WorldWideScience

Sample records for Kyrgyzstan

  1. Economic dystopia in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghera, Balihar

    2015-01-01

    Hailed as a success story for liberal market reforms, Kyrgyzstan in fact provides an example of how the rentier class have become an integral part of the economy, and how democracy has given way to plutocracy.

  2. Vote Points to Kyrgyzstan's Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU GUILING

    2010-01-01

    @@ @@ On June 27, a constitutional referendum was held in Kyrgyzstan. The Central Election Commission announced two days later a new Constitution had been approved. Some 2.72 million people were eligible to vote and the turnout was more than 70 percent. Of those who cast ballots, some 90 percent voted for the new Constitution and only 8 percent voted against it.

  3. The Financing of Higher Education in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiuliundieva, N.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, Kyrgyzstan, like other countries of the former Soviet Union, held a fairly high position from the standpoint of the population's average level of education. As of the beginning of period of transition, the level of education in Kyrgyzstan was relatively high. By 1991, the rate of literacy among the adult population was 97.7 percent.…

  4. From Finland to Kyrgyzstan: A Changing Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Andreas K. R.

    2009-01-01

    In the most recent Programme for International Student Assessment of science learning, the equivalent of six school years separate the achievement of 15-year-olds in Finland, the best-performing country, from their counterparts in Kyrgyzstan, a former Soviet republic. Still more than a school year lies between the neighboring countries Canada,…

  5. Challenges in Contemporary Higher Education in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzalieva, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Largely unknown to most of the world, Kyrgyzstan has a flourishing higher education (HE) sector, with more universities per head than other countries with similar populations. Kyrgyzstan is also a major regional importer of international students in Central Asia. This paper opens up this understudied country in three ways: first, through a brief…

  6. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

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    Georgy Lazkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae, Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan.

  7. Traditional M e n Caps o f Kyrgyzstan

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    Serap TANRISEVER

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyrgyzstan has an extraordinarily rich mosaic of folk culture. There is a great importance of wear clothing, crafts and decorative arts in this mosaic. Traditional caps and clothes of Kyrgyzstan are the best elements that reflect the presence of culture, t raditions, geography inhabited, climatic conditions that they already live in. Kyrgyzstan has been trying to keep alive the traditions, styles of lives by using the required crafts and handmade products although the global fashion, time and technological development. According to research, it has still been seen that the caps and clothes of Kyrgyzstan are being used less in daily life. Caps, Kalpak , Tebetey, Malakay, are some of the best known extant that come to this age related with the traditions of ca p s of Kyrgyzstan’s men . In this research, it has been worked of decorations of Kirghiz men caps , specialties of color and design, techniques of sewing, characteristics of mold and fabrics, Moreover the place and the meaning of the titles has been trying to determine in the cultural life. The scan method has been used by doing regional research.

  8. Safe motherhood: preparedness for birth in rural Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Haan, O. de

    2007-01-01

    Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, both former Soviet republics, are neighbouring states in Central Asia. In Central Asia most maternal deaths are due to five major medical causes: severe bleeding; infection; unsafe abortion complications; hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; and obstructed labour. Some of

  9. Maternity care and birth preparedness in rural Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Haan, O. de

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess a baseline level of maternity care knowledge of the population and of care providers in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (Central Asia). Methods: Interviews with pregnant women and with men about their knowledge of key danger signs, serious health problems during pregnan

  10. VAR Analysis of the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Kyrgyzstan

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    Nurlan ATABAEV

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of monetary transmission on real output and price level in Kyrgyzstan which is very important issue for central banks. We analyzed the relationships between the money supply, real output, price level, interest rate, credit and real exchange rate by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and monthly data for 2003-2011. As a result the interest rate channel remains weak, on the other hand it have been revealed that the credit channel has some affects to real output, the exchange rate channel affects the prices. Exchange rate channel remains still the most effective channel. Based on these results, it can be argued that government can use credit and interest rate channel in increasing real output, and the exchange rate channel in achieving price stability in Kyrgyzstan.

  11. Reducing Non-consensual Bride Kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan

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    Russell Kleinbach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bride kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan is the act of abducting a woman to marry her and includes actions, ranging from consensual eloping to forceful kidnapping and rape. This paper reviews the current context and research on bride kidnapping and describes a program that shows promise in preventing bride kidnapping. This program was tested in two studies, one in small villages (2008-2009, and one in Karakol City (2011-2012. These studies provide evidence that the program can help reduce the rate of bride kidnapping from approximately 1/2 to approximately 1/4 of marriages. Analysis of the practice and the economic, political and cultural changes in Kyrgyzstan in the last century shows how this program can be effective by shifting the focus from law and punishment to a discourse framed by tradition, family, honor and shame, and using the assumption from Gandhi's Satyagraha that truth is force.

  12. Representative seroprevalences of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Dürr, Salome; Toktobaev, Nurjan; Doherr, Marcus G; Schueth, Tobias; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2012-06-01

    Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new human brucellosis cases per 100,000 people in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences worldwide. In Kyrgyzstan, the currently used diagnostic tests in humans and animals are the Rose Bengal Test and the Huddleson test. A national representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, cattle, sheep, and goats was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 4,936 livestock sera and 1,774 human sera were tested in Naryn, Chuy, and Osh Oblasts. The overall apparent seroprevalences of brucellosis were 8.8% in humans (95% CI 4.5-16.5), 2.8% (95% CI 1.6-4.9%) in cattle, 3.3% (95% CI 1.5-6.9%) in sheep, and 2.5% (95% CI 1.4-4.5%) in goats. Naryn Oblast had the highest seroprevalences in humans and sheep. More men than women were seropositive (OR = 1.96; P brucellosis exposure, measured by serological tests, was more than ten times higher than the annual incidence of reported clinical brucellosis cases. This indicates an under-reporting of human brucellosis cases, even if only a fraction of seropositive people have clinical symptoms. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan and warrants rapid effective intervention, among others, by mass vaccination of sheep and goats but also of cattle.

  13. On-site early-warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan

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    Dino Bindi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of an on-site early warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan is outlined. Several low cost sensors equipped with MEMS accelerometers are installed in eight buildings distributed within the urban area. The different sensing units communicate each other via wireless links and the seismic data are streamed in real-time to the data center using internet. Since each single sensing unit has computing capabilities, software for data processing can be installed to perform decentralized actions. In particular, each sensing unit can perform event detection task and run software for on-site early warning. If a description for the vulnerability of the building is uploaded in the sensing unit, this piece of information can be exploited to introduce the expected probability of damage in the early-warning protocol customized for a specific structure.

  14. Utilisation and Management Changes in South Kyrgyzstan's Mountain Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Using political ecology as its conceptual framework, this paper focuses on the changes in forest utilisation and management of South Kyrgyzstan's walnut-fruit forests over the last century. The aim of this study on human-environment interactions is to investigate the relationship between actors on the one side, their interests and demands, and the forests and forested lands on the other. Forest resource utilisation and management - and even the recognition of different forest products as resources - are connected with political and socio-economic conditions that change with time. The walnut-fruit forests of South Kyrgyzstan are unique, characterised by high biodiversity and a multiplicity of usable products; and they have been utilised for a long time. Centralised and formal management of the forests started with the Russian occupation and was strengthened under Soviet rule, when the region became a part of the USSR. During this era, a state forest administration that was structured from Moscow all the way down to the local level drew up detailed plans and developed procedures for utilising the different forest products. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the socio-political and economic frame conditions have changed significantly, which has brought not only the sweeping changes in the managing institutions, but also the access rights and interests in the forest resources. At present, the region is suffering from a high unemployment rate, which has resulted in the forests' gaining considerable importance in the livelihood strategies of the local population. Political and economic liberalization, increased communication and trans-regional exchange relations have opened the door for international companies and agents interested in the valuable forest products. Today, walnut wood and burls, walnuts, wild apples and mushrooms are all exported to various countries in the world. Scientists and members of various international organisations stress the ecological

  15. Between Tradition and Modernity: Marriage Dynamics in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-06-01

    The demographic literature on union formation in post-communist Europe typically documents retreat from marriage and increase in cohabitation. However, sociological and anthropological studies of post-Soviet Central Asia often point to a resurgence of various traditional norms and practices, including those surrounding marriage, that were suppressed under Soviet rule. We engage these two perspectives on union formation by analyzing transition to first marriage in Kyrgyzstan both before and after the collapse of the USSR. We use uniquely detailed marriage histories from a nationally representative survey conducted in the period 2011-2012 to examine the dynamics of traditional marital practices among that country's two main ethnic groups-Kyrgyz and Uzbeks-focusing on trends in arranged marriages and in marriages involving bride kidnapping. The analysis reveals instructive ethnic and period differences but also indicates an overall decline in the risks of both types of traditional marriage practices in the post-Soviet era. In fact, although the decline has characterized all marriage types, it was more substantial for traditional marriages. We interpret these trends as evidence of continuing modernization of nuptiality behavior in the region.

  16. Diabetes in Kyrgyzstan: changes between 2002 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, David; Abdraimova, Aida; Akkazieva, Baktygul; McKee, Martin; Balabanova, Dina; Yudkin, John S

    2013-01-01

    Health system reform in Kyrgyzstan is seen as a relative success story in central Asia. Initially, most attention focused on structural changes, and it is only since 2006 that the delivery of care and the experience of health service users have risen on the agenda. One exception from the earlier period was a rapid appraisal of the management of diabetes, undertaken in 2002. Using that study as a baseline, we describe the findings of a new evaluation of diabetes management, undertaken in 2009, using the Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, now implemented in seven countries. Access to care has improved through the creation of the Family Medical Centres and the deployment of endocrinologists to them. Another improvement is the access to insulin and related medicines, although assessment of the procurement system reveals that the government is getting very poor value for money. Looking ahead, there are grounds for optimism that the passage of the law on diabetes may progressively have a greater impact. Although the law is not yet fully implemented, it has enabled the diabetes associations to defend the rights of their members. This increased capacity is credited with some improvements in diabetes care.

  17. Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales

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    Nazir Mirzaev

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was developed using GAMS 2.25 software. Application of the model to the Akbura River basin indicated efficiencies in the proposed institutional rules especially in low water years.

  18. Vegetation history of the walnut forests in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia): natural or anthropogenic origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Ruth; Kaiser, Franziska; Schmidt, Kaspar; Ammann, Brigitta; Carraro, Gabriele; Grisa, Ennio; Tinner, Willy

    2008-03-01

    Extensive forests of common walnut ( Juglans regia L.) occur in the mountains of the Fergana and the Chatkal Ranges of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia), where they form a rich cultural landscape with a mosaic of natural and planted forest stands, fields, pastures, and drier open areas. These remote forests are likely to be an important genetic resource for J. regia, not only for in situ conservation but also as a resource for tree breeding. Pollen and charcoal analyses of the sediments of four lakes and two peat bogs in the core regions of the walnut forests provide new data to infer the vegetation history of the last 6800 years in the Fergana and Chatkal Ranges in Kyrgyzstan. Our results suggest that the potential natural forests or woods in the modern walnut forest region were dominated by Juniperus together with trees of Betula, Fraxinus, Rosaceae, and possibly Acer. A special focus was put on the vegetation history of J. regia, as it has been suggested that the walnut forests of Kyrgyzstan might be a refuge for this tree. However, our results suggest that the stands of J. regia are at the most 2000 years old, most of them even only about 1000 years old and probably of anthropogenic origin, confirming an old legend that is still orally transmitted in Kyrgyzstan. As with other old and widespread cultivated plants, it is not easy to reconstruct the original distribution and determine the borders of the past natural ranges. A review of paleoecological data points to refugia in southern Europe, Syria, Kyrgyzstan, China, and the Himalaya, where Juglans possibly outlived the last glaciation.

  19. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat.

  20. Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan

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    Ana Navas-Acien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86 μg/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD 13.5 (3.6 hours a day and 5.8 (1.4 days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS.

  1. Excessive exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke among hospitality workers in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Denis; Brimkulov, Nurlan; Shahrir, Shahida; Breysse, Patrick; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range) air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86) microg/m(3). Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD) 13.5 (3.6) hours a day and 5.8 (1.4) days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS.

  2. Medical ethnobotany of herbal practitioners in the Turkestan Range, southwestern Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Pawera; Vladimir Verner; Celine Termote; Ishenbay Sodombekov; Alexander Kandakov; Nurudin Karabaev; Milan Skalicky; Zbynek Polesny

    2016-01-01

    This study recorded and analyzed traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Turkestan Range in southwestern Kyrgyzstan, where ethnobotanical knowledge has been largely under-documented to date. Data was collected through participant observation and both semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 10 herbal specialists. A total of 50 medicinal plant taxa were documented, distributed among 46 genera and 27 botanical families. In folk medicine they are applied in 75 different formulations...

  3. Influenza A(H3N2) Outbreak at Transit Center at Manas, Kyrgyzstan, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) December 2013-February 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Influenza A(H3N2) Outbreak at Transit Center at Manas...support in response to a moderate outbreak of influenza at the Transit Center at Manas (Kyrgyzstan). A total of 215 individuals presented with... influenza -like illness symptoms from 3 December 2013 through 28 February 2014. There were 85 specimens positive for influenza (18 influenza A(H1N1

  4. The April 2010 Coup in Kyrgyzstan: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    of remittances from migrant workers in Russia and Kazakhstan—Bakiyev did not meet with opposition leaders or otherwise reach out to the population...Developments On May 6, 2010, Kyrgyzstan formally requested that Belarus extradite former Kyrgyz president Kurmanbek Bakiyev to face charges of murdering...civilians during the April coup. The outcome of the request is uncertain. Although Belarus has signed an international extradition accord, Belarusian

  5. Predictors of Students` Desire to be an Entrepreneur: Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and the United States

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    Barry A. FRIEDMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is an important element of national economic growth, and college business students represent an important feeder pool for a nation’s supply of entrepreneurs. The purpose of this study is to identify and contrast predictors of students’ desire to be entrepreneurs in Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and the United States. Three hundred and five undergraduate business students in Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and the United States completed the Aspiring Entrepreneurial Motives Questionnaire (Aziz, Friedman & Sayfullin, 2012. While the recognition motive was important for all students, predictors of their desire to be entrepreneurs differed across the three countries. In contrast to Kyrgyzstan and the United States, students’ in Georgia overall desire to be entrepreneurs was more complex as finance, recognition, freedom, marketing opportunities and economic conditions reached significance. National initiatives that recognize entrepreneurial accomplishments may therefore encourage more individuals to start and manage businesses. A more complex strategy may be required in Georgia, as the decision to be an entrepreneur appeared to be more multidimensional.

  6. Molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility of livestock Brucella melitensis isolates from Naryn Oblast, Kyrgyzstan.

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    Joldoshbek Kasymbekov

    Full Text Available The incidence of human brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan has been increasing in the last years and was identified as a priority disease needing most urgent control measures in the livestock population. The latest species identification of Brucella isolates in Kyrgyzstan was carried out in the 1960s and investigated the circulation of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis, and B. suis. However, supporting data and documentation of that experience are lacking. Therefore, typing of Brucella spp. and identification of the most important host species are necessary for the understanding of the main transmission routes and to adopt an effective brucellosis control policy in Kyrgyzstan. Overall, 17 B. melitensis strains from aborted fetuses of sheep and cattle isolated in the province of Naryn were studied. All strains were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, rifampin, ofloxacin, streptomycin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis showed low genetic diversity. Kyrgyz strains seem to be genetically associated with the Eastern Mediterranean group of the Brucella global phylogeny. We identified and confirmed transmission of B. melitensis to cattle and a close genetic relationship between B. melitensis strains isolated from sheep sharing the same pasture.

  7. Potentially dangerous glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan - Research overview of 2004-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Bohumir; Yerokhin, Sergey; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Cerny, Michal; Falatkova, Kristyna; Kocum, Jan; Benes, Vojtech

    2016-04-01

    Global warming causes intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in most of high mountains all over the world. This process is also evident in the mountain regions of central Tien Shan. Glacier melt water affects changes in hydrological regime of water streams and causes overfilling of high mountain lake basins. The dams of many lakes are very unstable and can burst open. To determine the degree of such risk, it is necessary to analyse the genesis of lakes, to characterize the morphology of the lake basins and to know the particularities of their hydrological regime. According to the latest inventory within territory of Kyrgyzstan, a total of 1328 lakes have been identified as potentially dangerous, 12 lakes are considered as currently dangerous, other 25 feature high potential hazard. Since 1952 more than 70 disastrous cases of lake outburst have been registered. The hazardous alpine lakes are studied in Kyrgyzstan systematically since 1966. Since 2004, Czech-Kyrgyz research team has been operating in Kyrgyzstan in the field of dangerous glacial lakes. Projects were focused primarily on high-mountain glacial lakes risk assessment, propositions of risk mitigation measures, establishment of permanent research station near one of the studied glacier complexes, preparation of risk analysis for selected endangered valleys, evaluation of climatic and hydrological data and glacier development within observed regions. The most significant portion of data and information has been gathered during field work, complemented by satellite image analysis and surveillance flights over the monitored sites.

  8. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

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    John eHay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review we describe in detail the successes, challenges and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  9. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  10. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  11. Progress Toward Remediation of Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, P B; Ranville, J; Honeyman, B D; Smith, D K; Rosenberg, N; Knapp, R B

    2003-07-09

    The town of Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan inherited 23 distinct tailings deposits from Soviet-Era uranium mining operations. Mailuu-Suu is located in the narrow landslide-prone valley of the Mailuu-Suu River about 25 km from the Uzbekistan border. Large-scale release of the radioactive tailings, as a result of landslides, could lead to irreversible contamination of the river and downstream areas. The Mailuu-Suu River is a tributary to the Syr-Darya River, the Fergana valley's main source of irrigation water. The Fergana Valley is a key agricultural region and major population center that spans Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The trans-boundary nature of the Mailuu-Suu tailings issue presents an opportunity for collaboration among these Central Asian states. A cooperative approach to addressing environmental issues such as Mailuu-Suu may contribute to the region's stability by facilitating peaceful associations. Experience from remediation of sites in the US under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project (UMTRA) will be useful in progressing toward remediation at Mailuu-Suu.

  12. Decentralizing Governance of Agropastoral Systems in Kyrgyzstan: An Assessment of Recent Pasture Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyldyz Shigaeva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Agropastoral systems in Kyrgyzstan have undergone dramatic change in recent decades. In large part, change has resulted from the introduction of legislation that devolves authority and responsibility for the management of common-pool agropastoral resources to community-level pasture users associations. By applying Ostrom’s principles of common resource governance, this paper analyzes the institutions and norms that currently shape local management practices in rural areas of Naryn Province in Kyrgyzstan and the views of different actors on pasture governance, including points of disagreement. Our research and analysis reveal that the community-initiated and -owned systems of pasture governance that were expected to develop and mature under the new Pasture Law have not yet been entirely realized. Decentralization occurred without the participation or awareness of most local resource users. As a consequence, users are creating and reinforcing their own community-defined practices and internal rules, leaving official management plans largely ignored and unenforced. Resource users tend to perceive the government-sanctioned pasture users associations not as public or democratic organizations that represent their interests, but rather as agencies that aim primarily to control the use of resources, exclude some people from decision-making, or impose taxation. Sustainable management of pasturelands therefore may best be served when community perspectives are more suitably integrated—from the planning phase through to collaborative governance and implementation of locally agreed upon management options.

  13. Medical ethnobotany of herbal practitioners in the Turkestan Range, southwestern Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Pawera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study recorded and analyzed traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Turkestan Range in southwestern Kyrgyzstan, where ethnobotanical knowledge has been largely under-documented to date. Data was collected through participant observation and both semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 10 herbal specialists. A total of 50 medicinal plant taxa were documented, distributed among 46 genera and 27 botanical families. In folk medicine they are applied in 75 different formulations, which cure 63 human and three animal ailments. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices were calculated to analyze traditional knowledge of the informants and to determine the cultural importance of particular medicinal plants. Ziziphora pamiroalaica, Peganum harmala, and Inula orientalis obtained the highest use value (UV. The best-represented and culturally important families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, and Apiaceae. Gastro-intestinal system disorders was the most prevalent ailment category. Most medicinal plants were gathered from nearby environments, however, species with a higher cultural value occurred at distant rather than nearby collection sites. The findings of this study proved the gap in documentation of traditional knowledge in Kyrgyzstan, indicating that further studies on the traditional use of wild plant resources could bring important insights into ecosystems’ diversity with implications to human ecology and bio-cultural diversity conservation in Central Asia.

  14. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY FEATURES OF HBV/HDV CO-INFECTION IN KYRGYZSTAN

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    A. V. Semenov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious health problems in the world are hepatotropic viruses that cause chronic liver disease. Hepatitis B virus is distributed globally; around 5% of the carriers are also infected with hepatitis delta virus. Co-infection or superinfection of hepatitis viruses B and D significantly associated with a much more severe liver disease, compared with infection only hepatitis B virus. However, examination of hepatitis virus B carriers for the presence of hepatitis D virus in most regions of the world is not mandatory. It should be noted that the complete genotype mapping of viruses hepatitis B and D isolated on the territory of the CIS and the countries of the former Soviet Union, there is not yet, despite the constantly ongoing works devoted genotyping hepatotropic virus in the territory of the Russian Federation and neighboring countries. Due to the fact that one of the prospective ways of spreading viruses is the “labor migration” the inhabitants of Central Asia in other countries, including the Russian Federation, there is a need to pay attention to the situation of viral hepatitis in the region. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of genetic variants and characteristics of molecular epidemiology of chronic viral hepatitis co-infection B + D in Kyrgyzstan. The study involved 30 plasma samples from patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and D from different regions of Kyrgyzstan. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates showed that among patients examined HBV identified only D genotype. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates indicated that among the examined patients with chronic viral hepatitis B revealed only genotype D. It is shown prevalence of HBV subtype D1 (73.34% compared to the HBV subtype D2 (3.33% and D3 (23.33%. Revealed HDV genotype I with highly variable region of the gene encoding the delta antigen. The high similarity of some isolates with strains specific to neighboring

  15. High demand for firewood leads to overuse of walnut-fruit forests in Kyrgyzstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maik Rehnus; Annemarie Nazarek; Davlet Mamadzhanov; Bronislav Ivanovitch Venglovsky; Jean-Pierre Sorg

    2013-01-01

    After Kyrgyzstan gained independence in 1991, the importance of the primary sector for food-and energy-supply increased significantly. This has led to a discussion about the sustainability of current firewood use. We investigated firewood collection and use practices in three selected villages and analysed differences between the annual increment of woody biomass and firewood consumption for heating during winter months. The calculated individual firewood consumption is on average 3.90 kg/capita/heating day and the calculation of differences between increment and consumption shows that in minimum one village the surrounding forests are overused for firewood collection. Pressure on the forest and the overuse of preferred tree species for firewood can lead to an overuse of the resource and to a decrease in the genetic diversity of these species in the walnut-fruit forests which are considered as a biodiversity hotspot of international significance due to the diversity of woody.

  16. The April 2010 Coup in Kyrgyzstan and its Aftermath: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    impacted Kyrgyzstan because of the decline of remittances from migrant workers in Russia and Kazakhstan—Bakiyev did not meet with opposition leaders or...meeting of security officials of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; members include Russia, Armenia, Belarus , Kazakhstan...first to Kazakhstan with a few members of his family on April 15, where he signed a resignation letter, and then flew to Belarus late on April 19. On

  17. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    John eHay; Yeh, Kenneth B.; Debanjana eDasgupta; Zhanna eShapiyeva; Pavel eDeryabin; Christina eFarris; Roger eHewson; Allen eRichards; Gulnara eOmasheva; Talgat eNurmakhanov; Timur eAyazbayev; Asankadyr eZhunushov; Alexei eAndryushchenko

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and ...

  18. The Inylchek Glacier in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia: Insight on Surface Kinematics from Optical Remote Sensing Imagery

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    Mohamad Nobakht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain chains of Central Asia host a large number of glaciated areas that provide critical water supplies to the semi-arid populated foothills and lowlands of this region. Spatio-temporal variations of glacier flows are a key indicator of the impact of climate change on water resources as the glaciers react sensitively to climate. Satellite remote sensing using optical imagery is an efficient method for studying ice-velocity fields on mountain glaciers. In this study, temporal and spatial changes in surface velocity associated with the Inylchek glacier in Kyrgyzstan are investigated. We present a detailed map for the kinematics of the Inylchek glacier obtained by cross-correlation analysis of Landsat images, acquired between 2000 and 2011, and a set of ASTER images covering the time period between 2001 and 2007. Our results indicate a high-velocity region in the elevated part of the glacier, moving up to a rate of about 0.5 m/day. Time series analysis of optical data reveals some annual variations in the mean surface velocity of the Inylchek during 2000–2011. In particular, our findings suggest an opposite trend between periods of the northward glacial flow in Proletarskyi and Zvezdochka glacier, and the rate of westward motion observed for the main stream of the Inylchek.

  19. Implementing Istanbul Protocol standards for forensic evidence of torture in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Alejandro; Crosby, Sondra; Xenakis, Stephen; Iacopino, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    The Kyrgyz government declared a policy of "zero tolerance" for torture and began reforms to stop such practice, a regular occurrence in the country's daily life. This study presents the results of 10 forensic evaluations of individuals alleging torture; they represent 35% of all criminal investigations into torture for the January 2011-July 2012 period. All individuals evaluated were male with an average age of 34 years. Police officers were implicated as perpetrators in all cases. All individuals reported being subjected to threats and blunt force trauma from punches, kicks, and blows with objects such as police batons. The most common conditions documented during the evaluations were traumatic brain injury and chronic seizures. Psychological sequelae included post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder, which was diagnosed in seven individuals. In all cases, the physical and psychological evidence was highly consistent with individual allegations of abuse. These forensic evaluations, which represent the first ever to be conducted in Kyrgyzstan in accordance with Istanbul Protocol standards, provide critical insight into torture practices in the country. The evaluations indicate a pattern of brutal torture practices and inadequate governmental and nongovernmental forensic evaluations.

  20. The human perspective on health care reform: coping with diabetes in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Botagoz; Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin; Kutzin, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Health systems world wide are confronted by the challenge of rising levels of chronic diseases. Yet existing approaches to health system analysis often fail to capture the complexity of the responses required to address this challenge. In this paper we describe the results of a pilot study using a rapid appraisal technique to assess the performance of the health care system in Kyrgyzstan, a former Soviet central Asian republic. The study focuses on diabetes, a condition whose effective management requires a coordinated response involving many components of the health care system. The study sets out a conceptual framework in which the system is seen from the perspectives of users, health professionals and policy-makers. It sees the effective delivery of health care as dependent on appropriate investment in human, physical, intellectual and social resources. The study reveals important weaknesses in all of these areas, although it also notes that current policies, while constrained by the legacy of the past and by limited resources, are beginning to tackle them. This pilot study indicates that rapid appraisal, using a condition such as diabetes, where those affected can be easily identified, offers a means of gaining important insights into a health care system.

  1. Central Asia: Kyrgyzstan and the learning experience in the design of pastoral institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasymov, U; Undeland, A; Dörre, A; Mackinnon, A

    2016-11-01

    The authors analyse the nature of policy development to understand the reasons for institutional change in pasture management in Kyrgyzstan. They use the concept of intentional institutional change, emphasising its incremental nature and the important relationship between belief systems and institutions. The paper explores the relationship between the perceptions and beliefs of policy-makers, the policy interventions they undertake, and the consequences for pastoral migration and practices. The study reveals the gap between the intentions behind such policies and their outcomes, the persistence and importance of pastoral migration, and the learning process that policy-makers undergo. This close look at the development and institutionalisation of new dominant societal beliefs highlights the possible direction of the future development of formal pastoral institutions in Central Asia. Policy-makers should respond better to changes in pastoral mobility and the unsustainable increase in intensified use of natural pastures. Policy-makers must also respond to the growth in conflict over pasture use by becoming more aware of the need for inter-sectoral cooperation. The authors argue that a crucial test for the new formal institutions still lies ahead. The key questions are: whether policy-makers and pasture users can eventually come to hold the same beliefs about what is needed in their society, and what new effective institutions will emerge to define the future of pastoralism in Central Asia.

  2. Quantitative Biostratigraphic Analysis of Central Asia with Implications for the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. N.; Hopkins, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Central Asia lies at a nexus both in terms of geology and evolutionary biogeography. With the convergence of the Indian and Asian plates creating high rates of deformation over broad regions, shortening of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement rocks has created a rich history of late Cenozoic sedimentary basins. In fact, Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active country in the world. Additionally, Central Asia is a biogeographic crossroads, facilitating the intercontinental migrations of distant faunas from North American, Europe, Africa, and Southern Asia. With such an active geologic and biological evolution, the usefulness of temporal constraints is apparent. However, the continental collision environment has provided few volcanic rocks suitable for radiometric dating. Therefore, while less precise, the biostratigraphic analysis of Central Asia I present is an ideal method for both establishing ages and correlating between disparate basins. The last several decades provided great advancements in quantitative biostratigraphic methods applied to marine microfossils from drill cores. While these newer methods such as RASC (ranking and scaling), its sister program CASC, and CONOP (constrained optimization) provide a clear improvement over older methods such as graphic correlation, they have yet to be applied to terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Graphic correlation only allows comparison between two stratigraphic columns at a time and is heavily weighted by the initial selection of a type section. Both RASC and CONOP compare all stratigraphic sections simultaneously, eliminating type section bias. Previous vertebrate biostratigraphy methods attempted to predict FADs and LADs with the assumption they are generally minimum estimates. RASC instead establishes average stratigraphic ranges for each taxon and with CASC actually provides confidence intervals for each prediction, reducing the potential error resulting from reworking. CONOP generates maximum stratigraphic ranges

  3. Development of Triad approach based system for ecological risk assessment for contaminated areas of Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydralieva, Kamilia; Uzbekov, Beksultan; Khudaibergenova, Bermet; Terekhova, Vera; Jorobekova, Sharipa

    2014-05-01

    This research is aimed to develop a high-effective system of an ecological risk assessment and risk-based decision making for anthropogenic ecosystems, with particular focus on the soils of the Kyrgyz Republic. The study is focused on the integration of Triad data including chemical, biological and ecotoxicological soil markers to estimate the potential risk from soils of highly anthropized areas impacted by deposition of different pollutants from mining operation. We focus on technogenic areas of Kyrgyzstan, the former uranium-producing province. Triad-based ecological risk assessment for technogenic sites are not currently used in Kyrgyzstan. However, the vitality of such research is self-evident. There are about 50 tailing dumps and more than 80 tips of radioactive waste which are formed as a result of uranium and complex ores (mercury, antimony, lead, cadmium and etc) mining around the unfavorable aforementioned places. According to the Mining Wastes' Tailings and Fills Rehabilitation Centre established in 1999 by a special Government's Resolution, one of the most ecologically dangerous uranium tailings resides in Kadzhi-Say. Although uranium processing is no longer practiced in Kadzhi-Say, a large number of open landfills and uranium ore storages still remain abandoned at the vicinity of this settlement. These neglected sites have enormous problems associated with soil erosion known as "technogenic deserts". The upper soil horizons are deprived of humus and vegetation, which favor the formation of low-buffer landscapes in the zones of maximum contamination. As a result, most of these areas are not re-cultivated and remain in critical environmental condition (Bykovchenko, et al., 2005; Tukhvatshin, 2005; Suranova, 2006). Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites will be integrated. The following Triad-based parameters will be employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous

  4. Consideration of Water Uses for Its Sustainable Management, the Case of Issyk-Kul Lake, Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burul Alymkulova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is an essential element for life, and development would not be possible without its availability. This study identified the main water consumers and their likely impact on water lake level for the case of Issyk-Kul Lake Basin, Kyrgyzstan. Data on precipitation, lake level, irrigation, household and industrial water consumption from 1980 to 2014 were provided by the Department of Water Resources and Irrigation, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation of the Kyrgyz Republic. The input data was analyzed with OriginPro 8.5 for Statistical Analysis. The results indicated a decreasing irrigation water consumption from 2029.42 to 461.76 million·m3 in 1980 and 2014, respectively. Likewise, households consumed 27.02 million·m3 in 1980 falling to 16.55 million·m3 in 2014, similar to the manufacture’s water consumption. However, it was noted that agriculture is a high water consumer, whose water demand for irrigation rises from April to August, the period during which the precipitation also increases. Nevertheless, manufactures and household water consumption do not have timed limits of use like in agriculture, which in turn affects the lake water level. Therefore, as the rainfall increases by April to August, we suggest to harvest and only use the rainfall water during its abundance period. This would help in restoring the lake’s water level during the time of rainwater uses, and leads to water consumption balance, flood management and lake biodiversity conservation as well.

  5. ALOS/PALSAR InSAR Time-Series Analysis for Detecting Very Slow-Moving Landslides in Southern Kyrgyzstan

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    Kanayim Teshebaeva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the potential of ALOS/PALSAR time-series data to analyze the activation of deep-seated landslides in the foothill zone of the high mountain Alai range in the southern Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan. Most previous field-based landslide investigations have revealed that many landslides have indicators for ongoing slow movements in the form of migrating and newly developing cracks. L-band ALOS/PALSAR data for the period between 2007 and 2010 are available for the 484 km2 area in this study. We analyzed these data using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS time-series technique to assess the surface deformation related to the activation of landslides. We observed up to ±17 mm/year of LOS velocity deformation rates, which were projected along the local steepest slope and resulted in velocity rates of up to −63 mm/year. The obtained rates indicate very slow movement of the deep-seated landslides during the observation time. We also compared these movements with precipitation and earthquake records. The results suggest that the deformation peaks correlate with rainfall in the 3 preceding months and with an earthquake event. Overall, the results of this study indicated the great potential of L-band InSAR time series analysis for efficient spatiotemporal identification and monitoring of slope activations in this region of high landslide activity in Southern Kyrgyzstan.

  6. Cenozoic magnetostratigraphy and magnetic properties of the southern Issyk-Kul basin, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wack, Michael R.; Gilder, Stuart A.; Macaulay, Euan A.; Sobel, Edward R.; Charreau, Julien; Mikolaichuk, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    We present paleomagnetic data from the northern flank of the Tianshan range, southeast of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). 613 cores were collected in two parallel sections with a total thickness of 960 m (Chon Kyzylsuu, CK) and 990 m (Jeti Oguz, JO), as well as 48 cores at six sites in a nearby anticline. Rock magnetic analyses identify both magnetite and hematite in the fluvial-lacustrine sediments. The concentration of both minerals, the magnetite:hematite ratio, and the average magnetite grain size increase upward in both sections. Anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization defines a tectonic fabric with sub-horizontal maximum axes that parallel the strike direction together with intermediate and minimum axes that streak out about a great circle orthogonal to the maximum axes suggestive of a tectonic fabric emplaced during folding. Stepwise thermal demagnetization isolates interpretable magnetization components in 284 samples that define 26 polarity chrons in CK and 19 in JO. A positive fold test, dual polarities and systematic changes in rock-magnetic parameters with depth suggest that the high temperature magnetization component was acquired coevally with deposition. An age model based on a visual magnetostratigraphic correlation of both sections with the geomagnetic polarity time scale defines absolute ages from 26.0 to 13.3 Ma, with a fairly constant sedimentation rate of 9-10 cm/ka. A correlation based on a numerical algorithm arrives at a slightly different conclusion, with deposition ages from 25.2 to 11.0 Ma and sedimentation rates from 5 to 8 cm/ka. In comparison with sedimentation rates found at other magnetostratigraphic sections in the Tianshan realm, we infer that the sedimentary record in this part of the Issyk-Kul Basin precedes the more rapid phase of uplift of the Kyrgyz Tianshan. The onset of deposition and concomitant erosion of the adjacent Terskey Range is in good agreement with independent assessments of the exhumation history of this

  7. Surface wave propagation in central Asia: Observations of scattering and multipathing with the Kyrgyzstan broadband array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Gary L.; Mahdi, Hanan

    1996-04-01

    We studied the propagation of Rayleigh waves at regional distances in central Asia using a combination of array processing techniques and surface wave analysis. We present results from the detailed analysis of three representative events recorded by a 10-station, broadband network that has been running in the central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan since 1991: an Ms = 5.1 event near Ashkhabad, Turkmenistan; an Ms = 5.8 event in south central Tibet; and the October 7, 1994, nuclear explosion at Lop Nor. We find there is a remarkable difference in the propagation characteristics of surface waves along these three paths. The path from the event in Turkmenistan is simple and is well approximated by propagation through a laterally homogeneous medium. Array processing shows the entire Rayleigh wave train stacks coherently and arrives from an azimuth close to that predicted by a great circle path. Furthermore, estimates of dispersion curves and fundamental mode signals determined for individual stations show little variation across the array. The Tibet and Lop Nor paths are completely different. We find strong evidence for complicated multipathing and scattering effects along both of these paths. We observe a three-stage pattern in the Tibet case: (1) the early, lowest-frequency part of the Rayleigh wave packet arrives as a coherent signal from close to the great circle path azimuth; (2) this is overpowered in the period range around 20 s by a strong multipath signal that propagates across the array from a much more southerly azimuth; and (3) periods below 20 s rapidly become incoherent, and the signal does not have a well-defined direction of propagation. The Lop Nor path shows similar complexity. On this path there is little dispersion for measurable periods greater than 10 s, so the low-frequency energy arrives in an Airy phase. The Airy phase stacks somewhat coherently (it stacks, but significant power is lost in the best beam), and slowness analysis shows it arrives from

  8. Surface rupture of the 1911 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake, Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrowsmith, J. R.; Crosby, C. J.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I.

    2005-12-01

    The 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake in the Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan is one of the largest historic intraplate reverse-faulting events. Documentation of slip distribution and fault geometry for major historic earthquakes, such as the Chon-Kemin event, provide important data on their source physics and seismotectonics. These data also provide insight into mechanical interaction with other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik events. Through detailed aerial photo mapping, examination of historic data (Bogdonovich et al., 1914), and two seasons of fieldwork, we mapped the entire 200 km of the1911 rupture and associated off-fault deformation and mass movements at > 1:50,000. At the 1911 events western end, the south dipping Djel Aryk section closely follows the range front at the southern edge of the Djel Aryk Valley. Mapping by Bogdonovich et al. indicates 1.5 km of rupture west of the Chu River in 1911 but 10-20 m high fault scarps further west in the Djel Aryk Valley indicate late Pleistocene paleoseismic activity. The Lower Chon-Kemin section stretches from the Chon-Kemin gorge to Chundi-Su. The fault dips steeply south and offset landforms indicate a left-lateral slip component. Vertical 1911 displacements are 1-3 m. Most of this portion of the 1911 rupture is located 500-1500 m above the Chon-Kemin Valley on the northern flank of the Kungei-Alatau Range. Bogdonovich et al. do not report 1911 rupture between Dyure River and Chundi-Su despite clear 10-30 m tall scarps offsetting Holocene landforms. The lack of mapped ground rupture in this area in 1911 suggests either a failure of the Bogdonovich team to reach this section of fault or that the earthquake failed to rupture here, despite clearly having done so prehistorically. The Upper Chon-Kemin section comprises steeply dipping to vertical discontinuous fractures located on steep slopes above the valley floor. Bogdonovich et al. report discontinuous

  9. Hydrochemistry and land cover in the upper Naryn river basin, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K.; Dernedde, Y.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

    2009-04-01

    Economic and social changes at the end of the 20th century affected land use decisions and land management in the Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union. Amongst others, land tenure changed from mainly collectivized to private land, and in consequence, land management (e.g. soil treatment and fertilization practices) altered. Apart from agricultural pollutants and the impact of irrigation management, water resources are threatened by waste dumps remaining from mining activities. However, recent studies on the effect of land use changes on ecohydrology in Central Asia remain scarce. In a preliminary study, current land use and hydrochemistry in the upper Naryn Valley (Kyrgyzstan) was analyzed in 2008. Climate is semi-arid, and annual precipitation is approximately 300 mm. Precipitation peak occurs in early summer, while the rest of the year is rather dry. Crop and hay production prevail in the valley bottom. Environmental conditions in the mountains support pastoralism with a shift between summer and winter pastures. Agriculture depends on irrigation to a great deal as precipitation is seasonal and the vegetation period usually is the dry period. Today, production is mainly for subsistence purposes or local markets. The Naryn river is the headwater of the of the Syrdarya river which is one of the major sources of irrigation water in the Aral Sea basin. Hence, the ecohydrological condition of the contributing rivers is of major importance for the irrigation management downstream. Nevertheless, information on current ecohydrological conditions and land use which may affect the distribution and chemical composition of the rivers is lacking. In the presented study, basic hydrochemical measurements in the Naryn river and its tributaries were made. In situ measurements comprised electrical conductivity, ammonia and nitrate measurements, among others. While electrical conductivity varies greatly between the Naryn river and its tributaries, ammonia and nitrate

  10. Metallogeny and geodynamics of the Aktiuz Boordu Mining District, Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenchuraeva, R. D.; Borisov, F. I.; Pak, N. T.; Malyukova, N. N.

    2008-03-01

    The Aktiuz-Boordu Mining District is located in the Northern Tien Shan in the eastern part of Kyrgyzstan. The region is characterized by nappe-folding structures and comprises strongly deformed Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic sedimentary, volcano-sedimentary, and metamorphic sequences. Metamorphic rocks are represented by crystalline schists, para- and orthogneisses, marble, migmatite, amphibolite and eclogite lenses. These rocks are thought to be the oldest in the Northern Tien Shan. The 2780-Ma Aktiuz complex has a total thickness of 2800-2900 m. Available U-Pb zircon age data for the Kemin Group migmatites yield ages of 2200 ± 50 Ma. Based upon their geological setting, multistage metamorphism and isotopic ages of retrograde metamorphism (1.1-1.9 Ga), these rocks reach a few kilometers in thickness and are subdivided into Archaean and Paleoproterozoic. The Archaean and Paleoproterozoic basement metamorphic rocks contain mineralization of various ages and types, including porphyry Cu, Au-sulphide, Au-Bi, barite, epithermal base metal and Au-Ag, REE and rare-metals. Two ore fields have been identified within the Aktiuz-Boordu Mining District, they are: (1) Taldybulak-Boordu, with Au, base metal, and porphyry Cu systems; (2) Aktiuz, with REE, rare- and base-metal deposits. Within the Paleozoic Taldybulak-Boordu volcanic structure, deposits and occurrences of Au are present at Taldybulak Levoberezhny, Chimbulak Zapadny, Karamoko and Kuranjailyau; of Pb at Boordu, Taldybulak Stary, Chimbulak Vostochny and Chimbulak Zapadny; of Mo at Karabulak, and of Cu at Berkut-Kashka. Almost all are found along the periphery of deeply eroded volcanoes. Rock types in the Taldybulak-Boordu ore field mainly comprise chlorite-amphibole and amphibole schists, amphibolites, and migmatites of the Paleoproterozoic Kuperlisay suite. The younger Paleoproterozoic Kokbulak and Kapchigay suites are represented by mica schists and granite gneisses, which are separated from the Kuperlisay suite

  11. General review of Kyrgyzstan mining investment laws and systems%吉尔吉斯斯坦矿业投资法律制度概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贵生; 褚晓霞; 杨浩然

    2012-01-01

    From the practical legal view, the authors mainly introduce Underground Mining Laws and new Investment Laws of Kyrgyzstan on the basis of data collections of mineral resources and reserves, their distribution , mining management systems and regulations and foreign investment law in Kyrgyzstan. Then authors conduct the comprehensive and systematical analysis on the mining investment environment in Kyrgyzstan, it will help the national investors who like to invest in mining aspects in Kyrgyzstanan useful and overall view.%文章从法律实务角度出发,以吉尔吉斯斯坦的矿产资源储量、分布,矿业管理法律规定,外商投资法律制度为基础,重点介绍其《地下资源法》和新《投资法》,综合分析吉尔吉斯斯坦的矿产资源投资环境,以期对有意赴该国投资的个人和企业提供一个全面的参考.

  12. Optical and Radar Satellite Remote Sensing for Large Area Analysis of Landslide Activity in Southern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, S.; Behling, R.; Teshebaeva, K. O.; Motagh, M.; Wetzel, H. U.

    2014-12-01

    The presented work has been investigating the potential of optical and radar satellite remote sensing for the spatio-temporal analysis of landslide activity at a regional scale along the eastern rim of the Fergana Basin representing the area of highest landslide activity in Kyrgyzstan. For this purpose a multi-temporal satellite remote sensing database has been established for a 12.000 km2 study area in Southern Kyrgyzstan containing a multitude of optical data acquired during the last 28 years as well as TerraSAR-X and ALOS-PALSAR acquired since 2007. The optical data have been mainly used for creating a multi-temporal inventory of backdated landslide activity. For this purpose an automated approach for object-oriented multi-temporal landslide detection has been developed which is based on the analysis of temporal NDVI-trajectories complemented by relief information to separate landslide-related surface changes from other land cover changes. Applying the approach to the whole study area using temporal high resolution RapidEye time series data has resulted in the automated detection of 612 landslide objects covering a total area of approx. 7.3 km². Currently, the approach is extended to the whole multi-sensor time-series database for systematic analysis of longer-term landslide occurrence at a regional scale. Radar remote sensing has been focussing on SAR Interferometry (InSAR) to detect landslide related surface deformation. InSAR data were processed by repeat-pass interferometry using the DORIS and SARScape software. To better assess ground deformation related to individual landslide objects, InSAR time-series analysis has been applied using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) method. Analysis of the results in combination with optical data and DEM information has revealed that most of the derived deformations are caused by slow movements in areas of already existing landslides indicating the reactivation of older slope failures. This way, InSAR analysis can

  13. Risky encounters with doctors? Medical diversity and health-related strategies of the inhabitants of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkala-Gawęcka, Danuta

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces the notion of 'risky encounters', referring to the way in which contacts with doctors are commonly perceived by the inhabitants of Bishkek, the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. The author's research conducted between 2011 and 2013 revealed that most people were extremely critical of biomedical personnel, despite positive assessments of healthcare reforms expressed by experts. Owing to the prevailing distrust of doctors, their interventions are often considered risky to one's health, which strongly influences people's health-related strategies in the context of medical diversity. This perception of risk is deeply embedded in feelings of uncertainty and anxiety, which should be viewed from the more general perspective of the political, economic and social uncertainties resulting from the difficulties of the period of post-Soviet transformation. It is evident that medical diversity in Bishkek provides people in need with many non-biomedical treatment options, and a distrust of doctors significantly contributes to the popularity of complementary medicine. Economic constraints and local concepts of health, illness and efficacy are among the many other factors that play a role in therapeutic choices. However, the current paper focuses on risk, uncertainty and trust, as emotions that are central to an understanding of the health-related strategies and tactics used by the inhabitants of present-day Bishkek.

  14. Long bone histology of the stem salamander Kokartus honorarius (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutschas, Pavel; Stein, Koen

    2015-04-01

    Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Kyrgyzstan is one of the oldest salamanders in the fossil record, characterized by a mixture of plesiomorphic morphological features and characters shared with crown-group salamanders. Here we present a detailed histological analysis of its long bones. The analysis of a growth series demonstrates a significant histological maturation during ontogeny, expressed by the progressive appearance of longitudinally oriented primary vascular canals, primary osteons, growth marks, remodelling features in primary bone tissues, as well as progressive resorption of the calcified cartilage, formation of endochondral bone and development of cartilaginous to bony trabeculae in the epiphyses. Apart from the presence of secondary osteons, the long bone histology of Kokartus is very similar to that of miniaturized temnospondyls, other Jurassic stem salamanders, miniaturized seymouriamorphs and modern crown-group salamanders. We propose that the presence of secondary osteons in Kokartus honorarius is a plesiomorphic feature, and the loss of secondary osteons in the long bones of crown-group salamanders as well as in those of miniaturized temnospondyls is the result of miniaturization processes. Hitherto, all stem salamander long bong histology (Kokartus, Marmorerpeton and 'salamander A') has been generally described as having paedomorphic features (i.e. the presence of Katschenko's Line and a layer of calcified cartilage), these taxa were thus most likely neotenic forms. The absence of clear lines of arrested growth and annuli in long bones of Kokartus honorarius suggests that the animals lived in an environment with stable local conditions.

  15. [Taxonomy of the Sokuluk virus (SOKV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus, Entebbe bat virus group) isolated from bats (Vespertilio pipistrellus Schreber, 1774), ticks (Argasidae Koch, 1844), and birds in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Samokhvalov, E I; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Complete genome sequencing of the Sokuluk virus (SOKV) isolated in Kyrgyzstan from bats Vespertilio pipistrellus and their obligatory parasites--Argasidae Koch, 1844, ticks was carried out. SOKV was classified as attributed to the Flaviviridae family, Flavivirus genus. The maximum homology (71% for nucleotide and 79% for amino acid sequences) was detected with respect to the Entebbe bat virus (ENTV). ENTV and SOKV form a group joining to the yellow fever virus (YFV) within the limits of the mosquito flavivirus branch. Close relation of SOKV with bat covers and human housings permits to assume SOKV potentially patogenic to human health.

  16. The Hunt for Surface Rupture From the 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik Earthquake, Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Guralnik, B.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I. E.

    2007-12-01

    The 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik earthquake in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan is one of the largest historic intraplate reverse-faulting events. Documentation of slip distribution and fault geometry for major historic earthquakes, such as the Chilik event, provide important data on their source physics, seismotectonics, and hazard. These data also provide insight into potential mechanical interaction with other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon Kemin) events. Despite the importance of the Chilik event, very little is known about the earthquake's epicenter and the presence of associated ground rupture. Isoseismal's from historic shaking intensity data gathered immediately following the event were used to estimate the event magnitude and suggest an epicentral location in the northern foothills of the Kungey Ala-too range, 80-100 kilometers east-southeast of Almaty. Researchers who have visited this area report no evidence of ground rupture, suggesting that the event either did not rupture the ground surface or that the isoseismal data do not provide a sufficiently focused estimate of epicentral location. We have reanalyzed the shaking intensity data to update the estimate of the epicentral location. During June 2007 field work and in review of aerial photography, we observed extensive east-west trending and morphologically youthful km-long and 1-5 m high fault scarps on the eastern crest of the Kungey Ala-Too Range along the Kygyz-Kazak border north of Tyup. Contemporary reports of the 1911 Kebin earthquake did not document these structures, despite the thorough investigation of rupture to the west and northwest. The scarp lengths and their offsets indicate that they did not form in the M6.6 1978 Djalanash Tyup earthquake. Although located to the south of the isoseismal epicenter for the Chilik earthquake, the scarps observed near the range crest must be considered as possible candidates for

  17. Repeated large-magnitude earthquakes in a tectonically active, low-strain continental interior: The northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, A.; Dzhumabaeva, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K. E.; Strecker, M. R.; Macaulay, E. A.; Arrowsmith, Jr.; Sudhaus, H.; Preusser, F.; Rugel, G.; Merchel, S.

    2016-05-01

    The northern Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan has been affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. To assess the significance of such a pulse of strain release in a continental interior, it is important to analyze and quantify strain release over multiple time scales. We have undertaken paleoseismological investigations at two geomorphically distinct sites (Panfilovkoe and Rot Front) near the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek. Although located near the historic epicenters, both sites were not affected by these earthquakes. Trenching was accompanied by dating stratigraphy and offset surfaces using luminescence, radiocarbon, and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide methods. At Rot Front, trenching of a small scarp did not reveal evidence for surface rupture during the last 5000 years. The scarp rather resembles an extensive debris-flow lobe. At Panfilovkoe, we estimate a Late Pleistocene minimum slip rate of 0.2 ± 0.1 mm/a, averaged over at least two, probably three earthquake cycles. Dip-slip reverse motion along segmented, moderately steep faults resulted in hanging wall collapse scarps during different events. The most recent earthquake occurred around 3.6 ± 1.3 kyr ago (1σ), with dip-slip offsets between 1.2 and 1.4 m. We calculate a probabilistic paleomagnitude to be between 6.7 and 7.2, which is in agreement with regional data from the Kyrgyz range. The morphotectonic signals in the northern Tien Shan are a prime example of deformation in a tectonically active intracontinental mountain belt and as such can help understand the longer-term coevolution of topography and seismogenic processes in similar structural settings worldwide.

  18. Glacier lake outburst floods caused by glacier shrinkage: case study of Ala-Archa valley, Kyrgyz Ala Too, northern Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakov, D.; Erochin, S. A.; Harbor, J.; Ivanov, M.; Rogozhina, I.; Stroeven, A. P.; Usubaliev, R.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in glacier extent and runoff in Central Asia increase socio-economic stress and may result in political conflict between donors of freshwater (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) and recipients of freshwater (Uzbekistan, China). Glaciers in the Pamir and Tian Shan regions have experienced an unprecedented downwasting due to regional climate changes over the past decades. This is because air temperature increases are in some areas accompanied by a decrease in precipitation. Such conditions have already resulted in a reduction of glacier runoff, especially in the northern and western Tian Shan, and an increase of the number and area of glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan. Even though glacial lakes in the mountains are in general relatively small and located far from densely populated areas, their outbursts often produce destructive debris flows. Such debris flows are especially common in Kyrgyzstan because of its steep river channels and abundance of Holocene and Quaternary glacier deposits that can be remobilized. The glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in the Shakhimardan river catchment in 1999, for example, resulted in 100 fatalities in Uzbekistan, and the GLOF from the Zyndan glacial lake led to substantial economic losses in 2009. According to the latest inventory, there are more than 350 glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan of which about 70 occur in the Kyrgyz Ala Too. The Ala-Archa valley is among the most important glacierized catchments in Kyrgyzstan. Despite the presence of a relatively small glacier-covered area of 36 km2, the Ala-Archa river is of critical importance to the Bishkek area, its agriculture, and its population which currently exceeds one million. GLOFs are therefore a threat to both numerous settlements of touristic value in the Ala-Archa headwaters and to Bishkek. The Teztor lake in the Adygene catchment of the Ala-Archa river system experienced an outburst during 1988 and 2005. On the early morning of July 31, 2012, this lake began draining through a dam

  19. Radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources in the former uranium mining and milling sites of Mailuu Suu (Kyrgyzstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho Alvarado, J A; Balsiger, B; Röllin, S; Jakob, A; Burger, M

    2014-12-01

    An assessment of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources at the former uranium mines and processing sites of Mailuu-Suu, in Kyrgyzstan, was carried out. A large number of water samples were collected from the drinking water distribution system (DWDS), rivers, shallow aquifers and drainage water from the mine tailings. Radionuclides and trace metal contents in water from the DWDS were low in general, but were extremely high for Fe, Al and Mn. These elements were associated with the particle fractions in the water and strongly correlated with high turbidity levels. Overall, these results suggest that water from the DWDS does not represent a serious radiological hazard to the Mailuu Suu population. However, due to the high turbidities and contents of some elements, this water is not good quality drinking water. Water from artesian and dug wells were characterized by elevated levels of U (up to 10 μg/L) and some trace elements (e.g. As, Se, Cr, V and F) and anions (e.g. Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). In two artesian wells, the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L for As in water was exceeded. As the artesian wells are used as a source of drinking water by a large number of households, special care should be taken in order to stay within the WHO recommended guidelines. Drainage water from the mine tailings was as expected highly contaminated with many chemicals (e.g. As) and radioactive contaminants (e.g. U). The concentrations of U were more than 200 times the WHO guideline value of 30 μg/L for U in drinking water. A large variation in (234)U/(238)U isotopic ratios in water was observed, with values near equilibrium at the mine tailings and far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching ratios of 2.3 in the artesian well). This result highlights the potential use of this ratio as an indicator of the origin of U contamination in Mailuu Suu.

  20. Winter snow Dayaoshan Kyrgyzstan wine nutritional analysis%瑶山吉冬诺酒主要营养成份分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文业; 黄一帆; 黄岛平

    2013-01-01

    文章对瑶山吉冬诺酒进行了检测分析,发现其含有丰富的多糖、核酸、卵磷脂、低聚糖、超氧化物歧化酶、不饱和脂肪酸、氨基酸、维生素等营养成份,以及钙、镁、钾、钠、铜、铁、锌、硅、锶、硒等矿物质或微量元素。%Winter Snow Kyrgyzstan article Dayaoshan wine were analyzed to detect, found rich nutrients in polysaccharides, nucleic acids, lecithin, oligosaccharides, super oxide dismutase, unsaturated fatty acids, amino acids, and calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, zinc, silicon, strontium, selenium and other minerals or trace elements.

  1. Street-Level Bureaucrats at Work: A Municipality-Level Institutional Analysis of Community-Based Natural Resource Management Implementation Practice in the Pasture Sector of Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibke Crewett

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into lowest-level policy implementers’ (street-level bureaucrats’ role in donor-initiated natural resource governance reforms. The article employs an institutional analysis framework with a specific policy implementation focus. A multiple case study reviews a resource user information campaign during the early phase of a community-based pasture management reform in Kyrgyzstan. It finds implementation rule simplification by policy implementers at the expense of full resource user involvement as a result of an insufficient contextual fit of the formal information rules. The results emphasize the need of well-designed implementation rules in order to ensure full and equitable resource user involvement in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM.

  2. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddix Jason

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007. Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals

  3. How much water will glaciers in the Chon Kemin valley (Tien Shan mountains, Kyrgyzstan) provide in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Annina; Huss, Matthias; Stoffel, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Climate-driven changes in glacier-fed streamflow regimes have direct implications on freshwater supply, irrigation and hydropower potential. Reliable information on current and future glaciation and runoff is thus crucial for water allocation. In summer-dry regions like Central Asia, glaciers play an important role in streamflow regimes, as meltwater from glaciers is released when other sources such as snowmelt are depleted. This situation is well reflected by the Chon Kemin River, an important tributary to the Chu River providing Kyrgyzstan's capital Bishkek with freshwater. Today, glaciers cover around 8% of the Chon Kemin valley (118 of 1'438 km2) and 30% of the headwater catchment (49 of 165 km2), but these glaciers in the low-altitude northern periphery of the Tien Shan mountains are melting particularly fast. Glacier shrinkage has considerable impacts on the seasonal and overall availability of water: In a first instance, shrinking glaciers supply ample quantities of water in the form of increased glacial runoff, but reduced glacier volume will ultimately result in a decrease in both glacier-fed and total runoff, if no other sources can offset reduced glacier melt. Although crucial for efficient water planning, it is largely unknown if the Tien Shan rivers have already passed this tipping point ("peak water"), or, if not yet, when this will happen. In our study, we assess past and future runoff changes in the Chon Kemin River to elucidate the timing of "peak water" and to quantify water availability in coming summers, when precipitation is expected to be even more scarce than today. Meteorological and hydrological data suggest that total runoff has increased in the past decades, particularly during summer and fall, probably as a result of increasing glacial meltwater. Annual fluctuations in precipitation and runoff have shown an asynchronous behavior in a first phase (1936 until early 1960s), but have then changed to a synchronous pattern (early 1960s until

  4. Three-dimensional velocity structure and earthquake locations beneath the northern Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sujoy; Hamburger, Michael W.; Virieux, Jean

    1998-02-01

    We used the arrival times of local earthquakes and quarry blasts recorded by the Kyrgyzstan Broadband Network (KNET) to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) P and S wave velocity models of the upper crust beneath an actively deforming mountain front and its associated foreland in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan. The continuous velocity models, described by cubic B spline interpolation of the squared slowness over a regular 3-D grid, were computed by simultaneous inversion of hypocenter and medium parameters. Exact ray tracing was done in the smooth 3-D medium by shooting rays from the sources to the stations by an analytical perturbation method based on the paraxial ray theory. The deduced large, sparse, linear system was solved using the damped, iterative, least squares algorithm LSQR. The stability and resolution of the result was qualitatively tested by two synthetic tests: the spike test and the checkerboard resolution test. We found that the models are well resolved up to a depth of ˜27 km for most parts of our image domain. The P and S wave velocity models are consistent with each other and provide evidence for marked heterogeneity in the upper crustal structure beneath the northern Tien Shan. At shallower depths (<7 km) the sediment-filled foreland is imaged as a relatively lower velocity feature compared to the mountains, which are cored by crystalline basement rocks. In contrast, at midcrustal depths the mountains are underlain by relatively lower velocity materials compared to the foreland. A distinct contrast in velocity structure is also observed between the eastern and western parts of the Kyrgyz Range at midcrustal depths, with the presence of relatively higher velocities toward the east. The seismicity is concentrated near the traces of major active faults and extends deeper beneath the foreland compared to the mountains. The regional compression in the Tien Shan is accommodated along a series of high-angle reverse faults distributed throughout the orogenic system

  5. Case study: Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baktybek Abdrisaev

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The paper discusses the importance of Open Source (OS hereinafter technology for national Information Communication Technology (ICT hereinafter development and E-Government for developing countries as a general strategy for overcoming the digital divide. The paper highlights the opportunities presented to the developing countries by the growing world-wide movement for use of OS systems, namely, the ability to promote the transfer of technological know-how and the growth of local IT professionals, the possibility of providing IT solutions within the limited financial means of a developing country, and the ability to strengthen the legal use of software. The paper

  6. Kyrgyzstan Country Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    1. Presidential elections on July 23, 2009 28 2. Return of a large army of labor migrants put additional pressure...beds: Number of beds per 10,000 population19 13 “Kuda dvizhetsa sistema obrazovaniya Kyrgyzskoy...Science Abdulda Musaev Minister of Healthcare Marat Mambetov Minister of Labor and Social Development Nazgul Tashpaeva Minister of Culture

  7. Analysis on Xinjiang’s Image in Eyes of International Students from Kyrgyzstan%吉尔吉斯斯坦留学生眼中的新疆形象分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海璇; 焦若薇

    2016-01-01

    吉尔吉斯斯坦留学生对新疆的印象以正面印象为主,主要集中在文化和旅游方面,同时也存在一些负面的、消极的印象。大众媒介是吉尔吉斯斯坦留学生形成新疆印象的主要渠道,群体传播和人际传播也有不可替代的作用。%Xinjiang leaves a positive impression on the international students from Kyrgyzstan , mainly concentrated on culture and tourism, while there are also some negative impressions. Mass media is the main channel of forming impression on Kyrgyzstan international students, and group communication and interpersonal communication also have irreplaceable roles.

  8. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmer Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater

  9. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  10. Ideal climatic variables for the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, derived from GPS data and energy-mass balance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fujita

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007 of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Differential GPS surveys reveal a vertical surface deletion at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the modern state are 289 mm and −3.85 °C at the glacier summit (4600 m above sea level, a.s.l., respectively. The good agreement between the long-term estimated and observed precipitation at a nearby station in the Tien Shan (292 mm at 3614 m a.s.l. for the period 1930–2002 suggests that the glacier dynamics have been regulated by the long-term average accumulation. The glacier mass-balance, reconstructed based on meteorological data from the Tien Shan station for the past 80 yr, explains the observed fluctuations in glacier extent, particularly the negative mass balance in the 1990s.

  11. 吉尔吉斯斯坦经济转型中投资环境及中国对其投资前景分析%Kyrgyzstan Economic Transition and Investment Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    依马木阿吉·艾比布拉; 孙世伟

    2014-01-01

    With collapsing of the Soviet Union in the end of 1991 ,the Central Asian countries are largely“passive”in achieving national independence .Since the failure of the Soviet economic system model and the esteem of the western economic system ,Kyrgyzstan renounced giving up the original planned economy , started to implement economic reform .This article explored the relationship of economic transformation , foreign capital ,investment environment of Kyrgyzstan .Good investment environment is an important con-dition for better attracting foreign investment ,w hich reflects the success of economic transformation .Cap-ital shortage and deteriorating economic condition were the root cause to constraint the economic reform of Kyrgyzstan .Chinese investment in Kyrgyzstan has made great progress ,w hich will provide more and more opportunities for China .%1991年底苏联解体,中亚国家在很大程度上“被动”地实现了国家独立。由于苏联经济体制模式的失败和对西方经济体制的推崇,吉尔吉斯斯坦宣布放弃原有的计划经济体制向市场经济转变,着手实行经济体制改革。文章从吉尔吉斯斯坦经济转型、引进外资等方面进行分析,探索欠发达国家吉尔吉斯斯坦经济转型、引进外资和投资环境之间的关系。良好的投资环境是吸引外资的重要条件,也是经济转型成功的体现,资本短缺和经济状况恶化成为制约吉国经济改革的根本原因。中国在吉尔吉斯斯坦投资取得了很大进展,存在着优势,有很大的拓展空间。

  12. Distribution of Natural (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226) and Technogenic (Sr-90, Cs-137) Radionuclides in Soil-Plants Complex Near Issyk-Kul Lake, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, L.; Kaldybaev, B.; Djenbaev, B.; Tilenbaev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Researches on radionuclides distribution in the soil-plants complex provide essential information in understanding human exposure to natural and technogenic sources of radiation. It is necessary in establishing regulation relating to radiation protection. The aim of this study was the radiochemical analysis of the content natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th,226Ra and technogenic radionuclides content (90Sr, 137Cs) in soils near Issyk-Kul lake (Kyrgyzstan). Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that the concentrations of thorium-232 are fluctuating in the limits (11.7-84.1)-10-4% in the soils. The greatest concentration of thorium-232 has been found in the light chestnut soils. The content of uranium-238 in the soils near Issyk-Kul lake is fluctuating from 2.8 up to 12.7-10-4%. Radium-226 has more migration ability in comparison with other heavy natural radionuclides. According to our research the concentrations of radium-226 are fluctuating in the limits (9.4-43.0)-10-11%. The greatest concentration of radium-226 (43,0±2,8)-10-11% has been determined in the light chestnut soil. In connection with global migration of contaminating substances, including radioactive, the special attention is given long-lived radionuclides strontium-90 and caesium-137 in food-chains, and agroecosystems. Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that specific activity of strontium-90 is fluctuating in the range of 2.9 up to 11.1 Bq/kg, and caesium-137 from 3.7 up to 14,3 Bq/kg in the soil of agroecosystems in the region of Issyk-Kul. In soil samples down to 1 meter we have observed vertical migration of these radionuclides, they were found to accumulate on the surface of soil horizon (0-5 cm) and their specific activity sharply decreases with depth. In addition in high-mountain pastures characterized by horizontal migration of cattle in profiles of soil, it was discovered that specific activity of radionuclides are lower on the slope than at the foot of the mountain. The

  13. Macroscopic Fault Structure of the 1911 Mw8.1 Chon Kemin Earthquake (Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) from Combined Seismic Imaging, Palaeo-Seismological Investigations and Historial Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, C. A.; Sonnemann, T.; Landgraf, A.; Ryberg, T.; Kulikova, G.; Krueger, F.; Dzhumabaeva, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Abdybachaev, U.; Orunbaev, S.; Rosenwinkel, S.; Sharshebaev, A.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes in low-strain regions and their driving forces are still sparsely studied and understood, and constitute serious first-order research questions. Data acquisition concerning paleo-earthquakes, related hazards, and tectonic activity beyond historical records plays an important role. Such information can be obtained with tools from tectonic geomorphology, geophysics, historic seismicity, and paleo-seismology that should span a variety of time and length scales. The Chon-Kemin Valley in the northern Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) is a small, intermontane basin of unknown origin framed by a network of active faults. In the year 1911, the Chon-Kemin earthquake (Mw=8.1) activated fault structures of about 200 km length which also ruptured the surface along the Chon-Kemin Valley and caused numerous landslides and rock avalanches of up to several tens of millions of cubic meters in volume. The Chon-Kemin earthquake was one of a series of strong seismic events that affected the northern Tien Shan between 1885 and 1938. A seismic survey across the Chon-Kemin Valley was conducted to investigate the subsurface velocity structure of the valley and its surrounding faults. Tomographic inversion techniques were applied to first-arrival traveltimes of refracted P waves, and the seismic data were screened for reflection signatures. Additionally, the region was analyzed through paleo-seismological trenching. Tomographic and reflection images identified a shallow basin structure bounded by a set of thrust faults in the south only which - in part - correlate with the surface trace of the rupture. The deformation seems to be distributed in time and space across several sub-parallel fault strands. Synthesis of historical (analog) recordings of this earthquake provide new insights into the source mechanisms and processes.

  14. Integrated Geohazard Screening Using Remote Sensing, Including Satellite and Helicopter Based Imagery, LiDAR, and Geophysics, in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, A. M.; Kozaci, O.; Hitchcock, C. S.; Konieczny, G.; Garrie, D.

    2015-12-01

    We performed a detailed geohazard investigation of a 5 km-wide, 650km-long corridor through Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. The study area includes the Rasht and Alai valleys at the boundary between the Pamir Mountains and the Alai Range of the southern Tien Shan. Ongoing collision between the India and Eurasia plates has resulted in the Tien Shan orogenic belt and the Pamir Mountains. Thus the study area is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. Rapid uplift, erosion, and steep slopes give rise to widespread landsliding and massive rock slope failures in both the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountains. Our integrated data acquisition and interpretation plan used airborne and remote sensing methods including satellite based DEMs and high resolution imagery, LiDAR, aerial photography, and helicopter based electromagnetic resistivity (HEM). Analysis of these data sets allowed us to delineate potential geohazards through surficial geologic mapping. Initial desktop geohazard screening included 1:50,000-scale mapping for potential faults, landslides, and liquefiable deposits, which included traffic light-style susceptibility maps for route refinement and hazard mitigation. As part of detailed investigations, continuous HEM data was collected and processed at a spatial sampling interval of approximately 3m. Apparent resistivity was calculated for each of the five operating frequencies over the entire survey area. For the purposes of this study, resistivity values at 10 m and 20 m depths were sliced from the interpolated 3D Differential Resistivity model for use in the analysis. Using GIS, we compared these results with mapped Quaternary units and found good correlation between resistivity contrasts and the boundaries of mapped surficial units. With this confidence, the HEM measurements were further analyzed to identify subsurface features and to develop a 3D geologic model. Based on this analysis we provided a framework for an optimized geotechnical

  15. "My Favourite Day Is Sunday": Community Perceptions of (Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Ambulatory Tuberculosis Care in Kara Suu District, Osh Province, Kyrgyzstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Burtscher

    Full Text Available Kyrgyzstan is one of the 27 high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB burden countries listed by the WHO. In 2012, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF started a drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB project in Kara Suu District. A qualitative study was undertaken to understand the perception of TB and DR-TB in order to improve the effectiveness and acceptance of the MSF intervention and to support advocacy strategies for an ambulatory model of care.This paper reports findings from 63 interviews with patients, caregivers, health care providers and members of communities. Data was analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Validation was ensured by triangulation and a 'thick' description of the research context, and by presenting deviant cases.Findings show that the general population interprets TB as the 'lungs having a cold' or as a 'family disease' rather than as an infectious illness. From their perspective, individuals facing poor living conditions are more likely to get TB than wealthier people. Vulnerable groups such as drug and alcohol users, homeless persons, ethnic minorities and young women face barriers in accessing health care. As also reported in other publications, TB is highly stigmatised and possible side effects of the long treatment course are seen as unbearable; therefore, people only turn to public health care quite late. Most patients prefer ambulatory treatment because of the much needed emotional support from their social environment, which positively impacts treatment concordance. Health care providers favour inpatient treatment only for a better monitoring of side effects. Health staff increasingly acknowledges the central role they play in supporting DR-TB patients, and the importance of assuming a more empathic attitude.Health promotion activities should aim at improving knowledge on TB and DR-TB, reducing stigma, and fostering the inclusion of vulnerable populations. Health seeking delays and adherence problems will

  16. Determination of the source time function of seismic event by blind deconvolution of regional coda wavefield: application to December 22, 2009 explosion at Kambarata, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebe, O. G.; Guilbert, J.; Bard, P.

    2011-12-01

    At regional distance, recovering the source time function of a seismic event is a rather difficult task as the Green function is unknown due to large scattering of the waves by crust heterogeneities. Contrary to classical methods based on deterministic assessment of the Green function, this work proposes to exploit the stochastic nature of regional coda wavefield in order to extract the seismic source time function of a regional event. Since the work of Aki and Chouet 1975, it is well recognized that regional coda waves can provide stable and robust information on the source of seismic events. Unfortunately, all the proposed techniques are limited to the power spectral density of the seismic source function. A modified version of our two step spectral factorization algorithm [Sèbe et al. 2005] of coda waves has been proposed in order to include higher order statistic (HOS) blind deconvolution techniques. Assuming that the coda excitation time series is a non-Gaussian independent and identically distributed random signal, the higher order statistics, especially the tricorrelation, is able to remove the randomness of coda excitation and extract source properties. In addition, unlike classical second order approach which only provides the power spectral density, the tricorrelation keeps the information on the phase spectrum of the source, allowing the estimation of the source time function. This original blind deconvolution algorithm of coda waves has been applied on the regional records of the December 22, 2009 explosion in Kambara, Kyrgyzstan. Based on statistic analyses of the higher order cumulants, this method has been able to recover the main properties of the source time function of this detonation: two successive explosions have been identified with a time delay of about 1.7 sec and an amplitude ratio of about 2 in favour of second explosion. This successful blind recovering of high resolution source properties is an encouraging result toward the development

  17. A Status Survey of Chinese-language Teachers in Central Asia--Taking Kyrgyzstan as an Example%中亚地区汉语师资现状调查--以吉尔吉斯斯坦为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班振林; 闫丽萍; 易红

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a substantial research which includes five parts: source of Chinese-language teachers, teaching status of Chinese-language teachers in China and Kyrgyzstan, Chinese level of native teachers, the existing problems of Chinese teachers team and corresponding countermeasures. This paper, from point and surface, probes into the teachers factors which affect international Chinese promotion. By means of studying Chinese-language teachers' current situation in Kyrgyzstan, problems of Chinese-language teachers in the whole central Asia, which in turn will provide factual basis to the international Chinese promotion work and Chinese language teaching policy-making in central Asia countries, can be reflected.%以定量研究和定性研究相结合的方法,从汉语师资的来源、中吉两国汉语教师教学状况、本土汉语师资队伍存在的问题三个方面,由点及面探讨了吉尔吉斯斯坦汉语国际教育师资状况,探析影响汉语国际教育的师资因素,并根据实际情况提出建议,通过吉尔吉斯斯坦的汉语师资现状以反馈整个中亚地区的汉语师资问题,以期为在中亚各国的汉语国际教育工作的进一步发展和未来规划的制定提供参考。

  18. On the Development of the Russian Language in Kyrgyzstan after its Independence%独立后吉尔吉斯斯坦俄语发展现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赛; 王新青

    2013-01-01

    The Russian language is still the official language and maintains a high frequency of use in Kirgizstan. Its linguistic social value results in the emergence of Kyrgyz-Russian bilingualism. Most Kyrgyz people continue to maintain the status quo of the Russian language and tend to keep the bilingualism. However, the Russian language is challenged by factors of nationality, regime and culture in the social growth of Kyrgyzstan.%俄语仍然是吉尔吉斯斯坦共和国的官方语言,在吉尔吉斯斯坦仍然保持着较高的使用率。俄语的社会价值导致了吉尔吉斯斯坦吉-俄双语现象的产生,双语制成为吉尔吉斯斯坦的一个主要特征和最重要的文化价值之一。吉国大部分居民有继续保持俄语现有的地位、使用吉-俄双语制的心理倾向,但是,俄语在吉尔吉斯斯坦的发展过程中仍然面临着民族、政治、文化诸方面的挑战。

  19. Zircon ages, geochemistry and Nd isotopic systematics for the Palaeoproterozoic 2.3-1.8 Ga Kuilyu Complex, East Kyrgyzstan - The oldest continental basement fragment in the Tianshan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, A.; Alexeiev, D. V.; Kovach, V. P.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Mikolaichuk, A. V.; Xie, H.; Sobel, E. R.

    2017-03-01

    Precambrian microcontinents represent key tectonic units in the accretionary collages of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and their geological history is reasonably well established since the Mesoproterozoic but remains weakly constrained for older epochs due to a scarcity of exposed Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean rocks. Early Precambrian rocks were previously reported from several metamorphic complexes in the Kyrgyz Tianshan orogenic belt, mainly based on multigrain conventional zircon dating, but the present study only confirmed such rocks at one site, namely in the Kuilyu Complex of eastern Kyrgyzstan. New single grain SHRIMP II zircon ages, geochemical data, and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions for granitoid gneisses of the Kuilyu Complex elucidate the age, origin and tectonic settings of this oldest continental fragment in the Tianshan. The Kuilyu Complex is part of the basement in the Ishim - Middle Tianshan microcontinent. It consist of a strongly deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal assemblage of paragneisses and schists which are tectonically interlayered with amphibolites, migmatites and granitoid gneisses. Our zircon dating indicates that the Kuilyu Complex contains two suites of Palaeoproterozoic granitoid gneisses with magmatic protolith ages of ca. 2.32-2.33 Ga and 1.85 Ga. Granitoid magmatism at 1.85 Ga was almost immediately followed by amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ca 1.83 Ga, evidenced by growth of metamorphic zircon rims. The older, ca 2.3 Ga granitoid gneisses chemically correspond to calc-alkaline, metaluminous, I-type magnesian quartz diorite and granodiorite. The protolith of the younger, ca. 1.85 Ga granite-gneiss is an alkalic-calcic, metaluminous to peraluminous, ferroan medium-grained porphyric granite with chemical features resembling A-type granites. The 2.3 Ga and 1.85 Ga granitoid gneisses have slightly to distinctly negative initial εNd values of -1.2 and -6.6, and similar depleted mantle Nd model ages of 2

  20. The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narama

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF occurred at the western (w- Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2 reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999–2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.

  1. The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narama, C.; Duishonakunov, M.; Kääb, A.; Daiyrov, M.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2010-04-01

    On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF) occurred at the western (w-) Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2) reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999-2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.

  2. A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V

    2016-09-01

    A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera). In total: 965 species of butterflies, 174 genera, by countries: Armenia-244, Azerbaijan-225, Belarus-107, Estonia-113, Georgia-211, Kyrgyzstan-316, Kazakhstan-344, Latvia-115, Lituania-126, Moldova-87, Russia-522, Tajikistan-295, Turkmenistan-159, Ukraine-192, Uzbekistan-241. Detailed distribution and subspecific structure (if present) for every species is provided. Lectotypes of the following species-group taxa are designated: Hesperia poggei Lederer, 1858, Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861, P. eversmanni Eversmann, 1851, P. boedromius Püngeler, 1901, Limenitis moltrechti Kardakov, 1928, L. sydyi Kindermann, 1853, L. amphyssa Ménétriès, 1859, L. doerriesi Staudinger, 1892, L. helmanni duplicata Staudinger, 1892, L. homeyeri Tancré, 1881, Argynnis penelope Staudinger, 1891, A. thore borealis Staudinger, 1861, Vanessa io geisha Stichel, [1908], Melitaea maturna staudingeri Wnukowsky, 1929 (=uralensis Staudinger, 1871), M. didymina Staudinger, 1895, Papilio fascelis Esper, 1783, Thecla quercivora Staudinger, 1887, Lycaena orion var. ornata Staudinger, 1892. The following nomenclatural acts are established: Neolycaena submontana baitenovi (Zhdanko, 2011), comb. et stat.n. The following new synonymy is provided: Hesperia

  3. Bir Geçiş Ekonomisi Olarak Kırgızistan’da Doğrudan Yabancı Yatırımlar ve Orta Asya Ülkeleri İle Kıyaslanması(Foreign Direct Investments in Kyrgyzstan as a Transition Economy and Its Comparison with Central Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madina PASHALIEVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sovyetler Birliği’nin dağılmasıyla bağımsızlığı ilan eden ve piyasa ekonomisine geçmeye çalışan ülkelere geçiş ekonomileri denilmektedir. Bu ülkelerden birisi olan Kırgızistan, Orta Asya bölgesindeki stratejik konumu, liberal ekonomisi ve ılımlı yaklaşımı itibariyle gün geçtikçe daha fazla dikkatleri üzerine çekmektedir. Geçiş döneminin izlerini üzerinden atmaya çalışan ülke, yabancı yatırımları teşvik etmek üzere ciddi yasal ve yapısal düzenleme ve uygulamalara gitmiştir. Bu çalışmada, Kırgızistan Cumhuriyeti’nde sürdürülebilir büyüme ve refahın arttırılması amacıyla uygulamaya konulan politikalar sayesinde ülkenin yabancı yatırımları hangi düzeyde çekebildiği ve bölge ülkeleri ile kıyaslandığında, durumunun ne olduğu ve sahip olduğu üstünlükler incelenmiştir. The countries which pronounced their independence after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and are endeavouring to shift to market economy are called transition economies. As one of these countries Kyrgyzstan is attracting more attention every other day due to its strategic position in Central Asia, its liberal economy and moderate approach. Trying to get rid of the traces of the transition period, this country has established serious legal and structural regulations and practices in order to promote foreign investments. This study deals with how much the Republic of Kyrgyzstan has managed to attract foreign investments thanks to the policies implemented for sustainable growth and improvement of welfare, and its status and superiorities when compared to other countries in the region.

  4. Differences of Tree-ring Response to Climate Between Upper and Lower Treeline in the Western Tianshan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan%吉尔吉斯斯坦西天山上下林线树轮对气候的响应差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞波; 尚华明; 魏文寿; 何清; 袁玉江; 张同文; Ermenbaev Bakytbek; 赵勇

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we develop two tree-ring width chronologies using the Schrenk spruce tree-ring samples that was collected from the upper and lower treeline at chon-kyzyl-suu in the western Tianshan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, and analyze similarities and differences of tree-ring response to climate between upper and lower treeline using temperature and precipitation data from the Climatic Research Unit (0.5ºí0.5º). The result showed that the tree-ring chronologies have a good consistency between upper and lower treeline. For tree-ring width chronological response to temperature, there is a good negative correlation between tree-ring width index for upper treeline and the temperature in spring(especially in April and May), and between tree-ring width index for lower treeline and the temperature in summer (especially in June and July). For the precipitation, the best correlation between tree-ring width chronologies in lower treeline and precipitation from preceding July to current June (r=0.61,p<0.000 001), and the correlation also reached 0.49 between tree-ring width chronologies in upper treeline and precipitation from preceding July to current June. The precipitation may be a major limit factor for tree growth in the area and plays a decisive role in lower treeline. The spatial correlation analysis showed that the tree -ring chronologies are a good representative to precipitation from preceding July to current June in the western Tianshan Mountains, especially for the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan.%利用2012年10月采自吉尔吉斯斯坦西天山chon-kyzyl-suu附近的森林上线和下线两个采样点的雪岭云杉树轮样本,建立了上下线树轮宽度年表,结合近百年CRU气温和降水资料,分析该地区森林上下线树轮对气候响应的异同。结果表明,森林上下线树轮宽度年表一致性较好,尤其是窄轮出现年份基本相同;对气温响应方面,森林上线

  5. Kyrgyzstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    party in Frunze (now Bishkek). In the late 1980s, she served as head of the Soviet delegation to UNESCO, and later as Soviet ambassador to Malaysia ...opponents. Allegedly, fighting began between rival ethnic- based gangs at a casino in the city of Osh and quickly escalated, fuelled by rumors of rapes

  6. Personality Value Orientations in Terms of Kyrgyzstan Society Anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan M. Asanaliyev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available All well-known definitions of an anomy extremely precisely approach to a current state Kyrgyz society. The chosen ways under of subjective and objective circumstances lead to society destabilization. During such periods of social development the developed values and valuable orientations can’t be equal to the existing realities, and new weren't created yet up to the end, exactly in such conditions the anomy and deviant behavior most extend. Today to the country deviant behavior of considerable part of the population embodies the destructive tendencies most dangerous. These tendencies must be studied and analyzed.

  7. Strong paleoearthquakes along the Talas-Fergana Fault, Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Korzhenkov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Talas-Fergana Fault, the largest strike-slip structure in Centred. Asia, forms an obliquely oriented boundary between the northeastern and southwestern parts of the Tianshan mountain belt. The fault underwent active right-lateral strike-slip during the Paleozoic, with right-lateral movements being rejuvenated in the Late Cenozoic. Tectonic movements along the intracontinental strike-slip faults contribute to absorb part of the regional crustal shortening linked to the India-Eurasia collision; knowledge of strike-slip motions along the Talas-Fergana Fault are necessary for a complete assessment of the active deformation of the Tianshan orogen. To improve our understanding of the intracontinental deformation of the Tianshan mountain belt and the occurrence of strong earthquakes along the whole length of the Talas-Fergana Fault, we identify features of relief arising during strong paleoearthquakes along the Talas-Fergana Fault, fault segmentation, the length of seismogenic ruptures, and the energy and age of ancient catastrophes. We show that during neotectonic time the fault developed as a dextral strike-slip fault, with possible dextral displacements spreading to secondary fault planes north of the main fault trace. We determine rates of Holocene and Late Pleistocene dextral movements, and our radiocarbon dating indicates tens of strong earthquakes occurring along the fault zone during arid interval of 15800 years. The reoccurrence of strong earthquakes along the Talas-Fergana Fault zone during the second half of the Holocene is about 300 years. The next strong earthquake along the fault will most probably occur along its southeastern chain during the next several decades. Seismotectonic deformation parameters indicate that M > 7 earthquakes with oscillation intensity I > IX have occurred.

  8. Small States and Economic Integrations: Eurasian Customs Union and Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Avcu, Seyit Ali

    2016-01-01

    ¿Qué influencia a un Estado pequeño a decidirse a sumarse a un proceso de integración económica? Los esfuerzos de integración y reunificación de los últimos 15 años en el territorio de la ex Unión Soviética finalmente dieron resultado con la decisión de Rusia de poner fin a su aislamiento. En Europa del Este la Unión Económica Euroasiática se ha convertido en una alternativa a la Unión Europa y en un centro de gravedad. Los esfuerzos de expansión de la Unión Económica Euroasiática en Europa d...

  9. Hydrological regime of Lake Adygine, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falátková, Kristýna; Šobr, Miroslav; Kocum, Jan; Janský, Bohumír

    2014-05-01

    Glacier retreat in high mountain areas around the world is considered one of the major geosciences research topics of last decades. This process may result in formation and further development of glacial lakes that are often unstable and pose a threat to downstream valleys. The studied area is situated at the end of a tributary valley on the northern side of Kyrgyz range, about 40 km south of the capital - Bishkek. Glaciers of Central Tien Shan are considered very sensitive indicators of climate change. The studied lake is part of a system of young lakes situated near the front of a retreating glacier therefore it ranks among potentially dangerous ones. The area is closely observed, terrain research including bathymetric, geophysical, geodetic measurements was carried out during last ten years. The lake level and its dependence on the changing climatic conditions in the area have been monitored in detail at this location since August 2007. Data from two meteorological stations are used to explain lake water level fluctuations, especially during ablation season when the lake is drained by a surface channel. The hydrological regime of the lake is compared with a regime of glacial streams, individual factors that affect it are described and possible trends and uncertainties that arise from it are analysed. The lake is also drained by subsurface channels, and as the water level declines over the cold part of a year, their capacity is studied and compared among years. The main aim of the study is to explain any deviations or changes found in the hydrological regime of the lake and to decide whether their cause could mean a decreased stability of the lake dam. Part of the dam is made up of moraine with buried ice and as the lake is drained by subsurface channels, their capacity can be changed due to moraine subsidence when the ice melts. This may lead either to sudden enlargement of channels' capacity or to their blockage, both of which could cause lake outburst.

  10. RECONSTRUCTION AND PREDICTION OF WATER BALANCE COMPONENTS FROM DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL DATA FOR THE NARYN RIVER BASIN (KYRGYZSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Konovalov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suggested new method for reconstruction of runoff includes: 1. Search informative points based weather observations for dependence runoff = f(climate index. Climate index consists of normalized anomalies of annual precipitation and air temperature, together with water vapor pressure and total cloud amount in the June–September. 2. The selection of sites that represent local relationship between the index of climate and tree rings. 3. Getting the multivariate linear regression equation between the runoff V and tree rings D. Basic climatic period 1961–1990 is used as a calibration interval of time. Verification of the equations for 1940–1960 identified the need to use other arguments in addition to the width of tree rings. For this purpose, two climate index: PDSI and SPEI were tested. It is established that the empirical formulae V = f(D, PDSI and V = f(D, SPEI are suitable for assessing the annual flow of the Naryn in 1901–2006. In the report is described a process of  reconstruction of flow for the years 1700–2005 based on the data of the width of the tree rings, and taking into account the temporal variability of parameters of regression equations.Chronologies of the width and density of tree rings in the thirty-two tree ring sites were used to reconstruct long-term series of average summer air temperature Ts at meteorological stations of the Pamir and Tien Shan. The calibration interval of time was 1961–1990 to find equations Ts = f(D of third-order multiple regression, and independent control of their quality, done in 1932–1960. Combined correlation coefficient in 10 cases out of 15 was more than 0.80, a relative error of calculation Ts in 19611990 ranged from 0.13 to 4.73%, and in 1932–1960 from 0.23 to 8.10%. Duration of the reconstructed series Ts ranged from 100 to 278 years. Positive results were received for predicting a common and glacial runoff of Naryn river, a long-term range of density of tree rings. 

  11. The Protracted Border and Territorial Disputes Between Kyrgyzstan and Its Neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    forever God willing. All recognized people made my year at CGSC the best year of my life. God bless you all, who supported me throughout this entire...Department of Regional Problems, Salamat Alamanov, there is no 5 International Crisis Group, “Central Asia...7 International Crisis Group, 3. 7 who migrated abroad or to other cities.8 Compounding the actions of neighboring states against the

  12. Reforming the Police in Post-Soviet States: Georgia and Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    is highly com- petitive. While in 2006 there were five applicants for each spot, in 2012 the number of candidates increased to 50 per spot. Female ...police should be able to prevent violence generated by criminal syn- dicates, drug cartels, and violent entrepreneurs . As part of these efforts...republics, see Vadim Volkov, Violent Entrepreneurs : The Use of Force in the Making of Russian Capitalism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell Uni- versity Press, 2002

  13. Climate change and glacier retreat in northern Tien Shan (Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan) using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Tobias

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of precipitation and temperature trends and a GIS-supported investigation of the related glacier change in the mountain ridges Zailiyskiy and Kungey Alatau, which represent an important part of the northern Tien Shan. The recent glacier coverage was delineated in a semi-automated way using a TM4/TM5 ratio image of a Landsat ETM Scene from the year 1999 and a merged ASTER/SRTM3-DEM. The extent of these glaciers is compared to that of the glaciers in the Soviet Glacier Inventory [UdSSR, Academica Nauk (1966 to 1983). Katalog Lednikov SSSR (in Russian), Gidrometeoizdat. Leningrad], which represents the situation in study area in approx. 1955. Regionalization of temperature and precipitation as well as solar radiation calculation was conducted in order to determine the climate situation at the glaciers. Trend and correlation analysis for the period from 1879 to 2000 at 16 climate stations showed a temperature increase, which have become pronounced since the 1950s. Another strong increase occurred at the beginning of the 1970s and since around 1980, the temperatures have generally stayed at this high level. The trend coefficient was about 0.8 K/100a for the period 1900 to 2000 and about 2.0 K/100a on average for the second half of the last century. The increase was about two times higher than the global average in northern Tien Shan from 1950 until 2000, where the increase was mainly due to temperature rise in autumn and winter. The increase is less pronounced in the mountainous areas, but still obvious. However, the higher temperature increase at the lower stations, located for the most part in cities or larger settlements, may be due in part to increased urbanization. For precipitation, there was a small increase on average, but no clear trend. On the average, the decrease in glacier extent was more than 32% between 1955 and 1999 in the investigated valleys of Zailiyskiy and Kungey Alatau. The glacier retreat was not homogeneous, but depended strongly on the size, location and climate regime at the glaciers. The area loss of the continental-type glaciers with very predominant summer accumulation, as for those situated in the deeply incised Chon-Kemin valley between Zailiyskiy and Kungey Alatau, was conspicuously less, in parts, than the loss at the more maritime glaciers on the northern slope of Zailiyskiy Alatau. This is consistent with the small increase in summer temperatures. However, under dryer conditions with high solar radiation input, such as with glaciers in the Chon-Aksu valley in Kungey Alatau, the area retreat of the continental-type glaciers can be even more pronounced than that of the more maritime glaciers.

  14. 75 FR 67013 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... HOUSE, WASHINGTON, August 26, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-27672 Filed 10-29-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 4710-10-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-12 of August 26, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and...) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended (22 U.S.C....

  15. Stable isotopes of lead and strontium as tracers of sources of airborne particulate matter in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Asia is dominated by an arid climate and desert-like conditions, leading to the potential of long-range transport of desert dust. One potential source of dust to Central Asia is the Aral Sea, the surface area of which has receded in size from 68,000 km2 to 14,280 km2, lar...

  16. Stable Isotopes of Sr and Pb as Tracers of Sources of Airborne Particulate Matter in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ConclusionsElemental concentrations were higher at the LIDAR site compared to the Bishkek site. Also, concentrations were higher during dust than non-dust events at both sites.The Sr isotopic ratios suggest dust from another region, such as from Western China, Africa, or Middle E...

  17. Identification and monitoring of potentially dangerous glacial lakes in northern Tien Shan (Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan) using geoinformation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Tobias; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Peters, Juliane; Buchroithner, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    Like in many other parts of the world, the glaciers in northern Tien Shan are receding and the permafrost is thawing and concomitant glacial lakes are developing. Outbursts of these glacial lakes pose severe hazards for the society. Over the last decade, several outbursts in this seismically active region are documented. Multi-temporal space imageries are an ideal means to study and monitor glaciers and glacial lakes over larger areas. Morphometric analyses and modelling approaches allow the estimation of the potential danger of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). In this paper, we present a comprehensive approach to identify glaciers and the potentially dangerous glacial lakes based on multi-temporal space imagery from 1972 (Corona KH-4B), 1973 (Landsat MSS), 1991 (Landsat TM), 1999 (Landsat ETM+), 2000/2001/ (ASTER) 2005, and 2008 (Landsat TM) as well as morphometric analysis and modelling. The identification and monitoring of glacial lakes were carried out automatically using image ratioing and the Normalized Difference Water Index (except for the panchromatic Corona images). The results were evaluated and, if necessary, manually edited. The probability of the growth of a glacial lake was estimated by analysing glacier changes, glacier motion, and slope analysis. A permafrost model based on morphometric parameters, solar radiation and regionalised temperature conditions aided us to asses the effect of probable permafrost thawing. A GIS-based model was applied in order to simulate the possible downstream impact of a lake outburst. The findings of our studies indicate a continuous glacier recession with an increasing number and area of glacial lakes. This possibly leads into a higher risk of a glacial lake outburst. Finally, the lakes are classified according to their outburst probability and their downstream impact.

  18. Remote-sensing-based analysis of the 1996 surge of Northern Inylchek Glacier, central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Hermann; Ng, Felix; Kopecny, Alexander; Leber, Diethard

    2016-11-01

    The evolution of Northern Inylchek Glacier and its proglacial lake - Upper Lake Merzbacher - during its 1996 surge and the surrounding decades is analyzed with remote sensing imagery. Overall retreat of the glacier from 1943 to 1996 enlarged the lake to 4 km long and ≈ 100 m deep. The surge in 1996 initiated between 12 September and 7 October and advanced the glacier by 3.7 km to override most of Upper Lake Merzbacher. The surge phase probably ended in December 1996 and involved mean flow velocities across the lower trunk of the glacier that reached 50 m d- 1 over a 32-day period. Water displaced by the surge from Upper Lake Merzbacher, totalling 1.5 × 108 m3 in volume, accelerated filling of Lower Lake Merzbacher downvalley and helped trigger this marginal ice-dammed lake to outburst in a jökulhlaup around late November/early December. The characteristics and duration of the surge render it as similar to temperate glacier surges elsewhere. It may have been facilitated by low basal friction caused by water-saturated sediments in the upper lake bed. Furthermore, bathymetric measurements show that the surge evacuated much sediment into the upper lake, causing its depth to reduce from 20 to 30 m in 1996 to 8 m by 2005 and 2 m by 2011; the corresponding deposition rates imply glacier-catchment specific mean sediment yields of 1.4 to 3.4 × 103 Mg km- 2 a- 1 in the years after the surge. Our study documents novel interactions within a cascade system of glaciers and lakes that exhibits surging and outburst-flood behavior.

  19. Elevation changes of Inylchek Glacier during 1974–2007, Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan derived from remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shangguan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Glacier melt is an important source of fresh water for the arid regions surrounding the Tian Shan. Inylchek Glacier (650 km2 is the largest glacier in Tian Shan consisting of two branches (northern Inylchek glacier and southern Inylchek glacier separated by the regularly draining Lake Merzbacher. However, little is known about volume and mass changes of the last decades. In this study, we investigated the changes of glacier area and glacier surface elevation from 1974 until 2007 and the surface velocity between 2003 and 2011 using multi-temporal remote-sensing data. The main flow direction of Southern Inylchek Glacier tongue showed strong velocities of ∼100 m a−1 with a slight decreasing tendency between 2002/03 and 2010/11. The end of the tongue however, is likely stagnant as the main flow is directed towards Lake Merzbacher. The total glacier area increased by 1.3 ± 0.1 km2 (∼0.2% within the studies period though southern Inylchek Glacier shrank consecutive since 1974. The overall area gain was caused by the strong increase of northern Inylchek Glacier of 3.7 ± 0.3 km2 between 1990–1999. A comparison of glacier surface elevation using multi-temporal digital elevation models derived from KH9-Hexagon (1974, SRTM (1999, ALOS (2006 and SPOT5-HRG (2007 revealed an overall elevation difference of Inylchek Glacier of −0.5 ± 0.1 m a−1 for the period of 1974–2007. The northern glacier branch showed on average no significant surface elevation change (0.1 ± 0.1 m a−1 during 1974 and 2007 while a significant lowering of 0.7 ± 0.1 m a−1 was observed for the southern branch. The overall negative values are mainly due to the period 1974–1999. A possible thickening of 0.5 ± 0.5 m a−1 occurred between 1999 and 2007 where a clear thickening was measured in the accumulation area of the southern branch. We also identified the thickening with a maximum of about ∼150 m close to the end of the northern Inylchek Glacier tongue for the period 1974–1999. This is possibly due to a surge event which happened between 1990 and 1999 according to the area change data. The ablation region of southern Inylchek Glacier showed considerable lowering rates especially in the distal part of the tongue with low velocity despite thick debris coverage.

  20. Upper Paleozoic tectonics in the Tien Shan (Central Asian Orogenic Belt): insight from new structural data (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdon, Anthony; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann; Loury, Chloé; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément

    2016-04-01

    Due to successive block accretions, the polarity of structures and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are several conflicting models about the polarity of subduction during the Paleozoic, the number of microplates and oceanic basins and the timing of tectonic events in Kyrgyz and Chinese Tien Shan. In this study, we propose new structural maps and cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz Tien Shan (MTS and STS respectively). These cross-sections highlight an overall dextral strike-slip shear zone in the MTS and a north verging structure related to south-dipping subduction in the STS. These structures are Carboniferous in age and sealed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits. In detail, the STS exhibits two deformation phases. The first one is characterized by coeval top-to-the north thrusting and top-to-the-South normal shearing at the boundaries of large continental unit that underwent High-Pressure (Eclogite facies) metamorphism. We ascribe this phase to the exhumation of underthrusted passive margin units of the MTS. The second one corresponds to a top to the North nappe stacking that we link to the last collisional events between the MTS and the Tarim block. Later on, during the Late Carboniferous, a major deformation stage is characterized by the deformation of the MTS and its thrusting over the NTS. This deformation occurred on a large dextral shear zone between the NTS and the MTS known as Song-Kul Zone or Nikolaiev Line as a "side effect" of the Tarim/MTS collision. Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the CAOB. The resulting model comprises the underthrusting of the MTS-Kazakh platform beneath the Tarim and its exhumation followed by the folding, shortening and thickening of the internal metamorphic units during the last collisional events which partitioned the deformation between the STS and the MTS. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton against the CAOB corresponds to a short lived collision phase (320-300 Ma), which ended the long-lived Paleozoic subduction history in the CAOB.

  1. Surface rupture along the Chon Aksu and Aksu (eastern) segments of the 1911 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrowsmith, J. R.; Crosby, C. J.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I. E.

    2004-12-01

    The 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake is one of the largest intraplate reverse-faulting events to occur historically. It ruptured a 200 km E-W trending zone in the northern Tien Shan. Description of the characteristics of major historic earthquakes, such as the Chon-Kemin event, provide data on the primary deformation and its initial geomorphic degradation, thus informing paleoseismological investigations. Trace geometry and offset distribution are key parameters for the interpretation of the seismotectonic setting and mechanical interaction with other regional structures. The Chon-Kemin earthquake's relationship to other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik events, indicates a strong interaction between structures in this portion of the Tien Shan. We reconnoitered most of the Chon-Kemin rupture belt and associated mass movements and conclude that many of the 1911 features are still well preserved. We emphasized mapping and description of the easternmost 50 km of the rupture, along the Aksu (easternmost) and Chon-Aksu segments. Moving from east to west, 1-3 m high fault scarps and warped Holocene terraces discontinuously cut the piedmonts north and northeast of the town of Anan'evo. The rupture closely follows the mountain front and enters the range just below the Anan'evo landslide (formed in the earthquake). Scarp heights are 2-4 m. West of the Tegermenty River, the left-stepping rupture is continuous and consists of sub parallel strands in places. Between the Sutubulak and the Aksu River crossing, some of the tallest scarps are present, with heights of 6 - 10 m. The generally north-dipping fault zone has low south dips in the near surface as the thrust has driven the hanging wall over the south-sloping piedmont. This change in dip is likely responsible for the formation of E-W extensional faults in the hanging wall. Given the shallow fault dips and tall scarps in this area, 1911 displacement is probably > 10 m. The Aksu segment ends in a 5 km wide left step through the Kok Bel Pass into the Chon Asku Valley. Fault scarps are 2-4 m high and a small corral, offset in 1911, shows no evidence for strike-slip displacement. In the Kok Bel Pass, the hanging wall (northwestern) is crossed by numerous clear and straight fault scarps trending mostly NE. The eastern 9 km of the Chon Aksu segment preserves the most spectacular tectonic landforms from the 1911 rupture. Scarps are typically uphill-facing and 6-8 m high in this reach with some domal uplifts deforming Pleistocene fluvial terraces. Two tectonically dammed lakes were formed by the 1911 earthquake. In addition, the Chon Aksu river was offset with the upstream side uplifted about 6 m. In the upper Chon Aksu Valley, the rupture is not well expressed, because of vigourous fluvial, periglacial and glacial activity. Notable fractures on ridgetops on the south side of the valley across from the Kulugan Tash rockfall are well preserved, but their formation as primary ground rupture or shaking induced settling is ambiguous. For 5 km west of the Kulugan Tash, no landforms were unambiguously attributable to ground rupture. Together with 1911 earthquake features in the study area, we also observed scarps and mass movements belonging to paleoseismic catastrophes. They indicate recurrence of major earthquakes along this structure during the Holocene and late Pleistocene.

  2. Glacier Mass Loss during the 1960s and 1970s in the Ak-Shirak Range (Kyrgyzstan from Multiple Stereoscopic Corona and Hexagon Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Goerlich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive research on glacier changes in the Tian Shan is available for the current decade; however, there is limited information about glacier investigations of previous decades and especially before the mid 1970s. The earliest stereo images from the Corona missions were acquired in the 1960s but existing studies dealing with these images focus on single glaciers or small areas only. We developed a workflow to generate digital terrain models (DTMs and orthophotos from 1964 Corona KH-4 for an entire mountain range (Ak-Shirak located in the Central Tian Shan. From these DTMs and orthoimages, we calculated geodetic mass balances and length changes in comparison to 1973 and 1980 Hexagon KH-9 data. We found mass budgets between −0.4 ± 0.1 m·w.e.a−1 (1964–1980 and −0.9 ± 0.4 m·w.e.a−1 (1973–1980 for the whole region and individual glaciers. The length changes, on the other hand, vary heterogeneously between +624 ± 18 m (+39.0 ± 1.1 m·a−1 and −923 ± 18 m (−57.7 ± 1.1 m·a−1 for 1964–1980. An automation of the processing line can successively lead to region-wide Corona data processing allowing the analysis and interpretation of glacier changes on a larger scale and supporting a refinement of glacier modelling.

  3. Mass changes of Southern and Northern Inylchek Glacier, Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan, during ∼1975 and 2007 derived from remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, D. H.; Bolch, T.; Ding, Y. J.; Kröhnert, M.; Pieczonka, T.; Wetzel, H. U.; Liu, S. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Glacier melt is an essential source of freshwater for the arid regions surrounding the Tian Shan. However, the knowledge about glacier volume and mass changes over the last decades is limited. In the present study, glacier area, glacier dynamics and mass changes are investigated for the period ~1975-2007 for Southern Inylchek Glacier (SIG) and Northern Inylchek Glacier (NIG), the largest glacier system in Central Tian Shan separated by the regularly draining Lake Merzbacher. The area of NIG increased by 2.0 ± 0.1 km2 (~1.3%) in the period ~1975-2007. In contrast, SIG has shrunk continuously in all investigated periods since ~1975. Velocities of SIG in the central part of the ablation region reached ~100-120 m a-1 in 2002/2003, which was slightly higher than the average velocity in 2010/2011. The central part of SIG flows mainly towards Lake Merzbacher rather than towards its terminus. The measured velocities at the distal part of the terminus downstream of Lake Merzbacher were below the uncertainty, indicating very low flow with even stagnant parts. Geodetic glacier mass balances have been calculated using multi-temporal digital elevation models from KH-9 Hexagon (representing the year 1975), SRTM3 (1999), ALOS PRISM (2006) and SPOT-5 high-resolution geometrical (HRG) data (2007). In general, a continuous mass loss for both SIG and NIG could be observed between ~1975 and 2007. SIG lost mass at a rate of 0.43 ± 0.10 m w.e. a-1 and NIG at a rate of 0.25 ± 0.10 m w.e. a-1 within the period ~1975-1999. For the period 1999-2007, the highest mass loss of 0.57 ± 0.46 m w.e. a-1 was found for NIG, whilst SIG showed a potential moderate mass loss of 0.28 ± 0.46 m w.e. a-1. Both glaciers showed a small retreat during this period. Between ~1975 and 1999, we identified a thickening at the front of NIG with a maximum surface elevation increase of about 150 m as a consequence of a surge event. In contrast significant thinning (>0.5 m a-1) and comparatively high velocities close to the dam of Lake Merzbacher were observed for SIG, indicating that Lake Merzbacher enhances glacier mass loss.

  4. 7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, Morocco, Portugal, Serbia and..., Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kampuchea, Korea, Madagascar, Malaysia,...

  5. U-Pb-Hf zircon study of two mylonitic granite complexes in the Talas-Fergana fault zone, Kyrgyzstan, and Ar-Ar age of deformations along the fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopelko, D.; Seltmann, R.; Apayarov, F.; Belousova, E.; Izokh, A.; Lepekhina, E.

    2013-09-01

    A 2000 km long dextral Talas-Fergana strike-slip fault separates eastern terranes in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan from western terranes. The aim of this study was to constrain an age of dextral shearing in the central part of the fault utilizing Ar-Ar dating of micas. We also carried out a U-Pb-Hf zircon study of two different deformed granitoid complexes in the fault zone from which the micas for Ar dating were separated. Two samples of the oldest deformed Neoproterozoic granitoids in the area of study yielded U-Pb zircon SHRIMP ages 728 ± 11 Ma and 778 ± 11 Ma, characteristic for the Cryogenian Bolshoi Naryn Formation, and zircon grains analyzed for their Lu-Hf isotopic compositions yielded εHf(t) values from -11.43 to -16.73, and their calculated tHfc ages varied from 2.42 to 2.71 Ga. Thus varying Cryogenian ages and noticeable heterogeneity of Meso- to Paleoproterozoic crustal sources was established for mylonitic granites of the Bolshoi Naryn Formation. Two samples of mylonitized pegmatoidal granites of the Kyrgysh Complex yielded identical 206Pb/238U ages of 279 ± 5 Ma corresponding to the main peak of Late-Paleozoic post-collisional magmatism in the Tien Shan (Seltmann et al., 2011), and zircon grains analyzed for their Lu-Hf isotopic compositions yielded εHf(t) values from -11.43 to -16.73, and calculated tHfc ages from 2.42 to 2.71 Ga indicating derivation from a Paleoproterozoic crustal source. Microstructural studies showed that ductile/brittle deformation of pegmatoidal granites of the Kyrgysh Complex occurred at temperatures of 300-400 °C and caused resetting of the K-Ar isotope system of primary muscovite. Deformation of mylonitized granites of the Bolshoi Naryn Formation occurred under high temperature conditions and resulted in protracted growth and recrystallization of micas. The oldest Ar-Ar muscovite age of 241 Ma with a well defined plateau from a pegmatoidal granite of the Kyrgysh Complex is considered as a “minimum” age of dextral motions along this section of the fault in the Triassic while younger ages varying from 227 Ma to 199 Ma with typical staircase patterns indicate protracted growth and recrystallization of micas during ductile deformations which continued until the end of the Triassic.

  6. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  7. Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

  8. Taxonomic study of Central Asian species of the genus Macropsis Lewis, 1836 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae). II: redescriptions of poorly known species, new synonyms, and description of a new willow-dwelling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2014-06-12

    Macropsis validiuscula Dubovsky, 1966, M. vicina (Horvath, 1897) = M. populicola Dubovsky, 1966 = M. albinata Dubovsky, 1966, syn. n. = M. albidula Dubovsky, 1966, syn. n., M. iliensis Mityaev, 1971 and M. elaeagnicola Dubovsky, 1966 are redescribed and illustrated based on material from Tien Shan Mts. (Kyrgyzstan) and Ferghana Valley (Uzbekistan), M. tienschanica Tishetshkin sp. n. from West Tien Shan Mts. (Kyrgyzstan) is described. M. iliensis Mityaev, 1971 is recorded from Kyrgyzstan for the first time. Data on host plants and male vibrational calling signals for all species considered are provided.

  9. VALUE CHAINS IN EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdyramanova, Z.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The textiles sector is one of the main industry sectors in Kyrgyzstan in terms of output, employment and increasingly exports. Textile clusters are developing and patterns in cluster formations are emerging that reflect the differing economic conditions of the regions, demonstrating particular influences on the value chain. These differences are both depicted in the two regions of Kyrgyzstan-south and north. In the north of the Republic the infrastructure is more developed, there is greater facility to access international markets (exports. In the south the infrastructure is less developed, and garment producers in the region serve mainly local niche and near-neighbour markets. The research objective is to assess the key drivers of the value chain and profitability in the textiles sector in Kyrgyzstan, by comparing the garment sewing sector in the two contrasting regions of south and north Kyrgyzstan.

  10. 75 FR 75190 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals (RFGP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ..., Bangladesh, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan... integrate scientific research, education, and practical applications of sports medicine and exercise science...; government officials (Ministry of Sports and Ministry of Education); coaches (adult ] and youth);...

  11. Cooperating and Prospering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MINGWEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since its establish-ment in 2001, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)-a re-gional organization grouping China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-has grown at a notable pace.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Republic of, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Korea, People's Democratic Republic of, Korea, Republic of, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab... Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon...

  13. Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

  14. An Advancing Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muratbek; Sansyzbayevich; Imanaliev

    2010-01-01

    The SCO’s newest secretary general faces important security and economic issues Last month, Muratbek Sansyzbayevich Imanaliev of Kyrgyzstan became the third Secretary General of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), a

  15. China-Central Asia Cooperation Forum Produces Good Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>To celebrate the 20th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the five Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, the CPAFFC

  16. Taxonomic study of Central Asian species of the genus Macropsis Lewis, 1836 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae). III: Descriptions of two new willow-dwelling species, new synonym, annotated check-list, and key to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2015-07-09

    Macropsis milkoi Tishetshkin sp. n. from West Tien Shan, Alay and Hissar-Darvaz Mts. (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) and Macropsis anufrievi Tishetshkin sp. n. from Hissar-Darvaz Mts. (Tajikistan) are described. M. elaeagni Emelyanov, 1964 = M. cyanescens Dubovskiy, 1966 syn. n. is redescribed and illustrated based on the material from Central Asia. Annotated check list and key to 30 Macropsis species from Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the mountains of Southern Kazakhstan are given.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Майрамгуль Зайнабидиновна Ташиева

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the foreign policy of the Kyrgyz Republic and the influence of geopolitical factors on the political processes in the country. The paper presents a periodization of foreign policy in modern Kyrgyzstan concerning the United States. The author reviewed the draft F. Starr's "Greater Central Asia" and analyzed the "theory of controlled chaos". Big attention is paid to the relationships of Kyrgyzstan and Russia , the USA and China, on the one hand, and with the nearest neighbors in the region, on the other. The paper analyzes the project for the construction of the railway "China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan". Russia takes one of the central points in the paper. Much attention is paid to the economic sphere, namely the construction of hydroelectric power. Due to the growing number of labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia , the article discusses the legislative framework in this area. The author lists the key factors that cause social and political problems between Kyrgyzstan and neighboring countries. This paper discusses in detail issues related to the enclaves and the disputed territories.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-31

  18. Effect of TV and radio family planning messages on the probability of modern contraception utilization in post-Soviet Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibov, Nazim; Zainiddinov, Hakim

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of family planning message broadcast on radio and TV on the probability of modern contraception utilization in post-Soviet Central Asia. Viewing family planning messages on TV improves the chances of using modern contraception for a woman who actually saw the messages by about 11 and 8 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. If every woman in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan had an opportunity to watch a family planning message on TV, then the likelihood of using modern contraception would have improved by 10 and 7 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. By contrast, the effect of hearing family planning messages on radio is not significant in both countries. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Optimum Density and Space Structure of Kyrgyzstan’s Juniper Stands for Identifying Water Protective Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zayirbek; Toktoraliev; Okke; Batelaan; Pichang; YUE; Heng; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Central Asia including Kyrgyzstan is a disaster prone area,suffering from snow avalanches,landslides and flooding.Within the Tyan- Shan region,a mountainous region in Southern Kyrgyzstan,there is an increasing number of natural hazards over the last years.One of the possible causes of the increase in natural disasters in the region is the deterioration of the Juniper forests in the region.Juniper forests have a large economical and ecological importance for Kyrgyzstan.However,the conditions worsened for these juniper forests.Since 1980 approximately 20% of the juniper forests were lost due to intensive deforestation,forest fires and excessive cattle grazing and possibly also climate changes are affecting the juniper trees and their soil properties.The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the juniper forest on the local hydrology and to characterize the water protective properties.

  20. Commentary - The Early Days of Central Asian Military Integration: the Kyrgyz National Division of the Red Army in 1927-1928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ohayon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the sociology of a national division of the Red Army in the early days of its formation in Kyrgyzstan, as described in two documents about soldiers of Kyrgyz nationality in 1927 and 1928. At that time the Soviet Army was not seeking to substantially increase its numbers but rather recruiting in line with the intentions of the nationality policy, by integrating ethnic groups and regions that had been ignored by the high command. Kyrgyzstan is a striking exampl...

  1. INTERESTS OF THE MEMBER STATES IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Michałowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the interests of the member countries in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, which is formed by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The author argues that Russia has been involved in the project primarily for geopolitical reasons. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan have perceived the integration within EEU primarily through the possible economic benefits. While analyzing the interests of the members in the EEU, the author also refers to the development of the economic situation in each country in recent years. The starting point for discussion is the analysis of benefits of economic integration in the light of theory.

  2. Non-Verbal Intelligence in Primary School Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of a cross-cultural study of non-verbal intelligence in primary school students. Significant differences with the effect size of 9% were found in non-verbal intelligence scores of 1057 students from Russia and Kyrgyzstan. The differences were also found for city and countryside residents (effect size of 10%. These results might be explained both by the features of educational systems and socio-economic development level in Russia and Kyrgyzstan.

  3. COOPERATING,WITH COMPLICATIONS——The Shanghai Cooperation Organization still has a long way to go before it can operate effectively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUFRIN; GENNADY

    2006-01-01

    On June 15,2001, the Declaration on the Establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was signed, marking the formal launch of the regional organization. Its history can be traced back to 19% when Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan formed the Shanghai Five, later renamed the Shanghai Forum. After Uzbekistan joined, the forum changed into

  4. SCO Management System Certification Research Class Opens in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Management System Certification Research Class formally opened in Beijing on September 6, 2007. The research class was attended by government officials and experts in the fields of industry, commerce,environmental protection,statistics, standardization,metrology, detection and certification from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.

  5. Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-30

    somewhat in 2005-2006, because the Turkmen Council for Religious Affairs ( CRA ) was more willing to assist minority religious groups in dealing with the...Kyrgyzstan may have contributed to a Kyrgyz evaluation that the U.S. coalition presence was still necessary. Following the shooting death of a civilian by a

  6. Faculty Development and Quality Assurance in the EU ERAMIS Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Merceron

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the ERAMIS project is to create a
    network of Masters degrees “Informatics as a Second
    Competence” in nine beneficiary universities of Kazakhstan,
    Kyrgyzstan and Russia. This contribution presents how
    faculty development is organized and quality assurance
    implemented inside this project.

  7. The diffusion of Revolutions. A Comparison of regime turnovers in 5 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.M. Fenger (Menno)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The recent wave of revolutions or near-revolutions in Serbia, Georgia, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine shared the following characteristics: they were triggered by stolen elections, they were the result of massive but non-violent demonstrations, and the opposition united behind

  8. 8 CFR 236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a period granted for voluntary departure; (vii) Has failed to surrender or report for removal... that the nearest office of the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (“TECRO”), the... Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Malta Mauritius Moldova Mongolia Nigeria Philippines Poland 4...

  9. 8 CFR 1236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... failed to surrender or report for removal pursuant to an order of exclusion, deportation, or removal... the nearest office of the Taiwan Economic and Cultural Representative's Office, the unofficial entity..., The Georgia Ghana Grenada Guyana Hungary Jamaica Kazakhstan Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Malaysia...

  10. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  11. Open Kazakhstan, the Beating Heart of Eurasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Kazakhstan lies in the north of the central Asian republics and is bounded by Russia in the north, China in the east, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan in the south, and the Caspian Sea and part of Turkmenistan in the west. It has almost 1,177 mi (about 1,894 km) of coastline on the Caspian Sea.

  12. MEMBER PRIVILEGES——Each of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization members finds its own national interests served within the regional organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIDOROV; OLEG

    2006-01-01

    Facing common security threats, leaders of six countries-Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-established the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in June 2001 to maintain regional stability and security, fight terrorism and extremism, prevent conflicts and enhance economic cooperation. The SCO's primary goals are economic cooperation and fighting terrorism.

  13. The Cultural and Ecological "Worlds" of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie; Allspaw, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    With a grant through Indiana University's Inner Asian & Uralic National Resource Center, the authors developed an online, five-week unit that discusses the cultural and ecological "worlds" of central Asia, specifically the countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. There are two main ideas…

  14. Understanding Teaching beyond Content and Method: Insights from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyozov, Sarfaroz

    2009-01-01

    This study suggests the need for complex research approaches that provide richer, contested, and nondichotomous portrayals of classrooms, schooling life, and teachers. Drawing from a qualitative study of Tajik teachers' practices and perspectives (Niyozov, 2001) and studies on teaching conducted in Kyrgyzstan (De Young, Reeves, & Valyaeva ,…

  15. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  16. Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news sources…

  17. Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

  18. Exploring the Future of Security in the Caribbean: a Regional Security Partnership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    office, along with the research librarians in the Combined Arms Research Library. My father, Lt Col (Ret’d) Nestor Ogilvie served as an invaluable...Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia, Finland , Georgia, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland

  19. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140805Fan Baocheng(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,China Geology Survey,Xi’an710054,China);Meng Guanglu The Geological Evolution and Metallization of TalasKalatawu Block in Northern Tianshan,Kyrgyzstan(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(2),2013,p.54-

  20. Empirical Analysis of Kyrgyz Trade Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira KURMANALIEVA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Being naturally located between two big markets in Europe and Asia, Kyrgyzstan together with other Central Asian countries does not have a direct access to sea ports. Landlockedness limits volumes of international trade and creates obstacles for economic growth. Results of statistical analysis show that Kyrgyz trade neither follows Heckscher-Ohlin model nor intra-industry trade model. Another finding is that open and liberal trade policy of Kyrgyzstan has a large positive effect on trade volumes, suggesting that bilateral trade will expand markedly if country continues liberalization of its trade policy with other countries. Quality of infrastructure and transportation costs play a crucial role for landlocked countries and a free trade agreement with other countries looks like a good opportunity to overcome natural barriers and diversify their trade.

  1. REGIONAL SECURITY AND COOPERATION ISSUES IN U.S. POLICY TOWARD POST-SOVIET CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    MAKHMUDOV, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    It stands to reason that at the early stage of independence the five republics in the Central Asian region-Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan-previously closely linked to the Soviet economic and political systems, faced a number of challenges, most of which were inherited from the Czarist-Soviet regimes. Coping with the challenges posed by the transition period required foreign support, and all the republics, except Turkmenistan, have been engaged in active coope...

  2. Country Reports on Terrorism 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    a) 8 Nov 1983 (a) --- --- --- 11 Jun 1990 (a) 20 May 2004 (a) 20 May 2004 (a) --- --- --- --- 6 St. Vincent and...Pakistan, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Sri Lanka (CURRENT TOTAL = 18) 9 Benin, Colombia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tanzania...July, the Amsterdam District Court sentenced Mohammed Bouyeri to life imprisonment for the murder of film director Theo van Gogh , the attempted

  3. New developments in Central Asian mass media research

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The end of the Cold War represented an apparent victory for NATO, capitalism, free enterprise, and democracy over the Warsaw Pact, Marxism-Leninist communism, and the Russian-Soviet empire. In 1991, five newly independent republics of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) emerged from the wreckage of that watershed event. Each new government proclaimed its commitment to free enterprise economic systems and democratic governance. Western democracies, n...

  4. Power and Energy: Geopolitical Aspects of the Transnational Natural Gas Pipelines from the Caspian Sea Basin to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    this strategy, the mountains —the Carpathians , the Caucasus and the Tien Shan—continue to play a key role. The Carpathians , which incorporate Ukraine...involved.”74 However, Kyrgyzstan has no strategic resources, but its importance to Russia lies in its geostrategic position. The Tien Shan Mountains in...Central Asia act as a natural barrier between Russia, and South Asia and China. Within the Tien Shan Mountains lies the core of Central Asia—the

  5. Tajikistan's economic cooperation prospects with the SCO countries

    OpenAIRE

    Karimova, Mavzuna

    2012-01-01

    The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) was established on 15 June, 2001 in Shanghai (PRC) by the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK), the PRC, the Kyrgyz Republic (KR), the Russian Federation (RF), the Republic of Tajikistan (RT), and the Republic of Uzbekistan (RU). The SCO's prototype was the Shanghai Five, the members of which were all of the aforementioned countries apart from Uzbekistan. This political association was established when Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China, Russia, and Tajikistan si...

  6. Banking System in Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sagbansu, Lutfu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...

  7. Mineral Resources of Chinese Altay and Tianshan: Metallogeny and Related Tectonic Processesm—A field workshop of IGCP-473

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJingwen; ReimarSeltmann; RichardJ.Goldfarb

    2004-01-01

    A workshop of the IGCP-473 was held in Xinjiang, northwestern China, from August 9-21. It was attended by more than 70 scientists, including 29 from outside of China, i.eUnited States, Canada, Australia, Japan,Russia, United Kingdom, South Africa,Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan, and Khazakstan. The workshop was superbly organized by a team led by Prof. Mao Jingwen of Institute of

  8. Defense Science Board 2004 Summer Study on Transition to and from Hostilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Data from Zogby International in July 2004, for example, show that the United States is viewed unfavorably by overwhelming majorities in Egypt (98...Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Afghanistan Pakistan Iran U.A.E. Oman Yemen Saudi Arabia Iraq Jordan Egypt Sudan Ethiopia Kenya Somalia Seychelles...one does it really well. The definition of “open source”—or open source intelligence ( OSINT )—can encompass more or less, depending on who writes

  9. The State of Play in Russia’s Near Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    and would derail the momentum for domestic reforms. ■ Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan have heavily depended on migrant worker remittances from both Russia...White Russians make common cause with the Red Russians in almost every endeavor. Belarus . The possibility of a reintegra- tion plebiscite has been...States air warning system. Only Belarus and Nicara- gua are sympathetic to the Abkhaz and South Ossetian independence declarations. The European

  10. The Posture Triangle: A New Framework for U.S. Air Force Global Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    corruption and fraud at Manas contributed to the discontent that fueled popular revolutions in Kyrgyzstan in 2005 and 2010, and embittered the Kyrgyz...In sum, in democratizing states electoral incentives make U.S. bases a politicized and strongly contested issue that typically results in lost or...quickly rebounded from the Achille Lauro affair, and in 1988 Italy offered to host the USAF F-16s that were being evicted from Torrejon AB in Spain. More

  11. The Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    creating the Nunn- Lugar program. In mid-month, Secretary of State James A. Baker III led an interagency team to Moscow, Alma-Ata, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan...Minsk, for the first of many detailed discussions of Russian weapons reductions, Ukraine-Belarus-Kazakhstan denuclearization, and potential Nunn- Lugar ...principles, and market economies. Their task is far from easy and far from over. They will need our help, and they will get it. But these dramatic changes

  12. Regional Cooperation in Central Asia & Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Of all the post-Soviet states, the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan experienced at the dawn of independence the most acute crisis in regime-building, economic self-support and security assurance. The risk of marginalization derived from inborn weakness of geo-political seclusion coupled with widening gap with the world mainstream has caused widespread concern.

  13. The European Union-Central Asia : in the light of the New Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulhamidova, Nurangez

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia is a region strategically located at the crossroads of the two continents: Asia and Europe. The region is represented by five states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) with different level of economic development and with the population amounting to over 60 million people. The region is rich in energy resources represented by oil, gas, coal and water resources. The thesis analyses, assesses and scrutinises one of the topical issues of the contempora...

  14. Countering the Ideological Support for HT and the IMU: The Case of the Ferghana Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    reported to live in abject poverty . Cotton is also the most important crop. The civil war (1992-1997) has seriously damaged an already weak industrial...implementation of structural reforms. Kyrgyzstan is also a poor country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Its government has been quite receptive to...rural place, with cotton fields worked with sweat and picked by hand. The people are desperately poor . They see little that the new national

  15. Which Assistance is More Effective? Kyrgyzstan’s Traditional and Emerging Bilateral Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Maximova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Various commentators often contrapose emerging development donors to the traditional ones on a number of factors including aid effectiveness. While such distinction can be productive for analyzing development assistance at a global level, it might bring less value when considering development aid milieu at a local level. In this article the author considersthe case of Kyrgyzstan and its main aid donors based on select criteria set out by the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation. It draws on an analysis of databases, official documents, open sources including media and the country’s National Sustainable Development Strategy for 2013–2017. It concludes that traditional and emerging donors do not represent homogeneous groups; for Kyrgyzstan, differences within the group can be as significant as differences among the groups. Moreover, the analysis does not support the notion that assistance from traditional donors has greater effectiveness. On some parameters including alignment emerging donors’ assistance can be more effective. Nonetheless, serious gaps between the two groups remain in terms of transparency, mutual accountability and harmonization. The author also explores the stronger bargaining positions of aid recipient in their interactions with donors due to the increased diversity of sources of assistance, focusing on this trend in Kyrgyzstan. Given Kyrgyzstan’s position as a priority for Russia’s assistance and Russia’s rapidly increasing levels of support, the author also addresses the case of Russian-Kyrgyz Development Fundin detail.

  16. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  17. The Royal Hospital Donnybrook, Morehampton Road, Donnybrook, Dublin 4.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  18. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  19. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  20. A revision of the spider genus Zaitunia (Araneae, Filistatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Zonstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The spider genus Zaitunia Lehtinen, 1967 (Araneae, Filistatidae is revised. It was found to include 24 species distributed in the Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East and Central Asia: ♀ Z. afghana (Roewer, 1962 (Afghanistan, ♀ Z. alexandri Brignoli, 1982 (Iran, ♀ Z. akhanii Marusik & Zamani, 2015 (Iran, ♂♀ Z. annulipes (Kulczyński, 1908 (Cyprus, ♂♀ Z. beshkentica (Andreeva & Tyshchenko, 1969 (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, ♀ Z. brignoliana sp. nov. (Iran, ♂♀ Z. ferghanensis sp. nov. (Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, ♀ Z. feti sp. nov. (Turkmenistan, ♀ Z. halepensis sp. nov. (Syria, ♀ Z. huberi sp. nov. (Afghanistan, ♀ Z. inderensis Ponomarev, 2005 (Kazakhstan, ♂♀ Z. kunti sp. nov. (Cyprus, Turkey, ♂♀ Z. logunovi sp. nov. (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, ♂♀ Z. maracandica (Charitonov, 1946 (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, ♂♀ Z. martynovae (Andreeva & Tyshchenko, 1969 (Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, ♀ Z. medica Brignoli, 1982 (Iran, ♂♀ Z. minoica sp. nov. (Greece, ♀ Z. minuta sp. nov. (Uzbekistan, ♀ Z. persica Brignoli, 1982 (Iran, ♂ Z. psammodroma sp. nov. (Turkmenistan, ♂♀ Z. schmitzi (Kulczyński, 1911, the type species (Egypt, Israel, ♂♀ Z. spinimana sp. nov. (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, ♂♀ Z. wunderlichi sp. nov. (Kyrgyzstan and ♀ Z. zonsteini Fomichev & Marusik, 1969 (Kazakhstan. Twelve above-listed species are newly described, and males of Z. annulipes, Z. beshkentica, Z. maracandica and Z. martynovae are described for the first time. Two new combinations are established: Z. annulipes (Kulczyński, 1908 comb. nov., ex Filistata, and Pholcoides monticola (Spassky, 1941 comb. nov., ex Zaitunia. New data on distribution of the considered taxa are provided.

  1. [The distribution of the mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera, Culicidae, Anophelinae) in Central Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvantsov, A B; Gordeev, M I; Goriacheva, I I; Ezhov, M N

    2014-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, cytogenetic analysis, and investigation of egg exochorion have indicated that three representatives of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (subgenus Anopheles): An artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Falleroni, and An. marinius Shingarev. An. messeae is a European-Siberian species that has extended the southern border of its habitat and has been distributed in the south of Kazakhstan and in the north of Kyrgyzstan. In, Kyrgyzstan, An. messeae inhabiting the plains of Europe and Siberia is encountered rather high up in the mountains: the highest point where this species is found is at 1,879 m above sea level. An. artemievi is present in the highland and piedmont regions of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan, and northern Tajikistan) and in the intermountain basins (Naryn and Fergana ones). The single finding of this species is in south-eastern Turkmenistan. On the contrary, An. martinius tends to be in the plains and occurs in north-eastern Turkmenistan, Karakalpakstan, and Kazakhstan (Kzyl-Orda). On the other hand, a population of this species is found in proximity to the foothills of the Gissar Range in the east of Uzbekistan. An.maculipennis s.str. is not seen in Central Asia. Early evidence for the presence of both An. maculipennis s.str. and An. martinius in Kopet Dag (Southern Turkmenistan) is rather questionable. It is not improbable that these data are appropriate for either the newly described species An.persiensis or the scientifically new representative of the An. maculipennis complex.

  2. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-01-01

    The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N), with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In t...

  3. Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902 (Coleoptera, Apionidae in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Wanat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Perapion connexum (Schilsky is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented.

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  5. Synchronous measurements of total ozone content in the tropical and the midlatitude zones during March-May 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishov, A. G.; Perov, S. P.; Semenov, V. K.

    1992-07-01

    A series of synchronous measurements of the total ozone content over Lake Issyk-Kul' (Kyrgyzstan) and Tumba (India), both located at 77 deg W but at widely separated latitudes (42.62 deg N and 8.53 deg N, respectively) was carried out using a high-sensitivity Brewer spectrophotometer and the SFSU ozonometric instrument. A statistical correlation was demonstrated between the daily mean total ozone content over Lake Issyk-Kul' and the 2800 MHz solar radiation flux. No statistically significant correlation was observed for the Tumba location.

  6. Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902) (Coleoptera, Apionidae) in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanat, Marek; Podlussány, Attila; Schön, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Perapion connexum (Schilsky) is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented. PMID:22451784

  7. From Neighbors To Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Central Asian nations are both benefiting from closer economic,political and social ties This year marks the 15th anniversary of China’s establishment of diplomatic relations with five Central Asian countries—Uzbekistan,Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. After becoming independent upon the breakup of the Soviet Union, they established and developed stable and sustainable ties with China on a brand new basis. Now, with close cooperation in various fields, China and Central Asian countries have become friendly and cooperative partners.

  8. How accreditation stimulates business school change: evidence from the Commonwealth of independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Istileulova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is scarce or almost non-existing research on changes that take place in business schools in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS. Changes in CIS business schools (B-schools are influenced by different external factors (e.g. socioeconomic system, market forces, financial crisis, demographic problems, changes in policies of higher education; influence of the Bologna process. On the other hand, B-schools in the CIS need to make internal changes to gain the external accreditation. We look into the nature of change processes taking place in CIS B-schools, observing them through the prism of ongoing external accreditation processes. The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of the accreditation process on CIS B-school changes. We used a comparative analysis based on the study of 22 Bschools from four countries (Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. We discovered that these changes refer to introducing more strict entrance requirements, strengthening financial resources, and improving efforts to reach the accreditation standards. Moreover, schools have to review their mission, decrease their student-to-faculty ratio, introduce measurement metrics for learning goals, and internationalise their programs. The advanced B-schools in Russia and Kazakhstan usually start with an international programme accreditation, and then move to an institutional one. The trend has begun spreading to schools from non-Bologna countries like Belarus, but it is still a long-time agenda item for Kyrgyzstan.

  9. JOURNALIST AS A POLICY IN CONDITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION KYRGYZ SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibek Toktobaeva Abdikerimova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the activities of the journalist as a politician in the context of globalization of information space , a separate section, the authors examined the role of the journalist as a policy to strengthen the stability and consolidation of society , as well as the thesis deals with the process of development and improvement of information policy in Kyrgyzstan.Purpose identify the features of the interaction of journalism and the political sphere in the activities of the journalist as a policy of democratization of Kyrgyz society.Methodology. The study used a multidisciplinary approach. The paper discusses various aspects: philosophical, politological, sociological, historical, and others. This research study used a systematic approach to the problem of the media in the political system, the relationship and interaction of journalism and politics. The paper applied consistently dialectical, historical, sociological and other approaches.Results. The results marked the theoretical and practical background activity of a journalist in the political sphere, identified and disclosed the impact of journalism on the political culture of personality and studied the main activities of the journalist as a politician in the context of globalization of information spacePractical implications. Can be used in determining the priorities of the state information policy, the preparation of documents and regulations by government agencies, in the work of parliament to improve legislation in the sphere of mass media of Kyrgyzstan.

  10. Robust Automated Image Co-Registration of Optical Multi-Sensor Time Series Data: Database Generation for Multi-Temporal Landslide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Behling

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliable multi-temporal landslide detection over longer periods of time requires multi-sensor time series data characterized by high internal geometric stability, as well as high relative and absolute accuracy. For this purpose, a new methodology for fully automated co-registration has been developed allowing efficient and robust spatial alignment of standard orthorectified data products originating from a multitude of optical satellite remote sensing data of varying spatial resolution. Correlation-based co-registration uses world-wide available terrain corrected Landsat Level 1T time series data as the spatial reference, ensuring global applicability. The developed approach has been applied to a multi-sensor time series of 592 remote sensing datasets covering an approximately 12,000 km2 area in Southern Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia strongly affected by landslides. The database contains images acquired during the last 26 years by Landsat (ETM, ASTER, SPOT and RapidEye sensors. Analysis of the spatial shifts obtained from co-registration has revealed sensor-specific alignments ranging between 5 m and more than 400 m. Overall accuracy assessment of these alignments has resulted in a high relative image-to-image accuracy of 17 m (RMSE and a high absolute accuracy of 23 m (RMSE for the whole co-registered database, making it suitable for multi-temporal landslide detection at a regional scale in Southern Kyrgyzstan.

  11. Policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are confronted with one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics worldwide, largely driven through injecting drug use. This article, based on a review of academic and grey literature, explores how they have responded. We find major similarities and differences across the region. At one extreme is Turkmenistan, which denies that there is any problem, does not offer harm reduction services or HIV/AIDS treatment and does not report any meaningful data to the international community. Uzbekistan is also pretty closed to outside influences, has discontinued its opioid substitution project and shares with Turkmenistan the legal prohibition of male-to-male sex. Kyrgyzstan originally led many progressive approaches in the region and, like neighbouring Tajikistan, has received substantial assistance by international agencies, in particular the Global Fund. Kazakhstan, with a much higher gross domestic product per capita, has taken on the financing of harm reduction activities through its national budget and has liberalised its drug policies. Yet, across the region punitive approaches to injecting drug use and people living with HIV/AIDS persist as do stigma and discrimination, while coverage with harm reduction programmes and treatment services is still low although with substantial variation across countries.

  12. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  13. Dose-response modeling for the environmental risk assessment in cases of technogenic soil contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shitikov Vladimir Kirilloviсh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The review of regression models for the approximation of dependences "dose- response" was performed based on ecotoxicological results. The advantages and deficiencies of different models as well as the problems arising both in modeling and subsequent interpreting results are discussed for the purpose of ecological rationing and estimation of negative influence risk. Search procedures of best dependences based on statistical criteria and the methods of uncertainty estimation of calculated parameters are shown. Construction of models is illustrated in detail using the analysis of toxicity results of soil samples received from uranium mines tailings in Kadzhi-Say province (Kyrgyzstan. Threshold values of activity for U-238 and Ra-226 radionuclides providing the minimum probability of ecological risk were determined.

  14. Central Asia earthquake catalogue from ancient time to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya N. Mikhailova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the seismic catalogue compiled for Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan in the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA project. The catalogue from 2000 B.C. to 2009 A.D. is composed by 33,034 earthquakes in the MLH magnitude (magnitude by surface waves on horizontal components widely used in practice of the former USSR countries range from 1.5 to 8.3. The catalogue includes both macroseimic and instrumental constrained data, with about 32,793 earthquake after 1900 A.D. The main sources and procedure used to compile the catalogues are discussed, and the comparison with the ISC-GEM catalogue presented. Magnitude of completeness analysis shows that the catalogue is complete down to magnitude 4 from 1959 and to magnitude 7 from 1873, whereas the obtained regional b value is 0.805.

  15. Discharge capacity of sluiceway channel of water intake structure for diversion power plant in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Lavrov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research hydraulic processes at the intake structures of diversion power plants in winter. On the basis of the physical modeling results the flow characteristics of sluiceway channel of water intake on the river Issyk-Ata, Kyrgyzstan were determined. Statistical models of discharges of elements of sluiceway channel with their mutual influence were obtained, using the methods of experimental design and data analysis. The influence of the concentration of brash ice on the sluiceway channel and its elements is described. The comparison of experimental data with data obtained by other authors before is made by comparing flow coefficients. Recommendations for normal operation of ice pass at sluiceway track channel of water intake structure for diversion power plant are given.

  16. Revision of Heringina Aczél, 1940 (Diptera: Tephritidae), with description of a new species from Iran and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namin, Saeed Mohamadzade; Korneyev, Severyn V

    2015-04-23

    The genus Heringina Aczél, 1940 is revised and shown to belong to the Tephritis group of genera and is closely related to Tephritis and Multireticula. Literature records are revised, and available collection material is listed. The genus includes two species: H. guttata (Fallén 1814) originally described from the sand dunes of southern Sweden and occurring from the Baltic region through Ukraine and Caucasus to Turkey, Iran, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, and Heringina arezoana sp. nov., found in Iran and eastern Turkey. Both species are described, illustrated, and keyed. Host plants and localization of larvae remain unknown; adult flies of both species are commonly swept from (but never reared) flower heads of Helichrysum arenarium. Other records of host plants listed by Boie (1847) and repeated in most important European monographs, are obviously based on misidentified flies. Possible relationships of Heringina with Tephritis and Multireticula are discussed.

  17. A Comparison of Foreign Direct Investments in Eurosian Countries to World Trend in the Period of 1995 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayri Tuzla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The world which rapidly globalizes and where the boundaries diminish day by day, the foreign direct investments affect many diverse macroeconomic variables, specifically economic growth and unemployment. Most current studies support that there exists a strong causality relationship between foreign direct investments and economic growth.On the other hand, there exists a weaker positive causality relationship between economic growth and foreign direct investments. Moreover, it is an undeniable fact that the economic growth leads to a decline in unemployment. This study aims to compare the foreign direct investment trends of seven Eurasian countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in the period of 1995 and 2011. The results are compared to both the world foreign direct investment trend and the other Central Asian countries.

  18. Tectono-Stratigraphic framework and Palaeozoic evolution of the Chinese South Tianshan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeiev, D. V.; Biske, Yu. S.; Wang, Bo; Djenchuraeva, A. V.; Getman, O. F.; Aristov, V. A.; Kröner, A.; Liu, Hongsheng; Zhong, Linglin

    2015-03-01

    A stratigraphic and structural study was carried out in the central part of the Chinese South Tianshan (STS) within a 50-100 km-wide transect centered on the Dushanzi-Kuqa road (83°-85° E). Our data elucidate the tectonic structure and evolution of the Palaeozoic sedimentary basin, document overthrust structures in the late Carboniferous-early Permian orogenic belt and suggest correlations between the western and eastern segments of the STS in Kyrgyzstan and China. We recognise a series of lithotectonic units in the study area that have different stratigraphic characteristics and were formed within (a) continental margin and slope of the Kazakhstan continent, (b) Turkestan (South Tianshan) ocean, (c) intra-oceanic carbonate sea-mounts, which at least partly evolved on top of an extinct island arc, (d) a back-arc oceanic-crust basin, (e) external deeper marine and internal shallow-marine areas of the Tarim shelf and (f) Tarim craton. The overall structure of the basin was similar within Kyrgyzstan and China. The main distinction of the western areas is a lack of ophiolites on the southern flank of the belt, a poorly expressed arc in the axial part, and a more complicated facial setting of the central area, where carbonate banks were separated by deeper marine depressions with cherty deposits. The eastern sector is defined by a continental arc that evolved on the northern margin of the Tarim craton in the Silurian and became separated from the continent in the latest Silurian-early Devonian. There is also a middle Palaeozoic metamorphic belt on the southern flank of the STS. A pre-Carboniferous unconformity, previously assumed throughout the study area, is only confirmed within the continental massifs of Kazakhstan and Tarim. As in the western areas, the unconformity does not exist within the STS. Continuous sedimentation in the STS occurred from the Early Devonian to the early Bashkirian in marginal parts of the belt and up to Gzhelian age in the axial part

  19. [Differential diagnostics of neuroinfections: Lyme disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanchenko, O V; Khlyzova, I A; Zholdoshev, K Zh

    2012-01-01

    In the article the clinical case of development of arthritis is examined for a patient with Laymborreliozom, exposed on territory of Kyrgyzstan. It is well-proven that a chronic flow can flow continuously and with relapses. The compatible clinical and serum criteria of diagnosis of illness are not developed. It is needed to take into account at interpretation of results of tests, that level of antiborrelioznykh antibodies, and frequency of exposure depend on the terms of inspection, beginning of therapy and stage of illness. Along with antibiotikoterapiey nosotropic treatment which consists in setting of nesteroidnykh protivovospalitel'nykh facilities and at a necessity glyukokortikoidov is used. Choice of preparations and dose depend on clinical displays and weight of flow.

  20. Field Investigations on Snow Leopards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is a rare and endangered species of large feline animals. Although sharing its name with the common leopard, it is not believed to be closely related to the leopard or the other members of the Pantherine group and is classified as the sole member of its genus. Its total number in the world is generally estimated at somewhere between 3,500 to 7,000, and experts say the figure is far more outdated. Although it is believed that China is home to more snow leopards than any of the other 11 countries in which they occur, such as Afghanistan, India, Pakistan,Tajikistan, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia, no one knows exactly how many of them are there in this country.

  1. A previously unrecognized group of Middle Jurassic triconodontan mammals from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas; Averianov, Alexander O.

    2007-01-01

    Ferganodon narynensis gen. et sp. nov. is represented by a lower molariform tooth from the Middle Jurassic (Callovian) Balabansai Svita in Kyrgyzstan. The new genus is allied with Klamelia zhaopengi Chow and Rich 1984 from the Middle Jurassic Shishugou Formation in Xinjiang, northwest China to the new family Klameliidae based on parallelogram-shaped lower molariforms, imbricating rather than interlocking of cusps e- d- f, by a peculiar distolabial cingulid cusp, and by vertical folding of the enamel on the labial crown side. The new family Klameliidae fam. nov. is most similar to Gobiconodontidae by the structure of the molariform teeth and represents a previously unrecognized radiation of eutriconodontan mammals possibly endemic to Central Asia.

  2. Ekonomik Büyümenin Belirleyicileri ve 2008 Krizi: Orta Asya Ülkeleri ve Türkiye Ekonomisi İçin Panel Veri Analizi(The Determinats of Economic Growth and 2008 Crisis: Panel Data Analysis for Central Asia Countries and Turkey’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MERCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the determinants of economic growth and the effects of 2008 global economic crisis on growth were analysed by using 1990-2012 periods’ annual data in the sample of Turkey and Central Asia Countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The 2008 crisis started in the USA in mid-2008 in mortgage markets and also affected the financial markets and the reel sector and it spread all over European Countries (EU and the world from September 2008 and it caused a shrink in world economy by 2.3 % and distorted the macroeconomic balances of countries including in particular the economic growth. According to the empirical findings of the analysis the government expenditures, the export and the private consumption expenditure in order made the most contribution to the countries’ economic growth. Effect of the crisis on economic growth was negative and statistically significant.

  3. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dolejš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies, of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereua wilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobius alenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobius corrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; L. creticus Dobroruka, 1977; L. erythrocephalus mohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; L. evae Dobroruka, 1958; L. magurensis Dobroruka, 1971; L. purkynei Dobroruka, 1957; L. tatricus Dobroruka, 1958; L. tatricus monounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobius homolaci Dobroruka, 1971; M. krali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymerium dilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; P. hanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendra aztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamia olympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan. The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid.

  4. Modulation of snow reflectance and snowmelt from Central Asian glaciers by anthropogenic black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Flanner, Mark; Kang, Shichang; Sprenger, Michael; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Li, Yang; Schwikowski, Margit; Farinotti, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Deposited mineral dust and black carbon are known to reduce the albedo of snow and enhance melt. Here we estimate the contribution of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) to snowmelt in glacier accumulation zones of Central Asia based on in-situ measurements and modelling. Source apportionment suggests that more than 94% of the BC is emitted from mostly regional anthropogenic sources while the remaining contribution comes from natural biomass burning. Even though the annual deposition flux of mineral dust can be up to 20 times higher than that of BC, we find that anthropogenic BC causes the majority (60% on average) of snow darkening. This leads to summer snowmelt rate increases of up to 6.3% (7 cm a‑1) on glaciers in three different mountain environments in Kyrgyzstan, based on albedo reduction and snowmelt models.

  5. Political Regimes in Central Asia: Crisis of Legitimacy, Political Violence and Uncertain Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Djalili

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc. to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.

  6. Facts and Perspectives of Water Reservoirs in Central Asia: A Special Focus on Uzbekistan

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    Shavkat Rakhmatullaev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The political transformation of the Central Asian region has induced the implosion of the interconnected physical hydraulic infrastructure and its institutional management system. Land-locked Central Asian countries, with their climatic conditions and transboundary water resources, have been striving to meet their food security, to increase agricultural production, to sustain energy sectors, and to protect the environment. The existing water reservoirs are strategic infrastructures for irrigation and hydropower generation. Upstream countries (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan favor the reservoirs’ operation for energy supply, while downstream countries (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan push for irrigation use. This paper provides an overview of the current challenges and perspectives (technical, institutional, and legal regulations and presents recommendations for the sustainable management of man-made water reservoirs in Uzbekistan.

  7. 大力推动中国与中亚国家之间的经济合作--值“丝绸之路”成功申遗之际%To Vigorously Promote Economic Cooperation between China and Central Asia Countries:When"Silk Road"is Applied for World Heritage Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布尔汗诺夫·扎满吉勒

    2015-01-01

    As the largest developing country in Asia, China has inescapable responsibility to maintain the peace and stability of this area. China, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan declared silk road as world heritage, which marks the new chapter of the exchanges and cooperation between China and central Asia countries.%中国作为亚洲最大的发展中国家,对维护该地区的和平与稳定有不可推卸的责任;随着中国与哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦联合申报丝绸之路作为世界遗产,标志着中国与中亚国家的交流与合作开始新的篇章。

  8. Application of Global Positioning Measurements to Continental Collision in the Pamir-Tien Shan Region, Central Asia and GPS Survey of the Western Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Michael W.; Reilinger, Robert E.; Hager, Bradford H.; Molnar, Peter

    1997-01-01

    In this report, we summarize what we have accomplished with five years of funding from NASA under its DOSE program, and with a comparable level of funding from NSF. We describe the development of a GPS network in the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan of the former Soviet Union, the analysis of data, and the main results. This discussion presents the state of the current network, which has grown significantly since the termination of our DOSE grants, with continued support both from NSF through its continental dynamics program and from NASA's SENH program. Although grants from NASA's DOSE program did not support this growth not directly, it did so indirectly by building the infrastructure that has enabled further expansion in an area where otherwise there would be only a small GPS presence. We note how the network has grown over time, but the emphasis of this discussion is on the quantity and quality of measurements that we have made.

  9. Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?

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    Anar Ulikpan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design: Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings: The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context.The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions: The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more

  10. A twentieth century major soluble ion record of dust and anthropogenic pollutants from Inilchek Glacier, Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Sneed, S. B.

    2017-02-01

    Using a high-resolution ( 18 samples/year) major soluble ion record (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) covering the period 1908-1995 A.D. from the Inilchek Glacier, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, we provide a detailed climate and environmental proxy record for the region. Chemical concentrations, empirical orthogonal function analyses, and noncrustal excess calculations are used to identify natural and potential anthropogenic depositional trends. Dominant dust proxy species (i.e., Ca2+) reveal highest concentrations during the 1950s-1970s, with declining decadal trends through the end of the record. These trends likely reflect decreases in central Asian dust storm activity post-1950, which has been associated with coupled atmospheric circulation variability and anthropogenic activities. Comparison between Ca2+ and ERA-Interim (1979-1995) climate reanalysis data indicates a strong relationship to spring (March-May) geopotential height patterns in northwest China and southern Siberia associated with the Siberian High. Noncrustal contribution (excess) estimates of NO3-, K+, SO42-, and Cl- concentrations suggest discernable anthropogenic inputs began between the 1950s and 1970s, increased into the middle/late 1980s, and declined in the 1990s. Excess trends coincide with Former Soviet Union consumption, production, and emission of fossil fuels and fertilizers, reflecting the rapid growth of agriculture and industry, as well as economic declines in the middle to late 1980s/early 1990s. Excess-Cl- trends reflect timings that coincide with the construction of the Pavlodar Chemical Plant and the military production of Cl2 in Kazakhstan. NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory back trajectory frequency analysis suggests eastern Uzbekistan (e.g., Fergana Valley), Kyrgyzstan, and southern Kazakhstan as the primary pollutant sources to the study region.

  11. Quantifying landscape resilience using vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, I. M. S.; Gergel, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape resilience refers to the ability of systems to adapt to and recover from disturbance. In pastoral landscapes, degradation can be measured in terms of increased desertification and/or shrub encroachment. In many countries across Central Asia, the use and resilience of pastoral systems has changed markedly over the past 25 years, influenced by centralized Soviet governance, private property rights and recently, communal resource governance. In Kyrgyzstan, recent governance reforms were in response to the increasing degradation of pastures attributed to livestock overgrazing. Our goal is to examine and map the landscape-level factors that influence overgrazing throughout successive governance periods. Here, we map and examine some of the spatial factors influencing landscape resilience in agro-pastoral systems in the Kyrgyzstan Republic where pastures occupy >50% of the country's area. We ask three questions: 1) which mechanisms of pasture degradation (desertification vs. shrub encroachment), are detectable using remote sensing vegetation indices?; 2) Are these degraded pastures associated with landscape features that influence herder mobility and accessibility (e.g., terrain, distance to other pastures)?; and 3) Have these patterns changed through successive governance periods? Using a chronosequence of Landsat imagery (1999-2014), NDVI and other VIs were used to identify trends in pasture condition during the growing season. Least-cost path distances as well as graph theoretic indices were derived from topographic factors to assess landscape connectivity (from villages to pastures and among pastures). Fieldwork was used to assess the feasibility and accuracy of this approach using the most recent imagery. Previous research concluded that low herder mobility hindered pasture use, thus we expect the distance from pasture to village to be an important predictor of pasture condition. This research will quantify the magnitude of pastoral degradation and test

  12. Demographic upheavals in the former USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1995-01-01

    Fertility and life expectancy have changed since the breakup of the Soviet republics in 1991 and continue to change very rapidly. Before 1991, the USSR was the fastest growing developed country in the world. Annual growth rates in the mid-1980s were 0.9% compared to only 0.1% in Europe or 1.1% in the US. Immigration did not greatly affect the USSR's growth rate. By 1993, the population had declined in 8 of the 15 former republics. Deaths exceeded births in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Estonia, and Latvia, followed by Lithuania in 1994. The last census was conducted in 1989. Fertility declined in Russia from 1.9 in 1990 to 1.4 in 1993. Fertility has been low in Lithuania at 1.7, in the Ukraine at 1.6, in Latvia at 1.5, and in Estonia at 1.4. Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan have experienced fertility decline, which was affected by emigration to Russia and other countries after 1990. 25 million Russians have resided in the former republics in 1990. In Kazakhstan, the 160,000 more births than deaths were offset by 200,000 emigrants. Central republics with higher fertility experienced declines after 1990; for example, Kyrgyzstan declined from 3.7 in 1990 to 3.3 in 1993. Life expectancy for males in Russia in 1993 was 58.9 years, which was a decline from 63.8 years in 1990. About 50% of the decline in life expectancy was due to circulatory diseases, and about 25% was due to external causes such as accidents, suicide, and alcoholism. Infant mortality has been increasing since 1990; for example, it increased in the Ukraine from 12.9 in 1990 to 14.1 in 1992. Russia's population in 1993 experienced 700,000 more deaths than births. The demographic impact will be declining school enrollments and smaller employment among the working population to support the aged. The change to a market economy has been uneven in Russia, where it has advanced more rapidly than in the republics. It is unclear whether the declining birth rate and increasing mortality rates will continue, but

  13. The Impact of Turkey's Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

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    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey's domestic resources, which are Turkey's historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey's economic interests in the region, affect Turkey's foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics' interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan's biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  14. The Impact of Turkey’s Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey’s domestic resources, which are Turkey’s historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey’s economic interests in the region, affect Turkey’s foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics’ interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan’s biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  15. Euroasian Integration Process and Effective Institutional Mechanism Creation Problems

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    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article "Euroasian Integration Process and Effective Institutional Mechanism Creation Problems" author investigates the problem of effective and balanced decision-making mechanism in the integration communities creation. Process of the Customs union creation on the Euroasian space began relatively long ago. Creation of such union was started by the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in the 1995. The same year Republic of Kazakhstan joined an integration process. A little later Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan joined the Customs union – in 1996 and in 1999 respectively. Author on the basis of careful study of the decision-making mechanisms in the Customs union, CIS, EurAsEC and EU, carries out the comparative analysis of the specified mechanisms. Author conducts detailed analytics, gives opinions of jurists, state and public figures, proves own opinions. On the basis of the comparative research conducted by the author the criteria of legal mechanism of decision-making in the integration process efficiency are researched and discussed, what allows to speak about the integration of the legal system. At the end of the article author draws a conclusion that coordination of sovereign desires of states in the integration community represents difficult and many-sided process which has to be based on the balanced decision-making mechanism, which is a main criterion of the institutional mechanism of integration efficiency.

  16. Mutualistic fungal endophytes in the Triticeae - survey and description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Stuart D; Faville, Marty J; Simpson, Wayne R; Johnson, Richard D; Voisey, Christine R; de Bonth, Anouck C M; Hume, David E

    2014-04-01

    Grasses of the tribe Triticeae were screened to determine the presence of mutualistic epichloae fungal endophytes. Over 1500 accessions, from more than 250 species, encompassing 22 genera within the Triticeae were screened using immunodetection and direct staining/microscopy techniques. Only two genera, Elymus and Hordeum, were identified as harbouring epichloae endophytes with accessions native to a range of countries including Canada, China, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia and the USA. Genetic analysis based on simple sequence repeat data revealed that the majority of endophytes cluster according to geographical regions rather than to host species; many strains isolated from Hordeum grouped with those derived from Elymus, and amongst the Elymus-derived strains, there was no clear correspondence between clustering topology and host species. This is the first detailed survey demonstrating the genetic diversity of epichloae endophytes within the Triticeae and highlights the importance of germplasm centres for not only preserving the genetic diversity of plant species but also the beneficial microorganisms they may contain.

  17. Seismic triggering of landslides. Part B: Simulation of dynamic failure processes

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    H.-B. Havenith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From field observations it is possible to establish correlations between geological conditions and landslide occurrence. However, in general, it is difficult to assess the affect of individual factors on slope instability because of their mutual interaction. In addition, the dynamic effect of propagating seismic waves significantly increases the complexity of the slope stability problem. Wave diffraction, reflection and focusing effects are dependent on local geological conditions and make it difficult to analyse dynamic sliding mechanisms using field observations alone. As a consequence, in order to examine the influence of various geological and seismic factors on slope movements, it is often necessary to produce numerical models. This paper describes the results of such models as applied to two case studies in Kyrgyzstan: the Ananevo rockslide, located in granite, and the Suusamyr debris slump-flow, situated within soft sediments (see Part A: Havenith et al., 2003. Discrete element modelling (UDEC, adapted both to the discontinuous character of fractured rock and to the heterogeneity of layered mediums, was used. This permitted simulation of deformation mechanisms, including seismically induced bending, block tilting, and slip. Particular attention was paid to the interaction between deformation mechanisms, site-specific amplification effects, and subsurface structure.

  18. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barber, David S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betsill, J. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlefield, Adriane C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohagheghi, Amir H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yuldashev, Bekhzad [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Saalikhbaev, Umar [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Radyuk, Raisa [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Djuraev, Akram [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Djuraev, Anwar [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Vasilev, Ivan [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Tolongutov, Bajgabyl [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Valentina, Alekhina [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Solodukhin, Vladimir [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Pozniak, Victor [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2003-04-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. The Project also collects data on basic water quality parameters. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through a world-wide web site (http://www.cmc.sandia.org/Central/centralasia.html), and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. This report includes graphs showing selected data from the Fall 2000 and Spring 2001 sampling seasons. These data include all parameters grouped into six regions, including main rivers and some tributaries in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river systems. This report also assembles all data (in tabular form) generated by the project from Fall 2000 through Fall 2001. This report comes as the second part of a planned three-part reporting process. The first report is the Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual, SAND 2002-0484. This is the second report.

  19. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-04-02

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  20. Global situation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)--a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesy, A

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the actual world FMD situation. In 2000, fifty nine countries officially reported outbreaks of FMD. The disease occurred in Europe (Greece), Asia (Russia, Mongolia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Japan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, in Caucasian region--Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan), Africa (Egypt, Kenya, Mauritania, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe) and in South America (Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Venezuela). In 2001, FMD was still spreading throughout the endemic regions and appeared in some of the west European countries--Great Britain, The Netherlands, France and Ireland. In South America, FMD occurred in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Colombia. In Asia the FMD spread in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Yemen, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Iran, Bhutan, Nepal, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. The FMD situation in Africa was unclear, but probably most countries in West, East and South Africa were affected. The most recent data of the OIE from May 2002 confirmed FMD outbreaks in population of pigs in Republic of Korea.

  1. Music as Illness; Music as Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Throughout the Soviet Union, the arts became tied to ethnicity through the project of Socialist Realism. When, in 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic became independent from the Soviet Union, its national narrative continued to be built upon tropes of Kyrgyz ethnicity. Through their engagement with images of the ethno-national self, the arts provide a great source of beauty. Defining beauty as a representation of the self that is pure whole, and stable, Julia Kristeva asserts that beauty and suffering are part of the same phenomena. Arthur Kleinman argues that suffering is best understood as existing within the triangulated relationship of cultural representation, collective experience, and subjectivity. Music too is part of this triangulated relationship, and therefore, a part of suffering. Drawing upon ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in Kyrgyzstan, this article explores the illness experience of a single Kyrgyz musician. In doing so, it illustrates music's role in self-formation and the development of social, economic, and political ties and the shifts that occur in these during illness. In drawing forth the role of music in the construction of racialized ethnicities, this article demonstrates how the experience of transformative beauty can coexist with turmoil, marginalization, and violence.

  2. Afghan Hindu Kush: where Eurasian sub-continent gene flows converge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Di Cristofaro

    Full Text Available Despite being located at the crossroads of Asia, genetics of the Afghanistan populations have been largely overlooked. It is currently inhabited by five major ethnic populations: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen. Here we present autosomal from a subset of our samples, mitochondrial and Y- chromosome data from over 500 Afghan samples among these 5 ethnic groups. This Afghan data was supplemented with the same Y-chromosome analyses of samples from Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and updated Pakistani samples (HGDP-CEPH. The data presented here was integrated into existing knowledge of pan-Eurasian genetic diversity. The pattern of genetic variation, revealed by structure-like and Principal Component analyses and Analysis of Molecular Variance indicates that the people of Afghanistan are made up of a mosaic of components representing various geographic regions of Eurasian ancestry. The absence of a major Central Asian-specific component indicates that the Hindu Kush, like the gene pool of Central Asian populations in general, is a confluence of gene flows rather than a source of distinctly autochthonous populations that have arisen in situ: a conclusion that is reinforced by the phylogeography of both haploid loci.

  3. New records of Lophoproctus coecus Pocock, 1894 (Diplopoda, Polyxenida, Lophoproctidae extend the range of the genus Lophoproctus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Short

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of the genus Lophoproctus Pocock, 1894 has greatly expanded with new records of the species Lophoproctus coecus Pocock, 1894, together with the reassignment of a number of millipedes formerly identified as Lophoproctus lucidus (Chalande, 1888. L. coecus was found to be the sole representative of the family Lophoproctidae in collections examined from Crimea and the Caucasian region. The species was also identified from Iran and Kyrgyzstan. Lophoproctus specimens collected in Italy by Verhoeff were reassigned as L. coecus with the exception of one specimen of L. jeanneli (Brölemann, 1910 from Capri. These data were combined with all available information from the literature to look at the pattern of distribution of the four species in the genus. The range of the genus Lophoproctus extends from Portugal to Central Asia. Lophoproctus coecus is widespread from Italy eastward, while the morphologically very similar species L. lucidus is confined to France and northern Africa. The two species have a narrow overlap in the Alpes Maritimes region of France. L. jeanneli has a scattered coastal distribution around the Mediterranean Sea. The troglobitic species L. pagesi (Condé, 1982 has only been recorded from a cave on Majorca, Spain.

  4. Vulnerability to Poverty in select Central Asian Countries

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    Raghbendra Jha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household's sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.

  5. Halal banking in post-soviet central Asia: Antecedents and consequences

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    Bilal Ahmad Malik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the fall of Soviet Union in 1991 the whole Central Asian region perceived a considerable rise in Muslim identity, a call back to Islamic legacy. Nowadays, lots of Central Asian Muslims need to be aware of what Islam has termed legal (Halal and illegal (Haram. The process of Islamic revival occurred rapidly soon after the unification of Central Asian republics with other Muslim geographies through the membership of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC and other similar organizations. This interaction tended to be an essential push factor to the previously existing indigenous reviving trends and sentiments. Besides many other needs, Muslim customer demand appeared as navel movement in the market generally and in banking and financial sector particularly. To satisfy this need, the governments of Muslim majority Central Asian states, namely Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan presented Halal banking and financial goods in the market. In this work, it has been attempted to recognize the causes that lead to the emergence of Islamic banking and finance industry in the region and also to investigate the effect of these causes considering the development and progress of Halal banking and financial industry.

  6. Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Roessner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data.

  7. STUDY OF COORDINATION OF IMMUNOACTIVE PEPTIDES WITH METAL IONS AS A BASIS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Bunyatyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of development of the immunomodulator timotsin based on coordination compounds dipeptide isoleucyl-tryptophan with zinc, including the synthesis of low molecular weight peptides by immunoactive activated esters, determination regarding the immunostimulatory activity of thymosin α1, study of coordination of dipeptide isoleucyltryptophan with zinc, study the immunostimulatory activity of coordination compounds, the results of preclinical and clinical studies of timotsin. pH-metric method and red-ox titration showed that the interaction of zinc and of dipeptide isoleucyl-tryptophan formed in solution following complex forms: [ZnHL] (lgæ = 3,71, Zn(HL2 (lgβ = 0,279, ZnL(HL (lgβ = 6,6, Zn2(HL2 (lgβ = 188, Zn(OH(HL (lgβ = -0,256. It was shown that the immunostimulatory activity of coordination compounds is in 2-8 times greater than the starting dipeptide.The developed immunomodulatory drug timotsin showed high therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of viral hepatitis, malignant tumors of different localization, psoriasis and neurodermatitis. Timotsin is registered in Tajikistan (registration number of medical drug№000085T, Kyrgyzstan (medical drug №7137 and Turkmenistan (registration number 006371.

  8. Exposure Estimation from Multi-Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery for Seismic Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Zschau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Given high urbanization rates and increasing spatio-temporal variability in many present-day cities, exposure information is often out-of-date, highly aggregated or spatially fragmented, increasing the uncertainties associated with seismic risk assessments. This work therefore aims at using space-based technologies to estimate, complement and extend exposure data at multiple scales, over large areas and at a comparatively low cost for the case of the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. At a neighborhood scale, an analysis of urban structures using medium-resolution optical satellite images is performed. Applying image classification and change-detection analysis to a time-series of Landsat images, the urban environment can be delineated into areas of relatively homogeneous urban structure types, which can provide a first estimate of an exposed building stock (e.g., approximate age of structures, composition and distribution of predominant building types. At a building-by-building scale, a more detailed analysis of the exposed building stock is carried out using a high-resolution Quickbird image. Furthermore, the multi-resolution datasets are combined with census data to disaggregate population statistics. The tools used within this study are being developed on a free- and open-source basis and aim at being transparent, usable and transferable.

  9. Transition in Central Asia: Growth with Increasingly Greater Inequality?

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    Max Spoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic evolution of the former Soviet states of Central Asia since their independence, especially in regard to growth and in comparison with growing inequality. The following topics are considered: first of all, the initial conditions in whichthe economic transition of these countries began; secondly, the transformations of widely varying scope (different “routes of transition” that these economies have experienced, from an almost non-reform (Turkmenistan or a gradual or partial reform (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to a large-scale reform (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan; and thirdly, the economic performance of the Central Asian states, which, with the exception of Uzbekistan, has been quite poor and has generated what we could call two kinds of “duality”: one which is generated by the expansion of extracting industries (oil, gas and metals, to the detriment of other sectors fundamental to the countries’ development, and another one originating from the growingunequal distribution of income among the population. While the first of these “dualities” cannot be maintained as a long-term development strategy, the second one could culminate in social agitation and instability, even in the medium term, which could contribute to thedestabilisation of the already fragile and volatile region of Central Asia.

  10. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alexandru; Cherecheş, Răzvan M; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton-Vasarhelyi, Emanuela O; Valentine, Marissa A; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.

  11. EFFECT OF LEARNING ANXIETY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE AS TURKISH ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

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    Kadir YOĞURTÇU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An anxiety emerges both as one of the individual's existential factors and as one of the concepts used to express the intrapsychic situations as a result of interactions and experiences with physical and social environment. In the related scientific researches, a foreign language learning anxiety was observed to be taken into consideration as separate from the general anxiety conceptualization. According to these studies anxiety is noticed more in psycho-motor production-focused listening and speaking skills, as well as is originated from the fear of communication, exam anxiety and fear of negative grading. According to the these findings, it is assumed to create an ideal teaching environment in classes where individuals will be more motivated free from an anxiety and to adopt a teaching and learning strategies. In this research, anxiety categories that are occurred in learning environment was identified with the help of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS developed by Horwitz and Cope (1986, that is frequently used in the literature. In addition, by the data obtained from exam anxiety scale developed by Sarason (1984, it aimed to study in what extent the exam anxiety effect the academic achievement of Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Manas University Preparatory classes students on Turkish language. According to the interpretation of empirical data obtained by multivariate statistical techniques, it was suggested to reduce the negative effects of anxiety in the learning process.

  12. Procesos sociales y culturales en el mundo turco

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    Ott Kurs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of this article describres the distribution and lingustic groups of the Turkic population and thereafter characterised the latest social and cultural developments in each Turkic states. Turkey, as the most developed state, supplies material and cultural help to the other Turkic states situated in the interior of Eurasia. The best results in this all-Turkic co-operation appear not insomuch in the partnership with nearby Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan, which are influenced by neighbouring Iran, but with easternmost Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakstan. All these states belong to the OSCE. Thus, Mediterranean Turkey, with its experience in democratic development, is the gateway of Mediterranean countries to Central Asia. At the same time, the eastern Turkic states export raw materials and some elements of their ancient folk culture to penisular Turkey. The all-Turkic co-operation is a good example of mutually-useful relations between the Eurasian Heartland and Rimland, considered in the classical theory of geopolitics by some antagonists.

  13. A vertebrate reproductive system involving three ploidy levels: hybrid origin of triploids in a contact zone of diploid and tetraploid palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöck, Matthias; Ustinova, Jana; Lamatsch, Dunja K; Schartl, Manfred; Perrin, Nicolas; Moritz, Craig

    2010-04-01

    The rise and consequences of polyploidy in vertebrates, whose origin was associated with genome duplications, may be best studied in natural diploid and polyploid populations. In a diploid/tetraploid (2n/4n) geographic contact zone of Palearctic green toads in northern Kyrgyzstan, we examine 4ns and triploids (3n) of unknown genetic composition and origins. Using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence, and nuclear microsatellite markers in 84 individuals, we show that 4n (Bufo pewzowi) are allopolyploids, with a geographically proximate 2n species (B. turanensis) being their maternal ancestor and their paternal ancestor as yet unidentified. Local 3n forms arise through hybridization. Adult 3n mature males (B. turanensis mtDNA) have 2n mothers and 4n fathers, but seem distinguishable by nuclear profiles from partly aneuploid 3n tadpoles (with B. pewzowi mtDNA). These observations suggest multiple pathways to the formation of triploids in the contact zone, involving both reciprocal origins. To explain the phenomena in the system, we favor a hypothesis where 3n males (with B. turanensis mtDNA) backcross with 4n and 2n females. Together with previous studies of a separately evolved, sexually reproducing 3n lineage, these observations reveal complex reproductive interactions among toads of different ploidy levels and multiple pathways to the evolution of polyploid lineages.

  14. Identifying Changing Snow Cover Characteristics in Central Asia between 1986 and 2014 from Remote Sensing Data

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    Andreas J. Dietz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia consists of the five former Soviet States Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, therefore comprising an area of ~4 Mio km2. The continental climate is characterized by hot and dry summer months and cold winter seasons with most precipitation occurring as snowfall. Accordingly, freshwater supply is strongly depending on the amount of accumulated snow as well as the moment of its release after snowmelt. The aim of the presented study is to identify possible changes in snow cover characteristics, consisting of snow cover duration, onset and offset of snow cover season within the last 28 years. Relying on remotely sensed data originating from medium resolution imagers, these snow cover characteristics are extracted on a daily basis. The resolution of 500–1000 m allows for a subsequent analysis of changes on the scale of hydrological sub-catchments. Long-term changes are identified from this unique dataset, revealing an ongoing shift towards earlier snowmelt within the Central Asian Mountains. This shift can be observed in most upstream hydro catchments within Pamir and Tian Shan Mountains and it leads to a potential change of freshwater availability in the downstream regions, exerting additional pressure on the already tensed situation.

  15. Assessment of Local Biodiversity Loss in Uranium Mining-Tales And Its Projections On Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharshenova, D.; Zhamangulova, N.

    2015-12-01

    In Min-Kush, northern Kyrgyzstan there are 8 mining tales with an estimate of 1 961 000 tones of industrial Uranium. Local ecosystem services have declined rapidly. We analyzed a terrestrial assemblage database of Uranium mine-tale to quantify local biodiversity responses to land use and environmental changes. In the worst-affected habitats species richness reduced by 95.7%, total abundance by 60.9% and rarefaction-based richness by 72.5%. We estimate that, regional mountain ecosystem affected by this pressure reduced average within-sample richness (by 17.01%), total abundance (16.5%) and rarefaction-based richness (14.5%). Business-as-usual scenarios are the widely practiced in the region and moreover, due to economic constraints country can not afford any mitigation scenarios. We project that biodiversity loss and ecosystem service impairment will spread in the region through ground water, soil, plants, animals and microorganisms at the rate of 1km/year. Entire Tian-Shan mountain chain will be in danger within next 5-10 years. Our preliminary data shows that local people live in this area developed various forms of cancer, and the rate of premature death is as high as 40%. Strong international scientific and socio-economic partnership is needed to develop models and predictions.

  16. [Variability and phylogenetic relationships of the Cucumis sativus L. species inferred from NBS profiling and RAPD analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriunova, S V; Gashkova, I V; Kosareva, G A

    2011-08-01

    Genetic variability of the Cucumis sativus species and its phylogenetic relationsips with other species of the genus were studied on the basis of RAPD marking and analysis of intra- and interspecific polymorphism of the nucleotide sequences of the NBS-LRR gene family in species of the genus Cucumis with the use of the NBS profiling method. According to RAPD analysis, cucumber cultivars from different geographic regions are highly similar, except for accessions k-3835 and k-3833 from Afghanistan. NBS profiling analysis revealed phylogenetically most distinct accessions expected to be characterized by specificity of resistance: k-3845 from Uzbekistan, k-3851 from Kyrgyzstan, line 701, k-3835 and k-3833 from Afghanistan, k-2757 and k-3079 from Netherlands, vr.k. 908 from Canada, k-2926 from Bulgaria, Russian cultivars Monastyrskii, Izyashchnyi, and Lel'. Three essentially different groups of species were distinguished, and the C. sativus species (subgenus Cucumis) was found to be distant from the species belonging to the subgenus Melo.

  17. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

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    T. Schöne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  18. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  19. National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, G.

    1993-12-01

    Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

  20. Assessment of contamination of the Issyk-Kul' valley natural waters with uranium mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palesski, S.V.; Nikolaeva, I.V.; Saprykin, A.I.; Gavshin, V.M. [The United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The Lake Issyk-Kul' of the central Tyan-Shan is characterized by increased natural uranium content. Uranium-carbon deposit situated on the southern bank of the Lake can be the reason of chemical and radioactive contamination of this unique basin by exploitation wastes. In order to estimate possible danger, a project 'Assessment and prognosis of environmental changes in Lake Issyk-Kul' (Kyrgyzstan)' was developed and supported by the Program of the European Commission 'Copernicus-2' (2001-2003). According to this project the water assays were sampled from different depths near the banks of the Lake and from low-debit sources draining the dumping grounds of the uranium-carbon deposit. Elemental and isotopic examinations of these water samples were performed using an ELEMENT HR-ICP-MS (Finnigan Mat). The results obtained are the evidence that the ecological status of the Lake Issyk-Kul'is not damaged at present. Wastewaters from the uranium-carbon mine do not make decisive contribution into the natural radioactive background. (authors)

  1. The Silk Road Health Project: How Mobility and Migration Status Influence HIV Risks among Male Migrant Workers in Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila El-Bassel

    Full Text Available We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex.We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics.Mobility was associated with increased risk for biologically-confirmed STIs, sex trading, and unprotected sex among non-migrants, but not among internal or external migrants. Condom use rates were low among all three groups, particularly external migrants. Risk environment factors of low-income status, debt, homelessness, and limited access to medical care were associated with unprotected sex among external migrants.Study findings underscore the role mobility and risk environments play in shaping HIV/STI risks. They highlight the need to consider mobility in the context of migration status and other risk environment factors in developing effective prevention strategies for this population.

  2. Eastern Europe and Community of Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases in Eastern Europe and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslavian countries; and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. There is little in-depth research on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. After the collapse of the USSR, the opening up of borders presented greater options for the spread of HIV. During 1991-1996, HIV-infected persons increased from 0.3/100,000 to 7.8/100,000. Syphilis and gonorrhea also spread in the 1990s. The increased prevalence is attributed to changes in sexual behavior due to increased travel and migration, disruption among families, and changes in sexual mores; and changes in the structure, availability, and effectiveness of health services. Many migrants in the CIS are young people. Mobile populations in the CIS include labor migrants, refugees, persons displaced by armed conflicts, repatriates, forced migrants, resettlement of formerly deported persons, and ecological migrants. It is general knowledge that migrants are poorly informed about HIV/AIDS. Condoms are not readily available in the CIS. Eastern Europe has high rates of HIV among migrant sex workers.

  3. An early Late Triassic long-necked reptile with a bony pectoral shield and gracile appendages

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    Jerzy Dzik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several partially articulated specimens and numerous isolated bones of Ozimek volans gen. et sp. nov., from the late Carnian lacustrine deposits exposed at Krasiejów in southern Poland, enable a reconstruction of most of the skeleton. The unique character of the animal is its enlarged plate-like coracoids presumably fused with sterna. Other aspects of the skeleton seem to be comparable to those of the only known specimen of Sharovipteryx mirabilis from the latest Middle Triassic of Kyrgyzstan, which supports interpretation of both forms as protorosaurians. One may expect that the pectoral girdle of S. mirabilis, probably covered by the rock matrix in its only specimen, was similar to that of O. volans gen. et sp. nov. The Krasiejów material shows sharp teeth, low crescent scapula, three sacrals in a generalized pelvis (two of the sacrals being in contact with the ilium and curved robust metatarsal of the fifth digit in the pes, which are unknown in Sharovipteryx. Other traits are plesiomorphic and, except for the pelvic girdle and extreme elongation of appendages, do not allow to identify any close connection of the sharovipterygids within the Triassic protorosaurians.

  4. Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

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    Boris B. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical composition in both size fractions. Dust transported into the region is common, being detected 33% of the time. The maximum frequency occurred in the spring of 2009. Dust transported to Central Asia comes from regional sources, for example, Taklimakan desert and Aral Sea basin, and from long-range transport, for example, deserts of Arabia, Northeast Africa, Iran, and Pakistan. Regional sources are characterized by pollution transport with maximum values of coarse particles within the planetary boundary layer, aerosol optical thickness, extinction coefficient, integral coefficient of aerosol backscatter, and minimum values of the Ångström exponent. Pollution associated with air masses transported over long distances has different characteristics during autumn, winter, and spring. During winter, dust emissions were low resulting in high values of the Ångström exponent (about 0.51 and the fine particle mass fraction (64%. Dust storms were more frequent during spring with an increase in coarse dust particles in comparison to winter. The aerosol vertical profiles can be used to lower uncertainty in estimating radiative forcing.

  5. PREFACE: International Scientific Conference on Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials 2015 (RTEP2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The International Scientific Conference "Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials" is a traditional representative forum devoted to the discussion of fundamental problems of radiation physics and its technical applications. The first nine conferences were held fourfold in Tomsk, Ulan-Ude (Russia), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Tashkent (Uzbekistan), Sharm El Sheikh (Egypt), the island of Cyprus. The XI conference was held in Tomsk, Russia. The program of the Conference covers a wide range of technical areas and modern aspects of radiation physics, its applications and related matters. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: • Physical and chemical phenomena in inorganic materials in radiation, electrical and thermal fields; • Research methods and equipment modification states and properties of materials; • Technologies and equipment for their implementation; • The use of radiation-thermal processes in nanotechnology; • Adjacent to the main theme of the conference issues The conference was attended by leading scientists from countries near and far abroad who work in the field of radiation physics of solid state and of radiation material science. The School-Conference of Young Scientists was also held during the conference. The event was held with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects No. 15-02-20616.

  6. The Impacts of Political Terrorism on Gross Domestic Product in Eurasia: A Spatial Data Analysis

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    Huseyin ALTAY

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate impact of political terrorism on GDP for Eurasia region countries by using spatial statistics in the period of 1996-2013. For this purpose, quantile maps, Moran’s Scotterplots, LISA (Local Indicators of Spatial Association statistics are performed. We firstly found that there are the negative impacts of political terrorism on GDP. Secondly, countries as Iceland, Ireland, UK, Portugal, Spain, Norway, Sweden, Italy, Austria, Czech Rep., Denmark, Slovenia, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxemburg, Switzerland, Finland, and Netherland are determined as the strongest positive attraction centers in all Europe countries. Thirdly, Asian countries as India, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Tajikistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar are obtained as the strongest negative attraction centers for Asia. The rest of countries in Asia have been negatively affected by these negative attraction centers. Finally, for the big part of Asia (exclude countries as Japan, South Korea regions, political terrorism is one of the biggest factors of poorness and weakness of per capita GDP

  7. Characterization of pPCP1 Plasmids in Yersinia pestis Strains Isolated from the Former Soviet Union

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    Chythanya Rajanna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete sequences of 9.5-kb pPCP1 plasmids in three Yersinia pestis strains from the former Soviet Union (FSU were determined and compared with those of pPCP1 plasmids in three well-characterized, non-FSU Y. pestis strains (KIM, CO92, and 91001. Two of the FSU plasmids were from strains C2614 and C2944, isolated from plague foci in Russia, and one plasmid was from strain C790 from Kyrgyzstan. Sequence analyses identified four sequence types among the six plasmids. The pPCP1 plasmids in the FSU strains were most genetically related to the pPCP1 plasmid in the KIM strain and least related to the pPCP1 plasmid in Y. pestis 91001. The FSU strains generally had larger pPCP1 plasmid copy numbers compared to strain CO92. Expression of the plasmid's pla gene was significantly (P≤.05 higher in strain C2944 than in strain CO92. Given pla's role in Y. pestis virulence, this difference may have important implications for the strain's virulence.

  8. The specter of post-communism: women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinote, Brian Philip; Cockerham, William C; Abbott, Pamela

    2009-04-01

    Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol use has penetrated the female population following the collapse of communism and how this consumption is associated with other social factors is less well-understood. Accordingly, this paper investigates alcohol consumption in eight republics of the former USSR - Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine using data collected in 2001. More specifically, discussion of gender role transformations and the historical experiences of women during the Soviet era emphasize two potentially important social influences examined in this analysis: psychological distress and Soviet political ideology. Findings suggest that distress is only weakly statistically associated with frequent drinking behavior among women, but results for political ideology show that this factor is statistically and significantly associated with drinking behaviors. Alcohol consumption was not particularly common among women under communism, but trends have been changing. Our discussion suggests that, after the collapse of the Soviet state, women are more able to embrace behavioral practices related to alcohol, and many may do so as an overt rejection of traditional Soviet norms and values. Findings are also discussed within the context of current epidemiological trends and future research directions in these eight republics.

  9. State-Propagated Narratives about a National Defender in Central Asian States

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    Erica Marat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between narratives propagated by the state about a historical national hero and a contemporary soldier's professional ideology in the post-Soviet Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. It argues that while elite-maintained mass publishing of cohesive narratives about a vividly drawn historical persona, male and warrior, trigger at raising a loyal soldier unified with his compatriots on the basis of cultural values and objects of loyalty, state elites seek to link a contemporary army recruit with his historical predecessors who fought for unity, integrity, and  dominance of the nation. But the link inevitably merges with ethno-centric ideas of protecting the cultural community identified with the narrative, as opposed to a physical entity within the state borders. State elites  reinforce the significance of military experience of the titular ethnic entity in accordance with their own political interests. Narratives about a national defender articulate what the political elites expect from the military service but are restrained from depicting in official policy documents. In order to reach effective results, the Central Asian states retained the same Soviet tools of cultivating patriotism as the basis for the army's internal discipline, but primordial characters have also been incorporated into the indoctrination.

  10. Cooperação e poder: a Organização de Cooperação de Shangai como expressão da política externa chinesa para a Ásia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Freire Lucena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan established the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. This international organization represents the first Chinese initiative in building an international security organization. This article aims to study the Chinese Foreign Policy for Central Asia from the perspective of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. We seek to answer how this international organization enables the Chinese state to achieve its interests in Central Asia. / No início do século XXI, Cazaquistão, China, Quirguistão, Rússia, Tajiquistão e Uzbequistão criaram a Organização de Cooperação de Shangai. A proeminência dessa organização internacional está no fato de ela representar a primeira iniciativa chinesa na construção de um organismo internacional de segurança. O presente artigo tem por objetivo estudar a Política Externa Chinesa para a Ásia Central sob a ótica da Organização de Cooperação de Shangai. Como problemática, busca- se responder de que maneira essa organização internacional possibilita ao Estado chinês atingir seus interesses na região centro asiática.

  11. WHITHER DEVELOPMENT? THE EFFECTS OF THE EURASIAN UNION ON THE CENTRAL ASIAN REPUBLICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Dumitru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the impact of the Eurasian Union on the Central Asian republics, with a focus on remittances trends. To this end I review at first the literature regarding the effects of the Customs Union on its members. Then, I assess the current state of the economies most likely to be affected by membership in the Eurasian Union, i.e. Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, whose specificity is their dependency on remittances. Secondly, I present a plausible scenario in regard to the influence of the formalization of this regional organization on the emerging Central Asian regional security subcomplex. I argue that the EEU is a hindrance towards the five Central Asian Republics’ evolving towards a regional security complex. Not only has it already distorted trade in the region, but it can also turn some presently frozen conflicts into security hotspots. I hold that the only way to spur development in the region is, internally, to diversify the economy, and, externally, to bring the five republics closer. I try to show that the Central Asian Republics should simultaneously pursue a switch from a balance of threat to regional integration and sustainable national development. Nonetheless, the EEU will have at best mixed effects when it comes to these necessities. Alternatively, China and the New Silk Road initiative that it endorses might contribute to de-securitizing some of the existing issues.

  12. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935-2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia.

  13. Epidemiology and control of echinococcosis in central Asia, with particular reference to the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbao; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Wu, Weiping; Shi, Baoxin; Li, Jun; Zhou, Xiaonong; Wen, Hao; McManus, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    At least 270 million people (58% of the total population) are at risk of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Central Asia including areas of Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and western China. The annual surgical incidence rate in Uzbekistan and Tadjikistan has been estimated to be as high as 25-27 cases/100,000 with the highest prevalence reaching 10% (range from 0.8 to 11.9%) in some Tibetan communities in western China. Echinococcus transmission in the region is largely associated with social factors including limited community knowledge of echinococcosis, small-scale household animal production, home killing of livestock, and the feeding of dogs with uncooked offal. Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is also endemic in Central Asia and is recognized as a major problem in some Tibetan communities with up to 6% of villagers infected in some villages. In western China, 5-30% of the population are seropositive against E. granulosus antigens, indicating that a large number of individuals have been exposed to the parasite. Although echinococcosis control programs have been initiated in some countries in Central Asia, control efforts are generally fragmented and uncoordinated. Monthly deworming of dogs with praziquantel (PZQ), as a key measure to control the Echinococcus parasites, has been used in western China. However, the approach has proven difficult in local semi-nomadic communities. Additional control measures including health education, domestic livestock animal treatment/vaccination and dog vaccination are needed in CE-endemic areas to accelerate progress.

  14. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region.

  15. Seasonal deuterium excess in a Tien Shan ice core: Influence of moisture transport and recycling in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.; Aizen, V.B.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Synal, H.-A.

    2003-01-01

    Stable water isotope (??18O, ??D) data from a high elevation (5100 masl) ice core recovered from the Tien Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan, display a seasonal cycle in deuterium excess (d = ??D - 8*??18O) related to changes in the regional hydrologic cycle during 1994-2000. While there is a strong correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ??18O and ??D in the ice core samples, the regression slope (6.9) and mean d value (23.0) are significantly different than the global meteoric water line values. The resulting time-series ice core d profile contains distinct winter maxima and summer minima, with a yearly d amplitude of ???15-20???. Local-scale processes that may affect d values preserved in the ice core are not consistent with the observed seasonal variability. Data from Central Asian monitoring sites in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) have similar seasonal d changes. We suggest that regional-scale hydrological conditions, including seasonal changes in moisture source, transport, and recycling in the Caspian/Aral Sea region, are responsible for the observed spatial and temporal d variability.

  16. 中美吉三所幼儿园多元文化教育的比较研究%A Comparison of Multicultural Education in Three Kindergartens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂军

    2012-01-01

    With the modern information technology,the whole life in three kindergartens in China,America and the Republic of Kyrgyzstan was recorded diachronically and synchronically.Through comparing multicultural education practice to widen the horizon of the children,cultivate their cultural awareness of being able to understand,tolerate and respect different cultures,the paper hopes to enlighten multicultural education in China.%采用现代信息技术,对中国、美国及吉尔吉斯坦共和国三所幼儿园的幼儿在园生活做全方位历时和共时的记录。通过对三园幼儿多元文化教育实践,拓宽幼儿视野,培养幼儿了解、理解、包容和尊重不同文化的态度、技能和知识等方面的比较研究,希望能对我国幼儿的多元文化教育有所启示。

  17. Advocating for opioid substitution therapy in Central Asia: much still to be done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Danielle; Burrows, Dave; Bolotbaeva, Aisuluu

    2014-11-01

    Opioid substitution therapy (OST) was first introduced in the formerly-Soviet Central Asian Republics as an HIV prevention intervention for people who inject drugs (PWID) in 2002. Presently, pilot programs function in Kazakhstan and Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan has scaled-up from the pilot phase to the operation of over 20 OST sites nation-wide. All three countries have taken steps towards lower-threshold programs, allowing clients to enroll regardless of HIV status, and, in some cases, without documentation of failure to complete other drug treatment programs. However, OST programs remain exclusively funded by international donors, and political and societal opposition to these programs threaten their stability. In order to counter negative campaigns and political attacks on OST, organized advocacy efforts are needed. This commentary explores efforts undertaken by international donor partners supporting advocacy efforts to scale-up OST and assure a sustainable future for programming. It examines both proactive and reactive efforts, and the variety of target audiences that need to be reached to conduct effective advocacy. Ultimately we find that, while a range of tools are available for OST advocacy in the hostile environments of the former Soviet Union, the strengthening of advocacy groups is needed to assure an optimized platform exists for using the evidence and developing relevant materials in the appropriate languages (including, but not limited to, Russian) for both proactive and reactive efforts; and that more robust monitoring is desirable to bring sharper focus to replicable methods.

  18. Los retos de la cooperación regional en Asia central: Más sombras que luces en la gestión de los recursos hídricos compartidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Campins Eritja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the situation in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tayikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan is an interesting excercice in order to analyze the evolution of the international environmental security concept. As an exemple of how environmental changes may come to acquire an entity such as to be perceived as a threat when they combine with inequitable allocation of resources, we focus on shared water resources management. The framework at international level should be the two main instruments in this field, the 1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes and the 1997 Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. On the one hand, Central Asian States have shown only a weak commitment to these international regimes. On the contrary, they have prioritized the former URSS’s model of water and energy exchange. This model, as being unsustainable and inequitable, favors the extreme dichotomy between the two major competing uses of water in the region (irrigation and hydropower production. On the other hand, some sub-regional institutions served to clarify the articulation of water management structures. However, because of important issues on their internal organization, they have not been able to achieve their mission and their efforts seems to be directed to seek stability and the status quo in Central Asia.

  19. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Earthquakes and landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, H. B.; Strom, A.; Torgoev, I.; Torgoev, A.; Lamair, L.; Ischuk, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present new and review already existing landslide and earthquake data for a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions have been presented previously. They were compiled and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. Major new inputs are products of the Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI): a tentative digital map of active faults (even with indication of characteristic or possible maximum magnitude) and the earthquake catalogue of Central Asia until 2009 that was now updated with USGS data (to May 2014). The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously mapped mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data. Considering presently available seismo-tectonic and landslide data, a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S) was defined for the production of more or less continuous geohazards information. This target region includes the entire Kyrgyz Tien Shan, the South-Western Tien Shan in Tajikistan, the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) as well as the Western part in Uzbekistan, the North-Easternmost part in Kazakhstan and a small part of the Eastern Chinese Tien Shan (for the zones outside Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, only limited information was available and compiled). On the basis of the new landslide inventory and the updated earthquake catalogue, the link between landslide and earthquake activity is analysed. First, size-frequency relationships are studied for both types of geohazards, in terms of Gutenberg-Richter Law for the earthquakes and in terms of probability density function for the landslides. For several regions and major earthquake events, case histories are presented to outline further the close connection between earthquake and landslide hazards in the Tien Shan. From this study, we concluded first that a major hazard component is still now insufficiently known for both types of geohazards

  20. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

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    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N, with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In the neighbouring Karatau ridge there is a palaeontological site with an area of 2.2 km2 with deposits of flora and fauna of the Jurassic period. The absolute heights above sea level are 1300–4200 m. The relief is alpine – deep canyons with steep slopes. The middle mountain zone (1300–2000 m is occupied by meadow-steppe formations with juniper sparse forests (Juniperus semiglobosa, J. seravschanica; subalpine meadows (2000–3000 m are alternated by creeping juniper thickets (Juniperus turkestanica and rocky outcrops; the alpine zone (higher than 3000 m is dominated by rocks and snowfields, and glaciers above 3500 m. The nature reserve's flora constitutes almost half of all West Tien Shan's flora and counts 1737 species, including: 235 species of fungi, 64 lichens, 63 species each of algae and mosses, as well as 1312 species of higher plants. Among those, 200 species are medicinal and 57 species are listed in the Red Data Books of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The vertebrates fauna includes 320 species: mammals – 52 species, birds – 247 (130 of them are nesting, reptiles and amphibians – 14, fishes – 7 species. Animals inhabiting the territory include argali (Ovis ammon karelini, mountain goat (Capra sibirica, bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus, snow leopart (Uncia uncia, Turkestan lynx (Lynx lynx isabellinus; birds – bearded vulture (Gypaёtus barbatus, Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis, chukar (Alectoris chukar, blue

  1. Discrimination between induced and natural seismicity by means of nonlinear analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuntaev, S. B.; Melchaeva, O. Yu.; Vorohobina, S. V.

    2012-04-01

    Uch-Terek Rivers in Kyrgyzstan; (3) the seismicity in the region of the Geysers geothermal complex in California, US; (4) the seismicity in the region of Bishkek geophysical test site, Kyrgyzstan, recorded before and after strong electromagnetic discharges. The nonlinear analysis of the data sets on seismicity showed that technogeneous action on the geophysical medium increases the regularity of the seismic regime. It looks like the formation of stable states characterized by a finite fractal dimension of the attractor and reasonable small dimension of the embedding space. The presence of the stable states opens the possibility of forecasting the development of induced seismic activity. We also present the results of nonlinear analysis of the rate-and-state model, which allows us to describe the mechanics of the studied phenomenon. In this context, the model of motion in the fault zones that obey the two-parameters friction law suggests that if the external action causes the critical stresses to decrease e.g. due to the growth of the pore pressure or due to heating of the fault zone, we should expect the deterministic component of the seismic process to increase.

  2. [The malaria situation in the WHO European region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatinelli, G

    2000-01-01

    .1% from southeastern Anatolia, 8.7% from Adana area and 4.2% from other areas of Turkey. The epidemics in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan and Turkey are having a considerable impact on the malaria situation in neighbouring countries of the European Region. Malaria cases have been imported from Turkey mainly to western Europe; from Azerbaijan to the Russian Federation, Georgia, and the Republic of Moldova; and from Tajikistan to the central Asian republics and to the Russian Federation. WHO made all possible efforts to mobilize and coordinate assistance from international community. WHO/EURO organized missions to those NIS where there is a risk of malaria epidemics. Most of the very limited funds reserved for epidemic prevention and control were immediatelly used to provide a limited stock of antimalarial drugs and to help the national institutions in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan implement antimalarial activities. In 1997, with the financial support of the Italian Government and the technical assistance of the Instituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome (WHO collaborating centre for research and training in planning tropical disease control) and of the Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine in Moscow (WHO collaborating centre on vivax malaria), the training of health personnel in the field of malaria diagnosis, treatment and control was initiated in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. In 1996-1997, Japan provided financial support for a large malaria control project in Tajikistan, and Norway supported activities carried out in 1997 to tackle the malaria outbreak in Armenia. In 1997-1998, Italy supported malaria prevention activities in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, and some of the malaria activities carried out in Tajikistan under the integrated Management of Childhood Illness initiative. Several training courses and seminars were carried out in Turkey in 1998 by the national malaria contro

  3. Transregional lineament of Central Asia, its magmatism, metallogeny and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, I.

    2004-12-01

    The analysis of the place and role of such large fault as Central Kyzylkum, North Nurata and South Ferghana, Atbashin, which were regarded earlier as separate independent structures led us to the idea that they are parts of a single global structure. We suggest that it should be called "Transregional lineament of Central Asia". Transregional lineament of Central Asia is multisutured long-term, and in the nodal points of some parts it is complicated by deep fault zones of «Anti Tien-Shan» trend.There are large gold ore deposits (Muruntau, Kokpatas, Kumtor) in the intersection of some of these faults. Within the lineament there are 4 mafite - ultramafite associations of different age, that are presented as isolated or combined blocks, zones and regions. The most ancient is ophiolite one (I association). Best of all it is developed in Sultanuvais and Northern Tamdytau, Uzbekistan. The second, rift association of this belt is picrite-gabbro-diabase-alkali-olivine-basalt is widespread within the belt (northern Bukantau, northern Nuratau, northern slope of the Altay ridge).The third association is peridotite-gabbroic. It is represented by the Tebinbulak intrusive of Sultanuvais. Coverings, small stocks, dikes and explosion tubes formed by potassic mafite-ultramafites ore related to much later inter-plate (P-T) occurrences of mafite-ultramafite magmatism (IY association). On Kyrgyzstan's territory the studied lineament is observed as a system of regional deep faults -Atbashi-Inylchek and Southern Ferghana, with which the ophiolite ultramafite-mafite formation is associated. The rocks have the traces of tectonic movements, which can be the ground to regard them as protrusions. Tectonically, the vast territory of Mongolia is divided into two large blocks: northern and southern. This part of the lineament called Transmongolian. This part is week studied-a special investigation was only carried out in its western part - Bulgan fault. Thus, in the presence of linear

  4. Addressing global change challenges for Central Asian socio-ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaguo QI; Temirbek S.BOBUSHEV; Rashid KULMATOV; Pavel GROISMAN; Garik GUTMAN

    2012-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change,depending on very fragile natural resources.The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan,Tajikistan,Kyrgyzstan,Turkmenistan,and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources.With increasing climate variability and warming trend in the region,food and water security issues become even more crucial now and,if not addressed properly,could affect the regional stability.The long-term drivers of these two most critical elements,food and water,are climate change; the immediate and probably more drastic factors affecting the food and water security are land uses driven by institutional change and economic incentives.As a feedback,changes in land use and land cover have directly implications on water uses,food production,and lifestyles of the rural community in the region.Regional and international efforts have been made to holistically understand the cause,extent,rate and societal implications of land use changes in the region.Much of these have been understood,or under investigation by various projects,but solutions or research effort to develop solutions,to these urgent regional issues are lacking.This article,serves as an introduction to the special issue,provides a brief overview of the challenges facing the Central Asian countries and various international efforts in place that resulted in the publications of this special issue.

  5. Mid-twentieth century increases in anthropogenic Pb, Cd and Cu in central Asia set in hemispheric perspective using Tien Shan ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Wake, C. P.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution major and trace element (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Ti, and V) ice core records from Inilchek glacier (5120 m above sea level) on the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau provide the first multi-decadal ice core record spanning the period 1908-1995 AD in central Tien Shan. The trace element records reveal pronounced temporal baseline trends and concentration maxima characteristic of post-1950 anthropogenic emissions. Examination of Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations, along with non-crustal calculation estimates (i.e. excess (ex) and enrichment factor (EF)), reveal that discernable anthropogenic inputs began during the 1950s and rapidly increased to the late-1970s and early 1980s, by factors up to of 5, 6 and 3, respectively, relative to a 1910-1950 means. Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations between the 1950s-1980s are reflective of large-scale Soviet industrial and agricultural development, including the growth of production and/or consumption of the non-ferrous metals, coal and phosphate fertilizers. NOAA HYSPLIT back-trajectory frequency analysis suggests pollutant sources originating primarily from southern Kazakhstan (e.g. Shymkent and Balkhash) and the Fergana Valley (located in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Inilchek ice core Pb, Cd and Cu reveals declines during the 1980s concurrent with Soviet economic declines, however, due to the rapid industrial and agricultural growth of western China, Pb, Cd and Cu trends increase during the 1990s reflecting a transition from primarily central Asian sources to emission sources from western China (e.g. Xinjiang Province).

  6. Large-area settlement pattern recognition from Landsat-8 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Marc; Pittore, Massimiliano

    2016-09-01

    The study presents an image processing and analysis pipeline that combines object-based image analysis with a Support Vector Machine to derive a multi-layered settlement product from Landsat-8 data over large areas. 43 image scenes are processed over large parts of Central Asia (Southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Eastern Uzbekistan). The main tasks tackled by this work include built-up area identification, settlement type classification and urban structure types pattern recognition. Besides commonly used accuracy assessments of the resulting map products, thorough performance evaluations are carried out under varying conditions to tune algorithm parameters and assess their applicability for the given tasks. As part of this, several research questions are being addressed. In particular the influence of the improved spatial and spectral resolution of Landsat-8 on the SVM performance to identify built-up areas and urban structure types are evaluated. Also the influence of an extended feature space including digital elevation model features is tested for mountainous regions. Moreover, the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties is analyzed and compared to the heterogeneity of the building stock within the computational unit of the segments. The study concludes that the information content of Landsat-8 images is sufficient for the tested classification tasks and even detailed urban structures could be extracted with satisfying accuracy. Freely available ancillary settlement point location data could further improve the built-up area classification. Digital elevation features and pan-sharpening could, however, not significantly improve the classification results. The study highlights the importance of dynamically tuned classifier parameters, and underlines the use of Shannon entropy computed from the soft answers of the SVM as a valid measure of the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties.

  7. Good Health at Low Cost 25 years on: lessons for the future of health systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Dina; Mills, Anne; Conteh, Lesong; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Banteyerga, Hailom; Dash, Umakant; Gilson, Lucy; Harmer, Andrew; Ibraimova, Ainura; Islam, Ziaul; Kidanu, Aklilu; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Limwattananon, Supon; Muraleedharan, V R; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Palafox, Benjamin; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; McKee, Martin

    2013-06-15

    In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements in health or access to services or implemented innovative health policies relative to their neighbours. A series of comparative case studies (2009-11) looked at how and why each region accomplished these changes. Attributes of success included good governance and political commitment, effective bureaucracies that preserve institutional memory and can learn from experience, and the ability to innovate and adapt to resource limitations. Furthermore, the capacity to respond to population needs and build resilience into health systems in the face of political unrest, economic crises, and natural disasters was important. Transport infrastructure, female empowerment, and education also played a part. Health systems are complex and no simple recipe exists for success. Yet in the countries and regions studied, progress has been assisted by institutional stability, with continuity of reforms despite political and economic turmoil, learning lessons from experience, seizing windows of opportunity, and ensuring sensitivity to context. These experiences show that improvements in health can still be achieved in countries with relatively few resources, though strategic investment is necessary to address new challenges such as complex chronic diseases and growing population expectations.

  8. The Costs of Benefit Sharing: Historical and Institutional Analysis of Shared Water Development in the Ferghana Valley, the Syr Darya Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkhom Soliev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions on water-energy-food nexus generally lack a historical perspective and more rigorous institutional analysis. Scrutinizing a relatively mature benefit sharing approach in the context of transboundary water management, the study shows how such analysis can be implemented to facilitate understanding in an environment of high institutional and resource complexity. Similar to system perspective within nexus, benefit sharing is viewed as a positive sum approach capable of facilitating cooperation among riparian parties by shifting the focus from the quantities of water to benefits derivable from its use and allocation. While shared benefits from use and allocation are logical corollary of the most fundamental principles of international water law, there are still many controversies as to the conditions under which benefit sharing could serve best as an approach. Recently, the approach has been receiving wider attention in the literature and is increasingly applied in various basins to enhance negotiations. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the costs associated with benefit sharing, particularly in the long run. The study provides a number of concerns that have been likely overlooked in the literature and examines the approach in the case of the Ferghana Valley shared by Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan utilizing data for the period from 1917 to 2013. Institutional analysis traces back the origins of property rights of the transboundary infrastructure, shows cooperative activities and fierce negotiations on various governance levels. The research discusses implications of the findings for the nexus debate and unveils at least four types of costs associated with benefit sharing: (1 Costs related to equity of sharing (horizontal and vertical; (2 Costs to the environment; (3 Transaction costs and risks of losing water control; and (4 Costs as a result of likely misuse of issue linkages.

  9. 2D dynamic studies combined with the surface curvature analysis to predict Arias Intensity amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgoev, Almaz; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2016-07-01

    A 2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the pure topographic seismic response is performed for six models with a total length of around 23.0 km. These models are reconstructed from the real topographic settings of the landslide-prone slopes situated in the Mailuu-Suu River Valley, Southern Kyrgyzstan. The main studied parameter is the Arias Intensity (Ia, m/sec), which is applied in the GIS-based Newmark method to regionally map the seismically-induced landslide susceptibility. This method maps the Ia values via empirical attenuation laws and our studies investigate a potential to include topographic input into them. Numerical studies analyse several signals with varying shape and changing central frequency values. All tests demonstrate that the spectral amplification patterns directly affect the amplification of the Ia values. These results let to link the 2D distribution of the topographically amplified Ia values with the parameter called as smoothed curvature. The amplification values for the low-frequency signals are better correlated with the curvature smoothed over larger spatial extent, while those values for the high-frequency signals are more linked to the curvature with smaller smoothing extent. The best predictions are provided by the curvature smoothed over the extent calculated according to Geli's law. The sample equations predicting the Ia amplification based on the smoothed curvature are presented for the sinusoid-shape input signals. These laws cannot be directly implemented in the regional Newmark method, as 3D amplification of the Ia values addresses more problem complexities which are not studied here. Nevertheless, our 2D results prepare the theoretical framework which can potentially be applied to the 3D domain and, therefore, represent a robust basis for these future research targets.

  10. Information Management Systems for Cultural Heritage and Conservation of World Heritage Sites. The Silk Roads Case Study

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    Ona Vileikis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of Information Management Systems (IMS in cultural heritage. IMS offer a set of tools for understanding, inventorying and documenting national, regional and World Heritage properties.  Information Management Systems can assist State Parties, stakeholders and heritage site managers involved in cultural heritage management and conservation by easily mining, sharing and exchanging information from multiple sources based on international standards. Moreover, they aim to record, manage, visualize, analyze and disseminate heritage information. In close collaboration with five Central Asian countries, namely, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan; a Belgian consortium headed by the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC, K.U.Leuven is developing the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS. This Web-based Information Management System supports the preparation of the Central Asia Silk Roads serial and transnational nominations on the UNESCO World Heritage list. The project has been set up thanks to the financial support of the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO and in collaboration with UNESCO World Heritage Centre in conjunction with the People’s Republic of China and the Japanese Funds-in-Trust UNESCO project. It provides a holistic approach for the recording, documenta tion, protection and monitoring tasks as part of the management of these potential World Heritage Properties. The Silk Roads CHRIS is easily accessible to the general user, presented in a bilingual English and Russian frame and interoperable, i.e. open for other applications to connect to. In this way, all information for the nomination dossiers is easily verified regarding consistency and quality and ready for managing, periodic reporting and monitoring processes in the respect to the property listed. Fina lly, this study provides a general framework to establish

  11. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

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    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  12. Malaria Status in Economic Cooperation Countries; Achievement and Gaps Toward United Nations Millennium Development Goals

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    A Mirzazadeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluating the malaria status of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO member countries relation to goal 6 of 3rd Millennium Development Goals (MDGs which includes have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria.Methods: By 2009, we reviewed the MDGs reports, extracted the data from surveillance system, published, and unpublished data. The main stakeholders, from both governmental and international organizations in the country have been visited and interviewed by the research team as part of the data validation process.Results: The malaria incidence is very heterogeneous among ECO countries, which differ less than 200 cases in total country in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan to 82,564 cases (2,428/100,000 in Afghanistan and 59,284 cases (881/100,000 in Pakistan and about 18/100,000 in Iran in 2008. Malaria has been a major public health problem in Pakistan and Afghanistan and will continue to pose serious threat to millions of people due to poor environmental and socioeconomic conditions conducive to the spread of disease. The main malaria endemic areas of Iran are in southeastern part of the country; consist of less developed provinces that are bordered in the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan. There are little valid information about proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures indicators.Conclusion: All ECO countries could achieve MDGs malaria indicators by 2015 except Pakistan and Afghanistan, unless preparing urgent intervention programs to fulfill the goals.

  13. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S.; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I.; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha−1) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  14. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  15. Segmented ruptures during intracontinental earthquakes: Kyrgyz Range, N-Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Angela; Patyniak, Magda; Dzhumabaeva, Atyrgul; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-04-01

    In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the northern Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan was affected by a series of major M 6.9 to ~8 earthquakes. Ruptures affected either range fronts or range interiors. During these events (AD1885 Belovodskoe; AD1887 Verny; AD1889 Chilik; AD1911 Chon-Kemin; and AD1938 Kemino-Chu), neighboring faults ruptured and caused severe damage in the area of the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek and the former Kazakh capital Almaty (previously also called Alma-Ata or Verny), which were located in the epicentral areas. As recurrence intervals along single faults in this region are on the order of hundreds to thousands of years, such a sequence of earthquakes is not known in the remaining historic record. Earlier events may thus be recorded in long-term geomorphic archives. Through a combination of high-resolution offset measurements in the field, cosmogenic nuclide and luminescence dating of Quaternary landforms, stratigraphic analysis, and paleoseismological trenching, we evaluate the Quaternary deformation and analyze the paleoseismic history of neighboring fault systems along the Kyrgyz range mountain front. Our study sites are located close to the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek and include the epicentral area of the M6.9 Belovodskoe event of AD1885, but also the region west of it, which was not affected by this remarkable earthquake sequence. To date, the paleoseismic and historical seismic records for the Kyrgyz range indicate segmented ruptures that hardly exceed magnitude seven. Based on scaling relationships, however, the linked fault systems would be capable of generating M 8-events, similar to the long segmented ruptures observed in the mountain interior farther east during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The available observations, thus, point to incomplete fault ruptures along the mountain front, rather than earthquakes failing along a full rupture length.

  16. What works? Strategies to increase reproductive, maternal and child health in difficult to access mountainous locations: a systematic literature review.

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    Abbey Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Geography poses serious challenges to delivery of health services and is a well documented marker of inequity. Maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH outcomes are poorer in mountainous regions of low and lower-middle income countries due to geographical inaccessibility combined with other barriers: poorer quality services, persistent cultural and traditional practices and lower socioeconomic and educational status. Reaching universal coverage goals will require attention for remote mountain settings. This study aims to identify strategies to address barriers to reproductive MNCH (RMNCH service utilisation in difficult-to-reach mountainous regions in low and lower-middle income settings worldwide. METHODS: A systematic literature review drawing from MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Eldis. Inclusion was based on; testing an intervention for utilisation of RMNCH services; remote mountain settings of low- and lower-middle income countries; selected study designs. Studies were assessed for quality and analysed to present a narrative review of the key themes. FINDINGS: From 4,130 articles 34 studies were included, from Afghanistan, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Indonesia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea and Tajikistan. Strategies fall into four broad categories: improving service delivery through selected, trained and supported community health workers (CHWs to act alongside formal health workers and the distribution of critical medicines to the home; improving the desirability of existing services by addressing the quality of care, innovative training and supervision of health workers; generating demand by engaging communities; and improving health knowledge for timely care-seeking. Task shifting, strengthened roles of CHWs and volunteers, mobile teams, and inclusive structured planning forums have proved effective. CONCLUSIONS: The review highlights where known evidence-based strategies have

  17. 投资亚洲新兴市场的机遇与挑战%Investment opportunity and challenge in Asian emerging markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永达; 雷晓力; 张福良; 杜轶伦

    2014-01-01

    印度尼西亚、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯坦等亚洲新兴国家是我国“家门口”地区,也是“一带一路”大战略实现和落地的重要节点。这些国家和地区铜、镍、锡、石油、天然气等资源丰富,与我国资源互补性强,且这些地区尤其是中亚地区勘查程度相对较低、资源潜力大、与我国的外交关系也较好,投资机遇大,但同时因矿业勘查开发政策总体不完善,且人文环境有所差异,面临的风险也较大,投资机遇与挑战并存。%Indonesia ,Kazakhstan and kyrgyzstan are China’s neighbours and key nodes of One Belt and One Road .Also ,there are rich mineral resources such as copper ,nickel ,tin ,petroleum ,natural gas and so on ,which are deficient in China .Meanwhile ,the exploration degree of mineral resources is quite low ,with high potential in those countries or region especial in Central Asia .And China has good diplomatic relations with those countries .So ,there are large investment opportunities .Of course ,there is large risk because of incompetent mining policy ,different cultural environment and so on .

  18. The Case of NRENs in Central Asia

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    Robert Franciscus Janz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available National Research and Education Network organizations (NRENs provide advanced information and communication technology (ICT services for the academic community of their country. Their focus is often on providing affordable high speed bandwidth amongst their members and to other research networks, but NRENs also provide other advanced services such as electronic repositories, educational environments and supercomputing facilities. Higher Education and Research institutions have to play an active role in the transformation to the “Knowledge Society”. A recent (2010 report of the International Telecommunication Union has identified NRENs as important vehicles in reaching the goals of the World Summit of the Information Society. It is also demonstrated that the Central Asian countries score very low in the Networked Readiness Indices of the World Economic Forum, including areas where strong NRENs could improve the status quo. NRENs therefore have a role that is also important for the nation itself and therefore claims for government support are legitimate. About 62% of the countries of the world already have an NREN and there are four characteristics that are common to these NRENs. In nearly all of the cases the NREN is a not-for-profit organization that not only serves the academic community, but is also owned by the same community. Four out of five Central Asian countries have an active NREN and these NRENs all participate in the EC funded CAREN project that aims to set up a sustainable regional network for the academic communities in the participating countries. Today, the Central Asian Research and Education Network (CAREN is upgrading the ancient Silk Road to a 21st-century high-speed internet highway for research and educational institutions through the region. Operational since July 2010, CAREN currently interconnects scientists and students from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

  19. Environmental resilience of rangeland ecosystems: assessment drought indices and vegetation trends on arid and semi-arid zones of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralova, Dildora; Toderich, Kristina; Jarihani, Ben; Gafurov, Dilshod; Gismatulina, Liliya; Osunmadewa, Babatunde A.; Rahamtallah Abualgasim, Majdaldin

    2016-10-01

    The Central Asian (CA) rangelands is a part of the arid and semi-arid ecological zones and spatial extent of drylands in CA (Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan) is vast. Projections averaged across a suite of climate models, as measured between 1950-2012 by Standardised Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) estimated a progressively increasing drought risks across rangelands (Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) especially during late summer and autumn periods, another index: Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) indicated drought anomalies for Turkmenistan and partly in Uzbekistan (between 1950-2000). On this study, we have combined a several datasets of drought indices ( SPIE, PET, temperature_T°C and precipitation_P) for better estimation of resilience/non-resilience of the ecosystems after warming the temperature in the following five countries, meanwhile, warming of climate causing of increasing rating of degradations and extension of desertification in the lowland and foothill zones of the landscape and consequently surrounding experienced of a raising balance of evapotranspiration (ET0). The study concluded, increasing drought anomalies which is closely related with raising (ET0) in the lowland and foothill zones of CA indicated on decreasing of NDVI indices with occurred sandy and loamy soils it will resulting a loss of vegetation diversity (endangered species) and raising of wind speeds in lowlands of CA, but on regional level especially towards agricultural intensification (without rotation) it indicated no changes of greenness index. It was investigated to better interpret how vegetation feedback modifies the sensitivity of drought indices associated with raising tendency of air temperature and changes of cold and hot year seasons length in the territory of CA.

  20. Eurasian Union: A Utopia, a Dream or a Coming Reality?

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    Tuğçe Varol SEVIM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years passed after the dissolution of the USSR and the re-birth of Russian Federation and Central Asian states in the world arena in such a unipolar world. Since the rise of Vladimir Putin to power Russia resists on unipolar system and sees that as a treat to its security. Hence, Kremlin perceives that the economic strength is the sine qua non for the future of Russia in order to sustain a Big Power status not only in its region but also in the world. In 2011, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan have achieved to form a Customs Union among them and invited all the states in the region to join the organization. There were thesis which mainly argued that Russia would no longer be a “power” in the Central Asia and could only be a regional power just in case of maintaining of its own unity. However, the circumstances have changed in the region accordingly Russian weight as a result of the new conjuncture. In 2012, Russia had a new presidential election and Putin returned to Kremlin as President himself. It has been understood from his words that Kremlin's new strategy to be focused on creating a Eurasian Union including Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan at the first stage. It is aimed to analyze in this study that whether this project could be successful and if so, what could be the impacts on world order in terms of competition between Russia, the United States and China also. And finally, what could be the result of such an organization for the Russia.

  1. Ukraine, EU and Russia: soft power versus Realpolitik?

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    Pedro Barata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the European Union (EU and Ukraine began in 1998 with the signature of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. Afterwards, in 2003 Ukraine joined the European Neighbourhood Policy and in 2004 EU was already the major trade partner with Ukraine, bigger than Russia. Anticipating the approach of former soviet republics towards Euro Atlantic structures and the foreseen loss of influence in its near abroad, Putin’s Russia launched in 2011 the Eurasian Economic Union, an economic bloc formed by some of the Russia’s former satellite States - Belarus and Kazakhstan – and through a carrot and stick policy tried to attract also Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, in order to thwart the Chinese economic development and to impose itself in the regional and global markets. In November 2013, during the 3rd EU’s Eastern Partnership Summit, in Vilnius, Lithuania, Ukraine’s President, Viktor Yanukovych surprised the world refusing to sign the Commercial Agreement with EU, turning back to a EU possible integration. On the other hand, Russia offered to reduce the natural gas rates plus a fifteen billion dollars loan, throwing Ukraine in a quasi civil war, and leaving EU and Russia on opposite sides. Considering this situation what to expect from Ukraine? To continue being a Russian satellite or head towards the Euro Atlantic geopolitical space? This paper intents to analyse the actual situation in Ukraine following Barry Buzan’s approach of multidimensional security, focusing on the different postures assumed by each one of the actors - EU and Russia - which have been between complementarity and division. The scope of the analysis is to contribute to the academic debate about security dynamics between EU, Russia and Ukraine during the post-USSR period, arguing that in the geopolitical dispute for the post-soviet space where Ukraine is integrated, the Russian Realpolitik prevails the EU soft power.

  2. Topographic site effects: numerical studies and a possible application to the regional Newmark approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgoev, Almaz; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2015-04-01

    2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the seismic response was performed with the UDEC software (ver. 4.01, ITASCA). The numerical studies have been performed for six models constructed from real topographic settings of the landslide-prone slopes situated in the Mailuu-Suu River Valley, Southern Kyrgyzstan. The main focus of our studies was the development of proxies for a regional mapping of topographic site effects. The main parameter we studied was the Arias Intensity (Ia). This parameter is applied to the GIS-based Newmark method, which regionally maps the seismically-induced landslide susceptibility. This method performs a mapping of the Ia values via empirical attenuation laws, which mainly account for the regional geometric spreading. An input of site effects is generally not included in these laws. While total site effects normally integrate both geologic and topographic inputs, our paper focuses only on the pure topographic effects. The numerical studies showed that the amplification of the Arias Intensity depends on two main factors: the frequency content of the input signal and the site settings. The first parameter can be predicted for wide areas through attenuation laws. With respect to the impact of site settings on Ia amplification, our studies show that convex surface morphologies with a longer baseline induce amplification in the low frequency domain, while those with a shorter baseline amplify the seismic shaking in the higher frequency domain. The link between topographic site amplification and the size of a surface morphology is identified. Those developed proxies are adapted for application in conventional GIS software platforms.

  3. Regulations of evapotranspiration and ecosystem productivity from biophysical and human drivers in drylands Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Ouyang, Z.; John, R.; Henebry, G. M.; Xie, Y.; de Beurs, K.; Fan, Y.; Shao, C.; Qi, J.; Wu, J.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of coupled human and environmental systems (CHES) has been a dominant framework in the past decade for understanding the cohesive connections between natural and human systems. Here we focus on how socio-ecological services may be regulated by the regional and local water cycles and by ecosystem production in the drylands of Northern Asia (>40 degree N), which includes Inner Mongolia of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Total precipitation and evapotranspiration are used as the primary drivers to explain ecosystem production (e.g., GPP) and indicators of social function and structure (e.g., GDP, population) using the data collected from 1980 through 2010 of these seven areas. We hypothesize that the changes in the regional and local water cycles in these contrasting regions and socioeconomic settings significantly affect CHES functioning. Institutional changes, including shifts in policy, can play a much stronger role than those caused by the physical changes in determining the relationships between water cycle and CHES functioning. The complex connections among the biophysical and socioeconomic variables are analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM) at country and regional scales. The highest water use efficiency (GPP:PET=0.57) was found for Uzbekistan, which also had the highest GDP:GPP (0.66) among the seven areas. In contrast, Mongolia exhibited the lowest values during the study period despite its very high GPP:Population value (45.8). The low population in Mongolia appeared responsible for its rank within the dryland region. Regional institutional changes with global ramifications, such as the collapse of Soviet Union and China joining the World Trade Organization, appears to have affected the CHES of the study areas.

  4. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia

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    Robert eWalker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving human welfare is a global concern, but not always easy to achieve. In this regard, challenges have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU, where socialist institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow. Economic adjustments have been difficult in the new nations of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by a lack of infrastructure, human capital, and financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asia is mostly landlocked, far from market centers. Despite these barriers, development potential exists, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia’s pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, a significant impediment to realizing the market potential of the region’s animal products. It next provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD and Brucellosis. Included is a success story involving FMD eradication in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers how wildlife might act as a disease reservoir, which presents a conservation issue for the Kazakhstani case. This is followed by a discussion of the role of science in threat reduction, particularly with respect to the potential offered by geospatial technologies. The article concludes with an assessment of the research that would be necessary to identify pathways to developing the economic potential of central Asia, as changes in policy are implemented and livestock health improves.

  5. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

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    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF CRUSTAL MOTION IN THE TIEN SHAN USING INSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R J

    2011-02-25

    The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

  7. Circus monkeys or change agents? Civil society advocacy for HIV/AIDS in adverse policy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Neil; Harmer, Andrew; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the factors enabling and undermining civil society efforts to advocate for policy reforms relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs in three countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. It examines how political contexts and civil society actors' strengths and weaknesses inhibit or enable advocacy for policy change - issues that are not well understood in relation to specific policy areas such as HIV/AIDS, or particular regions of the world where national policies are believed to be major drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The study is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of civil society organizations (CSOs) (n = 49) and national level informants including government and development partners (n = 22). Our policy analysis identified a culture of fear derived from concerns for personal safety but also risk of losing donor largesse. Relations between CSOs and government were often acrimonious rather than synergistic, and while we found some evidence of CSO collective action, competition for external funding - in particular for HIV/AIDS grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was often divisive. Development partners and government tend to construct CSOs as service providers rather than advocates. While some advocacy was tolerated by governments, CSO participation in the policy process was, ultimately, perceived to be tokenistic. This was because there are financial interests in maintaining prohibitionist legislation: efforts to change punitive laws directed at the behaviors of minority groups such as injecting drug users have had limited impact.

  8. The Virtual Silk Highway -- Connectivity for Central Asia and the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Hans

    2007-04-01

    This presentation focuses on Internet for research and education communities in the countries along the Great Silk Road, eight republics of the Former Soviet Union (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia) and Afghanistan. When the Internet became a standard science tool in the nineties, connectivity to this area was limited to analog telephone lines. The TAE fiber was installed from Istanbul via Tashkent to Shanghai, but it was based on international ISDN telephone calls at 10 per minute, unaffordable to communities with salaries of 300 per month. Satellites offered connectivity on short notice at better prices but funding by the communities was out of the question. Aid programs stepped in, connecting individual institutes across the area to the outside world. ISPs catered to those who could afford it, such as universities selling MBA courses, but Internet for research and education was lacking. In 2001, the NATO Science Programme added to its grants to institutes a multi-year program of providing a shared satellite service for international connectivity to all the countries above. National connectivity and solving the ``last mile problem'' was also funded, provided that a National Research and Education Network (NREN) organization was created in the country. SILK-1 ran 2002-6 for 3.5m providing 30Mbps west->east and 6Mbps east->west. QOS was implemented for video and audio conferencing. Co-funding by NRENs and others was established, but sustainability is still outstanding. Only recently, affordable fiber (SILK-2 in 2006 was issued in a technology-neutral way. No fiber bids were received, but a cheaper satellite service providing a total of 120/30Mbps for 3.5m in 2007-8. With fiber initiatives under way, it is hoped that part of SILK-2 can switch to fiber in 2009.

  9. Research on the trading development of the Silk Road based on Cluster analysis%丝绸之路国家贸易发展水平的聚类分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文磊

    2015-01-01

    比较丝绸之路沿线国家贸易竞争力,选取相关重要指标,采用spss软件对丝绸之路经济带沿线的国家贸易发展水平进行聚类分析。将这些国家的发展水平划分为四个层次,第一类:德国;第二类:中国;第三类:俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦;第四类:土耳其、埃及、阿富汗、波兰、巴基斯坦、白俄罗斯、乌克兰、乌兹别克斯坦、土库曼斯坦。在此基础上为进一步提升经济带的贸易合作发展提供决策参考。%In order to Compare trading competitiveness among countries along the Silk Road,we select eight relevant indicators,using spss software,based on cluster analysis and get the trade development level of countries along the Silk Road.The level of development in these countries are divided into four levels,the first category:Germany;second category:China;third category:Russia,Kazakhstan,Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan;The fourth category:Turkey,Egypt,Afghanistan,Poland,Pakistan,Belarus,Ukraine,Uzbekistan,Turkmenistan.And according to the analysis before,it provide a reference for the further promotion of economic development and trade cooperation.

  10. Spatio-temporal development of high-mountain lakes in the headwaters of the Amu Darya River (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Müller, Johannes P.; Schneider, Jean F.

    2013-08-01

    The sources of the Amu Darya, one of the major Central Asian rivers draining to the Aral Sea, are located in the glacierized high-mountain areas of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan. There, climate change and the resulting retreat of glaciers have led to the formation of numerous new glacial lakes. Other lakes in the area are embedded in older glacial landscapes (erosion lakes) or retained by block or debris dams (e.g., Lake Sarez). A multi-temporal lake inventory is prepared and analysed, based on remotely sensed data. Corona images from 1968 are used as well as more up-to-date ASTER and Landsat 7 scenes. 1642 lakes are mapped in total, 652 out of them are glacial lakes. 73% of all lakes are located above 4000 m a.s.l. Glacial lakes, abundant in those areas where glacier tongues retreat over flat or moderately steep terrain, have experienced a significant growth, even though changes are often superimposed by short-term fluctuations. The analysis results also indicate a shifting of the growth of glacial lakes from the south western Pamir to the central and northern Pamir during the observation period. This trend is most likely associated with more elevated contribution areas in the central and northern Pamir. The lakes of the other types have remained constant in size in general. The lake development reflects changes in the state of the water resources in the study area on the one hand and determines the level of lake outburst hazards on the other hand.

  11. Alternative Organizations by which Russia is Trying to Impose on the International Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Security or insecurity dominates the current context of international relations. It is a situation generated by the collapse of the Eastern European communist bloc and the USSR in the late 80s and early 90s, or the resistance impact to the New World Order fueled by the negative phenomena of globalization. One of the concerns of any policymakers is to know well the power relations at global and regional levels, as from their substance they will know which are the margins of action, towards one direction or another. Therefore, it will always seek to find out who is stronger and who could take domination on the scenes of international politics. Therefore, we will briefly review the factors that make the countries Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa unable to defeat the global dominance of the US and its major allies, only to budge it a little. Vladimir Putin has created two organizations competing to G7 and NATO. Two summits were held in Ufa, Russian Federation: the Summit of the Organization of Shanghai Cooperation (comprised of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan and the group BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. At the summit the organization was invited Belarus president, Alexander Lukashenko, as the leader of a country member in the Eurasian Economic Union countries. The Kremlin is trying to play the leading role in these organizations, but according to the International experts, such attempts did not succeed because Moscow cannot go beyond the shadow of Beijing's de facto leader of both structures.

  12. Projected impacts of climate change on hydrology, water resource use and adaptation needs for the Chu and Talas cross-border rivers basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamil Iliasov, Shamil; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Lipponen, Annukka; Novikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    The observed long-term trends, variability and projections of future climate and hydrology of the Chu and Talas transboundary rivers basin were analysed using a common approach for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan parts of the basin. Historical, current and forecasted demands and main uses of water in the basin were elaborated by the joint effort of both countries. Such cooperative approach combining scientific data, water practitioners' outlook with decision making needs allowed the first time to produce a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on water resources in the Chu-Talas transboundary rivers basin, identify future needs and develop the initial set of adaptation measures and recommendations. This work was carried out under the project "Promoting Cooperation to Adapt to Climate Change in the Chu and Talas Transboundary Basin", supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Climate change projections, including air temperatures and rainfall in the 21st century were determined with a spatial resolution 0.5 degrees based on the integration of 15 climate change model outputs (derived from IPCC's 4th Assessment Report, and partially 5th Assessment Report) combined with locally-designed hydrology and glacier models. A significant increase in surface air temperatures by 3-6°C may be expected in the basin area, especially in summer and autumn. This change is likely to be accompanied by rainfall increase during the cold season and a decrease in the warm half of the year. As a result, a deterioration of moisture conditions during the summer-autumn period is possible. Furthermore, milder winters and hotter summers can be expected. Mountains will likely receive more liquid precipitation, than snow, while the area and volume of glaciers may significantly reduce. Projected changes in climate and glaciers have implications for river hydrology and different sectors of the economy dependent

  13. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered

  14. CHARIS - The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow, Preliminary results from the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Hashmey, D.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Khalsa, S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Williams, M. W.; Wilson, A.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the CHARIS project is to improve the understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia. In order to achieve this goal CHARIS is a cross-boundary exercise with University of Colorado scientists working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that includes augmented field programs and technical training. While it is generally accepted that a significant component of these water resources results from the melting of glacier ice and seasonal snow, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. The amount, timing, and spatial patterns of snow and ice melt play key roles in providing water for downstream irrigation, hydropower generation, and general consumption. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the region. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once seasonal snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale

  15. Establishing a Collaborative Effort to Assess The Contribution to High Asian Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard; Barrett, Andrew; Brodzik, Mary Jo; Fetterer, Florence; Horodyskyj, Ulyana; Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Racoviteanu, Adina; Rasmussen, Al; Raup, Bruce; Williams, Mark; Wilson, Alana

    2013-04-01

    The improved understanding of the regional water resources of High Asia is a cross-boundary exercise and in order to achieve this goal, University of Colorado scientists are working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located across High Asia (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes both joint research and capacity building that will enhance the scientific understanding of the regional hydrology through augmented field programs and technical training. The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the separate contributions from seasonal snow melt and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the Himalaya, Karakoram, Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges. While it is generally accepted that the melt from glacier ice and seasonal snow is a significant component of High Asian water resources, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains uncertain. To accomplish project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to temperature-index melt models to estimate runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt models are driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. We are comparing the melt volume time series generated from temperature-index models with measured river discharge volumes and comparing the regional scale results with local sub-basin studies based on energy balance modeling approaches

  16. Establishing a collaborative effort to assess the role of glaciers and seasonal snow cover in the hydrology of the mountains of High Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M.; Khalsa, S.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Williams, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    The fundamental objective of this collaborative study is to develop a thorough and systematic assessment of the individual contributions from seasonal snow and from glacier ice melt to the water resources originating across the Himalaya, Karakoram, Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges, referred to here as High Asia. While it is generally accepted that the melt from glacier ice and seasonal snow is a significant component of High Asian water resources, the actual water volume available from these two individual sources remains generally unknown. To improve our understanding of the High Asia regional water resources, a cross-boundary effort is required. In order to achieve this goal, University of Colorado scientists are working directly with researchers at institutions in nine different nations where these ice and snow resources are located across High Asia (Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan). These countries contain the headwaters of the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. This collaboration includes joint research activities, including cooperative field research, as well as capacity building (technical training, graduate student support) that will enhance the scientific understanding of the regional hydrology among our Asian partners. To accomplish basic project objectives, a suite of satellite remote sensing, reanalysis and ground based data are applied as input to specific snow and ice melt models. Gridded maps of snow and glacier area/elevation are used as input to a temperature-index melt model. The melt model estimates runoff from snow covered grid cells, based on cell area and melt depth. Glacier melt is estimated in the same way, once snow has disappeared from glacierized grid cells. The melt model is driven by daily mean temperature from reanalysis data. Validation efforts for the regional scale results will involve comparison with measured discharge data as well

  17. Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mei

    2011-08-01

    Asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was also identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric environment and on animals such as polar bears.

  18. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  19. 新疆托木尔峰国家级自然保护区雪豹的种群密度%Population density of snow leopards (Panthera uncia) in Tomur National Nature Reserve of Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 马鸣; 吴逸群

    2011-01-01

    @@ 雪豹(Panthera uncia)是一种仅公布于中亚高山地区的珍稀濒危大型猫科动物,被IUCN红皮书列为濒危物种,并被收录入CITES公约附录Ⅰ,在中国雪豹被列为国家一级重点保护动物(杨奇森和冯祚建,1998).%Tomur National Nature Reserve ( TNNR) is located in northwestern Xinjiang near the border between China and Kyrgyzstan, and is one of the largest nature reserves associated with snow leopards ( Panthera uncial ) in China.We surveyed snow leopards from October 2004 to December 2005 to investigate their population density and number in TNNR.Using a sign survey and a prey availability survey, we estimated the snow leopard population density and compared the results with camera trap survey results in TNNR, and tried to find a less laborintensive and relatively accurate method to estimate snow leopard population density.By sign surveys, we recorded the snow leopard sign density about 8.63/km.With this sign density, we estimated the snow leopard population density in TNNR was 2 - 5/100km2 with the total number of 47.52 - 118.8 using Jackson's method, and 1.99 -3.47/100km2 for population density and 47.28 - 82.45 for total number using Formozov's method.We estimated the population density of the main snow leopard prey species, ibex, in the TNNR was 270/100km2.Using McCarthy's methods, we estimated the snow leopard population density according to ibex density was 1.59-3.23/100km2 and thus the total number 37.78 -76.46.Compared with the camera trap results which showed that the snow leopard population density was 2.0 -3.2/100km2 , we found Formozov's sign survey and prey availability survey were relatively accurate for estimating snow leopard population density.In the absence of enough labor and effort, these methods are suggested for investigating snow leopard population density.

  20. From Dungans to Xinyimin: China, Chinese Migration and the Changing Sociopolitical Fabric of Central Asian Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the issue of ethnic identity of the Dungans – descendants of early Chinese migrants in Central Asia – and its change and preservation in the context of the fragile social fabric of the Central Asian states that were born from the shadow of the now-defunct Soviet Union, the arduous processes of nation-building plagued by often violent, competing emergent nationalisms as well as political and economic turbulence, and the impact brought by the emergence of the xinyimin (Chinese new migrants. These Chinese-speaking Dungans staying in compact communities mostly in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan are descendants of political and war refugees from China’s provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu who moved across the border into the territory of Czarist Russia in the later part of the nineteenth century after the crushing of the Northwest Uprising by the Imperial Ch’ing (the Manchu dynasty army which bordered on genocide and ethnic cleansing. This paper analyses how a new ethnic identity has since emerged due partly to the geographical isolation imposed by the formidable natural barrier of the Tianshan (“Heavenly Mountains” However, their Chinese language in the form of a mixture of the Shaanxi and Gansu regionalects, remarkably written today not in Chinese characters but in the Cyrillic alphabet, and Chinese traditions of the Shaanxi and Gansu varieties have been fiercely preserved through the generations until today, including nineteenth-century vocabulary and traditions which are no longer found in modern China, due both to the cohesiveness of communal life and an aversion to marriage outside the community. After analysing the community’s dilemmas of identity preservation and identity creation, this paper then proceeds to look at the impact of the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulting in the birth of the post-Soviet independent Central Asian republics, and the influx of the xinyimin from China since the

  1. Central Asia Water (CAWa) - A visualization platform for hydro-meteorological sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services.[1] The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service

  2. Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, P.; Andersson, Sarmite [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Wredberg, L. [ILG Consultant Ltd., Vienna (Austria)

    2000-06-15

    At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the

  3. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevic Teresa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS, countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Methods Using 2005–2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU among N = 55,204 women aged 15–49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less. Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0–25%, or greater than 25%. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. Results MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan to 62% (in Belarus. Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.76, 0.89. Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR = .75, 95%CI = 0.71, 0.79. In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with

  4. Reconstruction of glacial lake outburst floods in northern Tien Shan: Implications for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaginaev, V.; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J. A.; Erokhin, S.; Matov, E.; Petrakov, D.; Stoffel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and related debris flows are among the most significant natural threats in the Tien Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and have even caused the loss of life and damage to infrastructure in its capital Bishkek. An improved understanding of the occurrence of this process is essential so as to be able to design reliable disaster risk reduction strategies, even more so in view of ongoing climate change and scenarios of future evolutions. Here, we apply a dendrogeomorphic approach to reconstruct past debris-flow activity on the Aksay cone (Ala-Archa valley, Kyrgyz range), where outbursting glacier lakes and intense rainfalls have triggered huge debris flows over the past decades. A total of 96 Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees growing on the cone and along the main channel have been selected based on the evidence of past debris-flow damage in their trunks; these trees were then sampled using increment borers. The dating of past events was based on the assessment of growth disturbances (GD) in the tree-ring records and included the detection of injuries, tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts, reaction wood, and abrupt growth changes. In total, 320 GD were identified in the tree-ring samples. In combination with aerial imagery and geomorphic recognition in the field, reactions in trees and their position on the cone have allowed reconstruction of the main spatial patterns of past events on the Aksay cone. Our findings suggest that at least 27 debris flows have occurred on the site between 1877 and 2015 and point to the occurrence of at least 17 events that were not documented prior to this study. We also observe high process activity during the 1950s and 1960s, with major events on the cone in 1950, 1966, and 1968, coinciding with phases of slight glacier advance. The spatial analyses of events also point to two different spatial patterns, suggesting that quite dissimilar magnitudes probably occurred during glacier lake outburst floods and

  5. 中国对“丝路六国”直接投资便利化影响因素研究%Research on the Influencing Factors of China's Direct Investment Facilitation in Central Asian Neighboring Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 黄光灿

    2016-01-01

    丝绸之路经济带必将重塑世界经济格局,同时,也是中国区域一体化纵深发展的重要举措。沿线的哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦与“金砖”成员俄罗斯、印度及巴基斯坦等国,无疑将有助于中国对外直接投资多样化。在所构建基础设施、金融环境、规制环境、科教环境的指标框架下,本文采用灰色关联分析法测度分析了2010—2013年中国对这六国直接投资便利化的影响因素。研究结果表明,基础设施建设的关联度始终最大,金融环境与规制环境的关联度出现反向变动;完善基础设施和规制环境的建设有利于直接投资便利化的推进。%Silk Road Economic Belt seriously rebuilds the world economy situation , and it is also the im-portant measure of China's regional integration in-depth development .Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan , Tajikistan along the route of SREB and members of the “BRICs” such as Russia , India and Pakistan , will be bene-ficial to China's foreign direct investment diversification .This paper is to build an index framework inclu-ding infrastructure , financial environment , regulation environment , science and education environment , which analyzing China's direct investment facilitation with the method of grey correlation analysis during 2010~2013 .Research results show that the correlation of the construction of the infrastructure is always the biggest and a reverse change of correlation between financial and regulatory environment ; The im-provement of the infrastructure construction and regulatory environment is conducive to promote direct in -vestment facilitation .

  6. Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the Russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mei

    2011-12-01

    european and asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. However, a possible impact on the Arctic region was identified; such an effect would have a serious influence on the polar atmospheric enviroment, and on animals such as polar bears.

  7. GREAT REBELLION OF 1916 in KYRGYZ: URKÜN 1916 KIRGIZ BÜYÜK İSYANI: ÜRKÜN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Füsun KARA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The revolution in 1916 was one of the biggest tragedies in the politics of the Russian Empire was to have Kyrgyzstan as its colony. For instance, the best places were given to russians, local people were forced to move to rural area. The main reason was a call for men into Russia’s Central Asian colonies to serve in the Tsarist army fighting in World war I. The first uprising was in Khojent on july 4 th 1916 and the movement spread to other parts of Turkestan. Kyrgyz Turks were killed by the Russian forces and settlers. Kyrgyz population from the North of the country were killed. And another 120.000 fled across the border to China 1916 İsyanı Kırgız tarihinin en büyük trajedilerinden biridir. Bu olay Kırgızistan’da Ürkün olarak bilinir. Rus İmparatorluğu Kırgızistan’da koloni politikası uygulamıştır. En iyi yerler Ruslara verilmiş yerli halk kendi toprağından edilerek kırsal alanlara göç ettirilmiştir. Ayaklanmanın temel nedeni ise I. Dünya Savaşında Çarlığın Rusya’nın geri hizmetlerinde çalışmak üzere Türkistanlıları çağırması olmuştur. Ayaklanma 4 Temmuz 1916’da Hocent’te başlamıştır daha sonra Türkistan’ın diğer kısımlarına yayılmıştır. Kırgız Türkleri Rus askerleri ve Rus yerleşimciler tarafından öldürülmüştür. Ülkenin kuzeyindeki ayaklanmacılar öldürülmüş diğer 120 bini Çine kaçmıştır.

  8. Water Resources by 2100 in Mountains with Declining Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, M.

    2015-12-01

    Future shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns, and changes in the behavior of snow and ice - and possibly the quasi-disappearance of glaciers - in many mountain regions will change the quantity, seasonality, and possibly also the quality of water originating in mountains and uplands. As a result, changing water availability will affect both upland and populated lowland areas. Economic sectors such as agriculture, tourism or hydropower may enter into rivalries if water is no longer available in sufficient quantities or at the right time of the year. The challenge is thus to estimate as accurately as possible future changes in order to prepare the way for appropriate adaptation strategies and improved water governance. The European ACQWA project, coordinated by the author, aimed to assess the vulnerability of water resources in mountain regions such as the European Alps, the Central Chilean Andes, and the mountains of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) where declining snow and ice are likely to strongly affect hydrological regimes in a warmer climate. Based on RCM (Regional Climate Model) simulations, a suite of cryosphere, biosphere and economic models were then used to quantify the environmental, economic and social impacts of changing water resources in order to assess how robust current water governance strategies are and what adaptations may be needed to alleviate the most negative impacts of climate change on water resources and water use. Hydrological systems will respond in quantity and seasonality to changing precipitation patterns and to the timing of snow-melt in the studied mountain regions, with a greater risk of flooding during the spring and droughts in summer and fall. The direct and indirect impacts of a warming climate will affect key economic sectors such as tourism, hydropower, agriculture and the insurance industry that will be confronted to more frequent natural disasters. The results from the ACQWA project suggest that there is a need for a

  9. Hepatitis B: vaccination programmes in Europe--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, P

    2001-03-21

    In the eight years since the Global Advisory Group of the Expanded Program on Immunisation set 1997 as the target for integrating hepatitis B (HB) vaccination into national immunisation programs world-wide, more than 116 countries have included HB vaccine as part of their routine infant or adolescent immunisation programs. Meanwhile, many countries have performed economic evaluation studies, while others have initiated sero-epidemiological studies to generate input data for burden of disease calculation. These studies have indicated that epidemiological and economic arguments cannot be used to delay the implementation of universal hepatitis B vaccination. Some countries have improved their surveillance system and included viral hepatitis in the surveillance programs. Other have put hepatitis B vaccination on the political agenda. By the year 2000, following countries of the WHO European Region (51 countries) have implemented a universal hepatitis B immunisation programme: Andorra, Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, parts of the Russian Federation, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, San Marino, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and Uzbekistan. The Netherlands and some other European countries are seriously studying the issues or are making budgetary provisions for introduction of HB vaccine into their vaccination programme. Most of the European countries, which now use the vaccine routinely, have started with adolescent or infant immunisation. Belgium (1999), France (1994) and Italy (1991) have begun with both adolescent and infant HB immunisation. France continues since 1st October 1998 with the infant immunisation programme only. The rewards of effective implementation of the programmes in these countries are becoming apparent; and their success offers an exemplary model for other countries. The deadline was 1997. Globally

  10. Title of abstract - Different approaches to the determining of 3-d P and S wave velocity structures of the crust beneath Northern Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukova, O.

    2003-04-01

    The seismic images of the crust beneath Northern Tien Shan (NTS) are obtained with using of different sets of data and several algorithms for solution of local earthquake tomography problem. The NTS is a very interesting region from geophysical point if view due to high seismic activity caused by interplate collision: Tien Shan and Kazakh. A rectangular region under investigation is constrained by lines 41.90o N - 43.40o N and 73.50o E- 76.50o E. 14661 P and 14436 S wave arrival times recorded 12 seismic stations of the Kyrgyzstan Broadband Network (KNET) from local earthquake in 1991-1999 years are used. In addition, data from 267 local earthquake recorded over a period of about 20 years by a regional arrays of 93 seismographs in NTS are involved in inversions. 1-d optimal velocity models and stations delays are estimated with help of program VELEST (E.Kissling, 1995). Block parameterization of model and ray tracing described by Thurber and Ellsworth (1980) are used for determination of 3-d velocity structure and relocation of events as one of the approaches (programs S.Roecker Sphypit90 and Sphrel3d). Other approach consists in application linear or cubic B spline interpolation of velocity function and ray tracing Um and Thurber (1987) for the solution of forward problem (program C.Thurber et al. Simulps and own program). The data resolution analysis and statistical analysis of models was carried out. Calculated P wave tomographic models were compared with tomographic models S.Roecker et al. (1993), S.Ghose et al. (1998) and T.Sabitova (1996). The main result is the confirmation of existence of different seismic velocity structure beneath Kyrgyz Range and Chu Basin. Using various sets of date and methods for reconstruction velocity model is effective in reveal of more reliable velocity heterogeneities in the domain of research. The author is grateful to dr. I. Kitov for help and to dr. I.Sanina for useful discussion.

  11. Central Asian supra-glacier snow melt enhanced by anthropogenic black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Flanner, Mark; Kang, Shichang; Sprenger, Michael; Farinotti, Daniel; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Li, Yang; Lawrence, Mark; Schwikowski, Margit

    2016-04-01

    anthropogenic BC and find that it is responsible for about 5 % additional snow melt relative to clean snow conditions. For the glaciated area in Kyrgyzstan, the resulting additional melted water volume corresponds to about 60 % of the annual municipal water consumption. We conclude that a stringent air quality mitigation policy would benefit the region's water resource management.

  12. 中亚突厥语国家独立后的语言政策调整及背景因素分析%On Language Policy Adjustments and the Background Factors since the Independence of Turkic Nations in Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安蕾

    2011-01-01

    The four Central Asian countries, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, made a series of adjustment and exploration in language and culture policies after breaking away from the Soviet Union and declaring independence in the 1920s, which reflected.the complicated political, historical and cultural ecology. To strengthen the construction of the main national political position is the dominant orientation, and de-Russia and Pan-Turkism are the outstanding characteristics. In view of the mounting threat of ethnic conflicts, each country made sorts of policy adjustments to promote national unity and prevent discrimination of minority.%前苏联的哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、土库曼斯坦和鸟兹别克斯坦等四个以突厥语民族为主体的中亚国家,自20世纪90年代初脱离前苏联宣布独立以来,各国在语言及文化政策方面进行了一系列调整和探索,折射出中亚各国在迈向现代国家进程中面临的复杂政治、历史和文化生态。其中,加强主体民族政治地位建构是其语言政策的主导方向,“去苏联化”和“泛突厥化”是其显著特点。同时,针对这一过程中出现的民族分歧冲突日益严重的形势,各国在具体政策上做了许多促进民族和睦和制止排斥、歧视非主体民族的调整。

  13. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia's pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region's animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife in

  14. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  15. Recent development of glacier complex Adygine and resulting risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatkova, Kristyna; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Jansky, Bohumir

    2015-04-01

    Recent development of glacier complex Adygine and resulting risks Falátková, K., Šobr, M., Engel, Z., Janský, B. Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Prague, Czech republic Glacier complex Adygine (3,400-4,200 m asl) is situated on the northern flank of the Kyrgyz Range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. The valley downstream is part of National Park Ala Archa, which is popular with tourists, and is heading towards the country's capital - Bishkek. At the study site there is a glacier which is observed since 1960's. The glacier has been monitored by satellite imagery and in last 10 years by on-site geodetic measurement as well. Due to glacier shrinkage several glacial lakes of different genetic types (moraine-dammed, moraine- and rock-dammed, termokarst) have appeared at the site. Nowadays, the lakes are situated on three levels in front of the glacier's terminus and form a cascade, they are also hydrologically connected. The lakes were subjected to detailed bathymetric measurement and some parts of the dams were surveyed by geophysical methods. Especially the newest lakes in proximity of the terminus has been undergoing dynamic changes and may pose a threat in the near future. The risks arising together with changing climatic conditions and retreat of the glacier are associated with mainly three of the lakes. The largest one with area of 3.2 ha is dammed by a rock step overlaid by a moraine. Geophysical research of the dam revealed buried ice and seepage channels in its western part. It is the capacity of these subsurface channels, which are draining the lake throughout the year that represents a weak point in terms of dam stability. The second lake, a termokarst one, is a similar case but drained solely by subsurface channels. Very steep slopes of the lake basin are covered with loose material which could slide down and block the drainage channels. The lake would then fill all the basin (approx. 50,000 m3) very quickly as it is supplied with water from the

  16. Kyrgyz Libraries Community – Co-Operation for Development: New Challenges and New Approaches = Kırgız Kütüphane Topluluğu – Gelişim İçin İşbirliği: Yeni Fırsatlar ve Uygulamalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battalova, Sania

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available “Kyrgyz Libraries Information Consortium”, one of the largest library associations in the country, celebrates its 10th anniversary. The Consortium was established in 2002 and through membership, it comprises more than 400 libraries within Kyrgyzstan, including the National Library, the State Patent and Technical Library, the Library of the Academy of Science, and many other academic and regional libraries. The Consortium’s creation was an answer to the challenges the country faced: lack of information, very low level of technological development, no budget for collection development, lack of cooperation and collaboration between libraries in the country as well as with the international library community. The history and development of the Consortium, the Consortium mission, its goals, its main initiatives and the strategic directions to be taken are presented in the article. The importance of library development and how libraries in developed countries established strong and effective organizations are reviewed and analyzed here. This paper also presents the challenges and approaches that must be taken for future development of libraries in Kyrgyzstan. / “Kırgız Kütüphaneleri Bilgi Konsorsiyumu” ülkedeki en büyük kütüphanecilik derneklerinden biridir ve kuruluşunun onuncu yıl dönümünü kutlamaktadır. Bu Konsorsiyum 2000 yılında kurulmuş olup, üyelik sayısı sonucu Kırgızistan içinde toplam 400'den fazla kütüphaneyi kapsamaktadır. Konsorsiyum içinde Milli Kütüphane (The National Library, Devlet Patent ve Teknik Kütüphanesi (State Patent and Technical Library, Bilim Akademisi Kütüphanesi (Library of the Academy ofScience, ile bunların yanısıra çok sayıda akademik ve bölgesel kütüphaneler de yer almaktadır. Konsorsiyum’un kuruluşu ülkede karşılaşılan güçlüklere bir karşı çıkış olmuştur: yetersiz bilgi, çok düşük düzeyli teknik gelişmeler, koleksiyon geliştirmek için b

  17. 基于Web of Science的盐生植物研究文献计量评价%Bibliometrics evaluation of the halophytes scientific papers based on Web of Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦; 田长彦

    2013-01-01

    通过对1900-2011年SCI收录的盐生植物(halophytes)研究文献分析,从年度文献数量变化、国家/地区分布、期刊分布、主要研究机构、发表文献作者、基金资助机构、刊载文献类型和学科类别及高被引论文分析9个方面,对盐生植物研究文献的分布规律和研究现状进行了统计分析.结果表明:在SCI上收录盐生植物研究论文的国家排名依次是美国(19.46%)、中国(11.51%)、印度(7.69);在文献量的机构排名方面,排列前三名的分别是中国科学院、西班牙高级科学研究理事会和巴基斯坦费萨拉巴德农业大学;中国的主要合作国家中包括了美国、日本、德国、澳大利亚、巴基斯坦、以色列和印度等20个国家和地区,建议还需要进一步加强与周边中亚地区(哈萨克斯坦、蒙古等)的合作与研究.%Scientific papers on the halophytes,indexing by the Science Citation Index (SCI) within 1900-2011,were analyzed according to 9 aspects such as the annual document quantity change,research institution,country/region origin,periodical distribution,author,founding agency,document type and subject categories,the analysis of highly cited frequency research paper due to investigate the distribution pattern and current status of scientific papers on the halophytes.Our results indicated that the national ranking according to number of papers cited by SCI was following:United States (19.46%),China (11.51%) and India (7.69%).The top three research institutions ranking according the number of papers cited by SCI were Chinese Academy of Sciences,Spanish Senior Scientific Research Council and Pakistan Faisalabad Agricultural University.China also has scientific cooperation with more than 20 countries,such as United States,Japan,Germany,Australia,Pakistan,Israel and India.China needs to do more work to develop closer cooperative research with Central Asia countries such as Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia.

  18. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many

  19. Late Paleozoic tectonomagmatic evolution of the western southern Tian Shan, Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, James R.; Kapp, Paul; Minaev, Vladislav; Chapman, James B.; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo

    2015-04-01

    The 2500-km-long Tian Shan orogenic belt constitutes a dominantly Paleozoic amalgmation of Eurasia that has been overprinted by the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Cimmerian and Indo-Eurasian collisions. This southernmost unit of the Central Asian Orogenic System (CAOS) is divided N-S by discontinuous suture zones that reflect its complex assemblage and E-W by the Talas-Fergana dextral (modern kinematics) fault zone. The western southern Tian Shan in Tajikistan/Uzbekistan is poorly studied compared to the rest of the orogen in Kyrgyzstan/China, but a dominant signal of late Paleozoic magmatism synchronous to widespread magmatism documented along strike provides an intriguing opportunity to investigate regional tectonic processes at this time. The late Carboniferous-early Permian Gissar batholith is the southern Tian Shan's southernmost lithotectonic unit. Zircon U-Pb weighted-mean crystallization ages for Gissar granitoids range from ~310-290 Ma, are youngest in the east, and define a primary stage of arc magmatism related to closure of the Turkestan ocean. A ~280 Ma crystallization age was obtained for a Ne syenite, which corresponds to small, 'post-collisional,' alkaline intrusions in 1:200,000 Soviet geologic maps. Zircon ɛHf in Gissar granitoids generally decreases with decreasing zircon U-Pb age from +5'10. Zircon ɛHf in the young Ne syenite is +1-+6. Taken together, these trends indicate a progressive shift from juvenile to intermediate magmatism over 20 Myr, followed by a marked return to juvenile magmatism within 10 Myr. The Garm 'metamorphic' massif is situated within the eastern Gissar batholith and is derived from greater depths than the rest of the batholith, as indicated by its defining features: (i) Discontinuous outcrops of Bt+Grt quartzofeldspathic gneisses/schists; and (ii) Presence of igneous garnet in granitoids. Zircons from the Garm quartzofeldspathic gneisses/schists exhibit pronounced Pb-loss discordia that are consistent with ~amphibolite

  20. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  1. Reserves Estimation of an Iron Deposit Based on Geostatistics Method%基于地质统计学方法的某铁矿资源量估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旋; 王选问; 金瑜

    2015-01-01

    Ore-body reserves are the important basis of mine construction and production. At present,the traditional re-serves estimation methods cannot meet the requirements of modern mine management. Based on the three-dimensional geolog-ical model of ore-body,geostatistics method is an optimal estimation scientific method of block models by analyzing the varia-tion characteristics of ore grade via the theory of regionalized variable. Taking a large iron deposit in Kyrgyzstan as the research object,firstly,the geological data-based and 3D model of ore-body are established;then,the grade-space variogram is obtained by analyzing the grade distribution characteristics of samples; finally,the Kriging interpolation method is adopted to estimate the grade of ore-body,and also the reserves. The research results show that compared with the traditional reserves estimation method,geostatistics method based on the three-dimensional geological model of ore-body and variogram can estimate reserves more scientifically,efficiently and accurately,which is conduced to realize the three-dimensional visualization of mine informa-tion and dynamic management of mine resources reserves.%矿体资源量是矿山生产建设的重要依据,目前,传统的资源量估算方法已经难以满足现代矿山管理的需求。建立在矿体三维地质模型基础上的地质统计学方法是一种运用区域化变量理论研究矿体品位的变化特征对块体模型进行最优估值的科学方法。以吉尔吉斯斯坦某大型铁矿为研究对象,首先建立地质数据库及矿体三维地质模型;然后通过分析样品品位分布特征,建立品位-空间变异函数;最后对矿体采用克里格插值法进行品位估值并计算资源量。结果表明,相对于传统资源量估算方法而言,地质统计学方法以矿山三维模型及变异函数为基础,能够更科学、高效、准确地估算资源量,有助于实现矿山信息的三维可视化

  2. Applications of remote sensing and GIS in surface hydrology: Snow cover, soil moisture and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianwei

    Terra and Aqua snow cover products, and the new combined daily and multi-day composite from both MODIS Terra and Aqua daily products. In Chapter 5, utilizing the new cloud-low multi-day composite of MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products, several new methods are developed to study the spatiotemporal variation of snow cover conditions from different aspects at the Northern Xinjiang and on the Central Tianshan Mountains, mainly in China, partly covering Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Secondly, Chapter 6 investigates the feasibility to indirectly map root-zone soil moisture using optical remote sensing techniques and in situ measurements. Specifically, covariation of root-zone soil moisture with the normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI) from MODIS observation is studied at three sites (New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas). The three sites represent two types of vegetation (shrub and grass) and two types of climate conditions: arid/semi-arid (New Mexico and Arizona) and humid (Texas). Results show that the root-zone soil moisture has significant linear correlation with vegetation (NDVI). Finally, Chapter 7 validates and compares the NEXRAD Stage III and MPE precipitation products using a high density rain gauge network on the Upper Guadalupe River Basin of the Texas Hill Country in 2001 and 2004. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. 雪豹(Uncia uncia)研究的文献计量评价%A bibliometric evaluation of research on Snow Leopard ( Uncia uncia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦; 马鸣; 买尔旦·吐尔干

    2012-01-01

    通过对1950-2010年SCI收录和1989-2010年CSCD收录的雪豹(Uncia uncia)研究文献分析,从年度文献数量变化、国家/地区分布、主要研究机构、期刊分布、发表文献作者、基金资助机构、刊载文献类型、学科类别和语种分布9个方面,对雪豹研究文献的分布规律和研究现状进行了统计分析.结果表明:在SCI上发表雪豹研究论文的国家排名依次是美(50.6%)、英(16.5%)、印度(12.5%)和中国(5.6%);在文献量机构排名方面,国际雪豹基金会和英国爱丁堡大学并列第一,中国科学院排名第五;中国的主要合作国家中包括了美、英和中亚国家(吉尔吉斯斯坦、蒙古).无论是分布范围还是数量,中国雪豹资源都居于世界第一,而研究却不相匹配,国内在这方面还仍需努力.%Based on the analysis of the literatures indexed by the Science Citation Index (SCI) in 1950-2010 and by the Chinese Science Citation Database (CSCD) in 1980-2010, a biblio-metric evaluation was conducted on the distribution patterns of the literatures about snow leopard ( Uncia uncia) from the aspects of annual number, authors and their country origin, research in-stitutions, journal distribution, funding agencies, literature types, subject categories, and lan-guages. According to the quantities of the papers cited by SCI, the top four nations are the USA (50.6% ) , Britain (16.5% ), India (12.5% ), and China (5.6%). International Snow Leop-ard Trust and Edinburgh University are the first ranked paper-production institutions, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences takes the fifth place. The main research partners of China are from Britain, USA, and China neighboring countries such as Kyrgyzstan and Mongolia. In terms of the distribution range and the quantity of the snow leopard resources in the world, China ranks the first, but the related researches in this country do not match this situation, and need to do much more.

  4. Glacial Retreat and Associated Glacial Lake Hazards in the High Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. T.

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies have identified glacial retreat throughout the greater Himalayan region over the past few decades, but the Karakorum region remains an anomaly with large stagnating or advancing glaciers. The glacial behavior in the Tien Shan is still unclear, as few studies have investigated mass balances in the region. This study focuses on the highest peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range, in the region of Jengish Chokusu along the Kyrgyzstan-China-Kazakhstan border. In a first step, a 30-year time series of Landsat imagery (n=27) and ASTER imagery (n=10) was developed to track glacial growth and retreat in the region. Using a combination of spectral and topographic information, glacial outlines are automatically delineated. As several important glaciers in the study region contain medium to high levels of debris cover, our algorithm also improves upon current methods of detecting debris-covered glaciers by using topography, distance weighting methods, river networks, and additional spectral data. Linked to glacial retreat are glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that have become increasingly common in High Mountain Asia over the last few decades. As glaciers retreat, their melt water is often trapped by weakly bonded moraines. These moraines have been known to fail due to overtopping caused by surge waves created by avalanches, rockslides, or glacial calving. A suite of studies throughout High Mountain Asia have used remotely-sensed data to monitor the formation and growth of glacial lakes. In a second step of the work, lake-area changes over the past 15 years were tracked monthly and seasonally using dense Landsat/ASTER coverage (n=30) with an automatic procedure based on spectral and topographic information. Previous work has identified GLOFs as a significant process for infrastructural damage in the southern Tien Shan/northern Pamir, as well as in the better studied Himalaya region. Lake identification and quantification of lake-growth rates is a valuable

  5. Natural and anthropogenic multi-type hazards for loess territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyanova, Nadira; Zakirova, Zulfiya

    2013-04-01

    Central Asia (CA) is an extremely large region of varied geography from plains to high, rugged mountains (the region belongs to the Tien-Shan and Pamirs mountain system), vast deserts (Kara Kum, Kyzyl Kum, Taklamakan). The area of the CA region is including the territories of following countries: of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. CA is particularly exposed to natural hazards like earthquakes, landslide, rockfalls, avalanches, mudflows, flooding, high mountains lakes, sub flooding, and debris flow. This region is one of the most seismically active in the world. In XX century almost in each of five countries have occurred strong earthquakes with magnitude more than 7, led to human victims. Loess soils are widespread in this region in foothills, foothill plains and intermountain depressions. Loess can cause a number of engineering problems because loess undergoes structural collapse and subsidence due to saturation when both the initial dry density and initial water content are low. By comparison of the map of seismic zoning to a map of distribution of loess soils it is easy to be convinced that the territory of the majority of seismic areas are covering by collapsible loess soils with significant thickness (50-150 m). The natural hazards leads to a disaster, if it develops in an urbanized or industrial areas and directly affects people and economic objects. In this case, risk takes place with all its consequences especially on loess soil. In the past a formation of natural hazards was connected generally with two main groups of factors: geological structure and climatic conditions. Now to them the third factor - of human made influence was added. Intensive influence of human activity to the loess territories in CA for last 60 years is destruction of nature balance and changing in environment of loess land in zone with high seismic hazard. This processes primarily associated with following: 1) irrigation of new lands; 2) the

  6. Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 through 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    early 1980s. The 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union, a major user of asbestos, resulted in a significant decline in asbestos consumption and production in former Soviet-bloc countries. Consumption and production in Kazakhstan and Russia increased through 2003 from 2001, albeit to a much lower level than in the 1980s. In 2003, world consumption was estimated to be 2.11 Mt, about 45 percent that of 1980. Relatively few countries in Asia, the Middle East, South America, and the former Soviet Union remained as the leading users of asbestos. China was the leading consuming nation, using an estimated 492,000 metric tons (t) in 2003. China was followed, in decreasing order of consumption, by Russia (429,000 t), India (192,000 t), Kazakhstan (174,000 t), Ukraine (156,000 t), Thailand (133,000 t), Brazil (78,400 t), and Iran (75,800 t). These eight countries accounted for 82 percent of the world's apparent consumption in 2003. Following Iran, in decreasing order of consumption by tonnage, were Uzbekistan (42,400 t), Vietnam (39,400 t), Indonesia (32,300 t), the Republic of Korea (23,800 t), Kyrgyzstan (23,700 t), Japan (23,400 t), and Mexico (20,100 t). Consumption in all other countries was estimated to be less than 15,000 t each in 2003. Sizable consumption increases occurred in Azerbaijan, China, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Thailand, and Ukraine between 2000 and the end of 2003. Consumption patterns in countries using less than 5,000 t per year were too erratic to ascertain any trends in their use of asbestos.

  7. 《乌古斯汗传》与蒙古族感光受孕神话%Oghuzname and Photosensitive Pregnancy Myth of Mongolia Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岗龙

    2016-01-01

    Through the comparative text myth recorded by ancient Uighur epic Oghuzname and Islamic historiography and Mongolia history books,discussed the founding myth.The opening records of The secret history of Yuan Dynasty about Brte chonos and Aima Lang Le crossing Teng Kyrgyzstan Si-hai-come does not have myth narrative elements,it also can not constitute the founding myth in general sense.By con-trast,Alan Huoa’s photosensitive pregnancy myth has always maintained a high degree of stability in dif-ferent religious context,and it plays a key role in Genghis Khan’s lineage.Therefore,we believe that the founding myth or the myth of kingship in ancient Mongolia is Alan Huoa’s photosensitive pregnancy myth,and has a direct relationship with the early Turkic ancestors of Mongolia’s immortal belief.The con-clusion of this paper is more rational to answer the question of the Mongolia people have no wolf totem from the angle of the founding myth.%通过古代回鹘文记录的史诗《乌古斯汗传》与伊斯兰教史学著作和蒙古文史书中记录的神话文本的比较,讨论了古代蒙古族建国神话。《元朝秘史》开篇的有关“孛儿帖赤那和豁埃马阑勒渡腾汲思而来”的记录并不具备神话叙事的要素,也不能构成一般意义上的建国神话。而相比之下,阿阑豁阿感光受孕神话在不同宗教语境的历史叙事中一直都保持了高度的稳定性,并在成吉思汗王统谱系中起着核心的关键作用。因此,我们认为古代蒙古的建国神话或者王权神话是阿阑豁阿感光受孕神话,并且与早期的蒙古—突厥先民的长生天信仰有直接关系。本文的结论从建国神话的角度更加学理性地回答了蒙古族有没有狼图腾的问题。

  8. Interventions to reduce corruption in the health sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitonde, Rakhal; Oxman, Andrew D; Okebukola, Peter O; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    analyse data. Data collection and analysis One review author extracted data from the included studies and a second review author checked the extracted data against the reports of the included studies. We undertook a structured synthesis of the findings. We constructed a results table and 'Summaries of findings' tables. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. Main results No studies met the inclusion criteria of the primary analysis. We included nine studies that met the inclusion criteria for the secondary analysis. One study found that a package of interventions coordinated by the US Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Justice recovered a large amount of money and resulted in hundreds of new cases and convictions each year (high certainty of the evidence). Another study from the USA found that establishment of an independent agency to investigate and enforce efforts against overbilling might lead to a small reduction in overbilling, but the certainty of this evidence was very low. A third study from India suggested that the impacts of coordinated efforts to reduce corruption through increased detection and enforcement are dependent on continued political support and that they can be limited by a dysfunctional judicial system (very low certainty of the evidence). One study in South Korea and two in the USA evaluated increased efforts to investigate and punish corruption in clinics and hospitals without establishing an independent agency to coordinate these efforts. It is unclear whether these were effective because the evidence is of very low certainty. One study from Kyrgyzstan suggested that increased transparency and accountability for co-payments together with reduction of incentives for demanding informal payments may reduce informal payments (low certainty of the evidence). One study from Germany suggested that guidelines that prohibit hospital

  9. The Analysis and Measurement of Trade Potential and Trade Prospect between China and Central Asia Countries under the Background of the Silk Road Economic Belt%“一带”背景下中国与中亚五国贸易潜力测算及前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志刚; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    中亚五国是“丝绸之路经济带”沿线的核心区域,所以研究中国与中亚五国贸易潜力对推进丝绸之路经济带建设具有十分重要的理论价值与现实意义。通过构建引力模型对中国与中亚五国贸易潜力进行实证分析及前景展望,结果表明:双方经济发展水平、交通运输成本、关税水平和上合组织等因素是影响出口及双边贸易的主要因素,其中双方经济发展水平、上合组织对出口及双边贸易总量有积极的影响,而距离及关税税率水平对出口和双边贸易总量起到一定的阻碍作用,其中关税水平对双边贸易总额的阻碍作用更为强烈。中国同哈萨克斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、土库曼斯坦双边贸易在2010年前基本处于“潜力巨大型”,而2010年后,处于“潜力再造型”状态。而乌兹别克斯坦除2009年以外一直处于“潜力巨大型”。因此推进上合组织框架下中国—中亚自由贸易区的建立,加快区域一体化的进程,加快中国与中亚国家互联互通建设有利于促进中国对中亚国家的双边贸易。此外,由于双方贸易的互补性及“丝绸之路经济带”的建设,中国与中亚五国贸易发展前景广阔。%By constructing trade gravity model ,the authors analyze the trade potential and prospect between China and central Asia countries .The findings suggest that :The economic development level of two sides ,transportation cost ,tariff level and SCO are the main factors in the impact of export and total trade;economic development level and SCO have a positive impact on bilateral trade and the total export ,distance and tariff have hindered exports and bilateral trade ,w hile tariff have a stronger obstructive effect on bilateral trade . Before 2010 , the bilateral trade of China with Kazakhstan ,Tajikistan ,Kyrgyzstan ,Turkmenistan ,located in a“potential type” ,and after 2010 , located in

  10. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  11. PREFACE: XIX International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, G. M.

    2015-11-01

    status of the participants was: students -694, post-graduates- 190, researchers - 80, engineers - 32, young teachers- 20, and 4 school-students. The representatives of different organizations were as follows: higher education institutions - 954, Russian Academy of Science - 24, National Academy of Science -7, R&D Institutes - 20, industrial enterprises -11 and schools -4. Of the 810 presented reports (690 -TPU) there were: 646 students and master degree students (including 608 from TPU), 160 post-graduates and young researchers (including 82 from TPU) and 4 school students. During the 4-day Symposium more than 1900 people attended 21 different panels. Twelve non-CIS countries presented 22 reports: Germany, Great Britain, Netherlands, Switzerland, Mexico, France, China, Italy, Vietnam, Mongolia, New Zealand and Nigeria. Seven CIS countries presented 30 reports: National Academies of Sciences and Universities of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Russian participants came from various areas of the country: in the east from Sakhalin, Petropavlovsk- Kamchatsky, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Vladivostok, Blagoveshchensk, Krasnoyarsk, Chita, Irkutsk to Barnaul, Kemerovo, Novokuznetsk, and etc.; in the north from Mirny, Yakutsk, Neryungri, Magadan, Nizhnevartovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Nefteugansk to Tyumen, Ulan-Ude, Syktyvkar, and etc.; in the west from Minsk, Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg to Samara, Kazan, Ufa, Perm, Novosibirsk;in the south from the cities of the Central Asian republics to Ivano-Frankovsk, Odessa, Novocherkassk, Simferopol, Novorossiysk, Vladikavkaz, Voronezh, Stavropol, Astrakhan, and etc. A great number of young people from Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia took an active part in the Symposium. CIS countries were presented by participants from Uzbekistan (Tashkent), Tajikistan (Dushanbe), Azerbaijan (Baku), Kazakhstan (Almaty, Semipalatinsk, Karaganda, Pavlodar), Belarus (Minsk, Gomel), Armenia (Yerevan, Gyumri

  12. PREFACE: XVIII International Scientific Symposium in Honour of Academician M. A. Usov: Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    took an active part in the symposium having presented 150 reports. The reports of the symposium were made by students (655 participants), post-graduate students (180), researchers (82), engineers (30), young teachers (18) and schoolchildren (5). The organizations represented by the participants were higher education institutions (607), Russian Academy of Sciences (22), National Academy of Sciences (8), Research Institutes (18), industrial enterprises (10) and schools (5). The speakers who made 827 reports were students of bachelor and master degree programs (547, including 490 from TPU), post-graduate students and young researchers (130, including 80 from TPU) and five schoolchildren. The amount of those who attended different panels over the four days of the symposium consisted of 2010 people. Nine foreign countries (except for CIS) were represented by 32 reports made by participants from Germany, France, China, Italy, Poland, Ecuador, Iraq, Vietnam and Mongolia. Nine CIS countries were represented by 58 reports made by participants from National Academies of Sciences and Universities of Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Russian participants came from various areas of the country: in the east from Sakhalin, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Vladivostok, Blagoveshchensk, Krasnoyarsk, Chita, Irkutsk to Barnaul, Kemerovo, Novokuznetsk, and etc.; in the north from Mirny, Yakutsk, Neryungri, Magadan, Nizhnevartovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Nefteugansk to Tyumen, Ulan-Ude, Syktyvkar, and etc.; in the west from Minsk, Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg to Samara, Kazan, Ufa, Perm, Novosibirsk; in the south from the cities of the Central Asian republics to Ivano-Frankovsk, Odessa, Novocherkassk, Simferopol, Novorossiysk, Vladikavkaz, Voronezh, Stavropol, Astrakhan, and etc. A great number of young people from Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia took an active part in the Symposium. CIS countries were

  13. The Construction and Development of Ports in Xinjiang under the Background of Silk Road Economic Belt Strategy%丝绸之路经济带战略下新疆口岸的建设与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆沙江·努热吉; 何伦志

    2016-01-01

    The development of ports in Xinjiang,which is the frontier of China’s allover opening up to the outside world and the Silk Road Economic Belt construction,is of great significance in guaranteeing China's energy security,leading regional industrial development,and accelerating the formation of a new regional economic growth pole. But,the lagged behind development of port construction in Xinjiang restrict the role it should play. Problems with port construction in Xinjiang include the lack of stable capital sources,the separation of investors and beneficiaries which restraining the enthusiasm of main investors, the small number of railway ports,and the passive situation of domestic foreign trade enterprises. So,we should carry out reform in the interest distribution system between the central and local government,introduce private enterprises in port construction, integrate port construction investors and beneficiaries,launch the construction of the Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Railway,Pakistan railway,the China Takexiken Mongolia railway,and China Baketu Kazakhstan railway to realize the diversification of combined transportation. At the same time,we should,first,give more policy support,formulate construction plan as soon as possible, and confirm the strategic position of port construction;second,we should promote the development of financial service base, and realize the cross-border settlement of RMB;third,arrange the coordinated development of ports and special economic zone and promote the regional economic growth of ports area;fourth,we should formulate preferential policy,and enhance the leading role of port construction;and fifth,we should give full play to the role of port management organizations,and manage port construction in a coordinated way.%新疆口岸作为我国全方位对外开放和丝绸之路经济带建设的前沿,其发展对保障我国能源安全、带动区域产业发展形成新的区域经济增长极、推动我国与周边国家的

  14. STRAIN LOCALIZATION PECULIARITIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION SOURCES IN ROCK SAMPLES TESTED BY UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION AND EXPOSED TO ELECTRIC PULSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mubassarova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of uniaxial compression tests of rock samples in electromagnetic fields are presented. The experiments were performed in the Laboratory of Basic Physics of Strength, Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Ural Branch of RAS (ICMM. Deformation of samples was studied, and acoustic emission (AE signals were recorded. During the tests, loads varied by stages. Specimens of granite from the Kainda deposit in Kyrgyzstan (similar to samples tested at the Research Station of RAS, hereafter RS RAS were subject to electric pulses at specified levels of compression load. The electric pulses supply was galvanic; two graphite electrodes were fixed at opposite sides of each specimen. The multichannel Amsy-5 Vallen System was used to record AE signals in the six-channel mode, which provided for determination of spatial locations of AE sources. Strain of the specimens was studied with application of original methods of strain computation based on analyses of optical images of deformed specimen surfaces in LaVISION Strain Master System.Acoustic emission experiment data were interpreted on the basis of analyses of the AE activity in time, i.e. the number of AE events per second, and analyses of signals’ energy and AE sources’ locations, i.e. defects.The experiment was conducted at ICMM with the use of the set of equipment with advanced diagnostic capabilities (as compared to earlier experiments described in [Zakupin et al., 2006a, 2006b; Bogomolov et al., 2004]. It can provide new information on properties of acoustic emission and deformation responses of loaded rock specimens to external electric pulses.The research task also included verification of reproducibility of the effect (AE activity when fracturing rates responded to electrical pulses, which was revealed earlier in studies conducted at RS RAS. In terms of the principle of randomization, such verification is methodologically significant as new effects, i.e. physical laws, can be considered

  15. Estimation of the shortening rate since late Pleistocene in the Aksu area on the southern flank of the Tianshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xin

    2001-01-01

    [1]Molnar, P., Tapponnier, P., Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: Effects on a continental collision, Science, 1975, 189: 419-426.[2]Molnar, P., Deng Qidong, Faulting associated with large earthquakes and the average rate of deformation in central and eastern Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 1984, 89: 6203-6227.[3]Hendrix, M. S., Dumitru, T. A., Graham, S. A., Late Oligocene-early Miocene unroofing in the Chinese Tianshan: An early effect of the India-Asia collision, Geology, 1994, 22: 487-490.[4]Sobel, R. E., Dumitru, T. A., Thrusting and exhumation around the margins of the western Tarim Basin during the India-Asia collision, J. Geophys. Res., 1997, 102: 5043-5063.[5]Ghose, S., Hamburger, M. W., Virieux, J., Three-dimentional velocity structure and earthquake locations beneath the northern Tianshan of Kyrgyzstan, central Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 1998, 103: 2725-2748.[6]Ghose, S., Hamburger, M. W., Ammon, C. J., Source parameters of moderate-sized earthquakes in the Tianshan, central Asia from regional moment tensor inversion, Geophys. Res. lett., 1998, 25: 3181-3184.[7]Abdrakhmatov, K. Ye, Aldazhanov, S. A., Hager, B. H. et al., Relatively recent construction of the Tianshan inferred from GPS measurements of present-day curstal deformation rates, Nature, 1996, 384: 450-452.[8]Wang Qi, Ding Guoyu, Qiao Xuejun et al., Present-day Tianshan's quick shortening and the south-north block's relative movement, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 2000, 45(14): 1543-1547.[9]Zhu Wenyao, Wang Xiaoya, Chen Yuyi et al., Crustal motion of Chinese mainland monitored by GPS, Science in China, Ser. D, 2000, 43(2): 394-400.[10]Avouac, J. P., Tapponnier, P., Bai, M. et al., Active thrusting and folding along the northern Tianshan and late cenozoic rotation of the Tarim relative to Dzungaria and Kazakhstan, J. Geopgys. Res., 1993, 98: 6755-6804.[11]Burtman, V. S.,Skobelev, S. F., Molnar, P., Late cenozoic slip on the Talas-Ferghana fault, the Tianshan

  16. 2010-2014年新疆某医院外籍住院患者人口与疾病特征变化趋势分析%Study on the changing trends in disease spectra of inpatients from foreign countries in a hospital of Xinjiang from 2010 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓓; 刘鹏; 高红; 向伟荣; 朱登浩

    2015-01-01

    , with an average age of 43. 4 years old. The majority of patients (58. 8%) were between 30 and 59 years old. But the composition ratio of foreign patients aged 20 to 29 increased from 2010 to 2014, reflecting younger trend of foreign patients in Xinjiang, and the difference was statis-tically significant (χ2=42. 57,P=0. 011). These 2 816 patients were from 34 countries and regions, most of whom were from Kazakhstan (80. 26%), and patients from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia were on the rise in recent five years (χ2=208. 85, P<0. 01). Surgical oncology department had the largest number of patients (10. 05%). The factors influencing health status and contact with the health care organization occupied 14. 10% of the total, followed by circulatory system diseases, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases, digestive system diseases and tumors. The proportion of circulatory system diseases, mus-culoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases were declining in recent five years (χ2=35. 174, P=0. 019). Conclusion Most foreign patients came from Central Asia. The hospital should fully embody the idea of multiculturalism, establish good com-munication with patients, and improve the details of the process. Besides favorable hospitalization environment and patient-cen-tered services, coordination among different departments is also needed to offer high quality and effective medical services for these patients.

  17. Symmetry distribution of cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE; Danian

    2001-01-01

    [1]Molnar, P., Tapponnier, P., Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: Effects on a continental collision, Science, 1975, 189: 419-426.[2]Molnar, P., Deng Qidong, Faulting associated with large earthquakes and the average rate of deformation in central and eastern Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 1984, 89: 6203-6227.[3]Hendrix, M. S., Dumitru, T. A., Graham, S. A., Late Oligocene-early Miocene unroofing in the Chinese Tianshan: An early effect of the India-Asia collision, Geology, 1994, 22: 487-490.[4]Sobel, R. E., Dumitru, T. A., Thrusting and exhumation around the margins of the western Tarim Basin during the India-Asia collision, J. Geophys. Res., 1997, 102: 5043-5063.[5]Ghose, S., Hamburger, M. W., Virieux, J., Three-dimentional velocity structure and earthquake locations beneath the northern Tianshan of Kyrgyzstan, central Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 1998, 103: 2725-2748.[6]Ghose, S., Hamburger, M. W., Ammon, C. J., Source parameters of moderate-sized earthquakes in the Tianshan, central Asia from regional moment tensor inversion, Geophys. Res. lett., 1998, 25: 3181-3184.[7]Abdrakhmatov, K. Ye, Aldazhanov, S. A., Hager, B. H. et al., Relatively recent construction of the Tianshan inferred from GPS measurements of present-day curstal deformation rates, Nature, 1996, 384: 450-452.[8]Wang Qi, Ding Guoyu, Qiao Xuejun et al., Present-day Tianshan's quick shortening and the south-north block's relative movement, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 2000, 45(14): 1543-1547.[9]Zhu Wenyao, Wang Xiaoya, Chen Yuyi et al., Crustal motion of Chinese mainland monitored by GPS, Science in China, Ser. D, 2000, 43(2): 394-400.[10]Avouac, J. P., Tapponnier, P., Bai, M. et al., Active thrusting and folding along the northern Tianshan and late cenozoic rotation of the Tarim relative to Dzungaria and Kazakhstan, J. Geopgys. Res., 1993, 98: 6755-6804.[11]Burtman, V. S.,Skobelev, S. F., Molnar, P., Late cenozoic slip on the Talas-Ferghana fault, the Tianshan

  18. Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples; Untersuchungen zur Uransorption an Bentonit bzw. Montmorillonit sowie von Uran in Umweltproben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeroual, Mohamed

    2010-09-22

    (VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling

  19. Hindistan’da Yabancı Dil Olarak Türkçe Öğrenen Genç-Yetişkinlerin Öğrenme Geçmişlerinin Bazı Değişkenlere Göre İncelenmesi The Investigation Of Learning Histories Of Young-Adult Turkish As A Foreign Language Learners In India According To Some Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem İŞCAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate Turkish as ForeignLanguage learners’ learning histories and their Turkish learning casesby associating with many variables such as age, and nationality. Thisinquiry, then, figured out the existing Turkish learning cases in India.The languages acquired by Indians students learning Turkish as aForeign Language (TFL are shown the proportion. In this scale, the caseof learning Turkish was shown. The portion of gender, race and agefactors of TFL learners were taken into consideration.In this study, non-relational descriptive research technique wasused. The sampling of this research consists of 110 Turkish as foreignlanguage learners in India. As a data collection tool, a questionnairewas used developed by researchers by inspiring from the study of Buran(2008 for the acquisition and learning processes in Kyrgyzstan.The data were analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software. As a result of theexisting findings, it was seen that Turkish language was learnt as aforeign language after English as a second language. It was also seenwith the reference of learning histories of the participants that at leasttwo foreign languages were learnt besides Hindu and English. There aremany factors orienting the foreign language learning process. Weunderline from these factors the biological conditions, cognitive andsentimental notions, teaching methods and social and environmentalfacts. In light of these facts, it was seen that the language teaching inIndia was influenced by all of them in a positive way. This case showsus the advance level of strategically developing India about secondlanguage acquisition. Bu çalışmada Hindistan’da yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenen genç-yetişkin öğrencilerin dil öğrenme geçmişlerinin yaş ve ulus gibi bazı değişkenlerin temel alınarak araştırılması amaçlanmaktadır. Böylece Hindistan���da Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğrenilmesi ile ilgili durum ortaya konulmaya çal

  20. Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples; Untersuchungen zur Uransorption an Bentonit bzw. Montmorillonit sowie von Uran in Umweltproben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeroual, Mohamed

    2010-09-22

    (VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling

  1. THE FUNCTION DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION OF SILK ROAD ECONOMIC BELT%丝绸之路经济带农业经济协作功能分区规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓华

    2015-01-01

    文章通过对丝绸之路经济带的内涵与空间范围进行了界定,将丝绸之路经济带的定义、特征进行了系统描述,并阐述了丝绸之路经济带的建设意义;对经济带的空间范围从核心区、扩展区及辐射区等3方面进行了定位.文章仅对丝绸之路核心地区进行分区,即中国、俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦及土库曼斯坦等7个国家,针对7个国家的农业功能依据地域性、比较优势、可操作性等原则将核心区划分为3个功能区,分别是东北粮食区,包括中国、俄罗斯及哈萨克斯坦等3个国家;西南棉花区,包括塔吉克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦及土库曼斯坦等3个国家;东部畜牧区,为吉尔吉斯斯坦.同时,在对丝绸之路经济带分区的基础上对经济带上沿线国家的农业经济协作提出了3方面建议,分别是应注重各协作区功能产业的顶层设计,尤其是在农业生产基地的布局上,要将协作区农业与城市、工业的联动发展作为首要因素,实现各协作区的互利共赢;选择与各协作区特色农业资源、优势农业产业相适宜的发展模式,积极调整与优化产业结构;建立健全分工与协作机制,合作共进以实现丝绸之路经济带沿线各国经济一体化的目标.%This paper defined the connotation and spatial range of the Silk Road Economic Belt,presented the sig-nificance of the establishment of Economic Belt,and divided the spatial range of the economic belt as the core are-a,expansion area,and radiation area. And then aiming at the core area,namely the 7 countries including China,Russia,Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan,it divided this area into three function-al areas,namely,the Northeast food areas including China,Russia and Kazakhstan,southwest cotton areas inclu-ding Tajikistan,Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan,and eastern pastoral areas including Kyrgyz Stan. Finally

  2. Glaciers of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is the ninth to be released in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, a series of 11 chapters. In each of the geographic area chapters, remotely sensed images, primarily from the Landsat 1, 2, and 3 series of spacecraft, are used to analyze the specific glacierized region of our planet under consideration and to monitor glacier changes. Landsat images, acquired primarily during the middle to late 1970s and early 1980s, were used by an international team of glaciologists and other scientists to study various geographic regions and (or) to discuss related glaciological topics. In each glacierized geographic region, the present areal distribution of glaciers is compared, wherever possible, with historical information about their past extent. The atlas provides an accurate regional inventory of the areal extent of glacier ice on our planet during the 1970s as part of a growing international scientific effort to measure global environmental change on the Earth?s surface. The chapter is divided into seven geographic parts and one topical part: Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union (F-1), Glaciers of China (F-2), Glaciers of Afghanistan (F?3), Glaciers of Pakistan (F-4), Glaciers of India (F-5), Glaciers of Nepal (F?6), Glaciers of Bhutan (F-7), and the Paleoenvironmental Record Preserved in Middle-Latitude, High-Mountain Glaciers (F-8). Each geographic section describes the glacier extent during the 1970s and 1980s, the benchmark time period (1972-1981) of this volume, but has been updated to include more recent information. Glaciers of the Former Soviet Union are located in the Russian Arctic and various mountain ranges of Russia and the Republics of Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakstun. The Glacier Inventory of the USSR and the World Atlas of Ice and Snow Resources recorded a total of 28,881 glaciers covering an area of 78,938 square kilometers (km2). China includes many of the mountain

  3. Destan Geleneğinden Tarihi Romana: Tölögön Kasımbek ve Kırılan Kılıç I,II From Legend Tradition to Historical Novels: Tölögön Kasımbek and Broken Sword I,II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan OLPAK KOÇ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Being a social entity, humanity has been searching the ways of transferring their feelings, thoughts, imaginations and impressions to next generations all the time. Before written expressions became widespread, they used to try to accomplish this aim with the help of verbal folk literature. In this sense, epic had become the most significant tool to transfer experiences not only for individuals but also for communities. After written expressions became widespread, epic gave its place to written literature genres like novel and story. However, those narrative genres have been written by individual authors and they have reflected cultures which they had grown in to their works. Kyrgyz have a considerably old past. Interaction between Turkish Literature and Kyrgyz Literature had developed pretty limited because of several reasons. Especially in period when there was no relation with Kyrgyzstan, there had been very few publications about the Kyrgyz Literature. With increasing relations after the year of 1990, Kyrgyz Literature began known. Bringing Kırılan Kılıç I (Broken Sword I and Kırılan Kılıç II (Broken Sword II novels, which are belong to Tölögön Kasımbek, in to Turkish Literature is the product of increasing interest in this period. It is important that how the man understand the story of existance and how he/she tell the existence of the public. Tölögön Kasımbek, in his novels Kırılan Kılıç I ,II (Broken Sword I,II has told the adventure of kyrgyz people and how they’d been destroyed by being defeated by the Russians. The book can be accepted as a legendary historical novel within this aspects. We, in this study, will see how close are the epic motifs of the Tölögön who wrote the history of Kyrgyz, to the reali ty which the historical novels never leaves. Toplumsal bir varlık olarak insan duygularını, düşüncelerini, hayallerini, izlenimlerini her zaman bir sonraki nesle aktarmanın yolunu aramıştır. Yaz

  4. Contraband of Falcons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the criminal proceeding in smuggling of falcons, former employees of the Line Internal Affairs Department in MIA transport, working in Domodedovo airport, were sentenced to large fines  - A. Kurokhtin, D. Gorodenko and A. Kustov, as was reported in Rossiyskaya Gazeta on 19.06.2013. Inspectors of the State Committee for the wild life protection together with employees of the MIA of Khakassia on 15.09.2013 detained two individuals engaged in illegal catching of falcons. On 04.11.2013 in Buryatia perpetrator, which transported 16 falcons, was arrested. On the road Khabarovsk-Chita in the vicinity of the village Nikolayevka in Jewish Autonomous Region (Russia police seized 21 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus, which on 26.11.2013 was reported in STRBC “Dalnevostochnaya”. In the village Lesnoi of Yelizovo district in the Kamchatka Region on 29.11.2013, police arrested two men and seized eight Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus. One Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug seized on 12.12.2013 in the village Staroaleyskoe of Tretyakovo district of the Altai Kray (Russia. On 24.12.2013 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russia the police, together with colleagues from the regional FSSD seized 13 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus from two residents of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. On 15.01.2014 in Kamchatka, the 51-year-old resident of the village of Nagorny in Yelizovski District, which kept 8 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus in the garage at his house land plot, was arrested. Prosecution office of Tarbagatay district of East Kazakhstan region (Kazakhstan together with the police and the authorities for the wild life protection found 7 Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug on 06.08.2014. At security control point “Ak-tilek - roadway" (Kazakhstan on 29.08.2014 border guards together with employees of the State Customs Service apprehended a citizen of Kazakhstan, who tried to take from Kyrgyzstan to Kazakhstan 3 young Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug. Supervisors of safety department in

  5. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Other”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    , P.G. DavisABS 8. PERCEPTION OF NEONATAL SIMULATION AMONGST DIFFERENT PROFESSIONALS IN A LEVEL 3 NEONATAL UNIT: A 2-YEAR EXPERIENCE IN LUTON AND DUNSTABLE • D. Wari-Pepple, H. Doyle, S. Shanmugalingam, C. Chetcuti-GanadoABS 9. SUCCESS IN NEONATAL SKILLS & SCENARIO TEACHING IN NORTHERN IRELAND • C. Duncan, D. Leemon, D.L. ArmstrongABS 10. STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE LEARNING AT THE INAUGURAL NEONATAL CRANIAL ULTRASOUND WORKSHOP • M.V. Fortier, D.K.L. Chan, V.R. BaralABS 11. FIRST DAYS IN NICU – ARE GRADUATES WELL PREPARED FOR WORK? • P. Ostrogórska, K. Lorenc, A. Dziad, A. Suder, A. Kulig, I. Opach, A. GniadekABS 12. A TWO SECOND VISUAL METRONOME IMPROVES CARDIAC COMPRESSIONS DURING NEWBORN RESUSCITATION SIMULATION • C. Henry, S. Coleman, E. Murphy, S. Tan, C. Tamakloe, P. Blanchfield, D. SharkeyABS 13. A NEW SURVEY IN NEONATAL RESUSCITATION IN SPAIN • M. Izquierdo, M. Iriondo, M. ThioABS 14. UMBILICAL ARTERY INSERTION IN NEWBORN INFANTS: ACCURACY OF 11 AVAILABLE FORMULAE TO GUIDE CATHETER TIP PLACEMENT • W.L. Lean, J.A. Dawson, C. Theda, P.G. Davis, M. ThioABS 15. THE INTEGRATION OF EFFECTIVE PERINATAL AND NEONATAL CARE IN KYRGYZSTAN • S. Abduvalieva, K. Uzakbaev, C. Rakhmanova, A. AskerovABS 16. NEONATAL VIDEOLARYNGOSCOPY AS A TEACHING AID – THE TRAINEES’ PERSPECTIVE • J.E. O’Shea, M. Thio, C.O.F. Kamlin, L. McGrory, C. Wong, M. Campbell, J. John, C. Roberts, C. Kuschel, P.G. DavisABS 17. STANDARDIZED PROCEDURAL SKILLS TRAINING WITH A DOCUMENTED LEARNING OUTCOME • K.J. Kyng, T. Skajaa, R. Kaa, S. Kerrn-Jespersen, K. Bennedsgaard, B. Høst, S. Rubak, T.B. HenriksenABS 18. ACCURACY OF METHODS TO ESTIMATE THE INSERTION LENGTH OF UMBILICAL VENOUS CATHETERS IN NEWBORN INFANTS • W.L. Lean, J.A. Dawson, C. Theda, P.G. Davis, M. ThioABS 19. OXYGEN SATURATION LEVELS IN PRETERM INFANTS IN DELIVERY ROOM • S. Uslu, U. Zubarioglu, S. Sozeri, A. Bulbul, M. Dursun, E. TurkogluABS 20. PRE-HOSPITAL TRANSPORT OF THE NEWBORN: AN UNKNOWN ENTITY? • L