subsequent growth and reproductive performance may be affected. Measuring immunoglobulin in piglet serum using the immunoglobulin immunocrit on Day 1 of age provides a simple, inexpensive indication of the amount of colostrum acquired by the piglet in the first day of life. Relationships between serum immunoglobulin immunocrit measures and subsequent growth rates, age at puberty, incidence of puberty failure, litter size, and lactation performance were examined in pigs born and subsequently farrowing between 2009 and 2013. Immunoglobulin immunocrit measures were collected on 16,762 piglets on Day 1 of age. Of these piglets, BW measurements were available from 15,324 (7,684 males and 7,640 females) piglets at a range of ages from weaning to 200 d of age, allowing an assessment of growth rates. Age at puberty was recorded from a subset of 2,857 of the females after observing them for estrous behavior from approximately 170 to 250 d of age. To examine relationships between d 1 immunocrit and puberty failure, gilts with immunocrit measures that failed to reach puberty (n = 119) were matched with littermate gilts with immunocrit measures that achieved puberty (n = 167). Similarly, number born alive was collected on a subset (n = 799) of females from first to fourth parities for which d 1 immunocrits were measured on them as neonates. Finally, d 1 immunocrit effect on adult lactational competence was assessed by measuring litter average (offspring of 440 females) and litter average piglet preweaning growth rate (offspring of 774 females) in females where d 1 immunocrits were available from them as neonates. Results indicated that low d 1 immunocrits were subsequently associated with reduced growth (P piglets would result in beneficial changes in production efficiency, particularly for gilts destined for the breeding herd. It also suggests that the immunoglobulin immunocrit can be

  8. Effects of Early Intervention with Sodium Butyrate on Gut Microbiota and the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in Neonatal Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jumei; Chen, Xue; Yu, Shuiqing; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate in the gut of animals has potential properties including regulating the innate immune, modulating the lipid metabolism, and protecting gut healthy. So far, only limited information on the impact of butyrate on the neonatal is available. This study aimed to investigate effects of oral administration of sodium butyrate (SB) on gut microbiota and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of crossbred newborn piglets were randomly allocated to the SB and control (CO) groups, each group consisted of five litters (replicates). Piglets in the SB group were orally administrated with 7 to 13 ml sodium butyrate solution (150 mmol/l) per day from the age of 1 to 7 days, respectively; piglets in the CO group were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. On days 8 and 21 (of age), gut digesta and tissues were collected for the analysis of microbiota, butyrate concentration and gene expression of inflammatory cytokine. Results showed that there was no difference in the butyrate concentration in the gut of piglets on days 8 and 21 between two groups. Real-time PCR assay showed that SB had no effect on the numbers of total bacteria in the stomach, ileum, and colon. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that SB increased the richness in the stomach and colon, and the diversity of colonic microbiota on day 8 (P piglets on day 8 (P piglets with low impact on intestinal microbial structure, which suggests oral administration of SB may have a benefit role in the health of neonatal piglets. PMID:27611998

  9. Early postnatal respiratory viral infection alters hippocampal neurogenesis, cell fate, and neuron morphology in the neonatal piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Matthew S; Harasim, Samantha; Rhodes, Justin S; Van Alstine, William G; Johnson, Rodney W

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory viral infections are common during the neonatal period in humans, but little is known about how early-life infection impacts brain development. The current study used a neonatal piglet model as piglets have a gyrencephalic brain with growth and development similar to human infants. Piglets were inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to evaluate how chronic neuroinflammation affects hippocampal neurogenesis and neuron morphology. Piglets in the neurogenesis study received one bromodeoxyuridine injection on postnatal day (PD) 7 and then were inoculated with PRRSV. Piglets were sacrificed at PD 28 and the number of BrdU+ cells and cell fate were quantified in the dentate gyrus. PRRSV piglets showed a 24% reduction in the number of newly divided cells forming neurons. Approximately 15% of newly divided cells formed microglia, but this was not affected by sex or PRRSV. Additionally, there was a sexual dimorphism of new cell survival in the dentate gyrus where males had more cells than females, and PRRSV infection caused a decreased survival in males only. Golgi impregnation was used to characterize dentate granule cell morphology. Sholl analysis revealed that PRRSV caused a change in inner granule cell morphology where the first branch point was extended further from the cell body. Males had more complex dendritic arbors than females in the outer granule cell layer, but this was not affected by PRRSV. There were no changes to dendritic spine density or morphology distribution. These findings suggest that early-life viral infection can impact brain development.

  10. Age-related differences in mucosal barrier function and morphology of the small intestine in low and normal birth weight piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygelen, V; De Vos, M; Willemen, S; Fransen, E; Casteleyn, C; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that the mucosal maturation of the small intestine is altered in low birth weight piglets, pairs of naturally suckled low birth weight (LBW, n = 20) and normal birth weight (NBW, n = 20) littermate piglets were selected and sampled after 0, 3, 10, and 28 d of suckling. In vivo intestinal permeability was evaluated via a lactulose-mannitol absorption test. Other indirect measurements for mucosal barrier functioning included sampling for histology and immunohistochemistry (intestinal trefoil factor [ITF]), measuring intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity, and immunoblotting for occludin, caspase-3, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The lactulose-mannitol ratio did not differ between NBW and LBW piglets, but a significant increase in this ratio was observed in 28-d-old piglets (P = 0.001). Small intestinal villus height did not differ with age (P = 0.02) or birth weight (P = 0.20). In contrast, villus width (P = 0.02) and crypt depth (P small intestine was higher in newborn piglets compared to the older piglets. No significant differences in cell proliferation in the small intestine was observed (P = 0.47) between NBW and LBW piglets; the highest proliferation was seen in piglets of 28 d of age (P = 0.01). Newborn piglets had significantly fewer apoptotic cells, whereas more apoptotic cells were seen in piglets of 10 d of age (P intestinal barrier function investigated in this study, suggesting that the mucosal barrier function is not altered in LBW piglets. Nevertheless, these results confirm that the mucosal barrier function in the small intestine of piglets alters with age.

  11. Transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae among weaned piglets on endemically infected farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, T J; Bouma, A; van den Broek, J; van Nes, A; Daemen, A J J M; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A; Klinkenberg, D

    2014-11-01

    Clinical outbreaks due to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae occur recurrently, despite the wide-scale use of antimicrobials or vaccination. Therefore, new approaches for the prevention and control of these outbreaks are necessary. For the development of alternative measures, more insight into the transmission of the bacterium on farms is necessary. The aim of this cohort study was to quantify transmission of A. pleuropneumoniae amongst weaned piglets on farms. We investigated three possible transmission routes: (i) indirect transmission by infected piglets within the same compartment, (ii) transmission by infected pigs in adjacent pens and (iii) transmission by direct contact within pens. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of independent litter characteristics on the probability of infection. Two farms participated in our study. Serum and tonsil brush samples were collected from sows pre-farrowing. Serum was analysed for antibodies against Apx toxins and Omp. Subsequently, tonsil brush samples were collected from all piglets from these dams (N=542) in three cohorts, 3 days before weaning and 6 weeks later. Tonsil samples were analysed by qPCR for the presence of the apxIVA gene of A. pleuropneumoniae. Before weaning, 25% of the piglets tested positive; 6 weeks later 47% tested positive. Regression and stochastic transmission models were used to assess the contribution of each of the three transmission routes and to estimate transmission rates. Transmission between piglets in adjacent pens did not differ significantly from that between non-adjacent pens. The transmission rate across pens was estimated to be 0.0058 day(-1) (95% CI: 0.0030-0.010), whereas the transmission rate within pens was ten times higher 0.059 day(-1) (95% CI: 0.048-0.072). Subsequently, the effects of parity and serological response of the dam and litter age at weaning on the probability of infection of pigs were evaluated by including these into the regression model. A higher dam Apx

  12. The olfactory bulb in newborn piglet is a reservoir of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee J Martin

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb (OB periventricular zone is an extension of the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ and thus is a source of neuroprogenitor cells and neural stem cells. While considerable information is available on the SVZ-OB neural stem cell (NSC/neuroprogenitor cell (NPC niche in rodents, less work has been done on this system in large animals. The newborn piglet is used as a preclinical translational model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, but information about the endogenous sources of NSCs/NPCs in piglet is needed to implement endogenous or autologous cell-based therapies in this model. We characterized NSC/NPC niches in piglet forebrain and OB-SVZ using western blotting, histological, and cell culture methods. Immunoblotting revealed nestin, a NSC/NPC marker, in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ in newborn piglet. Several progenitor or newborn neuron markers, including Dlx2, musashi, doublecortin, and polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule were also detected in OB-SVZ by immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of nestin, musashi, and doublecortin in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU labeling showed that the forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ accumulate newly replicated cells. BrdU-positive cells were immunolabeled for astroglial, oligodendroglial, and neuronal markers. A lateral migratory pathway for newly born neuron migration to primary olfactory cortex was revealed by BrdU labeling and co-labeling for doublecortin and class III β tubulin. Isolated and cultured forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ cells from newborn piglet had the capacity to generate numerous neurospheres. Single cell clonal analysis of neurospheres revealed the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Neurosphere-derived cells differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes and were amenable to permanent genetic tagging with lentivirus encoding green fluorescent protein. We conclude that the piglet OB-SVZ is a reservoir of NSCs

  13. Abrasions and lameness in piglets born in different farrowing systems with different types of floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Sigbrit

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the floor is essential to the welfare of piglets as abrasions often are recorded in newborn piglets, and such lesions may lead to lameness. Apart from animal suffering, lameness contributes to losses in form of dead piglets, decreased growth, and increased use of antibiotics and manual labour. Methods In a herd with three different farrowing systems, 37 litters (390 piglets were studied until the age of 3 weeks with respect to presence of skin wounds and abrasions. Lameness was registered until the age of 7 weeks. Eight lame piglets were sacrificed before medical treatment and subjected to necropsy including histopathological and microbiological examinations. Isolates of streptococci, staphylococci and E. coli were tested with respect to antimicrobial resistance. Mastitis was observed in ten sows. Results The most severe abrasions at carpus and soles were seen in the system with a new solid concrete floor with a slatted floor over the dunging area. The lowest magnitude was observed in the deep litter system with peat. Sole bruising was more common in the systems with concrete floor compared to the deep litter system with peat, and the differce in prevalence was significant at all examination days. The lesions decreased with time and about 75% of the treatments for lameness were performed during the first three weeks of life. The overall prevalence of lameness was highest in the system with new solid concrete floor with a slatted floor over the dunging area (9.4% followed by the old solid concrete floor (7.5%. A lower (p Conclusion There were large differences in the prevalence of abrasions and lameness between the floor types. The deep litter system with peat provided a soft and good floor for piglets. The overall prevalence of lameness was only diagnosed in every fourth litter in that system compared to in every second litter in the systems with concrete floor. In contrast, the incidence of mastitis in the

  14. Effect of dietary phytic acid on performance and nutrient uptake in the small intestine of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Weihrauch, D; Nyachoti, C M

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted with piglets to determine the effect of dietary phytic acid supplementation on performance, electrophysiological properties of jejunum mounted in Ussing chambers, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) protein expression in jejunum, and plasma glucose and Na concentrations. Sixteen piglets with an average initial BW of 7.40 ± 0.36 kg were randomly assigned to 2 experimental diets with 8 piglets per diet. The diets were casein-cornstarch-based and were either unsupplemented or supplemented with 2% phytic acid (as Na phytate). The basal diet was formulated to meet the recommendation of NRC (1998) for energy, AA, minerals, and vitamins for piglets. The experiment lasted for 21 d, and at the end, BW gain and feed consumption were determined, and blood samples were collected for determination of plasma glucose and Na concentrations. The piglets were then euthanized to determine jejunal electrophysiological properties (transmural potential difference and short-circuit current) and SGLT1 protein expression. Phytic acid supplementation reduced ADG (P = 0.002), ADFI (P = 0.017), and G:F (P = 0.001) from 316.1 to 198.2 g, 437.4 to 360.3 g, and 0.721 to 0.539 g/g, respectively. Phytic acid supplementation also tended to reduce (P = 0.088) potential difference (-3.80 vs. -2.23 mV) and reduced (P = 0.023) short-circuit current from 8.07 to 0.1 μA/cm(2). However, phytic acid supplementation did not affect SGLT1 protein, and blood plasma glucose and Na concentrations. In conclusion, dietary phytic acid reduced growth performance and transmural short-circuit current in the jejunum of piglets. The reduced transmural short-circuit current in the jejunum by phytic acid implies reduced active Na transport in the jejunum by the phytic acid. Therefore, it seems that dietary phytic acid reduces growth performance of pigs partly through reduced capacity of the small intestine to absorb Na.

  15. The olfactory bulb in newborn piglet is a reservoir of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lee J; Katzenelson, Alyssa; Koehler, Raymond C; Chang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) periventricular zone is an extension of the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and thus is a source of neuroprogenitor cells and neural stem cells. While considerable information is available on the SVZ-OB neural stem cell (NSC)/neuroprogenitor cell (NPC) niche in rodents, less work has been done on this system in large animals. The newborn piglet is used as a preclinical translational model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, but information about the endogenous sources of NSCs/NPCs in piglet is needed to implement endogenous or autologous cell-based therapies in this model. We characterized NSC/NPC niches in piglet forebrain and OB-SVZ using western blotting, histological, and cell culture methods. Immunoblotting revealed nestin, a NSC/NPC marker, in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ in newborn piglet. Several progenitor or newborn neuron markers, including Dlx2, musashi, doublecortin, and polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule were also detected in OB-SVZ by immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of nestin, musashi, and doublecortin in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling showed that the forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ accumulate newly replicated cells. BrdU-positive cells were immunolabeled for astroglial, oligodendroglial, and neuronal markers. A lateral migratory pathway for newly born neuron migration to primary olfactory cortex was revealed by BrdU labeling and co-labeling for doublecortin and class III β tubulin. Isolated and cultured forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ cells from newborn piglet had the capacity to generate numerous neurospheres. Single cell clonal analysis of neurospheres revealed the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Neurosphere-derived cells differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes and were amenable to permanent genetic tagging with lentivirus encoding green fluorescent protein. We conclude that the piglet OB-SVZ is a reservoir of NSCs and NPCs suitable

  16. Dietary fat preference and effects on performance of piglets at weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Chee Weng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was to evaluate the interplay of dietary lipid sources and feeding regime in the transition from sow milk to solid food of abruptly weaned piglets. Methods Soon after weaning, 144 piglets were selected and were trained over a 15 day period to experience gradually reducing dietary fat content from 12% to 6% for lard (L, soybean oil (S, and coconut oil (C and their feeding behavior and diet preference then tested in a behavior observation experiment. Another 324 weaned piglets were used in three consecutive feeding experiments to measure the effect of different dietary fats on performance and feed choice in the four weeks after abrupt weaning. The lipid sources were used as supplements in a 3% crude fat corn/soya basal diet, with 6% of each being included to form diets 9C, 9S, and 9L respectively, and their effects on performance measured. Combinations of these diets were then further compared in fixed blends or free choice selection experiments. Results Piglets pre-trained to experience reducing lipid inclusion showed different subsequent preferences according to lipid source, with a preference for lard at 9%, soybean oil at 3%, and coconut oil at 6% inclusion rate (p<0.001. Following abrupt weaning, whilst after 4 weeks those fed 9C had the heaviest body weights (18.13 kg, p = 0.006. Piglets fed a fixed 1:1 blend of 9C+9S had a poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR = 1.80 than those fed a blend of 9C+9L (FCR = 1.4. The 9C and 9L combination groups showed better performance in both fixed blend and free choice feeding regimes. Conclusion After abrupt weaning, they still have dependence on high oleic acid lipids as found in sow milk. A feeding regime offering free choice combination of lipids might give the possibility for piglets to cope better with the transition at weaning, but further research is needed.

  17. Effect of within-litter birth weight variation on piglet survival and pre-weaning weight gain in a commercial herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norest Marandu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are several factors that affect piglet survival and this has a bearing on sow productivity. Ten variables that influence pre-weaning vitality were analysed using records from the Pig Industry Board, Zimbabwe. These included individual piglet birth weight, piglet origin (nursed in original litter or fostered, sex, relative birth weight expressed as standard deviation units, sow parity, total number of piglets born, year and month of farrowing, within-litter variability and the presence of stillborn or mummified littermates. The main factors that influenced piglet mortality were fostering, parity and within-litter variability especially the weight of the individual piglet relative to the average of the litter (P<0.05. Presence of a mummified or stillborn littermate, which could be a proxy for unfavourable uterine environment or trauma during the birth process, did not influence pre-weaning mortality. Variability within a litter and the deviation of the weight of an individual piglet from the litter mean, influenced survival to weaning. It is, therefore, advisable for breeders to include uniformity within the litter as a selection criterion. The recording of various variables by farmers seems to be a useful management practice to identify piglets at risk so as to establish palliative measures. Further, farmers should know which litters and which piglets within a litter are at risk and require more attention.

  18. Minimal Enteral Nutrition to Improve Adaptation After Intestinal Resection in Piglets and Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Qvist, Niels; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-01-01

    be well tolerated in patients with short bowel syndrome. METHODS: In experiment 1, 3-day-old piglets with 50% distal small intestinal resection were fed parenteral nutrition (PN, n = 10) or PN plus MEN given as either colostrum (PN-COL, n = 5) or formula (PN-FORM, n = 9) for 7 days. Intestinal nutrient......BACKGROUND: Minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) may induce a diet-dependent stimulation of gut adaptation following intestinal resection. Bovine colostrum is rich in growth factors, and we hypothesized that MEN with colostrum would stimulate intestinal adaptation, compared with formula, and would......, enteral colostrum supplementation was well tolerated, and no infants developed clinical signs of cow's milk allergy. CONCLUSION: Minimal enteral nutrition feeding with bovine colostrum and formula induced similar intestinal adaptation after resection in piglets. Colostrum was well tolerated by newly...

  19. Variation of Serum Protein Level in Xiang Piglets at Different Month of Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChiYujie; GaoXuejung; 等

    1995-01-01

    Usual clinieal methods were used to determine the concentrations of serum protein,albumin and globulin in Xiang piglets from the lst month to the 6th month of age.Thirteen piglets(eight males and five females)born is Spring were selected from the Livestock Experimental Station of NEAU.The results showed that the serum protein level was different at different month of age.The lowest level was found at the 1st month of age,and the highest at the 4th month of age.The difference in serum protein concentration was significant between different months of age.There was ,however,no significant difference between sexes at the same month of age.

  20. Effect of ketoprofen on pre-weaning piglet mortality on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homedes, Josep; Salichs, Marta; Sabaté, David; Sust, Mariano; Fabre, Ramon

    2014-09-01

    The effect of ketoprofen on pre-weaning piglet mortality was evaluated in a large-scale study on commercial farms. Sows (n= 1486) from 15 farms were included. Half of the sows received 3 mg/kg ketoprofen in a single intramuscular administration within 12 h after farrowing. The other half remained untreated. Pre-weaning mortality was lower in the ketoprofen-treated group than in the control group (8.43% vs. 10.24%, respectively; P= 0.010). The major impact of ketoprofen on mortality was seen between days 2 and 7 postpartum (mortality rates of 2.75% vs. 4.02% for treated and control groups, respectively; P= 0.001). In addition, ketoprofen treatment was associated with a higher number of piglets weaned per litter than when no treatment was given (10.0 vs. 9.84, respectively; P= 0.012).

  1. Occurrence and identification of yeast species in fermented liquid feed for piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Bjørklund, Marina Kryger; Canibe, Nuria;

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and identity of yeast species in fermented liquid feed (FLF) used for feeding piglets. In total, 40 different Danish farms were included in the analysis. The preparation and composition of FLF was found to be very heteroge......The major objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and identity of yeast species in fermented liquid feed (FLF) used for feeding piglets. In total, 40 different Danish farms were included in the analysis. The preparation and composition of FLF was found to be very...... typing techniques. The predominant yeast species in the FLF samples were found to be Candida milleri (58.4%), Kazachstania exigua (17.5%), Candida pararugosa (6.40%) and Kazachstania bulderi (5.09%). No clear separation between isolates of C. milleri and Candida humilis could be obtained based...

  2. Findings of bacterial microflora in piglets infected with conventional swine plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.

  3. Social Support Modulates Stress-Related Gene Expression in Various Brain Regions of Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitz, Ellen; Hameister, Theresa; Tuchscherer, Armin; Tuchscherer, Margret; Puppe, Birger

    2016-01-01

    The presence of an affiliative conspecific may alleviate an individual’s stress response in threatening conditions. However, the mechanisms and neural circuitry underlying the process of social buffering have not yet been elucidated. Using the domestic pig as an animal model, we examined the effect of a 4-h maternal and littermate deprivation on stress hormones and on mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ß-HSD) types 1 and 2 and the immediate early gene c-fos in various brain regions of 7-, 21- and 35-day old piglets. The deprivation occurred either alone or with a familiar or unfamiliar age-matched piglet. Compared to piglets deprived alone, the presence of a conspecific animal significantly reduced free plasma cortisol concentrations and altered the MR/GR balance and 11ß-HSD2 and c-fos mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala and hypothalamus, but not in the hippocampus. The alterations in brain mRNA expression were particularly found in 21- or 35-day old piglets, which may reflect the species-specific postnatal ontogeny of the investigated brain regions. The buffering effects of social support were most pronounced in the amygdala, indicating its significance both for the assessment of social conspecifics as biologically relevant stimuli and for the processing of emotional states. In conclusion, the present findings provide further evidence for the importance of the cortico-limbic network underlying the abilities of individuals to cope with social stress and strongly emphasize the benefits of social partners in livestock with respect to positive welfare and health. PMID:27965550

  4. Early-life environmental variation affects intestinal microbiota and immune development in new-born piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirkjan Schokker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early-life environmental variation affects gut microbial colonization and immune competence development; however, the timing and additional specifics of these processes are unknown. The impact of early-life environmental variations, as experienced under real life circumstances, on gut microbial colonization and immune development has not been studied extensively so far. We designed a study to investigate environmental variation, experienced early after birth, to gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate effects of early-life environmental changes, the piglets of 16 piglet litters were divided into 3 groups per litter and experimentally treated on day 4 after birth. During the course of the experiment, the piglets were kept with their mother sow. Group 1 was not treated, group 2 was treated with an antibiotic, and group 3 was treated with an antibiotic and simultaneously exposed to several routine, but stressful management procedures, including docking, clipping and weighing. Thereafter, treatment effects were measured at day 8 after birth in 16 piglets per treatment group by community-scale analysis of gut microbiota and genome-wide intestinal transcriptome profiling. We observed that the applied antibiotic treatment affected the composition and diversity of gut microbiota and reduced the expression of a large number of immune-related processes. The effect of management procedures on top of the use of an antibiotic was limited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide direct evidence that different early-life conditions, specifically focusing on antibiotic treatment and exposure to stress, affect gut microbial colonization and intestinal immune development. This reinforces the notion that the early phase of life is critical for intestinal immune development, also under regular production circumstances.

  5. Neutralized semi-purified glycerin in pre-starting piglet feeding (6 To 15 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marcela Diaz-Huepa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value of neutralized semi-purified glycerin (NSPG and to evaluate the performance of pre-starting piglets (6-15 kg fed on diets containing increasing levels of NSPG. In Experiment I, a digestibility trial with 30 barrows (11.80 ± 5.12 kg live weight was conducted, in which they were allotted in a randomized block design. Replacement levels of the basal diet by NSPG were 3, 6, 9, and 12%. The values (as-fed-base of digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME of NSPG were 3535 and 3279 kcal/kg, respectively. In Experiment II, 135 piglets, weaned at 21 days of age (6.85 ± 1.28 to 15.04 ± 2.06 kg, were allotted in a randomized-block design. Treatments consisted of five diets (3, 6, 9, and 12% NSPG as well as a control diet with 0% of NSPG, with nine replications, and three piglets per experimental unit. The results show that, in the pre-starting I (6-10 kg phase, adding NSPG promoted a linear improvement in the average daily gain (ADG and the feed-to-gain ratio (F:G. For the total period (6-15 kg, only linear improvements (P ? 0.05 to ADG were observed. The plasma variables were not influenced (P ? 0.05 by the inclusion of NSPG, as it remained within the biological range of the species. The results suggest that up to 12% NSPG can be included in the diets of piglets (6-15 kg without impairing the plasmatic variables, performance, and economic feasibility.

  6. Nephropathy and hepatopathy in weaned piglets provoked by natural ochratoxin A and involved mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheqian; Gan, Fang; Xue, Hongxia; Liu, Yunhuan; Huang, Da; Khan, Alam Zeb; Chen, Xingxiang; Huang, Kehe

    2016-04-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination is a worldwide problem in pig industry. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the toxicity of natural OTA in weaned piglets and to further explore the underlying mechanisms. Totally, 36 crossbred ([Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) piglets were randomly divided into 3 groups (three replicates per group, 4 piglets per replicate), and fed a basal diet (Con group) and basal diets added with 0.4 mg (OTA-L group) or 0.8 mg OTA/kg (OTA-H group), respectively for 42 days. The results showed that growth performance was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in OTA added groups compared with Con group. OTA concentration was relatively high in serum and OTA concentration in kidney was higher than in liver, respectively. AST, creatinine and urea in serum of OTA added groups were significantly increased (P<0.05), while glucose, total protein, albumin and globulin in serum of OTA added groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05) compared with Con group. Degenerative changes were observed in the epithelial cells of proximal tubules and in hepatocytes of OTA added groups. Antioxidant capacities in blood of OTA added groups and in kidney of OTA-H group were significantly decreased (P<0.05) compared with Con group. The mRNA expressions of bcl-2 were up-regulated, mRNA expressions of bax were down-regulated and the ratio of bcl-2 and bax was increased in kidney and liver of OTA added groups compared with Con group. In conclusion, OTA could reduce antioxidant capacity and suppress apoptosis in tissues and cause degenerative changes in the epithelial cells in proximal tubules and hepatic cells, which may have a negative effect on the growth performance of piglets.

  7. Whole Blood Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression Differences between Dapulian and Landrace Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jiaqing; Yang, Dandan; Chen, Wei; Li, Chuanhao; Wang, Yandong; Zeng, Yongqing; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    There is little genomic information regarding gene expression differences at the whole blood transcriptome level of different pig breeds at the neonatal stage. To solve this, we characterized differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the whole blood of Dapulian (DPL) and Landrace piglets using RNA-seq (RNA-sequencing) technology. In this study, 83 DEGs were identified between the two breeds. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses identified immun...

  8. Evaluation of methods of rapid mass killing of segregated early weaned piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Terry L.; Steele, Gregory G.; Wamnes, Steinar; Green, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The operational logistics of mass killing of healthy, surplus piglets by manual blunt force trauma, controlled blunt force trauma, intraperitoneal injection of barbiturate, and free bullet were recorded. Objective performance variables evaluated were, speed of application, human resource and input cost, animal restraint required, and failure rate. Subjective evaluation of esthetics and difficulty of application indicated manual blunt force trauma is an unacceptable technique. Under field cond...

  9. Evaluation of virulent and live Shigella sonnei vaccine candidates in a gnotobiotic piglet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwang-Il; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Barnoy, Shoshana; Tzipori, Saul

    2013-08-20

    Newborn gnotobiotic (GB) piglets given virulent Shigella orally develop many of the clinical symptoms and gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations that mimic human shigellosis. Shigella sonnei virulent strain Moseley, a mutant ShET2-1,2, lacking enterotoxin SenA and its paralog SenB, and vaccine candidates WRSS1 and WRSs3 were evaluated in this model for rates of diarrhea, colonization and other GI symptoms and pathology. Moseley-infected piglets developed diarrhea from 1 to 7 days, with the highest rates seen on days 2-4 after inoculation. In contrast, WRSs3-infected piglets did not have diarrhea over the entire experimental period. Compared to the Moseley group, lower diarrheal rates were observed in the double enterotoxin mutant and significantly lower in the WRSS1 group. Moseley infection also caused marked mucosal damage in the GI tissues at PID1 to PID8, and induced predominantly proinflammatory cytokine secretion. IL-8 and to a lesser extent IL-6 and IL-1β were observed early after inoculation and IL-12 secretion could be measured till late in infection. The ShET2-1,2 mutant, WRSS1 and WRSs3 also colonized the GI tract in a manner similar to Moseley; however, both vaccine candidates developed milder histopathological indices and cytokine responses. WRSs3-infected animals showed the least pathology. Furthermore, unlike the other strains, WRSs3 was rarely detected in organs outside the gastrointestinal tract. These results support the development of the GB piglet model as a sensitive in vivo oral model for the evaluation of virulence of different Shigella strains which could be applied to other oral vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of Alpha-Ketoglutarate on Glutamine Metabolism in Piglet Enterocytes in Vivo and in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liuqin; Li, Huan; Huang, Niu; Tian, Junquan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xihong; Yao, Kang; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-04-01

    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) plays a vital part in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and is a key intermediate in the oxidation of L-glutamine (Gln). The study was to evaluate effects of AKG on Gln metabolism in vivo and in vitro. A total of twenty-one piglets were weaned at 28 days with a mean body weight (BW) of 6.0 ± 0.2 kg, and randomly divided into 3 groups: corn soybean meal based diet (CON group); the basal diet with 1% alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG treatment group); and the basal diet with 1% L-glutamine (GLN treatment group). Intestinal porcine epithelial cells-1 (IPEC-1) were incubated to investigate effects of 0.5, 2, and 3 mM AKG addition on Gln metabolism. Our results showed that there were no differences (P > 0.05) among the 3 treatments in initial BW, final BW, and average daily feed intake. However, average daily gain (P = 0.013) and gain:feed (P = 0.041) of the AKG group were greater than those of the other two groups. In comparison with the CON group, the AKG and GLN groups exhibited an improvement in villus length, mucosal thickness, and crypt depth in the jejunum of piglets. Serum concentrations of Asp, Glu, Val, Ile, Tyr, Phe, Lys, and Arg in the piglets fed the 1% AKG or Gln diet were lower than those in the CON group. Compared with the CON group, the mRNA expression of jejunal and ileal amino acid (AA) transporters in the AKG and GLN groups were significantly increased (P piglet enterocytes and enhance the utilization of AA.

  11. Intestinal epithelial apoptosis initiates gut mucosal injury during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the newborn piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MohanKumar, Krishnan; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; McIlwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Kurundkar, Ashish R; Kelly, David R; Garzon, Steven A; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2014-02-01

    Neonates and young infants exposed to extracorporeal circulation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and cardiopulmonary bypass are at risk of developing a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with multi-organ dysfunction. We used a piglet model of ECMO to investigate the hypothesis that epithelial apoptosis is an early event that precedes villous damage during ECMO-related bowel injury. Healthy 3-week-old piglets were subjected to ECMO for up to 8 h. Epithelial apoptosis was measured in histopathological analysis, nuclear imaging, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Intestinal mast cells were isolated by fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. Cleaved caspase-8, caspase-9, phospho-p38 MAPK, and fas ligand expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry, western blots, and reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR. Piglet ECMO was associated with increased gut epithelial apoptosis. Extensive apoptotic changes were noted on villus tips and in scattered crypt cells after 2 h of ECMO. After 8 h, the villi were denuded and apoptotic changes were evident in a majority of crypt cells. Increased circulating I-FABP levels, a marker of gut epithelial injury, showed that epithelial injury occurred during ECMO. We detected increased cleaved caspase-8, but not cleaved caspase-9, in epithelial cells indicating that the extrinsic apoptotic pathway was active. ECMO was associated with increased fas ligand expression in intestinal mast cells, which was induced through activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. We conclude that epithelial apoptosis is an early event that initiates gut mucosal injury in a piglet model of ECMO.

  12. Energy consumption and energy saving potentials in piglet production; Energieverbrauch und energetische Einsparpotenziale in der Ferkelerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiber, Josef; Neser, Stefan [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LFL), Freising (DE). Inst. fuer Landtechnik und Tierhaltung (ILT)

    2010-07-01

    For agricultural farms, a considerable share of variable costs is due to the energy consumption for agricultural production processes. In particular, piglet production and nursery have a high thermal and electric energy demand. For the planning and the redevelopment of pig housing systems, a good knowledge of the energy demand of different consumers is of great importance. With this knowledge, it is possible to derive measures for improving energy efficiency and reducing energy consumption. (orig.)

  13. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids on cellular immune response of piglets after cyclosporin A injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y X; Zhu, K Y; Liu, Y L; Jiang, D F

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the cellular immune response of piglets after cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment. The experimental study had a 2×2 factorial design, and the main factors consisted of diets (0% or 2% CLA) and immunosuppression treatments (CsA or saline injection). CsA injection significantly increased feed : gain (F : G) of piglets (P<0.05); however, dietary CLA significantly decreased F : G of piglets (P<0.05). Dietary CLA partly ameliorated the deterioration of the feed conversion rate caused by CsA treatment (P<0.01). CsA treatment significantly decreased the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the thymus (P<0.01). Dietary CLA increased the percentages of CD4+ CD8+ double-positive and CD8+ single-positive T lymphocytes in the thymus (P<0.05), and had the trend to inhibit the decrease of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the thymus after CsA injection (P=0.07). CsA treatment significantly depleted the peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (P<0.01). Dietary CLA significantly increased the number of peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production (P<0.05), and inhibited the decreases of peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes counts (P<0.01) as well as IL-2 production (P<0.05) after CsA treatment. Dietary CLA partly rescued the decrease of lymphocyte proliferation after CsA injection (P<0.05). In summary, dietary CLA effectively ameliorated CsA-induced cellular immunosuppression in piglets.

  14. Carnitine deprivation adversely affects cardiac performance in the lipopolysaccharide- and hypoxia/reoxygenation-stressed piglet heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, D; Zhang, L; Bobrowski, P J; Quinn, M; McDonough, K H

    1999-02-01

    Sepsis and hypoxia are important stressors for the neonate. Newborn infants receiving total parenteral nutrition are routinely deprived of carnitine and develop low carnitine plasma and tissue levels. Because of its high metabolic rate and dependence on fatty acids for energy, the newborn heart may be particularly vulnerable to stress in the face of an inadequate carnitine supply. To investigate whether carnitine deprivation affects cardiac performance under stress, 23 neonatal piglets received parenteral nutrition for 2-3 weeks that was either carnitine free (CARN -) or supplemented (CARN +) with L-carnitine (400 mg/L). Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 250 microg/kg intravenous bolus) or saline vehicle was administered to anesthetized piglets 3 h prior to study of isolated perfused hearts. Left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure, and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) were measured in vitro under aerobic, hypoxic, and reoxygenation conditions in all animals. Plasma and tissue carnitine values were lower in CARN - than in CARN + piglets. In hearts from LPS-treated animals prior to hypoxia, there was no difference in ventricular compliance between CARN - and CARN + groups. LVSP and LVDP were lower in CARN - than CARN + hearts. During hypoxia, LVSP and LVDP fell, but left ventricular end diastolic pressure increased in hearts from both LPS- and saline- treated piglets. Reoxygenation led to poorer recovery in CARN - than CARN + hearts from LPS-treated animals, but not from saline controls. During hypoxia/reoxygenation, lactate efflux initially rose and then fell, while carnitine efflux increased continually. Acetyl- and medium-chain acylcarnitines were detected in the coronary effluent. Our findings suggest that carnitine deprivation diminishes heart carnitine concentrations and impairs cardiac recovery from combined endotoxic and hypoxic stress. Possible mechanisms include reduced acyl buffering and

  15. PCR monitoring of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium dynamics in fermentations by piglet intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Patrícia; Simões, Fernanda; Gírio, Francisco; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C; Esteves, M Paula

    2007-04-01

    A new group-specific primer (Lact71R), targeting the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region of Lactobacillus, was tested in its specificity to amplify rDNA of lactobacilli from piglet intestinal origin by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Lact71R and Lab0677F, a Lactobacillus group-specific primer targeting the 16S rDNA, generated a common amplicon by PCR with DNA from Lactobacillus and Pediococcus reference strains, but not from Weissella strains. Sequence analysis of clones obtained by PCR amplification with Lact71R and Lab0677F and total DNA isolated from the ileal, caecal and colonic contents of one piglet resulted in Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus-like sequences mainly retrieved from intestinal environments. The primer pair was further validated in a culture independent PCR-analysis to monitor broad fluctuations of lactobacilli populations in fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) fermentations by piglet intestinal microbiota. Bifidobacterium genus-specific primers were also used for PCR titre determination throughout FOS fermentations, in parallel with lactate and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) quantification. Increases between PCR titres were correlated with lactate detection in early stages of fermentation. Based on the obtained results, a simple monitoring PCR approach is proposed, foreseeing its application to the study of the dynamics of specific bacterial populations in complex environments.

  16. Seroprevalence and molecular detection of porcine sapovirus in symptomatic suckling piglets in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Li, Jian-Yong; Pan, Hu

    2014-03-01

    The seroprevalence and genetic identification of sapovirus (SaV) in symptomatic suckling piglets were investigated in Guangdong Province, China, between November 2011 and April 2013. Serum (n = 960) and diarrheic fecal (n = 101) samples collected from symptomatic suckling piglets in Guangdong Province were evaluated for antibodies against SaV using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The overall seroprevalence of SaV in symptomatic suckling piglets was 61.9 % (594/960). Positive animals were found in all regions with seroprevalence ranging from 52 to 67.8 %, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). In addition, RNA of SaV was extracted from diarrheic fecal samples, and the partial polymerase gene was amplified by RT-PCR and then sequenced. Seven of 101 (6.9 %) samples were found to contain porcine SaV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the porcine SaV isolates belong to the porcine SaV genogroup III (GIII). This is the first report of SaV seroprevalence in symptomatic pigs in China.

  17. Effect of partial liquid ventilation on oleic acid-induced inflammatory responses in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yao-bin; WANG Qiang; LIU Ying-long; LI Xiao-feng; LI Jian-an; L(U) Xiao-dong; LING Feng; LIU Ai-jun; FAN Xiang-ming

    2010-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients are susceptible to lung injury.Acute lung injury (ALI) in children often results in a high mortality.Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) has been shown to markedly improve oxygenation and reduce histologic evidence of injury in a number of lung injury models.This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that PLV would attenuate the production of local and systemic cytokines in an immature piglet model of ALI induced by oleic acid (OA).Methods Twelve Chinese immature piglets were induced to develop ALI by oleic acid.The animals were randomly assigned to two groups (n=6): (1) conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) group and (2) PLV with FC-77 (10 ml/kg) group.Results Compared with MV group, PLV group got better cardiopulmonary variables (P <0.05).These variables included heart rate, mean blood pressure, blood pH, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2), PaO2/FiO2 and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2).Partial liquid ventilation reduced IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TN F-α both in plasma and tissue concentrations compared with MV group (P <0.05).Conclusions Partial liquid ventilation provides protective effects against inflammatory responses in the lungs of oleic acid-induced immature piglets.

  18. The effect of pellet feed on the performance and nutrient’s digestibility of weaned piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flutura Sala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pig production in Albania was extensive and hygiene conditions in pig stalls were often poor. Under these conditions a positive impact of pellet feed on production parameters of weaned piglets could be expected. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pellet and meal feed on performance parameters: body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion ration (FCR and apparent nutrient digestibility (AND of weaned piglets. Forty weaned piglets, divided in two groups (control and experimental group were located on a trial at 28 days of age, for 6 weeks experimental period. The utilization of pellet feed improved growth performance: Body weight 2.5%, daily weight gain 2.7%, feed intake 1.1% and feed conversion ratio, 1.6%, more than control group, for whole experimental period. Fibre digestibility was slightly increased and fat digestibility was slightly decreased. Overall a positive effect of pellet feed on growth performance was observed. There were not statistical significances for all production parameters. Based on the achieved results in the present investigations, it could be concluded that the utilization of pellet feed led to an improvement of the production parameters in pigs, especially under the extremely extensive farm conditions like these in Albanian farms of pig production.

  19. Alterations in Daytime and Nighttime Activity in Piglets after Focal and Diffuse Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Emily; Badder, Carlie; Sullivan, Sarah; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen; Margulies, Susan S

    2016-04-15

    We have developed and implemented a noninvasive, objective neurofunctional assessment for evaluating the sustained effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in piglets with both diffuse and focal injury types. Derived from commercial actigraphy methods in humans, this assessment continuously monitors the day/night activity of piglets using close-fitting jackets equipped with tri-axial accelerometers to monitor movements of the thorax. Acceleration metrics were correlated (N = 7 naïve piglets) with video images to define values associated with a range of activities, from recumbancy (rest) to running. Both focal (N = 8) and diffuse brain injury (N = 9) produced alterations in activity that were significant 4 days post-TBI. Compared to shams (N = 6) who acclimated to the animal facility 4 days after an anesthesia experience by blurring the distinction between day and night activity, post-TBI time-matched animals had larger fractions of inactive periods during the daytime than nighttime, and larger fractions of active time in the night were spent in high activity (e.g., constant walking, intermittent running) than during the day. These persistent disturbances in rest and activity are similar to those observed in human adults and children post-TBI, establishing actigraphy as a translational metric, used in both humans and large animals, for assessment of injury severity, progressions, and intervention.

  20. Head cooling with mild systemic hypothermia in anesthetized piglets is neuroprotective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James R; Satas, Saulius; Porter, Helen; Silver, Ian A; Thoresen, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Hypothermia is potentially therapeutic in the management of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. However, not all studies have shown a neuroprotective effect. It is suggested that the stress of unsedated hypothermia may interfere with neuroprotection. We propose that selective head cooling (SHC) combined with mild total-body hypothermia during anesthesia enhances local neuroprotection while minimizing the occurrence of systemic side effects and stress associated with unsedated whole-body cooling. Our objective was to determine whether SHC combined with mild total-body hypothermia while anesthetized for a period of 24 hours reduces cerebral damage in our piglet survival model of global hypoxia-ischemia. Eighteen anesthetized piglets received a 45-minute global hypoxic-ischemic insult. The pigs were randomized either to remain normothermic or to receive SHC. We found that the severity of the hypoxic-ischemic insult was similar in the SHC versus the normothermic group, and that the mean neurology scores at 30 and 48 hours and neuropathology scores were significantly better in the SHC group versus the normothermic group. We conclude that selective head cooling combined with mild systemic hypothermia and anesthesia is neuroprotective when started immediately after the insult in our piglet model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  1. Fermented soybean meal improves the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and microbial flora in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase nutritive values of soybean meal (SBM, 3 species of microbes were used to ferment SBM. Through a 3 × 3 orthogonal design and parameter measurements of soybean peptide and anti-nutritional factor contents in the fermented soybean meal (FSBM, it was estimated that the best microbial proportion of Bacillus subtilis, Hansenula anomala and Lactobacillus casei was 2:1:2 for SBM fermentation (P  0.05. However, newly-weaned piglets (d 28–38 fed 10% FSBM and different levels of plasma protein obtained higher average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, compared with those without FSBM but with 6% plasma protein (P < 0.05. Piglets (d 38–68 fed diets supplemented with FSBM and soybean protein concentrate (SBPC at 3.75% and 7.5% respectively increased nutrient digestibility, fecal enzyme activity and lactic acid bacteria counts, and decreased fecal Escherichia coli counts (P < 0.05, compared with the control. These data indicated that FSBM had positive effects on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora for piglets.

  2. Characterization and Regulation of the Amino Acid Transporter SNAT2 in the Small Intestine of Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangran; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Bie; Wang, Jing; Kong, Xiangfeng; Guan, Guiping; Li, Fengna; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    The sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), which has dual transport/receptor functions, is well documented in eukaryotes and some mammalian systems, but has not yet been verified in piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics and regulation of SNAT2 in the small intestine of piglets. The 1,521-bp porcine full cDNA sequence of SNAT2 (KC769999) from the small intestine of piglets was cloned. The open reading frame of cDNA encodes 506 deduced amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 56.08 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 7.16. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that SNAT2 is highly evolutionarily conserved in mammals. SNAT2 mRNA can be detected in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum by real-time quantitative PCR. During the suckling period from days 1 to 21, the duodenum had the highest abundance of SNAT2 mRNA among the three segments of the small intestine. There was a significant decrease in the expression of SNAT2 mRNA in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa and in the expression of SNAT2 protein in the jejunal and ileal mucosa on day 1 after weaning (P absorption of amino acids and signal transduction in the porcine small intestine.

  3. Temporal proteomic analysis reveals continuous impairment of intestinal development in neonatal piglets with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Weizong; Lin, Gang; Li, Defa; Wu, Guoyao; Wang, Junjun

    2010-02-01

    Efficiency of nutrient utilization is reduced in neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) compared with those with a normal birth weight (NBW). However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we applied temporal proteomic approach, coupled with histological and biochemical analyses, to study dynamic changes of the proteome in the small intestinal mucosa of IUGR piglets during the nursing period (Days 1, 7 and 21). We identified 56 differentially expressed protein spots between IUGR and NBW piglets. These proteins participate in key biological processes, including (1) absorption, digestion and transport of nutrients; (2) cell structure and motility; (3) glucose and energy metabolism; (4) lipid metabolism; (5) amino acid metabolism; (6) mineral and vitamin metabolism; (7) cellular redox homeostasis; (8) stress response; and (9) apoptosis. The results of our temporal proteomics analysis reveal continuous impairment of intestinal development in neonatal piglets with IUGR. The findings have important implications for understanding metabolic defects in the small intestine of IUGR neonates and are expected to provide new strategies to improve their survival and growth.

  4. The effect of immune stress on ideal amino acid pattern for piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianwen; CHEN Daiwen; ZHANG Keying; LONG Dingbiao

    2007-01-01

    Two nitrogen-balance experiments were conducted to determine the optimum balance pattern among four amino acids (lysine,methionine,tryptophan and threonine)on a digestible basis in the diet of piglets (10 kg) treated with lipopolysaccharide or saline as control.The method of amino acid deletion was adopted.All pigs were of a single genetic background and geographical origin.In each group,fifteen Landrance×Rongchang castrated piglets were allotted randomly to one of five groups of dietary amino acid regimens.The positive control group was supplemented with four amino acids.One of the four amino acids was reduced by about 25% in the respective treatment groups.After finishing the nitrogen-balance experiments,the slaughter technique was used to determine the ideal amino acid digestibility of the positive control by using chromium oxide (3 g/kg) as the indicator.The results showed that the ideal amino acid pattern of lysine/methionine/threonine/tryptopham on the digestible basis was 100:27:29:59 for 10 kg pigs under immune stress,and 100:30:21:61 for piglets under normal conditions.

  5. Thyroid hormone inhibits the proliferation of piglet Sertoli cell via PI3K signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Yang, WeiRong; Luo, HongLin; Wang, XianZhong; Chen, ZhongQiong; Zhang, JiaoJiao; Wang, Yi; Li, XiaoMin

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating researches show that thyroid hormone (TH) inhibits Sertoli cells (SCs) proliferation and stimulates their functional maturation in prepubertal rat testis, confirming that TH plays a key role in testicular development. However, the mechanism under the T3 regulation of piglet SC proliferation remains unclear. In the present study, in order to investigate the possible mechanism of T3 on the suppression of SC proliferation, the expression pattern of TRα1 and cell cycle-related molecules, effect of T3 on SC proliferation, and the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway on the T3-mediated SC proliferation in piglet testis were explored. Our results demonstrated that TRα1 was expressed in all tested stages of SCs and decreased along with the ages. T3 inhibited the proliferation of SCs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and T3 treatment downregulated the expressions of cell cycling molecules, such as cyclinA2, cyclinD1, cyclinE1, PCNA, and Skp2, but upregulated the p27 expression in SCs. Most importantly, the suppressive effects of T3 on SC proliferation seemed dependent on the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and pre-stimulation of PI3K could enhance such suppressive effects. Together, our findings demonstrate that TH inhibits the proliferation of piglet SCs via the suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  6. Mucosal injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in the piglet intestine: Influences of age and feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crissinger, K.D.; Granger, D.N. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport (USA))

    1989-10-01

    The pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis is unknown, but enteral alimentation, infectious agents, and mesenteric ischemia have been frequently invoked as primary initiators of the disease. To define the vulnerability of the intestinal mucosa to ischemia and reperfusion in the developing piglet, we evaluated changes in mucosal permeability using plasma-to-lumen clearance of chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in the ileum of anesthetized 1-day-, 3-day-, 2-wk-, and 1-mo-old piglets as a function of (a) duration of intestinal ischemia (20, 40, or 60 min of total superior mesenteric artery occlusion), (b) feeding status (fasted or nursed), and (c) composition of luminal perfusate (balanced salt solution vs. predigested cow milk-based formula). Baseline chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance was not significantly altered by ischemia, irrespective of duration, or feeding in all age groups. However, clearances were significantly elevated during reperfusion after 1 h of total intestinal ischemia in all age groups, whether fasted or fed. Reperfusion-induced increases in clearance did not differ among age groups when the bowel lumen was perfused with a balanced salt solution. However, luminal perfusion with formula resulted in higher clearances in 1-day-old piglets compared with all older animals. Thus, the neonatal intestine appears to be more vulnerable to mucosal injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in the presence of formula than the intestine of older animals.

  7. Physiological meaning of cerebral oxygen saturation for piglet with hypoxia-ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haishu; Huang, Lan; Jen, Chungchien; Hwang, Betau; Lee, Zhiguang; Teng, Yichao; Zheng, Meizhi

    2005-01-01

    The physiological meaning of cerebral oxygen saturation absolute values and the oxygen metabolism of piglet with hypoxia-ischemia (HIE) were researched. The subjects were two piglets. During the total experiment of hypoxia then recovery, the regional cerebral tissue oxygen (rScO2), pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) were detected non-invasively and the jugular oxygen saturation (SjO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were given invasively. The results show that because SjO2 was equal to or larger than rScO2 and SaO2 > ScO2, rScO2 cannot be determined by the weighted sum of SjO2 and SaO2 which had been presented in some papers. According to above-mentioned analysis, the ecchymoma and pathological changes of the vessels due to HIE may be another contribution of rScO2. SjO2 was correlated with SaO2 (R=0.996 and 0.962 for two piglets) and the values of (SaO2-SjO2) are close to constants (29.3+/-8% and 30.3+/-8%).It means that because the subjects were under anesthesia, the oxygen consumption of cerebral tissue kept constants.

  8. An automatic colour-based computer vision algorithm for tracking the position of piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Jover, J. M.; Alcaniz-Raya, M.; Gomez, V.; Balasch, S.; Moreno, J. R.; Grau-Colomer, V.; Torres, A.

    2009-07-01

    Artificial vision is a powerful observation tool for research in the field of livestock production. So, based on the search and recognition of colour spots in images, a digital image processing system which permits the detection of the position of piglets in a farrowing pen, was developed. To this end, 24,000 images were captured over five takes (days), with a five-second interval between every other image. The nine piglets in a litter were marked on their backs and sides with different coloured spray paints each one, placed at a considerable distance on the RGB space. The programme requires the user to introduce the colour patterns to be found, and the output is an ASCII file with the positions (column X, lineY) for each of these marks within the image analysed. This information may be extremely useful for further applications in the study of animal behaviour and welfare parameters (huddling, activity, suckling, etc.). The software programme initially segments the image in the RGB colour space to separate the colour marks from the rest of the image, and then recognises the colour patterns, using another colour space [B/(R+G+B), (G-R), (B-G)] more suitable for this purpose. This additional colour space was obtained testing different colour combinations derived from R, G and B. The statistical evaluation of the programmes performance revealed an overall 72.5% in piglet detection, 89.1% of this total being correctly detected. (Author) 33 refs.

  9. Early-Life Nutrition and Neurodevelopment: Use of the Piglet as a Translational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Austin T; Dilger, Ryan N

    2017-01-01

    Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes. The piglet has emerged as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young pigs and humans, the piglet is being used increasingly in developmental nutritional neuroscience studies. The piglet primarily has been used to assess the effects of dietary fatty acids and their accretion in the brain throughout neurodevelopment. However, recent research indicates that other dietary components, including choline, iron, cholesterol, gangliosides, and sialic acid, among other compounds, also affect neurodevelopment in the pig model. Moreover, novel analytical techniques, including but not limited to MRI, behavioral assessments, and molecular quantification, allow for a more holistic understanding of how nutrition affects neurodevelopmental patterns. By combining early-life nutritional interventions with innovative analytical approaches, opportunities abound to quantify factors affecting neurodevelopmental trajectories in the neonate. This review discusses research using the translational pig model with primary emphasis on early-life nutrition interventions assessing neurodevelopment outcomes, while also discussing nutritionally-sensitive methods to characterize brain maturation.

  10. Sodium butyrate improves growth performance of weaned piglets during the first period after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Prandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to evaluate whether the addition of sodium butyrate to feed could facilitate wean- ing and growth response in piglets. For 56 days two groups of 20 piglets (9.2±1.4 kg LW were fed an acidified basal diet (containing formic and lactic acid at 0.5 and 1.5 g/kg of feed, respectively without (control group or with sodium butyrate (SB at 0.8 g/kg. Average daily gain (ADG, daily feed intake (DFI, feed efficiency (FE and live weight (LW were recorded. In the first two weeks, butyrate supplementation increased ADG (+20%; P<0.05 and DFI (+16%; P<0.05. During the subsequent period (15 to 35 days animals fed SB had a higher DFI but lower feed efficiency (+10% and -14%, respectively; P<0.05 than animals fed the control diet. No other benefits were observed thereafter. The data presented showed that the use of sodium butyrate facilitated only the initial phase of adaptation to a solid diet in piglets.

  11. Functional piglet model for the clinical syndrome and postmortem findings induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gessel, Yvonne A; Mani, Sachin; Bi, Shuguang; Hammamieh, Rasha; Shupp, Jeffrey W; Das, Rina; Coleman, Gary D; Jett, Marti

    2004-11-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) B causes serious gastrointestinal illness, and intoxication with this exotoxin can lead to lethal toxic shock syndrome. In order to overcome significant shortcomings of current rodent and nonhuman primate models, we developed a piglet model of lethal SEB intoxication. Fourteen-day-old Yorkshire piglets were given intravenous SEB, observed clinically, and sacrificed at 4, 6, 24, 48, 72, or 96 hrs posttreatment. Clinical signs were biphasic with pyrexia, vomiting, and diarrhea within 4 hrs, followed by terminal hypotension and shock by 96 hrs. Mild lymphoid lesions were identified as early as 24 hrs, with severe lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and prominent Peyer's patches found by 72 hrs. Widespread edema-most prominent in the mesentery, between loops of spiral colon, and in retroperitoneal connective tissue-was found in animals at 72 hrs. Additional histologic changes included perivascular aggregates of large lymphocytes variably present in the lung and brain, circulating lymphoblasts, and lymphocytic portal hepatitis. Preliminary molecular investigation using gene array has uncovered several gene profile changes that may have implications in the pathophysiology leading to irreversible shock. Five genes were selected for further study, and all showed increased mRNA levels subsequent to SEB exposure. The use of this piglet model will continue to elucidate the pathogenesis of SEB intoxication and facilitate the testing of new therapeutic regimens that may better correlate with human lesions.

  12. Effects of post-resuscitation treatment with N-acetylcysteine on cardiac recovery in hypoxic newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Qin Liu

    Full Text Available AIMS: Although N-acetylcysteine (NAC can decrease reactive oxygen species and improve myocardial recovery after ischemia/hypoxia in various acute animal models, little is known regarding its long-term effect in neonatal subjects. We investigated whether NAC provides prolonged protective effect on hemodynamics and oxidative stress using a surviving swine model of neonatal asphyxia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Newborn piglets were anesthetized and acutely instrumented for measurement of systemic hemodynamics and oxygen transport. Animals were block-randomized into a sham-operated group (without hypoxia-reoxygenation [H-R, n = 6] and two H-R groups (2 h normocapnic alveolar hypoxia followed by 48 h reoxygenation, n = 8/group. All piglets were acidotic and in cardiogenic shock after hypoxia. At 5 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either saline or NAC (intravenous 150 mg/kg bolus + 20 mg/kg/h infusion via for 24 h in a blinded, randomized fashion. Both cardiac index and stroke volume of H-R controls remained lower than the pre-hypoxic values throughout recovery. Treating the piglets with NAC significantly improved cardiac index, stroke volume and systemic oxygen delivery to levels not different from those of sham-operated piglets. Accompanied with the hemodynamic improvement, NAC-treated piglets had significantly lower plasma cardiac troponin-I, myocardial lipid hydroperoxides, activated caspase-3 and lactate levels (vs. H-R controls. The change in cardiac index after H-R correlated with myocardial lipid hydroperoxides, caspase-3 and lactate levels (all p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Post-resuscitation administration of NAC reduces myocardial oxidative stress and caused a prolonged improvement in cardiac function and in newborn piglets with H-R insults.

  13. The piglet as a model for studying dietary components in infant diets: effects of galacto-oligosaccharides on intestinal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Akbari, P; Difilippo, E; Schols, H A; Ulfman, L H; Schoterman, M H C; Garssen, J; Fink-Gremmels, J; Braber, S

    2016-02-28

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides, including galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), are used in infant formula to mimic human milk oligosaccharides, which are known to have an important role in the development of the intestinal microbiota and the immune system in neonates. The maturation of the intestines in piglets closely resembles that of human neonates and infants. Hence, a neonatal piglet model was used to study the multi-faceted effect of dietary GOS in early life. Naturally farrowed piglets were separated from the mother sow 24-48 h postpartum and received a milk replacer with or without the addition of GOS for 3 or 26 d, whereafter several indicators of intestinal colonisation and maturation were measured. Dietary GOS was readily fermented in the colon, leading to a decreased pH, an increase in butyric acid in caecum digesta and an increase in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria numbers at day 26. Histomorphological changes were observed in the intestines of piglets fed a GOS diet for 3 or 26 d. In turn, differences in the intestinal disaccharidase activity were observed between control and GOS-fed piglets. The mRNA expression of various tight junction proteins was up-regulated in the intestines of piglet fed a GOS diet and was not accompanied by an increase in protein expression. GOS also increased defensin porcine β-defensin-2 in the colon and secretory IgA levels in saliva. In conclusion, by applying a neonatal piglet model, it could be demonstrated that a GOS-supplemented milk replacer promotes the balance of the developing intestinal microbiota, improves the intestinal architecture and seems to stimulate the intestinal defence mechanism.

  14. Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity: effects of weaning-to-pregnancy interval and body condition changes in sows of different parities and crossbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjes, J G M; Soede, N M; Knol, E F; van den Brand, H; Kemp, B

    2013-05-01

    Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity were studied in sows of different parities and crossbred lines in relation to: 1) weaning-to-pregnancy interval (WPI) and 2) sow body condition changes (in BW and backfat thickness) during lactation and gestation in sows with a short WPI (≤7d). At the Institute for Pig Genetics (IPG) research farm, individual piglet birth weights and sow body condition (BW and backfat thickness at farrowing and weaning) were measured for 949 TOPIGS20 and 889 TOPIGS40 sows with >4 total born piglets, inseminated between 2003 and 2011. In all analyses, mean piglet birth weight and birth weight SD and CV were corrected for total number born. Total number born was greater in sows with a WPI of 8 to 21 d (+1.2 piglets; n = 72) and >21 d (+0.7 piglets; n = 182), compared with sows with a WPI ≤7 d (P piglet birth weight was not affected by WPI. Birth weight SD (-23 g) and CV (-1.7%) were lower in sows with a WPI >21 d, compared with sows with a WPI ≤7 d (P piglet birth weight. Only in TOPIGS20 sows, more BW loss during lactation was related with greater subsequent birth weight SD (β = 0.83 g/kg, P piglet/kg BW increase for parity 2 (P piglet/kg BW increase (P piglet birth weight. To conclude, this study shows that litter uniformity is compromised by severe sow body condition loss during lactation and improved in sows with a prolonged WPI. These effects are likely related with (insufficient) restoration of follicle development.

  15. Effect of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation of sows in late gestation and lactation on sow production of colostrum and milk and piglet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flummer, C; Theil, P K

    2012-12-01

    This trial was conducted to investigate whether β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) supplementation during late gestation and throughout lactation would influence colostrum and milk production of sows and neonatal piglet survival (0 to 24 h). Control sows (CON; n = 8) were fed a standard lactation diet from day 108 of gestation and until 28 d after parturition (weaning). Sows fed HMB (n = 8) were fed the CON diet topdressed with 2.5 g Ca(HMB)(2) equally divided at each 2 daily meals throughout the experiment. Litters were standardized to 12 piglets per sow within experimental group on day 1, and both groups weaned on average 11.3 piglets per sow. Blood samples were taken from the sows by jugular vein puncture on days -3, 1, 10, 17, and 28 relative to parturition. Piglets were weighed at birth, after 24 h, and repeatedly throughout lactation to estimate the colostrum and milk yield of the sows. Samples of colostrum and milk were collected and analyzed. Sows fed HMB had a higher colostrum yield (512 vs. 434 ± 30 g/piglet; P = 0.05) estimated based on the piglet weight gain during the colostrum period (132 vs. 76 ± 21 g/piglet; P = 0.05) and the mortality rate of HMB piglets were lower during the colostrum period (0.0 vs. 4.8%, P 0.10). Supplementation with HMB increased milk content of fat (7.40 vs. 6.47 ± 0.30%; P piglets weighed less at weaning than the control piglets (7.48 vs. 8.30 ± 0.20 kg; P piglet growth at peak lactation.

  16. Intramural Injection with Botulinum Toxin Type A in Piglet Esophagus. The Influencer on Maximum Load and Elongation: A Dose Response Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellebæk, Mark Bremholm; Qvist, Niels; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Rasmussen, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The treatment of esophageal atresia (OA) is challenging. The main goal is to achieve primary anastomosis. We have previously demonstrated in a pig model that intramural injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) resulted in significant elongation of the esophagus during tensioning until bursting point. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the influence of different amounts of intramural BTX-A on the stretch-tension characteristics and histological changes of the esophagus in piglets. Materials and Methods A total of 52 piglets were randomized to four groups receiving 2, 4, or 8 units/kg of BTX-A or isotonic saline (placebo). After a 1-hour of rest the esophagus was harvested and subjected to a stretch-tension test and histological examination to assess changes in the density of presynaptic vesicles in the nerve cells. Results Overall, 9 of the 52 animals were excluded from analysis due to problems with the stretch-tension test or death from anesthesia. The maximum loads were higher in the BTX-A groups (2 units/kg: +2.1 N; 4 units/kg: +1.3 N; 8 units/kg: +1.9 N) than the placebo (p = 0.046). There were no significant differences in percentage elongation, or histology. Conclusions This study demonstrated that injection of 2 units/kg BTX-A into a nonanastomosed esophageal wall resulted in a modest increase in the maximum load achieved before bursting; this may be due to the muscle-relaxant effect of BTX-A. BTX-A injection produced no significant effects on elongation or esophageal histology. The clinical usefulness of BTX-A in treatment of OA is still unclear. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effect of the dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) on Cu and Zn balance in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untea, Arabela; Criste, Rodica; Panaite, Tatiana; Costache, Iulian

    2011-01-01

    A 4-week study conducted on 20 weaned piglets (average initial weight 15 kg) evaluated the effects of dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) used in the presence/absence of phytase on the Cu and Zn balance, while reducing/eliminating their inclusion in the diet as inorganic salts. Oregano was harvested from the wild flora. The Cu and Zn concentrations that were taken into consideration (9.85 ppm and 53.31 pmm, respectively) were the consensus values obtained in an interlaboratory study. The piglets were assigned to 4 groups (C, E1, E2, E3), housed in individual metabolic cages and fed on corn-soybean meal-based diets. The diet of the control group (C) with addition of 1% inorganic mineral premix (MP), contained: 40.92 ppm Cu, 144.96 ppm Zn. The experimental diets differed from the C diet as follows: E1--3% oregano, 0% phytase (5000 PU/g), 0% MP; E2--3% oregano, 0.01% phytase, 0% MP; E3--3% oregano, 0% phytase, 0.5% MP, E4--3% oregano, 0.01% phytase, 0,5% premix. For groups E1, E2, E3 and E4, 0.5% Zn of the MP were included in the diet, because the dietary oregano amount did not meet the requirements (NRC) for piglets. The mineral balance was determined during 3 periods of 5 days each. The levels of Cu and Zn were measured by FAAS in the samples (weekly samples/piglet) of ingesta, faeces and urine. It was noticed that although the dietary Cu ingested by the groups without MP was 75% (10.08 ppm) lower than C, the absorption coefficients were only 47% (28.83) lower than for group C (54.22%), while in the groups with 0.5% MP, the absorption was just 10% (48.86%) lower than for group C. For Zn, where the amount ingested by the experimental groups was 33% (97.62 ppm) lower than for group C, the absorption coefficients were just 20% (46.3%) lower than for group C (57.64%). No significant differences were noticed for Cu and Zn in terms of apparent absorption, between the groups with/without phytase. The deposits of Cu and Zn in the main organs and serum (from slaughtered

  18. Effects of Outdoor Housing of Piglets on Behavior, Stress Reaction and Meat Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yonezawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed housing systems are important from the viewpoint of animal welfare and improvement of meat production. In this study, we investigated the effects of outdoor housing of pigs on their behavior, cortisol levels, and meat characteristics. Two groups that were born and raised in a spacious outdoor pen (4×10 m for every two sows or a minimum-sized standard pen in a piggery (1.9×2.2 m for every sow were studied. When their behaviors at the age of 2 to 3 wk were observed, the number of rooting episodes tended to be larger (p = 0.0509 and the total time of rooting tended to be longer (p = 0.0640 in the outdoor-housed piglets although the difference was not significant. Basal salivary cortisol levels of the outdoor piglets at the age of 4 wk were significantly lower than those of the indoor piglets (5.0±0.59 ng/ml vs. 11.6±0.91 ng/ml, 30 min after treatment, although their plasma cortisol levels were similar (53.3±3.54 ng/ml vs. 59.9±4.84 ng/ml, 30 min after treatment. When the ears were pierced at weaning, plasma and salivary cortisol levels were increased in both groups, even at 15 min after piercing. However, the increase in the outdoor-housed group was significantly less than that in the indoor-housed group. Throughout their lives, body weight and daily gain of the pigs were not significantly different between the two groups. In a meat taste preference test taken by 20 panelists, saltiness, flavor, and color of the outdoor-housed pork were found to be more acceptable. Moreover, when an electronic taste-sensing device was utilized, the C00 and CPA-C00 outputs (3.78±0.07 and −0.20±0.023, which correspond to compounds of bitterness and smells, respectively, were significantly lower in the outdoor-housed pork (5.03±0.16 and −0.13±0.009. Our results demonstrate that the outdoor housing system for piglets induces natural behaviors such as rooting and suppresses the strongest stress reaction of piglets, which could be important

  19. A dose titration study on the effect of virginiamycin on gilt/sow and piglet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantas, D; Vassilopoulos, V; Kyriakis, S C; Saoulidis, K

    1998-11-01

    Virginiamycin (VM), a compound with proven performance-promoting properties in pigs, can also be considered as sow performance enhancer. The present dose titration study investigates the long-term effects of VM on gilt/sow and litter performance. A total of 140 healthy gilts, in 35 sets of 2 + 2 siblings each, were used in this trial; gilts in each set were randomly allocated to the four treatments (35 gilts per each treatment group): VM0 = negative control, virginiamycin 0 mg/kg, VM20 = virginiamycin 20 mg/kg, VM40 = virginiamycin 40 mg/kg and VM60 = virginiamycin 60 mg/kg of feed. VM was added to the gilt/sow feed for a period starting from 6 months of age up to conception of the fourth parity, covering three complete breeding cycles (pregnancy, lactation and weaning-to-conception interval). The feed given did not contain any other antibacterial agent or performance enhancer. Piglets were given exactly the same quantity of creep feed from the fifth day onwards; it did not contain any antibacterial agent or performance enhancer. The lactation period was the same in all gilts/sows (21 days). Results indicate that VM supplementation of the feed improved gilt/sow performance by: (i) increasing (P < 0.05) the mean body weight at each farrowing, (ii) decreasing (P < 0.05) the mean weight loss from farrowing to weaning, and (iii) decreasing (P < 0.05) the mean weaning-to-conception intervals. VM supplementation of gilt/sow feed also resulted in improved litter size and litter performance in terms of: (i) a higher (P < 0.05) mean number of piglets born alive at each birth, (ii) a higher (P < 0.05) mean number of piglets weaned, (iii) a higher (P < 0.05) mean piglet body weight at each birth, and (iv) a higher (P < 0.05) mean piglet body weight at each weaning. These beneficial effects of VM were more pronounced in the VM40 group.

  20. Pain alleviation during castration of piglets: a comparative study of different farm options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, F; Scollo, A; Contiero, B; Ravagnani, A; Tavella, G; Bernardini, D; De Benedictis, G M; Edwards, S A

    2016-12-01

    Pain alleviation associated with castration of piglets is an important welfare issue. The present study compares the effect of different approaches and products suitable for farmer use, with the aim to alleviate pain due to castration in piglets. A randomized within-litter design, with 28 replicate litters, compared 7 treatments: handling () restraint of the piglet and manipulation of the scrotum, castration without pain relief (), 2 treatments (, ) with different concentrations of tetracaine (2 and 6%) applied topically 10 min before and immediately post-surgery, and 3 treatments with i.m. injection of different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs () 10 min prior to surgery (-meloxicam, -ketoprofen, -tolfenamic acid). Efficacy of pain relief was assessed during a 300 min period after castration by serum cortisol, behavior (walking, lying, suckling, in the nest, isolated and pain related: tremors, rubbing the rear, hunching, wagging of the tail), facial expression and scrotal skin pressure sensitivity. C pigs had greater serum cortisol concentration than all other groups at 60 min post-surgery ( < 0.001), while H pigs had lower concentrations than pigs given topical anesthesia ( < 0.001) though not injected analgesia. No treatment differences were significant at 180 min, but at 300 min cortisol concentration was greater in T2 and T6 piglets than those given NSAIDs ( = 0.03). These treatment differences were mirrored by the pressure sensitivity of the scrotum; in comparison with C piglets, those given NSAIDs showed a reduced sensitivity ( 0.003) but those given local anesthesia did not ( = 0.15). C pigs showed increased frequency of pain-related behavior in the first 30 min in comparison with all other treatments, more time isolated than H or NSAID treatments, and more time standing inactive than H or K treatments. No behavioral differences were apparent after 60 min. No differences in facial expressions were observed among treatments. In conclusion, on

  1. Magnetic Resonance Three-dimensional Cube Technique in the Measurement of Piglet Femoral Anteversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong-Mei; Pan, Shi-Nong; Wang, En-Bo; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Guo, Wen-Li; Fu, Xi-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The accurate measurement of the femoral anteversion (FA) angle is always a topic of much debate in the orthopedic surgery and radiology research. We aimed to explore a new FA measurement method to acquire accurate results without radiation damage using piglet model. Methods: A total of thirty piglets were assigned to two groups based on the age. Bilateral femora were imaged with 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) and 64-slice computed tomography (CT) examinations on all piglets. FA was measured on MR-three-dimensional (3D) postprocessing software with a four-step method: initial validation of the femoral condylar axis, validation of the condylar plane, validation of the femoral neck axis, and line-plane angle measurement of FA. After MR and CT examinations, all piglets were sacrificed and their degree of FA was measured using their excised, dried femora. MR, CT, and dried-femur measurement results were analyzed statistically; MR and CT measurements were compared for accuracy against each other and against the gold standard dried femur measurement. Results: In both groups, the mean FA value measured by MR was lower than that measured by CT. A statistically significant difference was observed between CT- and dried-femur measurements but not between MR- and dried-femur measurements. A higher correlation (0.783 vs. 0.408) and a higher consistency (0.863 vs. 0.578) with dried-femur measurement results were seen for MR measurements than CT measurements in the 1-week age group. However, in the 8-week age group, similar correlations (0.707 vs. 0.669) and consistencies (0.864 vs. 0.821) were observed. Conclusions: Noninvasive MR-3D-Cube reconstruction was able to accurately measure FA in piglets. Particularly in the 1-week age group with a larger proportion of cartilaginous structures, the correlation and consistency between MR- and dried-femur measurement results were higher than those between CT- and dried-femur measurements, suggesting that MR may be a new useful

  2. Magnetic Resonance Three-dimensional Cube Technique in the Measurement of Piglet Femoral Anteversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Mei Sun; Shi-Nong Pan; En-Bo Wang; Li-Qiang Zheng; Wen-Li Guo; Xi-Hu Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background:The accurate measurement of the femoral anteversion (FA) angle is always a topic of much debate in the orthopedic surgery and radiology research.We aimed to explore a new FA measurement method to acquire accurate results without radiation damage using piglet model.Methods:A total of thirty piglets were assigned to two groups based on the age.Bilateral femora were imaged with 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) and 64-slice computed tomography (CT) examinations on all piglets.FA was measured on MR-three-dimensional (3D) postprocessing software with a four-step method:initial validation of the femoral condylar axis,validation of the condylar plane,validation of the femoral neck axis,and line-plane angle measurement of FA.After MR and CT examinations,all piglets were sacrificed and their degree of FA was measured using their excised,dried femora.MR,CT,and dried-femur measurement results were analyzed statistically;MR and CT measurements were compared for accuracy against each other and against the gold standard dried femur measurement.Results:In both groups,the mean FA value measured by MR was lower than that measured by CT.A statistically significant difference was observed between CT-and dried-femur measurements but not between MR-and dried-femur measurements.A higher correlation (0.783 vs.0.408) and a higher consistency (0.863 vs.0.578) with dried-femur measurement results were seen for MR measurements than CT measurements in the 1-week age group.However,in the 8-week age group,similar correlations (0.707 vs.0.669) and consistencies (0.864 vs.0.821) were observed.Conclusions:Noninvasive MR-3D-Cube reconstruction was able to accurately measure FA in piglets.Particularly in the 1-week age group with a larger proportion of cartilaginous structures,the correlation and consistency between MR-and dried-femur measurement results were higher than those between CT-and dried-femur measurements,suggesting that MR may be a new useful examination tool for FA

  3. Response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine supplementation:metabolomic analysis in piglets by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-ping XIAO; Tian-xing WU; Qi-hua HONG; Jiang-ming SUN; An-guo CHEN; Cai-mei YANG; Xiao-yan LI

    2012-01-01

    A novel metabolomic method based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to determine the metabolites in the serum of piglets in response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation.Thirty six 21-d-old piglets were randomly assigned into three groups.One group continued to suckle from the sows (suckling group),whereas the other two groups were weaned and their diets were supplemented with 1% (w/w) Gln or isonitrogenous L-alanine,respectively,representing Gin group or control group.Serum samples were collected to characterize metabolites after a 7-d treatment.Results showed that twenty metabolites were down-regulated signifi cantly (P<0.05) in control piglets compared with suckling ones.These data demonstrated that early weaning causes a wide range of metabolic changes across arginine and proline metabolism,aminosugar and nucleotide metabolism,galactose metabolism,glycerophospholipid metabolism,biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid,and fatty acid metabo lism.Dietary Gin supplementation increased the levels of creatinine,o-xylose,2-hydroxybutyric acid,palmitelaidic acid,and α-L- galactofuranose (P<0.05) in early weaned piglets,and were involved in the arginine and proline metabolism,carbohydrate metabolism,and fatty acid metabolism.A leave one out cross validation of random forest analysis indi cated that creatinine was the most important metabolite among the three groups.Notably,the concentration of craatinine in control piglets was decreased (P=0.00001) compared to the suckling piglets,and increased (P=0.0003) in Gin-supplemented piglets.A correlation network for weaned and suckling piglets revealed that eady weaning changed the metabolic pathways,leading to the abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism,amino acid metabolism,and lipid metabolism,which could be partially improved by dietary Gin supplementation.These findings provide fresh insight into the complex metabolic changes in response to early weaning and dietary Gin

  4. The influence of the thermal environment and other early life events on growth rate of piglets during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, L J; Schild, S-L Aa; Malmkvist, J

    2015-09-01

    The effects of early life events on average daily weight gain from birth to day 21 (ADG) of suckling pigs kept at different room temperatures (15°C, 20°C and 25°C) from birth to weaning were investigated. Data were collected from litters born by 61 sows in a loose housing system. The ADG for piglets with low birth weight (estimated for birth weights below the 10% percentile) was estimated to be 20 to 30 g higher per day at room temperature 20°C to 25°C compared with 15°C. In contrast, the ADG during the lactation period decreased for larger piglets (estimated for birth weights above the 10% percentile) by 28 g/day at room temperature 25°C compared with 15°C. Thus, high ambient temperatures (20°C to 25°C) are favourable for the growth in smaller piglets during lactation. Neither latency to first suckle nor birth-induced hypoxia, measured as concentration of umbilical cord lactate, affected the growth rate of the piglets. Lowest rectal temperature during the first 24 h after birth had a long-term negative effect on ADG (Ptemperature of 32.8°C (10% percentile) had an ADG which was on average 19 g lower per day than piglets with a rectal temperature of 37.3°C (90% percentile). Our results showed that hypothermia at birth, low birth weight and high number of suckling piglets lead to reduced ADG during the suckling period. The results suggest that keeping the room temperature at 20°C during lactation to some extent could compensate for the otherwise negative effects of low birth weight on ADG in piglets without decreasing the ADG of high birth weight piglets. However, to avoid hypothermia in the smallest piglets it may be beneficial to increase the room temperature above 20°C during the farrowing period of loose housed sows.

  5. GLP-2 administration results in increased proliferation but paradoxically an adverse outcome in a juvenile piglet model of short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira-Fantini, Prue M; Nagy, Eva S; Thomas, Sarah L;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) administration in a piglet, juvenile model of short bowel syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four-week-old piglets underwent either a sham operation or 75% small bowel resection. Postoperative...

  6. Opinion of the scientific panel on animal health and welfare on a request from the commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Michael; Allen, Paul; Bonneau, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Report - Annex to the Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets......Report - Annex to the Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets...

  7. Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA, gut microbiota and fat mass in early postnatal piglet development—exploring a potential interplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.D.; Mølbak, Lars; Thymann, T.;

    2011-01-01

    Dietary n-3PUFA and gut bacteria, particularly Bacteroidetes, have been suggested to be related to adiposity. We investigated if n-3PUFA affected fat storage and cecal bacteria in piglets. Twenty-four 4-day-old piglets were allocated to formula rich in n-3PUFA (∼3E%) from fish oil (FO) or n-6PUFA...

  8. Body composition of piglets from sows fed the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate in late gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flummer, Christine; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    Supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) to sows during late gestation or lactation has been shown to improve piglet health, survival, and growth. This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of HMB supplementation to late-gestating sows on body characteris......Supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) to sows during late gestation or lactation has been shown to improve piglet health, survival, and growth. This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of HMB supplementation to late-gestating sows on body...... piglets were weighed at day 28 and water content was assessed by deuterium oxide dilution. Piglets were euthanized, organ weights and lengths were recorded, the empty carcass was analyzed for dry matter, ash, and crude protein content, and body fat content was calculated. Two litters were treated...... for diarrhea, which was included in the statistical model. Weight at birth and at day 28 was not affected by maternal HMB supplementation. The total weight of the small intestine in HMB piglets was 15% lighter (P

  9. Effect of sodium butyrate on the small intestine development in neonatal piglets fed [correction of feed] by artificial sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotunia, A; Woliński, J; Laubitz, D; Jurkowska, M; Romé, V; Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R

    2004-07-01

    Feeding of neonates with artificial milk formulas delays the maturation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Na-butyrate has a complex trophic effect on the gastrointestinal epithelium in adults. The present study aimed to determine the effect of milk formula supplementation with Na-butyrate on the gut mucosa in neonatal piglets. Sixteen 3 day old piglets were randomly divided into two groups: control (C, n = 8), and Na-butyrate (B, n = 8). Animals were feed for 7 days with artificial milk formula alone (C) or supplemented with Na-butyrate (B). At the 10(th) day of life the piglets were sacrificed and whole thickness samples of the upper gut were taken for analyses. Administration of Na-butyrate led to significant increase in daily body weight gain as compared to control. In the duodenum, the villi length and mucosa thickness were reduced, however, in the distal jejunum and ileum, the crypt depth, villi length and mucosa thickness were increased in Na-butyrate supplemented piglets as compared to control. Supplementation with Na-butyrate did not affect the intestinal brush border enzyme activities but increased plasma pancreatic polypeptide and cholecystokinin concentrations. These results suggest that supplementation with Na-butyrate may enhance the development of jejunal and ileal mucosa in formula-fed piglets.

  10. Cisplatin-Induced Non-Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury in a Pediatric Experimental Animal Model in Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Santiago

    Full Text Available To design an experimental pediatric animal model of acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin.Prospective comparative observational animal study in two different phases. Acute kidney injury was induced using three different doses of cisplatin (2, 3 and 5 mg/kg. The development of nephrotoxicity was assessed 2 to 4 days after cisplatin administration by estimating biochemical parameters, diuresis and renal morphology. Analytical values and renal morphology were compared between 15 piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg and 15 control piglets in the second phase of the study.41 piglets were studied. The dose of 3 mg/kg administered 48 hours before the experience induced a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea without an increase in potassium levels. Piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg had significantly higher values of creatinine, urea, phosphate and amylase, less diuresis and lower values of potassium, sodium and bicarbonate than control piglets. Histological findings showed evidence of a dose-dependent increase in renal damage.a dose of 3 mg/kg of cisplatin induces a significant alteration in renal function 48 hours after its administration, so it can be used as a pediatric animal model of non-oliguric acute kidney injury.

  11. Effect of Orally Administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on Intestinal Cytokines and Chemokines Production of Suckling Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang§, Ya-li Li, Qin Huang, Zhi-wen Cui, Dong-you Yu, Imran Rashid Rajput, Cai-hong Hu and Wei-fen Li*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of orally administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on intestinal cytokines and chemokines production in piglets. Twenty-four newborn piglets were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (T1, orally administered sterilized (110 ºC for 30 min skim milk 10% (2 ml/piglet/day with addition of viable E. faecium EF1 (5~6×108 cfu/ml on 1st, 3rd and 5th day after birth. The control group (T0, were fed the same volume of sterilized skim milk without addition of probiotics. Feeding trial was conducted for 25 days of suckling age. At the end of trail six piglets were randomly selected from each group to collect the samples of jejunum and ileum mucosa to observe the cytokines and chemokines production. The results showed that concentrations of IL-10 and TGF-β1 significantly increased in T1 group. Whereas, production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-8 decreased in T1 compared to T0. Levels of TNF-α were increased in jejunal mucosa, while decreased in ileal mucosa comparatively in T1 group. Our findings revealed that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 induced a strong anti-inflammatory response in the small intestine. These immunomodulatory effects of this bacterium might contribute to maintenance of immune homeostasis in the intestine of piglets.

  12. Ear tagging in piglets: the cortisol response with and without analgesia in comparison with castration and tail docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numberger, J; Ritzmann, M; Übel, N; Eddicks, M; Reese, S; Zöls, S

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to compare the cortisol response caused by ear tagging piglets with the distress caused by other known painful husbandry procedures (e.g. castration and tail docking) and to evaluate the effectiveness of analgesia with meloxicam to reduce the cortisol response caused by these procedures. In total, 210 male piglets were randomised to equal numbers (n=30) into one of seven groups: a control group which was only handled (H), an ear tagged group that received no analgesia (ET), an ear tagged group with analgesia (ETM), a castration group with no analgesia (C), a castration group with analgesia (CM), a tail-docked group with no analgesia (TD) and a tail-docked group with analgesia (TDM). The procedures were carried out on day 3 or 4 after farrowing. Five blood samples were taken from each piglet: 30 min before the respective procedure (baseline value), and 30, 60 min, 4 and 7 h after processing, to assess cortisol concentrations. Means as well as the area under the curve (AUC) value were analysed and the effective sizes of the procedures were established. At 7 h after the experimental treatment, cortisol concentrations had returned to base values in all groups. ET evoked a greater cortisol response than H piglets at 30 min (Pear tagging causes a dramatic increase in cortisol levels compared with handling alone in piglets, which suggests that this procedure causes substantial distress. However, further research is needed to confirm these results.

  13. Does sow reproduction and piglet performance benefit from the addition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to the maternal diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, Sofie; De Smet, Stefaan

    2013-09-01

    Good sow reproductive performance and piglet survival are essential for the profitability of the pig industry. Based on basic research of fatty acid and endocrine metabolism, it has been suggested that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could enhance reproductive outcome. However, proper requirements for these nutrients in sow diets have not been established. This review examines the literature on the effect of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet on sow reproduction and piglet performance. Few reported studies have included biochemical analyses, e.g. eicosanoid concentrations or gene expression data, which could help elucidate any link between dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation and reproduction. Additionally, most studies used relatively low numbers of pigs, limiting the validity of the conclusions which can be drawn. In pregnant pigs, supplementing with n-3 PUFA has not been shown to increase significantly the number of embryos (in gilts) or (in most studies) the total number of piglets born (live and/or stillborn), but may prolong gestation, although the literature is not consistent. Most studies found no effect of n-3 PUFA on piglet birth weight, although positive effects on piglet vitality and pre- and post-weaning growth have been reported. In contrast to the impact during pregnancy, low amounts of n-3 PUFA in the lactation diet may increase litter size in the subsequent gestation.

  14. Effects of birth weight and maternal dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of piglet tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; Missotten, J; Vlaeminck, B; De Smet, S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects and possible interactions of birth weight and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of the maternal diet on the fatty acid status of different tissues of newborn piglets. These effects are of interest as both parameters have been associated with pre-weaning mortality. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed, echium or fish oil from day 73 of gestation. As fish oil becomes a scarce resource, linseed and echium oil were supplemented as sustainable alternatives, adding precursor fatty acids for DHA to the diet. At birth, the lightest and heaviest male piglet per litter were killed and samples from liver, brain and muscle were taken for fatty acid analysis. Piglets that died pre-weaning had lower birth weights than piglets surviving lactation (1.27±0.04 v. 1.55±0.02 kg; Poil was included in the sow diet. Independent of birth weight, echium or linseed oil in the sow diet increased the DHA concentration of the piglet tissues to the same extent, but the concentrations were not as high as when fish oil was fed.

  15. A cross sectional study of prevalence, risk factors, population attributable fractions and pathology for foot and limb lesions in preweaning piglets on commercial farms in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossent Pete

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a cross sectional study of 88 indoor and outdoor English pig farms, the prevalence of foot and limb lesions in 2843 preweaning piglets aged 1–4 weeks from 304 litters was recorded. The environmental risks for the prevalence of lesions and population attributable fractions were calculated. The risks for lesions in piglets were compared with those for limb and body lesions in their mothers. A small number of piglets with each type of lesion were examined post mortem to elucidate the pathology of the clinical lesions observed. Results The prevalence of sole bruising, sole erosion, skin abrasion and swollen joints or claws in 2843 piglets was 49.4% (1404, 15.5% (441, 43.6% (1240 and 4.7% (143 respectively. The prevalence of all foot and limb lesions was higher in indoor housed piglets than in outdoor housed piglets. The prevalence of sole bruising (OR 0.3 and skin abrasion (OR 0.6 decreased with each week of age from 1–4 weeks, but there was no significant association between piglet age and the prevalence of sole erosion or swollen joints and claws. There was an increased prevalence of sole bruising (OR 3.0 and swollen joints or claws (OR 3.0 and a decreased prevalence of skin abrasion (OR 0.3, piglets ≤ 1-week old, in piglets housed on slatted floors, compared with those on solid concrete floors with bedding. There was an increased risk of sole erosion associated with piglets housed on partly slatted floors with no bedding (OR 2.4 and partly slatted floors with small amounts of bedding (OR 2.9 compared with piglets housed on solid concrete floors with bedding in all areas of the pen. Post mortem examination of feet with lesions indicated that internal pathological changes were frequently more severe than the degree of external damage suggested. Conclusion Piglets housed outdoors had a very low prevalence of foot and limb injuries. Indoors, no one floor type was ideal to minimise all piglet foot and limb injuries and the

  16. Folic acid supplementation prevents the changes in hepatic promoter methylation status and gene expression in intrauterine growth-retarded piglets during early weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing-Bo, L; Ying, Y; Bing, Y; Xiang-Bing, M; Zhi-Qing, H; Guo-Quan, H; Hong, C; Dai-Wen, C

    2013-10-01

    During intrauterine life, genome interacts with maternal signals to influence the mRNA expression levels of specific genes persistently by regulating DNA methylation status. The objective of this study was to examine the responses of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma (PPARα and PPARγ) promoter methylation, mRNA expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and metabolite concentrations of intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) piglets to dietary folic acid supplementation. According to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 16 IUGR and 16 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 5 mg/kg of folic acid from weaning (day 14) to day 35 of age. Triglycerides in hepatic tissue and plasma were significantly elevated in control diets-fed IUGR piglets compared with NBW piglets but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of GR, PPARα, PPARγ, fatty acid synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in IUGR piglets fed a control diet were significantly higher than that in NBW piglets, and promoter methylation status of GR, PPARα and PPARγ in IUGR piglets was reduced significantly compared with NBW piglets. However, the changes in gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR piglets were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Hepatic DNA methyltransferase activity was greater with dietary folic acid supplementation regardless of birth weight. Taken together, these results demonstrated that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could prevent the changes of promoter methylation status and gene expressions in the liver of IUGR piglets.

  17. Field Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Oral Toltrazuril and Iron Combination (Baycox® Iron) in Maintaining Weaning Weight by Preventing Coccidiosis and Anaemia in Neonatal Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streyl, Kristina; Carlstron, Janaina; Dantos, Eliana; Mendoza, Roberto; Islas, Juan Agustin Torres; Bhushan, Chandra

    2015-08-01

    Effectiveness of an oral combination of toltrazuril and iron dextran (Baycox(®) Iron) to maintain weaning weight by preventing coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis and iron-deficiency anaemia in neonatal piglets was investigated on three commercial pig farms with a history of coccidiosis: two in Mexico and one in Brazil. On day (SD) 2 of life, piglets were randomised within litter by bodyweight to treatment or control group. On SD 3 piglets allocated to the control group (CG) each received 1 mL Baycox(®), containing 50 mg/mL toltrazuril orally and commercially available iron (200 mg/piglet) by intramuscular injection. Piglets allocated to the treatment group (TG) each received 1 mL toltrazuril and iron combination orally (Baycox(®) Iron) containing 50 mg/mL toltrazuril and 228 mg iron as iron dextran. All piglets had access to creep feed. 6493 piglets completed the study. Bodyweight at weaning on SD 21 of piglets treated with the oral toltrazuril and iron combination was confirmed to be non-inferior to the control treatment with coccidiosis. Haemoglobin levels on SD 21 were lower in the oral toltrazuril and iron combination treated piglets compared to control levels but above minimum haemoglobin levels to maintain health. There was no difference in mortality between the two groups. This large scale field evaluation clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of oral toltrazuril and iron (Baycox(®) Iron) in maintaining body weight at weaning compared to conventional treatment. The combination was effective in preventing coccidiosis and anaemia and thus provides a valuable alternative that reduces stressful events in neonatal piglets. There were no product related adverse events.

  18. Genetic parameters of piglet survival and birth weight from a two-generation crossbreeding experiment under outdoor conditions designed to disentangle direct and maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehe, R; Shrestha, N P; Mekkawy, W; Baxter, E M; Knap, P W; Smurthwaite, K M; Jarvis, S; Lawrence, A B; Edwards, S A

    2010-04-01

    Multivariate Bayesian linear-threshold models were used to estimate genetic parameters of peri- and postnatal piglet survival and individual birth weight of piglets reared under outdoor conditions. Data of 21,835 individual piglet observations were available from a 2-generation crossbreeding experiment selected for direct and maternal genetic effects of postnatal piglet survival on piglet and dam levels, respectively. In the first generation, approximately one-half of the Landrace sires used were selected for large or average breeding values of maternal genetic effects on postnatal piglet survival, whereas in the second generation the Large White sires used were selected for direct genetic effects of the same trait. Estimates of direct and maternal heritability were 0.21 and 0.15, 0.24 and 0.14, and 0.36 and 0.28 for piglet survival at birth and during the nursing period, and individual birth weight, respectively. In particular, direct heritabilities are substantially larger than those from the literature estimated for indoor-reared piglets, suggesting that genetic effects of these traits are substantially greater under outdoor conditions. Direct or maternal genetic correlations between survival traits or with birth weight were small (ranging from 0.06 to 0.17), indicating that peri- and postnatal survival are genetically under rather different control, and survival was only slightly positively influenced by birth weight. There were significant (P piglet survival. Adjustment of traits for litter size or inclusion of genetic groups showed insignificant effects on the magnitude of the estimated genetic parameters. The magnitude of genetic parameters suggested that there is substantial potential for genetic improvement of survival traits and birth weight in direct and maternal genetic effects, especially when piglets are kept under outdoor conditions.

  19. Effect of feeding sows on rations enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and the growth capacity and survival of their piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Hadaš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the effect of supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA given to pregnant and lactating sows on the phenotypic manifestation of their reproductive performance and on the birth and weaning weight of piglets was performed under conditions of a commercial herd of pigs. The experiment involved altogether 40 hybrid sows divided into two equal groups, i.e. Controls with 20 sows and Experimental Group with also 20 sows. Experimental Group received within the time interval from the 108th day of pregnancy to the 28th day after the parturition a supplement of 2 % of CLA. In individual litters the following performance parameters were recorded: number of all newborn piglets, number of piglets born alive, number of stillbirths, number of weaned piglets and individual weights of newborn piglets and weaned piglets. Obtained results concerning numbers of all newborn piglets in Controls and Experimental Group (i.e. 12.20 ± 2.09 and 11.85 ±2.58, respectively indicate that supplementing of the feeding ration with CLA in the last stage of pregnancy does not influence the size of litter. In Controls, numbers of piglets born alive were higher by 0.4 animals per litter; this difference, however, was statistically insignificant. Also the weights of newborn and weaned piglets were not influenced by the supplement of CLA. Statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.01 were found out between Controls and Experimental Group in numbers of weaned piglets, viz. 9.75 ± 1.68 vs. 8.35 ± 1.39, respectively, and between corresponding losses until weaning, viz. 0.95± 1.39 vs. 2.60 ± 1.93 in Controls and Experimental Group, respectively (P ≤ 0.01.

  20. Genetic parameters of the piglet mortality traits stillborn, weak at birth, starvation, crushing, and miscellaneous in crossbred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, T.; Ask, B.; Nielsen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This s