WorldWideScience

Sample records for k-2 3-5 6-8

  1. Effect of vitamin K2 on progression of atherosclerosis and vascular calcification in nondialyzed patients with chronic kidney disease stages 3-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowska, Ilona; Grzelak, Piotr; Masajtis-Zagajewska, Anna; Kaczmarska, Magdalena; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Vermeer, Cees; Maresz, Katarzyna; Nowicki, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have shown that high dietary intake of vitamin K2 is associated with reduced risk of coronary vascular disease and vascular calcification. We assessed the effect of vitamin K2 substitution on the progression of atherosclerosis and calcification in nondialyzed patients with CKD stages 3-5. The study included 42 nondialyzed patients with CKD. The following measurements were taken at baseline and after 270 ±12 days of supplementation with vitamin K2 at a dose of 90 μg (menaquinone, MK-7) together with 10 μg of cholecalciferol (K+D group) or 10 μg of cholecalciferol (group D): common carotid intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), coronary artery calcification score (CACS), basic biochemical parameters, lipids, and calcification modulators: matrix Gla protein (MGP), desphosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), fetuin A, osteocalcin (OC), and fibroblast growth factor 23. The increase of CCA-IMT was significantly lower in the K+D group compared with the D group: from 0.95 ±0.2 mm to 1.01 ±0.3, P = 0.003 vs from 1.02 ±0.2 mm to 1.16 ±0.3, P = 0.003 (ΔCCA-IMT, 0.06 ±0.08 vs 0.136 ±0.05 mm, P = 0.005, respectively). The increase in CACS was slightly lower in the K+D group than in the D group (ΔCACS, 58.1 ±106.5 AU vs 74.4 ±127.1 AU, P = 0.7). In the K+D group, a significant decrease in the level of dp-ucMGP and total OC was observed. A 270-day course of vitamin K2 administration in patients with CKD stages 3-5 may reduce the progression of atherosclerosis, but does not significantly affect the progression of calcification. Vitamin K2 significantly changes the levels of calcification promoters and inhibitors: dp-ucMGP, OC, and OPG.

  2. Mechanochemical synthesis and crystal structure of a 1:2 co-crystal of 1,3,6,8-tetraazatricyclo[4.3.1.13,8]undecane (TATU and 4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Rivera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Solvent-free treatment of 1,3,6,8-tetraazatricyclo[4.3.1.13,8]undecano (TATU with 4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol led to the formation of the title co-crystal, C7H14N4·2C8H9ClO. The asymmetric unit contains one aminal cage molecule and two phenol molecules linked via two O—H...N hydrogen bonds. In the aminal cage, the N–CH2–CH2–N unit is slightly distorted from a syn periplanar geometry. Aromatic π–π stacking between the benzene rings from two different neighbouring phenol molecules [centroid–centroid distance = 4.0570 (11 Å] consolidates the crystal packing.

  3. K2 Au(IO3)5 and β-KAu(IO3)4: Polar Materials with Strong SHG Responses Originating from Synergistic Effect of AuO4 and IO3 Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Hu, Chun-Li; Li, Bing-Xuan; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2016-01-26

    Two new polar potassium gold iodates, namely, K2 Au(IO3)5 (Cmc21) and β-KAu(IO3)4 (C2), have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Both compounds feature zero-dimensional polar [Au(IO3)4](-) units composed of an AuO4 square-planar unit coordinated by four IO3(-) ions in a monodentate fashion. In β-KAu(IO3)4, isolated [Au(IO3)4](-) ions are separated by K(+) ions, whereas in K2 Au(IO3)5, isolated [Au(IO3)4](-) ions and non-coordinated IO3(-) units are separated by K(+) ions. Both compounds are thermally stable up to 400 °C and exhibit high transmittance in the NIR region (λ=800-2500 nm) with measured optical band gaps of 2.65 eV for K2 Au(IO3 )5 and 2.75 eV for β-KAu(IO3)4. Powder second-harmonic generation measurements by using λ=2.05 μm laser radiation indicate that K2 Au(IO3)5 and β-KAu(IO3)4 are both phase-matchable materials with strong SHG responses of approximately 1.0 and 1.3 times that of KTiOPO4, respectively. Theoretical calculations based on DFT methods confirm that such strong SHG responses originate from a synergistic effect of the AuO4 and IO3 units. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Use of computer graphics for calculation of stability constants of praseodymium tris-(1,1,1,2,2,3,3,5-octafluoro-5-trifluromethyl-4-oxo-8-phenyloctanedion-6,8) adduct with 4-picoline from the NMR spectroscopy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiklinskij, V.D.; Kuznetsova, S.L.; Kostyrina, T.V.; Panyushkina, V.T.

    1991-01-01

    Lanthanide shifting reagent (LSR) on the basis of β-diketone of asymmetric structure, containing heteroatom-oxygen in fluorinated radical, has been synthesized. Adduct formation of LSR synthesized with 4-picoline has been studied by the method of NMR spectroscopy. The composition of the adduct formed, being 1:2, is determined. Stability constant of the adduct considered is calculated by previously suggested method, which consists in taking into account of equilibrium concentrations of the substrate in two experiments. Possibilities of computer graphics for the evaluation of paramters of the mathematical model suggested are demonstrated. The values of stability stepped constants of the adduct are calculated: lg K 1 =3.4±0.1; lg K 2 =2.0±0.1

  5. No-carrier-added (NCA) synthesis of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA using 3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7,7,8a-trimethyl-[6S-(6{alpha}, 8{alpha}, 8{alpha}{beta})]-6,8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horti, A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine]|[Yale Univ., West Haven, CT (United States). PET Center; Redmond, D.E. Jr. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Medicine; Soufer, R. [Yale Univ., West Haven, CT (United States). PET Center

    1995-12-31

    3,5,6,7,8,8a-Hexahydro-7,7,8a-trimethyl-[6S-(6{alpha},8{alpha} , 8{alpha}{beta})]-6,8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazino-2-one (2) was investigated as chiral auxiliary for asymmetric NCA nucleophilic synthesis of 6-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA. Direct condensation of 3,4-dimethoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzaldehyde (1a) or 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-piperonal (1b) in the presence of NaH with 2 gave the corresponding [{sup 18}F]-3-[(2-fluorophenyl)methylene]-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7,7,8 a-trimethyl-[6S-(3Z,3{alpha},6{alpha},8{alpha},8{alpha}{beta})]-6, 8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one derivative 3a or 3b as a single stereoisomer. L-Selectride promoted hydrogenation of the olefinic double bond of these derivatives, in presence of tertbutyl alcohol, afforded the corresponding [{sup 18}F]-3-[(2-fluorophenyl) methyl]-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7,7,8a-trimethyl-[3S-(3{alpha}, 6{alpha}, 8{alpha}8{alpha}{beta})]-6,8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one derivatives (4a,b) without affecting the orientation of diasterofacial discrimination. Deprotection of the derivatives 4a,b yielded 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA (e.e. >90%, 3% radiochemical yield (EOB), total synthesis time 125 min, specific activity >2000 mCi/{mu}mol). Direct deprotection/reduction of the compounds 3a,b provides the enantiomeric mixture of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D,L-DOPA (10-12% radiochemical yield) and, after chiral separation, 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA (e.e. 98%, 4-5% radiochemical yield). (author).

  6. No-carrier-added (NCA) synthesis of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA using 3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7,7,8a-trimethyl-[6S-(6α, 8α, 8αβ)]-6,8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horti, A.; Yale Univ., West Haven, CT; Redmond, D.E. Jr.; Soufer, R.

    1995-01-01

    3,5,6,7,8,8a-Hexahydro-7,7,8a-trimethyl-[6S-(6α,8α , 8αβ)]-6,8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazino-2-one (2) was investigated as chiral auxiliary for asymmetric NCA nucleophilic synthesis of 6-[ 18 F]Fluoro-L-DOPA. Direct condensation of 3,4-dimethoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluorobenzaldehyde (1a) or 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-piperonal (1b) in the presence of NaH with 2 gave the corresponding [ 18 F]-3-[(2-fluorophenyl)methylene]-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7,7,8 a-trimethyl-[6S-(3Z,3α,6α,8α,8αβ)]-6, 8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one derivative 3a or 3b as a single stereoisomer. L-Selectride promoted hydrogenation of the olefinic double bond of these derivatives, in presence of tertbutyl alcohol, afforded the corresponding [ 18 F]-3-[(2-fluorophenyl) methyl]-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7,7,8a-trimethyl-[3S-(3α, 6α, 8α8αβ)]-6,8-methano-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one derivatives (4a,b) without affecting the orientation of diasterofacial discrimination. Deprotection of the derivatives 4a,b yielded 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA (e.e. >90%, 3% radiochemical yield (EOB), total synthesis time 125 min, specific activity >2000 mCi/μmol). Direct deprotection/reduction of the compounds 3a,b provides the enantiomeric mixture of 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-D,L-DOPA (10-12% radiochemical yield) and, after chiral separation, 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA (e.e. 98%, 4-5% radiochemical yield). (author)

  7. K2-99

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Gandolfi, D.; Barragan, O.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery from K2 of a transiting planet in an 18.25-d, eccentric (0.19 +/- 0.04) orbit around K2-99, an 11th magnitude subgiant in Virgo. We confirm the planetary nature of the companion with radial velocities, and determine that the star is a metal-rich ([ Fe/H] = 0.20 +/- 0...

  8. K2-155

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Dai, Fei; Livingston, John H.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the discovery of three transiting super-Earths around K2-155 (EPIC 210897587), a relatively bright early M dwarf (V = 12.81 mag) observed during Campaign 13 of the NASA K2 mission. To characterize the system and validate the planet candidates, we conducted speckle imaging and high......-dispersion optical spectroscopy, including radial velocity measurements. Based on the K2 light curve and the spectroscopic characterization of the host star, the planet sizes and orbital periods are 1.55(-0.17)(+0.20) R-circle plus and 6.34365 +/- 0.00028 days for the inner planet; 1.95(-0.22)(+0.27) R-circle plus...... and 13.85402 +/- 0.00088 days for the middle planet; and 1.64(-0.17)(+0.18) R-circle plus and 40.6835 +/- 0.0031 days for the outer planet. The outer planet (K2-155d) is near the habitable zone, with an insolation 1.67 +/- 0.38 times that of the Earth. The planet's radius falls within the range between...

  9. K2 & Solar System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2015-01-01

    All of the fields that K2 observes are near the ecliptic plane in order to minimize the spin-up of the spacecraft in response to the effects of solar irradiation. The fields observed by K2 are thus rich in Solar System objects including planets, asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). K2 has already performed observations of Neptune and its large moon Triton, 68 Trojan and Hilda asteroids, 5 TNOs (including Pluto) and Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Springs). About 10,000 main-belt asteroids that fell into the pixel masks of stars have been serendipitously observed. Observations of small bodies are especially useful for determining rotation periods. Uranus will be observed in a future campaign (C8), as will many more small Solar System bodies. The status of various K2 Solar System studies will be reviewed and placed within the context of our current knowledge of the objects being observed.

  10. Star clusters and K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Jessie; Barentsen, Geert; Cody, Ann Marie

    2018-01-01

    The K2 survey has expanded the Kepler legacy by using the repurposed spacecraft to observe over 20 star clusters. The sample includes open and globular clusters at all ages, including very young (1-10 Myr, e.g. Taurus, Upper Sco, NGC 6530), moderately young (0.1-1 Gyr, e.g. M35, M44, Pleiades, Hyades), middle-aged (e.g. M67, Ruprecht 147, NGC 2158), and old globular clusters (e.g. M9, M19, Terzan 5). K2 observations of stellar clusters are exploring the rotation period-mass relationship to significantly lower masses than was previously possible, shedding light on the angular momentum budget and its dependence on mass and circumstellar disk properties, and illuminating the role of multiplicity in stellar angular momentum. Exoplanets discovered by K2 in stellar clusters provides planetary systems ripe for modeling given the extensive information available about their ages and environment. I will review the star clusters sampled by K2 across 16 fields so far, highlighting several characteristics, caveats, and unexplored uses of the public data set along the way. With fuel expected to run out in 2018, I will discuss the closing Campaigns, highlight the final target selection opportunities, and explain the data archive and TESS-compatible software tools the K2 mission intends to leave behind for posterity.

  11. CCDC 1015949: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)pyrene

    KAUST Repository

    El-Assaad, Tarek H.; Auer, Manuel; Castañ eda, Raul; Hallal, Kassem M.; Jradi, Fadi M.; Mosca, Lorenzo; Khnayzer, Rony S.; Patra, Digambara; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.; Wex, Brigitte; Kaafarani, Bilal R.

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  12. Effect of methyl substitution on optoelectronic properties of 1,3,6,8-tetraphenyl pyrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yanling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geometric structures of the ground states and excited states,frontier molecular orbitals,ionization potentials,electron affinities,reorganization energies,and absorption and emission spectra of three novel methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes were studied theoretically by quantum-chemical methods,such as density functional theory (DFT.The results show that the position of methyl substituent on benzene ring has much effect on the optoelectronic properties of methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes.Interestingly,the geometric structures and optoelectronic properties of the designed compound 1,3,6,8-tetra-p-tolylpyrene (TPPy are similar to those of 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(3,5-dimethylphenylpyrene (TDMPPy,which is worthy of being further researched.

  13. Minimum K_2,3-saturated Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ya-Chen

    2010-01-01

    A graph is K_{2,3}-saturated if it has no subgraph isomorphic to K_{2,3}, but does contain a K_{2,3} after the addition of any new edge. We prove that the minimum number of edges in a K_{2,3}-saturated graph on n >= 5 vertices is sat(n, K_{2,3}) = 2n - 3.

  14. Data analysis & probability drill sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the data analysis & probability concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages your students to review the concepts in unique ways. Each drill sheet contains warm-up and timed drill activities for the student to practice data analysis & probability concepts.

  15. 44 CFR 6.8 - Subpoena and other legal demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subpoena and other legal..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 6.8 Subpoena and other legal demands. Access to records in systems of records by subpoena or other legal process shall be...

  16. Geometry task & drill sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based combined resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills.

  17. The Yoneda algebra of a K2 algebra need not be another K2 algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, T.; Phan, C.; Shelton, B.

    2010-01-01

    The Yoneda algebra of a Koszul algebra or a D-Koszul algebra is Koszul. K2 algebras are a natural generalization of Koszul algebras, and one would hope that the Yoneda algebra of a K2 algebra would be another K2 algebra. We show that this is not necessarily the case by constructing a monomial K2 algebra for which the corresponding Yoneda algebra is not K2.

  18. Synthesis of new dithiacobaltaborane clusters derived from arachno-6,8-S2B7H9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.O.; Sneddon, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    A series of air-stable dithiacobaltaborane clusters has been isolated from either the reaction of the arachno-S 2 B 7 H 8 - anion with cobalt chloride and pentamethylcyclopentadienide or the reaction of neutral arachno-6,8-S 2 B 7 H 9 with cobalt atoms and pentamethylcyclopentadiene. Thus, the reaction of arachno-S 2 B 7 H 8 - with CoCl 2 and C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 - in THF gave, as the major products, the triple-decker compound nido-4,6-η-C 5 (CH 3 ) 52 Co 2 -3,5-S 2 B 2 H 2 (I) and the 11-vertex cluster nido-8,10(η-C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 ) 2 Co 2 -7,9-S 2 B 7 H 7 (III). Also isolated in smaller amounts were a chloride derivative of I, nido-1-Cl-4,6-(η-C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 ) 2 Co 2 -3,5-S 2 B 2 H (II), two isomers of III, nido-3,10-(η-C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 ) 2 Co 2 -7,9-S 2 B 7 H 7 (IV) and nido-3,5-(η-C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 ) 2 Co 2 -7,9-S 2 B 7 H 7 (V), and the eight-boron cluster nido-8-(η-C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 )Co-7,9-S 2 B 8 H 8 (VI). Other trace products of the reaction included the six-boron clusters nido-5,8-(η-C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 ) 2 Co 2 -6,9-S 2 B 6 H 6 (VII) and arachno-7-(η-C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 )Co-6,8-S 2 B 6 H 8 (VIII). Compound III was found to isomerize at 250 degree C to IV, which could then be converted to V at 300 degree C. The reaction of cobalt atoms with arachno-6,8-S 2 B 7 H 9 in the presence of pentamethylcyclopentadiene gave VIII as the major product; however, a number of other clusters including I, V, VI, and [(η-C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 ) 2 Co] + [(SB 10 H 10 ) 2 Co] - were isolated in trace amounts. 16 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  19. Synthetic marijuana "K2" induced ITP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Erman; Oral, Alihan; Özdemir, Melek; Bambul, Nail

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a heterogeneous disease which can be primary or secondary due to other conditions such as drugs. CB2 receptors (CB2R) also have a role in the ITP pathogenesis as CB2 receptor gene (CNR2) polymorphisms are associated with chronic immune thrombocytopenia and autoimmune diseases. K2 is synthetic marijuana which acts on cannabinoid receptors that are found on immune cells and thrombocytes. Here, we present a case who presented with ITP secondary to K2 usage and was successfully treated with 1 mg/kg prednisolone. This is the first ITP case in the literature due to K2. It is important in the era of the new drugs development of the CB2R mimetics.

  20. The exoplanet population revealed by K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barentsen, Geert; Dotson, Jessie; Colon, Knicole; Hedges, Christina; Team K2

    2018-01-01

    NASA's K2 survey has expanded the legacy of the Kepler mission by using the repurposed spacecraft to probe short-period planets around a more diverse population of stars: probing nearby dwarfs through distant giants; young pre-main sequence stars through evolved white dwarfs; halo stars through bulge members. I will review the star and planet population sampled by K2 across 16 fields so far, highlighting several characteristics, caveats, and unexplored uses of the public data set along the way. With fuel expected to run out in 2018, I will discuss the closing Campaigns, highlight the final target selection opportunities, and explain the data archive and TESS-compatible software tools the K2 mission intends to leave behind for posterity.

  1. Results from K2K experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Chiaki

    2001-01-01

    The K2K experiment is the first long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at KEK and at Kamioka, Japan. This is a brief summary of the K2K experiment in the first year of running from June 1999 to June 2000. The major result is that for the first time in human history artificially produced neutrinos by an accelerator are detected at a long distance of 250km from the production points. A brief introduction, the detector performance and the some analysis results are presented. The analysis results are based on the data corresponding to the integrated beam intesnsity of 2.29 x 10 19 pot

  2. The system K2NbF7-K2TiF6-KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenskaya, L.A.; Matveev, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Using visual-polythermal and thermographical methods the ternary system K 2 NbF 7 -K 2 TiE 6 -KCl has been studied. Crystallization fields of initial components and the field of solid solutions of double compounds K 3 NbClF 7 and K 3 TiClF 6 are outlined. Ternary eutectics at 654 deg C, having the composition K 2 NbF 6 -41, K 2 TiP 6 -41, KCl-18 mol.%, is determined. Potassium fluoroniobate and fluorotitanate form continuous solid solutions unstable in the presence of the third component, potassium chloride

  3. K2 and K2*: efficient alignment-free sequence similarity measurement based on Kendall statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Adjeroh, Donald A; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Jiang, Yue

    2018-05-15

    Alignment-free sequence comparison methods can compute the pairwise similarity between a huge number of sequences much faster than sequence-alignment based methods. We propose a new non-parametric alignment-free sequence comparison method, called K2, based on the Kendall statistics. Comparing to the other state-of-the-art alignment-free comparison methods, K2 demonstrates competitive performance in generating the phylogenetic tree, in evaluating functionally related regulatory sequences, and in computing the edit distance (similarity/dissimilarity) between sequences. Furthermore, the K2 approach is much faster than the other methods. An improved method, K2*, is also proposed, which is able to determine the appropriate algorithmic parameter (length) automatically, without first considering different values. Comparative analysis with the state-of-the-art alignment-free sequence similarity methods demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approaches, especially with increasing sequence length, or increasing dataset sizes. The K2 and K2* approaches are implemented in the R language as a package and is freely available for open access (http://community.wvu.edu/daadjeroh/projects/K2/K2_1.0.tar.gz). yueljiang@163.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. College students and use of K2: an emerging drug of abuse in young persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingdi; Primack, Brian A; Barnett, Tracey E; Cook, Robert L

    2011-07-11

    K2 or "spice" has emerged as a popular legal alternative to marijuana among adolescents and young adults. However, no data has been published assessing prevalence of and associations with ever K2 use in any population. This study's aims were to examine prevalence of ever K2 use among a sample of college students, to determine characteristics of persons who use K2, and to access the association between K2 and other drug use. Ever use of K2 was reported by 69 (8%) of the sample of 852 college students. Response rate was 36%. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed whether sociodemographic characteristics and other drug use were associated with ever use of K2. Ever use of K2 was reported by 69 (8%) of the sample. Among these 69 individuals, 61 (88%) had used a cigarette and 25 (36%) had used a hookah to smoke K2. In multivariate analyses, K2 use was more common in males (vs. females, adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)=2.0, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.2-3.5, p=0.01) and 1st or 2nd year college students (vs. 3rd year or above, aOR=2.4, 95% CI=1.2-5.0, p=0.02). Ever use of K2 in this sample was higher than ever use of many other drugs of abuse that are commonly monitored in adolescents and young adults. Although DEA had banned five synthetic cannabinoids recently, clinicians and public health officials concerned with substance abuse in youth should be aware of and monitor the use of this drug in college students over time. © 2011 Hu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. College students and use of K2: an emerging drug of abuse in young persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Tracey E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background K2 or "spice" has emerged as a popular legal alternative to marijuana among adolescents and young adults. However, no data has been published assessing prevalence of and associations with ever K2 use in any population. This study's aims were to examine prevalence of ever K2 use among a sample of college students, to determine characteristics of persons who use K2, and to access the association between K2 and other drug use. Findings Ever use of K2 was reported by 69 (8% of the sample of 852 college students. Response rate was 36%. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed whether sociodemographic characteristics and other drug use were associated with ever use of K2. Ever use of K2 was reported by 69 (8% of the sample. Among these 69 individuals, 61 (88% had used a cigarette and 25 (36% had used a hookah to smoke K2. In multivariate analyses, K2 use was more common in males (vs. females, adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR = 2.0, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.2-3.5, p = 0.01 and 1st or 2nd year college students (vs. 3rd year or above, aOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2-5.0, p = 0.02. Conclusions Ever use of K2 in this sample was higher than ever use of many other drugs of abuse that are commonly monitored in adolescents and young adults. Although DEA had banned five synthetic cannabinoids recently, clinicians and public health officials concerned with substance abuse in youth should be aware of and monitor the use of this drug in college students over time.

  6. 41 CFR 304-6.8 - Will the reports be made available for public inspection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will the reports be made available for public inspection? 304-6.8 Section 304-6.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-PAYMENT GUIDELINES Valuation § 304-6.8 Will the reports be made available for public inspection? Yes, OGE...

  7. Transiting Planets from Kepler, K2 & TESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Kepler spacecraft, launched in 2009, has been a resounding success. More than 4000 planet candidates have been identified using data from Kepler primary mission, which ended in 2013, and greater than 2000 of these candidates have been verified as bona fide exoplanets. After the loss of two reaction wheels ended the primary mission, the Kepler spacecraft was repurposed in 2014 to observe many fields on the sky for short periods. This new mission, dubbed K2, has led to the discovery of greater than 600 planet candidates, approximately 200 of which have been verified to date; most of these exoplanets are closer to us than the majority of exoplanets discovered by the primary Kepler mission. TESS, launching in 2018, will survey most of the sky for exoplanets, with emphasis on those orbiting nearby and/or bright host stars, making these planets especially well-suited for follow-up observations with other observatories to characterize atmospheric compositions and other properties. More than one-third of the planet candidates found by NASA's are associated with target stars that have more than one planet candidate, and such 'multis' account for the majority of candidates that have been verified as true planets. The large number of multis tells us that flat multiplanet systems like our Solar System are common. Virtually all of the candidate planetary systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations that assume a physically motivated mass-radius relationship. Statistical studies performed on these candidate systems reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness. The characteristics of several of the most interesting confirmed Kepler & K2 multi-planet systems will also be discussed.

  8. K2P2- A photometry pipeline for the K2 mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mikkel N.; Handberg, Rasmus; Davies, Guy R.

    2015-01-01

    With the loss of a second reaction wheel, resulting in the inability to point continuously and stably at the same field of view, the NASA Kepler satellite recently entered a new mode of observation known as the K2 mission. The data from this redesigned mission present a specific challenge......; the targets systematically drift in position on a ~6 hour time scale, inducing a significant instrumental signal in the photometric time series --- this greatly impacts the ability to detect planetary signals and perform asteroseismic analysis. Here we detail our version of a reduction pipeline for K2 target...... the KASOC filter (Handberg & Lund 2014), thus rendering the time series ready for asteroseismic analysis; computes power spectra for all targets, and identifies potential contaminations between targets. From a test of our pipeline on a sample of targets from the K2 campaign 0, the recovery of data...

  9. Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12 hexanitrohexaaza isowurtzitane (CL20) Co Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ARL-TR-7901 ● DEC 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12- hexanitrohexaaza-isowurtzitane (CL20... Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12- hexanitrohexaaza-isowurtzitane (CL20) Co-Crystals by DeCarlos Taylor Weapons and Materials...Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2015–September 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12

  10. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appropriate use. 3.5 Section 3.5 National... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional Defense...

  11. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must be...

  12. K2-60b and K2-107b. A Sub-Jovian and a Jovian Planet from the K2 Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigmüller, Philipp; Csizmadia, Szilard; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Cabrera, Juan; Erikson, Anders [Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center, Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Gandolfi, Davide; Barragán, Oscar [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Persson, Carina M.; Fridlund, Malcolm [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Donati, Paolo; Cusano, Felice [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani, 1, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Korth, Judith; Grziwa, Sascha [Rheinisches Institut für Umweltforschung an der Universität zu Köln, Aachener Strasse 209, D-50931 Köln (Germany); Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Nespral, David; Deeg, Hans J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Saario, Joonas [Nordic Optical Telescope, Apartado 474, E-38700, Santa Cruz de La Palma (Spain); Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Guenther, Eike W. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenberg (Germany); and others

    2017-03-01

    We report the characterization and independent detection of K2-60b, as well as the detection and characterization of K2-107b, two transiting hot gaseous planets from the K2 space mission. We confirm the planetary nature of the two systems and determine their fundamental parameters combining the K2 time-series data with FIES@NOT and HARPS-N@TNG spectroscopic observations. K2-60b has a radius of 0.683 ± 0.037 R {sub Jup} and a mass of 0.426 ± 0.037 M {sub Jup} and orbits a G4 V star with an orbital period of 3.00267 ± 0.00006 days. K2-107b has a radius of 1.44 ± 0.15 R {sub Jup} and a mass of 0.84 ± 0.08 M {sub Jup} and orbits an F9 IV star every 3.31392 ± 0.00002 days. K2-60b is among the few planets at the edge of the so-called “desert” of short-period sub-Jovian planets. K2-107b is a highly inflated Jovian planet orbiting an evolved star about to leave the main sequence.

  13. K2-60b and K2-107b. A Sub-Jovian and a Jovian Planet from the K2 Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigmüller, Philipp; Csizmadia, Szilard; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Cabrera, Juan; Erikson, Anders; Gandolfi, Davide; Barragán, Oscar; Persson, Carina M.; Fridlund, Malcolm; Donati, Paolo; Cusano, Felice; Korth, Judith; Grziwa, Sascha; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Nespral, David; Deeg, Hans J.; Saario, Joonas; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Guenther, Eike W.

    2017-01-01

    We report the characterization and independent detection of K2-60b, as well as the detection and characterization of K2-107b, two transiting hot gaseous planets from the K2 space mission. We confirm the planetary nature of the two systems and determine their fundamental parameters combining the K2 time-series data with FIES@NOT and HARPS-N@TNG spectroscopic observations. K2-60b has a radius of 0.683 ± 0.037 R Jup and a mass of 0.426 ± 0.037 M Jup and orbits a G4 V star with an orbital period of 3.00267 ± 0.00006 days. K2-107b has a radius of 1.44 ± 0.15 R Jup and a mass of 0.84 ± 0.08 M Jup and orbits an F9 IV star every 3.31392 ± 0.00002 days. K2-60b is among the few planets at the edge of the so-called “desert” of short-period sub-Jovian planets. K2-107b is a highly inflated Jovian planet orbiting an evolved star about to leave the main sequence.

  14. Potassium Capture by Kaolin, Part 2: K2CO3, KCI, and K2SO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    residence time on the reaction was investigated. The results showed that the K-capture level (C-K) (g potassium reacted by per g kaolin available) of K2CO3 and KCI by kaolin generally followed the equilibrium predictions at temperatures above 1100 degrees C, when using a kaolin particle size of D50 = 5.......47 mu m and a residence time of 1.2 s. This revealed that a nearly full conversion was obtained without kinetic or transport limitations at the conditions applied. At 800 and 900 degrees C, the measured conversions were lower than the equilibrium predictions, indicating that the reactions were either...

  15. A kinetic study on the catalysis of KCl, K2SO4, and K2CO3 during oxy-biomass combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuanghui; Wang, Xuebin; Zhang, Jiaye; Liu, Zihan; Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Tan, Houzhang; Duić, Neven

    2018-07-15

    Biomass combustion under the oxy-fuel conditions (Oxy-biomass combustion) is one of the approaches achieving negative CO 2 emissions. KCl, K 2 CO 3 and K 2 SO 4 , as the major potassium species in biomass ash, can catalytically affect biomass combustion. In this paper, the catalysis of the representative potassium salts on oxy-biomass combustion was studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Effects of potassium salt types (KCl, K 2 CO 3 and K 2 SO 4 ), loading concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 8 wt%), replacing N 2 by CO 2 , and O 2 concentrations (5, 20, 30 vol%) on the catalysis degree were discussed. The comparison between TG-DTG curves of biomass combustion before and after water washing in both the 20%O 2 /80%N 2 and 20%O 2 /80%CO 2 atmospheres indicates that the water-soluble minerals in biomass play a role in promoting the devolatilization and accelerating the char-oxidation; and the replacement of N 2 by CO 2 inhibits the devolatilization and char-oxidation processes during oxy-biomass combustion. In the devolatilization stage, the catalysis degree of potassium monotonously increases with the increase of potassium salt loaded concentration. The catalysis degree order of the studied potassium salts is K 2 CO 3  > KCl > K 2 SO 4 . In the char-oxidation stage, with the increase of loading concentration the three kinds of potassium salts present inconsistent change tendencies of the catalysis degree. In the studied loading concentrations from 0 to 8 wt%, there is an optimal loading concentration for KCl and K 2 CO 3 , at 3 and 5 wt%, respectively; while for K 2 SO 4 , the catalysis degree on char-oxidation monotonically increases with the loading potassium concentration. For most studied conditions, regardless of the potassium salt types or the loading concentrations or the combustion stages, the catalysis degree in the O 2 /CO 2 atmosphere is stronger than that in the O 2 /N 2 atmosphere. The catalysis degree is also affected by the O 2

  16. Campaign 9 of the K2 mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Calen B.; Poleski, Radosław; Penny, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    K2's Campaign 9 (K2C9) will conduct a ˜3.7 deg2 survey toward the Galactic bulge from 2016 April 22 through July 2 that will leverage the spatial separation between K2 and the Earth to facilitate measurement of the microlens parallax {π }{{E}} for ≳ 170 microlensing events. These will include....... In this article we provide an overview of the K2C9 space- and ground-based microlensing survey. Specifically, we detail the demographic questions that can be addressed by this program, including the frequency of FFPs and the Galactic distribution of exoplanets, the observational parameters of K2C9, and the array...... of resources dedicated to concurrent observations. Finally, we outline the avenues through which the larger community can become involved, and generally encourage participation in K2C9, which constitutes an important pathfinding mission and community exercise in anticipation of WFIRST....

  17. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-2 - ADP test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADP test. 1.401(k)-2 Section 1.401(k)-2 Internal... TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(k)-2 ADP test. (a) Actual deferral percentage (ADP) test—(1) In general—(i) ADP test formula. A cash or deferred arrangement satisfies the ADP...

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities

  19. Vectorization of DOT3.5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonomiya, Iwao; Ishiguro, Misako; Tsutsui, Tsuneo

    1990-07-01

    In this report, we describe the vectorization of two-dimensional Sn-method radiation transport code DOT3.5. Vectorized codes are not only the NEA original version developed at ORNL but also the versions improved by JAERI: DOT3.5 FNS version for fusion neutronics analyses, DOT3.5 FER version for fusion reactor design, and ESPRIT module of RADHEAT-V4 code system for radiation shielding and radiation transport analyses. In DOT3.5, input/output processing time amounts to a great part of the elapsed time when a large number of energy groups and/or a large number of spatial mesh points are used in the calculated problem. Therefore, an improvement has been made for the speedup of input/output processing in the DOT3.5 FNS version, and DOT-DD (Double Differential cross section) code. The total speedup ratio of vectorized version to the original scalar one is 1.7∼1.9 for DOT3.5 NEA version, 2.2∼2.3 fro DOT3.5 FNS version, 1.7 for DOT3.5 FER version, and 3.1∼4.4 for RADHEAT-V4, respectively. The elapsed times for improved DOT3.5 FNS version and DOT-DD are reduced to 50∼65% that of the original version by the input/output speedup. In this report, we describe summary of codes, the techniques used for the vectorization and input/output speedup, verification of computed results, and speedup effect. (author)

  20. An overview on importance, synthetic strategies and studies of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Venkata Viswanath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW, commonly called as CL-20, is a high energy and high density material of keen interest to both commercial and scientific worlds due to its greater insensitivity (reduced sensitivity along with a positive high heat of formation, which is due to the azanitro groups attached to the skeleton of HNIW and its highly strained cage structure. It plays a remarkable role in modification and replacement of most of the propellant (gun and rocket preparations. In this report we present the comparative strategies involved in the syntheses of HNIW with respect to economical and environmental aspects. Various methods reported in the literature on the purification of the crude HNIW (α-HNIW to obtain ε-form of HNIW (high dense/more potential are consolidated. Understanding of the structure, morphology, energetics, thermal behavior and their modification to meet the applicability (decreased impact sensitivity determines the industrial application of HNIW. A compilation of the available literature on the aforementioned characteristic properties for obtaining a value added ε-HNIW is discussed here. This overview also reports the literature available on newer forms of HNIW including derivatives and cocrystals, which increase the performance of HNIW.

  1. 3,5-bis(acylamino) benzamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Certain 3,5-disubstituted, 2,4,6-triiodoanilides of polyhydroxymonobasic acids have recently been found useful as non-ionic x-ray contrast agents. The 3-(lower acylamino)-5-amino-2,4,6-triiodobenzamides are prepared by hydrogenation of a 3,5-dinitrobenzamide, acylation of the resulting diamino compound to the bis-(acylamino) level and iodination of the acylamino compound

  2. 3' : 5'-Cyclic AMP-dependent 3'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mato, José M.; Krens, Frans A.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Konijn, Theo M.

    1977-01-01

    Suspensions of 3':5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP)-sensitive cells of Dictyostelium discoideum responded to a cAMP pulse with increased 3':5'-cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels. Under the assay conditions used (2 × 10^8 cells per ml in 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.0) cAMP (5 × 10-8 M final concentration) increased cGMP

  3. Results from Super-Kamiokande and K2K

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The probability of flavor oscillation (in the simplest, two-component case) is ..... K2K had collected about half of its total planned protons-on-target when the accident at ... [14] Design, construction, and operation of SciFi tracking detector for K2K ...

  4. Immunomodulatory effect of vitamin K2: Implications for bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, V D; Mezey, E

    2018-03-01

    In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, vitamin K2 appears to decrease the incidence of hip, vertebral, and non-vertebral fractures. Women with postmenopausal osteoporosis have more circulating activated T cells compared with healthy postmenopausal and premenopausal women, but the effects of vitamin K2 on T cells have not been studied. In this study, we have looked at T-cell suppression by vitamin K2. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from three healthy donors were used. The PBMCs were stimulated with the mitogens phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A, and T-cell proliferation was analyzed using flow cytometry based on carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CSFE) dye dilution. Vitamin K2 (60 and 100 μM) inhibited T-cell proliferation. Vitamin K1 at the same concentrations did not inhibit T-cell proliferation. Vitamin K2 has immunomodulatory activities. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Effectiveness of vitamin K2 on osteoporosis in adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yuichi; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Tomohiro; Hiroyama, Yoshifumi; Fukami, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kensuke; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis can lead to spontaneous fractures in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is a useful marker for vitamin K insufficiency in osteoporosis. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin K2 on bone mineral density (BMD) in adults with CP and vitamin K insufficiency. Sixteen adults, median age of 56years, with CP and osteoporosis in whom the serum ucOC concentration exceeded 4.5ng/mL were included. All patients received 45mg of vitamin K2 per day. BMD was measured and presented as a percentage of the young adult mean (%YAM). Serum levels of ucOC and BMD were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12months. Serum levels of ucOC decreased from 7.8ng/mL (range, 4.9-32) at baseline to 3.9ng/mL (range, 1.9-6.8) after 6months (P=0.001). BMD increased from 59%YAM (range, 45-67) at baseline to 68%YAM (range, 50-79) after 12months (P=0.003). Vitamin K2 had a positive effect on BMD in osteoporotic adults with CP and high serum concentrations of ucOC, and might be useful as a first line treatment for osteoporotic adults with CP and vitamin K insufficiency. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 41 CFR 51-6.8 - Deletion of items from the Procurement List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deletion of items from...-PROCUREMENT PROCEDURES § 51-6.8 Deletion of items from the Procurement List. (a) When a central nonprofit... shall notify the Committee staff immediately. Before reaching a decision to request a deletion of an...

  7. 36 CFR 6.8 - National Park Service solid waste responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.8 National Park Service solid waste responsibilities. (a) Beginning one year after January 23, 1995, a Superintendent will not permit or allow a person to dispose of solid waste at a National Park Service operated...

  8. 11th Annual Mine Warfare Technology Symposium, May 6-8, 2014 - Monterey, CA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Program Executive Office Littoral Combat Ships (PEO LCS), OPNAV (N95), and The Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and Research (CRUSER) are pleased to announce the ELEVENTH International Mine Warfare Technology Symposium in Monterey, California, May 6-8, 2014.

  9. The Relation between Contingency Preference and Imitation in 6-8-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Radukic, Sarah; Zmyj, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Detecting self-generated actions and imitating other-generated actions are important abilities in order to interact with others. The relationship between these domains was investigated in 6-8-month-old infants. In a contingency-preference task, infants observed their own legs on a real-time and a delayed video display. In an imitation task, the…

  10. Humoral Immunity to AAV-6, 8, and 9 in Normal and Dystrophic Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Smith, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-6, 8, and 9 are promising gene-delivery vectors for testing novel Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model. Humoral immunity greatly influences in vivo AAV transduction. However, neutralizing antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9 have not been systemically examined in normal and dystrophic dogs. To gain information on the seroprevalence of antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9, we measured neutralizing antibody titers using an in vitro transduction inhibition assay. We examined 72 naive serum samples and 26 serum samples obtained from dogs that had received AAV gene transfer. Our data demonstrated that AAV-6 neutralizing antibody was the most prevalent antibody in dogs irrespective of age, gender, disease status (dystrophic or not), and prior parvovirus vaccination history. Surprisingly, high-level anti-AAV-6 antibody was detected at birth in newborn puppies. Further, a robust antibody response was induced in affected, but not normal newborn dogs following systemic AAV gene transfer. Taken together, our data have provided an important baseline on the seroprevalence of AAV-6, 8, and 9 neutralizing antibodies in normal and Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs. These results will help guide translational AAV gene-therapy studies in dog models of muscular dystrophy. PMID:22040468

  11. Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypay, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an "Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8". The study group included 691 students out of 10 schools in Eskisehir. Both Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted on the data (Burnout stem from school activities, burnout stem from family, feeling of…

  12. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanese, Kathy; Chung, Luz; Forbes, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This new addition to Math Solutions "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class series" offers a wealth of lessons and strategies for modifying grades 6-8 instruction. Section I presents an overview of teaching math to English learners: the research, the challenges, the linguistic demands of a math lesson, and specific strategies and…

  13. Extended Aperture Photometry of K2 RR Lyrae stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plachy Emese

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the method of the Extended Aperture Photometry (EAP that we applied on K2 RR Lyrae stars. Our aim is to minimize the instrumental variations of attitude control maneuvers by using apertures that cover the positional changes in the field of view thus contain the stars during the whole observation. We present example light curves that we compared to the light curves from the K2 Systematics Correction (K2SC pipeline applied on the automated Single Aperture Photometry (SAP and on the Pre-search Data Conditioning Simple Aperture Photometry (PDCSAP data.

  14. Extended Aperture Photometry of K2 RR Lyrae stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachy, Emese; Klagyivik, Péter; Molnár, László; Sódor, Ádám; Szabó, Róbert

    2017-10-01

    We present the method of the Extended Aperture Photometry (EAP) that we applied on K2 RR Lyrae stars. Our aim is to minimize the instrumental variations of attitude control maneuvers by using apertures that cover the positional changes in the field of view thus contain the stars during the whole observation. We present example light curves that we compared to the light curves from the K2 Systematics Correction (K2SC) pipeline applied on the automated Single Aperture Photometry (SAP) and on the Pre-search Data Conditioning Simple Aperture Photometry (PDCSAP) data.

  15. Geometry task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  16. Kepler: A Search for Terrestrial Planets. K2 Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Bryson, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler spacecraft was repurposed for the K2 mission a year after the failure of the second of Kepler's four reaction wheels in 2013 May. The purpose of this document, the K2 Handbook (K2H), is to describe features of K2 operations, performance, data analysis, and archive products which are common to most K2 campaigns, but different in degree or kind from the corresponding features of the Kepler mission.The K2 Handbook is meant to be read with the following companion documents, which are all publicly available:1. Kepler Instrument Handbook (KSCI-19033) provides information about the design, performance and operational constraints of the instrument and an overview of the types of pixel data that are available.2. Kepler Data Processing Handbook (KSCI-19081) describes how pixels downloaded from the spacecraft are converted by the Kepler Data Processing Pipeline into the data products available at the MAST archive3. Kepler Archive Manual (KDMC-100008) describes the format and content of the data products and how to search for them.4. Kepler Data Characteristics Handbook (KSCI-19040) describes recurring non-astrophysical features of the Kepler data due to instrument signatures, spacecraft events or solar activity and explains how these characteristics are handled by the Kepler pipeline.5. The Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog describes the provenance of the positions and Kepler magnitudes used for target management and aperature photometry.6. K2 Data Release Notes (DRN) are on-line documents available on the K2 science website which describe the data inventory, instrumental signatures and events peculiar to individual observing campaigns.

  17. Five strands of math drills big book : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Included are warm-up and timed drill activities which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  18. Shape coexistence from lifetime and branching-ratio measurements in "6"8","7"0Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crider, B. P.; Prokop, C. J.; Liddick, S. N.; Al-Shudifat, M.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Shape coexistence near closed-shell nuclei, whereby states associated with deformed shapes appear at relatively low excitation energy alongside spherical ones, is indicative of the rapid change in structure that can occur with the addition or removal of a few protons or neutrons. Near "6"8Ni (Z=28, N=40), the identification of shape coexistence hinges on hitherto undetermined transition rates to and from low-energy 0+ states. In "6"8","7"0Ni, new lifetimes and branching ratios have been measured. These data enable quantitative descriptions of the 0+ states through the deduced transition rates and serve as sensitive probes for characterizing their nuclear wave functions. The results are compared to, and consistent with, large-scale shell-model calculations which predict shape coexistence. With the firm identification of this phenomenon near "6"8Ni, shape coexistence is now observed in all currently accessible regions of the nuclear chart with closed proton shells and mid-shell neutrons.

  19. Suicidal ideation and self-harm following K2 use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shannon; Bliss, Sarah; Malik, Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    There is emerging evidence of adverse effects associated with K2 and similar synthetic cannabinoid compounds marketed as herbal alternatives to marijuana. Few studies were identified regarding the psychiatric effects of K2, including suicidal ideation, and to our knowledge none have been written related to self-harm following use of K2. A healthy 20-year-old single Caucasian male with no previous psychiatric diagnoses or treatment was brought by police to the ED with acute agitation, confusion, suicidal ideation, and self-inflicted trauma after smoking K2. Evaluation in the ED was notable for agitation, significant abrasions, respiratory rate of 30, negative UDS, and sinus tachycardia on EKG. Once medically stabilized, he was transferred to the inpatient psychiatric unit for continued monitoring. Upon evaluation on the psychiatric unit the following day, his symptoms had completely resolved, he continued to deny any previous psychiatric history, and was discharged home. K2 and other synthetic cannabinoids have been shown to have significant medical and psychiatric adverse effects and they are still readily available for purchase. Evidence is limited regarding the psychiatric effects; however, synthetic cannabinoid products may potentially lead to suicidal ideation and self-harm behaviors amongst many other psychiatric symptoms.The long-term risks are still unclear, but some studies suggest the possibility of inducing chronic psychotic symptoms and worsening underlying psychiatric illness. Continued research is needed regarding the effects of these substances as well as an increase in public awareness of the risks.

  20. Beyond the Kepler/K2 bright limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, T. R.; Pope, B. J. S.; Antoci, V.

    2017-01-01

    The most powerful tests of stellar models come from the brightest stars in the sky, for which complementary techniques, such as astrometry, asteroseismology, spectroscopy and interferometry, can be combined. The K2 mission is providing a unique opportunity to obtain high-precision photometric time...... have developed a new photometric technique, which we call halo photometry, to observe very bright stars using a limited number of pixels. Halo photometry is simple, fast and does not require extensive pixel allocation, and will allow us to use K2 and other photometric missions, such as TESS, to observe...... to 2000 ppm. For the star Maia, we demonstrate the utility of combining K2 photometry with spectroscopy and interferometry to show that it is not a 'Maia variable', and to establish that its variability is caused by rotational modulation of a large chemical spot on a 10 d time-scale....

  1. Studying RR Lyrae Stars in M4 with K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Drury, Jason; Moskalik, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Observations by Kepler/K2 have revolutionized the study of RR Lyrae stars by allowing the detection of new phenomena, such as low amplitude additional modes and period doubling, which had not previously been seen from the ground. During its campaign 2, K2 observed the globular cluster M4, providing the first opportunity to study a sizeable group of RR Lyrae stars that belong to a single population; the other RR Lyrae stars that have been observed from space are field stars in the galactic halo and thus belong to an assortment of populations. We present the results of our study of the RR Lyrae variables in M4 from K2 photometry. We have identified additional, low amplitude pulsation modes in the two observed RRc stars. In three RRab stars we have found the Blazhko effect with periods of 16.6 days, 22.4 days, and 44.5 days.

  2. Rotation in USco and rho Oph with K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebull, Luisa; Stauffer, John; K2 Clusters Team

    2018-01-01

    K2 observed Upper Scorpius and rho Oph as part of their Campaign 2 in 2014. At ~8 and ~1 Myr respectively, the stars in Upper Sco and rho Oph exhibit greater diversity of light curve shapes than are found in older clusters observed with K2 such as Pleiades or Praesepe. Nonetheless, we are able to derive rotation periods for 85% (971/1136) of the USco members and 80% (71/88) of the rho Oph members. About 25% of the periodic stars have evidence for multiple periods. These light curves sample smaller amplitudes to lower masses and with a far better cadence, than has even been probed before. We can compare USco with similar stars in Praesepe (~700 Myr) and the Pleiades (~125 Myr), all with K2 light curves.

  3. K2V2O2(AsO42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Roisnel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The vanadium oxide arsenate with formula K2V2O2(AsO42, dipotassium divanadium(IV dioxide diarsenate, has been synthesized by solid-state reaction in an evacuated silica ampoule. Its structure is isotypic with K2V2O2(PO42. The framework is built up from corner-sharing VO6 octahedra and AsO4 tetrahedra, creating an infinite [VAsO8]∞ chain running along the a- and c-axis directions. The K+ cations are located in hexagonal tunnels, which are delimited by the connection of the [VAsO8]∞ chains.

  4. Influence of microstructure on the formability of Al-Mg6.8 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minov Boris G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Formability of Al-Mg6.8 alloy has been evaluated experimentally in uniaxial tension and biaxial stretching. Three different structures developed after cold rolling and annealing in the range of temperature from 265 to 320 °C: (I recovered dual (a + β phase, (II recrystallized (a + β dual phase, and (III recrystallized a-Al single phase structure, were tested. Samples with recovered structure have shown a lower formability level than the samples with fully recrystallized structure. Formability level assessed through FLD and LDH value, has been a result of complex interaction between work hardening ability and strain rate sensitivity.

  5. Anomalous decrease in groundwater radon before the Taiwan M6.8 Chengkung earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, T.; Fan, K.; Kuochen, H.; Han, Y.; Chu, H.; Lee, Y.

    2006-01-01

    On December 10, 2003, an earthquake of magnitude (M) 6.8, the strongest since 1951, occurred near the Chengkung area in eastern Taiwan. Approximately 65 d prior to the 2003 Chengkung earthquake, precursory changes in the groundwater radon concentration were observed at the Antung radon-monitoring station located 20 km from the epicenter. The radon anomaly was a decrease from a background level of 28.9 Bq L -1 to a minimum of 12.2 Bq L -1 . Observations at the Antung hot spring suggest that the groundwater radon, when observed under suitable geological conditions, can be a sensitive tracer for strain changes in the crust preceding an earthquake

  6. Zonal Wave Number 2 Rossby Wave (3.5-day oscillation) Over The Martian Lower Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Thokuluwa, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Over the Mars, height (800-50 Pascal pressure coordinate) profiles of temperature (K), measured by radio occultation technique during the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor) mission, obtained for the period of 1-10 January 2006 at the Martian latitude of ~63N in almost all the longitudes are analyzed to study the characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. To avoid significant data gaps in a particular longitude sector, we selected a set of 7 Mars longitude regions with ranges of 0-30E, 35-60E, 65-95E, 190-230E, 250-280E, 290-320E, and 325-360E to study the global characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. The 3.5-day oscillation is not selected as a-priori but observed as a most significant oscillation during this period of 1-10 January 2006. It is observed that in the longitude of 0-30E, the 3.5-day oscillation shows statistically significant power (above the 95% confidence level white noise) from the lowest height (800 Pascal, 8 hPa) itself and up to the height of 450 Pascal level with the maximum power of ~130 K^2 at the 600 & 650 Pascal levels. It started to grow from the power of ~ 50 K^2 at the lowest height of 800 Pascal level and reached the maximum power in the height of 600-650 Pascal level and then it started to get lessened monotonously up to the height of 450 Pascal level where its power is ~ 20 K^2. Beyond this height and up to the height of 50 Pascal level, the wave amplitude is below the white noise level. As the phase of the wave is almost constant at all the height levels, it seems that the observed 3.5-day oscillation is a stationary wave with respect to the height. In the 35-60 E longitude sector, the vertical structure of the 3.5-day oscillation is similar to what observed for the 0-30 E longitude region but the power is statistically insignificant at all the heights. However in the 65-95E longitude sector, the wave grows from the lowest level (70 K^2) of 800 Pascal to its maximum power of 280 K^2 in the height of 700 Pascal level and then it started

  7. P - aminobenzoic - 3,5 - T acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaila, V.; Corol, Delia

    1999-01-01

    The p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and dermatological diseases. The tritium labelling of PABA leads to the elucidation of essential biomedical aspects concerning the collagen behavior. The process of tritium introduction into the PABA molecule consists of two steps: 1. Bromination of PABA with elemental bromine in 3 and 5 positions; 2. Replacement of bromine with tritium by a substitution catalytic reaction.. PABA - 3,5 - T is purified by thin layer preparative chromatography and is characterized radiochemically by radioactivity measurements carried out by liquid scintillators. The chemical concentration is determined by UV spectrophotometry. The quenching is estimated using a calibration curve of the pure product. The specific activities (about 50-60 Ci/mM) allow very sensitive biomedical studies to be performed. (authors)

  8. The exposition of John 17:6-8: An exegetical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. van der Merwe

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus This essay is an exegesis of Jn 17:6-8 aimed at gaining an understanding of what the Fourth Evangelist tries to emphasize and to communicate concerning the character and success of Jesus’ earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1 emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2 structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3 tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1 Revelation: … (2 Obedience /Acceptance: … and (3 Faith: … ( earthly ministry. Firstly, a discourse analysis is conducted to point out the linguistic symmetric parallelism through which the Evangelist (1 emphasizes the success of Jesus’ ministry, (2 structures the principal components of Jesus’ ministry and the response of his disciples and (3 tries to explain the meaning of these components. Secondly, a theological exposition of these principal components is conducted, in respect of (1 Revelation: … (2 Obedience / Acceptance: … and (3 Faith: … (

  9. An Investigation of Attitudes of 6-8th Graders Towards Universal Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender DURUALP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe attitudes of 6-8th graders towards universal values and examine the impact of their age, gender, grade level, academic performance, parental level of education, and family income on their attitudes towards universal values. The population consisted of 6-8th graders being taught in primary schools in Çankırı, Turkey. The sample consisted of 361 students (203 girls, 158 boys randomly selected from Çankırı İsmet İnönü Elementary School located in Çankırı which attracts the highest number of students from each level of socioeconomic status. The sociodemographic data of children and their parents were collected through a “General Information Form”, and the data related to attitudes towards universal values were obtained by the “Attitude Towards Universal Values Scale” developed by Demir and Koç (2009. Data were analyzed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H tests, and Cronbach Alpha (α reliability coefficient. Results showed that girls (p>0.05, 8th graders, academically-talented children, those whose parents are university graduates, and those with a family income of minimum wage or more have more positive attitudes towards universal values (p<0.05.

  10. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades K-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresser, Rusty; Melanese, Kathy; Sphar, Christine

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 percent of the students in our nation's public schools are English language learners, and this number grows each year. Many of these students are falling behind in math. "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades K-2" outlines the challenges ELL students face when learning math and provides a wealth of specific…

  11. Beyond the Kepler/K2 bright limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Tim; Pope, B. J. S.; Antoci, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The most powerful tests of stellar models come from the brightest stars in the sky, for which complementary techniques, such as astrometry, asteroseismology, spectroscopy and interferometry, can be combined. The K2 mission is providing a unique opportunity to obtain high-precision photometric tim...

  12. The Exoplant Migration Timescale from K2 Young Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Mann, Andrew; Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Planetary Migration models for close-in exoplanets(a operate on timescales of ~100’s of Myr to ~1Gyr, a lengthier process than disk migration. It is unclear which of these is the dominating mechanism.The K2 mission has measured planet formation timescales and migration pathways by sampling groups of stars at key pre-main-sequence ages: Over the past 10 campaigns, multiple groups of young stars have been observed by K2, ranging from the 10 Myr Upper Scorpius OB association, through the ˜120 Myr Pleiades, the ˜600-800 Myr Hyades and Praesepe moving groups, to the original Kepler Field. The frequency, orbital and compositional properties of the exoplanet population in these samples of different age, with careful treatment of detection completeness, will be sufficient to address the question of exoplanet migration as their host stars are settling onto the main sequence.We will present the initial results of a program to directly address the question of planet migration with a uniform injection-recovery tests on a new K2 detrending pipeline that is optimized for the particular case of young, rotationally variable stars in K2 to robustly measure the detectability of planets of differing size and orbit. Initial results point towards a migration timescale of 200-700 Myr, which is consistent with the slower planet-planet scattering or Kozai migration models.

  13. PROBING TRAPPIST-1-LIKE SYSTEMS WITH K2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Queloz, Didier; Gillen, Ed [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Alibert, Yann [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Space and Habitability, Universität Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Gillon, Michael, E-mail: bod21@cam.ac.uk [Institut d’Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, Bat. B5C, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2016-07-10

    The search for small planets orbiting late M dwarfs holds the promise of detecting Earth-size planets for which their atmospheres could be characterized within the next decade. The recent discovery of TRAPPIST-1 entertains hope that these systems are common around hosts located at the bottom of the main sequence. In this Letter, we investigate the ability of the repurposed Kepler mission ( K2 ) to probe planetary systems similar to TRAPPIST-1. We perform a consistent data analysis of 189 spectroscopically confirmed M5.5 to M9 late M dwarfs from Campaigns 1–6 to search for planet candidates and inject transit signals with properties matching TRAPPIST-1b and c. We find no transiting planet candidates across our K2 sample. Our injection tests show that K2 is able to recover both TRAPPIST-1 planets for 10% of the sample only, mainly because of the inefficient throughput at red wavelengths resulting in Poisson-limited performance for these targets. Increasing injected planetary radii to match GJ 1214b’s size yields a recovery rate of 70%. The strength of K2 is its ability to probe a large number of cool hosts across the different campaigns, out of which the recovery rate of 10% may turn into bona fide detections of TRAPPIST-1-like systems within the next two years.

  14. RTI Strategies That Work in the K-2 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eli; Karns, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Targeted specifically to K-2 classrooms, the 25 Response-to-Intervention (RTI) strategies in this book are research-based and perfect for teachers who want to expand their toolbox of classroom interventions that work! Contents include: (1) Listening Strategies--Help students focus and understand; (2) Reading Strategies--Help students comprehend…

  15. The role of menaquinones (vitamin K2) in human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Europe convened experts in vitamin K selected from academia and industry to review the need for specific dietary reference values (DRVs) for vitamin K2, also known as menaquinones. This review describes the literature based on the following items required...

  16. The Ongoing Evolution of the K2-22 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Knicole D.; Zhou, George; Shporer, Avi; Collins, Karen A.; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Espinoza, Nestor; Murgas, Felipe; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Awiphan, Supachai; TECH Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    Of the thousands of exoplanets known, only three disintegrating planets have been identified. These disintegrating planets appear to have tails of dusty material that produce asymmetric transit shapes. K2-22b is one of these few disintegrating planets discovered to date, and its light curve not only displays highly variable transit depths but also uniquely displays evidence of a leading dust tail. Here, we present results from a large ground-based photometric observing campaign of the K2-22 system that took place between December 2016 and May 2017, which we use to investigate the evolution of the transit of K2-22b. Last observed in early 2015, in these new observations we recover the transit around the expected time and measure a typical depth of K2-22b, although the overall shallowness of the transit makes a detailed analysis of the transit shape and timing difficult. In addition, we find no strong evidence of wavelength-dependent transit depths for epochs where we have simultaneous coverage at multiple wavelengths. Given the observed decrease in the transit depth between 2015 and 2017, we encourage continued high-precision photometric monitoring of this system in order to further constrain the evolution timescale and to aid comparative studies with the other few disintegrating planets known.

  17. Biotreatment of anthraquinone dye Drimarene Blue K 2 RL | Siddiqui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drimarene Blue (Db) K2RL is a reactive anthraquinone dye, used extensively in textile industry, due to poor adsorbability to textile fiber; it has a higher exhaustion rate in wastewater. The dye is toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and resistant to degradation. Decolorization of this dye was studied in two different systems.

  18. Spin-k/2-spin-k/2 SU(2) two-point functions on the torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, Ingo; Kucharski, Piotr

    2012-11-01

    We discuss a class of two-point functions on the torus of primary operators in the SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten model at integer level k. In particular, we construct an explicit expression for the current blocks of the spin-(k)/(2)-spin-(k)/(2) torus two-point functions for all k. We first examine the factorization limits of the proposed current blocks and test their monodromy properties. We then prove that the current blocks solve the corresponding Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-like differential equations using the method of Mathur, Mukhi and Sen.

  19. Spin-k/2-spin-k/2 SU(2) two-point functions on the torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Ingo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie; Kucharski, Piotr [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Theoretical Physics

    2012-11-15

    We discuss a class of two-point functions on the torus of primary operators in the SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten model at integer level k. In particular, we construct an explicit expression for the current blocks of the spin-(k)/(2)-spin-(k)/(2) torus two-point functions for all k. We first examine the factorization limits of the proposed current blocks and test their monodromy properties. We then prove that the current blocks solve the corresponding Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-like differential equations using the method of Mathur, Mukhi and Sen.

  20. The Kepler and K2 Near-Infrared Transit Survey (KNITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Knicole; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Barentsen, Geert; Cardoso, Jose Vinicius de Miranda; Vanderburg, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Kepler mission discovered a plethora of transiting exoplanets after observing a single region of the Galaxy for four years. After a second reaction wheel failed, NASA's Kepler spacecraft was repurposed as K2 to observe different fields along the ecliptic in ~80 day campaigns. To date, K2 has discovered ~130 exoplanets along with another ~400 candidates. The exoplanets that have been confirmed or validated from Kepler and K2 have been primarily subject to spectroscopic observations, high-resolution imaging, or statistical methods. However, most of these, along with all the remaining candidate exoplanets, have had no follow-up transit photometry. In addition, recent studies have shown that for single-planet systems, statistical validation alone can be unreliable and additional follow-up observations are required to reveal the true nature of the system. I will present the latest results from an ongoing program to use the 3.5-meter WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory for near-infrared transit photometry of Kepler and K2 exoplanets and candidates. Our program of high-precision, high-cadence, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared transit photometry is providing new measurements of the transit ephemerides and planetary radii as well as weeding out false positives lurking within the candidate lists. To date, 25 K2 and 5 Kepler targets have been observed with WIYN. I will also describe upcoming observations with WIYN that will take place in January 2018 as part of a campaign to observe exoplanet transits in the near-infrared simultaneously with the Kepler spacecraft during K2 Campaign 16. Our program ultimately provides a vetted sample of exoplanets that could be targeted in the future by NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and also demonstrates WIYN’s capabilities for observations of exoplanets to be discovered by NASA's all-sky Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS).Data presented herein were obtained at the WIYN Observatory from

  1. Episodic weakness due to mitochondrial DNA MT-ATP6/8 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auré, Karine; Dubourg, Odile; Jardel, Claude; Clarysse, Lucie; Sternberg, Damien; Fournier, Emmanuel; Laforêt, Pascal; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Petiot, Philippe; Gervais-Bernard, Hélène; Vial, Christophe; Bedat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Vandier, Christophe; Fontaine, Bertrand; Lombès, Anne

    2013-11-19

    To report that homoplasmic deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA MT-ATP6/8 genes may be responsible for acute episodes of limb weakness mimicking periodic paralysis due to channelopathies and dramatically responding to acetazolamide. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing and restriction PCR, oxidative phosphorylation functional assays, reactive oxygen species metabolism, and patch-clamp technique in cultured skin fibroblasts. Occurrence of a typical MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) syndrome in a single member of a large pedigree with episodic weakness associated with a later-onset distal motor neuropathy led to the disclosure of 2 deleterious mitochondrial DNA mutations. The MT-ATP6 m.9185T>C p.Leu220Pro mutation, previously associated with Leigh syndrome, was present in all family members, while the MT-TL1 m.3271T>C mutation, a known cause of MELAS syndrome, was observed in the sole patient with MELAS presentation. Significant defect of complexes V and I as well as oxidative stress were observed in both primary fibroblasts and cybrid cells with 100% m.9185T>C mutation. Permanent plasma membrane depolarization and altered permeability to K(+) in fibroblasts provided a link with the paralysis episodes. Screening of 9 patients, based on their clinical phenotype, identified 4 patients with similar deleterious MT-ATP6 mutations (twice m.9185T>C and once m.9176T>C or m.8893T>C). A fifth patient presented with an original potentially deleterious MT-ATP8 mutation (m.8403T>C). All mutations were associated with almost-normal complex V activity but significant oxidative stress and permanent plasma membrane depolarization. Homoplasmic mutations in the MT-ATP6/8 genes may cause episodic weakness responding to acetazolamide treatment.

  2. Final design of kaon beam K2 at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Akira.

    1977-09-01

    Final design of the 2.3 GeV/c kaon beam K2 is given. The K2 beam starts from the production target in slow extracted beam. Momentum range is 1 GeV/c through 2.3 GeV/c. Nominal total beam length is 27.9 m and solid-angle momentum acceptance is 6.25 msr%ΔP/P. Using a platinum target of diameter 3 mm and length 6 cm, 2.0 GeV/c beam fluxes of 1.0 x 10 6 K + and 5.2 x 10 5 K - per 10 12 13 GeV/c incident protons are expected at the final focus. (auth.)

  3. Comet C/2017 K2 (PANSTARRS): Dynamically Old or New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl; de la Fuente Marcos, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    At discovery time, C/2017 K2 (PANSTARRS) was the second most distant inbound active comet ever observed. It has been argued that this object is in the process of crossing the inner Solar System for the first time, but other authors have concluded that it is dynamically old. We have performed full N-body simulations for 3 Myr into the past using the latest public orbit determination for this object and most of them, 67%, are consistent with a bound and dynamically old Oort cloud comet, but about 29% of the studied orbits are compatible with an interstellar origin. Our independent calculations strongly suggest that C/2017 K2 is not a dynamically new Oort cloud comet.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the RDX assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  5. Recent results from the K2.neutrino oscillation experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sakuda, M

    2001-01-01

    We report the latest results of the oscillation search in the nu /sub mu / disappearance mode from data taken from June, 1999, to June, 2000, with the K2K experiment. We observed 27 fully-contained events in the 22.5 kton fiducial volume of Super-Kamiokande (SK), while the corresponding expected number of events is estimated to be 40.3/sub -4.6//sup +4.7/ in the case of no oscillations.

  6. EVEREST: Pixel Level Decorrelation of K2 Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Rodrigo; Agol, Eric; Kruse, Ethan; Barnes, Rory; Becker, Andrew; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Deming, Drake

    2016-10-01

    We present EPIC Variability Extraction and Removal for Exoplanet Science Targets (EVEREST), an open-source pipeline for removing instrumental noise from K2 light curves. EVEREST employs a variant of pixel level decorrelation to remove systematics introduced by the spacecraft’s pointing error and a Gaussian process to capture astrophysical variability. We apply EVEREST to all K2 targets in campaigns 0-7, yielding light curves with precision comparable to that of the original Kepler mission for stars brighter than {K}p≈ 13, and within a factor of two of the Kepler precision for fainter targets. We perform cross-validation and transit injection and recovery tests to validate the pipeline, and compare our light curves to the other de-trended light curves available for download at the MAST High Level Science Products archive. We find that EVEREST achieves the highest average precision of any of these pipelines for unsaturated K2 stars. The improved precision of these light curves will aid in exoplanet detection and characterization, investigations of stellar variability, asteroseismology, and other photometric studies. The EVEREST pipeline can also easily be applied to future surveys, such as the TESS mission, to correct for instrumental systematics and enable the detection of low signal-to-noise transiting exoplanets. The EVEREST light curves and the source code used to generate them are freely available online.

  7. Planet Hunters 2 in the K2 Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Fischer, Debra; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Ishikawa, Sascha; Lintott, Chris; Lynn, Stuart; Schmitt, Joseph; Snyder, Chris; Wang, Ji; Barclay, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org) is an online citizen science project enlisting hundreds of thousands of people to search for planet transits in the publicly released Kepler data. Volunteers mark the locations of visible transits in a web interface, with multiple independent classifiers reviewing a randomly selected ~30-day light curve segment. In September 2014, Planet Hunters entered a new phase. The project was relaunched with a brand new online classification interface and discussion tool built using the Zooniverse's (http://www.zooniverse.org) latest technology and web platform. The website has been optimized for the rapid discovery and identification of planet candidates in the light curves from K2, the two-wheeled ecliptic plane Kepler mission. We will give an overview of the new Planet Hunters classification interface and Round 2 review system in context of the K2 data. We will present the first results from the Planet Hunters 2 search of K2 Campaigns 0 and 1 including a summary of new planet candidates.

  8. The Compatibility of Developed Mathematics Textbooks' Content in Saudi Arabia (Grades 6-8) with NCTM Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Mohammed Ali; Ali, Hassan Shawki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the compatibility of developed mathematics textbooks' content (grades 6-8) in Saudi Arabia with NCTM standards in the areas of: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability. To achieve that goal, a list of (NCTM) standards for grades (6-8) were translated to Arabic language,…

  9. Complete genomic sequences of two salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serogroup C2 (O:6,8) strains from central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enteric subsp. enterica strains RM11060, serotype 6,8:d:-, and RM11065, serotype 6,8:-:e,n,z15, were isolated from environmental sampling in Central California in 2009. We report the complete genome sequences and annotation of these two strains. These genomic sequences are distinct and wi...

  10. Phase formation in K2O(K2CO3)-CdO-MoO3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsirenova, G.D.; Tsybikova, B.A.; Bazarova, Zh.G.; Solodovnikov, S.F.; Zolotova, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    Phase formation in K 2 O(K 2 CO 3 )-CdO-MoO 3 system are studied by the methods of x-ray diffraction, thermal and crystal optical analyses. Three potassium-cadmium molybdates are detected: K 4 Cd(MoO 4 ) 3 with a new structure, alluodite-like K 4-2x Cd 1+x (MoO 4 ) 3 (0.26≤x≤0.38 at 470 Deg C) and K 4 CdMo 4 O 15 of K 4 MnMo 4 O 15 type. First of them decomposes in solid phase at 580 Deg C, and others melt incongruently at 720 and 515 Deg C correspondingly. It is established that K 4-2x Cd 1+x (MoO 4 ) 3 compound undergoes phase transition of the second type in the temperature interval of 500-550 Deg C. Phase diagram of quasibinary cross section K 2 MoO 4 -CdMoO 4 is plotted [ru

  11. Cluster self-organization of germanate systems: suprapolyhedral precursor clusters and self-assembly of K2Nd4Ge4O13(OH)4, K2YbGe4O10(OH), K2Sc2Ge2O7(OH)2, and KScGe2O6(PYR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyushin, G.D.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    2008-01-01

    One performed the computerized (the TOPOS 4.0 software package) geometric and topological analyses of all known types of K, TR-germanates (TR = La-Lu, Y, Sc, In). The skeleton structure are shown as three-dimensional 3D, K, TR, Ge-patterns (graphs) with remote oxygen atoms. TR 4 3 3 4 3 3 + T 4 3 4 3, K 2 YbGe 4 O 14 (OH) pattern, TR 6 6 3 6 + T1 6 8 6 + T2 3 6 8, K 2 Sc 2 Ge 2 O 7 (OH) 2 , TR 6 4 6 4 + T 6 4 6 and KScGe 2 O 6 - TR 6 6 3 6 3 4 + T1 6 3 6 + T2 6 4 3 patterns served as crystal-forming 2D TR,Ge-patterns for K 2 Nd 4 Ge 4 O 13 (OH) 4 . One performed the 3D-simulation of the mechanism of self-arrangement of the crystalline structures: cluster-precursor - parent chain - microlayer - microskeleton (super-precursor). Within K 2 Nd 4 Ge 4 O 13 (OH) 4 , K 2 Sc 2 Ge 2 O 7 (OH) 2 and KScGe 2 O 6 one identified the invariant type of the cyclic hexapolyhedral cluster-precursor consisting of TR-octahedrons linked by diorthogroups stabilized by K atoms. For K 2 Nd 4 Ge 4 O 13 (OH) 4 one determined the type of the cyclic tetrapolyhedral cluster-precursor consisting of TR-octavertices linked by tetrahedrons. The cluster CN within the layer just for KScGe 2 O 6 water-free germanate (the PYR pyroxene analog) is equal to 6 (the maximum possible value), while in the rest OH-containing germanates it constitutes 4. One studied the formation mechanism of Ge-radicals in the form of Ge 2 O 7 and Ge 4 O 13 groupings, GeO 3 chain and the tubular structure consisting of Ge 8 O 20 fixed cyclic groupings [ru

  12. The KMTNet/K2-C9 (Kepler) Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.-W.; Hwang, K.-H.; Kim, D.-J.; Albrow, M. D.; Cha, S.-M.; Chung, S.-J.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Lee, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Shin, I.-G.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Yee, J. C.; Zang, W.; Zhu, W.; KMTNet Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    We present Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) light curves for microlensing-event candidates in the Kepler K2 C9 field having peaks within three effective timescales of the Kepler observations. These include 181 “clear microlensing” and 84 “possible microlensing” events found by the KMTNet event finder, plus 56 other events found by OGLE and/or MOA that were not found by KMTNet. All data for the first two classes are immediately available for public use without restriction.

  13. Rotation of Low-mass Stars in Upper Scorpius and ρ Ophiuchus with K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Cody, A. M.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; David, T. J.; Pinsonneault, M.

    2018-05-01

    We present an analysis of K2 light curves (LCs) for candidate members of the young Upper Sco (USco) association (∼8 Myr) and the neighboring ρ Oph embedded cluster (∼1 Myr). We establish ∼1300 stars as probable members, ∼80% of which are periodic. The phased LCs have a variety of shapes which can be attributed to physical causes ranging from stellar pulsation and stellar rotation to disk-related phenomena. We identify and discuss a number of observed behaviors. The periods are ∼0.2–30 days with a peak near 2 days and the rapid period end nearing breakup velocity. M stars in the young USco region rotate systematically faster than GK stars, a pattern also present in K2 data for the older Pleiades and Praesepe systems. At higher masses (types FGK), the well-defined period–color relationship for slowly rotating stars seen in the Pleiades and Praesepe systems is not yet present in USco. Circumstellar disks are present predominantly among the more slowly rotating M stars in USco, with few disks in the subday rotators. However, M dwarfs with disks rotate faster on average than FGK systems with disks. For four of these disked M dwarfs, we provide direct evidence for disk locking based on the K2 LC morphologies. Our preliminary analysis shows a relatively mass-independent spin-up by a factor of ∼3.5 between USco and the Pleiades, then mass-dependent spin-down between Pleiades and Praesepe.

  14. Are 6-8 year old Italian children moving away from the Mediterranean diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, C; Ceretti, E; Grioni, S; Viola, G C V; Donato, F; Feretti, D; Festa, A; Bonizzoni, S; Bonetti, A; Monarca, S; Villarini, M; Levorato, S; Carducci, A; Verani, M; Casini, B; De Donno, A; Grassi, T; Bagordo, F; Carraro, E; Bonetta, Si; Bonetta, Sa; Gelatti, U

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models, as it decreases the risk of chronic diseases and may modulate the organism's early response to environmental pollution. In recent decades, Mediterranean countries have been replacing their traditional diet with other less healthy eating habits, especially among children and teenagers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MD and the level of adherence to it in 6-8 year old Italian children, in relation to residence, lifestyle, and social and family contexts. A questionnaire was administered to the children's parents in two seasons in 5 Italian towns. The diet section contained 116 questions investigating the frequency of consumption of different types of food. The Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) was calculated according to the intake of 6 typical Mediterranean and 4 non-Mediterranean foods. On the basis of IMI score, MD adherence was classified as low (≤ 3 IMI score), medium (4-5) and high (≥ 6). Total energy load and diet composition in micro- and macronutrients were calculated from consumption frequency. Diet analysis was computed on 1164 subjects with two complete questionnaires. Body mass index, calculated for each subject, showed that 28.9% of the children were overweight, the figure varying slightly with area of residence. Our findings showed that 59.0% of the children had a low score for MD adherence. The results of this study showed that most Italian children did not follow the MD and socio-economic characteristics appeared not to be associated with type of diet.

  15. Service use in children aged 6-8 years with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Daryl; Moisuc, Olga; McKenzie, Vicki; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated prevalence, types and predictors of professional service use in families of children identified with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the community. children with ADHD were identified through 43 schools using parent and teacher screening questionnaires (Conners 3 ADHD Index) followed by case confirmation using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV. Parents completed a survey about professional service use in the last 12 months. data on variables potentially associated with service use were collected from parents (interview and questionnaires), teachers (questionnaires) and children (direct assessment). Logistic regression was used to examine predictors of service use in univariate and multivariable analyses. The sample comprised 179 children aged 6-8 years with ADHD. Over one-third (37%) had not received professional services in the last 12 months. The strongest predictors of service use were older child age (adjusted OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 8.9, p=0.05), and the degree to which the child's behaviour impacted on the family (adjusted OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.3, p=0.007), after controlling for ADHD subtype and severity, externalising comorbidities, academic achievement and parent-reported impairment. A substantial proportion of children with ADHD are not accessing professional services. Our findings suggest that the child's age and the impact of the child's behaviour on the family are the strongest predictors of service use. Given the demonstrated benefits from various interventions in ADHD, there is a need to improve case identification and referral for services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Arbitrarily exhaustive hypergraph generation of 4-, 6-, 8-, 16-, and 32-dimensional quantum contextual sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavičić, Mladen

    2017-06-01

    Quantum contextuality turns out to be a necessary resource for universal quantum computation and important in the field of quantum information processing. It is therefore of interest both for theoretical considerations and for experimental implementation to find new types and instances of contextual sets and develop methods of their optimal generation. We present an arbitrarily exhaustive hypergraph-based generation of the most explored contextual sets [Kochen-Specker (KS) ones] in 4, 6, 8, 16, and 32 dimensions. We consider and analyze 12 KS classes and obtain numerous properties of theirs, which we then compare with the results previously obtained in the literature. We generate several thousand additional types and instances of KS sets, including all KS sets in three of the classes and the upper part of a fourth set. We make use of the McKay-Megill-Pavičić (MMP) hypergraph language, algorithms, and programs to generate KS sets strictly following their definition from the Kochen-Specker theorem. This approach proves to be particularly advantageous over the parity-proof-based ones (which prevail in the literature) since it turns out that only a very few KS sets have a parity proof (in six KS classes <0.01% and in one of them 0%). MMP hypergraph formalism enables a translation of an exponentially complex task of solving systems of nonlinear equations, describing KS vector orthogonalities, into a statistically linearly complex task of evaluating vertex states of hypergraph edges, thus exponentially speeding up the generation of KS sets and enabling us to generate billions of novel instances of them. The MMP hypergraph notation also enables us to graphically represent KS sets and to visually discern their features.

  17. Main-belt Asteroids in the K2 Uranus Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, L.; Pál, A.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Vinkó, J.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Kiss, Cs.; Hanyecz, O.; Marton, G.; Kiss, L. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present the K2 light curves of a large sample of untargeted main-belt asteroids (MBAs) detected with the Kepler Space Telescope. The asteroids were observed within the Uranus superstamp, a relatively large, continuous field with a low stellar background designed to cover the planet Uranus and its moons during Campaign 8 of the K2 mission. The superstamp offered the possibility of obtaining precise, uninterrupted light curves of a large number of MBAs and thus determining unambiguous rotation rates for them. We obtained photometry for 608 MBAs, and were able to determine or estimate rotation rates for 90 targets, of which 86 had no known values before. In an additional 16 targets we detected incomplete cycles and/or eclipse-like events. We found the median rotation rate to be significantly longer than that of the ground-based observations, indicating that the latter are biased toward shorter rotation rates. Our study highlights the need and benefits of further continuous photometry of asteroids.

  18. Regulation of bone remodeling by vitamin K2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, V D; Mezey, E

    2017-11-01

    All living tissues require essential nutrients such as amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and water. The skeleton requires nutrients for development, maintaining bone mass and density. If the skeletal nutritional requirements are not met, the consequences can be quite severe. In recent years, there has been growing interest in promotion of bone health and inhibition of vascular calcification by vitamin K2. This vitamin regulates bone remodeling, an important process necessary to maintain adult bone. Bone remodeling involves removal of old or damaged bone by osteoclasts and its replacement by new bone formed by osteoblasts. The remodeling process is tightly regulated, when the balance between bone resorption and bone formation shifts to a net bone loss results in the development of osteoporosis in both men and women. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of the effects of vitamin K2 on bone cells and its role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Stellar Companions of Exoplanet Host Stars in K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Rachel; Howell, Steve; Horch, Elliott; Everett, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Stellar multiplicity has significant implications for the detection and characterization of exoplanets. A stellar companion can mimic the signal of a transiting planet or distort the true planetary radii, leading to improper density estimates and over-predicting the occurrence rates of Earth-sized planets. Determining the fraction of exoplanet host stars that are also binaries allows us to better determine planetary characteristics as well as establish the relationship between binarity and planet formation. Using high-resolution speckle imaging to obtain diffraction limited images of K2 planet candidate host stars we detect stellar companions within one arcsec and up to six magnitudes fainter than the host star. By comparing our observed companion fraction to TRILEGAL star count simulations, and using the known detection limits of speckle imaging, we find the binary fraction of K2 planet host stars to be similar to that of Kepler host stars and solar-type field stars. Accounting for stellar companions in exoplanet studies is therefore essential for deriving true stellar and planetary properties as well as maximizing the returns for TESS and future exoplanet missions.

  20. Planet Candidate Validation in K2 Crowded Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampalli, Rayna; Vanderburg, Andrew; Latham, David; Quinn, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    In just three years, the K2 mission has yielded some remarkable outcomes with the discovery of over 100 confirmed planets and 500 reported planet candidates to be validated. One challenge with this mission is the search for planets located in star-crowded regions. Campaign 13 is one such example, located towards the galactic plane in the constellation of Taurus. We subject the potential planetary candidates to a validation process involving spectroscopy to derive certain stellar parameters. Seeing-limited on/off imaging follow-up is also utilized in order to rule out false positives due to nearby eclipsing binaries. Using Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, the best-fit parameters for each candidate are generated. These will be suitable for finding a candidate’s false positive probability through methods including feeding such parameters into the Validation of Exoplanet Signals using a Probabilistic Algorithm (VESPA). These techniques and results serve as important tools for conducting candidate validation and follow-up observations for space-based missions such as the upcoming TESS mission since TESS’s large camera pixels resemble K2’s star-crowded fields.

  1. Spontaneous adsorption of 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid onto carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, Julieta I.; Strumia, Miriam C. [Departamento de Quimica Organica (IMBIV-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina); Passeggi, Mario C.G. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces (INTEC-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Ferron, Julio [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces (INTEC-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Departamento de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Baruzzi, Ana M. [Departamento de Fisicoquimica (INFIQC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina); Brunetti, Veronica [Departamento de Fisicoquimica (INFIQC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina)], E-mail: brunetti@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Dendritic molecules contain multifunctional groups that can be used to efficiently control the properties of an electrode surface. We are developing strategies to generate a highly functionalized surface using multifunctional and rigid dendrons immobilized onto different substrates. In the present work, we explore the immobilization of a dendritic molecule: 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid (D-NO{sub 2}) onto carbon surfaces showing a simple and rapid way to produce conductive surfaces with electroactive chemical functions. The immobilized D-NO{sub 2} layer has been characterized using atomic force microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. D-NO{sub 2} adsorbs onto carbon surfaces spontaneously by dipping the electrode in dendron solutions. Reduction of this layer generates the hydroxylamine product. The resulting redox-active layer exhibits a well-behaved redox response for the adsorbed nitroso/hydroxylamine couple. The film permeability of the derivatized surface has been analyzed employing the electrochemical response of redox probes: Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+}/Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 2+} and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-}/Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-}. Electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto a modified carbon surface was also observed.

  2. Spontaneous adsorption of 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid onto carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez, Julieta I.; Strumia, Miriam C.; Passeggi, Mario C.G.; Ferron, Julio; Baruzzi, Ana M.; Brunetti, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic molecules contain multifunctional groups that can be used to efficiently control the properties of an electrode surface. We are developing strategies to generate a highly functionalized surface using multifunctional and rigid dendrons immobilized onto different substrates. In the present work, we explore the immobilization of a dendritic molecule: 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid (D-NO 2 ) onto carbon surfaces showing a simple and rapid way to produce conductive surfaces with electroactive chemical functions. The immobilized D-NO 2 layer has been characterized using atomic force microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. D-NO 2 adsorbs onto carbon surfaces spontaneously by dipping the electrode in dendron solutions. Reduction of this layer generates the hydroxylamine product. The resulting redox-active layer exhibits a well-behaved redox response for the adsorbed nitroso/hydroxylamine couple. The film permeability of the derivatized surface has been analyzed employing the electrochemical response of redox probes: Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ /Ru(NH 3 ) 6 2+ and Fe(CN) 6 3- /Fe(CN) 6 4- . Electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto a modified carbon surface was also observed.

  3. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  4. [Excitation transfer between high-lying states in K2 in collisions with ground state K and H2 molecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Jing; Dai, Kang; Shen, Yi-Fan

    2010-02-01

    cell temperature was kept constant at 553 K. The H2 pressure was varied between 40 and 400 Pa. The effects of K2-K collisions could not be neglected. These effects were subtracted out using the results of the pure K experiments. The cross section (2.7 +/- 1.1) x 10(-15) cm2 was obtained for K2 (1lambda(g)) + H2 --> K2 (3lambda(g))+H2 collisions. The cross section is (6.8 +/- 2.7) x 10(-15) cm2 for K2 (3lambda(g)) + H2 --> states out of K2 (3lambda(g)) + H2 collisions.

  5. A Unique Case of Cardiac Arrest following K2 Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD accounts for up to 450,000 deaths every year in the United States (Zipes et al. (2006. Most cases of sudden cardiac death occur in subjects with no prior history of heart disease (Myerburg et al. (1998. The incidence of sudden death in a general population has been shown to increase contemporaneously with substance abuse (Phillips et al. (1999. The causative association of sudden death with cocaine, methadone, and volatile agents is well established (Adgey et al. (1995 and Isner et al. (1986. We describe a case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest temporally related to abuse of the synthetic cannabinoid street drug known as K2. To our knowledge, there are no previously documented cases of sudden cardiac death associated with synthetic cannabinoids although they have been linked to myocardial infarction in teenagers despite normal coronary angiography (Mir et al. (2011.

  6. Meltability in system of K2TaF7-NaF-NaCl-KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartsev, V.E.; Kovalev, F.V.; Korshunov, B.G.

    1975-01-01

    Thermographic and visual-polythermal techniques were used to study the meltability in K 2 TaF 7 -NaF-NaCl-KCl system. The tetrahedron-forming sections NaF-NaCl-K 2 TaF 7 xKCl and NaF-K 2 TaF 7 xKCl-2K 2 TaF 7 xNaCl divide the concentration tetrahedron into three particular tetrahedra: NaF-K 2 TaF 7 xKCl-2K 2 TaF 7 xNaCl-K 2 TaF 7 , NaF-NaCl-K 2 TaF 7 xKCl-2K 2 TaF 7 xaCl, and NaF-NaCl-KCl-K 2 TaF 7 xKCl. Non-variant equilibrium points in all of the particular four-component systems have been determined

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of a "6"8Ga labeled folic acid derivative for targeting folate receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Akanksha; Mathur, Anupam; Pandey, Usha; Bhatt, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Archana; Ram, Ramu; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Present work evaluates the potential of a newly synthesized "6"8Ga-NOTA-folic acid conjugate for PET imaging of tumors over-expressing folate receptors (FRs). NOTA-folic acid conjugate was synthesized and characterized. It was radiolabeled with "6"8Ga in ≥ 95% radiolabeling yields. In vitro cell binding studies showed a maximum cell uptake of 1.7±0.4% per million KB cells which was completely blocked on addition of cold folic acid showing specificity towards the FRs. However, further studies in tumor xenografts are warranted in order to assess the potential of "6"8Ga-folic acid complex for imaging tumors over-expressing FRs. - Highlights: • NOTA-Bn-(3-aminopropyl) folic acid conjugate was synthesized and characterized by "1H-NMR, ESI-MS and HPLC analysis. • NOTA-folic acid conjugate radiolabeled with "6"8Ga in >95% yields and high serum stability (≥95%) upto 1 h. • In vitro studies in KB cells showed specificity of NOTA-Bn-(3-aminopropyl) folic acid. • A maximum cell uptake of 1.7±0.4% per million KB cells was observed for "6"8Ga-NOTA-folic acid.

  8. 28 CFR 3.5 - Forfeiture of gambling devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forfeiture of gambling devices. 3.5 Section 3.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.5 Forfeiture of gambling devices. For purposes of seizure and forfeiture of gambling devices see section 8 of this chapter. [Order...

  9. Research progress on the anticancer effects of vitamin K2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xv, Fan; Chen, Jiepeng; Duan, Lili; Li, Shuzhuang

    2018-06-01

    Despite the availability of multiple therapeutic methods for patients with cancer, the long-term prognosis is not satisfactory in a number of different cancer types. Vitamin K2 (VK2), which exerts anticancer effects on a number of cancer cell lines, is considered to be a prospective novel agent for the treatment of cancer. The present review aims to summarize the results of studies in which VK2 was administered either to patients with cancer or animals inoculated with cancerous cells, particularly investigating the inhibitory effects of VK2 on cancerous cells, primarily involving cell-cycle arrest, cell differentiation, apoptosis, autophagy and invasion. The present review summarizes evidence stating that treatment with VK2 could positively inhibit the growth of cancer cells, making it a potentially useful approach for the prevention and clinical treatment of cancer. Additionally, the combination treatment of VK2 and established chemotherapeutics may achieve better results, with fewer side effects. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the effects of micronutrients on tumors.

  10. Laboratory Synthesized Calcium Oxide and Calcium Hydroxide Grains: A Candidate to Explain the 6.8 Micron Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that CaO and Ca(OH)2 are excellent candidates to explain the 6.8 microns feature, which is one of the most obscure features in young stellar objects. We discuss the condensation of CaO grains and the potential formation of a Ca(OH)2 surface layer. The infrared spectra of these grains are compared with the spectra of fifteen young stellar objects. We note that CaO-rich grains are seen in all meteoritic CAIs (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions) and the 6.8 micron feature has only been observed in young stellar objects. Therefore, we consider CaO grains to be a plausible candidate to explain the 6.8 microns feature and hypothesize that they are produced in the hot interiors of young stellar environments.

  11. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of PrCo6.8-xCuxHf0.2 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J; Liang, J K; Guo, Y Q; Liu, Q L; Liu, F S; Yang, L T; Zhang, Y; Rao, G H

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Cu substitution on the crystal structure and magnetic properties of PrCo 6.8-x Cu x Hf 0.2 (x = 0-1.0) compounds were investigated by means of x-ray powder diffraction and magnetic measurements. The as-cast PrCo 6.8-x Cu x Hf 0.2 compounds crystallize in the TbCu 7 -type structure with the space group P6/mmm. The Curie temperature and magnetic anisotropy field decrease with increasing Cu content. A spin reorientation behaviour has been observed in the PrCo 6.8-x Cu x Hf 0.2 compounds. The addition of Cu weakens the anisotropy of the Co sublattice, leading to an increase in the spin reorientation temperature with increasing content of Cu

  12. Uncovering student thinking about mathematics in the common core, grades 6-8 25 formative assessment probes

    CERN Document Server

    Tobey, Cheryl Rose

    2013-01-01

    Pinpoint and reverse math misconceptions with laser-like accuracyQuickly and reliably uncover common math misconceptions in Grades 6-8 with these convenient and easy-to-implement diagnostic tools! Bestselling authors Cheryl Tobey and Carolyn Arline provide 25 new assessment probes that pinpoint subconcepts within the new Common Core Standards for Mathematics to promote deep learning and expert math instruction--while learning is already underway.Completely CCSM aligned, these grade-specific probes eliminate the guesswork and help teachers: Systematically address conceptual and procedural mistakes Help students better understand areas of struggle Plan targeted instruction that covers Grades 6-8 CCSM mathematical processes and proficiencies.

  13. Travel funds for Stanford University to Host Mott MURI Annual Review and Oxide Workshop, August 6-8, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    Travel funds for Stanford University to host Mott MURI Annual Review and Oxide Workshop, August 6-8, 2013 In conjunction with a program review for...Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Travel funds for Stanford University to host Mott MURI Annual Review and Oxide

  14. Synthesis of marasin and 9-Me-marasin (nona- and deca-6,8-diyne-2,4-dienol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Graaf, W. de; Smits, A.; Boersma, J.; Hoekstra, W.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    3, 4-Pentadienol was protected with ethyl vinyl ether and regioselectively (70%) deprotonated at the terminal position by treatment with BuLi in THF at low temperature. Starting from the so obtained lithium compound, Marasin (nona-6,8-diyne-3,4-dienol) (1a) and 9-Me-Marasin

  15. Proceedings IV: Issues and technology in the management of impacted wildlife; February 6-8, 1989; Glenwood Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Davis; John C. Emerick; Deborah M. Finch; Susan Q. Foster; John W. Monarch; Sandra Rush; Oakleigh Thorne; Jeffrey Todd

    1989-01-01

    The Fourth Biennial Wildlife Symposium was held at the historic Hotel Colorado in Glenwood Springs, Colorado, from February 6-8, 1989. In spite of some very cold wcather, the attendees came from many parts of the United States and Canada. As in previous years, they represented government, industry, academic and professional organizations, including nonprofits. Thorne...

  16. Structural phase transformation in K2SeO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizumi, M.; Axe, J.D.; Shirane, G.; Shimaoka, K.

    1977-01-01

    Successive phase transformations in K 2 SeO 4 at T 1 = 130 K and T/sub c/ = 93 K were studied by the neutron-scattering technique. The superlattice reflections in the intermediate phase were found to be incommensurate with the lattice periodicity. The wave vector characterizing the reflections is q/sub delta/ = (1-delta) a*/3 with delta = 0.07 at 122.5 K. The deviation delta decreases with decreasing temperature with an apparently discontinuous jump to zero at T/sub c/. Below this temperature, the crystal remains commensurate and is known to be ferroelectric. The incommensurate-commensurate transition and the simultaneous occurrence of the commensurate phase and the spontaneous polarization are discussed using a Landau-type expansion of the free energy in which a term proportional to Q 3 (q/sub delta/) P/sub z/ (q 3 /sub delta/) plays an essential role in driving the incommensurate-commensurate phase transformation and in inducing the spontaneous polarization. Here, Q (q/sub delta/) is the amplitude of the primary atomic displacements with wave vector q/sub delta/ and P/sub z/(q 3 /sub delta/) is the polarization wave with wave vector q 3 /sub delta/ = 3delta (a*/3) and becomes the macroscopic polarization below T/sub c/. Above T/sub i/, a Σ 2 optic-phonon branch along (xi,0,0) shows a striking softening and ω/sub j/(q) for q approx. (1/3,0,0) tends to zero at T/sub i/. The softening results from a temperature-dependent decrease of the interlayer forces with ranges a/2 and a (a is one unit-cell length along the a axis) in the presence of strong and persisting forces with a range 3a/2. The intensities of the soft phonon were measured about different reciprocal-lattice points and were used to determine the nature of the soft-phonon mode and suggest a coupled translation of potassium ions with rotational motion of SeO 4 groups to be the origin of the lattice instability

  17. SEAscan 3.5: A simulator performance analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, T.; Eisenmann, S.

    1990-01-01

    SEAscan 3.5 is a personal computer based tool developed to analyze the dynamic performance of nuclear power plant training simulators. The system has integrated features to provide its own human featured performance. In this paper, the program is described as a tool for the analysis of training simulator performance. The structure and operating characteristics of SEAscan 3.5 are described. The hardcopy documents are shown to aid in verification of conformance to ANSI/ANS-3.5-1985

  18. 39 CFR 3.5 - Delegation of authority by Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation of authority by Board. 3.5 Section 3.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.5 Delegation of authority by Board. As authorized by 39 U.S.C. 402, these bylaws...

  19. Altered expression of two-pore domain potassium (K2P channels in cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams

    Full Text Available Potassium channels have become a focus in cancer biology as they play roles in cell behaviours associated with cancer progression, including proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Two-pore domain (K2P potassium channels are background channels which enable the leak of potassium ions from cells. As these channels are open at rest they have a profound effect on cellular membrane potential and subsequently the electrical activity and behaviour of cells in which they are expressed. The K2P family of channels has 15 mammalian members and already 4 members of this family (K2P2.1, K2P3.1, K2P9.1, K2P5.1 have been implicated in cancer. Here we examine the expression of all 15 members of the K2P family of channels in a range of cancer types. This was achieved using the online cancer microarray database, Oncomine (www.oncomine.org. Each gene was examined across 20 cancer types, comparing mRNA expression in cancer to normal tissue. This analysis revealed all but 3 K2P family members (K2P4.1, K2P16.1, K2P18.1 show altered expression in cancer. Overexpression of K2P channels was observed in a range of cancers including breast, leukaemia and lung while more cancers (brain, colorectal, gastrointestinal, kidney, lung, melanoma, oesophageal showed underexpression of one or more channels. K2P1.1, K2P3.1, K2P12.1, were overexpressed in a range of cancers. While K2P1.1, K2P3.1, K2P5.1, K2P6.1, K2P7.1 and K2P10.1 showed significant underexpression across the cancer types examined. This analysis supports the view that specific K2P channels may play a role in cancer biology. Their altered expression together with their ability to impact the function of other ion channels and their sensitivity to environmental stimuli (pO2, pH, glucose, stretch makes understanding the role these channels play in cancer of key importance.

  20. Vitamin K2 for the reversal of warfarin-related coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hifumi, Toru; Takada, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Kenta; Hamaya, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Natsuyo; Abe, Yuko; Takano, Koshiro; Kawakita, Kenya; Hagiike, Masanobu; Koido, Yuichi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2015-08-01

    The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation recommends vitamin K1 for warfarin-related coagulopathy. In Japan, vitamin K2 is used more commonly for such purpose. The difference between vitamins K1 and K2 in reversing warfarin-related coagulopathy has not been discussed. Herein, we report a case that was reversed with vitamin K2; alterations in vitamins K1 and K2 levels and coagulation markers are also presented.

  1. Distribution of vitamin K2 in subchondral bone in osteoarthritic knee joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Junko; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Kanda, Junkichi; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin K may have multiple effects on articular cartilage and subchondral bone that could modulate the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of vitamin K2 in harvested bones obtained during total knee arthroplasty in knee OA patients. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure vitamin K2 in harvested bones obtained during 58 TKA procedures. Vitamin K2 levels were analysed in the medial (FM) and lateral (FL) femoral condyles and in the medial (TM) and lateral (TL) tibial condyles. There was significantly more vitamin K2 in the lateral femoral and tibial condyles than in the corresponding medial condyles (FL vs. FM, p K2 in the FL than in the TL (p = 0.003), and in the FM, vitamin K2 levels were higher than those of the TM, although this was not significant (n.s.). There were no significant differences in vitamin K2 levels in men versus women nor was there a significant correlation with age. This study suggested that vitamin K2 might affect bone turnover since medial condyles showing advanced OA had lower vitamin K2 levels, while lateral condyles showing less advanced OA contained more vitamin K2. Gender and age were not correlated with vitamin K2 localization. All cases had Grade IV OA, and this study suggested that OA grade might be important in controlling the vitamin K2 levels in human bones.

  2. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-06-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. © 2014 The authors.

  3. Therapeutic effects of systemic vitamin k2 and vitamin d3 on gingival inflammation and alveolar bone in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Kübra; Alkan, Banu Arzu; Saraymen, Recep; Yay, Arzu; Şen, Ahmet; Önder, Gözde Özge

    2015-05-01

    The synergistic effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone loss prevention have been reported. This study evaluates the effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 supplementation in conjunction with conventional periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing [SRP]) on gingival interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10, serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b), and calcium and alveolar bone levels in rats with experimentally induced periodontitis. Seventy-two rats were divided into the following groups: 1) healthy; 2) periodontitis; 3) SRP; 4) SRP + vitamin D3; 5) SRP + vitamin K2; and 6) SRP + vitamins K2 and D3. Periodontitis was induced by ligature placement for 7 days, and vitamin K2 (30 mg/kg) and/or vitamin D3 (2 μg/kg) were administered for 10 days in the SRP + vitamin D3, SRP + vitamin K2, and SRP + vitamins K2 and D3 groups by oral gavage. On day 18, the animals were sacrificed, serum B-ALP, TRAP-5b, and calcium levels were measured, gingiva specimens were extracted for IL-1β and IL-10 analysis, and distances between the cemento-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest were evaluated. Alveolar bone levels in the periodontitis group were significantly greater than those in the other five groups. No significant differences were found in gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b, and calcium and alveolar bone levels between the groups receiving SRP and vitamins and the group receiving SRP alone. Within the limitations of this study, vitamin D3 and K2 alone or in combination did not affect gingival IL-1β and IL-10, serum B-ALP and TRAP-5b levels, or alveolar bone compared with conventional periodontal therapy alone.

  4. 6,8-Dibromoquinoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísmail Çelik

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C9H5Br2N, is almost planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.027 Å. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 1.5 (3°. In the crystal, π–π stacking interactions are present between the pyridine and benzene rings of adjacent molecules [centroid–centroid distances = 3.634 (4 Å], and short Br...Br contacts [3.4443 (13 Å] occur.

  5. SCF MS Xα determination of ionization energies and atomic populations of octaedral TiO6-8 cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel-Calendini, F.M.; Chermette, H.; Pertosa, P.

    1979-02-01

    The ionization energies of titanium and oxygen states in BaTiO 3 crystal have been investigated through the self-consistent-field-Xα-scattered-wave (SCF MS Xα) method, with the Slater transition state model, applied to a TiO 6 -8 cluster of octaedral symmetry. Ionization energies and electronic charge distribution are compared to XPS data and related to results obtained from tight-binding band computations

  6. Synthesis of anhydrous K2TiOF4 via a mild hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Justin B.; Yeon, Jeongho; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis of anhydrous K2TiOF4 has been previously attempted by transforming precursor compounds, such as the peroxide (K2Ti(O2)F4), hydrate (K2TiOF4·H2O) and fluoride (K2TiF6). Due to the large structural differences between these precursors and the anhydrous oxyfluorides, however, these preparations have been unsuccessful. Therefore, a direct method of synthesis has been employed to grow single crystals of K2TiOF4 that were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. K2TiOF4 was found to be isostructural with the previously known K2VOF4.

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (Public Comment Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  10. Interaction mechanisms of ionic liquids [Cnmim]Br (n=4, 6, 8, 10) with bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hua; Wu Junyong; Dai Guoliang; Zhong Aiguo; Chen Hao; Yang Jianguo; Han Deman

    2012-01-01

    It is important to study the interaction of ionic liquids (ILs) with protein for the applications of ILs in biochemical process, and help the researchers to choose and design the better ILs to serve as a solvent. In this work, the interaction between 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C n mim]Br (n=4, 6, 8, 10) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was systematically investigated for the first time by multi-spectroscopic approach (fluorescence, UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopy) and density functional theory (DFT). [C n mim]Br (n=4, 6, 8, 10) can bind to BSA by H-bond interaction between their cationic headgroups and Asp/Glu amino acid residue at the surface of BSA, and hydrophobic interaction between their hydrocarbon chains and the hydrophobic amino acid residues in the interior of BSA. On the basis of thermodynamic parameters and the similar structure of [C n mim]Br (n=4, 6, 8, 10), it can be inferred that the hydrophobic interaction plays a major role in the interaction of [C 10 mim]Br with BSA, while the hydrogen bond and van der Waals force play a major role in the interaction of [C n mim]Br (n=4, 6, 8) with BSA. Synchronous fluorescence and FT-IR spectra indicate that [C 10 mim]Br could markedly change the secondary structure of BSA, while [C n mim]Br (n=4, 6, 8) could slightly change the secondary structure of BSA. The results allowed us to understand (i) the effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the mechanism of ILs–protein interaction and (ii) the effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the protein secondary structure. - Highlights: ► Interaction of [C n mim]Br with BSA was investigated by spectroscopy and DFT. ► Interaction mechanisms and BSA secondary structure were discussed. ► Effects of the alkyl chain length of cation were presented.

  11. Coral reefs in Saudi Arabia: 3.5 years after the Gulf War oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, I. P.

    1995-11-01

    As a consequence of the 1991 Gulf War, 6-8 million barrels of oil were released into the marine environment and a total of 1.12 billion barrels were burned in the Kuwaiti oil fields. In order to detect delayed effects of the Gulf War pollution, six permanent transect lines were placed on Saudi Arabian offshore and inshore reefs. A comparison of three sets of video recordings taken between 1992 and 1994 indicated a significant increase in live coral cover. Therefore, it has been concluded that corals in Saudi Arabia survived the largest oil spill on record remarkably unscathed, with no visible signs of immediate or late effects up to 3.5 years after the Gulf War.

  12. Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake (Algeria) from InSAR time series

    KAUST Repository

    Cetin, Esra

    2012-05-28

    We study the postseismic surface deformation of the Mw 6.8, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake (northern Algeria) using the Multi-Temporal Small Baseline InSAR technique. InSAR time series obtained from 31 Envisat ASAR images from 2003 to 2010 reveal sub-cm coastline ground movements between Cap Matifou and Dellys. Two regions display subsidence at a maximum rate of 2 mm/yr in Cap Djenet and 3.5 mm/yr in Boumerdes. These regions correlate well with areas of maximum coseismic uplifts, and their association with two rupture segments. Inverse modeling suggest that subsidence in the areas of high coseismic uplift can be explained by afterslip on shallow sections (<5 km) of the fault above the areas of coseismic slip, in agreement with previous GPS observations. The earthquake impact on soft sediments and the ground water table southwest of the earthquake area, characterizes ground deformation of non-tectonic origin. The cumulative postseismic moment due to 7 years afterslip is equivalent to an Mw 6.3 earthquake. Therefore, the postseismic deformation and stress buildup has significant implications on the earthquake cycle models and recurrence intervals of large earthquakes in the Algiers area.

  13. Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake (Algeria) from InSAR time series

    KAUST Repository

    Cetin, Esra; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Cakir, Ziyadin; Akoglu, Ahmet M.; Mimouni, Omar; Chebbah, Mouloud

    2012-01-01

    We study the postseismic surface deformation of the Mw 6.8, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake (northern Algeria) using the Multi-Temporal Small Baseline InSAR technique. InSAR time series obtained from 31 Envisat ASAR images from 2003 to 2010 reveal sub-cm coastline ground movements between Cap Matifou and Dellys. Two regions display subsidence at a maximum rate of 2 mm/yr in Cap Djenet and 3.5 mm/yr in Boumerdes. These regions correlate well with areas of maximum coseismic uplifts, and their association with two rupture segments. Inverse modeling suggest that subsidence in the areas of high coseismic uplift can be explained by afterslip on shallow sections (<5 km) of the fault above the areas of coseismic slip, in agreement with previous GPS observations. The earthquake impact on soft sediments and the ground water table southwest of the earthquake area, characterizes ground deformation of non-tectonic origin. The cumulative postseismic moment due to 7 years afterslip is equivalent to an Mw 6.3 earthquake. Therefore, the postseismic deformation and stress buildup has significant implications on the earthquake cycle models and recurrence intervals of large earthquakes in the Algiers area.

  14. Structure and redox properties of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 adsorbed on a silica surface. M05 computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla K. Sviatenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cluster approximation was applied at M05/tzvp level to model adsorption of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 on (001 surface of α-quartz. Structures of the obtained CL-20–silica complexes confirm close to parallel orientation of the nitrocompound toward surface. The binding between CL-20 and silica surface was analyzed and bond energies were calculated applying the atoms in molecules (AIM method. Hydrogen bonds were found to significantly contribute in adsorption energy. An attaching of electron leads to significant deviation from coplanarity in complexes and to strengthening of hydrogen bonding. Redox properties of adsorbed CL-20 were compared with those of gas-phase and hydrated species by calculation of electron affinity, ionization potential, reduction Gibbs free energy, oxidation Gibbs free energy, reduction and oxidation potentials. It was shown that adsorbed CL-20 has lower ability to redox transformation as compared with hydrated one.

  15. Screening the budding yeast genome reveals unique factors affecting K2 toxin susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servienė, Elena; Lukša, Juliana; Orentaitė, Irma; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Urbonavičius, Jaunius

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how biotoxins kill cells is of prime importance in biomedicine and the food industry. The budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) killers serve as a convenient model to study the activity of biotoxins consistently supplying with significant insights into the basic mechanisms of virus-host cell interactions and toxin entry into eukaryotic target cells. K1 and K2 toxins are active at the cell wall, leading to the disruption of the plasma membrane and subsequent cell death by ion leakage. K28 toxin is active in the cell nucleus, blocking DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression, thereby triggering apoptosis. Genome-wide screens in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae identified several hundred effectors of K1 and K28 toxins. Surprisingly, no such screen had been performed for K2 toxin, the most frequent killer toxin among industrial budding yeasts. We conducted several concurrent genome-wide screens in S. cerevisiae and identified 332 novel K2 toxin effectors. The effectors involved in K2 resistance and hypersensitivity largely map in distinct cellular pathways, including cell wall and plasma membrane structure/biogenesis and mitochondrial function for K2 resistance, and cell wall stress signaling and ion/pH homeostasis for K2 hypersensitivity. 70% of K2 effectors are different from those involved in K1 or K28 susceptibility. Our work demonstrates that despite the fact that K1 and K2 toxins share some aspects of their killing strategies, they largely rely on different sets of effectors. Since the vast majority of the host factors identified here is exclusively active towards K2, we conclude that cells have acquired a specific K2 toxin effectors set. Our work thus indicates that K1 and K2 have elaborated different biological pathways and provides a first step towards the detailed characterization of K2 mode of action.

  16. Loss of keratin K2 expression causes aberrant aggregation of K10, hyperkeratosis, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Heinz; Langbein, Lutz; Reichelt, Julia; Praetzel-Wunder, Silke; Buchberger, Maria; Ghannadan, Minoo; Tschachler, Erwin; Eckhart, Leopold

    2014-10-01

    Keratin K2 is one of the most abundant structural proteins of the epidermis; however, its biological significance has remained elusive. Here we show that suprabasal type II keratins, K1 and K2, are expressed in a mutually exclusive manner at different body sites of the mouse, with K2 being confined to the ear, sole, and tail skin. Deletion of K2 caused acanthosis and hyperkeratosis of the ear and the tail epidermis, corneocyte fragility, increased transepidermal water loss, and local inflammation in the ear skin. The loss of K2 was partially compensated by upregulation of K1 expression. However, a significant portion of K2-deficient suprabasal keratinocytes lacked a regular cytoskeleton and developed massive aggregates of the type I keratin, K10. Aggregate formation, but not hyperkeratosis, was suppressed by the deletion of both K2 and K10, whereas deletion of K10 alone caused clumping of K2 in ear skin. Taken together, this study demonstrates that K2 is a necessary and sufficient binding partner of K10 at distinct body sites of the mouse and that unbalanced expression of these keratins results in aggregate formation.

  17. Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8: Climate Change Curriculum Developed Through a Collaboration Between Scientists and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, E.; Skene, J.; Tran, L.

    2011-12-01

    Today's youth have been tasked with the overwhelming job of addressing the world's climate future. The students who will become the scientists, policy makers, and citizens of tomorrow must gain a robust understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, as well as possible adaptation strategies. Currently, there are few high quality curricula available to teachers that address these topics in a developmentally appropriate manner. The NOAA-funded Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8 aims to address this gap by providing teachers with scientifically accurate climate change curriculum that hits on some of the most salient points in climate science, while simultaneously developing students' science process skills. The Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8 is developed through a collaboration between some of the nation's leading ocean and climate scientists and the Lawrence Hall of Science's highly qualified GEMS (Great Explorations in Math & Science) curriculum development team. Scientists are active partners throughout the whole development process, from initial brainstorming of key concepts and creating the conceptual storyline for the curriculum to final review of the content and activities. As with all GEMS Sequences, the Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8 is designed to provide significant scientific and educational depth, systematic assessments and informational readings, and incorporate new learning technologies. The goal is to focus strategically and effectively on the core concepts within ocean and climate sciences that students need to understand. This curriculum is designed in accordance with the latest research from the learning sciences, and provides numerous opportunities for students to develop inquiry skills and abilities as they learn about the practice of science through hands-on activities. The Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8 addresses in depth a significant number of national, state, and district standards and benchmarks. It

  18. A study of the possibility of using 3-(3'-5'Dinitro-4' - Hydroxy phenyl) phthalide as an indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A. R.; Al-Hamdany, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a ur-visible spectroscopic characterization and acid-base equilibrium studies of 3-(3 ' -5 ' -din tro-4 ' - hydroxy phenyl) phthalide (1) for its possible use as an indicator. The ionization constant (K 2 ) has been evaluated by potentiometric titration indicating that the reagent is a weak acid comparable to acetic acid. The (pK 2 ) has been attributed to deprotonation of the compound to give the corresponding anion, which possesses considerable resonance stabilization. The different colour shown by each species involved in equilibrium allows the use of this reagent as an acid-base indicator, placing the transition interval between ph 2.0 (colourless) and 3.0 (yellow). (authors). 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  20. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobetičová Hana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud and a biosorbent (Lemna minor were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L−1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 % was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  1. Validity of self-reported lunch recalls in Swedish school children aged 6-8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Monica; Pena, Pablo; Lissner, Lauren; Grafström, Lisen; Vanaelst, Barbara; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pala, Valeria; Eiben, Gabriele

    2013-09-18

    Previous studies have suggested that young children are inaccurate reporters of dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to validate a single recall of the previous day's school lunch reported by 6-8 year old Swedish children and to assess teacher-recorded intake of the same meal in a standardized food journal. An additional research question was whether parents could report their child's intake of the previous day's lunch. Subjects constituted a convenience sample from the large, multi-country study Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS). Validations of both children's recalls and teachers' records were made by comparing results with the duplicate plate reference method. Twenty-five children (12 boys/13 girls) aged 6-8 years participated in the validation study at one school in western Sweden. Children were accurate self-reporters of their dietary intake at lunch, with no significant difference between reported and weighed intake (Mean difference (SD): 7(50) kcals, p=0.49). Teachers significantly over-reported intake (Mean difference (SD): 65(79) kcals, p=0.01). For both methods, child-reported and teacher-recorded, correlations with weighed intake were strong (Pearson's correlations r=0.92, pteacher-records and weighed intakes. Foods were recalled by children with a food-match rate of 90%. In all cases parents themselves were unable to report on quantities consumed and only four of 25 children had parents with knowledge regarding food items consumed. Children 6-8 years of age accurately recalled their school lunch intake for one occasion while teachers recorded with less accuracy. Our findings suggest that children as young as six years of age may be better able to report on their dietary intake than previously suggested, at least for one main meal at school. Teacher-recorded intake provides a satisfactory estimate but with greater systematic deviation from the weighed intake

  2. Measurement of oxygen consumption with the Cosmed K2: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forkink, A.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    An instrument that accurately measures oxygen consumption (VO2) during field performance is valuable for investigations of physiological workload. Cosmed (Rome, Italy) has introduced such an instrument, the Cosmed K2. In this study the Cosmed K2 was compared with the Oxyconbeta (Jaeger, Breda, The

  3. Mutational analysis of the respiratory nitrate transporter NarK2 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Giffin

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces nitrate reductase activity in response to decreasing oxygen levels. This is due to regulation of both the transcription and the activity of the nitrate transporter NarK2. A model of NarK2 structure is proposed containing 12 membrane spanning regions consistent with other members of the major facilitator superfamily. The role of the proton gradient was determined by exposing M. tuberculosis to uncouplers. Nitrite production decreased indicating that the importation of nitrate involved an H(+/nitrate symporter. The addition of nitrite before nitrate had no effect, suggesting no role for a nitrate/nitrite antiporter. In addition the NarK2 knockout mutant showed no defect in nitrite export. NarK2 is proposed to be a Type I H(+/nitrate symporter. Site directed mutagenesis was performed changing 23 amino acids of NarK2. This allowed the identification of important regions and amino acids of this transporter. Five of these mutants were inactive for nitrate transport, seven produced reduced activity and eleven mutants retained wild type activity. NarK2 is inactivated in the presence of oxygen by an unknown mechanism. However none of the mutants, including those with mutated cysteines, were altered in their response to oxygen levels. The assimilatory nitrate transporter NasA of Bacillus subtilis was expressed in the M. tuberculosis NarK2 mutant. It remained active during aerobic incubation showing that the point of oxygen control is NarK2.

  4. determination of reaeration coefficient k2 for polluted stream as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    include velocity of flow, average depth of flow, DO, self purification ratio (f) and reaeration constant (K2). ... Determination of Reaeration Reaeration Coefficient K2 for Polluted Stream. 175. Table 1: ... and theory on which it is based. The result ...

  5. 6K2-induced vesicles can move cell to cell during turnip mosaic virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eGrangeon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To successfully infect plants, viruses replicate in an initially infected cell and then move to neighboring cells through plasmodesmata (PDs. However, the nature of the viral entity that crosses over the cell barrier into non-infected ones is not clear. The membrane-associated 6K2 protein of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV induces the formation of vesicles involved in the replication and intracellular movement of viral RNA. This study shows that 6K2-induced vesicles trafficked towards the plasma membrane and were associated with plasmodesmata (PD. We demonstrated also that 6K2 moved cell-to-cell into adjoining cells when plants were infected with TuMV. 6K2 was then fused to photo-activable GFP (6K2:PAGFP to visualize how 6K2 move intercellularly during TuMV infection. After activation, 6K2:PAGFP-tagged vesicles moved to the cell periphery and across the cell wall into adjacent cells. These vesicles were shown to contain the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and viral RNA. Symplasmic movement of TuMV may thus be achieved in the form of a membrane-associated viral RNA complex induced by 6K2.

  6. CHILD FEEDING PATTERN DURING TRANSITIONAL PERIOD (6-8 MONTHS IN JONGGAT SUB DISTRICT, CENTRAL LOMBOK, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Rahmadia Ekawidyani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to assess child feeding knowledge and practice in transitional period (6-8 months, mother’s information exposure and the functioning of the health system in delivering complementary feeding programs. A cross sectional study was done to 175 children aged 6-8 months at 12 villages in Jonggat Sub-district, Lombok. Structured interview to the mothers, 24 hour recalls, and in-depth interview to the cadres of Integrated Health Posts were used throughout the study. Most mothers had poor knowledge and practice on child feeding (68.0% and 75.4%, respectively. Almost all children had received complementary food (98.9%, but only less than a half children were introduced to complementary food at the appropriate age i.e. 6 months (45.7%. Only few children had good dietary diversity i.e. ≥ 4 food type in the previous day (6.9%. More than half of the mothers (52% were exposed to information related to child feeding practice. The sources of information mostly were from health officers, cadres, mother and child health book and printed media (e.g. newspaper and magazine. The local health staff and cadres had basic knowledge on child feeding programs but the practice was not adequate. Mother’s knowledge and practice on child feeding within the transitional period in Jonggat sub-district was poor. The health system was not functioning well in delivering complementary feeding programs.Keywords: cadres, child feeding pattern, complementary feeding programsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengetahuan dan praktek pengasuhan makan pada anak selama masa transisi (6-8 bulan, sumber informasi ibu, dan keberhasilan sistem kesehatan dalam program MP-ASI. Cross sectional study dilakukan dengan subjek 175 anak usia 6-8 bulan di 12 desa di Kecamatan Jonggat, Lombok. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara terstruktur kepada ibu, food recall, dan wawancara mendalam kepada kader Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu

  7. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r -vector ,r -vector ′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r -vector ,r -vector ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ SL (ρ(r -vector ),∇ρ(r -vector ),r -vector −r -vector ′). γ SL depends on the electron density ρ(r -vector ) at reference point r -vector , and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r -vector −r -vector ′ dependence of γ SL in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ SL yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms

  8. Number & operations task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  9. Urinary excretion of unconjugated and conjugated 3,5-diiodothyronine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, E; Faber, J; Kirkegaard, C

    1985-01-01

    was 276 pmol/d, whereas the median excretion of glucuronidated and sulfated 3,5-T2 in 7 healthy subjects was 448 and 451 pmol/d, respectively. The median excretion of 154 pmol/d in 9 hypothyroid patients did not differ from that found in controls. In contrast 12 patients with hyperthyroidism had...

  10. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency and indemnity compensation. This term means a monthly payment made by...

  11. Electron spin resonance of gamma, electron, neutron and fission fragments irradiated K2SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali, J.; Walton, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) of K 2 SO 4 irradiated by γ, electron, neutron and fission fragments has been investigated. The ESR spectra are attributed mainly to the formation of SO 3 - , SO 4 - , SO 2 - , and O 3 - radical ions. The most intense radical ion observed was due to the SO 3 - , and the other radicals were relatively much lower in intensity. Thermal annealing showed a significant decrease in the concentration of radical ions. The concentration of SO 3 - was measured in γ-irradiated K 2 SO 4 and K 2 SO 4 containing fission fragments. In fission fragments irradiated K 2 SO 4 , the G-value observed for SO 3 - radical formation was about eight times higher than that of γ-irradiated K 2 SO 4 . This was attributed to the high LET (Linear Energy Transfer) of the fission fragments. (author)

  12. Higgs at 3.5 seconds into the melody

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Listen to the music… at 3.5 into the recording you will be able to “hear” the sound of the newly discovered boson. That’s the beauty of sonification, a technique that translates dry data into beautiful melodies.   Image edit by Katarina Anthony. Sonification is a computational technique that requires enormous amounts of networking and processing power to produce results. The sonification of data presented on 4 July by the ATLAS collaboration was performed using the pan-European GÉANT network and the Grid infrastructure. The result is a melody that at 3.5 seconds reproduces the bump corresponding to the new particle. “This sonification was carried out on the same grid infrastructure used by researchers to reconstruct their data and plot their graphs,” says Domenico Vicinanza of DANTE, who led the Higgs sonification project, collaborating with Mariapaola Sorrentino of ASTRA Project (Cambridge), who contributed to the sonific...

  13. Comparative effects of vitamin K2 and vitamin E on experimental arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyama, Y; Hayashi, M; Takegami, H; Usami, E

    1999-01-01

    The comparative effects of vitamin K2 and vitamin E on aortic calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) levels in the aorta and the elastin fraction (fr.) were investigated in male rats after experimental arteriosclerosis was induced by vitamin D2 with atherogenic diet. Both vitamin K2 (100 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (40 mg/kg b.w.) inhibited the increase of Ca and P in the aorta and the elastin fr. from the arteriosclerotic rats. Vitamin K2 (50 mg/kg b.w.) also suppressed the deposition of Ca and P in the aorta, but there was no change due to vitamin K3 or geranylgeraniol (side chain of vitamin K2) administration. Both vitamin K2 and vitamin E showed lipid radical scavenging activity in the in vitro experiment. However, neither vitamin K3 nor geranylgeraniol exhibited anti-arteriosclerotic or radical scavenging activity under the above experimental conditions. It is suggested that vitamin K2 and vitamin E promoted an antiarteriosclerotic effect by radical scavenging activity. These actions of vitamin K2 are required in the structure of 2-methylnaphtoquinone and its side chain (geranylgeraniol).

  14. Electric conductivity of salt melts containing KCL, KF and K2TaF7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agulyanskij, A.I.; Stangrit, P.T.; Konstantinov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    Given are electric conductivity measurement results depending on the temperature and composition of the molten KF-K 2 TaF 7 , KCl-K 2 TaF 7 systems and also melts close in their composition to industrial electrolytes, KCl-KF (in mass ratio of 2:1) with addition of K 2 TaF 7 up to 25 mass%. Presented are electric conductivity molecular isotherms of the KF-K 2 TaF 7 , KCl-K 2 TaF 7 systems at 800 deg C and specific electric conductivity dependence of KCl-KF-K 2 TaF 7 melts on K 2 TaF 7 composition at 800 deg C and 900 deg C. Proceeding from the shape of molecular and specific electric conductivity isotherms a conclusion is made about existence of the following tantalum-containing ions: TaF 7 2- , TaF 6 - and TaF 6 Cl 2- in the investigated melts

  15. Characterization of Bacillus phage-K2 isolated from chungkookjang, a fermented soybean foodstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ju; Hong, Jeong Won; Yun, Na-Rae; Lee, Young Nam

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of a virulent Bacillus phage-K2 (named Bp-K2) isolated from chungkookjang (a fermented soybean foodstuff) was made. Bp-K2 differed in infectivity against a number of Bacillus subtilis strains including starter strains of chungkookjang and natto, being more infectious to Bacillus strains isolated from the chungkookjang, but much less active against a natto strain. Bp-K2 is a small DNA phage whose genome size is about 21 kb. Bp-K2 is a tailed bacteriophage with an isometric icosahedral head (50 nm long on the lateral side, 80 nm wide), a long contractile sheath (85-90 nm × 28 nm), a thin tail fiber (80-85 nm long, 10 nm wide), and a basal plate (29 nm long, 47 nm wide) with a number of spikes, but no collar. The details of the structures of Bp-K2 differ from natto phage ϕBN100 as well as other known Bacillus phages such as SPO1-like or ϕ 29-like viruses. These data suggest that Bp-K2 would be a new member of the Myoviridae family of Bacillus bacteriophages.

  16. Vitamin K2 promotes mesenchymal stem cell differentiation by inhibiting miR‑133a expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuelei; Weng, Shiyang; Yin, Junhui; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Changqing; Gao, Youshui

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin K2 has been demonstrated to promote the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. As microRNA (miR)‑133a has been identified as a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation, the present study hypothesized that vitamin K2 promoted osteogenesis by inhibiting miR‑133a. Using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) overexpressing miR‑133a, or a control, the expression levels of osteogenesis‑associated proteins, including runt‑related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, were analyzed. miR‑133a significantly suppressed the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. To determine the effect of vitamin K2 on miR‑133a expression and osteogenesis, hBMSCs were treated with vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 inhibited miR‑133a expression, which was accompanied by enhanced osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the expression levels of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1, the key protein in γ‑carboxylation, were downregulated by miR‑133a overexpression and upregulated by vitamin K2 treatment, indicating a positive feedback on γ‑carboxylation. The results of the present study suggested that vitamin K2 targets miR‑133a to regulate osteogenesis.

  17. Sodium citrate blood contamination by K2 -ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): impact on routine coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, G; Salvagno, G L; Danese, E; Favaloro, E J; Guidi, G C; Lippi, G

    2015-06-01

    The potential cross-contamination of additives between primary blood tubes is a well-known problem during sample collection. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of citrated blood contamination with different amounts of dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic (K2 EDTA blood) on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen. Blood was collected from 15 ostensibly healthy volunteers into four 0.109 m citrate blood tubes followed by one K2 EDTA blood tube. The citrate tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in five aliquots. The whole blood of the K2 EDTA tube was then added in scalar amounts to autologous citrated blood aliquots, to obtain K2 EDTA contamination ranging from 0% to 43%, and thus mimic potential pre-analytical contamination. A statistically and clinically significant prolongation was observed for both APTT and PT between 29% and 43% K2 EDTA contamination, whereas the decrease of fibrinogen values became statistically and clinically significant at 43% K2 EDTA contamination. The results of this investigation show that contamination of citrated blood with as much as 29% of K2 EDTA blood generates a significant bias in results of routine clotting assays. This has serious implications for patient safety and management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Assessment of vitamin K2 levels in osteoporotic patients: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Akram; Lashkari, Mahin; Oveisi, Sonia; Khair Khah, Mohamad Reza; Zargar, Ali

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to measure the level of Vitamin K2 (Vit K2) in osteoporotic patients and individuals with normal bone density as controls. This case-control study was done in Outpatient Department of Rheumatology at Qazvin Boo-ali Sina Hospital in 2013. Participants were 50 patients with osteoporotic densitometry measured by DEXA (T score? -2.5) who were matched with 48 persons in control group with normal bone density (T score> -1). The level of Vit K2 in samples was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. The level of Vit K2 in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group (Median: 75.95 vs. 71.35 nmol/L, respectively; P-value: 0.709). The authors determined cut-offs 75 percentile of vitamin K2 in all participants that was 85 nmol/L and percentages of persons in two groups were similar. Although Vit K2 level in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group, further studies are necessary to confirm the association of osteoporosis and Vit K2.

  19. 3.5 TeV : a good start!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    To the pessimists out there, the 3.5 TeV starting energy of the LHC will be like a half-empty glass. However, the thousands of physicists working at the experiments certainly do not share these feelings. On the contrary, they are as excited as ever since they will be the first to observe what happens to matter in these (still) unprecedented conditions.

  20. Number & operations task & drill sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based combined resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills.

  1. Synergistic growth inhibition by sorafenib and vitamin K2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, Bicheng; Zhang, Anran; Zhao, Yong; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Jian; Gao, Jianfei; Fang, Dianchun; Rao, Zhiguo

    2012-09-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that has been proven effective as a single-agent therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma, and there is a strong rationale for investigating its use in combination with other agents. Vitamin K2 is nearly non-toxic to humans and has been shown to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a combination of sorafenib and vitamin K2 on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) and nude mouse xenograft assays were used to examine the effects of sorafenib and vitamin K2 on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Western blotting was used to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. Assays for 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) revealed a strong synergistic growth-inhibitory effect between sorafenib and vitamin K2. Flow cytometry showed an increase in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis after treatment with a combination of these two drugs at low concentrations. Sorafenib-mediated inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation was promoted by vitamin K2, and downregulation of Mcl-1, which is required for sorafenib-induced apoptosis, was observed after combined treatment. Vitamin K2 also attenuated the downregulation of p21 expression induced by sorafenib, which may represent the mechanism by which vitamin K2 promotes the inhibitory effects of sorafenib on cell proliferation. Moreover, the combination of sorafenib and vitamin K2 significantly inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Our results determined that combined treatment with sorafenib and vitamin K2 can work synergistically to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. This finding raises the possibility that this combined treatment strategy might be promising as a new therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma, especially for patients

  2. Super-Nyquist White Dwarf Pulsations in K2 Long-Cadence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Hermes, JJ; Montgomery, Michael H.; Vanderbosch, Zach

    2017-06-01

    The Kepler and K2 missions have recently revolutionized the field of white dwarf asteroseismology. Since white dwarfs pulsate on timescales of order 10 minutes, we aim to observe these objects at K2’s short cadence (1 minute). Occasionally we find signatures of pulsations in white dwarf targets that were only observed by K2 at long cadence (30 minute). These signals suffer extreme aliasing since the intrinsic frequencies exceed the Nyquist sampling limit. We present our work to recover accurate frequency determinations for these targets, guided by a limited amount of supplementary, ground-based photometry from McDonald Observatory.

  3. EPIC 201585823, a rare triple-mode RR Lyrae star discovered in K2 mission data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Donald W.; Bowman, Dominic M.; Ebo, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    We have discovered a new, rare triple-mode RR Lyr star, EPIC 201585823, in the Kepler K2 mission Campaign 1 data. This star pulsates primarily in the fundamental and first-overtone radial modes, and, in addition, a third non-radial mode. The ratio of the period of the non-radial mode...... pixels with significant signal for the star, but without correction for pointing changes, is best for frequency analysis of this star, and, by implication, other RR Lyr stars observed by the K2 mission. We compare several pipeline reductions of the K2 mission data for this star....

  4. Kinetic Requirements for the Measurement of Mesospheric Water Vapor at 6.8 (microns) under Non-LTE Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Russell, James M., III

    1999-01-01

    We present accuracy requirements for specific kinetic parameters used to calculate the populations and vibrational temperatures of the H2O(010) and H2O(020) states in the terrestrial mesosphere. The requirements are based on rigorous simulations of the retrieval of mesospheric water vapor profiles from measurements of water vapor infrared emission made by limb scanning instruments on orbiting satellites. Major improvements in the rate constants that describe vibration-to- vibration exchange between the H2O(010) and 02(1) states are required in addition to improved specification of the rate of quenching Of O2(1) by atomic oxygen (0). It is also necessary to more accurately determine the yield of vibrationally excited O2(l) resulting from ozone photolysis. A contemporary measurement of the rate of quenching of H2O(010) by N2 and O2 is also desirable. These rates are either highly uncertain or have never before been measured at atmospheric temperatures. The suggested improvements are necessary for the interpretation of water vapor emission measurements at 6.8 microns to be made from a new spaceflight experiment in less than 2 years. The approach to retrieving water vapor under non-LTE conditions is also presented.

  5. Magnetite synthesis from ferrous iron solution at pH 6.8 in a continuous stirred tank reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mos, Yvonne M; Zorzano, Karin Bertens; Buisman, Cees J N; Weijma, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Partial oxidation of defined Fe 2+ solutions is a well-known method for magnetite synthesis in batch systems. The partial oxidation method could serve as basis for an iron removal process in drinking water production, yielding magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) as a compact and valuable product. As a first step toward such a process, a series of experiments was carried out, in which magnetite was synthesized from an Fe 2+ solution in a 2 L continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at atmospheric pressure and 32 °C. In four experiments, elevating the pH from an initial value of 5.5 or 6.0 to a final value of 6.8, 7.0 or 7.5 caused green rust to form, eventually leading to magnetite. Formation of NH 4 + in the reactor indicated that NO 3 - and subsequently NO 2 - served as the oxidant. However, mass flow analysis revealed an influx of O 2 to the reactor. In a subsequent experiment, magnetite formation was achieved in the absence of added nitrate. In another experiment, seeding with magnetite particles led to additional magnetite precipitation without the need for a pH elevation step. Our results show, for the first time, that continuous magnetite formation from an Fe 2+ solution is possible under mild conditions, without the need for extensive addition of chemicals.

  6. Investigation of the Mitochondrial ATPase 6/8 and tRNA(Lys) Genes Mutations in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryaei, Fahimeh; Houshmand, Massoud; Aryani, Omid; Dadgar, Sepideh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila

    2012-01-01

    Autism results from developmental factors that affect many or all functional brain systems. Brain is one of tissues which are crucially in need of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Autism is noticeably affected by mitochondrial dysfunction which impairs energy metabolism. Considering mutations within ATPase 6, ATPase 8 and tRNA(Lys) genes, associated with different neural diseases, and the main role of ATPase 6/8 in energy generation, we decided to investigate mutations on these mtDNA-encoded genes to reveal their roles in autism pathogenesis. In this experimental study, mutation analysis for the mentioned genes were performed in a cohort of 24 unrelated patients with idiopathic autism by employing amplicon sequencing of mtDNA fragments. In this study, 12 patients (50%) showed point mutations that represent a significant correlation between autism and mtDNA variations. Most of the identified substitutions (55.55%) were observed on MT-ATP6, altering some conserved amino acids to other ones which could potentially affect ATPase 6 function. Mutations causing amino acid replacement denote involvement of mtDNA genes, especially ATPase 6 in autism pathogenesis. MtDNA mutations in relation with autism could be remarkable to realize an understandable mechanism of pathogenesis in order to achieve therapeutic solutions.

  7. Report of the Third Heart Surgery Forum Scientific Sessions: Zagreb, Croatia December 6-8, 2017: Conference Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstenberg, Michael S; Nguyen, Tom C; Roberts, Harold; Levinson, Mark M; Rudez, Igo

    2018-02-26

    The Heart Surgery Forum is an online community dedicated to topics related to all aspects of cardiothoracic surgery. It consists of an informative website (www.hsforum.com), a traditional indexed journal both in print and online, and an email-based "list-serv" for discussion of surgical cases and techniques. The email list-serv, "OpenHeart-L" (The Forum) is composed of surgeons and allied specialties (perfusion, anesthesia, nursing). Dr. Mark Levinson (USA) started The Forum originally in 1995. He also served as the first Editor-in-Chief of the print journal for many years. Coinciding with the popularity of The Forum, and the desire by many members to meet in person, the First Heart Surgery Forum Conference (#1 HSF) was held in Savudrija, Istria, Croatia in 2010. The overwhelming success of this meeting, in terms of attendance and scientific content, resulted in #2 HSF being held in Split, Croatia in 2014. Recently, the #3 HSF meeting was held in Zagreb, Croatia on December 6-8th, 2017. This report highlights the scientific events of this meeting, and more importantly aims to inspire greater involvement by the international cardiothoracic community. Substantial increasing attendance was seen at each subsequent meeting, not only in terms of the number of participants and lectures, but also in the number of countries represented.

  8. Anti-malarial activity of 6-(8'Z-pentadecenyl-salicylic acid from Viola websteri in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Won-Hwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Petroleum ether extracts of Viola websteri Hemsl (Violaceae were reported to have anti-plasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro, with this activity being largely attributable to 6-(8'Z-pentadecenyl-salicylic acid (6-SA. Methods The schizontocidal activity of 6-SA on early Plasmodium berghei infections was evaluated in a four-day test. The possible 'repository' activity of 6-SA was assessed using the method described by Peters. The median lethal dose (LD50 of 6-SA, when given intraperitoneally, was also determined using uninfected ICR mice and the method of Lorke. Results In the present study, 6-SA was found to have anti-malarial activity in vivo, when tested against P. berghei in mice. 6-SA at 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg·day exhibited a significant blood schizontocidal activity in four-day early infections, repository evaluations and established infections with a significant mean survival time comparable to that of the standard drug, chloroquine (5 mg/kg·day. Conclusion 6-SA possesses a moderate anti-malarial activity that could be exploited for malaria therapy.

  9. Crystal structures of bromo- and iododerivatives of ruthenium nitroso complexes K2[RuNOX5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, Yu.N.; Kanishcheva, A.S.; Svetlov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Method of X-ray diffraction analysis was used to interpret crystal structure of ruthenium pentahalogenonitroso complexes: K 2 [RuNOBr 5 ] (1) and K 2 [RuOI 5 ] (2). Crystals belong to rhombic syngony, sp.gr. Pcmn. Lattice parameters: (1) - a 7.236(2), b = 10.791(2), c = 13.949(3) A, V = 1089.14(1) A 3 , Z = 4; (2) - a = 7.755(1), b = 11.506(6), c = 14.951(5) A, V 133.97(8) A 3 , Z = 4. It was revealed that lengths of Ru-Br equatorial bonds in (1) exceeded the axial ones, and in the compound (2) the reverse relation was observed. The obtained results were correlated with the structural data for K 2 [RuNOF 5 ]H 2 O and K 2 [RuNOCl 5 ] complexes and similar osmium compounds

  10. Corrosion mitigation of J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution by a macrocyclic inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ambrish [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Department of Chemistry, LFTS, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144402 (India); Lin, Yuanhua, E-mail: yhlin28@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Obot, I.B. [Centre of Research Excellence in Corrosion, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ebenso, Eno E. [Department of Chemistry, School of Mathematical & Physical Sciences, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735 (South Africa); Material Science Innovation & Modelling (MaSIM) Focus Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735 (South Africa); Ansari, K.R.; Quraishi, M.A. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: SECM studies revealed decrease of steady current in the presence of inhibitor while it increased for 3.5% NaCl solution that acted as the conductor. - Highlights: • J55 steel protection in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO{sub 2} by HPT. • Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that the actions of HPT are mixed type. • The adsorption of HPT obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy is used to discuss the insulated and conductive surface. - Abstract: 1,2,4,7,9,10-Hexaazacyclo-pentadeca-10,15-dien-3,5,6,8-tetraone (HPT) a macrocyclic compound has been studied using electrochemical methods and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques. The R{sub ct} values increased and C{sub dl} values decreased with the increase in concentration of the inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO{sub 2} by polarization studies revealed that HPT acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of HPT on the J55 steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters (K{sub ads}, ΔG°{sub ads}) were also computed and discussed.

  11. Corrosion mitigation of J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution by a macrocyclic inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ambrish; Lin, Yuanhua; Obot, I.B.; Ebenso, Eno E.; Ansari, K.R.; Quraishi, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SECM studies revealed decrease of steady current in the presence of inhibitor while it increased for 3.5% NaCl solution that acted as the conductor. - Highlights: • J55 steel protection in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO 2 by HPT. • Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that the actions of HPT are mixed type. • The adsorption of HPT obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy is used to discuss the insulated and conductive surface. - Abstract: 1,2,4,7,9,10-Hexaazacyclo-pentadeca-10,15-dien-3,5,6,8-tetraone (HPT) a macrocyclic compound has been studied using electrochemical methods and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques. The R ct values increased and C dl values decreased with the increase in concentration of the inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO 2 by polarization studies revealed that HPT acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of HPT on the J55 steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters (K ads , ΔG° ads ) were also computed and discussed.

  12. Dysfunction of bovine endogenous retrovirus K2 envelope glycoprotein is related to unsuccessful intracellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Yuki; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2014-06-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the remnants of retroviral infection of ancestral germ cells. Mutations introduced into ERVs halt the production of infectious agents, but their effects on the function of retroviral proteins are not fully understood. Retroviral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) are utilized in membrane fusion during viral entry, and we recently identified intact coding sequences for bovine endogenous retrovirus K1 (BERV-K1) and BERV-K2 Envs. Amino acid sequences of BERV-K1 Env (also called Fematrin-1) and BERV-K2 Env are similar, and both viruses are classified in the genus Betaretrovirus. While Fematrin-1 plays an important role in cell-to-cell fusion in bovine placenta, the BERV-K2 envelope gene is marginally expressed in vivo, and its recombinant Env protein is defective in membrane fusion due to inefficient cleavage of surface (SU) and transmembrane subunits. Here, we conducted chimeric analyses of Fematrin-1 and BERV-K2 Envs and revealed that defective maturation of BERV-K2 Env contributed to failed intracellular trafficking. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis suggested that in contrast to Fematrin-1 Env, BERV-K2 Env could not be transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the trans-Golgi network, where cellular proteases required for processing retroviral Envs are localized. We also identified that one of the responsive regions of this phenomenon resided within a 65-amino-acid region of BERV-K2 SU. This is the first report to identify that retroviral Env SU is involved in the regulation of intracellular trafficking, and it may help to elucidate the maturation process of Fematrin-1 and other related Envs. Retroviruses utilize envelope glycoproteins (Envs) to enter host target cells. Mature retroviral Env is a heterodimer, which consists of surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits that are generated by the cleavage of an Env precursor protein in the trans-Golgi network. SU and TM mediate the recognition of the entry

  13. K2 photometry and HERMES spectroscopy of the blue supergiant rho Leo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerts, C.; Bowman, D. M.; Simon-Diaz, S.

    2018-01-01

    We present an 80-d long uninterrupted high-cadence K2 light curve of the B1Iab supergiant rho Leo (HD91316), deduced with the method of halo photometry. This light curve reveals a dominant frequency of f(rot) = 0.0373 d(-1) and its harmonics. This dominant frequency corresponds with a rotation...... period of 26.8 d and is subject to amplitude and phase modulation. The K2 photometry additionally reveals multiperiodic low-frequency variability (

  14. A High Mass & Low Envelope Fraction for the Warm Neptune K2-55b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney; Sinukoff, Evan; Fulton, Benjamin; Lopez, Eric; Beichman, Charles; Howard, Andrew; Knutson, Heather; Werner, Michael; Schlieder, Joshua; Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Isaacson, Howard; Krick, Jessica; Gorjian, Varoujan; Livingston, John; Petigura, Erik; Akeson, Rachel; Batygin, Konstantin; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Crepp, Justin; Jasmine Gonzales, Erica; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Hirsch, Lea; Kosiarek, Molly; Weiss, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    The NASA K2 mission is using the Kepler spacecraft to search for transiting planets in multiple fields along the ecliptic plane. One of the planets detected by K2 is K2-55b, a warm Neptune in a short-period orbit (2.8 days) around a late K dwarf. We previously obtained near-infrared spectra from IRTF/SpeX to characterize the system and found that the host star K2-55 has a radius of 0.715 (+0.043/-0.040) solar radii, a mass of 0.668 (+/- 0.069) solar masses, and an effective temperature of 4300K (+100/-107). We then combined our updated stellar properties with new fits to the K2 photometry to estimate a planet radius of 4.38 (+0.29/-0.25) Earth radii, confirmed the transit ephemeris using Spitzer/IRAC (GO 11026, PI Werner), and embarked on radial velocity observations with Keck/HIRES to measure the planet mass. Our RV data suggest that K2-55b is much more massive than expected, indicating that the planet has a high density despite having a relatively high mass. The lack of a significant volatile envelope tests current theories of gas giant formation and indicates that K2-55b may have avoided runaway accretion by migration, delayed formation, or inefficient core accretion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the NASA Sagan Fellowship Program and the NASA K2 Guest Observer Program. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  15. High-Resolution Imaging of K2 Planet Host Stars and the Effect of Stellar Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmine Gonzales, Erica; Ciardi, David; Crossfield, Ian; K2 Team

    2018-01-01

    Our K2 planetary candidate follow-up program has obtained high-resolution adaptive optics (AO) imaging of K2 targets in Campaigns 5-8. We observed nearly 200 systems and find that roughly 20% of these systems have nearby (TESS mission. In addition, the pixel size of TESS will be larger than Kepler and thus AO imaging will be even more important to uncovering otherwise unknown compaions contributing to photometric measurements.

  16. Pb chains on ordered Si(3 3 5) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisiel, M.; Skrobas, K.; Zdyb, R.; Mazurek, P.; Jalochowski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The electronic band structure of the Si(3 3 5)-Au surface decorated with Pb atoms was studied with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) in ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions. The photoemission spectra were measured in two perpendicular directions, along and across the steps. In the direction parallel to the step edges the ARPES spectra show strongly dispersive electron energy band while in the perpendicular direction there is no electronic dispersion at all. This confirms one-dimensional character of the system. The theoretical band dispersion calculated within a tight-binding model was fitted to that obtained from the experiment

  17. Poly[diaqua(μ5-pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylatostrontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, [Sr(C7H3NO4(H2O2]n, the SrII cation is eight-coordinated in form of a distorted dodecahedron by two water O atoms and by five O atoms and one N atom from five pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate anions. The bridging mode of the anions leads to the formation of a layered network parallel to (100. O—H...O hydrogen bonding between the coordinating water molecules and the carboxylate groups of adjacent layers consolidates the crystal packing. Weak C—H...O interactions are also observed.

  18. The critical boundary RSOS M(3,5) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Deeb, O.

    2017-12-01

    We consider the critical nonunitary minimal model M(3, 5) with integrable boundaries and analyze the patterns of zeros of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and then determine the spectrum of the critical theory using the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz ( TBA) equations. Solving the TBA functional equation satisfied by the transfer matrices of the associated A 4 restricted solid-on-solid Forrester-Baxter lattice model in regime III in the continuum scaling limit, we derive the integral TBA equations for all excitations in the ( r, s) = (1, 1) sector and then determine their corresponding energies. We classify the excitations in terms of ( m, n) systems.

  19. 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubas, Michal Szymon

    RNA synthesis and degradation are key steps in the regulation of gene expression in all living organisms. During the course of his PhD studies, Michal Lubas centred his research on the nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA turnover of both noncoding and coding RNAs in human cells. His proteomic studies...... revealed the interaction network of the main 3'-5' RNA degradation machinery – the RNA exosome complex. One of the key findings was the identification and characterisation of the Nuclear Exosome Targeting (NEXT) complex, important for nuclear functions of the exosome. Michal Lubas also studied the role...

  20. An Academic Response to Basel 3.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Embrechts

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent crises in the financial industry have shown weaknesses in the modeling of Risk-Weighted Assets (RWAs. Relatively minor model changes may lead to substantial changes in the RWA numbers. Similar problems are encountered in the Value-at-Risk (VaR-aggregation of risks. In this article, we highlight some of the underlying issues, both methodologically, as well as through examples. In particular, we frame this discussion in the context of two recent regulatory documents we refer to as Basel 3.5.

  1. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobetičová Hana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

  2. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S. [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States); Perkins, Edward J. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Meyer, Sharon A., E-mail: meyer@ulm.edu [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  3. Spin Caloritronic Transport of 1,3,5-Triphenylverdazyl Radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiu-Hua; Zhao Peng; Liu De-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin caloritronic transport properties of a stable 1,3,5-triphenylverdazyl (TPV) radical sandwiched between Au electrodes through different connection fashions. Obvious spin Seebeck effect can be observed in the para-connection fashion. Furthermore, a pure spin current and a completely spin-polarized current can be realized by tuning the gate voltage. Furthermore, a 100% spin polarization without the need of gate voltage can be obtained in the meta-connection fashion. These results demonstrate that TPV radical is a promising material for spin caloritronic and spintronic applications. (paper)

  4. Identification of Young Stellar Variables with KELT for K2 . I. Taurus Dippers and Rotators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Cargile, Phillip A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ansdell, Megan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaií at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Oelkers, Ryan J.; Somers, Garrett; Lund, Michael B.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaií at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Stevens, Daniel J.; Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); James, David [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Kuhn, Rudolf B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    One of the most well-studied young stellar associations, Taurus–Auriga, was observed by the extended Kepler mission, K2 , in the spring of 2017. K2 Campaign 13 (C13) is a unique opportunity to study many stars in this young association at high photometric precision and cadence. Using observations from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey, we identify “dippers,” aperiodic and periodic variables among K2 C13 target stars. This release of the KELT data (light curve data in e-tables) provides the community with long-time baseline observations to assist in the understanding of the more exotic variables in the association. Transient-like phenomena on timescales of months to years are known characteristics in the light curves of young stellar objects, making contextual pre- and post- K2 observations critical to understanding their underlying processes. We are providing a comprehensive set of the KELT light curves for known Taurus–Auriga stars in K2 C13. The combined data sets from K2 and KELT should permit a broad array of investigations related to star formation, stellar variability, and protoplanetary environments.

  5. Myocardial infarction associated with use of the synthetic cannabinoid K2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Arshid; Obafemi, Adebisi; Young, Amy; Kane, Colin

    2011-12-01

    Designer drugs have been problematic over the years. Products such as K2 and Spice, which contain synthetic cannabinoids, are marketed as incense and are widely available on the Internet and at various specialty shops. The effects are reported as cannabis-like after smoking them. In addition, use of these synthetic cannabinoids will not appear on a routine urine toxicology screen. Recently, K2 became a popular alternative to marijuana among youths. Health implications of these designer drugs are not completely understood. Little has been reported about the harmful effects of K2. We report here the first (to our knowledge) cases of myocardial infarction (MI) after smoking K2. Three patients presented separately to the emergency department complaining of chest pain within days after the use of K2. Acute MI was diagnosed in each case on the basis of electrocardiogram changes and elevated troponin levels. Coronary angiography was performed, and the results were normal for the first 2 patients. The incidence of ST-elevation MI is low among teenagers, and association with drug use should be suspected. Public education and awareness need to be heightened about the possible health implications of K2.

  6. K2 killer toxin-induced physiological changes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentaite, Irma; Poranen, Minna M; Oksanen, Hanna M; Daugelavicius, Rimantas; Bamford, Dennis H

    2016-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells produce killer toxins, such as K1, K2 and K28, that can modulate the growth of other yeasts giving advantage for the killer strains. Here we focused on the physiological changes induced by K2 toxin on a non-toxin-producing yeast strain as well as K1, K2 and K28 killer strains. Potentiometric measurements were adjusted to observe that K2 toxin immediately acts on the sensitive cells leading to membrane permeability. This correlated with reduced respiration activity, lowered intracellular ATP content and decrease in cell viability. However, we did not detect any significant ATP leakage from the cells treated by killer toxin K2. Strains producing heterologous toxins K1 and K28 were less sensitive to K2 than the non-toxin producing one suggesting partial cross-protection between the different killer systems. This phenomenon may be connected to the observed differences in respiratory activities of the killer strains and the non-toxin-producing strain at low pH. This might also have practical consequences in wine industry; both as beneficial ones in controlling contaminating yeasts and non-beneficial ones causing sluggish fermentation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Identification of Young Stellar Variables with KELT for K2 . I. Taurus Dippers and Rotators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Ansdell, Megan; Oelkers, Ryan J.; Somers, Garrett; Lund, Michael B.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gaidos, Eric; Cody, Ann Marie; Stevens, Daniel J.; Gaudi, B. Scott; James, David; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Pepper, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    One of the most well-studied young stellar associations, Taurus–Auriga, was observed by the extended Kepler mission, K2 , in the spring of 2017. K2 Campaign 13 (C13) is a unique opportunity to study many stars in this young association at high photometric precision and cadence. Using observations from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey, we identify “dippers,” aperiodic and periodic variables among K2 C13 target stars. This release of the KELT data (light curve data in e-tables) provides the community with long-time baseline observations to assist in the understanding of the more exotic variables in the association. Transient-like phenomena on timescales of months to years are known characteristics in the light curves of young stellar objects, making contextual pre- and post- K2 observations critical to understanding their underlying processes. We are providing a comprehensive set of the KELT light curves for known Taurus–Auriga stars in K2 C13. The combined data sets from K2 and KELT should permit a broad array of investigations related to star formation, stellar variability, and protoplanetary environments.

  8. Chemical and Electrochemical Asymmetric Dihydroxylation of Olefins in I(2)-K(2)CO(3)-K(2)OsO(2)(OH)(4) and I(2)-K(3)PO(4)/K(2)HPO(4)-K(2)OsO(2)(OH)(4) Systems with Sharpless' Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Sigeru; Liu, Ping; Bhuvaneswari, Narayanaswamy; Amatore, Christian; Jutand, Anny

    1996-05-03

    Iodine-assisted chemical and electrochemical asymmetric dihydroxylation of various olefins in I(2)-K(2)CO(3)-K(2)OsO(2)(OH)(4) and I(2)-K(3)PO(4)/K(2)HPO(4)-K(2)OsO(2)(OH)(4) systems with Sharpless' ligand provided the optically active glycols in excellent isolated yields and high enantiomeric excesses. Iodine (I(2)) was used stoichiometrically for the chemical dihydroxylation, and good results were obtained with nonconjugated olefins in contrast to the case of potassium ferricyanide as a co-oxidant. The potentiality of I(2) as a co-oxidant under stoichiometric conditions has been proven to be effective as an oxidizing mediator in electrolysis systems. Iodine-assisted asymmetric electro-dihydroxylation of olefins in either a t-BuOH/H(2)O(1/1)-K(2)CO(3)/(DHQD)(2)PHAL-(Pt) or t-BuOH/H(2)O(1/1)-K(3)PO(4)/K(2)HPO(4)/(DHQD)(2)PHAL-(Pt) system in the presence of potassium osmate in an undivided cell was investigated in detail. Irrespective of the substitution pattern, all the olefins afforded the diols in high yields and excellent enantiomeric excesses. A plausible mechanism is discussed on the basis of cyclic voltammograms as well as experimental observations.

  9. Viscosity of melts of the system KCl-KBF4-K2TiF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.K.; Danek, V.

    1997-01-01

    The viscosity of melts of the system KCl-KBF 4 -K 2 TiF 6 has been measured by means of the computerized torsional pendulum method. The viscosity of KCl is higher that of KBF 4 at the same temperature, most probably due to the substantial overheating of KBF 4 . In the ternary system the viscosity increases with increasing with increasing content of K 2 TiF 6 . Additivity of algorithms of viscosity was adopted as the ideal behaviour of the mixture. Negative deviations from such additive behaviour were found in the binary system KCl-KBF 4 probably due to the breaks of the weak B-Cl-B bridges caused by the excess of Cl - ions. Positive deviations from the ideal behaviour were found in the binaries KCl-K 2 TiF 6 and KBF 4 -K 2 TiF 6 due to the formation of larger anions TiF 6 Cl 3- and TiF 7 3- caused by the reactions K 2 TiF 6 (l) + KCl(l) = K 3 TiF 6 Cl(l) and KBF 4 (l) + K 2 TiF 6 (l) = K 3 TiF 7 (l) + BF 3 (g). Statistically significant ternary interaction confirmed that the above chemical reactions take place also in the ternary system. (authors)

  10. Over 100 Validated and Candidate Planets Orbiting Bright Stars in K2 Campaigns 0-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Andrew; Vanderburg, Andrew; Latham, David; Bieryla, Allyson; Morton, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Since 2014, NASA's K2 mission has observed large portions of the ecliptic plane in search of transiting planets and has detected hundreds of planet candidates. With observations planned until at least early 2018, K2 will continue to identify more planet candidates. We present here over 250 planet candidates observed during Campaigns 0-10 of the K2 mission that are orbiting stars brighter than 13th magnitude and for which we have obtained high-resolution spectra. We analyze these candidates using the VESPA package in order to calculate the false positive probability (FPP), and find that more than half are validated with a FPP less than 0.1%. We show that like the population of planets found during the original Kepler mission, large planets discovered by K2 tend to orbit metal-rich stars. We also show tentative evidence of a gap in the planet radius distribution. We compare our sample to the Kepler candidate sample investigated by Fulton and collaborators and conclude that more planets are required to confirm the gap. This work, in addition to increasing the population of validated K2 planets and providing new targets for follow-up observations, will also serve as a framework for validating candidates from upcoming K2 campaigns and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), expected to launch in 2018.

  11. K2 and M4: A Unique Opportunity to Unlock the Mysteries of Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Stello, Dennis; Campbell, Simon; Drury, Jason; de Silva, Gayandhi; Maclean, Ben; Bedding, Timothy R.; Huber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One of the most exciting opportunities presented by K2 is the ability to study variable stars in globular clusters (GCs). The K2 observations allow us to perform ensemble asteroseismology of a population that is much older than that in the open clusters in the original Kepler field. This should help us answer long-standing questions concerning mass loss on the red giant branch and the spread in masses along the horizontal branch. By combining the asteroseismic data with chemical tagging of sub-populations from spectroscopy, we hope to better constrain stellar evolution models and potentially shed some light on the formation history of GCs. The very crowded nature of stars in GCs poses a challenge, however, due to Kepler's large pixels. M4, observed during K2's campaign 2, presents an excellent opportunity to study GCs with a combination of K2 and ground-based data. M4 is one of the two nearest GCs and thus should appear less crowded and brighter; in fact M4 is likely the only GC whose horizontal branch stars, other than RR Lyraes, will be accessible with K2. We discuss our method of obtaining photometry for the stars in M4 and present sample lightcurves for different classes of oscillating stars in the cluster. We also discuss efforts to use ground-based observations to increase the utility of the K2 dataset.

  12. ZZ BOREHOLE-EB6.8-MG, multi group cross-section library for deterministic and Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, Ivo; Aldama, Daniel L.; Leege, Piet F.A. de; Legrady, David; Hoogenboom, J. Eduard

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description: Format: MATXS and ACE; Number of groups: 175 neutron, 45 gamma-ray; Nuclides: H-1, C-12, O-16, Na-23, Mg-nat, Al-27, Si-28, -29, -30, S-nat, Cl-35, -37, K-nat, Ca-nat, Mn-55, Fe-54, -56, -57, -58, I-127, W-nat. Origin: ENDF/B-VI.8; Weighting spectrum: Fission and fusion peak at high energies and a 1/E + thermal Maxwellian extension at low energies. The following materials/nuclides are included in the library: H-1, C-12, O-16, Na-23, Mg-nat, Al-27, Si-28, -29, -30, S-nat, Cl-35, -37, K-nat, Ca-nat, Fe-54, -56, -57, -58, Mn-55, I-127, W-nat. ZZ-BOREHOLE-EB6.8-MG is a multigroup cross section library for deterministic (DOORS, DANTSYS) and Monte Carlo (MCNP) transport codes developed for the oil well logging applications. The library is based on the ENDF/B-VI.8 evaluation and was processed by the NJOY-99 code. The cross sections are given in the 175 neutron and 45 gamma ray group structure. The MATXS format library can be directly used in TRANSX code to prepare the multigroup self-shielded cross sections for deterministic discrete ordinates codes like DOORS and DANTSYS. The data provided in the GROUPR and GAMINR format were converted to the MCNP ACE format by the NSLINK, SCALE and CRSRD codes. IAEA1398/03: Multigroup cross section data for Mn-55 were added in TRANSX format

  13. Food sources of energy and nutrients in Finnish girls and boys 6-8 years of age - the PANIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Soininen, Sonja; Jalkanen, Henna; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Schwab, Ursula; Lakka, Timo A; Lindi, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls ( n =213) and boys ( n =217) aged 6-8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. We calculated the percentual contribution of 55 food groups for energy and nutrient intake using the population proportion method. Low-fibre grain products, skimmed milk, and high-fibre bread provided almost 23% of total energy intake. Skimmed milk was the top source of protein (18% of total intake), vitamin D (32%), potassium (20%), calcium (39%), magnesium (17%), and zinc (16%). Vegetable oils (15%) and high-fat vegetable oil-based spreads (14%) were the top sources of polyunsaturated fat. High-fibre bread was the top source of fibre (27%) and iron (12%). Non-root vegetables were the top source of folate (14%) and vitamin C (22%). Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of sucrose intake. Pork was a more important source of protein and sausage was a more important source of total fat and monounsaturated fat in boys than in girls. Vegetable oils provided a higher proportion of unsaturated fat and vitamin E among boys, whereas high-fat vegetable oil-based spreads provided a higher proportion of these nutrients among girls. Commonly recommended foods, such as skimmed milk, high-fibre grain products, vegetables, vegetable oil, and vegetable oil-based spreads, were important sources of several nutrients, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages provided the majority of sucrose intake among children. This knowledge can be used in improving health among children by dietary interventions, nutrition education, and health policy decision making.

  14. Full article: The Reaction between MoO3 and Molten K2S2O7 forming K2MoO2(SO4)2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.; Nielsen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    .4540(4), c = 8.8874(3) Å, beta = 112.194(1)o, wR2 = 0.0897 for 3491 independent reflections. The compound, K2MoO2(SO4)2, contains (Mo02)2+ core ions in distorted octahedral coordination, with two short (ca. 1.69 Å) terminal bonds in cis-configuration (the O-Mo-O angle is 103.1(2)o), and with two long (ca. 2...

  15. Biosphere in 3.5 Ga submarine hydrothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Yuichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Science and Astronomy

    2003-04-01

    Abundant organic matter (kerogen) was identified in {approx}3.5 Ga hydrothermal silica dikes from the North Pole area in the Pilbara craton, Western Australia. The silica dikes developed in the uppermost 1000 m of the ancient oceanic crust. Thus, they would have been deposited in the 3.5 Ga sub-seafloor hydrothermal system. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of the kerogen were analyzed in this study. Their highly {sup 13}C-depleted isotopic compositions ({delta}{sup 13}C = -38 to -33 per mille) strongly suggest that they are originally derived from biologically produced organic matter. The remarkable similarity of the {delta}{sup 13}C values between the kerogen and modern hydrothermal vent organisms may suggest that the kerogen was derived from chemoautotrophic organisms. This idea is also consistent with their nitrogen isotopic compositions ({delta}{sup 15}N = -4 to +4 per mille). The silica dikes consist mainly of fine-grained silica with minor pyrite and sphalerite. These mineral assemblages indicate that the silica dike was deposited from relatively low-temperature (probably less than 150degC) reducing hydrothermal fluid. Thus, anaerobic thermophilic/hyperthermophilic organisms could have survived in the hydrothermal fluid, which formed the silica dikes. Therefore, it is plausible that a chemoautotrophic-based biosphere (possibly methanogenesis) probably existed in the Early Archean sub-seafloor hydrothermal system. (author)

  16. Comments on SKB's SFL 3-5 preliminary performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Crawford, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Recently introduced regulations in Sweden have established an individual risk criterion ( -6 per year) for the long-term performance of repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. SKB has not focused its assessment of SFL 3-5 on demonstrating compliance with this regulation. Instead, SKB has calculated individual dose and provided a comparison with an annual individual dose of 14 iSv (derived from the risk criteria using the ICRP's dose-risk conversion factor of 0.073 per Sv). The justification of this approach is that probabilities do not need to be determined if doses are less than the dose equivalent to the risk criterion. However, there is insufficient information regarding uncertainty provided in the documentation of the SFL 3-5 assessment to determine whether this approach is reasonable. SKB's parallel assessment of a repository for spent fuel using the KBS-3 concept (SR 97) accounts for uncertainty by specifying a 'reasonable' and a 'pessimistic' value for uncertain parameters in the assessment calculations. Although there are problems with the way probabilities have been assigned to these values, this approach does indicate where there are significant uncertainties. The SFL 3-5 PA does not include a structured approach to defining uncertainty, although a number of assumptions and parameter values are stated to be conservative. As a preliminary assessment, there is insufficient information to identify key uncertainties or sensitivities, or to determine where further work should be focused. Any assessment requires the use of expert judgement to determine how the assessment is conducted, what modelling approach to use, what features, events and processes (FEPs) could potentially affect the disposal system, which FEPs should be included in the conceptual models, and which scenarios should be assessed. Judgements are also required in determining how to parameterize the models, and this may extend to formal expert elicitation for particular parameter

  17. Vitamin K2 biosynthetic enzyme, UBIAD1 is essential for embryonic development of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natsumi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Uchino, Yuri; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio; Okamoto, Tadashi; Tsugawa, Naoko; Kamao, Maya; Funahashi, Nobuaki; Okano, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1) is a novel vitamin K2 biosynthetic enzyme screened and identified from the human genome database. UBIAD1 has recently been shown to catalyse the biosynthesis of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in zebrafish and human cells. To investigate the function of UBIAD1 in vivo, we attempted to generate mice lacking Ubiad1, a homolog of human UBIAD1, by gene targeting. Ubiad1-deficient (Ubiad1(-/-)) mouse embryos failed to survive beyond embryonic day 7.5, exhibiting small-sized body and gastrulation arrest. Ubiad1(-/-) embryonic stem (ES) cells failed to synthesize vitamin K2 but were able to synthesize CoQ9, similar to wild-type ES cells. Ubiad1(+/-) mice developed normally, exhibiting normal growth and fertility. Vitamin K2 tissue levels and synthesis activity were approximately half of those in the wild-type, whereas CoQ9 tissue levels and synthesis activity were similar to those in the wild-type. Similarly, UBIAD1 expression and vitamin K2 synthesis activity of mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from Ubiad1(+/-) E15.5 embryos were approximately half of those in the wild-type, whereas CoQ9 levels and synthesis activity were similar to those in the wild-type. Ubiad1(-/-) mouse embryos failed to be rescued, but their embryonic lifespans were extended to term by oral administration of MK-4 or CoQ10 to pregnant Ubiad1(+/-) mice. These results suggest that UBIAD1 is responsible for vitamin K2 synthesis but may not be responsible for CoQ9 synthesis in mice. We propose that UBIAD1 plays a pivotal role in embryonic development by synthesizing vitamin K2, but may have additional functions beyond the biosynthesis of vitamin K2.

  18. Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8: Climate Change Curriculum Developed Through a Collaboration Between Scientists and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halversen, C.; Weiss, E. L.; Pedemonte, S.

    2016-02-01

    Today's youth have been tasked with the overwhelming job of addressing the world's climate future. The students who will become the scientists, policy makers, and citizens of tomorrow must gain a robust understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, as well as possible adaptation strategies. Currently, few high quality curriculum materials exist that address climate change in a developmentally appropriate manner. The NOAA-funded Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 6-8: The Ocean-Atmosphere Connection and Climate Change (OSS) addresses this gap by providing teachers with scientifically accurate climate change curriculum that hits on some of the most salient points in climate science, while simultaneously developing students' science process skills. OSS was developed through a collaboration between some of the nation's leading ocean and climate scientists and the Lawrence Hall of Science's highly qualified curriculum development team. Scientists were active partners throughout the entire development process, from initial brainstorming of key concepts and creating the conceptual storyline for the curriculum to final review of the content and activities. The goal was to focus strategically and effectively on core concepts within ocean and climate sciences that students should understand. OSS was designed in accordance with the latest research from the learning sciences and provides numerous opportunities for students to develop facility with science practices by "doing" science.Through hands-on activities, technology, informational readings, and embedded assessments, OSS deeply addresses a significant number of standards from the Next Generation Science Standards and is being used by many teachers as they explore the shifts required by NGSS. It also aligns with the Ocean Literacy and Climate Literacy Frameworks. OSS comprises 33 45-minute sessions organized into three thematic units, each driven by an exploratory question: (1) How do the ocean and atmosphere

  19. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and socioeconomic status among Finnish girls and boys aged 6-8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Haapala, Eero A; Lindi, Virpi; Väistö, Juuso; Lintu, Niina; Karjalainen, Panu; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-05-01

    We studied differences in physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and the types of PA and SB between Finnish girls and boys and children from different socioeconomic backgrounds (SES). We assessed PA, SB, parental education, and household income using detailed questionnaires in a representative population sample of 486 children (238 girls, 248 boys) aged 6-8 years. Girls spent on average 1.7 h/day and boys 2.0 h/day in total PA (p = 0.002). Altogether 66% of girls and 54% of boys had less than 2 h of total PA per day (p = 0.012). Girls had lower levels of unsupervised PA (45 vs. 54 min/day, p = 0.001), supervised PA (1.5 vs. 1.9 h/week, p = 0.009), and PA during school recess (1.8 vs. 1.9 h/week, p = 0.032) than boys. Girls had higher levels of total SB (3.8 vs. 3.4 h/day, p = 0.015) but lower levels of screen-based SB (1.5 vs. 1.9 h/day, p boys. Lower parental education and household income were associated with lower levels of supervised PA in girls (p = 0.011 and p = 0.008, respectively) and in boys (p = 0.006 and p = 0.003, respectively). Lower parental education and household income were also related to higher levels of screen-based SB in boys (p = 0.005 and p girls. Girls have lower levels of total, unsupervised, and supervised PA, PA during recess, and screen-based SB but higher levels of total SB than boys. Lower parental education and household income are associated with lower levels of supervised PA in both genders and higher levels of screen-based SB in boys.

  20. "6"8Gallium-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid and "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/computed tomography in chondroblastic osteosarcoma of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orunmuyi, Akintunde; Modiselle, Moshe; Lengana, Thabo; Ebenhan, Thomas; Vorster, Mariza; Sathekge, Mike

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 32 year-old male with Chondroblastic Osteosarcoma of the skull, which was imaged with both "1"8[F]fluorodeoxyglucose ("1"8F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and "6"8Gallium-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid ("6"8Ga-RGD) PET/CT. The "1"8F-FDG PET/CT did not demonstrate the tumour, whereas the "6"8Ga-RGD PET/CT clearly depicted a left-sided frontal tumour. "6"8Ga-RGD PET/CT may be a clinically useful imaging modality for early detection of recurrent osteosarcoma, considering the limitations of "1"8F-FDG PET in a setting of low glycolytic activity

  1. Cascade Wittig reaction-double Claisen and Cope rearrangements: one-pot synthesis of diprenylated coumarins gravelliferone, balsamiferone, and 6,8-diprenylumbelliferone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patre, R.E.; Shet, J.B.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    A cascade Wittig reaction-double Claisen and Cope rearrangements has been employed for a one-pot synthesis of diprenylated coumarins gravelliferone, balsamiferone, and 6,8-diprenylumbelliferone from a common precursor 2,4-diprenyloxybenzaldehyde...

  2. A simplified radioimmunoassay of adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Yoshiki; Takezawa, Junichi; Suzuki, Morio; Kuninaka, Akira; Yoshino, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    Dextran-coated charcoal was proved to be able to separate free adenosine-3':5'monophosphate (cAMP) from antibody-bound cAMP. Only free cAMO was adsorbed on dextran-coated charcoal within 1 min after contacting the charcoal. In a reaction mixture of cAMP and anti-cAMP-plasma, most of antibody-bound cAMP had not been adsorbed 4 min after contacting. The data obtained were found to be almost the same as the data of another experiment using cellulose ester filter separation technique. Thus, dextran-coated charcoal could be employed to simplify the radioimmunoassay of cAMP. (author)

  3. A new version of the DOT 3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbaffoni, M.M.; Abbate, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The use of code DOT 3.5 in calculations that involve neutron thermalization processes in systems with a strong upscattering effect, has shown several problems, i.e. arise of negative fluxes, instability of the solutions, and random convergence. Because of these undesirable results, a new version of the code was developed, which maintains the possibilites of the former one and adds, as option, the utilization of a new upscattering acceleration method, called 'differential method' or 'group by group'. It is more adequate for this kind of cases and solves, with the addition of a few other minor modifications, the above mentioned problems. Since this new version includes the original one, the modifications described in this report, in particular those of input and output features, are an addendum to the corresponding user's manual. (author) [es

  4. Toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in three vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S; McFarland, Craig A; Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; LaFiandra, Emily May; Talent, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    The explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or high-melting explosive (HMX), has been found in soils in areas used for testing and training by the military. Many of these areas contain habitat for valued wildlife species. In an effort to better understand the environmental consequences from exposure, a reptilian (western fence lizard [Sceloporus occidentalis]), an amphibian (red-backed salamander [Plethodon cinereus]), and a mammalian species (rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus]) were exposed to HMX under controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards and rabbits were exposed to HMX by way of corn oil through gavage, and salamanders were exposed to HMX in soil. Two deaths occurred from acute oral exposures to lizards to 5000 mg HMX/kg BW. Histological and gross pathologic assessment suggested gut impaction as a possible cause of death. Salamanders exposed to concentrations of HMX in soil 24 h after oral exposures. An LD(50) for rabbits was calculated as 93 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 76-117). A subacute 14-day testing regime found a lowest observed effect level of 10 mg/kg-d and a no observed adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg-d based on hyperkinesia and seizure incidence, although changes suggesting functional hepatic alterations were also found. These data suggest that physiologic differences between species, particularly in gastrointestinal structure and function, can affect the absorption of HMX and hence lead to marked differences in toxicity from exposure to the same compound.

  5. "6"8Ga-PSMA PET/CT: Joint EANM and SNMMI procedure guideline for prostate cancer imaging: version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendler, Wolfgang P.; Eiber, Matthias; Beheshti, Mohsen; Bomanji, Jamshed; Wan, Simon; Ceci, Francesco; Fanti, Stefano; Cho, Steven; Giesel, Frederik; Haberkorn, Uwe; Hope, Thomas A.; Kopka, Klaus; Krause, Bernd J.; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Schoeder, Heiko; Sunderland, John; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Herrmann, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide standards for the recommendation, performance, interpretation and reporting of "6"8Ga-PSMA PET/CT for prostate cancer imaging. These recommendations will help to improve accuracy, precision, and repeatability of "6"8Ga-PSMA PET/CT for prostate cancer essentially needed for implementation of this modality in science and routine clinical practice. (orig.)

  6. Induction of secondary metabolism by environmental pollutants: metabolization of pyrene and formation of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin by Crinipellis stipitaria JK 364

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, B.; Kremer, S.; Sterner, O.; Anke, H.

    1995-01-01

    In submerged cultures, when grown in the presence of pyrene, the saprophytic and plant inhabiting basidiomycete Crinipellis stipitaria was found to produce 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-isocoumarin. The amount of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin formed depended on the concentration of pyrene in the medium. In cultures incubated without pyrene or with less than 2.5 mg/l no formation of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin was observed. Besides pyrene, chrysene, anotther four ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, induced isocoumarin formation whereas anthracene, phenanthrene or fluoranthene were not effective. During metabilization experiments with [4,5,9,10- 14 C]pyrene (0.4 mCi (14.8 kBq)/mmol), labelled 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylsiocoumarin (specific activity 15 μCi (0.6 kBq)/mmol) was identified. When C. stipitaria JK 364 was incubated for 14 days with 5 μCi (0.2 kBq) sodium [2- 14 C]acetate and 10 mg/l pyrene, labelled 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin was isolated from the culture. The results are in agreement with the polyketide origin of the isocoumarin and proof the breakdown of pyrene to acetate which is a central intermediate in the pathway from pyrene to 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin. (orig.)

  7. Vitamin K2 improves femoral bone strength without altering bone mineral density in gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Gastrectomy (GX) induces osteopenia in rats. The present study examined the skeletal effects of vitamin K2 in GX rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 wk old) were randomized by the stratified weight method into the following three groups of 10 animals each: sham operation (control) group; GX group; and GX+oral vitamin K2 (menatetrenone, 30 mg/kg, 5 d/wk) group. Treatment was initiated at 1 wk after surgery. After 6 wk of treatment, the bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and mechanical strength of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis were determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength tests, respectively. GX induced decreases in the BMC, BMD, and ultimate force of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis. Vitamin K2 did not significantly influence the BMC or BMD of the femoral diaphysis or distal metaphysis in GX rats, but attenuated the decrease in the ultimate force and increased the stiffness of the femoral diaphysis. The present study showed that administration of vitamin K2 to GX rats improved the bone strength of the femoral diaphysis without altering the BMC or BMD, suggesting effects of vitamin K2 on the cortical bone quality.

  8. K2-140b - an eccentric 6.57 d transiting hot Jupiter in Virgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, H. A. C.; Bayliss, D.; Espinoza, N.; Brahm, R.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Shporer, A.; Armstrong, D.; Lovis, C.; Udry, S.; Bouchy, F.; Marmier, M.; Jordán, A.; Bento, J.; Cameron, A. Collier; Sefako, R.; Cochran, W. D.; Rojas, F.; Rabus, M.; Jenkins, J. S.; Jones, M.; Pantoja, B.; Soto, M.; Jensen-Clem, R.; Duev, D. A.; Salama, M.; Riddle, R.; Baranec, C.; Law, N. M.

    2018-04-01

    We present the discovery of K2-140b, a P = 6.57 d Jupiter-mass (MP = 1.019 ± 0.070MJup) planet transiting a V = 12.5 (G5-spectral type) star in an eccentric orbit (e = 0.120^{+0.056}_{-0.046}) detected using a combination of K2 photometry and ground-based observations. With a radius of 1.095 ± 0.018 RJup, the planet has a bulk density of 0.726 ± 0.062 ρJup. The host star has a [Fe/H] of 0.12 ± 0.045, and from the K2 light curve, we find a rotation period for the star of 16.3 ± 0.1 d. This discovery is the 9th hot Jupiter from K2 and highlights K2's ability to detect transiting giant planets at periods slightly longer than traditional, ground-based surveys. This planet is slightly inflated, but much less than others with similar incident fluxes. These are of interest for investigating the inflation mechanism of hot Jupiters.

  9. Vitamins K1 and K2: The Emerging Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry Kurt

    2017-01-01

    To review the evidence for the use of vitamin K supplementation in clinical conditions such as osteoporosis, vascular calcification, arthritis, cancer, renal calculi, diabetes, and warfarin therapy. PubMed was searched for articles on vitamin K (K1 and K2) along with books and conference proceedings and health conditions listed above. Level I and II evidence supports the use of vitamins K1 and K2 in osteoporosis and Level II evidence supports vitamin K2 in prevention of coronary calcification and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is insufficient for use in diabetes, arthritis, renal calculi, and cancer. Vitamin K2 may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health by reducing vascular calcification. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer, and osteoarthritis. Vitamin K use in warfarin therapy is safe and may improve INR control, although a dosage adjustment is required. Vitamin K supplementation may be useful for a number of chronic conditions that are afflicting North Americans as the population ages. Supplementation may be required for bone and cardiovascular health.

  10. Plasmid transferability of KPC into a virulent K2 serotype Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Leung-Kei Kristopher; Huang, David B; Chiang, Tom

    2014-03-31

    KPC-producing carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infections are associated with high mortality; however, their virulence determinants are not well defined. We investigated the virulence and plasmid transferability among KPC-containing K. pneumoniae isolates. KPC-2 and -3 were successfully conjugated and retained by a virulent K2 K. pneumoniae recipient isolate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed KPC-2 and -3 donor strains were resistant to more than four classes of antibiotics while the K2 isolate was only initially resistant to ampicillin. After conjugation of KPC-2 and -3, the K2 K. pneumoniae transconjugants became resistant to all beta-lactams. Additionally, the KPC K2 K. pneumoniae transconjugants continued to retain its high serum resistance and murine lethality. Conjugation and retainment of KPC by virulent K2 K. pneumoniae and the ability of the tranconjugants to maintain its high serum resistance and murine lethality after conjugation was demonstrated in this study. These findings are concerning for the potential of KPC-like genes to disseminate among virulent K. pneumoniae isolates.

  11. Vitamins K1 and K2: The Emerging Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Kurt Schwalfenberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the evidence for the use of vitamin K supplementation in clinical conditions such as osteoporosis, vascular calcification, arthritis, cancer, renal calculi, diabetes, and warfarin therapy. Quality of Evidence. PubMed was searched for articles on vitamin K (K1 and K2 along with books and conference proceedings and health conditions listed above. Level I and II evidence supports the use of vitamins K1 and K2 in osteoporosis and Level II evidence supports vitamin K2 in prevention of coronary calcification and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is insufficient for use in diabetes, arthritis, renal calculi, and cancer. Main Message. Vitamin K2 may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health by reducing vascular calcification. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer, and osteoarthritis. Vitamin K use in warfarin therapy is safe and may improve INR control, although a dosage adjustment is required. Conclusion. Vitamin K supplementation may be useful for a number of chronic conditions that are afflicting North Americans as the population ages. Supplementation may be required for bone and cardiovascular health.

  12. A Non-canonical Voltage-Sensing Mechanism Controls Gating in K2P K(+) Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Marcus; Nematian-Ardestani, Ehsan; Sun, Han; Musinszki, Marianne; Cordeiro, Sönke; Bucci, Giovanna; de Groot, Bert L; Tucker, Stephen J; Rapedius, Markus; Baukrowitz, Thomas

    2016-02-25

    Two-pore domain (K2P) K(+) channels are major regulators of excitability that endow cells with an outwardly rectifying background "leak" conductance. In some K2P channels, strong voltage-dependent activation has been observed, but the mechanism remains unresolved because they lack a canonical voltage-sensing domain. Here, we show voltage-dependent gating is common to most K2P channels and that this voltage sensitivity originates from the movement of three to four ions into the high electric field of an inactive selectivity filter. Overall, this ion-flux gating mechanism generates a one-way "check valve" within the filter because outward movement of K(+) induces filter opening, whereas inward movement promotes inactivation. Furthermore, many physiological stimuli switch off this flux gating mode to convert K2P channels into a leak conductance. These findings provide insight into the functional plasticity of a K(+)-selective filter and also refine our understanding of K2P channels and the mechanisms by which ion channels can sense voltage. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. THE K2-ESPRINT PROJECT. I. DISCOVERY OF THE DISINTEGRATING ROCKY PLANET K2-22b WITH A COMETARY HEAD AND LEADING TAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis-Ojeda, R.; Rappaport, S.; Dai, F.; Pallè, E.; Delrez, L.; DeVore, J.; Gandolfi, D.; Fukui, A.; Ribas, I.; Stassun, K. G.; Albrecht, S.; Gaidos, E.; Gillon, M.; Hirano, T.

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of a transiting exoplanet candidate in the K2 Field-1 with an orbital period of 9.1457 hr: K2-22b. The highly variable transit depths, ranging from ∼0% to 1.3%, are suggestive of a planet that is disintegrating via the emission of dusty effluents. We characterize the host star as an M-dwarf with T eff ≃ 3800 K. We have obtained ground-based transit measurements with several 1-m class telescopes and with the GTC. These observations (1) improve the transit ephemeris; (2) confirm the variable nature of the transit depths; (3) indicate variations in the transit shapes; and (4) demonstrate clearly that at least on one occasion the transit depths were significantly wavelength dependent. The latter three effects tend to indicate extinction of starlight by dust rather than by any combination of solid bodies. The K2 observations yield a folded light curve with lower time resolution but with substantially better statistical precision compared with the ground-based observations. We detect a significant “bump” just after the transit egress, and a less significant bump just prior to transit ingress. We interpret these bumps in the context of a planet that is not only likely streaming a dust tail behind it, but also has a more prominent leading dust trail that precedes it. This effect is modeled in terms of dust grains that can escape to beyond the planet's Hill sphere and effectively undergo “Roche lobe overflow,” even though the planet's surface is likely underfilling its Roche lobe by a factor of 2

  14. The ternary system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Silber, C.C.

    1967-01-01

    Melting and subsolidus relations in the system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 were studied using heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, optics, X-ray diffraction at room and high temperatures and by quenching techniques. Previous investigators were unable to study the binary MgSO4CaSO4 system and the adjacent area in the ternary system because of the decomposition of MgSO4 and CaSO4 at high temperatures. This problem was partly overcome by a novel sealed-tube quenching method, by hydrothermal synthesis, and by long-time heating in the solidus. As a result of this study, we found: (1) a new compound, CaSO4??3MgSO4 (m.p. 1201??C) with a field extending into the ternary system; (2) a high temperature form of MgSO4 with a sluggishly reversible inversion. An X-ray diffraction pattern for this polymorphic form is given; (3) the inversion of ??-CaSO4 (anhydrite) to ??-CaSO4 at 1195??C, in agreement with grahmann; (1) (4) the melting point of MgSO4 is 1136??C and that of CaSO4 is 1462??C (using sealed tube methods to prevent decomposition of the sulphates); (5) calcium langbeinite (K2SO4??2CaSO4) is the only compound in the K2SO4CaSO4 binary system. This resolved discrepancies in the results of previous investigators; (6) a continuous solid solution series between congruently melting K2SOP4??2MgSO4 (langbeinite) and incongruently melting K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite); (7) the liquidus in the ternary system consists of primary phase fields of K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, langbeinite-calcium langbeinite solid solution, and CaSO4??3MgSO4. The CaSO4 field extends over a large portion of the system. Previously reported fields for the compounds (K2SO4??MgSO4??nCaSO4), K2SO4??3CaSO4 and K2SO4??CaSO4 were not found; (8) a minimum in the ternary system at: 740??C, 25% MgSO4, 6% CaSO4, 69% K2SO4; and ternary eutectics at 882??C, 49% MgSO4, 19% CaSO4, 32% K2SO4; and 880??, 67??5% MgSO4, 5% CaSO4, 27??5% K2SO4. ?? 1967.

  15. K2: Extending Kepler's Power to the Ecliptic-Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Daniel; Bryson, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) for the K2 mission (Howell et al. 2014). The primary purpose of this catalog is to provide positions and Kepler magnitudes for target management and aperture photometry. The Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog is hosted at MAST (http://archive.stsci.edu/k2/epic/search.php) and should be used for selecting targets when ever possible. The EPIC is updated for future K2 campaigns as their fields of view are finalized and the associated target management is completed. Table 0 summarizes the EPIC updates to date and the ID range for each. The main algorithms used to construct the EPIC are described in Sections 2 through 4. The details for individual campaigns are described in the subsequent sections, with the references listed in the last section. Further details can be found in Huber et al. (2016).

  16. 275 Candidates and 149 Validated Planets Orbiting Bright Stars in K2 Campaigns 0–10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayo, Andrew W.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Latham, David W.

    2018-01-01

    Since 2014, NASA’s K2 mission has observed large portions of the ecliptic plane in search of transiting planets and has detected hundreds of planet candidates. With observations planned until at least early 2018, K2 will continue to identify more planet candidates. We present here 275 planet...... candidates observed during Campaigns 0–10 of the K2 mission that are orbiting stars brighter than 13 mag (in Kepler band) and for which we have obtained high-resolution spectra ( R = 44,000). These candidates are analyzed using the vespa package in order to calculate their false-positive probabilities (FPP......). We find that 149 candidates are validated with an FPP lower than 0.1%, 39 of which were previously only candidates and 56 of which were previously undetected. The processes of data reduction, candidate identification, and statistical validation are described, and the demographics of the candidates...

  17. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Substitution effect on metal-insulator transition of K2V8O16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Masahiko; Koishi, Shigenori; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Gotou, Hirotada; Yagi, Takehiko; Ueda, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the substitution of various ions on the metal-insulator (MI) transition at 170 K in K 2 V 8 O 16 has been investigated. Both Rb and Ti form complete solid solution systems: K 2-x Rb x V 8 O 16 and K 2 V 8-y Ti y O 16 , respectively. The substitution of Rb for K or of Ti for V splits the transition into two transitions: the high-temperature transition is a first-order MI transition from a tetragonal structure to a tetragonal structure, and the low-temperature transition is a second-order transition to a monoclinic structure. In K 2-x Rb x V 8 O 16 , the former terminates to an MI transition at around 220 K in Rb 2 V 8 O 16 , while the latter disappears at x > 0.6. In K 2 V 8-y Ti y O 16 , both transitions disappear at y > 0.5. The substitution of Cr for V also results in a similar splitting of the transition and the rapid disappearance of both transitions. The substitution of Na or Ba for K suppresses the MI transition without any splitting of the transition, although the solubility of both ions is limited. These substitution effects reveal that the MI transition of K 2 V 8 O 16 consists of two parts: a first-order MI transition and a parasitic second-order structural transition; the substitution of some ions causes a clear splitting of these transitions, probably due to the difference between the chemical pressure effects on the two transitions. The first-order MI transition is very sensitive to charge randomness, suggesting the charge ordering nature of the MI transition, while the second-order structural transition is very sensitive to both charge and structural randomnesses. (author)

  19. Keratins K2 and K10 are essential for the epidermal integrity of plantar skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Heinz; Langbein, Lutz; Reichelt, Julia; Buchberger, Maria; Tschachler, Erwin; Eckhart, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    K1 and K2 are the main type II keratins in the suprabasal epidermis where each of them heterodimerizes with the type I keratin K10 to form intermediate filaments. In regions of the ears, tail, and soles of the mouse, only K2 is co-expressed with K10, suggesting that these keratins suffice to form a mechanically resilient cytoskeleton. To determine the effects of the suppression of both main keratins, K2 and K10, in the suprabasal plantar epidermis of the mouse. Krt2(-/-) Krt10(-/-) mice were generated by crossing Krt2(-/-) and Krt10(-/-) mice. Epidermal morphology of soles of hind-paws was examined macroscopically and histologically. Immunofluorescence analysis and quantitative PCR analysis were performed to analyze the expression of keratins in sole skin of wildtype and Krt2(-/-) Krt10(-/-) mice. Highly abundant proteins of the sole stratum corneum were determined by electrophoretic and chromatographic separation and subsequent mass spectrometry. K2 and K10 are the most prominent suprabasal keratins in normal mouse soles with the exception of the footpads where K1, K9 and K10 predominate. Mice lacking both K2 and K10 were viable and developed epidermal acanthosis and hyperkeratosis in inter-footpad epidermis of the soles. The expression of keratins K1, K9 and K16 was massively increased at the RNA and protein levels in the soles of Krt2(-/-) Krt10(-/-) mice. This study demonstrates that the loss of the main cytoskeletal components of plantar epidermis, i.e. K2 and K10, can be only partly compensated by the upregulation of other keratins. The thickening of the epidermis in the soles of Krt2(-/-) Krt10(-/-) mice may serve as a model for pathomechanistic aspects of palmoplantar keratoderma. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Vitamin K2 stimulates osteoblastogenesis and suppresses osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Weitzmann, M Neale

    2011-01-01

    Several bone protective factors are reported to exhibit stimulatory activities on bone formation coupled with inhibitory effects on bone resorption; one such factor is vitamin K2. Vitamin K species [K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone)] have long been associated with bone protective activities and are receiving intense interest as nutritional supplements for the prevention or amelioration of bone disease in humans. However, the mechanisms of vitamin K action on the skeleton are poorly defined. Activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal transduction pathway is essential for osteoclast formation and resorption. By contrast, NF-κB signaling potently antagonizes osteoblast differentiation and function, prompting us to speculate that NF-κB antagonists may represent a novel class of dual anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic agents. We now show that vitamin K2 action on osteoblast and osteoclast formation and activity is accomplished by down-regulating basal and cytokine-induced NF-κB activation, by increasing IκB mRNA, in a γ-carboxylation-independent manner. Furthermore, vitamin K2 prevented repression by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) of SMAD signaling induced by either transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Vitamin K2 further antagonized receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL)-induced NF-κB activation in osteoclast precursors. Our data provide a novel mechanism to explain the dual pro-anabolic and anti-catabolic activities of vitamin K2, and may further support the concept that pharmacological modulation of NF-κB signal transduction may constitute an effective mechanism for ameliorating pathological bone loss and for promoting bone health.

  1. K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA Greiner Tubes for HbA1c Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtaric, Alen; Filipi, Petra; Hemar, Marina; Nikolac, Nora; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether K2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and K3-EDTA Greiner tubes could be used interchangeably for glycosylated hemoglobin, type A1C (HbA1c) measurement via the Abbott Laboratories ARCHITECT chemiluminescent microparticle HbA1c assay on the ARCHITECT i2000SR immunoanalyzer at our university hospital. We drew blood from a total of 45 outpatients into plastic Greiner Vacuette tubes, some of which were lined with K2-EDTA and others with K3-EDTA anticoagulant. Data are presented as median and interquartile range values. We used the Wilcoxon test and Passing-Bablok regression for tube comparison. For K2-EDTA tubes median HbA1c concentration was 54 mmol/mol (41 to 71 mmol/mol) and for K3-EDTA tubes 56 mmol/mol (43 to 69 mmol/mol). There was no statistically significant difference between K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA (bias= -1.29 mmol/mol; P = 0.24). Passing-Bablok regression showed that there is no constant and proportional error: y = -0.23 (95% CI[-3.52 to 0.69]) + 1.00( 95% CI[0.98 to 1.06]) x. In this study, we provide evidence for the lack of any clinically and statistically significant bias between K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA HbA1c measurements. Thus, Greiner tubes lined with K2-EDTA and those lined with K3-EDTA can safely be used interchangeably to measure HbA1c via the Abbott Laboratories ARCHITECT assay. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Dietary vitamin K2 supplement improves bone status after lung and heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forli, Liv; Bollerslev, Jens; Simonsen, Svein; Isaksen, Gunhild A; Kvamsdal, Kari E; Godang, Kristin; Gadeholt, Gaut; Pripp, Are H; Bjortuft, Oystein

    2010-02-27

    Osteoporosis is a problem after transplantation. Studies since the last year indicate that vitamin K plays a role in optimal bone health. The aim of this randomized, double blind, prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a dietary supplement with vitamin K2 (180 microg menakinon-7) on bone mass, the first year after lung and heart transplantation. After preoperative baseline investigation of bone mass and bone-related biochemistry, 35 lung and 59 heart recipients were postoperatively randomized to vitamin K2 or placebo and reinvestigated the following year. In all recipients, 1 year after solid organ transplantation, the difference between vitamin K2 and placebo for the lumbar spine (L2-L4) bone mineral density (BMD) was 0.028 (SE 0.014) g/cm(2), P=0.055 and for L2 to L4 bone mineral content was 1.33 (SE 1.91) g/cm(2) (P=0.5). In lung recipients separately, the difference for bone mineral content was 3.39 g (SE 1.65), P=0.048 and in heart recipients 0.45 (SE 0.02) g, P=0.9 after controlling for baseline measures. In a forward stepwise linear regression analysis fitted to model differences in the L2 to L4 BMD, controlled for possible confounding variables (including use of bisphosphonate), and the only significant predictors were organ (B=-0.065 g/cm(2), P<0.001) and vitamin K2 (B=0.034 g/cm(2), P=0.019). Insufficient vitamin D status was common, and the parathyroid hormone was highest in the K2 group indicating a higher need for vitamin D. One year of vitamin K2 supplement suggest a favorable effect on lumbar spine BMD with different response in lung and heart recipients. Vitamin D status should receive more attention.

  3. Structural, optical and electronic properties of K2Ba(NO3)4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaenko, L. I.; Korzhneva, K. E.; Goryainov, S. V.; Goloshumova, A. A.; Sheludyakova, L. A.; Bekenev, V. L.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Nitrate crystals reveal nonlinear optical properties and could be considered as converters of laser radiation in the short-wave region. The conditions for obtaining and basic properties of K2Ba(NO3)4 double nitrate crystals were investigated. Crystal growth was implemented by slow cooling in the temperature range of 72-49 °C and low rate evaporation. The structural analysis of K2Ba(NO3)4 formation on the basis of two mixed simple nitrate structures is discussed. The main groups of oscillations in K2Ba(NO3)4 crystal were revealed using Raman and IR spectroscopy, and the table of vibrations for this compound was compiled. The electronic structure of K2Ba(NO3)4 was elucidated in the present work from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. In particular, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed in the present work to measure binding energies of the atoms constituting the titled compound and its XPS valence-band spectrum for both pristine and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces. Further, total and partial densities of states of constituent atoms of K2Ba(NO3)4 have been calculated. The calculations reveal that the O 2p states dominate in the total valence-band region of K2Ba(NO3)4 except of its bottom, where K 3p and Ba 5p states are the principal contributors, while the bottom of the conduction band is composed mainly of the unoccupied O 2p states, with somewhat smaller contributions of the N 2p∗ states as well. With respect to the occupation of the valence band by the O 2p states, the present band-structure calculations are confirmed by comparison on a common energy scale of the XPS valence-band spectrum and the X-ray emission O Kα band for the K2Ba(NO3)4 crystal under study. Furthermore, the present calculations indicate that the K2Ba(NO3)4 compound is a direct-gap material.

  4. Atom-solid binding energy shifts for K 2p and Rb 3d sublevels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holappa, M.; Aksela, S.; Patanen, M.; Urpelainen, S.; Aksela, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Binding energy shifts between atom and solid. K 2p and Rb 3d sublevels were studied. → Simultaneous measurements give accurate results. → Results can be used as a reference for cluster studies. - Abstract: Binding energy shifts between free and solid state atoms for K 2p and Rb 3d photolines have been determined by measuring the vapor and solid state spectra simultaneously in similar experimental conditions applying synchrotron radiation excited photoelectron spectroscopy. This method has the important benefit that the work function is not needed to correct for different reference energy levels, therefore much more accurate values for binding energy shifts are obtained.

  5. Piezoelectric ceramic material, containing PbNb2O6, K2Nb2O6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, E.G.; Filip'ev, V.S.; Razumovskaya, O.N.; Cherner, Ya.E.; Rudkovskaya, L.M.; Zav'yalov, V.P.; Molchanova, R.A.; Kryshtop, V.G.; Panich, A.E.; Servuli, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new piezoelectric ceramic material including PbNb 2 O 6 , K 2 Nb 2 O 6 is prepared. Above the new material contains Nb 2 O 5 . The invention relates to piezotechnique. The principal advantage of this material for acoustic converters is high anisotropy of piezoelectric properties as well as high Curie temperature (T C =539-553 deg C). The composition containing 93.96 mole% PbNb 2 O 6 ; 2.48 mole% K 2 Nb 2 O 6 and 3.56 mole% Nb 2 O 5 has optimum content of parameters

  6. That's How We Roll: The NASA K2 Mission Science Products and Their Performance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Howell, Steve B.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Thompson, Susan E.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Lund, Mikkel N.; Handberg, Rasmus; Chaplin, William J.

    2016-07-01

    NASA's exoplanet Discovery mission Kepler was reconstituted as the K2 mission a year after the failure of the second of Kepler's four reaction wheels in 2013 May. Fine control of the spacecraft pointing is now accomplished through the use of the two remaining well-functioning reaction wheels and balancing the pressure of sunlight on the solar panels, which constrains K2 observations to fields in the ecliptic for up to approximately 80 days each. This pseudo-stable mechanism gives typical roll motion in the focal plane of 1.0 pixels peak-to-peak over 6 hr at the edges of the field, two orders of magnitude greater than typical 6 hr pointing errors in the Kepler primary mission. Despite these roll errors, the joint performance of the flight system and its modified science data processing pipeline restores much of the photometric precision of the primary mission while viewing a wide variety of targets, thus turning adversity into diversity. We define K2 performance metrics for data compression and pixel budget available in each campaign; the photometric noise on exoplanet transit and stellar activity timescales; residual correlations in corrected long-cadence light curves; and the protection of test sinusoidal signals from overfitting in the systematic error removal process. We find that data compression and noise both increase linearly with radial distance from the center of the field of view, with the data compression proportional to star count as well. At the center, where roll motion is nearly negligible, the limiting 6 hr photometric precision for a quiet 12th magnitude star can be as low as 30 ppm, only 25% higher than that of Kepler. This noise performance is achieved without sacrificing signal fidelity; test sinusoids injected into the data are attenuated by less than 10% for signals with periods upto 15 days, so that a wide range of stellar rotation and variability signatures are preserved by the K2 pipeline. At timescales relevant to asteroseismology, light

  7. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS v.3.5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I. [FB Engineering, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. It is a description of RVS version 3.5. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples; Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carryout a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system.

  8. 3.5 TeV: Patience pays dividends

    CERN Multimedia

    Rolf Heuer

    2010-01-01

    In my message this week, I’d like to congratulate the LHC team on accelerating two beams to 3.5 TeV in the early hours of this morning. The timing could not have been better. Coming during a week of CERN Council meetings, it allowed us to show delegates the great progress we’re making. The occasion also gave us the opportunity to set out again the prudent step-by-step approach that we’re taking to get the LHC up and running, and it was refreshing to hear one member of the Scientific Policy Committee declare on Monday that we should never forget that the LHC is not a turnkey machine.With the progress the LHC is making, that simple fact would be easy to overlook. The figures coming back from this first run are already quite remarkable. In Week 10, the LHC’s availability for the operators was over 65%: it usually takes a new accelerator years to reach that level. And over the last few weeks, operation of the LHC at 450 GeV has become routinely reproducible, which i...

  9. Evolution of geochemical conditions in SFL 3-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Fred; Lindgren, M.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.; Engkvist, I.

    1999-12-01

    The evolution of geochemical conditions in the repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5, and in the vicinity of the repository are important when predicting the retention of radionuclides and the long-term stability of engineered barriers. In this study the initial conditions at different repository sites at 300 - 400 m depth, the influence of repository construction and operation, the expected conditions after repository closure and saturation, and the evolution in a long-term perspective are discussed. Groundwaters that are found at these depths have near-neutral pH and are reducing in character, but the composition can vary from saline to non-saline water. The water chemistry in the near-field will mainly be influenced by the composition of the groundwater and by the large amounts of cementitious material that can be found in the repository. Disturbances caused during construction and operation are not expected to be permanent. Studies of old concrete indicate that leaching of concrete is a slow process. The geochemical conditions in the repository are therefore expected to be stable and prevail for hundreds of thousand years. However, the evolution of the surrounding environment may influence the conditions in long-term perspective

  10. The radioprotective potential of 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Mary Judith Q.; Gomez, Marlyn O.

    1999-03-01

    The radioprotective potential of 3,5,4'trihydroxystilbene or resveratrol, a compound abundant in grapes, was investigated using the micronucleus test. Gamma radiation (6 Gy) was used to induce micronucleus formation in 12-week old Swiss-Webster mice. Five groups with five mice each were used. Three groups were given corresponding treatments (low, normal, high doses of reservatrol) via oral gavage for one week. The negative control group was not given any radiation nor any compound while the positive control group was exposed to radiation but was not given any compound. The mean micronucleus frequencies arranged from highest to lowest are as follows: low dose, positive control, normal dose, high dose and negative control. Using the analysis of variance-complete random design followed by the Duncan multiple range test, it was proven that resveratrol was able to inhibit micronucleus formation in polychromatic erythrocytes of 12-week old Swiss-Webster mice at the normal (60 micrograms) and high (120 micrograms) concentrations assigned. This suggests that its radioprotective potential may follow a dose-dependent pattern. (Author)

  11. Evolution of geochemical conditions in SFL 3-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Fred [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Lindgren, M.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Engkvist, I. [Barsebaeck Kraft AB (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The evolution of geochemical conditions in the repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5, and in the vicinity of the repository are important when predicting the retention of radionuclides and the long-term stability of engineered barriers. In this study the initial conditions at different repository sites at 300 - 400 m depth, the influence of repository construction and operation, the expected conditions after repository closure and saturation, and the evolution in a long-term perspective are discussed. Groundwaters that are found at these depths have near-neutral pH and are reducing in character, but the composition can vary from saline to non-saline water. The water chemistry in the near-field will mainly be influenced by the composition of the groundwater and by the large amounts of cementitious material that can be found in the repository. Disturbances caused during construction and operation are not expected to be permanent. Studies of old concrete indicate that leaching of concrete is a slow process. The geochemical conditions in the repository are therefore expected to be stable and prevail for hundreds of thousand years. However, the evolution of the surrounding environment may influence the conditions in long-term perspective.

  12. Rock Visualization System. Technical description (RVS v.3.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, P.; Elfstroem, M.; Markstroem, I.

    2004-03-01

    The Rock Visualization System (RVS) has been developed by SKB for use in visualizing geological and engineering data in 3D. The purpose of this report is to provide a technical description of RVS aimed at potential program users and interested parties as well as fulfilling the function of a more general RVS reference that can be cited when writing other technical reports. It is a description of RVS version 3.5. Updated versions of this report or addenda will be made available following further development of RVS and the release of subsequent versions of the program. The report covers the following main items: Technical description of the program with illustrations and examples; Limitations of the program and of functionality. For most RVS functions step-by-step tutorials are available describing how a particular function can be used to carryout a specific task. A complete set of updated tutorials is issued with each new version release of the RVS program. However, the tutorials do not cover all the possible uses of all the individual functions but rather give an overall view of their functionality. A detailed description of every RVS function and how it can be used is included in the RVS online Help system

  13. Electrochemical Behavior of Molten V2O5-K2S2O7-KHSO4 Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bjerrum, Niels; Berg, Rolf W.

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of K2S2O7-KHSO4-V2O5, K2S2O7-V2O4 and K2S2O7-KHSO4-V2O4 melts was studied in argon and SO2/air atmospheres using a gold electrode. In order to identify the voltammetric waves due to KHSO4, molten KHSO4 and mixtures of K2S2O7-KHSO4 were investigated by voltammetry...

  14. Effects of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine on microglial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yuki; Tomonaga, Daichi; Kalashnikova, Anastasia; Furuya, Fumihiko; Akimoto, Nozomi; Ifuku, Masataka; Okuno, Yuko; Beppu, Kaoru; Fujita, Kyota; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Churilov, Leonid P; Noda, Mami

    2015-05-01

    L-tri-iodothyronine (3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine; T3) is an active form of the thyroid hormone (TH) essential for the development and function of the CNS. Though nongenomic effect of TH, its plasma membrane-bound receptor, and its signaling has been identified, precise function in each cell type of the CNS remained to be investigated. Clearance of cell debris and apoptotic cells by microglia phagocytosis is a critical step for the restoration of damaged neuron-glia networks. Here we report nongenomic effects of T3 on microglial functions. Exposure to T3 increased migration, membrane ruffling and phagocytosis of primary cultured mouse microglia. Injection of T3 together with stab wound attracted more microglia to the lesion site in vivo. Blocking TH transporters and receptors (TRs) or TRα-knock-out (KO) suppressed T3-induced microglial migration and morphological change. The T3-induced microglial migration or membrane ruffling was attenuated by inhibiting Gi /o -protein as well as NO synthase, and subsequent signaling such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibitors for Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, reverse mode of Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), and small-conductance Ca(2+) -dependent K(+) (SK) channel also attenuated microglial migration or phagocytosis. Interestingly, T3-induced microglial migration, but not phagocytosis, was dependent on GABAA and GABAB receptors, though GABA itself did not affect migratory aptitude. Our results demonstrate that T3 modulates multiple functional responses of microglia via multiple complex mechanisms, which may contribute to physiological and/or pathophysiological functions of the CNS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The K2S2O8-KOH photoetching system for GaN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyher, J.L.; Tichelaar, F.D.; van Dorp, D.H.; Kelly, J.J.; Khachapuridze, A.

    2010-01-01

    A recently developed photoetching system for n-type GaN, a KOH solution containing the strong oxidizing agent potassium peroxydisulphate (K2S2O8), was studied in detail. By careful selection of the etching parameters, such as the ratio of components and the hydrodynamics, two distinct modes were

  16. Probing Into the Atmosphere of the Young Exoplanet K2-25b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia Thao, Pa; Mann, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Planets are most transformative during their early life, yet there remains little research on this developmental stage. In order to construct a more accurate picture of the diversity and evolution of planetary atmospheres, we present Spitzer infrared photometry of five transits both in 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm bands of the young exoplanet, K2-25b (650-800 Myr). To correct for the intra-pixel photometric response, we interpolated high-resolution sensitivity maps. Light curves were then created using a transit model and an MCMC framework to find the planet parameters in each wavelength. In comparison to atmospheric theoretical models, we find K2-25b unlikely to have a solar-metallicity atmosphere. However, observed through a full transmission spectrum, K2-25b is consistent with either a high-metallicity atmosphere or a cloudy/hazy layer. Further HST data would provide significantly more detail on the structure of the atmosphere. In a future project, we plan to apply this same method to a younger planet, K2-33b (11 Myr), to determine if cloudy/hazy atmospheres are primordial.

  17. Nucleoli in human early erythroblasts (K2, K1, K1/2 cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, K; Jirásková, I; Klamová, H

    2005-01-01

    Human early erythroid precursors classified according to the nuclear size were studied to provide information on nucleoli in these cells using simple cytochemical procedures for demonstration of RNA and proteins of silver-stained nucleolar organizers. K2 cells with nuclear diameter larger than 13 microm and K1 cells with nuclear diameter larger than 9 microm corresponding to proerythroblasts and macroblasts (large basophilic erythroblasts) mostly possessed large irregularly shaped nucleoli with multiple fibrillar centres representing "active nucleoli". K1/2 cells with nuclear diameter smaller than 9 microm corresponding to small basophilic erythroblasts were usually characterized by the presence of micronucleoli representing "inactive nucleolar types". On the other hand, a few K1/2 cells contained large nucleoli with multiple fibrillar centres similar to those present in K2 cells and thus appeared as "microproerythroblasts". The nucleolar asynchrony expressed by the presence of large irregularly shaped nucleoli with multiple nucleoli (active nucleoli) and ring-shaped nucleoli (resting nucleoli) in one and the same nucleus of K2 or K1 cells was not exceptional and might reflect a larger resistance of these cells to negative factors influencing the erythropoiesis. The intranucleolar translocation of silver-stained nucleolus organized regions was noted in K2 cells and might indicate the premature aging of these cells without further differentiation. More studies, however, are required in this direction.

  18. 29 CFR 71.51 - Specific exemptions pursuant to subsection (k)(2) of the Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Investigative Case Tracking Systems/Audit Information Reporting Systems, USDOL/OIG), a system of records... AND ACCESS TO RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 71.51 Specific exemptions pursuant to subsection (k)(2) of the Privacy Act. (a) The following systems...

  19. Responses to Struggling, K-2 Readers and Writers: Early Literacy Intervention in Three Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kathleen C.

    2009-01-01

    An abundance of research on early literacy intervention indicates that struggling, K-2 readers and writers can be effectively supported through the receipt of intervention services in school; however, research in the area has not yet addressed study of the unique, contextualized design and implementation of early literacy intervention in different…

  20. "Off-the-Shelf" K2-EDTA for Calcific Band Keratopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marco E; Ouano, Dean P; Shapiro, Brett; Fong, Andrew; Coroneo, Minas T

    2018-07-01

    To explore the effectiveness of "off-the-shelf" dipotassium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K2-EDTA) as an alternative to sodium EDTA as chelation therapy in removal of calcific band keratopathy (CBK). This study was a retrospective case series involving 4 patients with CBK who underwent superficial keratectomy and subsequent chelation therapy with K2-EDTA in a single center (Coastal Eye Clinic) by the same surgeon. Visual acuity and symptomatic relief were the main outcomes measured in our study. All 4 participants in this study were female with an average age of 80.3 years. Three of the patients with reasonable baseline visual acuity experienced improved visual acuity at 1 month. The other patient with multiple ocular comorbidities and severely reduced visual potential reported symptomatic pain relief at 1-month follow-up after the intervention. K2-EDTA seems to be an effective alternative to disodium EDTA in its ability to clear calcific plaques and restore visual function. Because of the logistical difficulties associated with acquiring disodium EDTA, and the relative abundance of K2-EDTA in health-care facilities, we believe that our findings warrant further investigation into its use as a more accessible and cost-effective chelating agent in CBK.

  1. MAIN-BELT ASTEROIDS IN THE K2 ENGINEERING FIELD OF VIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, R.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Pál, A.; Kiss, Cs. P.; Kiss, L. L.; Csák, B.; Illés, L.; Rácz, G.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike NASA’s original Kepler Discovery Mission, the renewed K2 Mission will target the plane of the Ecliptic, observing each field for approximately 75 days. This will bring new opportunities and challenges, in particular the presence of a large number of main-belt asteroids that will contaminate the photometry. The large pixel size makes K2 data susceptible to the effects of apparent minor planet encounters. Here, we investigate the effects of asteroid encounters on photometric precision using a subsample of the K2 engineering data taken in 2014 February. We show examples of asteroid contamination to facilitate their recognition and distinguish these events from other error sources. We conclude that main-belt asteroids will have considerable effects on K2 photometry of a large number of photometric targets during the Mission that will have to be taken into account. These results will be readily applicable for future space photometric missions applying large-format CCDs, such as TESS and PLATO

  2. Water permeability of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporters in mammalian epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Herrera-Perez, José Jaime; Bundgaard, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    Water transport properties of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) were studied in cultures of pigmented epithelial cells (PE) from the ciliary body of the eye. Here, the membrane that faces upwards contains NKCCs and can be subjected to rapid changes in bathing solution composition and osmolarity...

  3. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresz, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    Inadequate calcium intake can lead to decreased bone mineral density, which can increase the risk of bone fractures. Supplemental calcium promotes bone mineral density and strength and can prevent osteoporosis. Recent scientific evidence, however, suggests that elevated consumption of calcium supplements may raise the risk for heart disease and can be connected with accelerated deposit of calcium in blood-vessel walls and soft tissues. In contrast, vitamin K2 is associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification and arterial stiffening. An adequate intake of vitamin K2 has been shown to lower the risk of vascular damage because it activates matrix GLA protein (MGP), which inhibits the deposits of calcium on the walls. Vitamin K, particularly as vitamin K2, is nearly nonexistent in junk food, with little being consumed even in a healthy Western diet. Vitamin K deficiency results in inadequate activation of MGP, which greatly impairs the process of calcium removal and increases the risk of calcification of the blood vessels. An increased intake of vitamin K2 could be a means of lowering calcium-associated health risks.

  4. Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations of the K2SO4-V2O5 molten electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Douglas S.; Winnick, Jack; Boghosian, Soghomon

    1999-01-01

    A 60 mol % K(2)SO(4)J/40 mol % V2O5 molten salt mixture was tested for electrochemical activity to determine its propensity for sulfate transport. Results of cyclic voltammetry showed a high electrochemical activity due likely to the reduction and oxidation of bulk, as opposed to minor, species...

  5. Optical anomaly in artificial cubic hieratite, K2[SiF6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbel, Ole; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Kaminsky, W.; Hannss, M.

    2015-01-01

    Crystals of K2[SiF6] were grown in agar gel, silica gel and jelly. Crystals grown in agar gel or jelly exhibit birefringence and consist of six double refracting growth sectors, each having the shape of a tetragonal pyramid. Nevertheless, the structure of the crystals from agar gel could be refined

  6. Effect of vitamin K2 on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Jie Peng; Duan, Lili; Li, Shuzhuang

    2018-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continue to be a major public health problem around the world that frequently presents with microvascular and macrovascular complications. Individuals with T2DM are not only suffering from significant emotional and physical misery, but also at increased risk of dying from severe complications. In recent years, evidence from prospective observational studies and clinical trials has shown T2DM risk reduction with vitamin K2 supplementation. We thus did an overview of currently available studies to assess the effect of vitamin K2 supplementation on insulin sensitivity, glycaemic control and reviewed the underlying mechanisms. We proposed that vitamin K2 improved insulin sensitivity through involvement of vitamin K-dependent-protein osteocalcin, anti-inflammatory properties, and lipid-lowering effects. Vitamin K2 had a better effect than vitamin K1 on T2DM. The interpretation of this review will increase comprehension of the development of a therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of Vitamin K2 for Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoporosis in Patients with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Kotaro; Kaneko, Kaichi; Kawazoe, Mai; Kaburaki, Makoto; Hasunuma, Tomoko; Kawai, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) is an effective treatment for patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We herein performed a subanalysis of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases undergoing glucocorticoid therapy in our previous prospective study. Methods Sixty patients were categorized into a group with vitamin K2 treatment (n=20, Group A) and a group without vitamin K2 treatment (n=40, Group B). All patients were treated with bisphosphonates. Results Serum levels of osteocalcin and undercarboxylated osteocalcin decreased significantly after the start of glucocorticoid therapy in both groups, while the serum osteocalcin level was significantly higher in Group A than Group B during the third (p=0.0250) and fourth weeks (p=0.0155). The serum level of the N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen, a bone formation marker, decreased during glucocorticoid therapy, but was significantly higher in Group A than Group B during the fourth week (p=0.0400). The bone mineral density and fracture rate showed no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion Although vitamin K2 improves bone turnover markers in patients with osteoporosis on glucocorticoid therapy, it has no significant effect on the bone mineral density and fracture rate after 1.5 years of treatment.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae K1 and K2 isolates in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Sohei; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Saga, Tomoo; Aoki, Kotaro; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2018-03-20

    Although severe infections caused by hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, such as K1 isolates belonging to sequence type (ST) 23, have been a significant problem in Asian countries, epidemiology of these isolates in Japan remains unclear. We performed a nationwide molecular epidemiological study of K. pneumoniae K1 and K2 isolates in Japan. Of the 259K. pneumoniae isolates collected, 14 and 16 isolates were identified as capsular genotypes K1 and K2, respectively. All K1 isolates were ST23 or its closely related clones and showed high genetic similarity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the DiversiLab system (DL). K2 isolates, belonging to ST14, ST25, ST65, ST86, and ST110, were more genetically diverse than K1 isolates. Isolates belonging to a specific ST showed identical virulence gene profiles with a few exceptions. PFGE and DL results using K1 and K2 isolates were generally in agreement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Endosomal sorting of VAMP3 is regulated by PI4K2A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jovic, M.; Kean, M. J.; Dubánková, Anna; Bouřa, Evžen; Gingras, A. C.; Brill, J. A.; Balla, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 17 (2014), s. 3745-3756 ISSN 0021-9533 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : PI4K2A * VAMP3 * PtdIns4P * vesicle fusion * sorting * SNARE Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.432, year: 2014

  10. Confirmation of 5 SN in the Kepler/K2 C16 Field with Gemini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheim, S.; Tucker, B. E.; Garnavich, P. M.; Rest, A.; Narayan, G.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S.; Kasen, D.; Shaya, E.; Mushotzky, R.; Olling, R.; Villar, A.; Forster, F.; Zenteno, A.; James, D.; Smith, R. Chris

    2018-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by KEGS of supernova discovered by Pan-STARRS1 during a targeted search of the Kepler/K2 Campaign 16 field using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on both the Gemini North Observatory on Mauna Kea, and the Gemini South Observatory on Cerro Pachon.

  11. MAIN-BELT ASTEROIDS IN THE K2 ENGINEERING FIELD OF VIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, R.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Pál, A.; Kiss, Cs. P.; Kiss, L. L. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17 (Hungary); Csák, B. [Gothard-Lendület Research Team, H-9704 Szombathely, Szent Imre herceg út 112 (Hungary); Illés, L.; Rácz, G., E-mail: rszabo@konkoly.hu [Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, H-1117 Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-03-15

    Unlike NASA’s original Kepler Discovery Mission, the renewed K2 Mission will target the plane of the Ecliptic, observing each field for approximately 75 days. This will bring new opportunities and challenges, in particular the presence of a large number of main-belt asteroids that will contaminate the photometry. The large pixel size makes K2 data susceptible to the effects of apparent minor planet encounters. Here, we investigate the effects of asteroid encounters on photometric precision using a subsample of the K2 engineering data taken in 2014 February. We show examples of asteroid contamination to facilitate their recognition and distinguish these events from other error sources. We conclude that main-belt asteroids will have considerable effects on K2 photometry of a large number of photometric targets during the Mission that will have to be taken into account. These results will be readily applicable for future space photometric missions applying large-format CCDs, such as TESS and PLATO.

  12. De-Trending K2 Exoplanet Targets for High Spacecraft Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Nicholas; Luger, Rodrigo; Barnes, Rory

    2018-01-01

    After the failure of two reaction wheels, the Kepler space telescope lost its fine pointing ability and entered a new phase of observation, K2. Targets observed by K2 have high motion relative to the detector and K2 light curves have higher noise than Kepler observations. Despite the increased noise, systematics removal pipelines such as K2SFF and EVEREST have enabled continued high-precision transiting planet science with the telescope, resulting in the detection of hundreds of new exoplanets. However, as the spacecraft begins to run out of fuel, sputtering will drive large and random variations in pointing that can prevent detection of exoplanets during the remaining 5 campaigns. In general, higher motion will spread the stellar point spread function (PSF) across more pixels during a campaign, which increases the number of degrees of freedom in the noise component and significantly reduces the de-trending power of traditional systematics removal methods. We use a model of the Kepler CCD combined with pixel-level information of a large number of stars across the detector to improve the performance of the EVEREST pipeline at high motion. We also consider the problem of increased crowding for static apertures in the high-motion regime and develop pixel response function (PRF)-fitting techniques to mitigate contamination and maximize the de-trending power. We assess the performance of our code by simulating sputtering events and assessing exoplanet detection efficiency with transit injection/recovery tests. We find that targets with roll amplitudes of up to 8 pixels, approximately 15 times K2 roll, can be de-trended within 2 to 3 factors of current K2 photometric precision for stars up to 14th magnitude. Achieved recovery precision allows detection of small planets around 11th and 12th magnitude stars. These methods can be applied to the light curves of K2 targets for existing and future campaigns to ensure that precision exoplanet science can still be performed

  13. Preparation and Characterization of K2CO3-Activated Kraft Lignin Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-fa Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of activated carbons (ACs were prepared by K2CO3 activation from kraft lignin (KL that was recovered from papermaking black liquor. The effects of process parameters such as the activation temperature (AT, activated period, K2CO3 to KL mass ratio, and N2 flow rate on the characteristics of the final product were determined. The ACs were characterized using nitrogen adsorption, morphology, and fractal dimension analyses. The results showed that the AT was the main factor influencing the yield, surface area, and pore structure. The yield of ACs obviously decreased from 50.6% to 20.5% with increasing AT from 600 °C to 1000 °C, and decreased with increasing K2CO3/KL mass ratio. Activation time and N2 flow rate had slight effect on the yield of ACs. The surface area and total pore volume increased as the AT rose to 900 °C and then decreased with further increases in temperature. The maximum surface area and total pore volume were 1816.3 m2/g and 1.26 cm3/g, respectively, at a K2CO3 to KL mass ratio of 3:1, AT of 900 °C, activation time of 2 h, and N2 flow rate of 70 cm3/min. The pore structure of the ACs could be tailored by controlling the AT. As the AT was increased from 700 to 1000 °C, the mesoporosity increased from 11.6% to 95.9%. SEM images indicated that the morphology of ACs was modified by the AT. The K2CO3 was partially recycled.

  14. Vitamin K2 alleviates type 2 diabetes in rats by induction of osteocalcin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Atef G; Mohamed, Randa H; Shalaby, Sally M; Abd El Motteleb, Dalia M

    2018-03-01

    The biological mechanisms behind the association between vitamin K (Vit K) and glucose metabolism are uncertain. We aimed to analyze the expression of insulin 1 (Ins 1), insulin 2 (Ins 2) and cyclin D2, the expression of adiponectin and UCP-1 . In addition, we aimed to estimate the doses of Vit K2 able to affect various aspects of glucose and energy metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Thirty adult male rats were allocated equally into five groups: control group, diabetes mellitus group, and groups 3, 4, and 5, which received Vit K 2 at three daily dose levels (10, 15, and 30 mg/kg, respectively) for 8 wk. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected to quantify total osteocalcin, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, and relevant variables. The expression of OC, Ins 1, Ins 2, cyclin D2, adiponectin, UCP-1 genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. After administration of Vit K 2 , a dose-dependent decrease in fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c and homeostatic model assessment method insulin resistance, and a dose-dependent increase in fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment method β cell function levels, when compared with diabetes mellitus rats, were detected. There was significant upregulation of OC, Ins 1, Ins 2, or cyclin D2 gene expression in the three treated groups in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the diabetic rats. However, expression of adiponectin and UCP-1 were significantly increased at the highest dose (30 mg/kg daily) only. Vit K 2 administration could improve glycemic status in type 2 diabetic rats by induction of OC gene expression. Osteocalcin could increase β-cell proliferation, energy expenditure, and adiponectin expression. Different concentrations of Vit K 2 were required to affect glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ozone production efficiency of a ship-plume: ITCT 2K2 case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun S; Kim, Yong H; Han, Kyung M; Kim, Jhoon; Song, Chul H

    2016-01-01

    Ozone production efficiency (OPE) of ship plume was first evaluated in this study, based on ship-plume photochemical/dynamic model simulations and the ship-plume composition data measured during the ITCT 2K2 (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2002) aircraft campaign. The averaged instantaneous OPEs (OPE(i)‾) estimated via the ship-plume photochemical/dynamic modeling for the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume ranged between 4.61 and 18.92, showing that the values vary with the extent of chemical evolution (or chemical stage) of the ship plume and the stability classes of the marine boundary layer (MBL). Together with OPE(i)‾, the equivalent OPEs (OPE(e)‾) for the entire ITCT 2K2 ship-plume were also estimated. The OPE(e)‾ values varied between 9.73 (for the stable MBL) and 12.73 (for the moderately stable MBL), which agreed well with the OPE(e)‾ of 12.85 estimated based on the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume observations. It was also found that both the model-simulated and observation-based OPE(e)‾ inside the ship-plume were 0.29-0.38 times smaller than the OPE(e)‾ calculated/measured outside the ITCT 2K2 ship-plume. Such low OPEs insides the ship plume were due to the high levels of NO and non-liner ship-plume photochemistry. Possible implications of this ship-plume OPE study in the global chemistry-transport modeling are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The K2 M67 Study: Establishing the Limits of Stellar Rotation Period Measurements in M67 with K2 Campaign 5 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselstein, Rebecca; Aigrain, Suzanne; Vanderburg, Andrew; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Meibom, Soren; Van Saders, Jennifer; Mathieu, Robert

    2018-06-01

    The open cluster M67 offers a unique opportunity to measure rotation periods for solar-age stars across a range of masses, potentially filling a critical gap in the understanding of angular momentum loss in older main sequence stars. The observation of M67 by NASA K2 Campaign 5 provided light curves with high enough precision to make this task possible, albeit challenging, as the pointing instability, 75 day observation window, crowded field, and typically low-amplitude signals mean that determining accurate rotation periods on the order of 25–30 days is inherently difficult. Lingering, non-astrophysical signals with power at ≥25 days found in a set of Campaign 5 A and F stars compounds the problem. To achieve a quantitative understanding of the best-case scenario limits for reliable period detection imposed by these inconveniences, we embarked on a comprehensive set of injection tests, injecting 120,000 sinusoidal signals with periods ranging from 5 to 35 days and amplitudes from 0.05% to 3.0% into real Campaign 5 M67 light curves processed using two different pipelines. We attempted to recover the signals using a normalized version of the Lomb–Scargle periodogram and setting a detection threshold. We find that, while the reliability of detected periods is high, the completeness (sensitivity) drops rapidly with increasing period and decreasing amplitude, maxing at a 15% recovery rate for the solar case (i.e., 25 day period, 0.1% amplitude). This study highlights the need for caution in determining M67 rotation periods from Campaign 5 data, but this can be extended to other clusters observed by K2 (and soon, TESS).

  17. Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the twilight zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James K. B.; Wood, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding particle dynamics in the 'Twilight Zone' is critical to prediction of the ocean's carbon cycle. As part of the VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) project, this rarely sampled regime extending from the base of the euphotic layer to 1000 m, was characterized by double-paired day/night Multiple Unit Large Volume in-situ Filtration System (MULVFS) deployments and by ˜100 high-frequency CTD/transmissometer/turbidity sensor profiles. VERTIGO studies lasting 3 weeks, contrasted oligotrophic station ALOHA (22.75°N 158°W), sampled in June-July 2004, with a biologically productive location (47 °N 161°E) near station K2 in the Oyashio, occupied July-August 2005. Profiles of major and minor particulate components (C org, N, P, Ca, Si, Sr, Ba, Mn) in 51 μm size fractions, in-water optics, neutrally buoyant sediment trap (NBST) fluxes, and zooplankton data were intercompared. MULVFS total C org and C-Star particle beam attenuation coefficient ( C P) were consistently related at both sites with a 27 μM m -1 conversion factor. At K2, C P profiles further showed a multitude of transient spikes throughout the water column and spike abundance profiles closely paralleled the double peaked abundance profiles of zooplankton. Also at K2, copepods contributed ˜40% and 10%, night and day, respectively to >51 μm C org of MULVFS samples in the mixed layer, but few copepods were collected in deeper waters; however, non-swimming radiolarians were quantitatively sampled. A recent hypothesis regarding POC differences between pumps and bottles is examined in light of these results. Particulate >51 μm C org, N, and P at both ALOHA and K2 showed strong attenuation with depth at both sites. Notable at ALOHA were unusually high levels of >51 μm Sr (up to 4 nM) in the mixed layer, a reflection of high abundances of SrSO 4 precipitating Acantharia. Notable at K2 were major changes in water column inventories of many particulate components to 700 m over 10 days

  18. Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the Twilight Zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, James K.B.; Wood, T.J.

    2008-03-25

    Understanding particle dynamics in the 'Twilight Zone' is critical to prediction of the ocean's carbon cycle. As part of the VERTIGO (VERtical Transformations In the Global Ocean) project, this rarely sampled regime extending from the base of the euphotic layer to 1000 m, was characterized by double-paired day/night Multiple Unit Large Volume in-situ Filtration System (MULVFS) deployments and by {approx}100 high-frequency CTD/transmissometer/turbidity sensor profiles. VERTIGO studies lasting three weeks, contrasted oligotrophic station ALOHA (22.75{sup o}N 158{sup o}W), sampled in June-July 2004, with a biologically productive location (47{sup o}N 161{sup o}E) near station K2 in the Oyashio, occupied July-August 2005. Profiles of major and minor particulate components (C{sub org}, N, P, Ca, Si, Sr, Ba, Mn) in <1, 1-51, and >51 {micro}m size fractions, in-water optics, neutrally buoyant sediment trap (NBST) fluxes, and zooplankton data were intercompared. MULVFS total C{sub org} and C-Star particle beam attenuation coefficient (C{sub P}) were consistently related at both sites with a 27 {micro}M m{sup -1} conversion factor. 26 At K2, C{sub P} profiles further showed a multitude of transient spikes throughout the water column and spike abundance profiles closely paralleled the double peaked abundance profiles of zooplankton. Also at K2, copepods contributed {approx}40% and 10%, night and day, respectively to >51 {micro}m C{sub org} of MULVFS samples in the mixed layer, but few copepods were collected in deeper waters; however, non-swimming radiolarians were quantitatively sampled. A recent hypothesis regarding POC differences between pumps and bottles is examined in light of these results. Particulate >51 {micro}m C{sub org}, N, and P at both ALOHA and K2 showed strong attenuation with depth at both sites. Notable at ALOHA were unusually high levels of >51 {micro}m Sr (up to 4 nM) in the mixed layer, a reflection of high abundances of SrSO{sub 4

  19. Quantifying the surface subsurface biogeochemical coupling during the VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Gall, Mark P.; Silver, Mary W.; Coale, Susan L.; Bidigare, Robert R.; Bishop, James L. K. B.

    2008-07-01

    A central question addressed by the VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) study was 'What controls the efficiency of particle export between the surface and subsurface ocean'? Here, we present data from sites at ALOHA (N Central Pacific Gyre) and K2 (NW subarctic Pacific) on phytoplankton processes, and relate them via a simple planktonic foodweb model, to subsurface particle export (150-500 m). Three key factors enable quantification of the surface-subsurface coupling: a sampling design to overcome the temporal lag and spatial displacement between surface and subsurface processes; data on the size partitioning of net primary production (NPP) and subsequent transformations prior to export; estimates of the ratio of algal- to faecal-mediated vertical export flux. At ALOHA, phytoplankton were characterized by low stocks, NPP, Fv/ Fm (N-limited), and were dominated by picoplankton. The HNLC waters at K2 were characterized by both two-fold changes in NPP and floristic shifts (high to low proportion of diatoms) between deployment 1 and 2. Prediction of export exiting the euphotic zone was based on size partitioning of NPP, a copepod-dominated foodweb and a ratio of 0.2 (ALOHA) and 0.1 (K2) for algal:faecal particle flux. Predicted export was 20-22 mg POC m -2 d -1 at ALOHA (i.e. 10-11% NPP (0-125 m); 1.1-1.2×export flux at 150 m ( E150). At K2, export was 111 mg C m -2 d -1 (21% NPP (0-50 m); 1.8× E150) and 33 mg POC m -2 d -1 (11% NPP, 0-55 m); 1.4× E150) for deployments 1 and 2, respectively. This decrease in predicted export at K2 matches the observed trend for E150. Also, the low attenuation of export flux from 60 to 150 m is consistent with that between 150 and 500 m. This strong surface-subsurface coupling suggests that phytoplankton productivity and floristics play a key role at K2 in setting export flux, and moreover that pelagic particle transformations by grazers strongly influence to what extent sinking particles are further broken down in the

  20. Quantifying the surface-subsurface biogeochemical coupling during the VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, P.W.; Gall, M.P.; Silver, M.W.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Coale, Susan L.; Bidigare, Robert R.

    2008-02-25

    A central question addressed by the VERTIGO (VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean) study was 'What controls the efficiency of particle export between the surface and subsurface ocean'? Here, we present data from sites at ALOHA (N Central Pacific Gyre) and K2 (NW subarctic Pacific) on phytoplankton processes, and relate them via a simple planktonic foodweb model, to subsurface particle export (150-500 m). Three key factors enable quantification of the surface-subsurface coupling: a sampling design to overcome the temporal lag and spatial displacement between surface and subsurface processes; data on the size-partitioning of Net Primary Production (NPP) and subsequent transformations prior to export; estimates of the ratio of algal- to faecal-mediated vertical export flux. At ALOHA, phytoplankton were characterized by low stocks, NPP, F{sub v}/F{sub m} (N-limited), and were dominated by picoplankton. The HNLC waters at K2 were characterized by both two-fold changes in NPP and floristic shifts (high to low proportion of diatoms) between deployment 1 and 2. Prediction of export exiting the euphotic zone was based on size-partitioning of NPP, a copepod-dominated foodweb and a ratio of 0.2 (ALOHA) and 0.1 (K2) for algal:faecal particle flux. Predicted export was 20-22 mg POC m{sup -2} d{sup -1} at ALOHA (i.e. 10-11% NPP (0-125 m); 1.1-1.2 x export flux at 150 m (E{sub 150}). At K2, export was 111 mg C m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (21% NPP (0-50 m); 1.8 x E{sub 150}) and 33 mg POC m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (11% NPP, 0-55 m); 1.4 x E{sub 150}) for deployments 1 and 2, respectively. This decrease in predicted export at K2 matches the observed trend for E{sub 150}. Also, the low attenuation of export flux from 60 to 150 m is consistent with that between 150 to 500 m. This strong surface-subsurface coupling suggests that phytoplankton productivity and floristics play a key role at K2 in setting export flux, and moreover that pelagic particle transformations by grazers strongly

  1. The Role of Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress in 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) Induced Nephrotoxicity in Isolated Renal Cortical Cells from Male Fischer 344 Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Christopher R.; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Debbie; Ward, Dakota; Ball, John; Anestis, Dianne; Valentovic, Monica; Rankin, Gary O.

    2016-01-01

    Among the mono- and dichloroanilines, 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of renal biotransformation in 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity is unknown. The current study was designed to determine the in vitro nephrotoxic potential of 3,5-DCA in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) obtained from male Fischer 344 rats, and the role of renal bioactivation and oxidative stress in 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity. IRCC (~4 million cells/ml) from male rats were exposed to 3,5-DCA (0-1.0 mM) for up to 120 min. In IRCC, 3,5-DCA was cytotoxic at 1.0 mM by 60 min as evidenced by the increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but 120 min was required for 3,5-DCA 0.5 mM to increase LDH release. In subsequent studies, IRCC were exposed to a pretreatment (antioxidant or enzyme inhibitor) prior to exposure to 3,5-DCA (1.0 mM) for 90 min. Cytotoxicity induced by 3,5-DCA was attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitors of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; methimazole, N-octylamine), cytochrome P450 (CYP; piperonyl butoxide, metyrapone), or peroxidase (indomethacin, mercaptosuccinate) enzymes. Use of more selective CYP inhibitors suggested that the CYP 2C family contributed to 3,5-DCA bioactivation. Antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, pyruvate) also attenuated 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity, but oxidized glutathione levels and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios were not increased. These results indicate that 3,5-DCA may be activated via several renal enzyme systems to toxic metabolites, and that free radicals, but not oxidative stress, contribute to 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26808022

  2. Metacognitive and language-specific knowledge in native and foreign language reading comprehension: an emprical study among Dutch students in grades 6, 8 and 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.; Bossers, B.

    1998-01-01

    This article gives the results of a study among 685 students in grades 6, 8 and 10 in the Netherlands to whom we administered grade-appropriate measures of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge in their native language (NL), Dutch, as well as, in grades 8 and 10, in English as a foreign

  3. easyCBM CCSS Math Item Scaling and Test Form Revision (2012-2013): Grades 6-8. Technical Report #1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to document the piloting and scaling of new easyCBM mathematics test items aligned with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and to describe the process used to revise and supplement the 2012 research version easyCBM CCSS math tests in Grades 6-8. For all operational 2012 research version test forms (10…

  4. Relationship between Executive Functioning and Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder in 6-8 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Rachel Jane; Green, Jessica Leigh; Sciberras, Emma; Hazell, Philip; Anderson, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relationships between executive functioning (EF) and ADHD/ASD symptoms in 339 6-8 year-old children to characterise EF profiles associated with ADHD and ADHD + ASD. ADHD status was assessed using screening surveys and diagnostic interviews. ASD symptoms were measured using the Social Communication Questionnaire, and children…

  5. Alterations of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-activated K2P channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gorm; Wandall-Frostholm, Christine; Sadda, Veeranjaneyulu

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-activated two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P ) have been proposed to be expressed in the pulmonary vasculature. However, their physiological or pathophysiological roles are poorly defined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PUFA-activated K2P are involved...... in pulmonary vasorelaxation and that alterations of channel expression are pathophysiologically linked to pulmonary hypertension. Expression of PUFA-activated K2P in the murine lung was investigated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), by patch...... clamp (PC) and myography. K2P -gene expression was examined in chronic hypoxic mice. qRT-PCR showed that the K2P 2.1 and K2P 6.1 were the predominantly expressed K2P in the murine lung. IHC revealed protein expression of K2P 2.1 and K2P 6.1 in the endothelium of pulmonary arteries and of K2P 6...

  6. Precise Masses & Radii of the Planets Orbiting K2-3 and GJ3470

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiarek, Molly; Crossfield, Ian; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Livingston, John; Howard, Andrew; Fulton, Benjamin; Hirsch, Lea; Isaacson, Howard; Petigura, Erik; Sinukoff, Evan; Weiss, Lauren; Knutson, Heather; Bonfils, Xavier; Benneke, Björn; Beichman, Charles; Dressing, Courtney

    2018-01-01

    We report improved masses, radii, and densities for two planetary systems, K2-3 and GJ3470, derived from a combination of new radial velocity and transit observations. Both stars are nearby, early M dwarfs. K2-3 hosts three super-Earth planets between 1.5 and 2 Earth-radii at orbital periods between 10 and 45 days, while GJ 3470 hosts one 4 Earth-radii planet with a period of 3.3 days. Furthermore, we confirmed GJ3470's rotation period through multi-year ground-based photometry; RV analysis must account for this rotation signature. Due to the planets' low densities (all stars, they are among the best candidates for transmission spectroscopy with JWST and HST in order to characterize their atmospheric compositions.

  7. PyKE3: data analysis tools for NASA's Kepler, K2, and TESS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Christina L.; Cardoso, Jose Vinicius De Miranda; Barentsen, Geert; Gully-Santiago, Michael A.; Cody, Ann Marie; Barclay, Thomas; Still, Martin; BAY AREA ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH IN

    2018-01-01

    The PyKE package is a set of easy to use tools for working with Kepler/K2 data. This includes tools to correct light curves for cotrending basis vectors, turn the raw Target Pixel File data into motion corrected light curves, check for exoplanet false positives and run new PSF photometry. We are now releasing PyKE 3, which is compatible with Python 3, is pip installable and no longer depends on PyRAF. Tools are available both as Python routines and from the command line. New tutorials are available and under construction for users to learn about Kepler and K2 data and how to best use it for their science goals. PyKE is open source and welcomes contributions from the community. Routines and more information are available on the PyKE repository on GitHub.

  8. Design, construction, and operation of SciFi tracking detector for K2K experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.; Park, H.; Aoki, S.; Echigo, S.; Fujii, K.; Hara, T.; Iwashita, T.; Kitamura, M.; Kohama, M.; Kume, G.; Onchi, M.; Otaki, T.; Sato, K.; Takatsuki, M.; Takenaka, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Tashiro, K.; Inagaki, T.; Kato, I.; Mukai, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Sasao, N.; Shima, A.; Yokoyama, H.; Chikamatsu, T.; Hayato, Y.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ishino, H.; Jeon, E.J.; Kobayashi, T.; Lee, S.B.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Tumakov, V.; Fukuda, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Ishizuka, M.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Toshito, T.; Yamada, S.; Miyano, K.; Nakamura, M.; Tamura, N.; Nakano, I.; Yoshida, M.; Kadowaki, T.; Kishi, S.; Yokoyama, H.; Maruyama, T.; Etoh, M.; Nishijima, K.; Bhang, H.C.; Khang, B.H.; Kim, B.J.; Kim, H.I.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.B.; So, H.; Yoo, J.H.; Choi, J.H.; Jang, H.I.; Jang, J.S.; Kim, J.Y.; Lim, I.T.; Pac, M.Y.; Kearns, E.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.W.; Casper, D.; Gajewski, W.; Kropp, W.; Mine, S.; Sobel, H.; Vagins, M.; Matsuno, S.; Hill, J.; Jung, C.K.; Martens, K.; Mauger, C.; McGrew, C.; Sharkey, E.; Yanagisawa, C.; Berns, H.; Boyd, S.; Wilkes, J.; Kielczewska, D.; Golebiewska, U.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a scintillating fiber detector used in the near detector for the K2K (KEK to Kamioka, KEK E362) long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The detector uses 3.7 m long and 0.692 mm diameter scintillating fiber coupled to image-intensifier tubes (IIT), and a CCD camera readout system. Fiber sheet production and detector construction began in 1997, and the detector was commissioned in March 1999. Results from the first K2K runs confirm good initial performance: position resolution is estimated to be about 0.8 mm, and track finding efficiency is 98±2% for long tracks (i.e., those which intersect more than 5 fiber planes). The hit efficiency was estimated to be 92±2% using cosmic-ray muons, after noise reduction at the offline stage. The possibility of using the detector for particle identification is also discussed

  9. Interfacially controlled phenomena in the system K2CO3-KAlO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    Potassium carbonate has become of special interest to a number of ceramists because of its use as ionizing seed material which is added to combustion gases to produce a conductive plasma in magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generators. In this high temperature environment, chemical interaction occurs not only with ceramic components of the system such as electrodes and insulators, but also with the mineral ash of the coal used to fuel the generator. As a result, potassium aluminate is an important component of the slags accummulating in such generators. The system K 2 CO 3 -KAlO 2 is under investigation as part of a more general study of potassium carbonate - slag interaction. This note is a summary of some preliminary observations on the phase equilibria of K 2 CO 3 -KAlO 2 with focus on the unusual melting behavior of Kat''CO 3 /KAlO 2 mixtures which appears to have its origin in interfacial interaction

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Praesepe members rotational periods from K2 LCs (Douglas+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S. T.; Agueros, M. A.; Covey, K. R.; Kraus, A.

    2018-01-01

    We continue to use the Praesepe membership catalog presented in PaperII (Douglas+, 2014, J/ApJ/795/161), which includes 1130 cluster members with membership probabilities Pmem>=50% as calculated by Kraus & Hillenbrand (2007, J/AJ/134/2340) and 39 previously identified members too bright to be included by those authors in their catalog for the cluster. We assign these bright stars Pmem=100%. We also continue to use the photometry and stellar masses presented in Table 5 of Paper II. For most of our analysis, as in that work, we include only the 1099 stars with Pmem>=70%. K2 targeted Praesepe in its Campaign 5. We analyze the resulting long-cadence data for 794 Praesepe members. We present Prot for 677 K2 targets. Of these, 471 are new measurements. (3 data files).

  11. Integrable deformations of the Gk1 ×Gk2 /Gk1+k2 coset CFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfetsos, Konstantinos; Siampos, Konstantinos

    2018-02-01

    We study the effective action for the integrable λ-deformation of the Gk1 ×Gk2 /Gk1+k2 coset CFTs. For unequal levels theses models do not fall into the general discussion of λ-deformations of CFTs corresponding to symmetric spaces and have many attractive features. We show that the perturbation is driven by parafermion bilinears and we revisit the derivation of their algebra. We uncover a non-trivial symmetry of these models parametric space, which has not encountered before in the literature. Using field theoretical methods and the effective action we compute the exact in the deformation parameter β-function and explicitly demonstrate the existence of a fixed point in the IR corresponding to the Gk1-k2 ×Gk2 /Gk1 coset CFTs. The same result is verified using gravitational methods for G = SU (2). We examine various limiting cases previously considered in the literature and found agreement.

  12. Evolving role of vitamin K2-7(Menaquinone in Osteoporosis & cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruqui A.Ahmad M Asrar A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis & cardiovascular disorders are one of the commonest global problem. These two disorders not only affect the quality of life but also put a huge financial burden on the family and the nation as a whole. Since ages we have been using calcium supplements for the management of osteoporosis and the recent reports have shown that it can lead to increased cardiovascular complications. Vitamin K2 ,an age old vitamin has been shown to take care of osteoporosis and cardiovascular complications, since it plays an important role in carboxylation of certain proteins in bone and blood vessel. This review article summarizes the ­­role of vitamin K2 in osteoporosis 7 cardiovascular disorders and also throws light on the clinical evidences available for the same.

  13. PLANETARY CANDIDATES FROM THE FIRST YEAR OF THE K2 MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Welsh, Sophie; Johnson, John Asher [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buchhave, Lars A., E-mail: avanderburg@cfa.harvard.edu [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    The Kepler Space Telescope is currently searching for planets transiting stars along the ecliptic plane as part of its extended K2 mission. We processed the publicly released data from the first year of K2 observations (Campaigns 0, 1, 2, and 3) and searched for periodic eclipse signals consistent with planetary transits. Out of the 59,174 targets that we searched, we detect 234 planetary candidates around 208 stars. These candidates range in size from gas giants to smaller than the Earth, and range in orbital periods from hours to over a month. We conducted initial reconnaissance spectroscopy of 68 of the brighter candidate host stars, and present high-resolution optical spectra for these stars. We make all of our data products, including light curves, spectra, and vetting diagnostics available to users online.

  14. Neutron diffraction study of high temperature phase of K2SeO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Yutaka; Koyano, Nobumitsu; Shibuya, Iwao; Hidaka, Masanori; Okazaki, Atsushi.

    1984-01-01

    The crystal structure of high-temperature phase of K 2 SeO 4 has been determined by means of single crystal neutron diffraction. The space group is P6 3 /mmc of hexagonal system with two formula units per unit cell. The structure is characterized by an averaged dispositions of SeO 4 tetrahedra with one of its Se-O bonds pointing parallel and antiparallel to the hexagonal c-axis in addition to the split distribution of potassium atoms. Heavily distorted distribution of oxygen atoms in SeO 4 is observed in Fourier maps corrersponding to split positions and reorientational motion of tetrahedra. This disordered arrangement is found to have close relation with the room temperature orthorhombic structure. The hexagonal-orthorhombic phase transition of K 2 SeO 4 at 472 0 C is grouped to an order-disorder type. (author)

  15. CHARACTERIZING K2 PLANET DISCOVERIES: A SUPER-EARTH TRANSITING THE BRIGHT K DWARF HIP 116454

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher; Buchhave, Lars A.; Zeng, Li; Latham, David W.; Angus, Ruth; Bieryla, Allyson; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stéphane; Lovis, Christophe [Observatoire Astronomique de l' Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Cameron, Andrew Collier [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Molinari, Emilio; Boschin, Walter [INAF-Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez, 7, E-38712 Breña Baja (Spain); Matthews, Jaymie M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z1 (Canada); Cameron, Chris [Cape Breton University, 1250 Grand Lake Road, Sydney NS B1P 6L2 (Canada); Law, Nicholas [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Baranec, Christoph, E-mail: avanderburg@cfa.harvard.edu [University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We report the first planet discovery from the two-wheeled Kepler (K2) mission: HIP 116454 b. The host star HIP 116454 is a bright (V = 10.1, K = 8.0) K1 dwarf with high proper motion and a parallax-based distance of 55.2 ± 5.4 pc. Based on high-resolution optical spectroscopy, we find that the host star is metal-poor with [Fe/H] =–0.16 ± 0.08 and has a radius R {sub *} = 0.716 ± 0.024 R {sub ☉} and mass M {sub *} = 0.775 ± 0.027 M {sub ☉}. The star was observed by the Kepler spacecraft during its Two-Wheeled Concept Engineering Test in 2014 February. During the 9 days of observations, K2 observed a single transit event. Using a new K2 photometric analysis technique, we are able to correct small telescope drifts and recover the observed transit at high confidence, corresponding to a planetary radius of R{sub p} = 2.53 ± 0.18 R {sub ⊕}. Radial velocity observations with the HARPS-N spectrograph reveal a 11.82 ± 1.33 M {sub ⊕} planet in a 9.1 day orbit, consistent with the transit depth, duration, and ephemeris. Follow-up photometric measurements from the MOST satellite confirm the transit observed in the K2 photometry and provide a refined ephemeris, making HIP 116454 b amenable for future follow-up observations of this latest addition to the growing population of transiting super-Earths around nearby, bright stars.

  16. CHARACTERIZING K2 PLANET DISCOVERIES: A SUPER-EARTH TRANSITING THE BRIGHT K DWARF HIP 116454

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher; Buchhave, Lars A.; Zeng, Li; Latham, David W.; Angus, Ruth; Bieryla, Allyson; Charbonneau, David; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stéphane; Lovis, Christophe; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Molinari, Emilio; Boschin, Walter; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Cameron, Chris; Law, Nicholas; Bowler, Brendan P.; Baranec, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We report the first planet discovery from the two-wheeled Kepler (K2) mission: HIP 116454 b. The host star HIP 116454 is a bright (V = 10.1, K = 8.0) K1 dwarf with high proper motion and a parallax-based distance of 55.2 ± 5.4 pc. Based on high-resolution optical spectroscopy, we find that the host star is metal-poor with [Fe/H] =–0.16 ± 0.08 and has a radius R * = 0.716 ± 0.024 R ☉ and mass M * = 0.775 ± 0.027 M ☉ . The star was observed by the Kepler spacecraft during its Two-Wheeled Concept Engineering Test in 2014 February. During the 9 days of observations, K2 observed a single transit event. Using a new K2 photometric analysis technique, we are able to correct small telescope drifts and recover the observed transit at high confidence, corresponding to a planetary radius of R p = 2.53 ± 0.18 R ⊕ . Radial velocity observations with the HARPS-N spectrograph reveal a 11.82 ± 1.33 M ⊕ planet in a 9.1 day orbit, consistent with the transit depth, duration, and ephemeris. Follow-up photometric measurements from the MOST satellite confirm the transit observed in the K2 photometry and provide a refined ephemeris, making HIP 116454 b amenable for future follow-up observations of this latest addition to the growing population of transiting super-Earths around nearby, bright stars

  17. Fostering Positive Deaf Identity Development in a K-2 Deaf Classroom /

    OpenAIRE

    Hipskind, Courtney

    2014-01-01

    All Deaf children deserve to have opportunities to openly explore, examine, and affirm their own Deaf identities at school, yet there is a shortage of curricula and resources dedicated to this basic need. The aim of this thesis is to provide Deaf children with such opportunities. The curriculum within- Fostering Deaf Identity Development in a K-2 Deaf Classroom- consists of two units that address positive Deaf identity formation. The first unit focuses on the characterization and affirmation ...

  18. Development Status of Diffusion Code RAST-K 2.0 at UNIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Minyong; Zheng, Youqi; Choe, Jiwon; Zhang, Peng; Lee, Deokjung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eunki; Shin, Hocheol [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The non-linear scheme was used based on the 2-group CMFD and a three dimensional multi -group unified nodal method (UNM). To consider the history effects, the main heavy isotopes were tracked by micro-depletion module using CRAM. The simplified 1-D single channel thermal hydraulic solver from nTACER is implemented. The θ method was adopted in the transient calculation. To get detailed pin-wise power and burnup distribution, Pin power reconstruction module was implemented. Also automatic control logic to calculate MTC, FTC, control rod worth was implemented. To perform multicycle analysis, restart and shuffling/rotation module has been implemented. To link between CASMO-4E and RAST-K 2.0, CATORA (CASMO TO RAST-K 2.0) code was developed. Unlike the other diffusion codes, RAST-K 2.0 depletion module uses CRAM and extended depletion chain for fission products. Most lattice codes give cumulative fission yield of Pm-149 without considering Pm-148 and Pm-149 capture reaction which will lead to the increase of Sm-149 number density. This paper reports the status of RAST-K 2.0 code development at UNIST. The new code applies a new kernel based on the two-node UNM with CMFD, and θ method for kinetic calculation. Also, the microdepletion calculation is used to consider the history effects. And other modules and functions also implemented such as pin power reconstruction, branch calculation, restart, multi-cycle, and 1-D single channel T/H solver.

  19. Raman Spectroscopy Evidence of 1:1:1 Complex Formation during Dissolution of WO3 in a Melt of K2S2O7: K2SO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Ferré, Irene Maijó; Schäffer, Susan Jeanne Cline

    2006-01-01

    Highly inert yellow solid WO3 was found to be soluble in considerable amounts in molten K2S2O7 at elevated temperatures (650 8C), if only similar molar amounts of sulfates were also present. The dissolution reaction of WO3 into a melt consisting of a 1:1 molar mixture of K2S2O7 and K2SO4...

  20. Improvement of Vitamin K2 Production by Escherichia sp. with Nitrogen Ion Beam Implantation Induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Wang Li; Zheng Zhiming; Wang Peng; Zhao Genhai; Liu Hui; Gong Guohong; Wu Hefang; Liu Hongxia; Tan Mu; Li Zhemin

    2015-01-01

    Low-energy ion implantation as a novel mutagen has been increasingly applied in the microbial mutagenesis for its higher mutation frequency and wider mutation spectra. In this work, N + ion beam implantation was used to enhance Escherichia sp. in vitamin K 2 yield. Optimization of process parameters under submerged fermentation was carried out to improve the vitamin K 2 yield of mutant FM5-632. The results indicate that an excellent mutant FM5-632 with a yield of 123.2±1.6 μg/L, that is four times that of the original strain, was achieved by eight successive implantations under the conditions of 15 keV and 60×2.6×10 13 ions/cm 2 . A further optimization increased the yield of the mutant by 39.7%, i.e. 172.1±1.2 μg/L which occurred in the mutant cultivated in the optimal fermentation culture medium composed of (per liter): 15.31 g glycerol, 10 g peptone, 2.89 g yeast extract, 5 g K 2 HPO 4 , 1 g NaCl, 0.5 g MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O and 0.04 g cedar wood oil, incubated at 33 °C, pH 7.0 and 180 rpm for 120 h. (plasma technology)

  1. Stem Migration and Fretting Corrosion of the Antirotation Pin in the K2/Apex Hip System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael; Edmondson, Mark; Ebert, Jay; Nivbrant, Nils; Kop, Alan; Wood, David; De Steiger, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Many exchangeable neck hip systems have been withdrawn because of fretting corrosion at the neck/stem coupling. Our prospective randomized study evaluating stem stability (Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and clinical outcomes between the K2/Apex hip systems was ceased early because of a withdrawal of the stems which had an unfavorably high early revision rate reported in the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Registry (9.3% at 3 years). At 2 years, there are no clinical differences between the stems. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis has identified a high proportion of potentially concerning subsidence and retroversion in both groups, more marked in the K2 stem, although mostly in asymptomatic patients. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry has shown similar bone density around the stems. Retrieval analysis of 3 study patients showed fretting corrosion of the antirotation pin and aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion, with no relationship to bearing type or size. Analysis of 7 further nonstudy K2/Apex stems confirmed similar corrosion. This study shows potentially concerning subsidence of both stems and is the first to describe corrosion at the neck-stem interface and a relationship to metal-related pathology. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. NEPTUNE'S DYNAMIC ATMOSPHERE FROM KEPLER K2 OBSERVATIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BROWN DWARF LIGHT CURVE ANALYSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amy A; Rowe, Jason F; Gaulme, Patrick; Hammel, Heidi B; Casewell, Sarah L; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gizis, John E; Lissauer, Jack J; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Orton, Glenn S; Wong, Michael H; Marley, Mark S

    2016-02-01

    Observations of Neptune with the Kepler Space Telescope yield a 49 day light curve with 98% coverage at a 1 minute cadence. A significant signature in the light curve comes from discrete cloud features. We compare results extracted from the light curve data with contemporaneous disk-resolved imaging of Neptune from the Keck 10-m telescope at 1.65 microns and Hubble Space Telescope visible imaging acquired nine months later. This direct comparison validates the feature latitudes assigned to the K2 light curve periods based on Neptune's zonal wind profile, and confirms observed cloud feature variability. Although Neptune's clouds vary in location and intensity on short and long timescales, a single large discrete storm seen in Keck imaging dominates the K2 and Hubble light curves; smaller or fainter clouds likely contribute to short-term brightness variability. The K2 Neptune light curve, in conjunction with our imaging data, provides context for the interpretation of current and future brown dwarf and extrasolar planet variability measurements. In particular we suggest that the balance between large, relatively stable, atmospheric features and smaller, more transient, clouds controls the character of substellar atmospheric variability. Atmospheres dominated by a few large spots may show inherently greater light curve stability than those which exhibit a greater number of smaller features.

  3. Clinical performance of Rose K2 soft contact lens for keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Yilmaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the comfort and visual performance of Rose K2 soft contact lenses in patients with keratoconus.METHODS: Fifty eyes of 50 participants were included in this cross-sectional study. Each participant received a full ophthalmologic examination involving refraction, uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, best spectacle corrected visual acuity(BCVA, slit-lamp biomicroscopy-fundoscopy, break-up time(BUT, corneal topography, and contrast sensitivity. After contact lens was fitted best contact lens corrected visual acuity(BCLCVA, contrast sensitivity, and comfort rating via visual analogue scales(VASwere performed.RESULTS: The mean age was 26.2±6.0(range: 16 to 39y. The mean logMAR UCVA, BCVA, and BCLCVA with Rose K2 soft(in orderwere 0.61±0.37(range: 0.15-1.3, 0.42±0.32(range: 0-1.3, and 0.18±0.20(range: 0-1.3. There were significant increases in visual acuities with contact lenses(P P CONCLUSION: Rose K2 soft contact lens can improve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity with comfort in patients with keratoconus.

  4. Three Small Planets Transiting the Bright Young Field Star K2-233

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Trevor J.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Benneke, Björn; Petigura, Erik A.; Gonzales, Erica J.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Yu, Liang; Isaacson, Howard T.; Howard, Andrew W.; Ciardi, David R.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Cody, Ann Marie; Riedel, Adric; Schwengeler, Hans Martin; Tanner, Christopher; Ende, Martin

    2018-05-01

    We report the detection of three small transiting planets around the young K3 dwarf K2-233 (2MASS J15215519‑2013539) from observations during Campaign 15 of the K2 mission. The star is relatively nearby (d = 69 pc) and bright (V = 10.7 mag, K s = 8.4 mag), making the planetary system an attractive target for radial velocity follow-up and atmospheric characterization with the James Webb Space Telescope. The inner two planets are hot super-Earths (R b = 1.40 ± 0.06 {R}\\oplus , R c = 1.34 ± 0.08 {R}\\oplus ), while the outer planet is a warm sub-Neptune (R d = 2.6 ± 0.1 {R}\\oplus ). We estimate the stellar age to be {360}-140+490 Myr based on rotation, activity, and kinematic indicators. The K2-233 system is particularly interesting given recent evidence for inflated radii in planets around similarly aged stars, a trend potentially related to photo-evaporation, core cooling, or both mechanisms.

  5. Modelling the optical bleaching of the thermoluminescence of K2YF5:Pr3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcazzó, J.; Santiago, M.; Khaidukov, N.; Caselli, E.

    2012-01-01

    Optical bleaching of the thermoluminescence (TL) curve of K 2 YF 5 :Pr 3+ has been observed after optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) readout of pre-irradiated crystals. The traps being responsible for the TL signal are not emptied completely by the optical stimulation. Furthermore, if the illumination time is increased a constant intensity level of the residual TL glow curve is eventually achieved. On the other hand, if the low temperature peak of the glow curve is thermally cleaned, no subsequent OSL is measured. This behavior has been successfully explained by assuming that part of the electrons in the trap being responsible for the low temperature glow peak of K 2 YF 5 :Pr 3+ recombine with holes via localized transitions during optical stimulation. During TL all trapped electrons recombine via delocalized transitions. Simulations have been carried out in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the model. - Highlights: ► The optical bleaching of the thermoluminescence of K2YF5:Pr 3+ has been studied. ► A model accounting for the optical bleaching has been put forward. ► Thermoluminescence occurs via delocalized transitions. ► Localized transitions occur during optical stimulation.

  6. Improvement of Vitamin K2 Production by Escherichia sp. with Nitrogen Ion Beam Implantation Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Li; Zheng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Genhai; Liu, Hui; Gong, Guohong; Wu, Hefang; Liu, Hongxia; Tan, Mu; Li, Zhemin

    2015-02-01

    Low-energy ion implantation as a novel mutagen has been increasingly applied in the microbial mutagenesis for its higher mutation frequency and wider mutation spectra. In this work, N+ ion beam implantation was used to enhance Escherichia sp. in vitamin K2 yield. Optimization of process parameters under submerged fermentation was carried out to improve the vitamin K2 yield of mutant FM5-632. The results indicate that an excellent mutant FM5-632 with a yield of 123.2±1.6 μg/L, that is four times that of the original strain, was achieved by eight successive implantations under the conditions of 15 keV and 60×2.6×1013 ions/cm2. A further optimization increased the yield of the mutant by 39.7%, i.e. 172.1±1.2 μg/L which occurred in the mutant cultivated in the optimal fermentation culture medium composed of (per liter): 15.31 g glycerol, 10 g peptone, 2.89 g yeast extract, 5 g K2HPO4, 1 g NaCl, 0.5 g MgSO4·7H2O and 0.04 g cedar wood oil, incubated at 33 °C, pH 7.0 and 180 rpm for 120 h.

  7. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time: Searching for Young Stars in K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nathan Ryan; Mann, Andrew; Rizzuto, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Observations of planetary systems around young stars provide insight into the early stages of planetary system formation. Nearby young open clusters such as the Hyades, Pleiades, and Praesepe provide important benchmarks for the properties of stellar systems in general. These clusters are all known to be less than 1 Gyr old, making them ideal targets for a survey of young planetary systems. Few transiting planets have been detected around clusters stars, however, so this alone is too small of a sample. K2, the revived Kepler mission, has provided a vast number of light curves for young stars in clusters and elsewhere in the K2 field. This provides us with the opportunity to extend the sample of young systems to field stars while calibrating with cluster stars. We compute rotational periods from starspot patterns for ~36,000 K2 targets and use gyrochronological relationships derived from cluster stars to determine their ages. From there, we have begun searching for planets around young stars outside the clusters with the ultimate goal of shedding light on how planets and planetary systems evolve in their early, most formative years.

  8. A PSF photometry tool for NASA's Kepler, K2, and TESS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Jose Vinicius De Miranda; Barentsen, Geert; Hedges, Christina L.; Gully-Santiago, Michael A.; Cody, Ann Marie; Montet, Ben

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Kepler and K2 missions have impacted all areas of astrophysics in unique and important ways by delivering high-precision time series data on asteroids, stars, and galaxies. For example, both the official Kepler pipeline and the various community-owned pipelines have been successful at discovering a myriad of transiting exoplanets around a wide range of stellar types. However, the existing pipelines tend to focus on studying isolated stars using simple aperture photometry, and often perform sub-optimally in crowded fields where objects are blended. To address this issue, we present a Point Spread Function (PSF) photometry toolkit for Kepler and K2 which is able to extract light curves from crowded regions, such as the Beehive Cluster, the Lagoon Nebula, and the M67 globular cluster, which were all recently observed by Kepler. We present a detailed discussion on the theory, the practical use, and demonstrate our tool on various levels of crowding. Finally, we discuss the future use of the tool on data from the TESS mission. The code is open source and available on GitHub as part of the PyKE toolkit for Kepler/K2 data analysis.

  9. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M

    1977-01-01

    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed. PMID:196595

  10. Density of salt melts containing KF, KCl, K2TaF7 and Ta2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agulyanskij, A.I.; Stangrit, P.T.; Konstantinov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The results of density measurements by hydrostatic weighing are given for molten K 2 TaF 7 - KF, K 2 TaF 7 -KCL, K 2 TaF 7 - KF - KCl and K 2 TaF 7 - KF - KCl - Ta 2 O 5 mixtures depending on their temperature and composition. The density of the last two systems was measured at compositions close to those of commercial electrolytes. The obtained specific volume - composition dependencies show that no interaction is taking place in the mixtures studied. It is, therefore, believed that, in the K 2 TaF 7 - KF melt, tantalum is mainly present as a complex TaF 7 2- ion, and, in the K 2 TaF 7 - KCl mlt, a certain amount of TaF 6 - ions may be formed along with TaF 7 2-

  11. New derivative of staphylokinase SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul exerts thrombolytic effects in the arterial thrombosis model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szemraj, Janusz; Zakrzeska, Agnieszka; Brown, George; Stankiewicz, Adrian; Gromotowicz, Anna; Grędziński, Tomasz; Chabielska, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    SAK-RGD-K2-Hir and SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul are recombinant proteins that are derivatives of r-SAK (recombinant staphylokinase). They are characterized by their fibrin-specific plasminogen activation properties and their antithrombin and antiplatelet activities. The difference between these proteins is the presence of the antithrombotic fragment (hirudin or hirulog) in the C-terminal portion of the r-SAK. The aim of the present study was to examine the thrombolytic potentials of SAK-RGD-K2-Hir and SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul in an electrically induced carotid artery thrombosis model in rats and to compare the potentials to that of r-SAK. We determined that a bolus injection of SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul was more effective than one of r-SAK in the improvement and maintenance of carotid patency and in arterial thrombus weight reduction; however, it had the same potency as SAK-RGD-K2-Hir. The bleeding time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were significantly prolonged in the animals that were treated with either dose (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg) of SAK-RGD-K2-Hir or SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul, whereas no changes were observed in the plasma fibrinogen concentration or the α2 plasmin inhibitor level. r-SAK alone did not change the bleeding time or coagulation parameters. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the thrombolytic activity of intravenous bolus injection of the novel thrombolytic agent SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul in rats. Although this protein compares favorably with r-SAK, we were unable to show the presence of any beneficial effects of SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul over those of SAK-RGD-K2-Hir. Furthermore, our results suggest that high doses of SAK-RGD-K2-Hirul bear the risk of bleeding.

  12. Expression of the A56 and K2 proteins is sufficient to inhibit vaccinia virus entry and cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Timothy R; Moss, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Many animal viruses induce cells to fuse and form syncytia. For vaccinia virus, this phenomenon is associated with mutations affecting the A56 and K2 proteins, which form a multimer (A56/K2) on the surface of infected cells. Recent evidence that A56/K2 interacts with the entry/fusion complex (EFC) and that the EFC is necessary for syncytium formation furnishes a strong connection between virus entry and cell fusion. Among the important remaining questions are whether A56/K2 can prevent virus entry as well as cell-cell fusion and whether these two viral proteins are sufficient as well as necessary for this. To answer these questions, we transiently and stably expressed A56 and K2 in uninfected cells. Uninfected cells expressing A56 and K2 exhibited resistance to fusing with A56 mutant virus-infected cells, whereas expression of A56 or K2 alone induced little or no resistance, which fits with the need for both proteins to bind the EFC. Furthermore, transient or stable expression of A56/K2 interfered with virus entry and replication as determined by inhibition of early expression of a luciferase reporter gene, virus production, and plaque formation. The specificity of this effect was demonstrated by restoring entry after enzymatically removing a chimeric glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored A56/K2 or by binding a monoclonal antibody to A56. Importantly, the antibody disrupted the interaction between A56/K2 and the EFC without disrupting the A56-K2 interaction itself. Thus, we have shown that A56/K2 is sufficient to prevent virus entry and fusion as well as formation of syncytia through interaction with the EFC.

  13. Early dynamic imaging in "6"8Ga- PSMA-11 PET/CT allows discrimination of urinary bladder activity and prostate cancer lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uprimny, Christian; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Decristoforo, Clemens; Warwitz, Boris; Scarpa, Lorenza; Roig, Llanos Geraldo; Kendler, Dorota; Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Virgolini, Irene Johanna; Fritz, Josef; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    PET/CT with "6"8Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligands has been proven to establish a promising imaging modality in the work-up of prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical relapse. Despite a high overall detection rate, the visualisation of local recurrence may be hampered by high physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder on whole body imaging, usually starting 60 min after injection. This study sought to verify whether early dynamic "6"8Ga-PSMA-11 (HBED-CC)PET/CT can differentiate pathologic PC-related tracer uptake from physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder. Eighty consecutive PC patients referred to "6"8Ga -PSMA-11 PET/CT were included in this retrospective analysis (biochemical relapse: n = 64; primary staging: n = 8; evaluation of therapy response/restaging: n = 8). In addition to whole-body PET/CT acquisition 60 min post injection early dynamic imaging of the pelvis in the first 8 min after tracer injection was performed. SUV_m_a_x of pathologic lesions was calculated and time-activity curves were generated and compared to those of urinary bladder and areas of physiologic tracer uptake. A total of 55 lesions consistent with malignancy on 60 min whole body imaging exhibited also pathologic "6"8Ga-PSMA-11 uptake during early dynamic imaging (prostatic bed/prostate gland: n = 27; lymph nodes: n = 12; bone: n = 16). All pathologic lesions showed tracer uptake within the first 3 min, whereas urinary bladder activity was absent within the first 3 min of dynamic imaging in all patients. Suv_m_a_x was significantly higher in PC lesions in the first 6 min compared to urinary bladder accumulation (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of PC patients with biochemical relapse the detection rate of local recurrence could be increased from 20.3 to 29.7%. Early dynamic imaging in "6"8Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT reliably enables the differentiation of pathologic tracer uptake in PC lesions from physiologic bladder accumulation

  14. Low PIP4K2B expression in human breast tumors correlates with reduced patient survival: A role for PIP4K2B in the regulation of E-cadherin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Willem-Jan; Sims, Andrew H; Jones, David R; Bultsma, Yvette; Lynch, James T; Jirström, Karin; Landberg, Goran; Divecha, Nullin

    2013-12-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PtdIns5P) 4-kinase β (PIP4K2B) directly regulates the levels of two important phosphoinositide second messengers, PtdIns5P and phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. PIP4K2B has been linked to the regulation of gene transcription, to TP53 and AKT activation, and to the regulation of cellular reactive oxygen accumulation. However, its role in human tumor development and on patient survival is not known. Here, we have interrogated the expression of PIP4K2B in a cohort (489) of patients with breast tumor using immunohistochemical staining and by a meta-analysis of gene expression profiles from 2,999 breast tumors, both with associated clinical outcome data. Low PIP4K2B expression was associated with increased tumor size, high Nottingham histological grade, Ki67 expression, and distant metastasis, whereas high PIP4K2B expression strongly associated with ERBB2 expression. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that both high and low PIP4K2B expression correlated with poorer patient survival compared with intermediate expression. In normal (MCF10A) and tumor (MCF7) breast epithelial cell lines, mimicking low PIP4K2B expression, using short hairpin RNA interference-mediated knockdown, led to a decrease in the transcription and expression of the tumor suppressor protein E-cadherin (CDH1). In MCF10A cells, knockdown of PIP4K2B enhanced TGF-β-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process required during the development of metastasis. Analysis of gene expression datasets confirmed the association between low PIP4K2B and low CDH1expression. Decreased CDH1 expression and enhancement of TGF-β-induced EMT by reduced PIP4K2B expression might, in part, explain the association between low PIP4K2B expression and poor patient survival.

  15. Determination and thermodynamic modeling of solid–liquid phase equilibrium for 3,5-dichloroaniline in pure solvents and ternary 3,5-dichloroaniline + 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene + toluene system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rongrong; Du, Cunbin; Meng, Long; Han, Shuo; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Hongkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of 3,5-dichloroaniline in seven organic solvents were determined. • Solid–liquid phase equilibrium for ternary system was measured. • The binary and ternary phase diagrams were constructed. • The phase diagrams were correlated with thermodynamic models. - Abstract: The solid–liquid phase equilibrium data for 3,5-dichloroaniline in n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, isobutanol, toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone at (283.15 to 308.15) K were determined experimentally by gas chromatography under 101.3 kPa. The solubility of 3,5-dichloroaniline in these solvents decreased according to the following order: ethyl acetate > (acetone, toluene) for the solvents of ethyl acetate, acetone, and toluene; and for the other solvents, (isopropanol, n-butanol) > n-propanol > isobutanol. According to the solubility of 3,5-dichloroaniline in pure solvents, the solid–liquid phase equilibrium for the ternary mixture of 3,5-dichloroaniline + 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene + toluene were measured by using an isothermal saturation method at three temperatures of 283.15, 293.15, and 303.15 K under 101.3 kPa, and the corresponding isothermal phase diagrams were constructed. Two pure solids were formed in the ternary system at a fixed temperature, which were pure 3,5-dichloroaniline and pure 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and were identified by Schreinemakers’ method of wet residue. The temperature dependence of 3,5-dichloroaniline solubility in pure solvents was correlated by the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation, Wilson model and NRTL model; and the ternary solid–liquid phase equilibrium of 3,5-dichloroaniline + 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene + toluene were described by the Wilson model and NRTL model. Results showed that calculated solubility values with these models agreed well with the experimental ones for the studied binary and ternary systems. The solid–liquid equilibrium and the thermodynamic models for the binary and ternary systems can offer the

  16. Raman Spectroscopic Study of Tungsten(VI) Oxosulfato Complexes in WO3–K2S2O7–K2SO4 Molten Mixtures: Stoichiometry, Vibrational Properties and Molecular Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, Andreas L.; Kalampounias, Angelos G.; Berg, Rolf W.

    2011-01-01

    The dissolution reaction of WO3 in pure molten K2S2O7 and in molten K2S2O7-K2SO4 mixtures is studied under static equilibrium conditions in the XWO3 0 = 0-0.33 mol fraction range at temperatures up to 860 C. High temperature Raman spectroscopy shows that the dissolution leads to formation of WVI...... configuration as a core unit within the oxosulfato complexes formed. A quantitative exploitation of the relative Raman intensities in the binary WO3-K2S2O7 system allows the determination of the stoichiometric coefficient, n, of the complex formation reaction WO3 þ nS2O7 2-fC2n-. It is found that n = 1......; therefore, the reaction WO3 þ S2O7 2- f WO2(SO4)2 2- with six-fold W coordination is proposed as fully consistent with the observed Raman features. The effects of the incremental dissolution and presence of K2SO4 inWO3-K2S2O7 melts point to aWO3 3 K2S2O7 3 K2SO4 stoichiometry and a corresponding complex...

  17. Sharpening of the 6.8 nm peak in an Nd:YAG laser produced Gd plasma by using a pre-formed plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For effective use of a laser-produced-plasma (LPP light source, an LPP is desired to emit a narrow spectral peak because the reflection spectrum of multilayer mirrors for guiding emission from the source is very narrow. While a Gd plasma has been studied extensively as an extreme ultraviolet (EUV light source at around 6.8 nm, where La/B4C multilayer is reported to have a high reflectivity with a bandwidth of about 0.6 %, all previous works using an Nd:YAG laser reported very broad spectra. This paper reports the first narrowing of the 6.8 nm peak in the case of using an Nd:YAG laser to generate a Gd plasma by using a pre-pulse. The best peak narrowing is observed when a pre-formed plasma is heated by a 1064 nm main laser pulse with a duration of 10 ns at the irradiation density of 4x 1011 W/cm2 at a delay time of 50 ns after the pre-pulse irradiation. The observed spectral width of about 0.3 nm is about one fifth of the value for no pre-formed plasma. The peak wavelength of the 6.8 nm band shifted to a longer wavelength side and the peak was broadened both for lower and higher laser irradiation density. It is discussed that this robustness of the peak position of the 6.8 nm Gd peak against temperature change is suitable to achieve a narrow bandwidth from an LPP generated on solid. The observed spectra are compared with those previously reported in various conditions.

  18. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING STRATEGY WITH GAMES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOME PHYSICAL CAPACITIES AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS (6-8 YEARS)

    OpenAIRE

    Harbach Brahim; Ouadeh Ahmed El Amine; Djourdem Bendehiba; Mokrani Djamel; Benzidane Hocine; Benchenni Habib

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effectiveness of teaching strategy with games in the improvement of some physical and motor capacities and among students at the primary level (6-8 years), where we used the experimental method with two groups experimental and control. Because the teaching strategy with games is one of the best methods to stimulate students’ activity and to increase the motives to exercise the session of physical education and sports, because it depends on the dynamics of team...

  19. A Study of the Kepler K2 Variable EPIC 211957146 Exhibiting a Variable O’ Connell Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriram, K.; Malu, S.; Rao, P. Vivekananda [Department of Astronomy, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Choi, C. S., E-mail: astrosriram@yahoo.co.in [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    We present the multi-band photometric and spectroscopic study of an over-contact binary system, EPIC 211957146. The light curves exhibit a variable O’ Connell effect, confirmed from our observational data and the Kepler K2 data. The best photometric solution incorporating a dark spot over the primary component unveils that the system has a low-mass ratio ( q  ∼ 0.17) and a high inclination ( i  ∼ 85°). To confirm the solution and constrain the uncertainty, Monte-Carlo simulations are performed and the results are reported. Based on the O–C diagram analysis, we see that the variable shows a period increase at the rate of dP / dt  ∼ 1.06 × 10{sup −6} days yr{sup −1}, which is higher than the theoretically predicted value. Presence of a third body having a period of ∼16.23 years is evident from the O–C diagram. No filled-in effect is observed in the H α line, while the effect is vividly present in the Na line. From the Kepler K2 data, we found that the primary and secondary minima exhibit an anti-correlated O–C variation followed by an erratic behavior. This is possibly caused by the longitudinal motion of the spot, and hence, we set a lower limit of ∼40 days for the spot modulation. We also observe a possibly associated photometric difference in the primary depth by comparing our light curves with Kepler K2 normalized light curves. This system has a low-mass ratio and a high fill-out factor, and, theoretically, such a physical configuration would lead to a merger.

  20. Enhancing Parent Involvement in NC-CCSS for K-2 Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.

    2014-12-01

    Key Terms:Parent Involvement, Common Core State Standards, Homework, K - 2 Mathematics In this study, the 2014 REU math team developed and provided a workshop that assisted parents in understanding the North Carolina Common Core State Standards for K-2 Mathematics to assist with student homework assignments. Parent involvement is defined as parent participating in the educational processes and experiences of their children. A chi-square analysis was used to analyze data collected from the pre survey and the post survey administered to participants in the workshop. The study revealed all of the individual components of parent involvement were positively and significantly related to educational goals. The study identified various aspects of parent involvement that yielded statistically significant results in affirming that parent involvement attributed to urban student achievement. These findings were particularly helpful for indicating which kinds of parent involvement influenced academic success. Most notably, parent expectations and styles demonstrated a strong relationship with scholastic outcomes. Parent expectations and styles created an educationally oriented ambience that established an understanding of the certain level of support the child needed to succeed academically. The REU mathematics team focused on three essential questions in this study: (1) What practices will increase parent awareness of K-2 NC-CCSS for mathematics at P. W. Moore Elementary School? (2) What methods can be used to strengthen parent skills in assisting with mathematics homework assignments at P. W. Moore Elementary School? (3) What actions can be taken to motivate parent involvement in the school improvement process focusing on mathematics at P. W. Moore Elementary School?

  1. Na+ -K+ -2Cl- Cotransporter (NKCC) Physiological Function in Nonpolarized Cells and Transporting Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpire, Eric; Gagnon, Kenneth B

    2018-03-25

    Two genes encode the Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransporters, NKCC1 and NKCC2, that mediate the tightly coupled movement of 1Na + , 1K + , and 2Cl - across the plasma membrane of cells. Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransport is driven by the chemical gradient of the three ionic species across the membrane, two of them maintained by the action of the Na + /K + pump. In many cells, NKCC1 accumulates Cl - above its electrochemical potential equilibrium, thereby facilitating Cl - channel-mediated membrane depolarization. In smooth muscle cells, this depolarization facilitates the opening of voltage-sensitive Ca 2+ channels, leading to Ca 2+ influx, and cell contraction. In immature neurons, the depolarization due to a GABA-mediated Cl - conductance produces an excitatory rather than inhibitory response. In many cell types that have lost water, NKCC is activated to help the cells recover their volume. This is specially the case if the cells have also lost Cl - . In combination with the Na + /K + pump, the NKCC's move ions across various specialized epithelia. NKCC1 is involved in Cl - -driven fluid secretion in many exocrine glands, such as sweat, lacrimal, salivary, stomach, pancreas, and intestine. NKCC1 is also involved in K + -driven fluid secretion in inner ear, and possibly in Na + -driven fluid secretion in choroid plexus. In the thick ascending limb of Henle, NKCC2 activity in combination with the Na + /K + pump participates in reabsorbing 30% of the glomerular-filtered Na + . Overall, many critical physiological functions are maintained by the activity of the two Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransporters. In this overview article, we focus on the functional roles of the cotransporters in nonpolarized cells and in epithelia. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:871-901, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  2. The efficacy of vitamin K2 and calcitriol combination on thalassemic osteopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Mehmet A; Yilmaz, Kenan; Abdulrezzak, Ummuhan; Muhtaroglu, Sebahattin; Patiroglu, Turkan; Karakukcu, Musa; Unal, Ekrem

    2013-11-01

    Thalassemic osteopathy (TOSP) has emerged as a topic of interest, as the optimized transfusion regimens and iron chelations has markedly improved the survival of the patients suffering from thalassemia major (TM) and increased the life expectancy. The aim of this prospective monocentric pilot study was to investigate the effects of a dietary supplement with vitamin K2 (50 mcg menaquinone-7) and vitamin D (5 mcg calcitriol) on the patients with TOSP. Twenty children (12 girls, 8 boys; age varied from 3 to 18 y) with β TM, who underwent regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, were enrolled in this study and investigated at the initial, sixth, and 12th month of the treatment. We detected a significant improvement in the bone mineral density and Z-score at the lumbar spine area of the patients at the sixth and 12th month of the treatment, especially in the prepubertal group. We also found a decrease in the ratio of undercarboxylated osteocalcin to carboxylated osteocalcin, however, this was not found to be significant. Although the natural course of TOSP is worsening or at least stabilizing, our pilot study demonstrated that vitamin K2 and calcitriol combination clearly has a positive effect on the bone mineral density of the children with TM during a 1-year period. Supplementation of menaquinone-7 instead of drugs is an augmented physiological intake and seems a beneficial alternative for the treatment of TOSP. Further studies on a large number of participants are necessary to highlight the effect of vitamin K2 on TOSP.

  3. A Distant Mirror: Solar Oscillations Observed on Neptune by the Kepler K2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulme, P.; Rowe, J. F.; Bedding, T. R.; Benomar, O.; Corsaro, E.; Davies, G. R.; Hale, S. J.; Howe, R.; Garcia, R. A.; Huber, D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2014 December, Kepler (K2) observed Neptune continuously for 49 days at a 1-minute cadence. The goals consisted of studying its atmospheric dynamics, detecting its global acoustic oscillations, and those of the Sun, which we report on here. We present the first indirect detection of solar oscillations in intensity measurements. Beyond the remarkable technical performance, it indicates how Kepler would see a star like the Sun. The result from the global asteroseismic approach, which consists of measuring the oscillation frequency at maximum amplitude max velocity and the mean frequency separation between mode overtones delta velocity, is surprising as the max velocity measured from Neptune photometry is larger than the accepted value. Compared to the usual reference max velocity of the sun equal to 3100 microhertz, the asteroseismic scaling relations therefore make the solar mass and radius appear larger by 13.8 plus or minus 5.8 percent and 4.3 plus or minus 1.9 percent, respectively. The higher max velocity is caused by a combination of the value of max velocity of the sun, being larger at the time of observations than the usual reference from SOHO/VIRGO/SPM (Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations / on board SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) / Sun PhotoMeters) data (3160 plus or minus 10 microhertz), and the noise level of the K2 time series, being 10 times larger than VIRGO's. The peak-bagging method provides more consistent results: despite a low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we model 10 overtones for degrees iota equal 0, 1, 2. We compare the K2 data with simultaneous SOHO/VIRGO/SPM photometry and Bison (Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network) velocity measurements. The individual frequencies, widths, and amplitudes mostly match those from VIRGO and BiSON within 1 sigma, except for the few peaks with the lowest S/N.

  4. A Study of the Kepler K2 Variable EPIC 211957146 Exhibiting a Variable O’ Connell Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, K.; Malu, S.; Rao, P. Vivekananda; Choi, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    We present the multi-band photometric and spectroscopic study of an over-contact binary system, EPIC 211957146. The light curves exhibit a variable O’ Connell effect, confirmed from our observational data and the Kepler K2 data. The best photometric solution incorporating a dark spot over the primary component unveils that the system has a low-mass ratio ( q  ∼ 0.17) and a high inclination ( i  ∼ 85°). To confirm the solution and constrain the uncertainty, Monte-Carlo simulations are performed and the results are reported. Based on the O–C diagram analysis, we see that the variable shows a period increase at the rate of dP / dt  ∼ 1.06 × 10 −6 days yr −1 , which is higher than the theoretically predicted value. Presence of a third body having a period of ∼16.23 years is evident from the O–C diagram. No filled-in effect is observed in the H α line, while the effect is vividly present in the Na line. From the Kepler K2 data, we found that the primary and secondary minima exhibit an anti-correlated O–C variation followed by an erratic behavior. This is possibly caused by the longitudinal motion of the spot, and hence, we set a lower limit of ∼40 days for the spot modulation. We also observe a possibly associated photometric difference in the primary depth by comparing our light curves with Kepler K2 normalized light curves. This system has a low-mass ratio and a high fill-out factor, and, theoretically, such a physical configuration would lead to a merger.

  5. A DISTANT MIRROR: SOLAR OSCILLATIONS OBSERVED ON NEPTUNE BY THE KEPLER K 2 MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaulme, P.; Jackiewicz, J. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Rowe, J. F. [Institut de recherche sur les exoplanètes, iREx, Département de physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bedding, T. R.; Huber, D. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Benomar, O. [Center for Space Science, NYUAD Institute, New York University Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 129188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Corsaro, E.; Garcia, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DRF-CNRS, Université Paris 7 Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Davies, G. R. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Hale, S. J.; Howe, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT (United Kingdom); Jiménez, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mathur, S. [Center for Extrasolar Planetary Systems, Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite #205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Mosser, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Denis Diderot, F-92195 Meudon (France); Appourchaux, T.; Boumier, P.; Leibacher, J., E-mail: gaulme@nmsu.edu [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris-Sud and CNRS (UMR 8617), Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay cedex (France); and others

    2016-12-10

    Starting in 2014 December, Kepler K 2 observed Neptune continuously for 49 days at a 1 minute cadence. The goals consisted of studying its atmospheric dynamics, detecting its global acoustic oscillations, and those of the Sun, which we report on here. We present the first indirect detection of solar oscillations in intensity measurements. Beyond the remarkable technical performance, it indicates how Kepler would see a star like the Sun. The result from the global asteroseismic approach, which consists of measuring the oscillation frequency at maximum amplitude ν {sub max} and the mean frequency separation between mode overtones Δ ν , is surprising as the ν {sub max} measured from Neptune photometry is larger than the accepted value. Compared to the usual reference ν {sub max,⊙} = 3100 μ Hz, the asteroseismic scaling relations therefore make the solar mass and radius appear larger by 13.8 ± 5.8% and 4.3 ± 1.9%, respectively. The higher ν {sub max} is caused by a combination of the value of ν {sub max,⊙}, being larger at the time of observations than the usual reference from SOHO /VIRGO/SPM data (3160 ± 10 μ Hz), and the noise level of the K 2 time series, being 10 times larger than VIRGO’s. The peak-bagging method provides more consistent results: despite a low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we model 10 overtones for degrees ℓ = 0, 1, 2. We compare the K 2 data with simultaneous SOHO /VIRGO/SPM photometry and BiSON velocity measurements. The individual frequencies, widths, and amplitudes mostly match those from VIRGO and BiSON within 1 σ, except for the few peaks with the lowest S/N.

  6. Vitamin K2 downregulates the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ke; Liu, Weidong; Nakamura, Hideji; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Yamamoto, Teruhisa; Saito, Masaki; Imanishi, Hiroyasu; Shimomura, Soji; Cao, Peiguo; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2009-11-01

    Vitamin K2 exerts an antitumor activity on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), however, its inhibitory mechanism has not yet been clarified. This study was designed to identify the attractive target molecule of vitamin K2 and shed some light on its effects on fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)3 in HCC cells. The changes in the gene expression of HuH-7 after vitamin K2 treatment were evaluated by a DNA chip analysis. The mRNA and protein levels of FGFR were evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The promoter activity of the FGFR3 gene was measured by a dual-luciferase assay. The DNA chip analysis revealed different inhibitory rates of gene expression of FGFR3 (60.6%) and FGFR1 (19.4%) after vitamin K2 treatment. Vitamin K2 suppresses the proliferation of HuH-7 in a dose-dependent manner and its inhibitory rate reached approximately 61.8% at the dose of 30 microM. FGFR3 mRNA was significantly reduced based on semiquantitative RT-PCR and decreased 61.5% by a real-time PCR method after vitamin K2 treatment, but FGFR1 mRNA was not. The level of FGFR3 protein was also reduced by vitamin K2 treatment. The luciferase assay demonstrated that vitamin K2 significantly suppressed the promoter activity of FGFR3. Furthermore, the FGFR3-ERK1/2 signaling pathway was suppressed by vitamin K2 treatment. These findings suggest that vitamin K2 may suppress the proliferation of HCC cells through the downregulation of the FGFR3 expression. The transcriptional suppression of FGFR3 may be a novel mechanism of the vitamin K2 action for HCC cells.

  7. Effect of three 2-allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols on inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kharchouf

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 2-Allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols P1−P3 synthesized from carvone P are tested as corrosion inhibitors of steel in 1 M HCl using weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation and impedance spectroscopy (EIS methods. The addition of 2-allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols reduced the corrosion rate. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies clearly reveal that the presence of inhibitors does not change the mechanism of hydrogen evolution and that they act essentially as cathodic inhibitors. 2-Allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols tested adsorb on the steel surface according to Langmuir isotherm. From the adsorption isotherm some thermodynamic data for the adsorption process are calculated and discussed. EIS measurements show the increase of the charge-transfer resistance with the inhibitor concentration. The highest inhibition efficiency (92% is obtained for P1 at 3 g/L. The corrosion rate decreases with the rise of temperature. The corresponding activation energies are determined.

  8. Syntheses of planar 1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocine derivatives and thermodynamic study on intermolecular charge transfer for developing efficient organic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao-Zhi, E-mail: zhangchaozhi@nuist.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Shen, Dan [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yuan, Yang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Song, Ming-Xia; Li, Shi-Juan [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Cao, Hui, E-mail: yccaoh@hotmail.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2016-07-01

    A series of planar 1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocine derivatives were synthesized for study on charge transfer at donor/acceptor interface. The fluorescence quenching spectra, and the highest occupied molecular orbital (−6.10 ∼ −6.25 eV) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (−3.45 ∼ −3.58 eV) energy levels of these 1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocine derivatives show that they would be potential acceptor materials. Based on theoretical calculations, thermodynamic study on charge transfer at donor/acceptor interface was carried out. The results of experiments and theoretical calculations show that the electrons could transfer spontaneously from poly(3-hexylthiophene) to these acceptors. The percentages of fluorescence quenching increase with negative Gibbs free energy values increasing in the charge transfer procedures. Therefore, short circuit current values of organic solar cells would increase with the Gibbs free energy values increasing. This paper suggests a useful way for developing efficient organic solar cells. - Highlights: • Syntheses of planar 1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocine derivatives for develop effective acceptor. • Electrons at excited state in P3HT could transfer spontaneously to these acceptors. • Thermodynamic study on charge transfer at donor/acceptor interface. • Short circuit currents would be predicted by Gibbs free energy in procedure of charge transfer.

  9. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Hernandez-Garcia, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA

    2015-06-01

    CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  10. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mamun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  11. Texture studies of hot-pressed K2Pb4Nb10O30 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip'ev, V.S.; Zav'yalov, V.P.; Bunina, O.A.; Gavrilyachenko, S.V.; Fesenko, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction analysis was used to investigate the texture in sampl es of K 2 Pb 4 Nb 10 O 30 ferroelectric produced by powder hot pressing and sintering at 1370-1500 k. A spontaneous formation of the secondary texture during ferroelectric phase transformation was revealed. An important role of internal stresses in the secondary texture formation was supported. The ceramic s with a high-grade texture is noted to be characterized by a high anisotropy of dielectric and piezoelectric properties, its parameters approaching to those of a monocrystal

  12. A hypothetical role for vitamin K2 in the endocrine and exocrine aspects of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southward, Ken

    2015-03-01

    The growing interest in oral/systemic links demand new paradigms to understand disease processes. New opportunities for dental research, particularly in the fields of neuroscience and endocrinology will emerge. The role of the hypothalamus portion of the brain cannot be underestimated. Under the influence of nutrition, it plays a significant role in the systemic model of dental caries. Currently, the traditional theory of dental caries considers only the oral environment and does not recognize any significant role for the brain. The healthy tooth, however, has a centrifugal fluid flow to nourish and cleanse it. This is moderated by the hypothalamus/parotid axis which signals the endocrine portion of the parotid glands. High sugar intake creates an increase in reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. When this signaling mechanism halts or reverses the dentinal fluid flow, it renders the tooth vulnerable to oral bacteria, which can now attach to the tooth's surface. Acid produced by oral bacteria such as Strep Mutans and lactobacillus can now de-mineralize the enamel and irritate the dentin. The acid attack stimulates an inflammatory response which results in dentin breakdown from the body's own matrix metalloproteinases. Vitamin K2 (K2) has been shown to have an antioxidant potential in the brain and may prove to be a potent way to preserve the endocrine controlled centrifugal dentinal fluid flow. Stress, including oxidative stress, magnifies the body's inflammatory response. Sugar can not only increase oral bacterial acid production but it can concurrently reduce the tooth's defenses through endocrine signaling. Saliva production is the exocrine function of the salivary glands. The buffering capacity of saliva is critical to neutralizing the oral environment. This minimizes the de-mineralization of enamel and enhances its re-mineralization. K2, such as that found in fermented cheese, improves salivary buffering through its influence on

  13. A hot Saturn on an eccentric orbit around the giant star K2-132

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. I.; Brahm, R.; Espinoza, N.; Jordán, A.; Rojas, F.; Rabus, M.; Drass, H.; Zapata, A.; Soto, M. G.; Jenkins, J. S.; Vučković, M.; Ciceri, S.; Sarkis, P.

    2018-06-01

    Although the majority of radial velocity detected planets have been found orbiting solar-type stars, a fraction of them have been discovered around giant stars. These planetary systems have revealed different orbital properties when compared to solar-type star companions. In particular, radial velocity surveys have shown that there is a lack of giant planets in close-in orbits around giant stars, in contrast to the known population of hot Jupiters orbiting solar-type stars. It has been theorized that the reason for this distinctive feature in the semimajor axis distribution is the result of the stellar evolution and/or that it is due to the effect of a different formation/evolution scenario for planets around intermediate-mass stars. However, in the past few years a handful of transiting short-period planets (P ≲ 10 days) have been found around giant stars, thanks to the high-precision photometric data obtained initially by the Kepler mission, and later by its two-wheel extension K2. These new discoveries have allowed us for the first time to study the orbital properties and physical parameters of these intriguing and elusive substellar companions. In this paper we report on an independent discovery of a transiting planet in field 10 of the K2 mission, also reported recently by Grunblatt et al. (2017, AJ, 154, 254). The host star has recently evolved to the giant phase, and has the following atmospheric parameters: Teff = 4878 ± 70 K, log g = 3.289 ± 0.004, and [Fe/H] = -0.11 ± 0.05 dex. The main orbital parameters of K2-132 b, obtained with all the available data for the system are: P = 9.1708 ± 0.0025 d, e = 0.290 ± 0.049, Mp = 0.495 ± 0.007 MJ and Rp = 1.089 ± 0.006 RJ. This is the fifth known planet orbiting any giant star with a K2-132 b a very interesting object. Tables of the photometry and of the radial velocities are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  14. Seismology of Giant Planets: General Overview and Results from the Kepler K2 Observations of Neptune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaulme Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For this invited contribution, I was asked to give an overview about the application of helio and aster-oseismic techniques to study the interior of giant planets, and to specifically present the recent observations of Neptune by Kepler K2. Seismology applied to giant planets could drastically change our understanding of their deep interiors, as it has happened with the Earth, the Sun, and many main-sequence and evolved stars. The study of giant planets' composition is important for understanding both the mechanisms enabling their formation and the origins of planetary systems, in particular our own. Unfortunately, its determination is complicated by the fact that their interior is thought not to be homogeneous, so that spectroscopic determinations of atmospheric abundances are probably not representative of the planet as a whole. Instead, the determination of their composition and structure must rely on indirect measurements and interior models. Giant planets are mostly fluid and convective, which makes their seismology much closer to that of solar-like stars than that of terrestrial planets. Hence, helioseismology techniques naturally transfer to giant planets. In addition, two alternative methods can be used: photometry of the solar light reflected by planetary atmospheres, and ring seismology in the specific case of Saturn. The current decade has been promising thanks to the detection of Jupiter's acoustic oscillations with the ground-based imaging-spectrometer SYMPA and indirect detection of Saturn's f-modes in its rings by the NASA Cassini orbiter. This has motivated new projects of ground-based and space-borne instruments that are under development. The K2 observations represented the first opportunity to search for planetary oscillations with visible photometry. Despite the excellent quality of K2 data, the noise level of the power spectrum of the light curve was not low enough to detect Neptune's oscillations. The main results from the

  15. Seismology of Giant Planets: General Overview and Results from the Kepler K2 Observations of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulme, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    For this invited contribution, I was asked to give an overview about the application of helio and aster-oseismic techniques to study the interior of giant planets, and to specifically present the recent observations of Neptune by Kepler K2. Seismology applied to giant planets could drastically change our understanding of their deep interiors, as it has happened with the Earth, the Sun, and many main-sequence and evolved stars. The study of giant planets' composition is important for understanding both the mechanisms enabling their formation and the origins of planetary systems, in particular our own. Unfortunately, its determination is complicated by the fact that their interior is thought not to be homogeneous, so that spectroscopic determinations of atmospheric abundances are probably not representative of the planet as a whole. Instead, the determination of their composition and structure must rely on indirect measurements and interior models. Giant planets are mostly fluid and convective, which makes their seismology much closer to that of solar-like stars than that of terrestrial planets. Hence, helioseismology techniques naturally transfer to giant planets. In addition, two alternative methods can be used: photometry of the solar light reflected by planetary atmospheres, and ring seismology in the specific case of Saturn. The current decade has been promising thanks to the detection of Jupiter's acoustic oscillations with the ground-based imaging-spectrometer SYMPA and indirect detection of Saturn's f-modes in its rings by the NASA Cassini orbiter. This has motivated new projects of ground-based and space-borne instruments that are under development. The K2 observations represented the first opportunity to search for planetary oscillations with visible photometry. Despite the excellent quality of K2 data, the noise level of the power spectrum of the light curve was not low enough to detect Neptune's oscillations. The main results from the K2 observations are

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2-19b light curve (Armstrong+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Santerne, A.; Veras, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Demangeon, O.; Lillo-Box, J.; McCormac, J.; Osborn, H. P.; Tsantaki, M.; Almenara, J.-M.; Barrado, D.; Boisse, I.; Bonomo, A. S.; Brown, D. J. A.; Bruno, G.; Rey Cerda, J.; Courcol, B.; Deleuil, M.; Diaz, R. F.; Doyle, A. P.; Hebrard, G.; Kirk, J.; Lam, K. W. F.; Pollacco, D. L.; Rajpurohit, A.; Spake, J.; Walker, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    The Near Infrared Transiting ExoplanetS (NITES) Telescope is a semi-robotic 0.4m (f/10) Meade LX200GPS Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope installed at the ORM, La Palma. One transit of K2-19b was observed on 2015 Feb 28. The telescope was defocused slightly to 3.3 FWHM and 814 images of 20s exposure time were obtained with 5s dead time between each. Observations were obtained without a filter. The table presents data taken with the NITES telescope shown in Figure 1 of the publication. (1 data file).

  17. Protonic conduction of hydrogen impurities in K2OsCl6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemsen, H.W.; Armstrong, R.L.; Meincke, P.P.M.

    1979-01-01

    Dielectric measurements as a function of temperature and frequency in single crystal K 2 OsCl 6 with defects containing protons are reported. The results are consistent with a model which assumes the defect state to be a simple interstitial proton which is hydrogen bonded to the nearest neighbor chlorine ions. Temperatures greater than 180 K shows that proton diffusion is thermally activated with a mobility of 10 -2 cm 2 /V-sec whereas below this temperature it is determined by quantum tunneling between localized states

  18. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  19. Murine K2P5.1 Deficiency Has No Impact on Autoimmune Neuroinflammation due to Compensatory K2P3.1- and KV1.3-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bittner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytes express potassium channels that regulate physiological cell functions, such as activation, proliferation and migration. Expression levels of K2P5.1 (TASK2; KCNK5 channels belonging to the family of two-pore domain potassium channels have previously been correlated to the activity of autoreactive T lymphocytes in patients with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. In humans, K2P5.1 channels are upregulated upon T cell stimulation and influence T cell effector functions. However, a further clinical translation of targeting K2P5.1 is currently hampered by a lack of highly selective inhibitors, making it necessary to evaluate the impact of KCNK5 in established preclinical animal disease models. We here demonstrate that K2P5.1 knockout (K2P5.1−/− mice display no significant alterations concerning T cell cytokine production, proliferation rates, surface marker molecules or signaling pathways. In an experimental model of autoimmune neuroinflammation, K2P5.1−/− mice show a comparable disease course to wild-type animals and no major changes in the peripheral immune system or CNS compartment. A compensatory upregulation of the potassium channels K2P3.1 and KV1.3 seems to counterbalance the deletion of K2P5.1. As an alternative model mimicking autoimmune neuroinflammation, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the common marmoset has been proposed, especially for testing the efficacy of new potential drugs. Initial experiments show that K2P5.1 is functionally expressed on marmoset T lymphocytes, opening up the possibility for assessing future K2P5.1-targeting drugs.

  20. The CARMENES Search for Exoplanets around M Dwarfs: A Low-mass Planet in the Temperate Zone of the Nearby K2-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Paula; Henning, Thomas; Kürster, Martin; Trifonov, Trifon; Zechmeister, Mathias; Tal-Or, Lev; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Hatzes, Artie P.; Lafarga, Marina; Dreizler, Stefan; Ribas, Ignasi; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar; Mallonn, Matthias; Morales, Juan C.; Kaminski, Adrian; Aceituno, Jesús; Amado, Pedro J.; Béjar, Victor J. S.; Hagen, Hans-Jürgen; Jeffers, Sandra; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Launhardt, Ralf; Marvin, Christopher; Montes, David

    2018-06-01

    K2-18 is a nearby M2.5 dwarf, located at 34 pc and hosting a transiting planet that was first discovered by the K2 mission and later confirmed with Spitzer Space Telescope observations. With a radius of ∼2 R ⊕ and an orbital period of ∼33 days, the planet lies in the temperate zone of its host star and receives stellar irradiation similar to that of Earth. Here we perform radial velocity follow-up observations with the visual channel of CARMENES with the goal of determining the mass and density of the planet. We measure a planetary semi-amplitude of K b ∼ 3.5 {{m}} {{{s}}}-1 and a mass of M b ∼ 9 M ⊕, yielding a bulk density around {ρ }b∼ 4 {{g}} {cm}}-3. This indicates a low-mass planet with a composition consistent with a solid core and a volatile-rich envelope. A signal at 9 days was recently reported using radial velocity measurements taken with the HARPS spectrograph. This was interpreted as being due to a second planet. We see a weaker, time- and wavelength-dependent signal in the CARMENES data set and thus favor stellar activity for its origin. K2-18 b joins the growing group of low-mass planets detected in the temperate zone of M dwarfs. The brightness of the host star in the near-infrared makes the system a good target for detailed atmospheric studies with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  1. On two-primary algebraic K-theory of quadratic number rings with focus on K_2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.; Østvær, Paul Arne

    1999-01-01

    We give explicit formulas for the 2-rank of the algebraic K-groups of quadratic number rings. A 4-rank formula for K2 of quadratic number rings given in [1] provides further information about the actual group structure. The K2 claculations are based on 2- and 4-rank formulas for Picard groups of

  2. Phase diagram and quantum order by disorder in the Kitaev K1-K2 honeycomb magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny; Rachel, Stephan; Perkins, Natalia

    We show that the topological Kitaev spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice is extremely fragile against the second neighbor Kitaev coupling K2, which has been recently identified as the dominant perturbation away from the nearest neighbor model in iridate Na2IrO3, and may also play a role in α-RuCl3. This coupling explains naturally the zig-zag ordering and the special entanglement between real and spin space observed recently in Na2IrO3. The minimal K1-K2 model that we present here holds in addition the unique property that the classical and quantum phase diagrams and their respective order-by-disorder mechanisms are qualitatively different due to their fundamentally different symmetry structure. Nsf DMR-1511768; Freie Univ. Berlin Excellence Initiative of German Research Foundation; European Research Council, ERC-StG-336012; DFG-SFB 1170; DFG-SFB 1143, DFG-SPP 1666, and Helmholtz association VI-521.

  3. TASK-2: a K2P K+ channel with complex regulation and diverse physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pablo Cid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available TASK-2 (K2P5.1 is a two-pore domain K+ channel belonging to the TALK subgroup of the K2P family of proteins. TASK-2 has been shown to be activated by extra- and intracellular alkalinisation. Extra- and intracellular pH-sensors reside at arginine 224 and lysine 245 and might affect separate selectivity filter and inner gates respectively. TASK-2 is modulated by changes in cell volume and a regulation by direct G-protein interaction has also been proposed. Activation by extracellular alkalinisation has been associated with a role of TASK-2 in kidney proximal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption, whilst intracellular pH-sensitivity might be the mechanism for its participation in central chemosensitive neurons. In addition to these functions TASK-2 has been proposed to play a part in apoptotic volume decrease in kidney cells and in volume regulation of glial cells and T-lymphocytes. TASK-2 is present in chondrocytes of hyaline cartilage, where it is proposed to play a central role in stabilizing the membrane potential. Additional sites of expression are dorsal root ganglion neurons, endocrine and exocrine pancreas and intestinal smooth muscle cells. TASK-2 has been associated with the regulation of proliferation of breast cancer cells and could become target for breast cancer therapeutics. Further work in native tissues and cells together with genetic modification will no doubt reveal the details of TASK-2 functions that we are only starting to suspect.

  4. Worlds Beyond: Follow-up Observations and Confirmation of K2 Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rachel; Lowenthal, James; Lowenthal, James D.; Cooper, Olivia; Helou, Elana; Papineau, Emily; Peck, Annie; Stephens, Loren; Walker, Kerry

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of an 8-month follow-up transit photometry campaign focused on exoplanet candidates produced by the K2 mission. Observations were conducted at the McConnell Rooftop Observatory at Smith College in Northampton, MA, with a 16” telescope and CCD. Targets were observed through a 400-700 nm broadband filter at a 1 minute cadence. We attempted to observe the complete duration of the transit plus a minimum one-hour baseline before and after the transit event whenever possible. Our observations typically reach an RMS of 2 millimags for an 11th-magnitude star. Candidates were selected based on a number of factors, including a transit depth of around 10 millimags, a host star magnitude between 10-13, a duration that is observable over the span of a night, and a period shorter than 30 days. There are currently around 700 unconfirmed exoplanets from K2, and these criteria shortened that list to around 20 ideal candidates, many of which were flagged as possible false positives. Our results showcase the capability of small observatories to conduct precise follow-up observations of exoplanet transits.

  5. RF SQUID in the nonhysteretic regime with k2Ql>1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, I.M.; Tsoi, G.M.; Shnyrkov, V.I.; Kartsovnik, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental measurements of current-voltage, current-phase, amplitude-frequency, phase-frequency, and signal characteristics of an rf SQUID operating at a frequency of 30 MHz in the nonhysteretic regime (1 = 2πL 0 I 0 /phi/sub o/ 2 Ql>1. Here I 0 is the critical current of the weak link, L 0 is the SQUID ring inductance, k is the coefficient of coupling of the SQUID ring to a resonant tank circuit of quality Q, and phi 0 is the magnetic flux quantum. A numerical analysis of the above characteristics for all relevant parameter values close to those occurring under experimental conditions was performed for qualitative comparison with theory. The main difference from the traditional nonhysteretic regime of SQUID operation (k 2 Q1 12 V/Wb for the single-valued region of the signal characteristics. The results suggest that considerable improvement of rf SQUID resolution is possible in the regime k 2 Ql>1

  6. A 15.7-Minute AM CVn Binary Discovered in K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. J.; Hermes, J. J.; Marsh, T. R.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Bell, Keaton J.; Littlefair, S. P.; Parsons, S. G.; Dennihy, E.; Fuchs, J. T.; Reding, J. S.; Kaiser, B. C.; Ashley, R. P.; Breedt, E.; Dhillon, V. S.; Gentile Fusillo, N. P.; Kerry, P.; Sahman, D. I.

    2018-04-01

    We present the discovery of SDSS J135154.46-064309.0, a short-period variable observed using 30-minute cadence photometry in K2 Campaign 6. Follow-up spectroscopy and high-speed photometry support a classification as a new member of the rare class of ultracompact accreting binaries known as AM CVn stars. The spectroscopic orbital period of 15.65 ± 0.12 minutes makes this system the fourth-shortest period AM CVn known, and the second system of this type to be discovered by the Kepler spacecraft. The K2 data show photometric periods at 15.7306 ± 0.0003 minutes, 16.1121 ± 0.0004 minutes and 664.82 ± 0.06 minutes, which we identify as the orbital period, superhump period, and disc precession period, respectively. From the superhump and orbital periods we estimate the binary mass ratio q = M2/M1 = 0.111 ± 0.005, though this method of mass ratio determination may not be well calibrated for helium-dominated binaries. This system is likely to be a bright foreground source of gravitational waves in the frequency range detectable by LISA, and may be of use as a calibration source if future studies are able to constrain the masses of its stellar components.

  7. Integrable deformations of the Gk1×Gk2/Gk1+k2 coset CFTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Sfetsos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the effective action for the integrable λ-deformation of the Gk1×Gk2/Gk1+k2 coset CFTs. For unequal levels theses models do not fall into the general discussion of λ-deformations of CFTs corresponding to symmetric spaces and have many attractive features. We show that the perturbation is driven by parafermion bilinears and we revisit the derivation of their algebra. We uncover a non-trivial symmetry of these models parametric space, which has not encountered before in the literature. Using field theoretical methods and the effective action we compute the exact in the deformation parameter β-function and explicitly demonstrate the existence of a fixed point in the IR corresponding to the Gk1−k2×Gk2/Gk1 coset CFTs. The same result is verified using gravitational methods for G=SU(2. We examine various limiting cases previously considered in the literature and found agreement.

  8. Tyrosine transport in winter flounder intestine: Interaction with Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musch, M.W.; McConnell, F.M.; Goldstein, L.; Field, M.

    1987-01-01

    Tyrosine absorption across the brush border of the intestinal epithelium of the winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus was studied in Ussing chambers modified to determine early rates of uptake. At 0.1 mM tyrosine, the 4-min rate of uptake (influx) of tyrosine across the brush border averaged 37.5 nmol·cm -2 ·h -1 . Omission of Na decreased influx by 60%, indicting that tyrosine influx occurs, at least in part, by a Na-coupled process. Ouabain inhibited influx by 80%. Inhibition of brush border Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransport by bumetanide, 8-bromo-cyclic GMP, or Cl replacement stimulated tyrosine influx 2.5- to 4-fold. However, atriopeptin III, which also inhibits Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransport, did not stimulate tyrosine influx. Cyclic AMP, which does not appear to inhibit ion cotransport, did not stimulate tyrosine influx. Both cyclic GMP and bumetanide also stimulated the net mucosa-to-serosa tyrosine flux (43 and 29%, respectively) and increased the cellular concentration of tyrosine by 50%. Thus tyrosine's influx is increased to a greater extent than is its transmural flux or its cellular concentration, suggesting that the main change occurs at the brush border and represents large increases in both influx and efflux of tyrosine across this membrane

  9. Biodiesel synthesis using K2CO3/Al–O–Si aerogel catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA LUKIĆ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, catalysts for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME or bio-diesel synthesis with K2CO3 as the active component on an alumina/silica support were synthesized using the sol–gel method, which was followed by drying the “dense” wet gels with supercritical carbon dioxide to obtain the aerogels. The prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and N2 physisorption at 77 K, and tested in the methanolysis of sunflower oil. The effects of reaction variables, such as reaction time, temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio, on the yield of FAME were investigated. The aerogel catalysts with K2CO3 as the active component on an alumina/silica support exhibited good activity in the methanolysis of sunflower oil. The leaching of potassium when the catalyst was in contact with pure methanol under the working conditions of methanolysis was also tested in this study, indicating that it occurred only at higher temperatures, while at lower ones, it was negligible.

  10. 1,3,5-Triethylbenzene Transformation Reactions Compared to Its Transalkylation Reaction with Ethylbenzene

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, M. Naseem

    2009-08-20

    The transalkylation of 1,3,5-triethylbenzene (1,3,5-TEB) with ethylbenzene (EB) has been studied over USYtype catalysts using a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The reaction mixture EB and 1,3,5-TEB was used at a molar ratio of 1:1, which is equivalent to 40:60 wt % of EB/1,3,5-TEB, respectively. The reaction temperature was varied from 350 to 500 °C with a time on stream ranging from 3-15 s. The effect of reaction conditions on 1,3,5-TEB conversion, DEB selectivity, and isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is reported. The transalkylation of 1,3,5-TEB with EB has been compared to the transformation reaction of pure 1,3,5-TEB and EB. The experimental results have revealed that reactivity of 1,3,5-TEB and selectivity of DEB is increased during the transalkylation reaction (EB + 1,3,5-TEB) as compared to the transformation reaction of pure EB or 1,3,5-TEB. The 1,3,5-TEB undergoes isomerization and a cracking reaction to produce DEB and EB but does not undergo any appreciable disproportionation reaction. The isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is more active at low temperatures, while cracking is more active at high temperatures. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11. 1,3,5-Triethylbenzene Transformation Reactions Compared to Its Transalkylation Reaction with Ethylbenzene

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, M. Naseem; Sulaiman, Al Khattaf

    2009-01-01

    The transalkylation of 1,3,5-triethylbenzene (1,3,5-TEB) with ethylbenzene (EB) has been studied over USYtype catalysts using a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The reaction mixture EB and 1,3,5-TEB was used at a molar ratio of 1:1, which is equivalent to 40:60 wt % of EB/1,3,5-TEB, respectively. The reaction temperature was varied from 350 to 500 °C with a time on stream ranging from 3-15 s. The effect of reaction conditions on 1,3,5-TEB conversion, DEB selectivity, and isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is reported. The transalkylation of 1,3,5-TEB with EB has been compared to the transformation reaction of pure 1,3,5-TEB and EB. The experimental results have revealed that reactivity of 1,3,5-TEB and selectivity of DEB is increased during the transalkylation reaction (EB + 1,3,5-TEB) as compared to the transformation reaction of pure EB or 1,3,5-TEB. The 1,3,5-TEB undergoes isomerization and a cracking reaction to produce DEB and EB but does not undergo any appreciable disproportionation reaction. The isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is more active at low temperatures, while cracking is more active at high temperatures. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  12. Simulation and modeling CO2 absorption in biogas with DEA promoted K2CO3 solution in packed column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkhamidah, Siti; Altway, Ali; Airlangga, Bramantyo; Emilia, Dwi Putri

    2017-05-01

    Absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is one of biogas purification method. However, K2CO3 have slow mass transfer in liquid phase. So it is necessary to eliminate the disadvantage of CO2 absorption using K2CO3 by adding promotor (activator). Diethanol amine (DEA) is one of promotor which can increase its reaction rate. Simulation and modeling research of the CO2 absorption from biogas with DEA promoted K2CO3 solution has not been conducted. Thus, the main goal of this research is create model and simulation for the CO2 absorption from biogas with DEA promoted K2CO3 solution, then observe the influence of promoter concentration. DEA concentration varies between 1-5 %wt. From the simulation, we concluded that the CO2 removal rise with the increasing of promoter concentration. The highest CO2 removal is 54.5318 % at 5 % wt DEA concentration.

  13. 3,5-Dioxopyrazolidines, Novel Inhibitors of UDP-N- Acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine Reductase (MurB) with Activity against Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Youjun; Severin, Anatoly; Chopra, Rajiv; Krishnamurthy, Girija; Singh, Guy; Hu, William; Keeney, David; Svenson, Kristine; Petersen, Peter J.; Labthavikul, Pornpen; Shlaes, David M.; Rasmussen, Beth A.; Failli, Amedeo A.; Shumsky, Jay S.; Kutterer, Kristina M. K.; Gilbert, Adam; Mansour, Tarek S.

    2006-01-01

    A series of 3,5-dioxopyrazolidines was identified as novel inhibitors of UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductase (MurB). Compounds 1 to 3, which are 1,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dioxopyrazolidine-4-carboxamides, inhibited Escherichia coli MurB, Staphyloccocus aureus MurB, and E. coli MurA with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the range of 4.1 to 6.8 μM, 4.3 to 10.3 μM, and 6.8 to 29.4 μM, respectively. Compound 4, a C-4-unsubstituted 1,2-bis(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3,5-dioxopyrazolidine, showed moderate inhibitory activity against E. coli MurB, S. aureus MurB, and E. coli MurC (IC50s, 24.5 to 35 μM). A fluorescence-binding assay indicated tight binding of compound 3 with E. coli MurB, giving a dissociation constant of 260 nM. Structural characterization of E. coli MurB was undertaken, and the crystal structure of a complex with compound 4 was obtained at 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal structure indicated the binding of a compound at the active site of MurB and specific interactions with active-site residues and the bound flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis studies using a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis revealed reduced peptidoglycan biosynthesis upon incubation with 3,5-dioxopyrazolidines, with IC50s of 0.39 to 11.1 μM. Antibacterial activity was observed for compounds 1 to 3 (MICs, 0.25 to 16 μg/ml) and 4 (MICs, 4 to 8 μg/ml) against gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:16436710

  14. Vibrational modes and Structure of Niobium(V) Oxosulfato Complexes in the Molten Nb2O5-K2S2O7-K2SO4 System Studied by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Andreas L.; Borup, Flemming; Berg, Rolf W.

    2010-01-01

    The structural and vibrational properties of NbV oxosulfato complexes formed in Nb2O5-K2S2O7 and Nb2O5-K2S2O7-K2SO4 molten mixtures with 0 ... for the binary Nb2O5-K2S2O7 molten system indicate that the dissolution of Nb2O5 proceeds with consumption of S2O7 leading to the formation of a NbV oxosulfato complex according to Nb2O5 + nS2O7 --> C2n-; a simple formalism exploiting the relative Raman band intensities is used for determining the stoichiometric...... coefficient, n, pointing to n = 3 and to the following reaction: Nb2O5 + 3S2O7 --> 2NbO(SO4)3, which is consistent with the Raman spectra of the molten mixtures. Nb2O5 could be dissolved much easier when K2SO4 was present in an equimolar (1:1) SO4/Nb ratio; the incremental presence of K2SO4 in Nb2O5-K2S2O7...

  15. Biological stereoselective reduction of 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanone by Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, S; Kameoka, H; Miyazawa, M

    2001-01-01

    The microbial transformation of 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanone was investigated using the plant pathogenic fungus, Glomerella cingulata. With this organism 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanone gave the corresponding cis- and trans-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanols with the ratio of 20:1 forming the cis-isomer highly stereoselectively, upon 5 days incubation together with 3,3,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (isophrone) as a minor product.

  16. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally false...

  17. Effect of 6-8 weeks of oral ursodeoxycholic acid administration on serum concentrations of fasting and postprandial bile acids and biochemical analytes in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitz, Krysta L; Makielski, Kelly M; Williams, Jackie M; Lin, Hui; Morrison, Jo Ann

    2015-09-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is commonly used for the treatment of hepatobiliary disease. UDCA is a bile acid that can be detected in the bile acid assay. Its effect on biochemical analytes is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 6-8 weeks of UDCA administration on fasting and postprandial concentrations of serum bile acids (SBA), cholesterol, triglycerides, bilirubin, and liver enzyme activities in healthy dogs. Twenty healthy dogs received UDCA for 6-8 weeks. CBC, biochemistry profile, urinalysis, fasting and postprandial SBA, and hepatobiliary ultrasound examination were performed prior to starting UDCA (timepoint 0) and after 6-8 weeks of therapy, while animals were still receiving UDCA (timepoint 1). Timepoint 0 and timepoint 1 values were compared with a paired t-test. SBA were remeasured 72 hours after UDCA discontinuation. Only mean fasting SBA at timepoint 1 increased significantly (P = .03) from timepoint 0 (2.26 μmol/L at time 0 and 3.81 μmol/L at time 1) but were not elevated above the normal reference interval (0-9 μmol/L). Two dogs had timepoint 1 fasting SBA above the reference interval (10 and 11.7 μmol/L). One dog had timepoint 1 postprandial SBA above the reference interval at 20.1 μmol/L (reference interval 0-17 μmol/L). Repeat SBA 72 hours after UDCA discontinuation were normal. Long-term administration of UDCA to healthy dogs may increase fasting SBA above pretreatment values (typically within the reference interval). Long-term administration of UDCA to healthy dogs does not alter liver enzyme activities, and bilirubin, cholesterol, or triglyceride concentrations. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. The relationship between antibiotic therapy in early childhood and the symptoms of allergy in children aged 6-8 years - the questionnaire study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciborski, Filip; Tomaszewska, Aneta; Komorowski, Jarosław; Samel-Kowalik, Piotr; Białoszewski, Artur Z; Walkiewicz, Artur; Lusawa, Adam; Szymański, Jakub; Opoczyńska, Dagmara; Drużba, Michał; Borowicz, Jacek; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Kapalczynski, Wojciech J; Samoliński, Bolesław

    2012-09-01

    Studies based on the ISAAC questionnaire suggest a correlation between the use of antibiotics and the prevalence of asthma and allergy in children aged 6-7 years. The number of courses of antibiotic therapy is an important factor. To investigate the relationship between the use of antibiotics during the first years of life and the prevalence of allergy and asthma among children (aged 6-8 years) in the urban population of Poland. A survey-based study with a self-completed questionnaire. The respondents were parents of children aged 6-8 years living in Warszawa, Poland. 1461 completed questionnaires were collected. Asthma was declared in 4.3% of the children. Wheezing and/or sibilant rhonchi within 12 months before the study was observed in 13.5% of the cases. Asthma medication was taken by 21.8% of the children. Allergic rhinitis was declared in 18.7% of the children. Problems with sneezing, rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion not associated with cold or fever were observed in 40.7% of the children. The analysis of the odds ratios between the use of antibiotics and the symptoms of allergic diseases revealed a clear correlation. The highest odds ratio was observed between the completion of over three courses of antibiotic therapy prior to the age of 12 months and the declaration of one of the following: asthma (OR = 5.59, 95% CI: 2.6-12.01), wheezing and/or sibilant rhonchi (OR = 4.68, 95% CI: 3.01-7.27) and taking medicines for breathlessness (OR = 5.12, 95% CI: 3.42-7.68). There is a direct relationship between antibiotic use in the first 3 years of life and asthma and allergy symptoms in children aged 6-8 years old.

  19. Preparation of 14C-labeled 8,9-didehydro-6,8-dimethyl-2-methylthioergoline mesylate, a dopamine antagonist potentially useful in the treatment of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    We have prepared 14 C-labeled 8,9-didehydro-6,8-dimethyl-2-methyl-thioergoline mesylate (LY 170542), a dopamine antagonist potentially useful as an anti-psychotic. The 14 C-label was introduced via a novel application of the Wittig reaction on 1-(4'-toluene-sulfonyl)-8,9-didehydro-6-methyl-ergolin-8-one and subsequent reduction of 1-(4'-toluenesulfonyl)-17-[ 14 C]-lysergene by lithium/ammonia at -33 0 C. The 17-[ 14 C]-agroclavine thus prepared was converted into 17-[ 14 C]-LY 170542 by reaction with methanesulfenyl chloride/methanesulfonic acid. (author)

  20. Burnout experiments with 6 x 6, 8 x 8 and 7 x 7 rod bundle test sections using freon as model fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulfs, H.; Katsaounis, A.; Minden, C.v.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports on burnout experiments at staedy state condition using Freon12 as model fluid. The experiments were carried out with three test sections with 6 x 6, 8 x 8 and 7 x 7 rod bundles. The axial flux distribution of the rods is either constant or reactor like. The transformed measured points using STEVENS and BOURE scaling factors to equivalent water conditions respectively, were compared to the burnout correlation W3 using the reactor layout program DYNAMIT. The DYNAMIT code is a thermohydraulic lay-out reactor program without consideration of mixing flow between the subchannels. (orig.) [de

  1. Radon anomalies precursory to the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Chengkung and 2006 Mw = 6.1 Taitung earthquakes in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, T.; Lin, C.; Fan, K.; Chang, G.; Lewis, C.; Han, Y.; Wu, Y.; Chen, W.; Tsai, C.

    2009-01-01

    Contrary to the normally observed increase in groundwater radon that occurs prior to earthquakes, we have measured anomalous decreases in radon concentration prior to the 2003 M W = 6.8 Chengkung and 2006 M W = 6.1 Taitung earthquakes that occurred within a 55 km radius from the Antung D1 monitoring well in eastern Taiwan. The v-shaped pattern of radon anomalies recognized at Antung is valuable for detecting the aseismic strain precursory to potentially disastrous earthquakes in a fractured aquifer surrounded by ductile aquitard in seismotectonic environments in this area.

  2. K2 and Spice use among a cohort of college students in southeast region of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kathleen L; Suerken, Cynthia K; Reboussin, Beth A; Spangler, John; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Sutfin, Erin L; Debinski, Beata; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    K2 and Spice consist of an herbal blend of plant matter and chemical synthetic cannabinoids. These substances emerged in the early 2000s as a popular alternative to marijuana among youth and young adults. This study sought to identify rates and correlates of K2 and Spice at college entry and first use during college. In Fall 2010, 3146 students at 11 colleges in North Carolina and Virginia were recruited to participate in a longitudinal cohort survey. The cohort was invited to participate in a total of six surveys over their college career. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with lifetime K2 and Spice use at college entry and first use during college, adjusting for clustering within schools and sample weights. Weighted lifetime prevalence of K2 and Spice use at college entry was 7.6%. An additional 6.6% of students reported first use during college. By the cohort's fourth year, 17.0% reported lifetime K2 and Spice use. While lifetime prevalence increased, past 6-month prevalence decreased substantially over time. K2 and Spice use at college entry was associated with sensation seeking; hookah, marijuana, and illicit drug use; and low religiosity. First use during college was associated with having a father with less than a four-year degree; alcohol and hookah use. Universities should ensure that prevention efforts address current substance use, including K2/Spice, and that treatment options are available for first year students who use substances.

  3. Determination of activation energies of K2YF5: Tb by the isothermal decay method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.A.; Azorin, J.; Khaidukov, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In the search of thermoluminescent materials (TL) for use in personal dosimetry, were studied different materials such as the lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti), the one which had been studied and used as reference material by their good equivalence with the tissue although has poor sensibility, this has generated the necessity to look for materials that show a considerable improvement as for their TL response. In this search the double fluorides as the double lithium potassium fluorides and yttrium doped with praseodymium (LiKYF 5 : Pr) and the double fluoride of potassium and yttrium doped with terbium (K 2 YF 5 : Tb) they show an alternative with many advantages, for their increase of the sensibility to the being doped with those rare earths in different percentages. In this investigation work was determined some dosimetric characteristics like they are the form of TL glow curve to be able to determine the TL property expressed by the kinetic parameters of the TL glow curve: Activation energy E t of the trapper states and the time of permanency in these metastates given by the preexponential factor s of the TL material: double fluoride of potassium and yttrium doped with terbium (K 2 YF 5 : Tb) to 0.8% and 0.99%. Also to this TL material it is characterized studying the TL response in function of the dose and the time of decay of the TL material. To determine the kinetic parameters of the TL glow curve of the TL materials these went one to one irradiated with a beta radiation source of 90 Sr/ 90 Y giving them a dose of 233 mGy for later to be heated in a lineal way during a certain time, with this the trapped electrons were liberated and the energy excess is emitted in light form. The registration of this light is known like it glow curves, those that were obtained with an analyzer TL Harshaw 4000, with interface to CPU for the handling of the data of the curves. The kinetic parameters of TL glow curve were determined for

  4. A new langbeinite-type phosphate: K2AlSn(PO43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, dipotassium aluminium tin(IV tris[phosphate(V], K2AlSn(PO43, were synthesized by a high temperature reaction in a platinum crucible. In the structure, the AlIII and SnIV atoms occupy the same site on a threefold rotation axis with occupational disorder in a 1:1 ratio. In the three-dimensional structure, Al/SnO6 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra are interconnected via their vertices, yielding a [Al/SnP3O12]n framework. The K atoms (site symmetry 3 reside in the large cavities delimited by the [Al/SnP3O12]n framework, and are surrounded by 12 O atoms.

  5. Chromium 51 em K2CrO4: reactions of dopant atoms in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valim, J.B.; Nascimento, R.L.G. do; Collins, C.H.; Collins, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    The study of the chemistry of 'dopant' 51 Cr(III) atoms in crystalline Cr(VI) compounds began as a sub-field of Hot Atom Chemistry. We shall review the attempts to use 'dopant' chromium-51 atoms as surrogate chromium recoil atoms with the special property of having a low-energy, recoil-dam-age-free history. These dopant atoms have shown behaviors very similar to those of high energy recoil 51 Gr atoms, thus offering little hope of learning about special damage site structures and reactions by behavioral differences. Recent work has shown that at least some of the 'dopant' 51 Cr(III) is present as a second, non-chromate solid phase in 'doped crystal' experiments. Monodisperse 51 Cr(OH) 3 particles mixed with pure K 2 CrO 4 are very reactive. (Author) [pt

  6. K2 Campaign 5 observations of pulsating subdwarf B stars: binaries and super-Nyquist frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. D.; Armbrecht, E. L.; Telting, J. H.; Baran, A. S.; Østensen, R. H.; Blay, Pere; Kvammen, A.; Kuutma, Teet; Pursimo, T.; Ketzer, L.; Jeffery, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery of three pulsating subdwarf B stars in binary systems observed with the Kepler space telescope during Campaign 5 of K2. EPIC 211696659 (SDSS J083603.98+155216.4) is a g-mode pulsator with a white dwarf companion and a binary period of 3.16 d. EPICs 211823779 (SDSS J082003.35+173914.2) and 211938328 (LB 378) are both p-mode pulsators with main-sequence F companions. The orbit of EPIC 211938328 is long (635 ± 146 d) while we cannot constrain that of EPIC 211823779. The p modes are near the Nyquist frequency and so we investigate ways to discriminate super- from sub-Nyquist frequencies. We search for rotationally induced frequency multiplets and all three stars appear to be slow rotators with EPIC 211696659 subsynchronous to its orbit.

  7. The K2-dwarf V471 TAU: a Stellar Version of Solar Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skumanich, A.; Young, A.

    1984-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of the rotational modulation with a 1/2 day period of chromospheric H alpha emission and of broadband irradiance for the K2-dwarf in V471 Tau are presented. The observations cover eight rotation periods but do not cover the full surface of the dwarf because of timing constraints. Preliminary results show a phase relation between enhanced chromospheric emission and continuum darkening similar to that observed on the Sun. A comparison with chromospheric Mg II resonance emission modulation observed about 2 1/4 years earlier by Guinan and Sion shows that the same active longitude is involved. This is either coincidental due to lucky phasing or it signifies a stable longitude that has persisted for hundreds of rotations.

  8. Spice/K2 drugs--more than innocent substitutes for marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Wojcieszak, Jakub

    2014-03-01

    Smokeable herbal mixtures containing synthetic agonists of cannabinoid receptors, known under brand names such as Spice, K2 and Kronic, represent a relatively new type of designer psychoactive drugs that has recently emerged on the recreational drug market. Although the Spice packages are labelled 'not for human consumption' or 'for aromatherapy only' and declared to be purely herbal, these herbal mixtures produce cannabis-like effects after smoking. This review surveys the current state of knowledge regarding the pharmacological properties of synthetic cannabimimetics and the prevalence and pattern of their use. Special emphasis is given to the negative consequences of using these products, including, among others, hallucinations, psychoses with delusions, seizures, cardiovascular symptoms and acute kidney injury.

  9. Soft-mode transition in the ferroelastic crystal K2Hg(CN)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, B.M.; Gerlach, P.N.

    1989-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering techniques have been used to investigate the structural transition from the paraelastic to the ferroelastic phase in K 2 Hg(CN) 4 . Several low-frequency phonon branches were measured along the high-symmetry directions and found to be almost independent of temperature. However, a particular low-lying branch along [111] was found to show a strong temperature dependence. The structure factor for this mode shows it to be a longitudinal, librational mode whose eigenvector specifies antiphase rotation of adjacent rigid cyanotetrahedra. This is in agreement with the change in the crystal structure observed at the transition by diffraction measurements. The frequency of this branch at the zone- boundary L point tended to zero at ∼101 K, thus showing the paraelastic to ferroelastic transition in this cyanospinel is a soft-mode transition. (author)

  10. K2-Dwarf V471 TAU: a stellar version of solar variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skumanich, A.; Young, A.

    1984-05-01

    Simultaneous observations of the rotational modulation with a 1/2 day period of chromospheric H alpha emission and of broadband irradiance for the K2-dwarf in V471 Tau are presented. The observations cover eight rotation periods but do not cover the full surface of the dwarf because of timing constraints. Preliminary results show a phase relation between enhanced chromospheric emission and continuum darkening similar to that observed on the Sun. A comparison with chromospheric Mg II resonance emission modulation observed about 2 1/4 years earlier by Guinan and Sion shows that the same active longitude is involved. This is either coincidental due to lucky phasing or it signifies a stable longitude that has persisted for hundreds of rotations

  11. The occurrence of planets and other substellar bodies around white dwarfs using K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sluijs, L.; Van Eylen, V.

    2018-03-01

    The majority of stars both host planetary systems and evolve into a white dwarf (WD). To understand their post-main-sequence planetary system evolution, we present a search for transiting/eclipsing planets and other substellar bodies (SBs) around WDs using a sample of 1148 WDs observed by K2. Using transit injections, we estimate the completeness of our search. We place constraints on the occurrence of planets and SBs around WDs as a function of planet radius and orbital period. For short-period (P sized to 1.5 R⊕, these are the strongest constraints known to date. We further constrain the occurrence of hot Jupiters ( Earth-sized planets ( < 28 per cent), and disintegrating short-period planets ( ˜ 12 per cent). We blindly recovered all previously known eclipsing objects, providing confidence in our analysis, and make all light curves publicly available.

  12. HII 2407: AN ECLIPSING BINARY REVEALED BY K2 OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLEIADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Trevor J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Zhang, Celia; Riddle, Reed L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stauffer, John; Rebull, L. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Conroy, Kyle; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Pope, Benjamin; Aigrain, Suzanne; Gillen, Ed [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Cameron, Andrew Collier [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Barrado, David [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Dpto. Astrofísica, ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Baranec, Christoph, E-mail: tjd@astro.caltech.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    The star HII 2407 is a member of the relatively young Pleiades star cluster and was previously discovered to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary. It is newly identified here within Kepler/K2 photometric time series data as an eclipsing binary system. Mutual fitting of the radial velocity and photometric data leads to an orbital solution and constraints on fundamental stellar parameters. While the primary has arrived on the main sequence, the secondary is still pre-main sequence and we compare our results for the M/M{sub ⊙} and R/R{sub ⊙} values with stellar evolutionary models. We also demonstrate that the system is likely to be tidally synchronized. Follow-up infrared spectroscopy is likely to reveal the lines of the secondary, allowing for dynamically measured masses and elevating the system to benchmark eclipsing binary status.

  13. Probing the TRAPPIST-1 System with K2, JWST, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Rodrigo; Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob; Agol, Eric; TRAPPIST-1 Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    I will discuss recent work I have done to characterize TRAPPIST-1, a nearby exoplanet system hosting seven terrestrial-size planets, three of which are in the habitable zone. In the first part of this talk, I will report on my efforts to constrain the orbital properties of the smallest and farthest out planet in the system, TRAPPIST-1h, from K2 data de-trended with my systematics correction pipeline, EVEREST. I will further discuss how the detection of TRAPPIST-1h with K2 confirmed the intricate resonant structure of the system, whose planets are all linked to their neighbors via three-body Laplace resonances. This is the longest known chain in any exoplanet system and holds important clues for the formation and migration of the TRAPPIST-1 planets. In the second part of this talk, I will discuss ongoing work to characterize the TRAPPIST-1 system via planet-planet occultations (PPOs), events during which one planet occults the disk of another, imparting a small photometric signal as its thermal or reflected light is blocked. Because of the extreme coplanarity of the system, PPOs should occur on average 1 - 2 times per day in TRAPPIST-1. I will discuss how the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will likely be able to detect PPOs in this system in the mid-infrared, and how these can be used to place exquisite constraints on the masses, eccentricities, and mutual inclinations of its planets. I will also show how photodynamical modeling of these events can eventually be used to reveal a planet's day/night temperature contrast, infer various atmospheric properties, and construct crude two-dimensional surface maps of alien worlds.

  14. Vitamin K2 improves proliferation and migration of bovine skeletal muscle cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Sissel Beate; Pedersen, Mona Elisabeth; Berg, Ragnhild Stenberg; Kirkhus, Bente; Rødbotten, Rune

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function is highly dependent on the ability to regenerate, however, during ageing or disease, the proliferative capacity is reduced, leading to loss of muscle function. We have previously demonstrated the presence of vitamin K2 in bovine skeletal muscles, but whether vitamin K has a role in muscle regulation and function is unknown. In this study, we used primary bovine skeletal muscle cells, cultured in monolayers in vitro, to assess a potential effect of vitamin K2 (MK-4) during myogenesis of muscle cells. Cell viability experiments demonstrate that the amount of ATP produced by the cells was unchanged when MK-4 was added, indicating viable cells. Cytotoxicity analysis show that MK-4 reduced the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into the media, suggesting that MK-4 was beneficial to the muscle cells. Cell migration, proliferation and differentiation was characterised after MK-4 incubation using wound scratch analysis, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR analysis. Adding MK-4 to the cells led to an increased muscle proliferation, increased gene expression of the myogenic transcription factor myod as well as increased cell migration. In addition, we observed a reduction in the fusion index and relative gene expression of muscle differentiation markers, with fewer complex myotubes formed in MK-4 stimulated cells compared to control cells, indicating that the MK-4 plays a significant role during the early phases of muscle proliferation. Likewise, we see the same pattern for the relative gene expression of collagen 1A, showing increased gene expression in proliferating cells, and reduced expression in differentiating cells. Our results also suggest that MK-4 incubation affect low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) with a peak in gene expression after 45 min of MK-4 incubation. Altogether, our experiments show that MK-4 has a positive effect on muscle cell migration and

  15. Subclinical atherosclerosis is linked to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth via vitamin K2-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Pompili, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Zocco, Maria Assunta; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Flore, Roberto

    2017-02-21

    To assess the rate of matrix Gla-protein carboxylation in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and to decipher its association with subclinical atherosclerosis. Patients with suspected SIBO who presented with a low risk for cardiovascular disease and showed no evidence of atherosclerotic plaques were included in the study. A glucose breath test was performed in order to confirm the diagnosis of SIBO and vascular assessment was carried out by ultrasound examination. Plasma levels of the inactive form of MGP (dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein) were quantified by ELISA and vitamin K2 intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Thirty-nine patients were included in the study. SIBO was confirmed in 12/39 (30.8%) patients who also presented with a higher concentration of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (9.5 μg/L vs 4.2 μg/L; P = 0.004). Arterial stiffness was elevated in the SIBO group (pulse-wave velocity 10.25 m/s vs 7.68 m/s; P = 0.002) and this phenomenon was observed to correlate linearly with the levels of dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (β = 0.220, R 2 = 0.366, P = 0.03). Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial calcifications were not observed to be significantly elevated as compared to controls. SIBO is associated with reduced matrix Gla-protein activation as well as arterial stiffening. Both these observations are regarded as important indicators of subclinical atherosclerosis. Hence, screening for SIBO, intestinal decontamination and supplementation with vitamin K2 has the potential to be incorporated into clinical practice as additional preventive measures.

  16. Antitumor effects of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Misuzu; Yokoyama, Fumi; Kita, Yuko; Nonomura, Takako; Masaki, Tsutomu; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hideyuki; Kinekawa, Fumihiko; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Uchida, Naohito; Watanabe, Seishiro; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2005-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that various K vitamins, specifically vitamins K2 and K3, possess antitumor activity on various types of rodent- and human-derived neoplastic cell lines. In the present study, we examined the antitumor effects of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 on PLC/PRF/5 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the mechanisms of antitumor actions of these vitamins in vitro and in vivo. Although vitamin K1 did not inhibit proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells at a 90-microM concentration (the highest tested), vitamins K2 and K3 suppressed proliferation of the cells at concentrations of 90 and 9 microM, respectively. By flow cytometric analysis, it was shown that not only vitamin K1, but also vitamin K2 did not induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest on PLC/PRF/5 cells. In contrast, vitamin K3 induced G1 arrest, but not apoptosis on PLC/PRF/5 cells. Subsequent in vivo study using subcutaneous HCC-bearing athymic nude mice demonstrated that both vitamins K2 and K3 markedly suppressed the growth of HCC tumors to similar extent. Protein expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), but not p16INK4a Cdk inhibitor in the tumor was significantly reduced by vitamin K2 or K3 treatment, indicating that vitamins K2 and K3 may induce G1 arrest of cell cycle on PLC/PRF/5 cells in vivo. Taken collectively, vitamins K2 and K3 were able to induce potent antitumor effects on HCC in vitro and in vivo, at least in part, by inducing G1 arrest of the cell cycle. The results indicate that vitamins K2 and K3 may be useful agents for the treatment of patients with HCC.

  17. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Baohong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Freitag, Christina M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Cheng Qiuqiong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@tiehh.ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC{sub 2}, EC{sub 5}, and EC{sub 95} were 47, 128, and 247 {mu}g/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 {mu}g/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 {mu}g/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 {mu}g/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching.

  18. Effect of two major N-nitroso hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on earthworm reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baohong; Cox, Stephen B.; McMurry, Scott T.; Jackson, W. Andrew; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.

    2008-01-01

    Soil and topical tests were employed to investigate the effect of two N-nitroso metabolites of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) on earthworm reproduction. The lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for cocoon production and hatching was 50 mg/kg for both hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) in soil. MNX and TNX also significantly affected cocoon hatching in soil (p 20 values for MNX were 8.7 and 8.8 mg/kg for cocoon and juvenile production, respectively, compared to 9.2 and 9.1 mg/kg for TNX, respectively. The EC 20 values for the total number of cocoon hatchlings were 3.1 and 4.7 mg/kg for MNX and TNX, respectively, in soil and 4.5 and 3.1 mg/L in the topical test. Both MNX and TNX inhibited cocoon production and hatching, suggesting that they may have a negative affect on soil ecosystems at contaminated sites. - RDX metabolites affect earthworm cocoon production and hatching

  19. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baohong; Freitag, Christina M.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Cheng Qiuqiong; Anderson, Todd A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC 2 , EC 5 , and EC 95 were 47, 128, and 247 μg/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 μg/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 μg/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 μg/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching

  20. Raman Spectroscopy evidence of 1:1:1 complex formation during dissolution of WO3 : K2SO4 in a melt of K2S2O7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Maijó Ferré, Irene

    2005-01-01

    The dissolution reaction of solid WO3 into a melt consisting of a 1:1 molar mixture of K2S2O7 and K2SO4 was studied by Raman spectroscopy. It was found that a new compound was formed, dimeric K8[(WO2)2(m-SO4)2(SO4)4]. The assigned Raman spectrum is given. Extended abstract of Poster presented...

  1. Development on UO3-K2O and MoO3-K2O binary systems and study of UO2MoO4-MoO3 domain within UO3-MoO3-K2O ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, C.; Noel, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper confirms the previous study on the MoO 3 -K 2 O system, and constitutes a clarity of the UO 3 -K 2 O system. Four distinct uranates VI with alkaline metal/uranium ratio's 2, 1, 0,5 and 0,285 exist. Preparation conditions and powder diffraction spectra of these compounds are given. Additional informations relative to K 2 MoO 4 allotropic transformations are provided. Study of UO 2 MoO 4 -K 2 MoO 4 diagram has brought three new phases into prominence: (B) K 6 UMo 4 O 18 incongruently melting point, (E) K 2 UMo 2 O 10 congruently melting and (F) K 2 U 3 Mo 4 O 22 incongruently melting point. Within MoO 3 -K 2 MoO 4 -UO 2 MoO 4 ternary system, no new phase is found. The general appearance of ternary liquidus and crystallization fields of several compounds are given. These three new compounds become identified with these of UO 2 MoO 4 -Na 2 MoO 4 binary system [fr

  2. 9-{[4-(Dimethylaminobenzyl]amino}-5-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-5,5a,8a,9-tetrahydrofuro[3′,4′:6,7]naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-6(8H-one methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C30H32N2O7·CH4O, the tetrahydrofuran ring and the six-membered ring fused to it both display envelope conformations, with the ring C atom opposite the carbonyl group and the adjacent bridgehead C atom as the flaps, respectively. In the crystal structure, intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link all moieties into ribbons along [010]. Weak intermolecular C—H...O interactions consolidate the crystal packing further.

  3. Silicon electrodeposition from chloride-fluoride melts containing K2SiF6 and SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuk Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon electrodeposition on glassy carbon from the KF-KCl-K2SiF6, KF-KCl-K2SiF6-KOH and KF-KCl-K2SiF6-SiO2 melts was studied by the cyclic voltammetry. Тhe electroreduction of Si(IV to metallic Si was observed as a single 4-electron wave under all considered conditions. The reactions of cathode reduction of silicon from fluoride and oxyfluoride complexes were suggested. It was shown that the process can be controlled by the preliminary transformation of SiO44- to SiF62- and SiOxFyz-. The influence of the current density on structure and morphology of silicon deposits obtained during galvanostatic electrolysis of the KF-KCl-K2SiF6-SiO2 melt was studied.

  4. Synergies Between the Kepler, K2 and TESS Missions with the PLATO Mission (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    Two transit survey missions will have been flown by NASA prior to the launch of ESA's PLATO Mission in 2026, laying the groundwork for exoplanet discovery via the transit method. The Kepler Mission, which launched in 2009, collected data on its 100+ square degree field of view for four years before failure of a reaction wheel ended its primary mission. The results from Kepler include 2300+ confirmed or validated exoplanets, 2200+ planetary candidates, 2100+ eclipsing binaries. Kepler also revolutionized the field of asteroseismology by measuring the pressure mode oscillations of over 15000 solar-like stars spanning the lifecycle of such stars from hydrogen-burning dwarfs to helium-burning red giants. The re-purposed Kepler Mission, dubbed K2, continues to observe fields of view in and near the ecliptic plane for 80 days each, significantly broadening the scope of the astrophysical investigations as well as discovering an additional 156 exoplanets to date. The TESS mission will launch in 2017 to conduct an all-sky survey for small exoplanets orbiting stars 10X closer and 100X brighter than Kepler exoplanet host stars, allowing for far greater follow-up and characterization of their masses as well as their sizes for at least 50 small planets. Future assets such as James Webb Space Telescope, and ground-based assets such as ESOs Very Large Telescope (VLT) array, the Exremely Large Telescope (ELT), and the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be able to characterize the atmospheric composition and properties of these small planets. TESS will observe each 24 X 96 field of view for 30 days and thereby cover first the southern and then the northern hemisphere over 13 pointings during each year of the primary mission. The pole-most camera will observe the James Webb continuous viewing zone for one year in each hemisphere, permitting much longer period planets to be detected in this region. The PLATO mission will seek to detect habitable Earth-like planets with an instrument

  5. High-yield expression in Escherichia coli, purification and application of budding yeast K2 killer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoliankaitė, Monika; Lukša, Juliana; Vyšniauskis, Gintautas; Sereikaitė, Jolanta; Melvydas, Vytautas; Serva, Saulius; Servienė, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae K2 toxin is a highly active extracellular protein, important as a biocontrol agent for biotechnological applications in the wine industry. This protein is produced at negligible levels in yeast, making difficult to isolate it in amounts sufficient for investigation and generation of analysis tools. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a bacterial system for expression of the recombinant K2 protein, suitable for generation of antibodies specific for toxin of the yeast origin. Synthesis of the full-length S. cerevisiae K2 preprotoxin in Escherichia coli was found to be toxic to the host cell, resulting in diminished growth. Such effect was abolished by the introduction of the C-terminal truncation into K2 protein, directing it into non-toxic inclusion body fraction. The obtained protein is of limited solubility thus, facilitating the purification by simple and efficient chromatography-free procedure. The protein aggregates were successfully refolded into a soluble form yielding sufficient amounts of a tag-less truncated K2 protein suitable for polyclonal antibody production. Antibodies were raised in rabbit and found to be specific for detection of both antigen and native S. cerevisiae K2 toxin.

  6. Something more to say about calcium homeostasis: the role of vitamin K2 in vascular calcification and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, R; Ponziani, F R; Di Rienzo, T A; Zocco, M A; Flex, A; Gerardino, L; Lupascu, A; Santoro, L; Santoliquido, A; Di Stasio, E; Chierici, E; Lanti, A; Tondi, P; Gasbarrini, A

    2013-09-01

    Vascular calcification and osteoporosis share similar etiopathogenetic mechanisms. Vitamin K2 deficiency could be responsible of the so called "calcium paradox", that is the lack of calcium in the bone and its storage in the vessel wall. These events may have clinically relevant consequences, such as cardiovascular accidents, and bone fractures. To review the biological function of vitamin K2 metabolism, the main factors related to its deficiency and the consequent clinical significance. Vitamin K2 is essential for the function of several proteins, involved in the maintenance of the normal structure of arterial wall, osteoarticular system, teeth, and for the regulation of cell growth. It has been demonstrated to have a pivotal role in the inhibition of vascular foci of calcification, and in the regulation of calcium deposition in the bone. Vitamin K2 deficiency is often subclinic in a large part of healthy population. This deficiency is related to the interaction of various factors, such as the reduced dietary intake, the alteration of intestinal absorption or production, with a possible role of intestinal microbiota and the increased consumption at the vessel wall. Vitamin K2 deficiency has recently been recognized as a protagonist in the development of vascular calcification and osteoporosis. Data reported so far are promising and, dietary supplementation seems a useful tool to contrast these diseases. However, large studies or solid clinical correlations regarding vitamin K2 deficiency and its pathologic consequences are needed to confirm these preliminary experiences.

  7. A fast-evolving luminous transient discovered by K2/Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rest, A.; Garnavich, P. M.; Khatami, D.; Kasen, D.; Tucker, B. E.; Shaya, E. J.; Olling, R. P.; Mushotzky, R.; Zenteno, A.; Margheim, S.; Strampelli, G.; James, D.; Smith, R. C.; Förster, F.; Villar, V. A.

    2018-04-01

    For decades, optical time-domain searches have been tuned to find ordinary supernovae, which rise and fall in brightness over a period of weeks. Recently, supernova searches have improved their cadences and a handful of fast-evolving luminous transients have been identified1-5. These have peak luminosities comparable to type Ia supernovae, but rise to maximum in less than ten days and fade from view in less than one month. Here we present the most extreme example of this class of object thus far: KSN 2015K, with a rise time of only 2.2 days and a time above half-maximum of only 6.8 days. We show that, unlike type Ia supernovae, the light curve of KSN 2015K was not powered by the decay of radioactive elements. We further argue that it is unlikely that it was powered by continuing energy deposition from a central remnant (a magnetar or black hole). Using numerical radiation hydrodynamical models, we show that the light curve of KSN 2015K is well fitted by a model where the supernova runs into external material presumably expelled in a pre-supernova mass-loss episode. The rapid rise of KSN 2015K therefore probes the venting of photons when a hypersonic shock wave breaks out of a dense extended medium.

  8. Assessing the Effectiveness of a Mathematics-Focused, Instructional Technology Program for Grades 6-8: A 5-Year Trend Analysis of NASA CONNECT(tm) Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Nanci A.; Perry, Jeannine B.; Giersch, Christopher E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a research-, inquiry, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6 8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the series over the first five seasons (1998-99 through 2002-03) reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for the grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  9. An evaluation of the Kinect-Ed presentation, a motivating nutrition and cooking intervention for young adolescents in grades 6-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarossa, Sara; Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2015-09-01

    Recently, public health messaging has included having more family meals and involving young adolescents (YAs) with meal preparation to improve healthful diets and family dinner frequency (FDF). Kinect-Ed, a motivational nutrition education presentation was created to encourage YAs (grades 6-8) to help with meal preparation and ultimately improve FDF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Kinect-Ed presentation, with the goals of the presentation being to improve self-efficacy for cooking (SE), food preparation techniques (TECH), food preparation frequency (PREP), family meal attitudes and behaviours, and ultimately increase FDF. A sample of YAs (n = 219) from Southern Ontario, Canada, completed pre- and postpresentation surveys, measuring FDF, PREP, SE, and TECH. Kinect-Ed successfully improved participants' FDF (p prepare meals and get involved in the kitchen may reduce the time needed from parents to prepare meals, and, in turn, allow more time for frequent family dinners.

  10. Peripheral bone mineral density and different intensities of physical activity in children 6-8 years old: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, H; Karlsson, K M; Hansen, S E

    2007-01-01

    -stimulating physical activity, we evaluated different definitions of vigorous physical activity. The boys had 3.2% higher distal forearm bone mineral content (BMC, P girls. They also carried out 9.7% more daily physical activity and spent 14.6-19.0% more...... time in vigorous physical activity (all P girls. In contrast, the girls had 3.8% higher calcaneal BMC (P boys. Both calcaneal and forearm BMD were significantly related to total time of daily physical activity as well......This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured habitual physical activity and calcaneal and forearm bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), one mechanically more loaded and one less loaded skeletal region, in children aged 6-8 years. BMD was measured in 297 boys and 265...

  11. The K 2S 2O 8-KOH photoetching system for GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyher, J. L.; Tichelaar, F. D.; van Dorp, D. H.; Kelly, J. J.; Khachapuridze, A.

    2010-09-01

    A recently developed photoetching system for n-type GaN, a KOH solution containing the strong oxidizing agent potassium peroxydisulphate (K 2S 2O 8), was studied in detail. By careful selection of the etching parameters, such as the ratio of components and the hydrodynamics, two distinct modes were defined: defect-selective etching (denoted by KSO-D) and polishing (KSO-P). Both photoetching methods can be used under open-circuit (electroless) conditions. Well-defined dislocation-related etch whiskers are formed during KSO-D etching. All types of dislocations are revealed, and this was confirmed by cross-sectional TEM examination of the etched samples. Extended electrically active defects are also clearly revealed. The known relationship between etch rate and carrier concentration for photoetching of GaN in KOH solutions was confirmed for KSO-D etch using Raman measurements. It is shown that during KSO-P etching diffusion is the rate-limiting step, i.e. this etch is suitable for polishing of GaN. Some constraints of the KSO etching system for GaN are discussed and peculiar etch features, so far not understood, are described.

  12. [Synthesis of vitamin K2 by isopentenyl transferase NovA in Pichia pastoris Gpn12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xihua; Li, Zhemin; Liu, Hui; Wang, Peng; Wang, Li; Fang, Xue; Sun, Xiaowen; Ni, Wenfeng; Yang, Qiang; Zheng, Zhiming; Zhao, Genhai

    2018-01-25

    The effect of methanol addition on the heterologous expression of isoprenyl transferase NovQ was studied in Pichia pastoris Gpn12, with menadione and isopentenol as precursors to catalyze vitamin K2 (MK-3) synthesis. The expression of NovQ increased by 36% when 2% methanol was added every 24 h. The influence of initial pH, temperature, methanol addition, precursors (menadione, isopentenol) addition, catalytic time and cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) addition were explored in the P. pastoris whole-cell catalytic synthesis process of MK-3 in shaking flask. Three significant factors were then studied by response surface method. The optimal catalytic conditions obtained were as follows: catalytic temperature 31.56 ℃, menadione 295.54 mg/L, catalytic time 15.87 h. Consistent with the response surface prediction results, the optimized yield of MK-3 reached 98.47 mg/L in shaking flask, 35% higher than that of the control group. On this basis, the production in a 30-L fermenter reached 189.67 mg/L when the cell catalyst of 220 g/L (dry weight) was used to catalyze the synthesis for 24 h. This method laid the foundation for the large-scale production of MK-3 by P. pastoris Gpn12.

  13. An Analysis of Pulsating Subdwarf B Star EPIC 203948264 Observed During Campaign 2 of K2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketzer Laura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary analysis of the newly–discovered pulsating subdwarf B (sdB star EPIC 203948264. The target was observed for 83 days in short cadence mode during Campaign 2 of K2, the two–gyro mission of the Kepler space telescope. A time–series analysis of the data revealed 22 independent pulsation frequencies in the g–mode region ranging from 100 to 600 μHz (0:5 to 2:8 hours. The main method we use to identify pulsation modes is asymptotic period spacing, and we were able to assign all but one of the pulsations to either l = 1 or l = 2. The average period spacings of both sequences are 261:34 ± 0.78 s and 151:18 ± 0.34 s, respectively. The pulsation amplitudes range from 0.77 ppt down to the detection limit at 0.212 ppt, and are not stable over the duration of the campaign. We detected one possible low–amplitude, l = 2, rotationally split multiplet, which allowed us to constrain the rotation period to 46 days or longer. This makes EPIC 203948264 another slowly rotating sdB star.

  14. ROTATION PERIODS OF YOUNG BROWN DWARFS: K2 SURVEY IN UPPER SCORPIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Alexander [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kostov, Veselin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Jayawardhana, Ray [Faculty of Science, York University, 355 Lumbers Building, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P2 (Canada); Mužić, Koraljka, E-mail: as110@st-andrews.ac.uk [Nucleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-08-20

    We report rotational periods for 16 young brown dwarfs in the nearby Upper Scorpius association, based on 72 days of high-cadence, high-precision photometry from the Keplerspace telescope’s K2 mission. The periods range from a few hours to two days (plus one outlier at five days), with a median just above one day, confirming that brown dwarfs, except at the very youngest ages, are fast rotators. Interestingly, four of the slowest rotators in our sample exhibit mid-infrared excess emission from disks; at least two also show signs of disk eclipses and accretion in the light curves. Comparing these new periods with those for two other young clusters and simple angular momentum evolution tracks, we find little or no rotational braking in brown dwarfs between 1–10 Myr, in contrast to low-mass stars. Our findings show that disk braking, while still at work, is inefficient in the substellar regime, thus providing an important constraint on the mass dependence of the braking mechanism.

  15. Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2 , Herschel , and Spitzer Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Marton, G.; Szakáts, R.; Kiss, L. L. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Mommert, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Müller, T., E-mail: farkas.aniko@csfk.mta.hu [Max-Plank-Institut für extraterrestrsiche Pyhsik, Garching (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present visible-range light curves of the irregular Uranian satellites Sycorax, Caliban, Prospero, Ferdinand, and Setebos taken with the Kepler Space Telescope over the course of the K2 mission. Thermal emission measurements obtained with the Herschel /PACS and Spitzer /MIPS instruments of Sycorax and Caliban were also analyzed and used to determine size, albedo, and surface characteristics of these bodies. We compare these properties with the rotational and surface characteristics of irregular satellites in other giant planet systems and also with those of main belt and Trojan asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. Our results indicate that the Uranian irregular satellite system likely went through a more intense collisional evolution than the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Surface characteristics of Uranian irregular satellites seem to resemble the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects more than irregular satellites around other giant planets, suggesting the existence of a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system inside the orbit of Uranus.

  16. Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2, Herschel, and Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Marton, G.; Mommert, M.; Szakáts, R.; Müller, T.; Kiss, L. L.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present visible-range light curves of the irregular Uranian satellites Sycorax, Caliban, Prospero, Ferdinand, and Setebos taken with the Kepler Space Telescope over the course of the K2 mission. Thermal emission measurements obtained with the Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS instruments of Sycorax and Caliban were also analyzed and used to determine size, albedo, and surface characteristics of these bodies. We compare these properties with the rotational and surface characteristics of irregular satellites in other giant planet systems and also with those of main belt and Trojan asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. Our results indicate that the Uranian irregular satellite system likely went through a more intense collisional evolution than the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Surface characteristics of Uranian irregular satellites seem to resemble the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects more than irregular satellites around other giant planets, suggesting the existence of a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system inside the orbit of Uranus.

  17. ROTATION PERIODS OF YOUNG BROWN DWARFS: K2 SURVEY IN UPPER SCORPIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, Alexander; Kostov, Veselin; Jayawardhana, Ray; Mužić, Koraljka

    2015-01-01

    We report rotational periods for 16 young brown dwarfs in the nearby Upper Scorpius association, based on 72 days of high-cadence, high-precision photometry from the Keplerspace telescope’s K2 mission. The periods range from a few hours to two days (plus one outlier at five days), with a median just above one day, confirming that brown dwarfs, except at the very youngest ages, are fast rotators. Interestingly, four of the slowest rotators in our sample exhibit mid-infrared excess emission from disks; at least two also show signs of disk eclipses and accretion in the light curves. Comparing these new periods with those for two other young clusters and simple angular momentum evolution tracks, we find little or no rotational braking in brown dwarfs between 1–10 Myr, in contrast to low-mass stars. Our findings show that disk braking, while still at work, is inefficient in the substellar regime, thus providing an important constraint on the mass dependence of the braking mechanism

  18. Characterization of Low-mass K2 planet hosts using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Romy; Ballard, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The raw number of discovered exoplanets now exceeds several thousand, but we must understand the stars if we aim to understand their planets in detail. Of particular interest are M dwarf stars, which are often favored for exoplanet study because (1) they host small planets in greatest abundance, (2) they make up about 70% of stars in our galaxy, and (3) the planets that orbit them that are comparatively easier to find and study than planets around larger stars. Our work aims to characterize the infrared spectra of 50 M dwarfs with new and unstudied transiting planets discovered by NASA’s K2 Mission. We employ empirical relations from the literature with magnesium, aluminum and sodium absorption lines in H and K band to determine the temperatures, radii and luminosities. In addition, we measure the deformation of the spectra in K band by water (another empirical metric for M dwarfs) which, in tandem with absorption features, is linked to [Fe/H] metallicity. We have found from a preliminary sample of 36 stars, that the temperatures range from 2,900 to 4,100 K, with radii between 0.2 R⊙ to 0.6R⊙ and log(L/L⊙) values from -3.4 to -0.5. The determination of all these properties improves our understanding of the planet’s properties, such as its size, mass, and surface temperature, and provides clues about the formation of the star and its planets.

  19. The incommensurable phase of K2SeO4 studied by means of EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, M.S.S.

    1988-11-01

    The EPR technique was used to study SeO - 4 in K 2 SeO 4 in the temperature range of 130-93K where the crystal presents an incommensurable phase, characterized by the wave vector q-vector = (1 - δ) a * /3. By fitting of line form with EPR the β parameter (critical exponent) could be determined. The found values were: β = 0.33 +- 0.03 and 2 β = 0.58 +- 0.06. A summary of the experimental values of β found in literature is presented. The mean value of these measurements β = 0.347 +- 0.03 fits to the calculated value β = 0.3455 +- 0.0020 for the 3d XY model. It was possible to detect a change in the modulation of the plane wave regime to multisoliton regime through the δ parameter obtained also by fitting of line form. This parameter is related to soliton density (n s ), ''lock-in'' incommensurable transition order parameter. Close to T c , n s does not follow theoretical predictions and saturates in a value different than zero. This result was interpreted as due to mesh defects which fix phase modulation and create metastable states that may lead to a chaotic state between the multisolitons phase and ''lock-in'' phase. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  20. Cryogenic test of the 4 K / 2 K insert for the ARIEL e-Linac cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Ma, Y.; Harmer, P.; Kishi, D.; Koveshnikov, A.; Muller, N.; Vrielink, A.; O'Brien, M.; Ahammed, M.

    2014-01-01

    The ARIEL project at TRIUMF requires a 50 MeV superconducting electron linac consisting of five nine cell 1.3 GHz cavities divided into three cryomodules with one, two and two cavities in each module respectively. LHe is distributed in parallel to each module at 4 K and at ∼1.2 bar. Each module has a cryogenic insert on board that receives the 4 K liquid and produces 2 K into a cavity phase separator. The module combines a 4 K phase separator, a plate and fin heat exchanger from DATE and a J-T valve expanding into the 2 K phase separator. The unit also supplies 4 K liquid to thermal intercepts in the module in siphon loops that return the vaporized liquid to the 4 K reservoir. For testing purposes the unit is outfitted with a dummy 2 K phase separator and thermal intercepts with variable heaters that mimic the final heat loads in order to test the cryogenic performance. The design of the 4 K / 2 K insert, the results of the cold tests and a summary of the test infrastructure including cryogenics services will be presented

  1. Cryogenic test of the 4 K / 2 K insert for the ARIEL e-Linac cryomodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Ma, Y.; Harmer, P.; Kishi, D.; Koveshnikov, A.; Muller, N.; Vrielink, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); O' Brien, M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Ahammed, M. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkata (India)

    2014-01-29

    The ARIEL project at TRIUMF requires a 50 MeV superconducting electron linac consisting of five nine cell 1.3 GHz cavities divided into three cryomodules with one, two and two cavities in each module respectively. LHe is distributed in parallel to each module at 4 K and at ∼1.2 bar. Each module has a cryogenic insert on board that receives the 4 K liquid and produces 2 K into a cavity phase separator. The module combines a 4 K phase separator, a plate and fin heat exchanger from DATE and a J-T valve expanding into the 2 K phase separator. The unit also supplies 4 K liquid to thermal intercepts in the module in siphon loops that return the vaporized liquid to the 4 K reservoir. For testing purposes the unit is outfitted with a dummy 2 K phase separator and thermal intercepts with variable heaters that mimic the final heat loads in order to test the cryogenic performance. The design of the 4 K / 2 K insert, the results of the cold tests and a summary of the test infrastructure including cryogenics services will be presented.

  2. Structure determination of K2ZnBr4 at 291 and 144 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, J.; Breczewski, T.; Zuniga, F.J.; Arnaiz, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The room-temperature phase of K 2 ZnBr 4 is isomorphous with Sr 2 GeS 4 (P2 1 /m) while the low-temperature structure (P2 1 ) is slightly distorted [the phase transition occurs at 155 K]. Both structures contain highly deformed tetrahedral [ZnBr 4 ] 2- molecules with Br(3)-Zn-Br(3') angles of 103.06(5) and 102.49(9) at 291 and 144 K, respectively. This distortion is caused by the repulsion of Br atoms whose distance 3.712(1) and 3.661(2) A at 291 and 144 K, respectively, is below the Br-Br van der Waals distance (3.9 A). The phase transition is accompanied by minor shifts of cations and [ZnBr 4 ] 2- tetrahedra which are simultaneously rotated about a small angle. Below the phase transition point an inversion twin develops whose twin-fraction parameter was refined to 0.459(65). (orig.)

  3. Comparison of two new angiogenesis PET tracers 68Ga-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)]2 and 64Cu-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)]2; in vivo imaging studies in human xenograft tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxbøl, Jytte; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Schjøth-Eskesen, Christina

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to synthesize and perform a side-by-side comparison of two new tumor-angiogenesis PET tracers (68)Ga-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)](2) and (64)Cu-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)](2) in vivo using human xenograft tumors in mice. Human radiation burden was estimated to evaluate...... potential for future use as clinical PET tracers for imaging of neo-angiogenesis. METHODS: A (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator was used for the synthesis of (68)Ga-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)](2). (68)Ga and (64)Cu labeled NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)](2) tracers were administrated in nude mice bearing either human glioblastoma (U87MG......) or human neuroendocrine (H727) xenograft tumors. PET/CT scans at 3 time points were used for calculating the tracer uptake in tumors (%ID/g), integrin αVβ3 target specificity was shown by blocking with cold NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)](2), and biodistribution in normal organs were also examined. From biodistribution...

  4. The ClC-K2 Chloride Channel Is Critical for Salt Handling in the Distal Nephron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, J Christopher; Andrini, Olga; Picard, Nicolas; Paulais, Marc; Huebner, Antje K; Cayuqueo, Irma Karen Lopez; Bignon, Yohan; Keck, Mathilde; Cornière, Nicolas; Böhm, David; Jentsch, Thomas J; Chambrey, Régine; Teulon, Jacques; Hübner, Christian A; Eladari, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Chloride transport by the renal tubule is critical for blood pressure (BP), acid-base, and potassium homeostasis. Chloride uptake from the urinary fluid is mediated by various apical transporters, whereas basolateral chloride exit is thought to be mediated by ClC-Ka/K1 and ClC-Kb/K2, two chloride channels from the ClC family, or by KCl cotransporters from the SLC12 gene family. Nevertheless, the localization and role of ClC-K channels is not fully resolved. Because inactivating mutations in ClC-Kb/K2 cause Bartter syndrome, a disease that mimics the effects of the loop diuretic furosemide, ClC-Kb/K2 is assumed to have a critical role in salt handling by the thick ascending limb. To dissect the role of this channel in detail, we generated a mouse model with a targeted disruption of the murine ortholog ClC-K2. Mutant mice developed a Bartter syndrome phenotype, characterized by renal salt loss, marked hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Patch-clamp analysis of tubules isolated from knockout (KO) mice suggested that ClC-K2 is the main basolateral chloride channel in the thick ascending limb and in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Accordingly, ClC-K2 KO mice did not exhibit the natriuretic response to furosemide and exhibited a severely blunted response to thiazide. We conclude that ClC-Kb/K2 is critical for salt absorption not only by the thick ascending limb, but also by the distal convoluted tubule. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Yeast β-1,6-glucan is a primary target for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae K2 toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukša, Juliana; Podoliankaitė, Monika; Vepštaitė, Iglė; Strazdaitė-Žielienė, Živilė; Urbonavičius, Jaunius; Servienė, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Certain Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains secrete different killer proteins of double-stranded-RNA origin. These proteins confer a growth advantage to their host by increasing its survival. K2 toxin affects the target cell by binding to the cell surface, disrupting the plasma membrane integrity, and inducing ion leakage. In this study, we determined that K2 toxin saturates the yeast cell surface receptors in 10 min. The apparent amount of K2 toxin, bound to a single cell of wild type yeast under saturating conditions, was estimated to be 435 to 460 molecules. It was found that an increased level of β-1,6-glucan directly correlates with the number of toxin molecules bound, thereby impacting the morphology and determining the fate of the yeast cell. We observed that the binding of K2 toxin to the yeast surface receptors proceeds in a similar manner as in case of the related K1 killer protein. It was demonstrated that the externally supplied pustulan, a poly-β-1,6-glucan, but not the glucans bearing other linkage types (such as laminarin, chitin, and pullulan) efficiently inhibits the K2 toxin killing activity. In addition, the analysis of toxin binding to the intact cells and spheroplasts confirmed that majority of K2 protein molecules attach to the β-1,6-glucan, rather than the plasma membrane-localized receptors. Taken together, our results reveal that β-1,6-glucan is a primary target of K2 toxin and is important for the execution of its killing property. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Physical and chemical properties of MgO ceramics treated in molten K2SO4 for a long period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasa, Mikio; Kose, Saburo; Korenaga, Sadayoshi; Furukawa, Mitsuhiko.

    1978-01-01

    The wall materials of MHD power generating channel are exposed to thermally, physically and chemically severe conditions, so that they have to withstand great damages, especially the attack of seed materials. Several kinds of ceramics proposed as the wall materials have been tested in the simulated MHD environment. In this paper, MgO ceramics were treated in molten K 2 SO 4 , a typical seed material, and the changes in their physical and chemical properties were investigated in comparison with those of Al 2 O 3 ceramics. four kinds of MgO ceramics, three sintered and one electric fused, were immersed in molten K 2 SO 4 at 1300 0 C for the periods up to 1000 h, and weight, volume, surface roughness, bending strength and hardness were measured. The changes in the microstructures and chemical compositions due to the K 2 SO 4 treatment were also investigated. MgO ceramics were attacked by molten K 2 SO 4 only at the grain boundaries on the surface, in contrast at Al 2 O 3 ceramics which were severely damaged to form β-Al 2 O 3 . It was found that SiO 2 and CaO in the grain boundaries had played important roles to the attack of K 2 SO 4 . Generally, the changes in the properties of MgO ceramics by the K 2 SO 4 treatment were very small compared with those of Al 2 O 3 ceramics. It was concluded that MgO ceramics are more stable than Al 2 O 3 ceramics in molten K 2 SO 4 and their properties do not show substantial drops for long periods. (author)

  7. Resonance Raman investigation of the radical cation of 1,3,5-hexatriene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keszhelyi, T.; Wilbrandt, R.; Cave, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrum of the 1,3,5-hexatriene radical cation generated by gamma-irradiation in a Freon glass is reported. The spectrum is excited at 395 nm in resonance with the second absorption band. Identical spectra are obtained from ionized (E)- and (Z)-1,3,5-hexatriene. The presence...

  8. Synthesis and inhibitory effect on photosynthetic electron transport of 1,3,5-triazinylcarboxylic acid derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujimori, A.; Ikeda, Y.; Okano, R.; Hiraki, M.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Boger, P.; Kohno, H.; Wakabayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    This study relates to the modification of 2-benzylamino-4-methyl-6-trifluoromethyl-1,3,5-triazine. New 1,3,5-triazine compounds with an electron-withdrawing carboxyl group, e.g. ester group, substituted for the trifluoromethyl group, were synthesized and assayed for activity to inhibit

  9. New Low-mass Eclipsing Binary Systems in Praesepe Discovered by K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Edward; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; David, Trevor J.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Rebull, Luisa; Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Queloz, Didier

    2017-11-01

    We present the discovery and characterization of four low-mass (Msystems in the sub-Gyr old Praesepe open cluster using Kepler/K2 time series photometry and Keck/HIRES spectroscopy. We present a new Gaussian process EB model, GP-EBOP, as well as a method of simultaneously determining effective temperatures and distances for EBs. Three of the reported systems (AD 3814, AD 2615 and AD 1508) are detached and double-lined, and precise solutions are presented for the first two. We determine masses and radii to 1%-3% precision for AD 3814 and to 5%-6% for AD 2615. Together with effective temperatures determined to ˜50 K precision, we test the PARSEC v1.2 and BHAC15 stellar evolution models. Our EB parameters are more consistent with the PARSEC models, primarily because the BHAC15 temperature scale is hotter than our data over the mid-M-dwarf mass range probed. Both ADs 3814 and 2615, which have orbital periods of 6.0 and 11.6 days, are circularized but not synchronized. This suggests that either synchronization proceeds more slowly in fully convective stars than the theory of equilibrium tides predicts, or magnetic braking is currently playing a more important role than tidal forces in the spin evolution of these binaries. The fourth system (AD 3116) comprises a brown dwarf transiting a mid-M-dwarf, which is the first such system discovered in a sub-Gyr open cluster. Finally, these new discoveries increase the number of characterized EBs in sub-Gyr open clusters by 20% (40%) below M< 1.5 M ⊙ (M< 0.6 M ⊙).

  10. Possible Presence of a Third Body in the Kepler K2 Variable EPIC 202073314

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, K.; Malu, S.; Choi, C. S.; Vivekananda Rao, P.

    2018-04-01

    We report the presence of an unseen third-body companion in a low-mass-ratio deep contact binary system Kepler K2 EPIC 202073314 as seen by the presence of the light time effect (LITE) on the O–C diagram. The system is found to be exhibiting an increasing period trend along with a sinusoidal behavior of the O–C residuals owing to the LITE variations. The residuals are modeled initially assuming a circular orbit to obtain a third-body orbital period of ∼9.75 years. We further performed a rigorous analysis by allowing the eccentricity to vary, which led to a third-body orbital period of ∼8.66 years with e 3 = 0.51. We also report the photometric study of this variable. The system is found to have a mass ratio of ∼0.15 with an inclination of ∼77°. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed to verify the consistency of the obtained photometric solution. The system is considered to be in significant geometrical contact as seen by the high fill-out factor of ∼57%. Magnetic inactivity of the system is understood in terms of the absence of O’ Connell effect and lack of fill-in effect in the Hα spectral line. The dynamical state of the system is discussed in terms of the Hut’s stability criteria (\\tfrac{{J}spin}}{{J}orb}}=\\tfrac{1}{3}) as the low-mass and high fill-out factor configuration of the system makes it a promising candidate in the context of stellar mergers. Assuming conservative mass transfer, the system is expected to meet the critical mass ratio of ∼0.07–0.09 in ∼106 years.

  11. Spots and activity of Pleiades stars from observations with the Kepler Space Telescope (K2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanov, I. S.; Dmitrienko, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    Observations of the K2 continuation of Kepler Space Telescope program are used to estimate the spot coverage S (the fractional spotted area on the surface of an active star) for stars of the Pleiades cluster. The analysis is based on data on photometric variations of 759 confirmed clustermembers, together with their atmospheric parameters, masses, and rotation periods. The relationship between the activity ( S) of these Pleiades stars and their effective temperatures shows considerable change in S for stars with temperatures T eff less than 6100 K (this can be considered the limiting value for which spot formation activity begins) and a monotonic increase in S for cooler objects (a change in the slope for stars with Teff 3700 K). The scatter in this parameter ΔS about its mean dependence on the (V -Ks)0 color index remains approximately the same over the entire ( V- K s )0 range, including cool, fully convective dwarfs. The computated S values do not indicate differences between slowly rotating and rapidly rotating stars with color indices 1.1 Pleiades cluster), resulting in the first determination of the relationship between the spot-forming activity and masses of stars. For 27 stars with masses differing from the solarmass by nomore than 0.1 M⊙, themean spot coverage is S = 0.031±0.003, suggesting that the activity of candidate young Suns is more pronounced than that of the present-day Sun. These stars rotate considerably faster than the Sun, with an average rotation period of 4.3d. The results of this study of cool, low-mass dwarfs of the Pleiades cluster are compared to results from an earlier study of 1570 M stars.

  12. Vitamin K2 Improves Anxiety and Depression but not Cognition in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome: a Role of Blood Glucose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancheva, Silvia M; Zhelyazkova-Savova, Maria D

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a socially important disorder of energy utilization and storage, recognized as a factor predisposing to the development of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in humans. In the present study we examined the effects of vitamin K2 on the behavior of rats with metabolic syndrome and looked for relationships with the effects on blood sugar. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: a control group on a regular rat chow, a metabolic syndrome (MS) group fed a high-fat high-fructose diet, a control group treated with vitamin K2 and a MS group treated with vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 was given by gavage. At the end of the study (after 10 weeks) behavioral tests were performed and fasting blood glucose was measured. Anxiety was determined using the social interaction test and depression was assessed by the Porsolt test. Memory effects were estimated by the object recognition test. Correlations between fasting blood glucose and behavioral performance were analyzed. The rats from the MS group had elevated blood glucose. They had anxiety, depression and memory deficit. Vitamin K2 normalized blood glucose, reduced anxiety and depression, but did not improve memory. Time of social interaction (inverse index of anxiety) and memory recognition were negatively correlated with blood glucose in the untreated rats but the immobility time (measure of depression) was not. When vitamin K2-treated rats were added, the correlation of blood glucose with the time of social interaction was kept, but the one with the recognition memory was lost. It might be that the anxiolytic effect of vitamin K2 in this setting is at least partly due to its effects on blood glucose, while the anti-depressant effect is glucose-independent. The present study demonstrated that vitamin K2 prevented the development of anxiety and depression, but did not improve the memory deficit caused by the dietary manipulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. It might be that

  13. 3',5'-diiodothyronine in health and disease: studies by a radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, I.J.; Geola, F.; Solomon, D.H.; Maciel, R.M.B.

    1978-01-01

    An RIA has been developed for 3'5'-diiiodothyronine (3',5'-T 2 ) in unextracted serum. Interference in binding of radioactive 3',5'-T 2 to anti-3',5'-T 2 was minimized by using phosphate buffer and merthiolate. The detection threshold of the RIA was 2.5 ng/dl. Recovery of nonradioactive 3',5'-T 2 averaged 99%. T 4 , T 3 , and rT 3 cross-reacted with anti-3',5'-T 2 antibody 0.0025, 2 concentrations in ng/dl were 2.4 in 53 normal subjects, 4.2 in 7 hypothyroid patients, 14.9 in 34 hyperthyroid patients, 13.5 in 25 patients with hepatic cirrhosis, and 14.3 in 31 newborns' cord blood serum. The values for the latter four groups were significantly different from normal. The serum 3',5'-T 2 concentration of 7.7 ng/dl in eight subjects in the third trimester of pregnancy did not differ from normal when serum T 4 and T 3 were elevated. Oral administration of 300 μg rT 3 to 9 normal subjects led to an increase in serum 3'5'-T 2 concentration of 45% at 1h. Total fasting in 3 obese subjects was associated with an increase in serum 3',5'-T 2 from 8.6 to 16.3 ng/dl at 6 to 8 days; rT 3 increased similarly, while T 3 decreased and T 4 did not change. Administration of dexamethasone to 4 hyperthyroid patients was associated with nearly parallel increases in serum 3',5'-T 2 and rT 3 and a decrease in T 3 . The 3',5'-T 2 concentrations in amniotic fluids were 15.2 ng/dl at 15 to 20 weeks gestation and 5.8 ng/dl at 33 to 40 weeks. Pronase hydrolysates of 9 normal thyroid glands contained 350 μgT 4 and 0.24 μg 3',5'-T 2 /g wet wt. It was estimated that thyroidal secretion contributes 2 in serum of normal man. The data suggest that 3',5'-T 2 is a normal component of human serum and almost all 3',5'-T 2 in serum derives from extrathyroidal sources

  14. Measurement of free thyroxine or free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in a liquid sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertl, W.; Ward, F.B.; Weetall, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoassay method is described for the direct measurement of free thyroxine or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in a liquid sample in which the thyroxine or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine is present in both free and combined states. The sample is combined with a labelled thyroxine- or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate which does not significantly interact with thyroxine-binding globulin, thyroxine-binding prealbumin and immobilised antibody which is specific for thyroxine or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine. After incubation, the solid phase is separated from the liquid phase and the amount of labelled thyroxine- or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate present in either phase is measured by determining the activity of the label. (author)

  15. Microbial biodegradation and toxicity of vinclozolin and its toxic metabolite 3,5-dichloroaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Bok; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Shin, Kee-Sun; Kim, Jong-Sik; Jo, Min-Sub; Jeon, Chun-Pyo; Jang, Jong-Ok; Kim, Jang-Eok; Kwon, Gi-Seok

    2008-02-01

    Vinclozolin, an endocrine disrupting chemical, is a chlorinated fungicide widely used to control fungal diseases. However, its metabolite 3,5-dichloroaniline is more toxic and persistent than the parent vinclozolin. For the biodegradation of vinclozolin, vinclozolin- and/or 3,5-dichloroaniline-degrading bacteria were isolated from pesticide-polluted agriculture soil. Among the isolated bacteria, a Rhodococcus sp. was identified from a 16S rDNA sequence analysis and named Rhodococcus sp. T1-1. The degradation ratios for vinclozolin or 3,5- dichloroaniline in a minimal medium containing vinclozolin (200 microg/ml) or 3,5-dichloroaniline (120 microg/ml) were 90% and 84.1%, respectively. Moreover, Rhodococcus sp. T1-1 also showed an effective capability to biodegrade dichloroaniline isomers on enrichment cultures in which they were contained. Therefore, these results suggest that Rhodococcus sp. T1-1 can bioremediate vinclozolin as well as 3,5-dichloroaniline.

  16. pH-dependent inhibition of K2P3.1 prolongs atrial refractoriness in whole hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarsfeldt, Mark A; Jepps, Thomas A; Bomholtz, Sofia H

    2016-01-01

    In isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes, inhibition of K2P3.1 K(+) channels results in action potential (action potential duration (APD)) prolongation. It has therefore been postulated that K2P3.1 (KCNK3), together with K2P9.1 (KCNK9), could represent novel drug targets for the treatment of atrial...... fibrillation (AF). However, it is unknown whether these findings in isolated cells translate to the whole heart. The purposes of this study were to investigate the expression levels of KCNK3 and KCNK9 in human hearts and two relevant rodent models and determine the antiarrhythmic potential of K2P3.1 inhibition...... displayed a more uniform expression of KCNK3 between atria and ventricle. In voltage-clamp experiments, ML365 and A293 were found to be potent and selective inhibitors of K2P3.1, but at pH 7.4, they failed to prolong atrial APD and refractory period (effective refractory period (ERP)) in isolated perfused...

  17. Hydrogen Production from Ethanol Steam Reforming over SnO2-K2O/Zeolite Y Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Sung; Kim, Ji Eun; Kang, Mi Sook

    2011-01-01

    The SnO 2 with a particle size of about 300 nm instead of Ni is used in this study to overcome rapid catalytic deactivation by the formation of a NiAl 2 O 4 spinal structure on the conventional Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst and simultaneously impregnated the catalyst with potassium (K). The SnO 2 -K 2 O impregnated Zeolite Y catalyst (SnO 2 -K 2 O/ZY) exhibited significantly higher ethanol reforming reactivity that that achieved with SnO 2 100 and SnO 2 30 wt %/ZY catalysts. The main products from ethanol steam reforming (ESR) over the SnO 2 -K 2 O/ ZY catalyst were H 2 , CO 2 , and CH 4 , with no evidence of any CO molecule formation. The H 2 production and ethanol conversion were maximized at 89% and 100%, respectively, over SnO 2 30 wt %-K 2 O 3.0 wt %/ZY at 600 .deg. C for 1 h at a CH 3 CH 2 OH:H 2 O ratio of 1:1 and a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 12,700 h -1 . No catalytic deactivation occurred for up to 73 h. This result is attributable to the easier and weaker of reduction of Sn components and acidities over SnO 2 -K 2 O/ZY catalyst, respectively, than those of Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalysts

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate-Rich Membrane Domains in Endosomes and Lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Sho; Tatematsu, Tsuyako; Cheng, Jinglei; Matsumoto, Jun; Akano, Takuya; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2 ) has critical functions in endosomes and lysosomes. We developed a method to define nanoscale distribution of PtdIns(3,5)P2 using freeze-fracture electron microscopy. GST-ATG18-4×FLAG was used to label PtdIns(3,5)P2 and its binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) was blocked by an excess of the p40(phox) PX domain. In yeast exposed to hyperosmotic stress, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was concentrated in intramembrane particle (IMP)-deficient domains in the vacuolar membrane, which made close contact with adjacent membranes. The IMP-deficient domain was also enriched with PtdIns(3)P, but was deficient in Vph1p, a liquid-disordered domain marker. In yeast lacking either PtdIns(3,5)P2 or its effector, Atg18p, the IMP-deficient, PtdIns(3)P-rich membranes were folded tightly to make abnormal tubular structures, thus showing where the vacuolar fragmentation process is arrested when PtdIns(3,5)P2 metabolism is defective. In HeLa cells, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was significantly enriched in the vesicular domain of RAB5- and RAB7-positive endosome/lysosomes of the tubulo-vesicular morphology. This biased distribution of PtdIns(3,5)P2 was also observed using fluorescence microscopy, which further showed enrichment of a retromer component, VPS35, in the tubular domain. This is the first report to show segregation of PtdIns(3,5)P2 -rich and -deficient domains in endosome/lysosomes, which should be important for endosome/lysosome functionality. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Spectroscopic properties of Fe2+ ions at tetragonal sites-Crystal field effects and microscopic modeling of spin Hamiltonian parameters for Fe2+ (S=2) ions in K2FeF4 and K2ZnF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudowicz, C.; Piwowarska, D.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic and spectroscopic properties of the planar antiferromagnet K 2 FeF 4 are determined by the Fe 2+ ions at tetragonal sites. The two-dimensional easy-plane anisotropy exhibited by K 2 FeF 4 is due to the zero field splitting (ZFS) terms arising from the orbital singlet ground state of Fe 2+ ions with the spin S=2. To provide insight into the single-ion magnetic anisotropy of K 2 FeF 4 , the crystal field theory and the microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) approach based on the tensor method is adopted. Survey of available experimental data on the crystal field energy levels and free-ion parameters for Fe 2+ ions in K 2 FeF 4 and related compounds is carried out to provide input for microscopic modeling of the ZFS parameters and the Zeeman electronic ones. The ZFS parameters are expressed in the extended Stevens notation and include contributions up to the fourth-order using as perturbation the spin-orbit and electronic spin-spin couplings within the tetragonal crystal field states of the ground 5 D multiplet. Modeling of the ZFS parameters and the Zeeman electronic ones is carried out. Variation of these parameters is studied taking into account reasonable ranges of the microscopic ones, i.e. the spin-orbit and spin-spin coupling constants, and the energy level splittings, suitable for Fe 2+ ions in K 2 FeF 4 and Fe 2+ :K 2 ZnF 4 . Conversions between the ZFS parameters in the extended Stevens notation and the conventional ones are considered to enable comparison with the data of others. Comparative analysis of the MSH formulas derived earlier and our more complete ones indicates the importance of terms omitted earlier as well as the fourth-order ZFS parameters and the spin-spin coupling related contributions. The results may be useful also for Fe 2+ ions at axial symmetry sites in related systems, i.e. Fe:K 2 MnF 4 , Rb 2 Co 1-x Fe x F 4 , Fe 2+ :Rb 2 CrCl 4 , and Fe 2+ :Rb 2 ZnCl 4 . - Highlights: → Truncated zero field splitting (ZFS) terms for Fe 2+ in K

  20. Efeitos da fertirrigação de N e K2O na absorção de macronutrientes pela gravioleira Effects of fertirrigation of N and K2O on absorption of macronutrients by soursop crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto S. F. de H. Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dosagens de N e K2O via água de irrigação na absorção de macronutrientes pela cultura da gravioleira. O experimento foi realizado no campo experimental da Embrapa Meio-Norte, situado no município de Teresina, PI (05º 05' S, 42º 48' W e 74,4 m de altitude. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi por blocos casualizados, com onze tratamentos e quatro repetições, com parcela útil composta de quatro plantas. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de cinco dosagens de N (20, 120, 200, 280 e 380 kg ha-1 ano-1 combinadas com cinco dosagens de K2O (30, 180, 300, 420 e 570 kg ha-1 ano-1 de acordo com o modelo da matriz experimental Plan Plueba III, além de um tratamento com dosagem zero de ambos os nutrientes. Em nenhum dos tratamentos foi encontrado deficiência de N, K, Mg, S e P nas folhas da gravioleira. As dosagens de N, bem como as suas interações com as dosagens de K2O, não proporcionaram efeito significativo sobre os teores dos macronutrientes nas folhas da gravioleira. As dosagens de K2O influenciaram os teores dos macronutrientes Ca, K e Mg nas folhas da gravioleira.The objetive of this work was to evaluate the effect of doses of N and K2O through irrigation water on the absorption of macronutrients by soursop cultivation. The study was conducted at the experimental field of Embrapa - North, in Teresina, in the State of Piauí, Brazil (5º 05' S, 42º and 48' W. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with eleven treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted in the application of five doses of N (20, 120, 200, 280 and 380 kg ha-1 year-1 combined with five doses of K2O (30, 180, 300, 420 and 570 kg ha-1 year-1 in agreement with the model of experimental matrix Plan Plueba III, besides a treatment with dose zero of both nutrients. No deficiency of N, K, Mg, S, and P in the soursop leaves was found in any treatment. The doses of N did not provide

  1. Fabrication and properties of aluminum silicate fibrous materials with in situ synthesized K2Ti6O13 whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wei, Nan; Wang, Zhou-fu; Wang, Xi-tang; Ma, Yan

    2017-11-01

    To improve their mechanical and thermal insulation properties, aluminum silicate fibrous materials with in situ synthesized K2Ti6O13 whiskers were prepared by firing a mixture of short aluminum silicate fibers and gel powders obtained from a sol-gel process. During the preparation process, the fiber surface was coated with K2Ti6O13 whiskers after the fibers were subjected to a heat treatment carried out at various temperatures. The effects of process parameters on the microstructure, compressive strength, and thermal conductivity were analyzed systematically. The results show that higher treatment temperatures and longer treatment durations promoted the development of K2Ti6O13 whiskers on the surface of aluminum silicate fibers; in addition, the intersection structure between whiskers modulated the morphology and volume of the multi-aperture structure among fibers, substantially increasing the fibers' compressive strength and reducing their heat conduction and convective heat transfer at high temperatures.

  2. Thermal properties of KUO3(s) and K2U2O7 - by high temperature Calvet calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, K.; Iyer, V.S.; Venugopal, V.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal properties of KUO 3 (s) and K 2 U 2 O 7 (s) were determined using a high temperature Calvet calorimeter by drop method. The enthalpy increments, (H T o - H 298.15 0 ), in kJ/mol for KUO 3 (s) and K 2 U 2 O 7 (s) can be represented by, H T o - H 298.15 0 KUO 3 (s) kJ/mol ± 0.7 = -39.15 + 0.129T + 0.1005x10 -4 T 2 (369-714K) and H T o -H 298.15 0 K 2 U 2 O 7 (s) kJ/mol ± 0.7 = -52.99 + 0.1361T + 0.146x10 -3 T 2 (391 - 683K). (author)

  3. Energy transfer between Pr3+ and Mn2+ in K2YZr(PO4)3: Pr, Mn phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Wei; Wang Yuhua

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Pr 3+ , Mn 2+ co-doped K 2 YZr(PO 4 ) 3 phosphor is a novel type of practical visible quantum cutting phosphor in promising application. → The optimal quantum efficiency (QE) of this co-doped system K 2 YZr(PO 4 ) 3 : Pr 3+ , Mn 2+ reached to 126.3%. → The Mn 2+6 A 1g → 4 E g - 4 A 1g transition was found to coincide well with the 1 S 0 → 1 I 6 transition of Pr 3+ . → The energy transfer from Pr 3+ to Mn 2+ was also observed, converting the first photon from the PCE of Pr 3+ into the red emission of Mn 2+ , and the QC process occurred in this Pr 3+ , Mn 2+ co-doped K 2 YZr(PO 4 ) 3 phosphor. - Abstract: Pr 3+ , Mn 2+ co-doped K 2 YZr(PO 4 ) 3 samples were prepared by solid-state reaction method and their photoluminescence (PL) properties were investigated in ultra-violet (UV) and vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) region. The results indicated that in Pr 3+ singly doped K 2 YZr(PO 4 ) 3 sample, the first-step transition ( 1 S 0 → 1 I 6 , 3 P J around 405 nm) of Pr 3+ is near the ultraviolet (UV) range, not useful for practical application. When Mn 2+ was doped as a co-activator ion, the energy of 1 S 0 → 1 I 6 , 3 P J transition can be transferred synchronously from Pr 3+ to Mn 2+ and then emit a visible photon. The optimal quantum efficiency (QE) of this co-doped system K 2 YZr(PO 4 ) 3 : Pr 3+ , Mn 2+ reached to 126.3%, suggesting a novel type of practical visible quantum cutting phosphor in promising application.

  4. Distinct pharmacology and metabolism of K2 synthetic cannabinoids compared to Δ9-THC: Mechanism underlying greater toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantegrossi, William E.; Moran, Jeffery H.; Radominska-Pandya, Anna; Prather, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    K2 or Spice products are emerging drugs of abuse that contain synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs). Although assumed by many teens and first time drug users to be a “safe” and “legal” alternative to marijuana, many recent reports indicate that SCBs present in K2 produce toxicity not associated with the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). This mini-review will summarize recent evidence that use of K2 products poses greater health risks relative to marijuana, and suggest that distinct pharmacological properties and metabolism of SCBs relative to Δ9-THC may contribute to the observed toxicity. Studies reviewed will indicate that in contrast to partial agonist properties of Δ9-THC typically observed in vitro, SCBs in K2 products act as full cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) and type 2 (CB2R) agonists in both cellular assays and animal studies. Furthermore, unlike Δ9-THC metabolism, several SCB metabolites retain high affinity for, and exhibit a range of intrinsic activities at, CB1 and CB2Rs. Finally, several reports indicate that although quasi-legal SCBs initially evaded detection and legal consequences, these presumed “advantages” have been limited by new legislation and development of product and human testing capabilities. Collectively, evidence reported in this mini-review suggests that K2 products are neither safe nor legal alternatives to marijuana. Instead, enhanced toxicity of K2 products relative to marijuana, perhaps resulting from the combined actions of a complex mixture of different SCBs present and their active metabolites that retain high affinity for CB1 and CB2Rs, highlights the inherent danger that may accompany use of these substances. PMID:24084047

  5. IGF-1 and insulin exert opposite actions on ClC-K2 activity in the cortical collecting ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaika, Oleg; Mamenko, Mykola; Boukelmoune, Nabila; Pochynyuk, Oleh

    2015-01-01

    Despite similar stimulatory actions on the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-mediated sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule, insulin promotes kaliuresis, whereas insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) causes a reduction in urinary potassium levels. The factors contributing to this phenomenon remain elusive. Electrogenic distal nephron ENaC-mediated Na(+) transport establishes driving force for Cl(-) reabsorption and K(+) secretion. Using patch-clamp electrophysiology, we document that a Cl(-) channel is highly abundant on the basolateral plasma membrane of intercalated cells in freshly isolated mouse cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells. The channel has characteristics attributable to the ClC-K2: slow gating kinetics, conductance ∼10 pS, voltage independence, Cl(-)>NO3 (-) anion selectivity, and inhibition/activation by low/high pH, respectively. IGF-1 (100 and 500 nM) acutely stimulates ClC-K2 activity in a reversible manner. Inhibition of PI3-kinase (PI3-K) with LY294002 (20 μM) abrogates activation of ClC-K2 by IGF-1. Interestingly, insulin (100 nM) reversibly decreases ClC-K2 activity in CCD cells. This inhibitory action is independent of PI3-K and is mediated by stimulation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent cascade. We propose that IGF-1, by stimulating ClC-K2 channels, promotes net Na(+) and Cl(-) reabsorption, thus reducing driving force for potassium secretion by the CCD. In contrast, inhibition of ClC-K2 by insulin favors coupling of Na(+) reabsorption with K(+) secretion at the apical membrane contributing to kaliuresis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Distinct pharmacology and metabolism of K2 synthetic cannabinoids compared to Δ(9)-THC: mechanism underlying greater toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantegrossi, William E; Moran, Jeffery H; Radominska-Pandya, Anna; Prather, Paul L

    2014-02-27

    K2 or Spice products are emerging drugs of abuse that contain synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs). Although assumed by many teens and first time drug users to be a "safe" and "legal" alternative to marijuana, many recent reports indicate that SCBs present in K2 produce toxicity not associated with the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). This mini-review will summarize recent evidence that use of K2 products poses greater health risks relative to marijuana, and suggest that distinct pharmacological properties and metabolism of SCBs relative to Δ(9)-THC may contribute to the observed toxicity. Studies reviewed will indicate that in contrast to partial agonist properties of Δ(9)-THC typically observed in vitro, SCBs in K2 products act as full cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) and type 2 (CB2R) agonists in both cellular assays and animal studies. Furthermore, unlike Δ(9)-THC metabolism, several SCB metabolites retain high affinity for, and exhibit a range of intrinsic activities at, CB1 and CB2Rs. Finally, several reports indicate that although quasi-legal SCBs initially evaded detection and legal consequences, these presumed "advantages" have been limited by new legislation and development of product and human testing capabilities. Collectively, evidence reported in this mini-review suggests that K2 products are neither safe nor legal alternatives to marijuana. Instead, enhanced toxicity of K2 products relative to marijuana, perhaps resulting from the combined actions of a complex mixture of different SCBs present and their active metabolites that retain high affinity for CB1 and CB2Rs, highlights the inherent danger that may accompany use of these substances. © 2013.

  7. K2-155: A Bright Metal-poor M Dwarf with Three Transiting Super-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Dai, Fei; Livingston, John H.; Fujii, Yuka; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Gandolfi, Davide; Redfield, Seth; Winn, Joshua N.; Guenther, Eike W.; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Albrecht, Simon; Barragan, Oscar; Cabrera, Juan; Cauley, P. Wilson; Csizmadia, Szilard; Deeg, Hans; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Fridlund, Malcolm; Fukui, Akihiko; Grziwa, Sascha; Hatzes, Artie P.; Korth, Judith; Narita, Norio; Nespral, David; Niraula, Prajwal; Nowak, Grzegorz; Pätzold, Martin; Palle, Enric; Persson, Carina M.; Rauer, Heike; Ribas, Ignasi; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Van Eylen, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    We report on the discovery of three transiting super-Earths around K2-155 (EPIC 210897587), a relatively bright early M dwarf (V = 12.81 mag) observed during Campaign 13 of the NASA K2 mission. To characterize the system and validate the planet candidates, we conducted speckle imaging and high-dispersion optical spectroscopy, including radial velocity measurements. Based on the K2 light curve and the spectroscopic characterization of the host star, the planet sizes and orbital periods are {1.55}-0.17+0.20 {R}\\oplus and 6.34365 ± 0.00028 days for the inner planet; {1.95}-0.22+0.27 {R}\\oplus and 13.85402 ± 0.00088 days for the middle planet; and {1.64}-0.17+0.18 {R}\\oplus and 40.6835 ± 0.0031 days for the outer planet. The outer planet (K2-155d) is near the habitable zone, with an insolation 1.67 ± 0.38 times that of the Earth. The planet’s radius falls within the range between that of smaller rocky planets and larger gas-rich planets. To assess the habitability of this planet, we present a series of three-dimensional global climate simulations, assuming that K2-155d is tidally locked and has an Earth-like composition and atmosphere. We find that the planet can maintain a moderate surface temperature if the insolation proves to be smaller than ∼1.5 times that of the Earth. Doppler mass measurements, transit spectroscopy, and other follow-up observations should be rewarding, as K2-155 is one of the optically brightest M dwarfs known to harbor transiting planets.

  8. Destroying Aliases from the Ground and Space: Super-Nyquist ZZ Cetis in K2 Long Cadence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Hermes, J. J.; Vanderbosch, Z.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Dennihy, E.; Fuchs, J. T.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2017-12-01

    With typical periods of the order of 10 minutes, the pulsation signatures of ZZ Ceti variables (pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf stars) are severely undersampled by long-cadence (29.42 minutes per exposure) K2 observations. Nyquist aliasing renders the intrinsic frequencies ambiguous, stifling precision asteroseismology. We report the discovery of two new ZZ Cetis in long-cadence K2 data: EPIC 210377280 and EPIC 220274129. Guided by three to four nights of follow-up, high-speed (≤slant 30 s) photometry from the McDonald Observatory, we recover accurate pulsation frequencies for K2 signals that reflected four to five times off the Nyquist with the full precision of over 70 days of monitoring (∼0.01 μHz). In turn, the K2 observations enable us to select the correct peaks from the alias structure of the ground-based signals caused by gaps in the observations. We identify at least seven independent pulsation modes in the light curves of each of these stars. For EPIC 220274129, we detect three complete sets of rotationally split {\\ell }=1 (dipole mode) triplets, which we use to asteroseismically infer the stellar rotation period of 12.7 ± 1.3 hr. We also detect two sub-Nyquist K2 signals that are likely combination (difference) frequencies. We attribute our inability to match some of the K2 signals to the ground-based data to changes in pulsation amplitudes between epochs of observation. Model fits to SOAR spectroscopy place both EPIC 210377280 and EPIC 220274129 near the middle of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, with {T}{eff} =11590+/- 200 K and 11810 ± 210 K, and masses 0.57 ± 0.03 M ⊙ and 0.62 ± 0.03 M ⊙, respectively.

  9. Self-assembled Thiolated Calix[n]arene (n=4, 6, 8) Films on Gold Electrodes and Application for Electrochemical Determination Dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Gang; Chen, Ming; Liu, Xinyue; Zhou, Jun; Xie, Ju; Diao, Guowang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TCnA/GE was prepared by using a simple self-assembled strategy. • Multilayer self-assembled films of TCnA molecules were fabricated on GE. • TCnA/GE exhibited high supramolecular recognition and enrichment capability. • TC8A/GE showed excellent electrochemical performance for DA. - Abstract: In this study, gold electrodes (GE) modified with three kinds of thiolated calix[4,6,8]arenes (TCnA: TC4A, TC6A, TC8A) were successfully prepared using a simple self-assembly strategy. Three self-assembled films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry measurement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, static contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy. The results confirmed that TCnA molecules effectively absorbed onto the surface of gold electrodes to fabricate the multilayer self-assembled films. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement showed that the TCnA/GE exhibited high supramolecular recognition and enrichment capability and consequently displayed good electrochemical response toward dopamine (DA). Especially, TC8A/GE exhibited an excellent electrochemical performance for DA with high current densities of 1.5 mA mmol −1 L cm −2 , broad linear range (1 × 10 −6 to 1 × 10 −3 mol L −1 ) and low detection limit (5 × 10 −7 mol L −1 ). The mechanism of supramolecular recognition and enrichment capability of TCnA/GE was discussed

  10. Anti-Obesity Effect of 6,8-Diprenylgenistein, an Isoflavonoid of Cudrania tricuspidata Fruits in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hee Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation, is associated with several pathological disorders, including metabolic diseases. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 6,8-diprenylgenistein (DPG, a major isoflavonoid of Cudrania tricuspidata fruits was investigated using high fat-diet (HFD-induced obese mice at the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg for six week. The body weight of the DPG-treated groups was significantly lower compared to the HFD-treated group. In addition, fat accumulation in epididymal adipose tissue and liver was dramatically decreased in the HFD + DPG groups. The food efficiency ratios of the HFD + DPG groups were also lower compared to the HFD group with the same food intake. Metabolic parameters that had increased in the HFD group were decreased in the HFD + DPG groups. Further studies demonstrate that DPG efficiently reduces lipogenic genes by regulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα, and hormones, such as leptin and adiponection. DPG also regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation. Taken together, DPG is beneficial for the regulation of obesity, especially resulting from high fat intake.

  11. Eating behaviour is associated with eating frequency and food consumption in 6-8 year-old children: The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, H; Lindi, V; Schwab, U; Kiiskinen, S; Venäläinen, T; Karhunen, L; Lakka, T A; Eloranta, A M

    2017-07-01

    The association between eating behaviour and dietary factors has been studied narrowly in children. Therefore, we investigated whether eating frequency and food consumption are influenced by eating behaviour in a population sample of 406 children aged 6-8 years. We assessed features of eating behaviour by the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and dietary factors by a 4-day food record. The results showed that enjoyment of food was directly associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.041) and consumption of vegetables (p = 0.041), cheese (p = 0.005), and meat (p = 0.002). Food responsiveness was directly associated with consumption of fruit and berries (p = 0.013) and meat (p = 0.016). Desire to drink was directly associated with consumption of fat-containing milk (p = 0.002) and inversely associated with consumption of skimmed milk (p = 0.001). Food fussiness was inversely associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.013) and consumption of vegetables (p food and food responsiveness are directly associated with consumption of protein-rich foods and vegetables, fruit and berries, whereas food fussiness and satiety responsiveness are inversely associated with consumption of these foods. Assessment of eating behaviour can help in identifying children with various dietary needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Socio-Economic and Environmental Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in Children Aged 6-8 Years Living in Five Italian Cities (the MAPEC_LIFE Cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Tiziana; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Serio, Francesca; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Viola, Gaia C V; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Levorato, Sara; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Donzelli, Gabriele; Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Bonizzoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Alberto; Gelatti, Umberto

    2016-10-11

    The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6-8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (MAPEC_LIFE) cohort) and to identify any associations between selected socio-economic and environmental factors and overweight/obesity. The data were obtained by means of a questionnaire given to parents, and any associations were examined by binomial logistic regression analyses. Overweight was found to be positively associated with male gender, parents of non-Italian origin, and parents who smoke, and negatively associated with the parents' level of education and employment. In addition, the frequency of overweight varied in relation to the geographical area of residence, with a greater prevalence of overweight children in the cities of central-southern Italy. This study highlights the need to implement appropriate obesity prevention programs in Italy, which should include educational measures concerning lifestyle for parents from the earliest stages of their child's life.

  13. Final report on CCM key comparison CCM.D-K2: Comparison of liquid density standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, Horst; Jacques, Claude; Zelenka, Zoltán; Fujii, Ken-ichi; Kuramoto, Naoki; Chang, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Yong Jae; Becerra, Luis Omar; Domostroeva, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The results are presented of the key comparison CCM.D-K2 that covered the density measurements of four liquids: the density of water at 20 °C, of pentadecane at 15 °C, 20 °C, 40 °C and 60°C, of tetrachloroethlyene at 5 °C and 20 °C and of a viscous oil at 20 °C. Seven national metrology institutes measured the densities at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing of solid density standards in the time interval from 27 April 2004 to 28 June 2004. Since the participants were asked not to include components for a possible drift or inhomogeneity of the liquid in their uncertainty budget, these uncertainty contributions are investigated for the final evaluation of the data. For this purpose, results of stability and homogeneity measurements of the pilot laboratory are used. The participants decided not to include a possible drift of the liquid's density since no significant drift could be detected, and the influence of the drift and its uncertainty are negligible. Similarly, the inhomogeneity of the water and pentadecane samples is not significant and has no influence on the evaluation. Thus, it was neglected. Only the inhomogeneities of tetrachloroethylene and of the viscous oil were significant. Consequently, they were included in the evaluation. With one or two exceptions, the results show good agreement among the participants. Only in the case of water are the results clearly discrepant. The key comparison reference values were calculated by the weighted mean (taking into account a small correlation between two participants) in the case of consistent results. Otherwise the Procedure B of Cox was used. The expanded uncertainties of all reference densities are below 1 × 10-5 in relative terms. This satisfies the needs of all customers who wish to calibrate or check liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. The comparison fully supports the calibration measurement capabilities table in the BIPM key comparison database

  14. K2 Ultracool Dwarfs Survey. II. The White Light Flare Rate of Young Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizis, John E.; Paudel, Rishi R.; Mullan, Dermott; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Williams, Peter K. G.

    2017-08-01

    We use Kepler K2 Campaign 4 short-cadence (one-minute) photometry to measure white light flares in the young, moving group brown dwarfs 2MASS J03350208+2342356 (2M0335+23) and 2MASS J03552337+1133437 (2M0355+11), and report on long-cadence (thirty-minute) photometry of a superflare in the Pleiades M8 brown dwarf CFHT-PL-17. The rotation period (5.24 hr) and projected rotational velocity (45 km s-1) confirm 2M0335+23 is inflated (R≥slant 0.20 {R}⊙ ) as predicted for a 0.06 {M}⊙ , 24 Myr old brown dwarf βPic moving group member. We detect 22 white light flares on 2M0335+23. The flare frequency distribution follows a power-law distribution with slope -α =-1.8+/- 0.2 over the range 1031 to 1033 erg. This slope is similar to that observed in the Sun and warmer flare stars, and is consistent with lower-energy flares in previous work on M6-M8 very-low-mass stars; taking the two data sets together, the flare frequency distribution for ultracool dwarfs is a power law over 4.3 orders of magnitude. The superflare (2.6× {10}34 erg) on CFHT-PL-17 shows higher-energy flares are possible. We detect no flares down to a limit of 2× {10}30 erg in the nearby L5γ AB Dor moving group brown dwarf 2M0355+11, consistent with the view that fast magnetic reconnection is suppressed in cool atmospheres. We discuss two multi-peaked flares observed in 2M0335+23, and argue that these complex flares can be understood as sympathetic flares, in which fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic waves similar to extreme-ultraviolet waves in the Sun trigger magnetic reconnection in different active regions.

  15. Novel Reaction of N,N'-Bisarylmethanediamines with Formaldehyde. Synthesis of Some New 1,3,5-Triaryl-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Olyaei

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The acid-catalyzed cyclocondensation of N,N'-bisaryl (aryl = 2-pyrimidinyl, 2- pyrazinyl and 4-nitrophenyl methanediamines 5a-c with aqueous formaldehyde in refluxing acetonitrile leads to the formation of the corresponding 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexa- hydrotriazines 6a-c. The stoichiometric reactions of 2-aminopyrimidine and 2-amino- pyrazine with aqueous formaldehyde in acetonitrile under reflux conditions also afforded 6a and 6b, respectively. Treatment of 2-aminopyrimidine with aqueous formaldehyde in a 3:2 ratio yielded N,N',N"-tris(2-pyrimidinyldimethylenetriamine (7a as a sole product, which upon subsequent reaction with formaldehyde also afforded 6a. The reaction of N,N'-biphenylmethanediamine with formaldehyde was also investigated.

  16. Occultations from an Active Accretion Disk in a 72-day Detached Post-Algol System Detected by K2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, G.; Rappaport, S.; Nelson, L.

    2018-01-01

    Disks in binary systems can cause exotic eclipsing events. MWC 882 (BD –22 4376, EPIC 225300403) is such a disk-eclipsing system identified from observations during Campaign 11 of the K2 mission. We propose that MWC 882 is a post-Algol system with a B7 donor star of mass in a 72-day orbit around...... an A0 accreting star of mass . The disk around the accreting star occults the donor star once every orbit, inducing 19-day long, 7% deep eclipses identified by K2 and subsequently found in pre-discovery All-Sky Automated Survey and All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae observations. We coordinated...

  17. Contribution of the basolateral isoform of the Na-K-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1/BSC2) to renin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrop, Hayo; Lorenz, John N; Hansen, Pernille B

    2005-01-01

    Acute administration of loop diuretics like furosemide leads to a stimulation of renin secretion, an effect thought to result from inhibition of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2)-mediated salt transport at the luminal surface of the macula densa (MD). However, loop diuretics also inhibit NKCC1......, the second isoform of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, with similar potency. In the present study, we examined the influence of furosemide on renin secretion in NKCC1-deficient mice to distinguish between effects of the loop diuretic involving NKCC2 and, by implication, the MD pathway, and effects that might...

  18. Refractive indices of K2ZnCl4 crystals in an incommensurate phase under uniaxial stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaba, V.M.; Kogut, Z.O.; Brezvin, R.S.; Stadnik, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of uniaxial mechanical stresses directed along the principal crystallophysical axes on refractiveindex temperature dependences in K 2 ZnCl 4 crystals was studied. It is established that the refractive indices ni are quite sensitive to uniaxial stresses. Significant baric shifts of the paraphase-incommensurate-commensurate phase transition points to different temperature regions were observed, which is due to the effect of the uniaxial stress on the K 2 ZnCl 4 crystal structure. It is found that applying uniaxial pressure increases the value of the temperature hysteresis of the commensurate-incommensurate phase transition. (authors)

  19. Preparation of 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles and isoxazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, hydrazines, and hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigae, Ryo; Moriyama, Katsuhiko; Togo, Hideo

    2014-03-07

    The reaction of terminal alkynes with n-BuLi, and then with aldehydes, followed by the treatment with molecular iodine, and subsequently hydrazines or hydroxylamine provided the corresponding 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles or isoxazoles in good yields with high regioselectivity, through the formations of propargyl secondary alkoxides and α-alkynyl ketones. The present reactions are one-pot preparation of 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, molecular iodine, and hydrazines, and 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, molecular iodine, and hydroxylamine.

  20. Preparation of folic acid specifically labeled with deuterium at the 3',5'-positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, J.F. III; Toth, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    A method was devised for the synthesis of 3', 5'-[ 2 H 2 ]folic acid (d 2 -folic acid) for use in studies of folate metabolism in human beings. Labeling was accomplished by catalytic dehalogenation of 3', 5'-dibromofolate with deuterium gas and palladium/carbon catalyst. d 2 -Folic acid was separated from reduced forms and residual 3'-monobromofolate by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex. Analysis by proton NMR and mass spectrometry indicated 70-75% deuteration of the 3',5'-positions and lack of deuteration at other carbons. (author)

  1. Three Transits for the Price of One: Super-Earth Transits of the Nearest Planetary System Discovered By Kepler/K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Seth; Niraula, Prajwal; Hedges, Christina; Crossfield, Ian; Kreidberg, Laura; Greene, Tom; Rodriguez, Joey; Vanderburg, Andrew; Laughlin, Gregory; Millholland, Sarah; Wang, Songhu; Cochran, William; Livingston, John; Gandolfi, Davide; Guenther, Eike; Fridlund, Malcolm; Korth, Judith

    2018-05-01

    We propose primary transit observations of three Super-Earth planets in the newly discovered planetary system around a bright, nearby star, GJ 9827. We recently announced the detection of three super-Earth planets in 1:3:5 commensurability, the inner planet, GJ 9827 b having a period of 1.2 days. This is the nearest planetary system that Kepler or K2 has found, at 30 pc, and given its brightness is one of the top systems for follow-up characterization. This system presents a unique opportunity to acquire three planetary transits for the price of one. There are several opportunities in the Spitzer visibility windows to obtain all three transits in a short period of time. We propose 3.6 micron observations of all three Super-Earth transits in a single 18-hour observation window. The proximity to a 1:3:5 resonance is intriguing from a dynamical standpoint as well. Indeed, anomalous transit timing offsets have been measured for planet d in Hubble observations that suffer from partial phase coverage. The short cadence and extended coverage of Spitzer is essential to provide a firm determination of the ephemerides and characterize any transit timing variations. Constraining these orbital parameters is critical for follow-up observations from space and ground-based telescopes. Due to the brightness of the host star, this planetary system is likely to be extensively observed in the years to come. Indeed, our team has acquired observations of the planets orbiting GJ9827 with Hubble in the ultraviolet and infrared. The proposed observations will provide infrared atmospheric measurements and firm orbital characterization which is critical for planning and designing future observations, in particular atmospheric characterization with JWST.

  2. DOG -II input generator program for DOT3.5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Koubun; Kamogawa, Susumu; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Koizumi, Kouichi; Seki, Yasushi

    1992-01-01

    DOT3.5 is widely used for radiation transport analysis of fission reactors, fusion experimental facilities and particle accelerators. We developed the input generator program for DOT3.5 code in aim to prepare input data effectively. Formar program DOG was developed and used internally in Hitachi Engineering Company. In this new version DOG-II, limitation for R-Θ geometry was removed. All the input data is created by interactive method in front of color display without using DOT3.5 manual. Also the geometry related input are easily created without calculation of precise curved mesh point. By using DOG-II, reliable input data for DOT3.5 code is obtained easily and quickly

  3. Cyclic adenosine 3:5-monophosphate binding proteins in Hartmannella culbertsoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, A.K.; Krishna Murti, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    When 100, 000 g supernatant fractions of homogenates of Hartmannella culbertsoni were incubated with ('- 3 H)-cyclic adenosine 3 : 5 monophosphate and passed through a sephadex G-100 column, radioactivity appeared with protein fractions eluted after the void colume. About 75% radioactivity bound to these fractions was recovered as cyclic adenosine 3 : 5 monophosphate. Unlabelled cAMP diluted the amount of radioactivity bound. Adenosine, deoxyadenosine, 5-AMP, 3-AMP, ADP and ATP did not inhibit binding. (author)

  4. G3.5 PAMAM dendrimers enhance transepithelial transport of SN38 while minimizing gastrointestinal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Deborah S; Vijayalakshmi, Nirmalkumar; Swaan, Peter W; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2011-03-30

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown promise in oral drug delivery. Conjugation of SN38 to PAMAM dendrimers has the potential to improve its oral absorption while minimizing gastrointestinal toxicity. In this work we evaluated G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer-SN38 conjugates with ester-linked glycine and β-alanine spacers for their suitability in oral therapy of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was mostly stable while G3.5-Glycine-SN38 showed 10%, 20%, and 56% SN38 release in simulated gastric, intestinal and liver environments for up to 6, 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Short-term treatment of Caco-2 cells with G3.5-SN38 conjugates did not reduce cell viability, while comparable concentrations of SN38 caused significant cytotoxicity. G3.5-Glycine-SN38 and G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 showed IC₅₀ values of 0.60 and 3.59 μM, respectively, in HT-29 cells treated for 48 h, indicating the efficacy of the drug delivery system in colorectal cancer cells with longer incubation time. Both conjugates increased SN38 transepithelial transport compared to the free drug. Transport of G3.5-Glycine-SN38 was highly concentration-dependent whereas transport of G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was concentration-independent, highlighting the influence of drug loading and spacer chemistry on transport mechanism. Together these results show that PAMAM dendrimers have the potential to improve the oral bioavailability of potent anti-cancer drugs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling macroseismic observations for historical earthquakes: the cases of the M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (central Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazachos, Giannis; Papazachos, Costas; Skarlatoudis, Andreas; Kkallas, Harris; Lekkas, Efthimios

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to model the spatial distribution of the strong ground motion for the large M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (southern Thessaly basin, central Greece), using the macroseismic intensities ( I M M up to 9+) observed within the broader Thessaly area. For this reason, we employ a modified stochastic method realised by the EXSIM algorithm for extended sources, in order to reproduce the damage distribution of these earthquakes, in an attempt to combine existing earthquake information and appropriate scaling relations with surface geology and to investigate the efficiency of the available macroseismic data. For site-effects assessment, we use a new digital geological map of the broader Thessaly basin, where geological formations are grouped by age and mapped on appropriate NEHRP soil classes. Using the previous approach, we estimate synthetic time series for different rupture scenarios and employ various calibrating relations between PGA/PGV and macroseismic intensity, allowing the generation of synthetic (stochastic) isoseismals. Also, different site amplification factors proposed for the broader Aegean area, according to local geology, are tested. Finally, we also perform a sensitivity analysis of the fault location, taking into account the available neotectonic data for the broader southern Thessaly fault zone. The finally determined fault locations are different than previously proposed, in agreement with the available neotectonic information. The observed macroseismic intensities are in good agreement with the ones derived from the synthetic waveforms, verifying both the usefulness of the approach, as well as of the macroseismic data used. Finally, site-effects show clear correlation with the geological classification employed, with constant amplification factors for each soil class generally providing better results than generic transfer functions.

  6. The Effect of Menstrual Health Education Conducted with Peer Education Method to Adolescent Girls in 6-8 Classes on Information and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Golbasi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Research was conducted as a experimental study in order to determine the effect of menstrual health education conducted with peer education to adolescent girls in 6-8 classes on information and behaviors. Method: The study was made in Primary School of Regional Girl Boarding. Working group consisted of 202 students responded completely pre-test and post-test from 214 female students studying in this school in 2008-2009 academic year. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Menstruation and Menstrual Health Information Form. The forms were implemented to all students before the start of peer education program. Then, a total of 24 students including two students from each class were chosen as a peer educator with simple random sampling method. Peer educators were given information about menstruation and menstrual health for 2 hours per week and a total of 6 hours during 3 weeks in line with the educational booklet. Peer educator were asked to share acquired this information with classmates in various environments. Forms used at the beginning of students were applied to students again 4 weeks after completion of peer education program. Results: The average score of the students' knowledge of menstruation and menstrual health increased significantly (p <0.05 after the peer education program. Also, a statistically significant increase has occurred in the behaviors of students’ washing their hands before the toilet during menstruation, lustrating from front to back with toilet paper, bathing in the form of shower during menstruation, using cotton underwear, changing frequently pads used and taking away the pads used by wrapping (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be considered that the method of peer education is an effective method to increase knowledge of adolescent girls about menstruation and menstrual health and develop health behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 191-198

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Studies and Corrosion Inhibition Potential of 1,8-dimethyl-1,3,6,8,10,13-hexaazacyclotetradecane: Experimental and Quantum Chemical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry U. Nwankwo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The macrocylic ligand, 1,8-dimethyl-1,3,6,8,10,13-hexaazacyclotetradecane (MHACD was synthesized by the demetallation of its freshly synthesized Ni(II complex (NiMHACD. Successful synthesis of NiMHACD and the free ligand (MHACD was confirmed by various characterization techniques, including Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis, and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX spectroscopic techniques. The anti-bacteria activities of MHACD were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species and the results showed that MHACD possesses a spectrum of activity against the two bacteria. The electrochemical cyclic voltammetry study on MHACD revealed that it is a redox active compound with promising catalytic properties in electrochemical applications. The inhibition potential of MHACD for mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization method. The results showed that MHACD inhibits steel corrosion as a mixed-type inhibitor, and the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of MHACD. The adsorption of MHACD obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm; it is spontaneous and involves competitive physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO of MHACD is high enough to favor forward donation of charges to the metal during adsorption and corrosion inhibition. Natural bond orbital (NBO analysis revealed the presence of various orbitals in the MHACD that are capable of donating or accepting electrons under favorable conditions.

  8. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  9. Reversal of Trimethyltin-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits by 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiamnesic effect of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA as the main phenolic compound in Artemisia argyi H. extract on cognitive dysfunction induced by trimethyltin (TMT (7.1 μg/kg of body weight; intraperitoneal injection was investigated in order to assess its ameliorating function in mice. In several behavioral tests, namely, the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze (MWM test, 3,5-diCQA significantly ameliorated learning and memory deficits. After the behavioral tests, brain tissues from the mice were analyzed to characterize the basis of the neuroprotective effect. Acetylcholine (ACh levels increased, whereas the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE decreased upon administration of 3,5-diCQA. In addition, 3,5-diCQA effectively protected against an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content, an increase in the oxidized glutathione (GSH ratio, and a decline of total superoxide dismutase (SOD level. 3,5-diCQA may prevent neuronal apoptosis through the protection of mitochondrial activities and the repression of apoptotic signaling molecules such as p-Akt, BAX, and p-tau (Ser 404.

  10. Haloaniline-induced in vitro nephrotoxicity: effects of 4-haloanilines and 3,5-dihaloanilines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S K; Anestis, D K; Henderson, T T; Rankin, G O

    2000-04-03

    Haloanilines are widely used as chemical intermediates in the manufacture of pesticides, dyes and drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine the in vitro nephrotoxic effects of the four 4-haloaniline and four 3,5-dihaloaniline isomers using renal cortical slices obtained from the kidneys of untreated, male Fischer 344 rats. Renal cortical slices were incubated with a haloaniline hydrochloride (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mM, final concentration) or vehicle for 2 h, and toxicity determined by monitoring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and changes in tissue gluconeogenesis capacity. At the concentrations tested, none of the 4-haloanilines increased LDH release. 4-Bromoaniline reduced gluconeogenesis at the lowest concentration (0.1 mM), but 4-iodoaniline 2.0 mM induced the largest decrease in gluconeogenesis (92% downward arrow). Among the 3,5-dihaloanilines, 3,5-dibromoaniline proved to be the most potent nephrotoxicant and 3,5-difluoroaniline the least potent nephrotoxicant. LDH release was increased by the dibromo (1.0 and 2. 0 mM), dichloro (2.0 mM) and diiodo (2.0 mM) derivatives, but not by 3,5-difluoroaniline. These results demonstrate that 3, 5-dihaloanilines are generally more potent nephrotoxicants in vitro than the 4-haloaniline isomers, and that bromo and iodo substitutions enhanced the nephrotoxic potential of aniline to the greatest degree.

  11. Young planets under extreme UV irradiation. I. Upper atmosphere modelling of the young exoplanet K2-33b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubyshkina, D.; Lendl, M.; Fossati, L.; Cubillos, P. E.; Lammer, H.; Erkaev, N. V.; Johnstone, C. P.

    2018-04-01

    The K2-33 planetary system hosts one transiting 5 R⊕ planet orbiting the young M-type host star. The planet's mass is still unknown, with an estimated upper limit of 5.4 MJ. The extreme youth of the system (age of the system indicates that the planet is more massive than 10 M⊕.

  12. Effective Communication in a Culture of Learning: K-2 and Specialized Educators Communicating Effectively Regarding Students' Academic Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Castellano, Latesha D.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes an action research study that was designed to improve the communication channels among K-2 and specialized educators in a specific learning culture regarding the learning needs of students. The action research intervention plan included professional online workshops, telecommunication conferences, and recorded…

  13. Improving K-2 Reading Instruction through the Use of a Coaching Model with Onsite Professional Development: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Paula J.

    2013-01-01

    Reading instruction at the K-2 grade levels is of utmost importance for a student's education. The foundational skills acquired during this time period will serve a student throughout their life. Elementary teachers often feel unprepared for the demands of the struggling, proficient and advanced readers within their classrooms. The professional…

  14. Cytotoxic activity of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 against human oral tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayasu, H; Ishihara, M; Satoh, K; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin K1, K2 and K3 were compared for their cytotoxic activity, radical generation and O2- scavenging activity. Among these compounds, vitamin K3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against human oral tumor cell lines (HSC-2, HSG), human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60) and human gingival fibroblast (HGF). Vitamin K3 induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells, but not in HSC-2 or HSG cells. The cytotoxic activity of vitamins K2 and K1 was one and two orders lower, respectively, than K3. Vitamin K2, but not vitamin K3, showed tumor-specific cytotoxic action. ESR spectroscopy showed that only vitamin K3 produced radical(s) under alkaline condition and most potently enhanced the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate and scavenged O2- (generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction system); vitamin K2 was much less active whereas vitamin K1 was inactive. These data suggest that the cytotoxic activity of vitamin K3 is generated by radical-mediated oxidation mechanism and that this vitamin has two opposing actions (that is, antioxidant and prooxidant), depending on the experimental conditions.

  15. Oscillating Red Giants Observed during Campaign 1 of the Kepler K2 Mission: New Prospects for Galactic Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Sharma, Sanjib; Johnson, Jennifer; Lund, Mikkel N.; Handberg, Rasmus; Buzasi, Derek L.; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Chaplin, William J.; Miglio, Andrea; Pinsonneault, Marc; Basu, Sarbani; Bedding, Tim R.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Casagrande, Luca; Davies, Guy; Elsworth, Yvonne; Garcia, Rafael A.; Mathur, Savita; Di Mauro, Maria Pia; Mosser, Benoit; Schneider, Donald P.; Serenelli, Aldo; Valentini, Marica

    2015-08-01

    NASA’s re-purposed Kepler mission—dubbed K2—has brought new scientific opportunities that were not anticipated for the original Kepler mission. One science goal that makes optimal use of K2's capabilities, in particular its 360° ecliptic field of view, is galactic archaeology—the study of the evolution of the Galaxy from the fossil stellar record. The thrust of this research is to exploit high-precision, time-resolved photometry from K2 in order to detect oscillations in red giant stars. This asteroseismic information can provide estimates of stellar radius (hence distance), mass, and age of vast numbers of stars across the Galaxy. Here we present the initial analysis of a subset of red giants, observed toward the north galactic gap, during the mission’s first full science campaign. We investigate the feasibility of using K2 data for detecting oscillations in red giants that span a range in apparent magnitude and evolutionary state (hence intrinsic luminosity). We demonstrate that oscillations are detectable for essentially all cool giants within the {log}g range ˜1.9-3.2. Our detection is complete down to {\\text{Kp}} ˜ 14.5, which results in a seismic sample with little or no detection bias. This sample is ideally suited to stellar population studies that seek to investigate potential shortcomings of contemporary Galaxy models.

  16. The influence of oxide on the electrochemical processes in K2NbF7-NaCl-KCl melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lantelme, F.; Berghoute, Y.; Barner, Jens H. Von

    1995-01-01

    Transient electrochemical techniques showed that in NaCl-KCl melts the reduction of K2NbF7 occurs through atwo-step reaction Nb(V) --> Nb(IV) --> Nb. When oxide ions were introduced, cyclic voltammetry indicated that the wavescorresponding to reduction of the complex NbF72- progressively...

  17. Impact of calcium ion on cytotoxic effect of the boroxine derivative, K2[B3O3F4OH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovic, Sinisa; Stojkovic, Ranko; Maksimovic, Milka; Galic, Borivoj; Milos, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of Ca 2+ ions on the cytotoxic ability of boron heterocyclic compound dipotassium-trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate (K 2 [B 3 O 3 F 4 OH]), on in vitro tumor cells (mammary adenocarcinoma 4T1, melanoma B16F10 and squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII) and non-tumoral fibroblast cells (mouse dermal L929 and hamster lung V79) was examined. At small concentrations of Ca 2+ ions (0.42 mM), K 2 [B 3 O 3 F 4 OH] (3.85 mM) has a very strong cytotoxic effect on all cancer cells tested (89.1, 85.6 and 84.6%) and significantly less effect on normal cells (19.5 and 24.2%), respectively. Applying larger concentrations of Ca 2+ ions (9.42-72.42 mM), at the same concentration of K 2 [B 3 O 3 F 4 OH], no significant cytotoxic effect was detected on cancer cells and normal cells investigated. The selective ability of K 2 [B 3 O 3 F 4 OH], in the medium with a low concentration of Ca 2+ ions has a strong cytotoxic effect on cancer cells and very weak effect in normal cells, opens up the possibility of its application in antitumor therapy.

  18. Cotransport of water by the Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 in mammalian epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Herrera-Perez, José J; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Water transport by the Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) was studied in confluent cultures of pigmented epithelial (PE) cells from the ciliary body of the fetal human eye. Interdependence among water, Na+ and Cl(-) fluxes mediated by NKCC1 was inferred from changes in cell water volume, monitored...

  19. Biodiesel production from rice bran oil by transesterification using heterogeneous catalyst natural zeolite modified with K2CO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslim; Iriany; Bani, O.; Parinduri, S. Z. D. M.; Ningsih, P. R. W.

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, an effort had been made to use natural zeolite from Tapanuli Utara, North Sumatera as a potential catalyst for biodiesel production. Biodiesel production is usuallythrough transesterification, and a catalyst is employed to improve reaction rate and yield. In this research rice bran oil (RBO) was used as feedstock. The objective of this work was to discover the effectiveness of natural zeolite modified by K2CO3 as catalysts in biodiesel production from RBO. K2CO3/natural zeolite catalyst modification was by impregnation method at various K2CO3 concentrations followed by drying and calcination. Transesterification was conducted at 65°C and 500 rpm. Effect of process variables such as the amount of catalyst, reaction time, and the molar ratio of methanol to RBO was investigated.The maximum yield of 98.18% biodiesel was obtained by using 10:1 molar ratio of methanol to RBO at a reaction time of 3 hours in the presence of 4 w% catalyst. The obtained biodiesel was then characterized by its density, viscosity and ester content. The biodiesel properties met the Indonesia standard (SNI).The results showed that natural zeolite modified by K2CO3 was suitable as a catalyst in the synthesis of biodiesel through transesterification from RBO.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Planetary candidates from 1st yr K2 mission (Vanderburg+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, A.; Latham, D. W.; Buchhave, L. A.; Bieryla, A.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. L.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Welsh, S.; Johnson, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    During Campaign 0, K2 observed a field centered at RAJ2000=06:33:11.14,DEJ2000=+21:35:16.40, for a period of 80 days between March and May of 2014. During Campaign 1, K2 observed a field centered at RAJ2000=11:35:45.51,DEJ2000=+01:25:02.28 for 83 days between June and August of 2014. Field 2 of the K2 mission is centered at RAJ2000=16:24:30.34,DEJ2000=-22:26:50.28, and was observed for 79 days between 2014 August and November. Field 3 of the K2 mission is centered at RAJ2000=22:26:39.68,DEJ2000=-11:05:47.99, and was observed for 69 days between 2014 November and 2015 February. We observed 68 stars with the high-resolution Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES; on the 1.5m telescope at Fred L. Whipple Observatory (FLWO) on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona; R=44000) at least once, collecting a total of 101 spectra, and extracted the spectra using the procedure described in Buchhave et al. (2010, J/ApJ/720/1118). See tables 3 and 4. (4 data files).

  1. Enhanced Production of Vitamin K2 from Bacillus subtilis (nattoby Mutation and Optimization of the Fermentation Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Song

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance the production of vitamin K2 by using N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (NTG and low energy ion beam implantation and optimizing the fermentation medium. Mutation resulted in 1.66-fold higher production of vitamin K2 than that of the parentl strain. The production by the mutant BN-P15-11-1was increased 55% and reached 3.593±0.107 mg/L by using the Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken designs to optimize the fermentation medium. The optimal fermentation culture medium was composed of (g/L glycerol 69.6, sucrose 34.5, K2HPO4 4.0, peptone 20, yeast extract 25 and fermented at 37 °C and 150 rpm for 72 h. The results showed that the NTG and low energy ion beam implantation mutations and optimizing fermentation medium were effective methods to enhance vitamin K2production.

  2. Measurement of plasma vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinones-4 and -7) using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Ineke J; van der Molen, Jan C; van Faassen, Martijn; Navis, Gerjan; de Borst, Martin H; Muskiet, Frits A J; de Jong, Wilhelmina H A; Bakker, Stephan J L; Kema, Ido P

    BACKGROUND: Given the growing interest in the health benefits of vitamin K, there is great need for development of new high-throughput methods for quantitative determination of vitamin K in plasma. We describe a simple and rapid method for measurement of plasma vitamin K1 (phylloquinone [PK]) and K2

  3. Specificity of the Spectrophotometry for Detecting Aminopolyether K2.2.2 in 18F-FDG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jin-ming

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 氨基聚醚(K2.2.2含量是18F-FDG质控中的关键指标,比较了两种常用测量K2.2.2方法的专属性。分别采用分光光度计和半定量TLC 碘显色法测量了14个样品,其中9个阴性样品、2个阳性样品和3个供试品,并与LC-MS/MS测量对比。结果显示:9个阴性样品经分光光度计法测量均为阳性,K2.2.2的测量结果在6.7~470.0 μg/mL;2个阳性样品结果偏高(53,73 μg/mL),3个供试品的K2.2.2含量在14.3~19.2 μg/mL;半定量TLC 碘显色法测量9个阴性样品结果为阴性,2个阳性样品半定量结果与实际一致,3个供试品的K2.2.2含量低于10 μg/mL;LC-MS/MS法测量的14个样品的结果与半定量TLC 碘显色法的结果一致。以上结果表明,半定量TLC 碘显色法测量K2.2.2的专属性较好,适用于测量18F-FDG溶液中K2.2.2含量。

  4. Oral Consumption of Vitamin K2 for 8 Weeks Associated With Increased Maximal Cardiac Output During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Henning, Andrea L; Venable, Adam S

    2017-07-01

    Background • Vitamin K1 and K2 are not typically common in a Western diet because they are found in a variety of fermented foods. Vitamin K2 in particular has been demonstrated to restore mitochondrial function and has a key role in production of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that dietary supplementation with vitamin K2 could increase the function of muscle with high mitochondrial content (ie, skeletal and cardiac muscle). Objective • The purpose of this study was to determine if 8 wk of dietary supplementation with Vitamin K2 could alter cardiovascular responses to a graded cycle ergometer test. Design • The study was a randomized controlled trial. Setting • The study took place in the Applied Physiology Laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of North Texas (Denton, TX, USA). Participants • Participants were aerobically trained males and female athletes (N = 26). Intervention • Participants were randomly assigned either to a control group that received a rice flour placebo or to an intervention group that received vitamin K2. For weeks 1 to 4, participants received 300 mg/d; for weeks 5 to 8, they received 150 mg/d. Subjects assigned to the control group received similar doses to mirror the intervention group. Subjects consumed the supplements during an 8-wk period while they maintained their typical exercise habits. Outcome Measures • At baseline and postintervention, participants completed a standard, graded exercise test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Before the test, participants were fitted with a mouth piece, and their oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, respiratory rate, and respiratory exchange ratio were measured. In addition, participants were fitted with skin-mounted electrodes that measured noninvasive cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate. To assess the cumulative exercise change, an area-under-the-curve (AUC) value was calculated

  5. The Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2)-dependent Tup1 Conversion (PIPTC) Regulates Metabolic Reprogramming from Glycolysis to Gluconeogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bong-Kwan; Emr, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose/carbon metabolism is a fundamental cellular process in living cells. In response to varying environments, eukaryotic cells reprogram their glucose/carbon metabolism between aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and/or gluconeogenesis. The distinct type of glucose/carbon metabolism that a cell carries out has significant effects on the cell's proliferation and differentiation. However, it is poorly understood how the reprogramming of glucose/carbon metabolism is regulated. Here, we report a novel endosomal PI(3,5)P2 lipid-dependent regulatory mechanism that is required for metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Certain gluconeogenesis genes, such as FBP1 (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1) and ICL1 (encoding isocitrate lyase 1) are under control of the Mig1 repressor and Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex. We previously identified the PI(3,5)P2-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC), a mechanism to convert Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor to Cti6-Cyc8-Tup1 coactivator. We demonstrate that the PIPTC plays a critical role for transcriptional activation of FBP1 and ICL1. Furthermore, without the PIPTC, the Cat8 and Sip4 transcriptional activators cannot be efficiently recruited to the promoters of FBP1 and ICL1, suggesting a key role for the PIPTC in remodulating the chromatin architecture at the promoters. Our findings expand our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for metabolic reprogramming in eukaryotes to include key regulation steps outside the nucleus. Given that Tup1 and the metabolic enzymes that control PI(3,5)P2 are highly conserved among eukaryotes, our findings may provide important insights toward understanding glucose/carbon metabolic reprogramming in other eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:23733183

  6. The phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2)-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC) regulates metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bong-Kwan; Emr, Scott D

    2013-07-12

    Glucose/carbon metabolism is a fundamental cellular process in living cells. In response to varying environments, eukaryotic cells reprogram their glucose/carbon metabolism between aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and/or gluconeogenesis. The distinct type of glucose/carbon metabolism that a cell carries out has significant effects on the cell's proliferation and differentiation. However, it is poorly understood how the reprogramming of glucose/carbon metabolism is regulated. Here, we report a novel endosomal PI(3,5)P2 lipid-dependent regulatory mechanism that is required for metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Certain gluconeogenesis genes, such as FBP1 (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1) and ICL1 (encoding isocitrate lyase 1) are under control of the Mig1 repressor and Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex. We previously identified the PI(3,5)P2-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC), a mechanism to convert Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor to Cti6-Cyc8-Tup1 coactivator. We demonstrate that the PIPTC plays a critical role for transcriptional activation of FBP1 and ICL1. Furthermore, without the PIPTC, the Cat8 and Sip4 transcriptional activators cannot be efficiently recruited to the promoters of FBP1 and ICL1, suggesting a key role for the PIPTC in remodulating the chromatin architecture at the promoters. Our findings expand our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for metabolic reprogramming in eukaryotes to include key regulation steps outside the nucleus. Given that Tup1 and the metabolic enzymes that control PI(3,5)P2 are highly conserved among eukaryotes, our findings may provide important insights toward understanding glucose/carbon metabolic reprogramming in other eukaryotes, including humans.

  7. Mercury's gravity field, tidal Love number k2, and spin axis orientation revealed with MESSENGER radio tracking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A. K.; Margot, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    We are conducting an independent analysis of two-way Doppler and two-way range radio tracking data from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury from 2011 to 2015. Our goals are to estimate Mercury's gravity field and to obtain independent estimates of the tidal Love number k2 and spin axis orientation. Our gravity field solution reproduces existing values with high fidelity, and prospects for recovery of the other quantities are excellent. The tidal Love number k2 provides powerful constraints on interior models of Mercury, including the mechanical properties of the mantle and the possibility of a solid FeS layer at the top of the core. Current gravity analyses cannot rule out a wide range of values (k2=43-0.50) and a variety of plausible interior models. We are seeking an independent estimate of tidal Love number k2 with improved errors to further constrain these models. Existing gravity-based solutions for Mercury's spin axis orientation differ from those of Earth-based radar and topography-based solutions. This difference may indicate an error in one of the determinations, or a real difference between the orientations about which the gravity field and the crust rotate, which can exist in a variety of plausible configuration. Securing an independent estimate of the spin axis orientation is vital because this quantity has a profound impact on the determination of the moment of inertia and interior models. We have derived a spherical harmonic solution of the gravity field to degree and order 40 as well as estimates of the tidal Love number k2 and spin axis orientation.

  8. Mercury’s gravity field, tidal Love number k2, and spin axis orientation revealed with MESSENGER radio tracking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ashok Kumar; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2015-11-01

    We are conducting an independent analysis of two-way Doppler and two-way range radio tracking data from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury from 2011 to 2015. Our goals are to estimate Mercury’s gravity field and to obtain independent estimates of the tidal Love number k2 and spin axis orientation. Our gravity field solution reproduces existing values with high fidelity, and prospects for recovery of the other quantities are excellent.The tidal Love number k2 provides powerful constraints on interior models of Mercury, including the mechanical properties of the mantle and the possibility of a solid FeS layer at the top of the core. Current gravity analyses cannot rule out a wide range of values (k2=43-0.50) and a variety of plausible interior models. We are seeking an independent estimate of tidal Love number k2 with improved errors to further constrain these models.Existing gravity-based solutions for Mercury's spin axis orientation differ from those of Earth-based radar and topography-based solutions. This difference may indicate an error in one of the determinations, or a real difference between the orientations about which the gravity field and the crust rotate, which can exist in a variety of plausible configuration. Securing an independent estimate of the spin axis orientation is vital because this quantity has a profound impact on the determination of the moment of inertia and interior models.We have derived a spherical harmonic solution of the gravity field to degree and order 40 as well as estimates of the tidal Love number k2 and spin axis orientation

  9. Invasive liver abscess syndrome caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae with definite K2 serotyping in Japan: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ryota; Kudo, Daisuke; Gu, Yoshiaki; Yano, Hisakazu; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Omura, Taku; Irino, Shigemi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2016-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumonia is a well-known human pathogen, and recently, a distinct invasive syndrome caused by K. pneumoniae serotypes K1 and K2 has been recognized in Southeast Asia. This syndrome is characterized by primary liver abscess and extrahepatic complications resulting from bacteremic dissemination. We report the first adult case of primary liver abscess caused by the definite K2 serotyped pathogen, with endogenous endophthalmitis in Japan. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to a nearby hospital for a high fever and diarrhea. She had visual loss of her right eye, renal dysfunction, and thrombocytopenia within 24 h from admission. She was transferred to our institution. On admission, she had no alteration of mental status and normal vital signs; however, she had almost complete ablepsia of the right eye. Laboratory data showed severe inflammation, liver dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, an increased serum creatinine level, and coagulopathy. Computed tomography showed a low density area in the right lobe of the liver. Invasive liver abscess syndrome probably caused by K. pneumonia was highly suspected and immediately administered broad-spectrum antibiotics for severe sepsis. Concurrently, endogenous endophthalmitis was diagnosed, and we performed vitrectomy on the day of admission. The blood culture showed K. pneumoniae infection. Percutaneous drainage of the liver abscess was also performed. Although she was discharged in a good general condition on day 22, she had complete ablepsia of the right eye. The K2A gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is consistent with the K2 serotype. PCR was also positive for the virulence-associated gene rmpA. Final diagnosis was invasive liver abscess syndrome caused by K2 serotype K. pneumonia. Although the primary liver abscess caused by K. pneumoniae with a hypermucoviscous phenotype is infrequently reported outside Southeast Asia, physicians should recognize this syndrome, and appropriate diagnosis and

  10. Vitamin K2 regression aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Tao, Huiren; Qiu, Cuiting; Ma, Xiaolei; Li, Shan; Guo, Xian; Lv, Anlin; Li, Huan

    2016-09-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 on aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats. A calcification model was established by administering 3mg/g warfarin to rats. Rats were divided into 9 groups: control group (0W, 4W, 6W and 12W groups), 4W calcification group, 6W calcification group, 12W calcification group, 6W calcification+6W normal group and 6W calcification+6W vitamin K2 group. Alizarin red S staining measured aortic calcium depositions; alkaline phosphatase activity in serum was measured by a kit; apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay; protein expression levels of Gas6, Axl, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and Bcl-2 were determined by western blotting. The calcium content, calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis were significantly higher in the calcification groups than control group. Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression was lower in the calcification group than control group. 100μg/g vitamin K2 treatment decreased calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis significantly, but increased Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression. 100μg/g vitamin K2 reversed 44% calcification. Pearson correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between formation calcification and apoptosis (R(2)=0.8853, PK2 can inhibit warfarin-induced aortic calcification and apoptosis. The regression of aortic calcification by vitamin K2 involved the Gas6/Axl axis. This data may provide a theoretical basis for future clinical treatments for aortic calcification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechano-chemical synthesis K2MF6 (M = Mn, Ni) by cation-exchange reaction at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Pooja; Nagarajan, Rajamani

    2018-02-01

    In order to establish the power of mechanochemistry to produce industrially important phosphors, synthesis of K2MnF6 has been attempted by the successive grinding reactions of manganese (II) acetate with ammonium fluoride and potassium fluoride. The progress of reaction was followed by ex-situ characterization after periodic intervals of time. Cubic symmetry of K2MnF6 was evident from its powder X-ray diffraction pattern which was refined successfully in cubic space group (Fm-3m) with a = 8.4658 (20) Å. Stretching and bending vibration modes of MnF62- octahedral units appeared at 740 and 482 cm-1 in the fourier transformed infrared spectrum. Bands at 405 and 652 cm-1 appeared in the Raman spectrum and they were finger-print positions of cubic K2MnF6. Other than the ligand to metal charge transfer transition at 242 nm, transitions from 4A2g to 4T1g, 4T2g and 2T2g of Mn4+-ion appeared at 352, 429, 474 and 569 nm in the UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrum of the sample. Red emission due to Mn4+ was observed in the photoluminescence spectrum with a decay time of 0.22 ms. Following the success in forming cubic K2MnF6, this approach has been extended to synthesize cubic K2NiF6 at room temperature. All these results confirmed the susceptibility of acetate salts of transition metals belonging to first-row of the periodic table to facile fluorination at room temperature aided by mechanical forces.

  12. Trinuclear Lanthanoid Complexes of 1,3,5-Triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol with a Unique, Sandwich-Type Cage Structure(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedinger, Roman; Ghisletta, Michele; Hegetschweiler, Kaspar; Tóth, Eva; Merbach, André E.; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante; Gramlich, Volker

    1998-12-28

    A variety of trinuclear complexes [M(3)(H(-)(3)L)(2)](3+) [M = Y, La, Eu, Gd, Dy; L = 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci) and 1,3,5-trideoxy-1,3,5-tris(dimethylamino)-cis-inositol (tdci)] was prepared as solid materials of the composition M(3)(H(-)(3)L)(2)X(3).pH(2)O.qEtOH (X = Cl, NO(3); 2.5

  13. Study on the thermoluminescent properties of K2YF5 and K2GdF5 crystals doped with optically active trivalent ions for gamma and neutrons dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edna Carla da

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the thermoluminescent (TL) properties of both double potassium yttrium fluoride (K 2 YF 5 ) and double potassium gadolinium fluoride (K 2 GdF 5 ) crystals doped with optically active rare earth ions were investigated from the point of view of gamma and neutron dosimetry. Crystalline platelets with thickness of about 1 mm, synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, were irradiated in order to study TL sensitivity, as well as dose and energy response, reproducibility and fading, in terms of Ce 3+ , Tb 3+ , Dy 3+ , e Pr 3+ concentrations. The K 2 YF 5 crystals doped with 1.0 at por cent Dy 3+ have been found to have an excellent linear TL response to X and gamma photons, in the range of 0.01 to 10 mGy. The TL output is comparable to that of CaS0 4 :Mn dosemeters. The main peak at 130 deg C has been found to have a TL response for 41.1 keV X-ray energy 32 times higher than that for 662 keV gamma rays. This fact points out that the K 2 Y 0.99 Dy 0.01 F 5 crystals have great potential for X-rays diagnostic and/or industrial radiography. On the other hand, the K 2 GdF 5 crystals doped with 5.0 at por cent Dy 3+ have been found to have the better TL response for gamma and fast neutron radiation, among the dopants studied. For gamma fields the TL response was linear for doses ranging from 0.1 to 200 mGy. The TL peak around 200 deg C can be deconvoluted into four individual peaks, all of them with linear behavior. For fast neutron radiation produced by an 241 Am B e source, the TL responses for doses ranging from 0.6 to 12 mSv were also linear and comparable to that of commercial TLD-600, irradiated at same conditions. The TL emission due to neutrons was in the high temperature range, above 200 deg C. These results points out that K 2 Gd 0.95 Dy 0.05 F 5 crystals are good candidates for use in neutron dosimetry applications. (author)

  14. On the low pressure shock initiation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine based plastic bonded explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Tarver, Craig M.; Garcia, Frank; Chidester, Steven K.

    2010-05-01

    In large explosive and propellant charges, relatively low shock pressures on the order of 1-2 GPa impacting large volumes and lasting tens of microseconds can cause shock initiation of detonation. The pressure buildup process requires several centimeters of shock propagation before shock to detonation transition occurs. In this paper, experimentally measured run distances to detonation for lower input shock pressures are shown to be much longer than predicted by extrapolation of high shock pressure data. Run distance to detonation and embedded manganin gauge pressure histories are measured using large diameter charges of six octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) based plastic bonded explosives (PBX's): PBX 9404; LX-04; LX-07; LX-10; PBX 9501; and EDC37. The embedded gauge records show that the lower shock pressures create fewer and less energetic "hot spot" reaction sites, which consume the surrounding explosive particles at reduced reaction rates and cause longer distances to detonation. The experimental data is analyzed using the ignition and growth reactive flow model of shock initiation in solid explosives. Using minimum values of the degrees of compression required to ignite hot spot reactions, the previously determined high shock pressure ignition and growth model parameters for the six explosives accurately simulate the much longer run distances to detonation and much slower growths of pressure behind the shock fronts measured during the shock initiation of HMX PBX's at several low shock pressures.

  15. Monte Carlo calculations of the elastic moduli and pressure-volume-temperature equation of state for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, Thomas D.; Bennett, Carl M.

    2000-01-01

    Isothermal-isobaric Monte Carlo calculations were used to obtain predictions of the elastic coefficients and derived engineering moduli and Poisson ratios for crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The elastic coefficients were computed using the strain fluctuation formula due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2662 (1982)]. Calculations were performed as a function of temperature (218 K≤T≤333 K) and hydrostatic pressure (0 GPa≤p≤4 GPa). The predicted values of the moduli and Poisson ratios under ambient conditions are in accord with general expectations for molecular crystals and with a very recent, unpublished determination for RDX. The moduli exhibit a sensitive pressure dependence whereas the Poisson ratios are relatively independent of pressure. The temperature dependence of the moduli is comparable to the precision of the results. However, the crystal does exhibit thermal softening for most pressures. An additional product of the calculations is information about the pressure-volume-temperature (pVT) equation of state. We obtain near-quantitative agreement with experiment for the case of hydrostatic compression and reasonable, but not quantitative, correspondence for thermal expansion. The results indicate a significant dependence of the thermal expansion coefficients on hydrostatic pressure. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  16. Biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a prospective consortium and its most effective isolate Serratia marcescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.M.; Ogden, K.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Unkefer, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

    1997-03-05

    The biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) has been observed in liquid culture by a consortium of bacteria found in horse manure. Five types of bacteria were found to predominate in the consortium and were isolated. The most effective of these isolates at transforming RDX was Serratia marcescens. The biotransformation of RDX by all of these bacteria was found to occur only in the anoxic stationary phase. The process of bacterial growth and RDX biotransformation was quantified for the purpose of developing a predictive type model. Cell growth was assumed to follow Monod kinetics. All of the aerobic and anoxid growth parameters were determined: {mu}{sub max}, K{sub s}, and Y{sub x/s}. RDX was found to competitively inhibit cell growth in both atmospheres. Degradation of RDX by Serratia marcescens was found to proceed through the stepwise reduction of the three nitro groups to nitroso groups. Each of these reductions was found to be first order in both component and cell concentrations. The degradation rate constant for the first step in this reduction process by the consortium was 0.022 L/g cells {center_dot} h compared to 0.033 L/g cells {center_dot} h for the most efficient isolate.

  17. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-06

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment.

  18. Characterization of polymorphic states in energetic samples of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) fabricated using drop-on-demand inkjet technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Erik D; Farrell, Mikella E; Holthoff, Ellen L; Tripathi, Ashish; Green, Norman; Moon, Raphael P; Guicheteau, Jason A; Christesen, Steven D; Pellegrino, Paul M; Fountain, Augustus W

    2012-06-01

    The United States Army and the first responder community are evaluating optical detection systems for the trace detection of hazardous energetic materials. Fielded detection systems must be evaluated with the appropriate material concentrations to accurately identify the residue in theater. Trace levels of energetic materials have been observed in mutable polymorphic phases and, therefore, the systems being evaluated must be able to detect and accurately identify variant sample phases observed in spectral data. In this work, we report on the novel application of drop-on-demand technology for the fabrication of standardized trace 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) samples. The drop-on-demand sample fabrication technique is compared both visually and spectrally to the more commonly used drop-and-dry technique. As the drop-on-demand technique allows for the fabrication of trace level hazard materials, concerted efforts focused on characterization of the polymorphic phase changes observed with low concentrations of RDX commonly used in drop-on-demand processing. This information is important when evaluating optical detection technologies using samples prepared with a drop-on-demand inkjet system, as the technology may be "trained" to detect the common bulk α phase of the explosive based on its spectral features but fall short in positively detecting a trace quantity of RDX (β-phase). We report the polymorphic shifts observed between α- and β-phases of this energetic material and discuss the conditions leading to the favoring of one phase over the other.

  19. Performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules for removal of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Chunjiang; He Yanling; Huang Guohe; Liu Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    The performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules to degrade octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was investigated under various conditions. The results of batch experiments showed that anaerobic granules were capable of removing HMX from aqueous solution with high efficiency. Both biotic and abiotic mechanisms contributed to the removal of HMX by anaerobic granules under mesophilic conditions. Adsorption appeared to play a significant role in the abiotic process. Furthermore, HMX could be biodegraded by anaerobic granules as the sole substrate. After 16 days of incubation, 99.04% and 96.42% of total HMX could be removed by 1 g VSS/L acclimated and unacclimated granules, respectively. Vancomycin, an inhibitor of acetogenic bacteria, caused a significant inhibition of HMX biotransformation, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, only resulted in a slight decrease of metabolic activity. The presence of the glucose, as a suitable electron donor and carbon source, was found to enhance the degradation of HMX by anaerobic granules. Our study showed that sulfate had little adverse effects on biotransformation of HMX by anaerobic granules. However, nitrate had significant inhibitory effect on the extent of HMX removal especially in the initial period. This study offered good prospects of using high-rate anaerobic technology in the treatment of munition wastewater.

  20. Location of early aftershocks of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture Earthquake (M = 6.8) in central Japan using seismogram envelopes as templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuga, M.

    2013-12-01

    The location of early aftershocks is very important to obtain information of mainshock fault, however, it is often difficult due to the long-lasting coda wave of mainshock and successive occurrence of afterrshocks. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a method of location using seismogram envelopes as templates, and applied the method to the early aftershock sequence of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture (Chuetsu) Earthquake (M = 6.8) in central Japan. The location method composes of three processes. The first process is the calculation of cross-correlation coefficients between a continuous (target) and template envelopes. We prepare envelopes by taking the logarithm of root-mean-squared amplitude of band-pass filtered seismograms. We perform the calculation by shifting the time window to obtain a set of cross-correlation values for each template. The second process is the event detection (selection of template) and magnitude estimate. We search for the events in descending order of cross-correlation in a time window excluding the dead times around the previously detected events. Magnitude is calculated by the amplitude ratio of target and template envelopes. The third process is the relative event location to the selected template. We applied this method to the Chuetsu earthquake, a large inland earthquake with extensive aftershock activity. The number of detected events depends on the number of templates, frequency range, and the threshold value of cross-correlation. We set the threshold as 0.5 by referring to the histogram of cross-correlation. During a period of one-hour from the mainshock, we could detect more events than the JMA catalog. The location of events is generally near the catalog location. Though we should improve the methods of relative location and magnitude estimate, we conclude that the proposed method works adequately even just after the mainshock of large inland earthquake. Acknowledgement: We thank JMA, NIED, and the University of Tokyo for

  1. The reaction between ZnO and Molten K2S2O7 forming K2Zn(SO4)2, studied by Raman and IR Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Nielsen, Kurt; Boghosian, Soghomon

    1999-01-01

    .153(3) Å, b = 91.78(3)o, wR2 = 0.0758 for all 1930 ? independent reflections. The compound, K2Zn(SO4)2, contained trigonally bipyramidal zinc coordinated to five oxygen atoms, with Zn-O bonds of normal length (~ 2.04 ± 0.05 Å), equitorial bonds being slightly shorter on the average. The O-Zn-O angles were...

  2. Effect of vitamin K2 and growth hormone on the long bones in hypophysectomized young rats: a bone histomorphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Yeh, James K

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether vitamin K(2) and growth hormone (GH) had an additive effect on the long bones in hypophysectomized young rats. Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old) were assigned to the following five groups by the stratified weight randomization method: intact controls, hypophysectomy (HX) alone, HX + vitamin K(2) (30 mg/kg, p.o., daily), HX + GH (0.625 mg/kg, s.c., 5 days a week), and HX + vitamin K(2) + GH. The duration of the experiment was 4 weeks. HX resulted in a reduction of the cancellous bone volume/total tissue volume (BV/TV) at the proximal tibial metaphysis, as well as decreasing the total tissue area and cortical area of the tibial diaphysis. These changes resulted from a decrease of the longitudinal growth rate and the bone formation rate (BFR)/TV of cancellous bone, as well as a decrease of the periosteal BFR/bone surface (BS) and an increase of endocortical bone turnover (indicated by the BFR/BS) in cortical bone. Administration of vitamin K(2) to HX rats did not affect the cancellous BV/TV or the cortical area. On the other hand, GH completely prevented the decrease of total tissue area and cortical area in cortical bone, as well as the decrease of marrow area and endocortical circumference, by increasing the periosteal BFR/BS compared with that in intact controls and reversing the increase of endocortical bone turnover (BFR/BS). However, GH only partly improved the reduction of the cancellous BV/TV, despite an increase of the longitudinal growth rate and BFR/TV compared with those of intact controls. When administered with GH, vitamin K(2) counteracted the reduction of endocortical bone turnover (BFR/BS) and circumference caused by GH treatment, resulting in no significant difference of marrow area from that in untreated HX rats. These results suggest that, despite the lack of an obvious effect on bone parameters, vitamin K(2) normalizes the size of the marrow cavity during development of

  3. Searches for 3.5 keV Absorption Features in Cluster AGN Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Joseph P.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate possible evidence for a spectral dip around 3.5 keV in central cluster AGNs, motivated by previous results for archival Chandra observations of the Perseus cluster and the general interest in novel spectral features around 3.5 keV that may arise from dark matter physics. We use two deep Chandra observations of the Perseus and Virgo clusters that have recently been made public. In both cases, mild improvements in the fit (Δχ2 = 4.2 and Δχ2 = 2.5) are found by including such a dip at 3.5 keV into the spectrum. A comparable result (Δχ2 = 6.5) is found re-analysing archival on-axis Chandra ACIS-S observations of the centre of the Perseus cluster.

  4. Observation of vibronic emission spectrum of jet-cooled 3,5-difluorobenzyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Woon; Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2010-09-02

    We applied the technique of corona-excited supersonic expansion using a pinhole-type glass nozzle to observe the vibronic emission spectrum of jet-cooled benzyl-type radicals from the corona discharge of precursor 3,5-difluorotoluene seeded in a large amount of inert helium carrier gas. The vibronically well-resolved emission spectrum was recorded with a long-path monochromator in the visible region. After subtracting the vibronic bands originating from isomeric difluorobenzyl radicals from the observed spectrum, we identified for the first time the bands belonging to the 3,5-difluorobenzyl radical, from which the electronic energy and vibrational mode frequencies of the 3,5-difluorobenzyl radical were accurately determined in the ground electronic state by comparison with those of the precursor and with those from an ab initio calculation.

  5. Determination of "1"3"5Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.M.; Charles, C.R.J.; Zhao, X.-L.; Kieser, W.E.; Cornett, R.J.; Litherland, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of anthropogenic "1"3"5Cs and "1"3"7Cs isotopes is characteristic of a uranium fission source. This research evaluates the technique of isotope dilution (yield tracing) for the purpose of quantifying "1"3"5Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry with on-line isobar separation. Interferences from Ba, Zn_2, and isotopes of equal mass to charge ratios were successfully suppressed. However, some sample crosstalk from source contamination remains. The transmission and di-fluoride ionization efficiencies of Cs isotopes were found to be 8 × 10"−"3 and 1.7 × 10"−"7 respectively. This quantification of "1"3"5Cs using yield tracing by accelerator mass spectrometry shows promise for future environmental sample analysis once the issues of sample crosstalk and low efficiency can be resolved.

  6. Long-range-corrected Rung 3.5 density functional approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Proynov, Emil; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    Rung 3.5 functionals are a new class of approximations for density functional theory. They provide a flexible intermediate between exact (Hartree-Fock, HF) exchange and semilocal approximations for exchange. Existing Rung 3.5 functionals inherit semilocal functionals' limitations in atomic cores and density tails. Here we address those limitations using range-separated admixture of HF exchange. We present three new functionals. LRC-ωΠLDA combines long-range HF exchange with short-range Rung 3.5 ΠLDA exchange. SLC-ΠLDA combines short- and long-range HF exchange with middle-range ΠLDA exchange. LRC-ωΠLDA-AC incorporates a combination of HF, semilocal, and Rung 3.5 exchange in the short range, based on an adiabatic connection. We test these in a new Rung 3.5 implementation including up to analytic fourth derivatives. LRC-ωΠLDA and SLC-ΠLDA improve atomization energies and reaction barriers by a factor of 8 compared to the full-range ΠLDA. LRC-ωΠLDA-AC brings further improvement approaching the accuracy of standard long-range corrected schemes LC-ωPBE and SLC-PBE. The new functionals yield highest occupied orbital energies closer to experimental ionization potentials and describe correctly the weak charge-transfer complex of ethylene and dichlorine and the hole-spin distribution created by an Al defect in quartz. This study provides a framework for more flexible range-separated Rung 3.5 approximations.

  7. Laser ignition of DAAF, DHT and DAATO{sub 3.5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Arif N.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Oschwald, David M.; Moore, Kevin M.; Son, Steven F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    CO{sub 2} laser ignition experimental results are reported for the high-nitrogen materials 3,6-dihydrazino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DHT), 3,3'-diamino-4,4'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF), and mixed N-oxides of 3,3'-azo-bis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) (DAATO{sub 3.5}, where the ''3.5'' indicates the average oxide content) at a maximum irradiance level of approximately 140 W/cm{sup 2}. Diagnostics include a photodiode, indium antimonide (InSb) IR detector, high speed (HS) video and a CO{sub 2} photodetector. ''First light'' is measured for DAATO{sub 3.5} and DAAF, however, due to the low visible light emission of the gas phase, thermal runaway, as measured by the InSb, is used as the ignition criterion for DHT. Ignition in the gas phase is captured by the high speed camera. It is observed that an increase in laser irradiance results in an increase in ignition and flame stand-off distance for DAATO{sub 3.5}. The high-nitrogen material laser ignition results are compared to the common nitramine explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). Laser ignition delays for the different high-nitrogen materials are also compared in the context of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) data. It is determined that DSC onset temperature, while a rough indicator of ignition delay trends, is not the equivalent of a direct measure of ignition temperature. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Estructura cristalina del N-isopropil-2-ciano-3(5'-nitrofurilacrilamida Crystal structure of N-isopropyl-2-cyano-3(5'-nitrofurylacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pomés Hernandéz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available C11H11N3O4 , Mr = 249.23, triclinic, , a = 5.453(1, b = 22.873(5, c = 4.893(1 Å, a = 94.47(3, b = 96.36(3, g = 86.27(3º, V = 603.7(8ų,Z = 2, Dx = 1.371 Mg/m-3,l(Cu Ka1 = 1.54178Å, m = 0.86mm-1, room temperature. The crystal structure of N-isopropyl-2-cyano-3(5'-nitrofuryl - acrylamide has been determined by Direct Methods and refined to R = 0.086 for 797 observed reflections. The molecules in the crystal are packed at normal van der Waals forces and by an hydrogen bond between N1-H1...02i (N1...02i: 2.910(1Å, with i=x,y,z+1.

  9. pHresh 3.5: a new low pH liquid skin cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellow, W V

    1981-01-01

    pHresh 3.5, a new low pH liquid skin cleanser, was evaluated for safety and efficacy in four clinical studies. In 5- and 21-day predictive patch tests the cleanser was rated mild compared to four other widely used cleansers. As a degreasing agent it was found effective during a 4-week study period, especially in subjects with severe facial oiliness. Daily use of the product for a month in tretinoin-treated acne patients failed to indicate any lack of compatability of the two agents. Resolution of pre-existing skin irritation was not impaired by pHresh 3.5 usage.

  10. Study and application of Dot 3.5 computer code in radiation shielding problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, A.C.; Mendonca, A.G.; Maiorino, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of nuclear transportation code S sub(N), Dot 3.5, to radiation shielding problems is revised. Aiming to study the better available option (convergence scheme, calculation mode), of DOT 3.5 computer code to be applied in radiation shielding problems, a standard model from 'Argonne Code Center' was selected and a combination of several calculation options to evaluate the accuracy of the results and the computational time was used, for then to select the more efficient option. To illustrate the versatility and efficacy in the application of the code for tipical shielding problems, the streaming neutrons calculation along a sodium coolant channel is ilustrated. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Isolation and antisense suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase modifies flower pigments and colour in cyclamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Deepa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclamen is a popular and economically significant pot plant crop in several countries. Molecular breeding technologies provide opportunities to metabolically engineer the well-characterized flavonoid biosynthetic pathway for altered anthocyanin profile and hence the colour of the flower. Previously we reported on a genetic transformation system for cyclamen. Our aim in this study was to change pigment profiles and flower colours in cyclamen through the suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase, an enzyme in the flavonoid pathway that plays a determining role in the colour of anthocyanin pigments. Results A full-length cDNA putatively identified as a F3'5'H (CpF3'5'H was isolated from cyclamen flower tissue. Amino acid and phylogeny analyses indicated the CpF3'5'H encodes a F3'5'H enzyme. Two cultivars of minicyclamen were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with an antisense CpF3'5'H construct. Flowers of the transgenic lines showed modified colour and this correlated positively with the loss of endogenous F3'5'H transcript. Changes in observed colour were confirmed by colorimeter measurements, with an overall loss in intensity of colour (C in the transgenic lines and a shift in hue from purple to red/pink in one cultivar. HPLC analysis showed that delphinidin-derived pigment levels were reduced in transgenic lines relative to control lines while the percentage of cyanidin-derived pigments increased. Total anthocyanin concentration was reduced up to 80% in some transgenic lines and a smaller increase in flavonol concentration was recorded. Differences were also seen in the ratio of flavonol types that accumulated. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report of genetic modification of the anthocyanin pathway in the commercially important species cyclamen. The effects of suppressing a key enzyme, F3'5'H, were wide ranging, extending from anthocyanins to other branches of the flavonoid pathway. The results

  12. High dynamic range emission measurements of shocked energetic materials: Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    A new emission apparatus with high time resolution and high dynamic range was used to study shock-induced ignition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in the form of ultrafine powder (4 ± 3 μm particle size), over a range of impact velocities (0.8-4.3 km s-1) and impact durations (2.5-16 ns). A graybody model was used to extract graybody emissivities and time-dependent temperatures from a few ns to 100 μs. The emission transients consisted of three parts: a 6700 K nanosecond burst during the shocks, a 4000-4500 K temperature spike near 0.3 μs followed by a ˜3300 K tail extending out to ˜100 μs. These temperatures varied remarkably little with impact velocity and duration, while the emission intensities and emissivities changed by over an order of magnitude. The emissivity changes were interpreted with a hot spot model, where hot spot temperatures reached a maximum of 6700 K and the hot spot volume fractions increased from 5% to 100% as impact velocity increased from 1 to 3 km s-1. Changing shock durations in the 2.5-16 ns range had noticeable effects on the microsecond emission. The 0.3 μs temperature spike was much smaller or absent with 2.5 ns shocks, but prominent with longer durations. An explanation for these effects was put forth that invoked the formation of carbon-rich clusters during the shock. In this view, cluster formation was minimal with 2.5 ns shocks, but longer-duration shocks produced increasingly larger clusters, and the 0.3 μs temperature spikes represented cluster ignition.

  13. The little-studied cluster Berkeley 90. I. LS III +46 11: a very massive O3.5 If* + O3.5 If* binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Negueruela, I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Pellerin, A.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sota, A.; Marco, A.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; Sanchez Bermudez, J.; Gamen, R. C.; Lorenzo, J.

    2015-07-01

    Context. It appears that most (if not all) massive stars are born in multiple systems. At the same time, the most massive binaries are hard to find owing to their low numbers throughout the Galaxy and the implied large distances and extinctions. Aims: We want to study LS III +46 11, identified in this paper as a very massive binary; another nearby massive system, LS III +46 12; and the surrounding stellar cluster, Berkeley 90. Methods: Most of the data used in this paper are multi-epoch high S/N optical spectra, although we also use Lucky Imaging and archival photometry. The spectra are reduced with dedicated pipelines and processed with our own software, such as a spectroscopic-orbit code, CHORIZOS, and MGB. Results: LS III +46 11 is identified as a new very early O-type spectroscopic binary [O3.5 If* + O3.5 If*] and LS III +46 12 as another early O-type system [O4.5 V((f))]. We measure a 97.2-day period for LS III +46 11 and derive minimum masses of 38.80 ± 0.83 M⊙ and 35.60 ± 0.77 M⊙ for its two stars. We measure the extinction to both stars, estimate the distance, search for optical companions, and study the surrounding cluster. In doing so, a variable extinction is found as well as discrepant results for the distance. We discuss possible explanations and suggest that LS III +46 12 may be a hidden binary system where the companion is currently undetected.

  14. Synthesis of K2O/Zeolite catalysts by KOH impregnation for biodiesel production from waste frying oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, N.; Husin, H.; Yanti, D.; Pontas, K.; Alam, P. N.; Ridho, M.; Iskandar

    2018-03-01

    K2O/Zeolite compounds were successfully synthesized using KOH as starting material and natural zeolite as support. The catalysts were calcined at 500°C for 3 h and then characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The SEM images reveal that the zeolite and K2O/zeolite particles are irregular in shape (100 to 400 nm). The independent variables were impregnated amounts of KOH (15 - 25%), catalyst to oil ratios of 1.0 - 6.0 wt.%, and reaction time of 2 h. The highest biodiesel yield of 95% was produced from the reaction with 2.1 wt.% catalyst of 25% KOH impregnated. The properties of produced biodiesel complied with SNI. The catalytic stability test showed that the 25% KOH impregnated catalyst was stable.

  15. Electrochemical and spectroscopie behaviour of iron in the molten NaCl-K2SO4 mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Niels; Petruchina, Irina; Volkov, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical and electrochemical dissolving of Armco iron in the NaCl-K2SO4 melt has been studied. In the case of the chemical dissolution, a sample becomes coated, as time goes on, with a dense film consisting of FeO, FeS and Fe3O4; precipitation in the melt is observed, the precipitate consisting...... not detect Fe(III) by electronic absorption spectra, possibly due to the superimposition of the charge transfer bands edge on low-intensity Fe(III) bands of the 5d electronic configuration. The solubility of Fe2O3 in the NaCl-K2SO4 melt is low and was determined to 2 x 10(-3) wt%....

  16. Critical current density improvements in MgB2 superconducting bulk samples by K2CO3 additions  

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    MgB2 bulk samples with potassium carbonate doping were made by means of reaction of elemental Mg and B powders mixed with various amounts of K2CO3. The Tc of the superconducting phase as well as its a-axis parameter were decreased as a result of carbon doping. Potassium escaped the samples during...... reaction. The critical current density of MgB2 was improved both in self field and under applied magnetic field for T ≤ 30 K, with optimum results for 1 mol% K2CO3 addition. The normalized flux pinning force (f(b)) shows that the flux pinning mechanism at low field is similar for all samples, following...

  17. Are Ultra-faint Galaxies at z = 6-8 Responsible for Cosmic Reionization? Combined Constraints from the Hubble Frontier Fields Clusters and Parallels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atek, Hakim; Richard, Johan; Jauzac, Mathilde; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Limousin, Marceau; Schaerer, Daniel; Jullo, Eric; Ebeling, Harald; Egami, Eiichi; Clement, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the Frontier Fields to accurately measure the galaxy rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function (UV LF) in the redshift range z ˜ 6-8. We combine observations in three lensing clusters, A2744, MACS 0416, and MACS 0717, and their associated parallel fields to select high-redshift dropout candidates. We use the latest lensing models to estimate the flux magnification and the effective survey volume in combination with completeness simulations performed in the source plane. We report the detection of 227 galaxy candidates at z = 6-7 and 25 candidates at z ˜ 8. While the total survey area is about 4 arcmin2 in each parallel field, it drops to about 0.6-1 arcmin2 in the cluster core fields because of the strong lensing. We compute the UV LF at z ˜ 7 using the combined galaxy sample and perform Monte Carlo simulations to determine the best-fit Schechter parameters. We are able to reliably constrain the LF down to an absolute magnitude of MUV = -15.25, which corresponds to 0.005 L⋆. More importantly, we find that the faint-end slope remains steep down to this magnitude limit with α =-{2.04}-0.17+0.13. We find a characteristic magnitude of {M}\\star =-{20.89}-0.72+0.60 and log(ϕ⋆) = -{3.54}-0.45+0.48. Our results confirm the most recent results in deep blank fields but extend the LF measurements more than two magnitudes deeper. The UV LF at z ˜ 8 is not very well constrained below MUV = -18 owing to the small number statistics and incompleteness uncertainties. To assess the contribution of galaxies to cosmic reionization, we derive the UV luminosity density at z ˜ 7 by integrating the UV LF down to an observational limit of MUV = -15. We show that our determination of log(ρUV) = 26.2 ± 0.13 (erg s-1 Hz-1 Mpc-3) can be sufficient to maintain reionization with an escape fraction of ionizing radiation of fesc = 10%-15%. Future Hubble Frontier Fields observations will certainly improve the constraints on the UV LF at

  18. Development of Dy3+ activated K2MgP2O7 pyrophosphate phosphor for energy saving lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohale, R.L.; Dhoble, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Present work reports, synthesis of Dy 3+ activated K 2 MgP 2 O 7 pyrophosphate phosphor by using modified solid state diffusion that has been studied for its X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). Furthermore, the chromaticity coordinate values were estimated from emission spectra of K 2 MgP 2 O 7 . The photoluminescence emission spectra of the phosphors having an excitation at around 351 nm (mercury free) showed two distinguishing bands centered at around 485 nm (blue) and 575 nm (yellow) corresponding to 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 and 4 F9 /2 → 6 H 13/2 transitions of Dy 3+ , respectively. These phosphors have strong absorption in the near UV region. K 2 MgP 2 O 7 pyrophosphate phosphor is suitable for color converter using UV light as the primary light source, which can be used as a blue/yellow phosphor excited by n-UV LED chip and mixed with other color emission phosphors to obtain white light. The 300–400 nm is Hg-free excitation (mercury excitation is 85% 254 nm wavelength of light and 15% other wavelengths), which is characteristic of solid-state lighting phosphors. Hence PL emission in trivalent dysprosium may be efficient photoluminescent materials for solid-state lighting phosphors. The intact study reveals that the present phosphor have promising applications in the lamp industry especially for solid state lighting (mercury-free excited lamp phosphor) and white light LED. -- Highlights: ► Dy 3+ activated pyrophosphate based phosphor prepared by modified solid state diffusion. ► PL emission spectrum of Dy 3+ ion under 351 nm excitation (Hg-free). ► PL emission at 485 nm (blue), 575 nm (yellow) emission. ► K 2 MgP 2 O 7 : Dy 3+ is expected to be a potential candidate for application in n-UV white LEDs and solid state lighting

  19. An Investigation of the Magnetic Structure and Excitations in K2CoxFe1-xF4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higgins, S.A.; Couley, R.A.; Hagen, M.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron scattering techniques have been used to investigate the magnetic structure of K2CoxF1-xF4 with x=0.2 and x=0.6. The x=0.6 sample exhibits only one magnetic phase transition, at TN=92.2+or-0.1K. The x=0.2 sample has two magnetic phase transitions; below TN=66+or-1K the axial spin components...

  20. KEGS Discovery of 9 Supernova Candidates in the K2 Campaign 17 field with Pan-STARRS PS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. W.; Rest, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Garnavich, P. M.; Margheim, S.; Kasen, D.; Olling, R.; Shaya, E.; Narayan, G.; Villar, A.; Forster, F.; Mushotzky, R.; Zenteno, A.; James, D.; Smith, R. Chris; Dotson, J. L.; Barentsen, G.; Gully-Santiago, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Wright, D. E.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Schultz, A.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Bulger, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    We report the following transients discovered by Pan-STARRS1 during a targeted search of the Kepler Campaign 17 field as part of the K2 Extragalactic Survey (KEGS) for Transients (see http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/kegs/ ) Information on the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  1. HATS-36b and 24 Other Transiting/Eclipsing Systems from the HATSouth-K2 Campaign 7 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, D.; Hartman, J. D.; Zhou, G.; Bakos, G. Á.; Vanderburg, A.; Bento, J.; Mancini, L.; Ciceri, S.; Brahm, R.; Jordán, A.; Espinoza, N.; Rabus, M.; Tan, T. G.; Penev, K.; Bhatti, W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Suc, V.; Csubry, Z.; Henning, Th.; Sarkis, P.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the result of a campaign to monitor 25 HATSouth candidates using the Kepler space telescope during Campaign 7 of the K2 mission. We discover HATS-36b (EPIC 215969174b, K2-145b), an eccentric (e=0.105+/- 0.028) hot Jupiter with a mass of 3.216+/- 0.062 {M}{{J}} and a radius of 1.235+/- 0.043 {R}{{J}}, which transits a solar-type G0V star (V = 14.386) in a 4.1752-day period. We also refine the properties of three previously discovered HATSouth transiting planets (HATS-9b, HATS-11b, and HATS-12b) and search the K2 data for TTVs and additional transiting planets in these systems. In addition, we also report on a further three systems that remain as Jupiter-radius transiting exoplanet candidates. These candidates do not have determined masses, however pass all of our other vetting observations. Finally, we report on the 18 candidates that we are now able to classify as eclipsing binary or blended eclipsing binary systems based on a combination of the HATSouth data, the K2 data, and follow-up ground-based photometry and spectroscopy. These range in periods from 0.7 day to 16.7 days, and down to 1.5 mmag in eclipse depths. Our results show the power of combining ground-based imaging and spectroscopy with higher precision space-based photometry, and serve as an illustration as to what will be possible when combining ground-based observations with TESS data.

  2. CaK2(AsO3OH)(H2O)2 cell length a | forthcoming | boms | Volumes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; CaK2(AsO3OH)(H2O)2 cell length a. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th ...

  3. Risk factors for atopic dermatitis in New Zealand children at 3.5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, D J; Thompson, J M D; Clark, P M; Robinson, E; Black, P N; Wild, C J; Mitchell, E A

    2005-04-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing in Western societies. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that this is due to reduced exposure to environmental allergens and infections during early life. To examine factors associated with a diagnosis of AD at 3.5 years of age, especially those factors implicated by the hygiene hypothesis. The Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study is a case-control study of risk factors for small for gestational age babies. Cases were born at term with birthweight 10th centile. The infants were assessed at birth, 1 year and 3.5 years of age. Data were collected by parental interview and examination of the child. AD was defined as the presence of an itchy rash in the past 12 months with three or more of the following: history of flexural involvement; history of generally dry skin; history of atopic disease in parents or siblings; and visible flexural dermatitis as per photographic protocol. Statistical analyses took into account the disproportionate sampling of the study population. Analysis was restricted to European subjects. Eight hundred and seventy-one children were enrolled at birth, 744 (85.4%) participated at 1 year, and 550 (63.2%) at 3.5 years. AD was diagnosed in 87 (15.8%) children seen at 3.5 years. The prevalence of AD did not differ by birthweight. AD at 3.5 years was associated with raised serum IgE > 200 kU L(-1), and wheezing, asthma, rash or eczema at 1 year. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for parental atopy and breastfeeding, AD at 3.5 years was associated with atopic disease in the parents: maternal atopy only, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-12.23; paternal atopy only, adjusted OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.09-11.75; both parents atopic, adjusted OR 6.12, 95% CI 2.02-18.50. There was a higher risk of AD with longer duration of breastfeeding: or = 6 months, adjusted OR 9.70, 95% CI 2.47-38.15 compared with never breastfed. These findings remained significant after adjusting for

  4. FT-IR and thermoluminescence investigation of P2O5-BaO-K2O glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivascu, C.; Timar-Gabor, A.; Cozar, O.

    2013-11-01

    The 0.5P2O5ṡxBaOṡ(0.5-x)K2O glass system (0≤x≤0.5mol%) is investigated by FT-IR and thermoluminescence as a possible dosimetic material. FT-IR spectra show structural network modifications with the composition variations of the studied glasses. The predominant absorption bands are characterized by two broad peaks near 500 cm-1, two weak peaks around 740 cm-1 and three peaks in the 900-1270 cm-1 region. The shift in the position of the band assigned to asymmetric stretching of PO2- group, υas(PO2-) modes from ˜1100 cm-1 to 1085 cm-1 and the decrease in its relative intensity with the increasing of K2O content shows a network modifier role of this oxide.. Luminescence investigations show that by adding modifier oxides in the phosphate glass a dose dependent TL signals result upon irradiation. Thus P2O5-BaO-K2O glass system is a possible candidate material for dosimetry in the dose 0 - 50 Gy range.

  5. Quantum effect on the energy levels of Eu2+ doped K2Ca2(SO4)3 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Numan; Habib, Sami S; Khan, Zishan H

    2010-09-01

    Quantum confinement effect on the energy levels of Eu(2+) doped K(2)Ca(2)(SO(4))(3) nanoparticles has been observed. The broad photoluminescence (PL) emission band of Eu(2+) doped K(2)Ca(2)(SO(4))(3) microcrystalline sample observed at ∼436 nm is found to split into two narrow well resolved bands, located at 422 and 445 nm in the nanostructure form of this material. This has been attributed to the reduction in the crystal field strength of the nanomaterials, which results in widening the energy band gap and splitting the broad 4f(6)5d energy level of Eu(2+). Energy band gap values of the micro and nanocrystalline K(2)Ca(2)(SO(4))(3) samples were also determined by measuring the UV-visible absorption spectra. These values are 3.34 and 3.44 eV for the micro and nanocrystalline samples, respectively. These remarkable results suggest that activators having wide emission bands might be subjected to weak crystal strength via nanostructure materials to modify their electronic transitions. This might prove a powerful technique for producing new-advanced materials for use in the fields of solid state lasers and optoelectronic devises.

  6. Conduvtivity, NMR, Thermal Measurements and Phase Diagram of the K2S2O7-KHSO4 System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Hatem, Gerard

    1996-01-01

    The phase diagram of the catalytically important K2S2O7-KHSO4 molten salt solvent system has been investigated by electrochemical, thermal and spectroscopic methods.It is of the simple eutectic type with a temperature of fusion of 205C for the eutectic composition, X(KHSO4)= 0.94. The conductivit......The phase diagram of the catalytically important K2S2O7-KHSO4 molten salt solvent system has been investigated by electrochemical, thermal and spectroscopic methods.It is of the simple eutectic type with a temperature of fusion of 205C for the eutectic composition, X(KHSO4)= 0.......94. The conductivities of the solid and molten K2S2O7-KHSO4 system were measured at 13 different compositions in the whole composition range, X(KHSO4)= 0-1. The conductivity of the molten mixtures were fitted to polynomia of the second degree.The results indicated delocalization of the conducting ions compared...

  7. Global Erratum for Kepler Q0-Q17 and K2 C0-C5 Short Cadence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Douglas; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    An accounting error has scrambled much of the short-cadence collateral smear data used to correct for the effects of Keplers shutterless readout. This error has been present since launch and affects approximately half of all short-cadence targets observed by Kepler and K2 to date. The resulting calibration errors are present in both the short-cadence target pixel files and the short-cadence light curves for Kepler Data Releases 1-24 and K2 Data Releases 1-7. This error does not affect long-cadence data. Since it will take some time to correct this error and reprocess all Kepler and K2 data, a list of affected targets is provided. Even though the affected targets are readily identified, the science impact for any particular target may be difficult to assess. Since the smear signal is often small compared to the target signal, the effect is negligible for many targets. However, the smear signal is scene-dependent, so time varying signals can be introduced into any target by the other stars falling on the same CCD column. Some tips on how to assess the severity of the calibration error are provided in this document.

  8. Lactobacillus casei Zhang and vitamin K2 prevent intestinal tumorigenesis in mice via adiponectin-elevated different signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Ma, Chen; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Haiyan; Hou, Qiangchuan; Zhang, Heping

    2017-04-11

    The incidence of colon cancer has increased considerably and the intestinal microbiota participate in the development of colon cancer. We showed that the L. casei Zhang or vitamin K2 (Menaquinone-7) intervention significantly alleviated intestinal tumor burden in mice. This was associated with increased serum adiponectin levels in both treatments. But osteocalcin level was only increased by L. casei Zhang. Furthermore, the anti-carcinogenic actions of L. casei Zhang were mediated by hepatic Chloride channel-3(CLCN3)/Nuclear Factor Kappa B(NF-κB) and intestinal Claudin15/Chloride intracellular channel 4(CLIC4)/Transforming Growth Factor Beta(TGF-β) signaling, while the vitamin K2 effect involved a hepatic Vitamin D Receptor(VDR)-phosphorylated AMPK signaling pathway. Fecal DNA sequencing by the Pacbio RSII method revealed there was significantly lower Helicobacter apodemus, Helicobacter mesocricetorum, Allobaculum stercoricanis and Adlercreutzia equolifaciens following both interventions compared to the model group. Moreover, different caecum acetic acid and butyric acid levels and enrichment of other specific microbes also determined the activity of the different regulatory pathways. Together these data show that L. casei Zhang and Vitamin K2 can suppress gut risk microbes and promote beneficial microbial metabolites to reduce colonic tumor development in mice.

  9. A Gut Gone to Pot: A Case of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome due to K2, a Synthetic Cannabinoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anene Ukaigwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS was first described in 2004. Due to its novelty, CHS is often unrecognized by clinicians leading to expensive workup of these patients with cyclical symptoms. It may take up to 9 years to diagnose CHS. CHS is characterized by cyclical nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and an unusual compulsion to take hot showers in the presence of chronic use of cannabinoids. Cannabicyclohexanol is a synthetic cannabinoid, popularly known as K2 spice. It is a popular marijuana alternative among teenagers and young adults since it is readily available as herbal incense. Unlike marijuana, many users know that K2 is not detected in conventional urine drug screens, allowing those users to conceal their intake from typical detection methods. Serum or urine gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry is diagnostic, though not widely available. Thus, it is imperative for clinicians to recognize CHS, even with negative UDS, to provide cost-effective care. We present a 38-year-old man with a 10-year history of cannabis, and 1-year history of K2 abuse admitted with 1-week history of episodes of nausea, vomiting of clear fluids, and epigastric discomfort. Symptoms are relieved only by hot showers. Extensive laboratory, radiologic, and endoscopic evaluation was unrevealing. CHS was diagnosed, based on proposed criteria by Simonetti et al.

  10. Complexation in the system K2SeO4-UO2SeO4-H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkina, L.B.; Kuchumova, N.V.; Serezhkin, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Complexation in the system K 2 SeO 4 -UO 2 SeO 4 -H 2 O at 25 degrees C is studied by isothermal solubility. Congruently soluble K 2 UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 ·4H 2 O (I) and incongruently soluble K 2 (UO 2 ) 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 ·6H 2 O (II) are observed. The unit-cell constants of I and II are determined from an X-ray diffraction investigation. For I, a = 12,969, b = 11.588, c = 8.533 angstrom, Z = 4, space group Pmmb. For II, a = 23.36, b = 6.784, c = 13.699 angstrom, β = 104.42 degrees, Z = 4, space group P2/m, P2, or Pm. Complexes I and II are representatives of the crystal-chemical groups AB 2 2 M 1 and A 2 T 3 3 M 1 , respectively, of uranyl complexes

  11. Beyond the Kepler/K2 bright limit: variability in the seven brightest members of the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T. R.; Pope, B. J. S.; Antoci, V.; Pápics, P. I.; Aerts, C.; Gies, D. R.; Gordon, K.; Huber, D.; Schaefer, G. H.; Aigrain, S.; Albrecht, S.; Barclay, T.; Barentsen, G.; Beck, P. G.; Bedding, T. R.; Fredslund Andersen, M.; Grundahl, F.; Howell, S. B.; Ireland, M. J.; Murphy, S. J.; Nielsen, M. B.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Tuthill, P. G.

    2017-11-01

    The most powerful tests of stellar models come from the brightest stars in the sky, for which complementary techniques, such as astrometry, asteroseismology, spectroscopy and interferometry, can be combined. The K2 mission is providing a unique opportunity to obtain high-precision photometric time series for bright stars along the ecliptic. However, bright targets require a large number of pixels to capture the entirety of the stellar flux, and CCD saturation, as well as restrictions on data storage and bandwidth, limit the number and brightness of stars that can be observed. To overcome this, we have developed a new photometric technique, which we call halo photometry, to observe very bright stars using a limited number of pixels. Halo photometry is simple, fast and does not require extensive pixel allocation, and will allow us to use K2 and other photometric missions, such as TESS, to observe very bright stars for asteroseismology and to search for transiting exoplanets. We apply this method to the seven brightest stars in the Pleiades open cluster. Each star exhibits variability; six of the stars show what are most likely slowly pulsating B-star pulsations, with amplitudes ranging from 20 to 2000 ppm. For the star Maia, we demonstrate the utility of combining K2 photometry with spectroscopy and interferometry to show that it is not a `Maia variable', and to establish that its variability is caused by rotational modulation of a large chemical spot on a 10 d time-scale.

  12. Thermal and fragility studies on microwave synthesized K_2O-B_2O_3-V_2O_5 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harikamalasree; Reddy, M. Sudhakara; Viswanatha, R.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Glasses with composition xK_2O–60B_2O_3–(40-x) V_2O_5 (15 ≤ x ≤ 39 mol %) was prepared by an energy efficient microwave method. The heat capacity change (ΔC_p) at glass transition (T_g), width of glass transition (ΔT_g), heat capacities in the glassy (C_p_g) and liquid (C_p_l) state for the investigated glasses were extracted from Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC) thermograms. The width of glass transition is less than 30°C, indicating that these glasses belongs to fragile category. Fragility functions [NBO]/(V_m"3T_g) and (ΔC_p/C_p_l)increases with increasing modifier oxide concentration. Increase in fragility is attributed to the increasing coordination of boron. Further, addition of K_2O creates NBOs and the flow mechanism involves bond switching between BOs and NBOs. Physical properties exhibit compositional dependence and these properties increase with increasing K_2O concentration. The observed variations are qualitatively analyzed.

  13. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresser, Rusty; Melanese, Kathy; Sphar, Christine

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 percent of the students in our nation's public schools are English language learners, and this number grows each year. Many of these students are falling behind in math. "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5" outlines the challenges ELL students face when learning math and provides a wealth of specific…

  14. Poly[tetraaqua-μ3-pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylato-strontium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Daneshvar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of strontium(II nitrate with the proton-transfer compound (pdaH2(py-3,5-dc·H2O (where pda = propane-1,3-diamine and py-3,5-dcH2 = pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid leads to the formation of the title polymeric compound, [Sr(C7H3NO4(H2O4]n. The propane-1,3-diaminium cation is not incorporated in this crystal structure. The SrII atom lies on an inversion centre and is eight-coordinated by four O atoms from three py-3,5-dc ligands and four O atoms from four coordinated water molecules. The coordination polyhedron of the SrII atom is a distorted dodecahedron. These binuclear units are connected via the carboxylate O atoms to build a one-dimensional polymeric chain. In the crystal structure, non-covalant interactions consisting of hydrogen bonds (X—H...O, with X = O and C and π–π stacking interactions [3.4604 (19 Å] connect the various components to form a supramolecular structure.

  15. Speaking a Tone Language Enhances Musical Pitch Perception in 3-5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D.; Lee, Kang

    2018-01-01

    Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared…

  16. Design, synthesis and characterization of 1H-pyridin-4-yl-3,5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. 1H-pyridin-4-yl-3,5-disubstituted indazoles; Suzuki reaction; Akt kinase activity. 1. Introduction. In organic synthesis, Palladium-catalysed new carbon– carbon bond formation from aryl halides with organo boronic acids via Suzuki coupling reaction has been proved to be an important method. The 2010 Nobel.

  17. Rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent oxidation of 3,5-disubstituted analogues of paracetamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessems, J.G.M.; Koppele, J.M. te; Dijk, P.A. van; Stee, L.L.P. van; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    1. The cytochrome P450-dependent binding of paracetamol and a series of 3,5-disubstituted paracetamol analogues (R = -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -C(H)3, -C2H5, -iC3H7) have been determined with β-naphthoflavone (βNF)-induced rat liver microsomes and produced reverse type I spectral changes. K(s,app) varied

  18. Synthesis and fungicidal properties of 2,4-diaza-1,3,5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preparation of 2,4-diaza-1,3,5-pentanetrione compounds were described. The fungicidal effects of these compounds on the mycelial growth of the isolate, Phoma eupyrena were carried out by in vitro experiment. The results show that the response to treatment depended not only on the concentration of the compounds ...

  19. Rethinking the demarcation of Malachi 2:17-3:5 | Snyman | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emarcating a unit remains important for the interpretation and understanding of the particular unit in a (Biblical) book. In the case of the book of Malachi, the majority of scholars adhere to the traditional demarcation of the fourth unit in the book of Malachi (2:17-3:5). Closer investigation reveals that the matter is not as settled ...

  20. Local Road Safety Peer Exchange - Regions 3 & 5 : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Local Road Safety Peer Exchange held in Columbus, Ohio on June 12 and 13, 2013. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the Peer Exchange in coordination with the Region 3 & 5 Local...