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Sample records for juvenile sexual differentiation

  1. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

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    Isabelle Mifom Vea

    Full Text Available Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana. We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  2. Sexuality education groups in juvenile detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, J A; Schroeder, E

    1984-01-01

    Several major studies have described the magnitude and character of adolescent sexual activity and sexual knowledge related to contraception and sexually transmitted diseases (Diepold & Young, 1979; Hass, 1979; Sorenson, 1973; Zelnick & Kantner, 1980). Few systematic studies have been conducted, however, which analyze the attitudes toward sexuality and contraception of delinquent adolescents who are generally school dropouts and who may engage in socially unacceptable behaviors such as running away, drug abuse, and prostitution. Delinquent youths, especially delinquent girls, have been characterized as being more sexually active and less sexually knowledgeable than their nondelinquent peers (Gibbon, 1981; Mannarino & Marsh, 1978). Despite the assumed high-risk nature of this delinquent population, few juvenile detention facilities have offered systematically evaluated coeducational sex education programs. One barrier to implementation of such programs in juvenile detention centers is the lack of a treatment or program orientation of most staff, and/or staff denial of adolescent sexuality in general, an attitude which suppresses the development of healthier sexual values and often promotes pathologic sexual interaction within institutions (Shore & Gochros, 1981). A recent survey of adolescent sexuality (Diepold, 1979) points out that teenagers' feelings about their "sexual selves" impacts greatly upon their general self-image. Low self-esteem is more frequently found among delinquents than nondelinquents (Jones & Swain, 1977; Lund & Salury, 1980), and treatment for delinquent girls often focuses on increasing self-esteem and developing assertiveness skills based on feelings of self-worth (DeLange, Lanahan, & Barton, 1981; NiCarthy, 1981). Two studies carried out with juvenile detainees from a large urban center confirmed that sexual activity among delinquent adolescents is significantly greater than that of the general adolescent population, and that the delinquents

  3. Compensating Differentials for Sexual Harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Joni Hersch

    2011-01-01

    Workplace sexual harassment is illegal, but many workers report that they have been sexually harassed. Exposure to the risk of sexual harassment may decrease productivity, which would reduce wages. Alternatively, workers may receive a compensating differential for exposure to sexual harassment, which would increase wages. Data on claims of sexual harassment filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are used to calculate the first measures of sexual harassment risks by industry, a...

  4. Psychopathology and personality in juvenile sexual homicide offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W C; Blashfield, R

    1997-01-01

    This project describes the psychopathology and personality findings in 14 juveniles who committed sexual homicide. These incarcerated youth were assessed using a structured interview, a personality assessment instrument, correctional files review, and an author-designed clinical interview. Nearly all of these youth met DSM-III-R conduct disorder criteria at the time of the crime. The presence of personality disorders and moderately high psychopathy scores at follow-up were common. Two-thirds of these youth reported the presence of violent sexual fantasies before their crimes. Weapons, most often knives, were used by these juvenile sexual murderers to kill known victims in a majority of the cases. They usually acted alone and selected a low risk victim. These findings suggest that juvenile sexual murderers are an emotionally and behaviorally disturbed population with identifiable psychopathology, personality disturbances, and criminal patterns.

  5. Sexual differentiation in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, R; Nielsen, O; Weilguny, D

    1990-01-01

    The regulation of sexual reproduction in yeast constitutes the highest level of differentiation observed in these unicellular organisms. The various ramifications of this system involve DNA rearrangement, transcriptional control, post-translational modification (such as protein phosphorylation) a......) and receptor/signal processing. A few basic similarities are common to both fission and budding yeasts. The wiring of the regulatory circuitry, however, varies considerably between these divergent yeast groups....

  6. Substance use and sexual function in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weelden, Marlon; Lourenço, Benito; Viola, Gabriela R; Aikawa, Nadia E; Queiroz, Lígia B; Silva, Clovis A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate alcohol/tobacco/illicit drug use and sexual function in adolescent juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and healthy controls. 174 adolescents with pediatric rheumatic diseases were selected. A cross-sectional study with 54 JIA patients and 35 controls included demographic/anthropometric data and puberty markers assessments, physician-conducted CRAFFT (car/relax/alone/forget/friends/trouble) screen tool for substance abuse/dependence high risk and a questionnaire that evaluated sexual function, bullying and alcohol/tobacco/illicit drug use. Clinical/laboratorial data and treatment were also assessed in JIA. The median current age was similar between JIA patients and controls [15(10-19) vs. 15(12-18) years, p=0.506]. Frequencies of alcohol/tobacco/illicit drug use were high and similar in both JIA and controls (43% vs. 46%, p=0.829). However, age at alcohol onset was significantly higher in those with JIA [15(11-18) vs. 14(7-18) years, p=0.032], particularly in polyarticular onset (p=0.040). High risk for substance abuse/dependence (CRAFFT score≥2) was found in both groups (13% vs. 15%, p=1.000), likewise bullying (p=0.088). Further analysis of JIA patients regarding alcohol/tobacco/illicit drug use showed that the median current age [17(14-19) vs. 13(10-19)years, p<0.001] and education years [11(6-13) vs. 7(3-12)years, p<0.001] were significant higher in those that used substances. Sexual activity was significantly higher in the former group (48% vs. 7%, p<0.001). A positive correlation was evidenced between CRAFFT score and current age in JIA patients (p=0.032, r=+0.296). A high risk for substance abuse/dependence was observed in both JIA and controls. JIA substance users were more likely to have sexual intercourse. Therefore, routine screening is suggested in all visits of JIA adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual dimorphism and plumage characteristics of juvenile Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juveniles, or birds in their first year, were genetically sexed. Standardised photographs were taken of plucked juvenile breast feathers and analysed using Adobe Photoshop. Pixel counts were taken to analyse the streak coverage of a single feather. A scale from 0 to 3 was used to score streak intensity of the entire breast.

  8. Escape/Aggression Incidence in Sexually Abused Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, John W.; Gutierres, Sara E.

    1979-01-01

    Reports a continuation of prior research testing a theoretical model which predicts that juveniles subjected to abuse will not become aggressive but will engage in escape and social avoidance behaviors. Analysis supported the hypothesis. (Author)

  9. Sexual segregation in juvenile New Zealand sea lion foraging ranges: implications for intraspecific competition, population dynamics and conservation.

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    Elaine S Leung

    Full Text Available Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly understood. We examined the size-dimorphism and niche divergence hypotheses as potential explanations for sexual segregation in the New Zealand (NZ sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri, a nationally critical, declining species impacted by trawl fisheries. We used satellite telemetry and linear mixed effects models to investigate sex differences in the foraging ranges of juvenile NZ sea lions. Male trip distances and durations were almost twice as long as female trips, with males foraging over the Auckland Island shelf and in further locations than females. Sex was the most important variable in trip distance, maximum distance travelled from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time at sea whereas mass and age had small effects on these characteristics. Our findings support the predictions of the niche divergence hypothesis, which suggests that sexual segregation acts to decrease intraspecific resource competition. As a consequence of sexual segregation in foraging ranges, female foraging grounds had proportionally double the overlap with fisheries operations than males. This distribution exposes female juvenile NZ sea lions to a greater risk of resource competition and bycatch from fisheries than males, which can result in higher female mortality. Such sex-biased mortality could impact population dynamics, because female population decline can lead to decreased population fecundity. Thus, effective conservation and management strategies must take into account

  10. Sexual Differentiation of Motivation: a novel mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B.

    2009-01-01

    Sex differences in motivation are apparent for the motivation to engage in sexual behavior, the motivation to take drugs of abuse, and the motivation to engage in parental behavior. In both males and females there is an increase in NAcc DA associated with motivated behaviors. Here it proposed that sex differences in the regulation of DA activity in the ascending mesolimbic projections may underlie sex differences in motivation. In particular, sex differences in the neuroendocrine regulation of this brain system plays a role in the expression of sex differences in motivated behaviors. Here it is proposed that sexual differentiation of motivation is mediated, at least in part, by a novel mechanism in which ovarian hormones secreted at puberty in the female actively feminize the DA system. PMID:19446081

  11. Differential heritability of adult and juvenile antisocial traits.

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    Lyons, M J; True, W R; Eisen, S A; Goldberg, J; Meyer, J M; Faraone, S V; Eaves, L J; Tsuang, M T

    1995-11-01

    Studies of adult antisocial behavior or criminality usually find genetic factors to be more important than the family environment, whereas studies of delinquency find the family environment to be more important. We compared DSM-III-R antisocial personality disorder symptoms before vs after the age of 15 years within a sample of twins, rather than comparing across studies. We administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version III-revised by telephone to 3226 pairs of male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Biometrical modeling was applied to each symptom of antisocial personality disorder and summary measures of juvenile and adult symptoms. Five juvenile symptoms were significantly heritable, and five were significantly influenced by the shared environment. Eight adult symptoms were significantly heritable, and one was significantly influenced by the shared environment. The shared environment explained about six times more variance in juvenile anti-social traits than in adult traits. Shared environmental influences on adult antisocial traits overlapped entirely with those on juvenile traits. Additive genetic factors explained about six times more variance in adult vs juvenile traits. The juvenile genetic determinants overlapped completely with genetic influences on adult traits. The unique environment (plus measurement error) explained the largest proportion of variance in both juvenile and adult antisocial traits. Characteristics of the shared or family environment that promote antisocial behavior during childhood and early adolescence also promote later antisocial behavior, but to a much lesser extent. Genetic causal factors are much more prominent for adult than for juvenile antisocial traits.

  12. Personality characteristics and parent-child relationships juveniles who commit violent crimes of a sexual nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartanyan G.A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of aggressive behavior of teenagers and sexual aggression in particular in the last time are particularly relevant and valuable in modern society. This is confirmed by the data of criminological statistics, according to which the rate of minor crime in the Russian Federation in recent years has virtually the same range. A comprehensive study of the person of a minor convicted of violent crimes of a sexual nature (personal characteristics, characteristics of sexual identity and parent-child relationship on the basis of comparative analysis with a group of teenagers convicted of the crime of mercenary-violent type, and a group of students emerging in socially favourable environment, enabled them to identify some distinctive features. The obtained results allow to suggest a possible mutual influence of personal characteristics and characteristics of sexual identity with the peculiarities of child-parent relationships in a group of juveniles convicted for violent crimes of a sexual nature.

  13. Sexuality and Autistic-Like Symptoms in Juvenile Sex Offenders: A Follow-Up after 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarsma, M. Ewoud; Boonmann, Cyril; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; de Graaf, Hanneke; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Juveniles who have committed a sexual offense (JSOs) are thought to have abnormal sexual development, as well as increased ASD symptoms. In the current study, sexual development and behavior, as well as stability of ASD-like symptoms were assessed in a sample of 44 male JSOs (mean age 24.7 ± 1.5 years) 8 years after their sexual offence. JSOs…

  14. Accounts, excuses and apologies of juvenile sexual offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The excuses of the offenders for their abusive behaviour hinged on unfulfilled sexual needs, drug influence, ignorance of the law, impulse disorder, alcohol, senility, the urge to feel in control and powerful or the identification with young children as a result of arrested emotional development. The study concludes that the ...

  15. Clinical Spectrum of Disorders of Sexual Differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, U. L.; Ahsan, T.; Jabeen, R.; Zehra, F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the mode of presentation and causes of the disorders of sexual differentiation in patients presenting in the Endocrine Clinic. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Endocrine and Diabetes Unit of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi, from July 2012 to July 2014. Methodology: Patients with phenotypic, psychosocial gender confusion or absence of gender appropriate secondary sexual maturation were enrolled in the study. Patients having chronic systemic disease, as cause of delayed puberty, were excluded from the study. SPSS 13 was used to evaluate the data. Results: A total of 48 patients registered in the study with mean age of 19.9 ± 8 years. Female gender was assigned to 28 (58.3 percentage) of which 8 (28.57 percentage) had genital ambiguity. Male gender was assigned to 20 (41.66 percentage) patients at the time of birth and 7 (35 percentage) of them had ambiguous genitalia. Karyotyping could be done in 36 (75 percentage) patients of which 17 (47.2 percentage) were females and 19 (52.7 percentage) were males. Karyotypic gender of the 19 (48.57 percentage) male patients was 46 XX, 46 XY and 47 XXY; in 4 (21.05 percentage), 5 (26.3 percentage) and 10 (52.6 percentage) patients, respectively with 9 Klinfelter syndrome. Karyotypic gender of 17 (47.42 percentage) female patients were 46 XX, 46 XY and 45 X0; in 5 (29.4 percentage), 3 (17.64 percentage) and 9 (52.9 percentage) patients, respectively. Conclusion: Disorder of sexual development constitutes a small but difficult area of endocrinology with disastrous consequences, especially if assigned wrong sex at birth. Mode of presentation of these cases was diverse ranging from delayed puberty, to gender confusion, to pregnancy in a male. Eventually in an adult patient assignment or reassignment of gender identity was primarily the patient's prerogative. (author)

  16. Clinical Spectrum of Disorders of Sexual Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Urooj Lal; Ahsan, Tasnim; Jabeen, Rukhshanda; Zehra, Fatima

    2016-03-01

    To describe the mode of presentation and causes of the disorders of sexual differentiation in patients presenting in the Endocrine Clinic. Observational study. The Endocrine and Diabetes Unit of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi, from July 2012 to July 2014. Patients with phenotypic, psychosocial gender confusion or absence of gender appropriate secondary sexual maturation were enrolled in the study. Patients having chronic systemic disease, as cause of delayed puberty, were excluded from the study. SPSS 13 was used to evaluate the data. A total of 48 patients registered in the study with mean age of 19.9 ±8 years. Female gender was assigned to 28 (58.3%) of which 8 (28.57%) had genital ambiguity. Male gender was assigned to 20 (41.66%) patients at the time of birth and 7 (35%) of them had ambiguous genitalia. Karyotyping could be done in 36 (75%) patients of which 17 (47.2%) were females and 19 (52.7%) were males. Karyotypic gender of the 19 (48.57%) male patients was 46 XX, 46 XY and 47 XXY; in 4 (21.05%), 5 (26.3%) and 10 (52.6%) patients, respectively with 9 Klinfelter syndrome. Karyotypic gender of 17 (47.42%) female patients were 46 XX, 46 XY and 45 X0; in 5 (29.4%), 3 (17.64%) and 9 (52.9%) patients, respectively. Disorder of sexual development constitutes a small but difficult area of endocrinology with disastrous consequences, especially if assigned wrong sex at birth. Mode of presentation of these cases was diverse ranging from delayed puberty, to gender confusion, to pregnancy in a male. Eventually in an adult patient assignment or reassignment of gender identity was primarily the patient's prerogative.

  17. Prenatal uterine environment and sexual differentiation of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Houtsmuller (Elisabeth Judith)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractprenatal factors relevant to hormonal environment on the sexual differentiation of behavior, morphology and central nervous system in rats. The effects of such factors as prenatal sex composition of the litter and position in utero on the sexual differentiation of normally developed

  18. Diverting victims of commercial sexual exploitation from juvenile detention: development of the InterCSECt screening protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Emily J; Dabney, Jonathan D; Russell, Kelli

    2015-04-01

    Identifying victims of commercial sexual exploitation in the juvenile justice system is a challenging complexity requiring concerted organizational commitment. Using a three-tiered, trauma-informed screening process, a 3½-month pilot intervention was implemented in Clark County Juvenile Court (Washington) to identify victims in an effort to connect them to community youth advocates and sexual assault resources. A total of 535 boys and girls ages 9 to 19 were screened during intake; 47 of these youth reported risk factors associated with commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and were subsequently referred to community advocates. Six youth (all girls) were confirmed CSEC victims and were successfully diverted from juvenile detention. Study results suggest that despite the lack of reliable data surrounding the prevalence of CSEC, juvenile justice agencies need to become educated on the risk factors to triage victims to services. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Sexual Orientation-Based Disparities in School and Juvenile Justice Discipline: A Multiple Group Comparison of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Chong, Eddie S. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is little data on whether school discipline or juvenile justice sanctions are directed disproportionately toward sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; LGBQ) compared with heterosexual youth and even less on factors that may relate to such disparities. We tested for sexual orientation-based disparities in school…

  20. "Just dreaming of them": The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Klaus M; Oezdemir, Umut C; Schlinzig, Eliza; Groll, Anna; Hupp, Elena; Hellenschmidt, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ) offers diagnostic and therapeutic help to 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for the prepubescent and/or early pubescent body of children and who apply for treatment on a voluntary basis. The project goal is to prevent primary or recurrent child sexual abuse as well as primary or recurrent use of child abuse images. Treatment aims to enable affected juveniles to obtain control over their conflictual sexual behaviors. In the present article, the origin of the PPJ; its main approach, including the conception of a media campaign; as well as results from the first year of a three-year study are presented. Further, initial characterizations of juveniles taking part in the project for the first 12 months are provided. The results confirmed that the group of 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors exists as a target group for primary preventive measures and that they can be assessed for their sexual preferences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A general theory of sexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Arthur P

    2017-01-02

    A general theory of mammalian sexual differentiation is proposed. All biological sex differences are the result of the inequality in effects of the sex chromosomes, which are the only factors that differ in XX vs. XY zygotes. This inequality leads to male-specific effects of the Y chromosome, including expression of the testis-determining gene Sry that causes differentiation of testes. Thus, Sry sets up lifelong sex differences in effects of gonadal hormones. Y genes also act outside of the gonads to cause male-specific effects. Differences in the number of X chromosomes between XX and XY cells cause sex differences in expression (1) of Xist, (2) of X genes that escape inactivation, and (3) of parentally imprinted X genes. Sex differences in phenotype are ultimately the result of multiple, independent sex-biasing factors, hormonal and sex chromosomal. These factors act in parallel and in combination to induce sex differences. They also can offset each other to reduce sex differences. Other mechanisms, operating at the level of populations, cause groups of males to differ on average from groups of females. The theory frames questions for further study, and directs attention to inherent sex-biasing factors that operate in many tissues to cause sex differences, and to cause sex-biased protection from disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: Relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F.

    2011-01-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes

  3. Practitioner review: The victims and juvenile perpetrators of child sexual abuse--assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizard, Eileen

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger children or sexually abusive adolescents. A developmental approach to assessment and treatment intervention is essential in all these cases. This review examines research on the characteristics of child victims and perpetrators of CSA. It describes evidence-based approaches to assessment and treatment of both groups of children. A selective review of MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, and other databases was undertaken. Recommendations are made for clinical practice and future research. The characteristics of CSA victims are well known and those of juvenile perpetrators of sexual abuse are becoming recognized. Assessment approaches for both groups of children should be delivered within a safeguarding context where risk to victims is minimized. Risk assessment instruments should be used only as adjuncts to a full clinical assessment. Given high levels of psychiatric comorbidity, assessment, treatment, and other interventions should be undertaken by mental health trained staff. Victims and perpetrators of CSA present challenges and opportunities for professional intervention. Their complex presentations mean that their needs should be met by highly trained staff. However, their youth and developmental immaturity also give an opportunity to nip problem symptoms and behaviors in the bud. The key is in the earliest possible intervention with both groups. Future research should focus on long-term adult outcomes for both child victims and children who perpetrate CSA. Adult outcomes of treated children could identify problems and/or strengths in parenting the next generation and also the persistence and/or desistence of sexualized or abusive

  4. The attitudes of professionals towards implementation of the registry of offenders of sexual abuse of juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sexual victimization of children has always drawn great attention from experts and criminal policy makers due to the nature of the violent behavior and the developmental specific characteristics of the victims which enjoy special criminal law protection in a developed society. The high dark number and sex offender recidivism, as referenced by the frequent media reports about new cases of sexual violence towards the youngest memebers of society, highlight the need to search for the most appropriate social response to this form of sexual offending. The establishment of a register of convicted sex offenders for acts of sexual violence committed against minors, as one approach with a primary special preventive purpose, found its application in criminal law theory and practice of the Republic of Serbia. The aim of the paper is to present the results of an attitudinal survey of professionals employed in the field of justice and social welfare in the Republic of Serbia on the provisions of the special measures to prevent the commission of crimes of sexual abuse against juveniles and the establishment of the register of sex offenders.

  5. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, Dick F.; Chung, Wilson C. J.; Kruijver, Frank P. M.; Hofman, Michael A.; Ishunina, Tatjana A.

    2002-01-01

    Functional sex differences in reproduction, gender and sexual orientation and in the incidence of neurological and psychiatric diseases are presumed to be based on structural and functional differences in the hypothalamus and other limbic structures. Factors influencing gender, i.e., the feeling to

  7. Sexually dimorphic expression of the genes encoding ribosomal proteins L17 and L37 in the song control nuclei of juvenile zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu Ping; Wade, Juli

    2006-12-18

    Studies evaluating the role of steroid hormones in sexual differentiation of the zebra finch song system have produced complicated and at times paradoxical results, and indicate that additional factors may be critical. Therefore, in a previous study we initiated a screen for differential gene expression in the telencephalon of developing male and female zebra finches. The use of cDNA microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR revealed increased expression of the genes encoding ribosomal proteins L17 and L37 (RPL17 and RPL37) in the male forebrain as a whole. Preliminary in situ hybridization data then indicated enhanced expression of both these genes in song control regions. Two experiments in the present study quantified the mRNA expression. The first utilized 25-day-old male and female zebra finches. The second compared a separate set of juveniles to adults of both sexes to both re-confirm enhanced expression in juvenile males and to determine whether it is limited to developing animals. In Experiment 1, males exhibited increased expression of both RPL17 and RPL37 compared to females in Area X, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), and the ventral ventricular zone (VVZ), which may provide neurons to Area X. Experiment 2 replicated the sexually dimorphic expression of these genes at post-hatching day 25, and documented that the sex differences are eliminated or greatly reduced in adults. The results are consistent with the idea that these ribosomal proteins may influence sexual differentiation of Area X and RA, potentially regulating the genesis and/or survival of neurons.

  8. Disorders of sexual differentiation as seen at Kenyatta National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) are a group of congenital anomalies characterised by discordance between genetic, gonadal and phenotypic sex. There has been remarkable evolution in management over the last decade, including nomenclature, diagnosis and management. There has also been ...

  9. The differential influence of absent and harsh fathers on juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Cortney; Steinberg, Laurence; Frick, Paul J; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have identified father absence as a contributor to juvenile delinquency. Consequently, politicians and community leaders are making efforts to re-engage fathers. However, it is possible that the presence of fathers is not, in itself, a substantial protective factor and, in some cases, can even be more detrimental than father absence. Employing a diverse sample of male juvenile offenders in the U.S. (ages 13-17), the present study examined the differential effects of absent fathers and harsh fathers on delinquency. Results indicated that youth in the harsh-father group engaged in more offending behaviors and used more substances than youth in the absent-father group. This difference remained even after controlling for the mother-child relationship. Implications of these findings for future research and delinquency prevention programs are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Computer tomographic diagnosis and differential diagnosis of juvenile angiofibromas and angiomatous polyps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irnberger, T.

    1985-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibromas (JAF) and angiomatous polyps (AP) are vascular histologically benign tumors presenting with an identical clinical triad. Both lesions can be differentiated by their typical geographic pattern of growth, different pattern of tumor extension and their highly characteristic angiographic and angiocomputertomographic appearance. Time-density curves were of no use in differentiating the big variety of hypervascular lesions from each other. CT images of the vascular tumor phase after bolus injection of contrast medium however showed interesting pathomorphological details, which were extremely useful in differentiating JAF from AP and other vascular tumors. It is our opinion, that invasive angiography for diagnosing JAF has been surpassed, but is further essential for mapping of tumor perfusion, feeding vessels and praeoperative embolization therapy. (orig.) [de

  11. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D. F.

    2004-01-01

    Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing

  12. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D.F.

    2004-01-01

    Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing

  13. Treatment Effect on Recidivism for Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: a Multilevel Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Beek, Ellis; Spruit, Anouk; Kuiper, Chris H Z; van der Rijken, Rachel E A; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2018-04-01

    The current study investigated the effect on recidivism of treatment aimed at juveniles who have sexually offended. It also assessed the potential moderating effect of type of recidivism, and several treatment, participant and study characteristics. In total, 14 published and unpublished primary studies, making use of a comparison group and reporting on official recidivism rates, were included in a multilevel meta-analysis. This resulted in the use of 77 effect sizes, and 1726 participants. A three-level meta-analytic model was used to calculate the combined effect sizes (Cohens d) and to perform moderator analyses. Study quality was assessed with the EPHPP Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. A moderate effect size was found (d = 0.37), indicating that the treatment groups achieved an estimated relative reduction in recidivism of 20.5% as compared to comparison groups. However, after controlling for publication bias, a significant treatment effect was no longer found. Type of recidivism did not moderate the effect of treatment, indicating that treatment groups were equally effective for all types of recidivism. Also, no moderating effects of participant or treatment characteristics were found. Regarding study characteristics, a shorter follow up time showed a trend for larger effect sizes, and the effect size calculation based on proportions yielded larger effect sizes than calculation via mean frequency of offending. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  14. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of changes in food supply at the time of sex differentiation on the gonadal transcriptome of juvenile fish. Implications for natural and farmed populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Díaz

    Full Text Available Food supply is a major factor influencing growth rates in animals. This has important implications for both natural and farmed fish populations, since food restriction may difficult reproduction. However, a study on the effects of food supply on the development of juvenile gonads has never been transcriptionally described in fish.This study investigated the consequences of growth on gonadal transcriptome of European sea bass in: 1 4-month-old sexually undifferentiated fish, comparing the gonads of fish with the highest vs. the lowest growth, to explore a possible link between transcriptome and future sex, and 2 testis from 11-month-old juveniles where growth had been manipulated through changes in food supply. The four groups used were: i sustained fast growth, ii sustained slow growth, iii accelerated growth, iv decelerated growth. The transcriptome of undifferentiated gonads was not drastically affected by initial natural differences in growth. Further, changes in the expression of genes associated with protein turnover were seen, favoring catabolism in slow-growing fish and anabolism in fast-growing fish. Moreover, while fast-growing fish took energy from glucose, as deduced from the pathways affected and the analysis of protein-protein interactions examined, in slow-growing fish lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis was favored. Interestingly, the highest transcriptomic differences were found when forcing initially fast-growing fish to decelerate their growth, while accelerating growth of initially slow-growing fish resulted in full transcriptomic convergence with sustained fast-growing fish.Food availability during sex differentiation shapes the juvenile testis transcriptome, as evidenced by adaptations to different energy balances. Remarkably, this occurs in absence of major histological changes in the testis. Thus, fish are able to recover transcriptionally their testes if they are provided with enough food supply during sex

  16. Effects of changes in food supply at the time of sex differentiation on the gonadal transcriptome of juvenile fish. Implications for natural and farmed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Food supply is a major factor influencing growth rates in animals. This has important implications for both natural and farmed fish populations, since food restriction may difficult reproduction. However, a study on the effects of food supply on the development of juvenile gonads has never been transcriptionally described in fish. This study investigated the consequences of growth on gonadal transcriptome of European sea bass in: 1) 4-month-old sexually undifferentiated fish, comparing the gonads of fish with the highest vs. the lowest growth, to explore a possible link between transcriptome and future sex, and 2) testis from 11-month-old juveniles where growth had been manipulated through changes in food supply. The four groups used were: i) sustained fast growth, ii) sustained slow growth, iii) accelerated growth, iv) decelerated growth. The transcriptome of undifferentiated gonads was not drastically affected by initial natural differences in growth. Further, changes in the expression of genes associated with protein turnover were seen, favoring catabolism in slow-growing fish and anabolism in fast-growing fish. Moreover, while fast-growing fish took energy from glucose, as deduced from the pathways affected and the analysis of protein-protein interactions examined, in slow-growing fish lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis was favored. Interestingly, the highest transcriptomic differences were found when forcing initially fast-growing fish to decelerate their growth, while accelerating growth of initially slow-growing fish resulted in full transcriptomic convergence with sustained fast-growing fish. Food availability during sex differentiation shapes the juvenile testis transcriptome, as evidenced by adaptations to different energy balances. Remarkably, this occurs in absence of major histological changes in the testis. Thus, fish are able to recover transcriptionally their testes if they are provided with enough food supply during sex differentiation; however

  17. Childhood Maltreatment and Child Protective Services Involvement Among the Commercially Sexually Exploited: A Comparison of Women Who Enter as Juveniles or as Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Andrea N; Madden, Elissa E; Hohn, Kris; Cronley, Courtney M; Davis, Jaya B; Magruder, Karen; Kennedy, M Alexis

    2017-04-01

    A risk for commercial sexual exploitation is childhood maltreatment. It's unknown whether juveniles in commercial sexual exploitation experience more childhood maltreatment than adults or how involved child protective services is in investigating maltreatment, a focus of this study. Women (N = 96) who sold sex commercially completed a cross-sectional questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, t tests, chi-squares, and odds ratios were used to examine differences in background, childhood maltreatment, and child protective services involvement by juvenile or adult entry. Although 93% of participants experienced child maltreatment, juveniles had increased odds of parent/caregiver sexual abuse, being left alone, being kicked out, and running away from a parent/caregiver. There were no differences in cumulative childhood maltreatment resulting in an investigation or removal, indicating that juveniles not investigated or removed by child protective services had as much childhood maltreatment as juveniles who were investigated or removed by child protective services. Results highlight the need for child welfare staff to recognize childhood maltreatment as risks for commercial sexual exploitation.

  18. Abuso sexual infanto-juvenil: a atuação do programa sentinela na cidade de Blumenau/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Anderson Espindola

    Full Text Available A violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes é um problema de saúde pública que exige uma intervenção adequada. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar a atuação do Programa Sentinela, da cidade de Blumenau/SC, diante da violência sexual infanto-juvenil e mapear seus fatores de assistência e de vulnerabilidade. A metodologia empregada foi a análise documental das intervenções realizadas pelo programa. O estudo foi composto por 30 prontuários relativos a todas as crianças e adolescentes em situação de violência sexual atendidos pelo Sentinela que foram desligados do programa no segundo semestre de 2009. Os resultados apontam o programa como uma ferramenta contra a violência sexual infanto-juvenil, mas, da mesma forma, demonstram que ele necessita de melhorias. Entre os fatores de assistência, observouse a credibilidade do Sentinela, o atendimento aos cuidadores das crianças e adolescentes, a variedade de intervenções e a articulação entre aspectos psicológicos, sociais e legais. Verificou-se, por outro lado, a falta de comunicação entre as instituições para articular as medidas de proteção necessárias, o não planejamento das intervenções, a não realização de intervenção com o autor da violência e a ausência de informações em alguns prontuários como fatores de vulnerabilidade.

  19. Aspectos da sexualidade e gravidez em adolescentes com artrite idiopática juvenil (AIJ Sexuality aspects and pregnancy of adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Artur Almeida Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo descrever aspectos da sexualidade, gravidez e pós-parto de três adolescentes com artrite idiopática juvenil (AIJ. No período entre 1983 e 2004, 4.638 pacientes foram acompanhados na Unidade de Reumatologia Pediátrica do Departamento de Pediatria da FMUSP, entre os quais 537 (11,5% apresentaram o diagnóstico de AIJ (critérios do ILAR. Entre os pacientes com AIJ, três engravidaram durante o seguimento ambulatorial. A idade da primeira atividade sexual variou de 16 a 18 anos. A paciente 1 apresentou uma gestação gemelar a termo, permanecendo em atividade da doença durante toda a gravidez, em uso de 15mg/dia de prednisona. As pacientes 2 e 3 encontravam-se em remissão da doença, sem uso de medicamentos, apresentando gestação a termo sem intercorrências. A paciente 2, porém, evoluiu com recidiva da doença um ano após o parto. Todos os recém-nascidos foram adequados para idade gestacional e evoluíram adequadamente no período neonatal. Apenas a paciente 1 necessitou de prednisona, naproxeno e cloroquina na amamentação. O aumento da gravidez na adolescência é uma realidade nos serviços de reumatologia pediátrica, o que impõe novos debates sobre os aspectos da sexualidade e contracepção nessa população.The objective of the present study is to describe the sexuality aspects, pregnancy and postpartum in three adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. From 1983 to 2004, 4,638 patients were followed at the Pediatric Rheumatology Unit of the Pediatric Department of FMUSP, of which 537 (11.5% were diagnosed with JIA (ILAR criteria and three of these patients became pregnant during the follow-up period. The age at their first sexual intercourse ranged from 16 to 18 years old. Patient 1 presented a twin pregnancy, with active disease throughout pregnancy, and was on 15 mg of prednisone per day. Patients 2 and 3 were at disease remission, with no drug treatment, and had full

  20. Larval feeding substrate and species significantly influence the effect of juvenile hormone analog on sexual development/performance in four tropical tephritid flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The juvenile hormone analog methoprene reduces the amount of time it takes laboratory-reared Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) males to reach sexual maturity by almost half. Here, we examined if methoprene exerted a similar effect on four other species of Anastrepha (A. ludens, A. obliqua, ...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGENS: LOW DOSES OF VINCLOZOLIN ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In humans and rodents, exposure to antiandrogenic chemicals during sexual differentiation can produce malformations of the reproductive tract. Perinatal administration of 100 or 200 mg vinclozolin (V) kg-1 day-1 during sexual differentiation in rats induces female-like anogenital...

  2. Sexually dimorphic effects of a prenatal immune challenge on social play and vasopressin expression in juvenile rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Patrick V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases and inflammation during pregnancy increase the offspring’s risk for behavioral disorders. However, how immune stress affects neural circuitry during development is not well known. We tested whether a prenatal immune challenge interferes with the development of social play and with neural circuits implicated in social behavior. Methods Pregnant rats were given intraperitoneal injections of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS – 100 μg /kg or saline on the 15th day of pregnancy. Offspring were tested for social play behaviors between postnatal days 26–40. Brains were harvested on postnatal day 45 and processed for arginine vasopressin (AVP mRNA in situ hybridization. Results In males, LPS treatment reduced the frequency of juvenile play behavior and reduced AVP mRNA expression in the medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These effects were not found in females. LPS treatment did not change AVP mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, or supraoptic nucleus of either sex, nor did it affect the sex difference in the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Conclusions Given AVP’s central role in regulating social behavior, the sexually dimorphic effects of prenatal LPS treatment on male AVP mRNA expression may contribute to the sexually dimorphic effect of LPS on male social play and may, therefore, increase understanding of factors that contribute to sex differences in social psychopathology.

  3. Differential gene expression in response to juvenile hormone analog treatment in the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti (Isoptera, Archotermopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette, Richard; Hayashi, Yoshinobu; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miura, Toru

    2013-04-01

    Termite societies are characterized by a highly organized division of labor among conspicuous castes, groups of individuals with various morphological specializations. Termite caste differentiation is under control of juvenile hormone (JH), but the molecular mechanism underlying the response to JH and early events triggering caste differentiation are still poorly understood. In order to profile candidate gene expression during early soldier caste differentiation of the damp-wood termite, Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we treated pseudergates (workers) with a juvenile hormone analog (JHA) to induce soldier caste differentiation. We then used Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization to create two cDNA libraries enriched for transcripts that were either up- or downregulated at 24h after treatment. Finally, we used quantitative PCR to confirm temporal expression patterns. Hexamerins represent a large proportion of the genes upregulated following JHA treatment and have an expression pattern that shows roughly an inverse correlation to intrinsic JH titers. This data is consistent with the role of a JH "sink", which was demonstrated for hexamerins in another termite, Reticulitermes flavipes. A putative nuclear protein was also upregulated a few hours after JHA treatment, which suggests a role in the early response to JH and subsequent regulation of transcriptional events associated with soldier caste differentiation. Some digestive enzymes, such as endogenous beta-endoglucanase and chymotrypsin, as well as a protein associated to digestion were identified among genes downregulated after JHA treatment. This suggests that JH may directly influence the pseudergate-specific digestive system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differentials and determinants of men's sexual behavior in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Males' involvement in sexual and reproductive health can bring greater impacts on the health of family members although it is an intricate issue and few explored in Ethiopia. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the sexual behaviour of Ethiopian men's timing of entry into sexual activity, ...

  5. Sexual Violence by Juveniles in Institutions: A Descriptive Study on Prevalence and Circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allroggen, Marc; Ohlert, Jeannine; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg M

    2018-05-01

    Adolescents in institutionalized care are at a particularly high risk of exhibiting sexually aggressive behavior including sexual harassment. So far, however, studies about the prevalence of sexually aggressive behavior in institutions are lacking. In this survey, 322 adolescents (43% female, average age 16.7 years) from 32 residential care facilities and boarding schools across Germany were asked about sexually aggressive behavior via a standardized questionnaire. Overall, 23.5% of the participants engaged in some form of sexually aggressive behavior in their lives, and 4.6% reported having committed a sexual assault with (actual or attempted) penetration. A closer look at the circumstances of those offenses shows that the victims were in most cases acquainted with and of the same age as the offenders, that threats and violence were used in some cases, and especially in the case of actual or attempted penetration, and that only a minority of offenders suffered any consequences for their acts. The implementation of protective measures for institutions and the treatment of adolescents in institutions will be discussed.

  6. Wired on steroids: Sexual differentiation of the brain and its role in the expression of sexual partner preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Mae Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The preference to seek out a sexual partner of the opposite sex is robust and ensures reproduction and survival of the species. Development of female-directed partner preference in the male is dependent on exposure of the developing brain to gonadal steroids synthesized during critical periods of sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. In the absence of androgen exposure, a male-directed partner preference develops. The development and expression of sexual partner preference has been extensively studied in rats, ferrets, and sheep model systems. From these models it is clear that gonadal testosterone, often through estrogenic metabolites, cause both masculinization and defeminization of behavior during critical periods of brain development. Changes in the steroid environment during these critical periods results in atypical sexual partner preference. In this manuscript, we review the major findings which support the hypothesis that the organizational actions of sex steroids are responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preferences in select non-human species. We also explore how this information has helped to frame our understanding of the biological influences on human sexual orientation and gender identity.

  7. Wired on steroids: sexual differentiation of the brain and its role in the expression of sexual partner preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Brenda M; Skinner, Donal C; Roselli, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The preference to seek out a sexual partner of the opposite sex is robust and ensures reproduction and survival of the species. Development of female-directed partner preference in the male is dependent on exposure of the developing brain to gonadal steroids synthesized during critical periods of sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. In the absence of androgen exposure, a male-directed partner preference develops. The development and expression of sexual partner preference has been extensively studied in rat, ferret, and sheep model systems. From these models it is clear that gonadal testosterone, often through estrogenic metabolites, cause both masculinization and defeminization of behavior during critical periods of brain development. Changes in the steroid environment during these critical periods result in atypical sexual partner preference. In this manuscript, we review the major findings which support the hypothesis that the organizational actions of sex steroids are responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preferences in select non-human species. We also explore how this information has helped to frame our understanding of the biological influences on human sexual orientation and gender identity.

  8. Environmental Influences on Genetic Expression: Biological and Behavioral Aspects of Sexual Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmer, Norman, Ed.; Walcher, Dwain N., Ed.

    A cross-disciplinary approach to the topic of sexual differentiation comprises this volume. Diverse papers are included under a variety of headings: 1) critical Periods in development; 2) embryology; 3) RNA-DNA; 4) chromosomes-growth and development; 5) physiology; 6) primates; 7) cognition; 8) cultural differences in patterns of sexual behavior;…

  9. Phthalate-induced toxicity: Identifying the vulnerable pathways during sexual differentiation in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposures to phthalate ester plasticizer compounds are widespread. Studies in rodents have demonstrated that in utero exposure to various phthalates throughout sexual differentiation (GD14-18) results in decreased fetal testicular androgen production, and ultimately leads t...

  10. Brain Sexual Differentiation and Requirement of SRY: Why or Why Not?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2017-01-01

    Brain sexual differentiation is orchestrated by precise coordination of sex steroid hormones. In some species, programming of select male brain regions is dependent upon aromatization of testosterone to estrogen. In mammals, these hormones surge during the organizational and activational periods that occur during perinatal development and adulthood, respectively. In various fish and reptiles, incubation temperature during a critical embryonic period results in male or female sexual differenti...

  11. Transcriptomic data analysis and differential gene expression of antioxidant pathways in king penguin juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus) before and after acclimatization to marine life

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Rey; Cyril Dégletagne; Claude Duchamp

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm, ?Transcriptome analysis in non-model s...

  12. A media violence-inspired juvenile sexual homicide offender 13 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Eggleston, Chris F; Smoak, Pamela

    2003-11-01

    No follow-up studies exist on how minors who commit sexual homicides adjust once released back into the community. This is an important question given the extreme nature of their crimes, lack of recidivism data, and the expectation that one-half of them will be freed from prison by mid-life. Likewise, no studies exist on the role our culture's pervasive media violence plays in these offenses. This report describes a 13-year-old boy who committed a witnessed media violence-inspired sexual homicide. Follow-up information is provided on his community adjustment as an adult four years after release from prison. He had multiple indicators of brain dysfunction, and watched a "slasher" film just before committing the blitz style crime upon a female neighbor. Media violence literature is reviewed--against a backdrop of developmental abnormalities, neuropsychiatric vulnerabilities, family dysfunction, and mental illness. This case illustrates how the confluence of such variables, combined with the tinder of erotic screen violence, may lead to sexual murder.

  13. (InVisibilidade do género na sexualidade juvenil: propostas para uma nova concepção sobre a educação sexual e a prevenção de comportamentos sexuais de risco Gender (invisibility in juvenile sexuality: proposals for a new conception about sexual education and prevention against risky sexual behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Nogueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo pretendemos mostrar como o género é um conceito determinante e imprescindível quando se trabalham as questões da sexualidade juvenil, particularmente quando se aborda a sexualidade das jovens adolescentes. A literatura feminista tem alertado para a continuidade dos discursos de vitimização, de medo e de moralidade que continuam a servir, em muitos casos e em muitos países, para justificar conteúdos de programa de educação sexual nas escolas e de campanhas de prevenção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, essencialmente sobre o HIV. Contudo, depois de analisar esses discursos, nota-se claramente a ausência de um discurso emancipador sobre a sexualidade feminina adolescente. Apesar da epidemia do HIV e de o número crescente de mulheres heterossexuais (de todas as faixas etárias, das mais jovens às mais idosas a serem infectadas implicar a necessidade de uma atenção redobrada, esse problema não pode justificar discursos reguladores e tradicionais da sexualidade feminina. São necessários novos discursos emancipadores e de empowerment das jovens adolescentes, de responsabilização de jovens do sexo masculino pelas questões da reprodução e da construção de um projecto igualitário e, ao mesmo tempo, de programas e de campanhas informadas pelo conhecimento existente relativamente às questões do género e à assimetria entre os sexos na vivência da sexualidade.In this article we intend to show how gender is a determining and indispensable concept when juvenile sexual issues are discussed; particularly when we approach the adolescent female sexuality. The feminist literature has been alerting us for the discourse on victimization, fear and morality which, in many cases and in many countries, still justifies contents of sexual education programs in schools and campaigns for prevention against sexually transmissible diseases, especially HIV. However, after analyzing those speeches, it is very clear that they

  14. Effects of Changes in Food Supply at the Time of Sex Differentiation on the Gonadal Transcriptome of Juvenile Fish. Implications for Natural and Farmed Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Background: Food supply is a major factor influencing growth rates in animals. This has important implications for both natural and farmed fish populations, since food restriction may difficult reproduction. However, a study on the effects of food supply on the development of juvenile gonads has never been transcriptionally described in fish. Methods and Findings: This study investigated the consequences of growth on gonadal transcriptome of European sea bass in: 1) 4-month-old sexually undif...

  15. Lysophosphatidylcholine Regulates Sexual Stage Differentiation in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Gerdt, Joseph P; Wang, ChengQi; De Niz, Mariana; Philip, Nisha; Adapa, Swamy R; Zhang, Min; Hitz, Eva; Niederwieser, Igor; Boltryk, Sylwia D; Laffitte, Marie-Claude; Clark, Martha A; Grüring, Christof; Ravel, Deepali; Blancke Soares, Alexandra; Demas, Allison; Bopp, Selina; Rubio-Ruiz, Belén; Conejo-Garcia, Ana; Wirth, Dyann F; Gendaszewska-Darmach, Edyta; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Adams, John H; Voss, Till S; Waters, Andrew P; Jiang, Rays H Y; Clardy, Jon; Marti, Matthias

    2017-12-14

    Transmission represents a population bottleneck in the Plasmodium life cycle and a key intervention target of ongoing efforts to eradicate malaria. Sexual differentiation is essential for this process, as only sexual parasites, called gametocytes, are infective to the mosquito vector. Gametocyte production rates vary depending on environmental conditions, but external stimuli remain obscure. Here, we show that the host-derived lipid lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) controls P. falciparum cell fate by repressing parasite sexual differentiation. We demonstrate that exogenous LysoPC drives biosynthesis of the essential membrane component phosphatidylcholine. LysoPC restriction induces a compensatory response, linking parasite metabolism to the activation of sexual-stage-specific transcription and gametocyte formation. Our results reveal that malaria parasites can sense and process host-derived physiological signals to regulate differentiation. These data close a critical knowledge gap in parasite biology and introduce a major component of the sexual differentiation pathway in Plasmodium that may provide new approaches for blocking malaria transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. F-actin distribution and function during sexual differentiation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J; Nielsen, O; Egel, R

    1998-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe is induced from the G1 phase of the cell cycle by nitrogen starvation and the presence of mating pheromones. We describe the distribution of F-actin during sexual differentiation. Cortical F-actin dots have previously been shown to be restricted...... to one end of the rod shaped cell during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Within half an hour of nitrogen starvation the distribution of cortical F-actin dots switched from being monopolar to bipolar. This was then reversed as the F-actin cytoskeleton repolarized so that cortical F-actin dots accumulated...

  17. Evaluation of the effects of ethinylestradiol on sexual differentiation in the olvas-GFP/STII-YI medaka (transgenic Oryzias latipes) strain as estimated by proliferative activity of germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hano, Takeshi; Oshima, Yuji; Kinoshita, Masato; Tanaka, Minoru; Mishima, Noriko; Wakamatsu, Yuko; Ozato, Kenjiro; Shimasaki, Yohei; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of 17(-ethinylestradiol (EE 2 ) on sexual differentiation in transgenic olvas-GFP/STII-YI medaka (Oryzias latipes) in terms of the proliferative activity of germ cells. This strain contains the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fused to the regulatory region of the medaka vasa gene, and germ cell-specific expression of GFP can be visualized in living (transparent) individuals. From 0 days post-hatch (0 dph) onwards, juveniles were exposed to graded concentrations of EE 2 (25.2-1710 ng/L) for 35 days. The gonads of live specimens were monitored by measuring their size and calculating their GFP-fluorescence area. GFP-fluorescent area in control females was about 10 times that in control males at 10 days posthatch (dph) whereas the gonadal size of 10 dph males that had been exposed to 158 ng/L of EE 2 significantly increased up to twice the size of control males, indicating that abnormal sexual differentiation towards female might occur in these individuals. Histological examination and identification of the sex-linked marker SL1 indicated that male to female sex reversal occurred at EE 2 exposure ≥45.1 ng/L at 35 dph. These results suggest that observation of proliferative activity of germ cells in the olvas-GFP/STII-YI strain could be applied to facilitated screening fish model to detect adverse effects on sexual differentiation as early as 10 dph juveniles.

  18. Síndrome CINCA: um diagnóstico diferencial da artrite idiopática juvenil CINCA syndrome: a differential diagnosis of the juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Naomi Naka

    2007-08-01

    knees since her 9 months. On admission she looked sick, pale and presented generalized erythematosus maculopapular rash, arthritis of the knees and ankles. She presented growth and mental retardation too. Laboratory Endings included anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein levels and the examination Endings from the cerebrospinal fluid showed an aseptic meningitis. Other test results were negative. Radiographs of the knees, hips and ankles revealed abonrmalities. The child received treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and methotrexate, with partial response to treatment, leading to improvement in pain and fever defervescence. The etiology of CINCA syndrome remains unknown and no single treatment has been found to be effective. This disease should be distinguished from systemic onset juvenile idiophatic arthritis (JIA, the main differential diagnosis.

  19. Sexual homicide in the USA committed by juveniles and adults, 1976-2007: Age of arrest and incidence trends over 32 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y

    2016-02-01

    Reliable epidemiological data on sexual homicide are sparse, especially on trends in its incidence over time and age at arrest. Our main aims were to study age at arrest and incidence trends for sexual homicide in the USA over about three decades (1976-2007). We conducted longitudinal analyses of data from the largest USA homicide database available for the years 1976-2007. The mean age at arrest for a sexual homicide was 26.3 years (range 7-76; modal 21 years). Three quarters of these offenders were young adults aged 18-35. Age at probable first arrest for a sexual homicide rose significantly from a mean of 25 to a mean of 29 years over the study period. The last decade of the three studied accounted for just one quarter of the homicides as charged in the whole period, but the proportion of sexual homicides specifically fell with each decade, so that the first period accounted for 56% of those in the whole period, the second for 33% and the final decade for just 11%. This was reflected in a reduction in the proportion of all homicides that were sexual, from 1.4% in the first decade to 0.8% in the second and 0.4% in the third, declining by a factor of five for adults and seven for juveniles. Use of official national criminal statistics has limitations in studying the epidemiology of any particular behaviour. Nonetheless, our findings of falling sexual homicide rates and of changes in at least one important demographic of these killers indicate a need for a considered reappraisal of such crimes. Establishment of accurate epidemiology and a study of associated factors may assist in the improvement of investigative and preventive strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Evaluating a prevention program for teenagers on sexual coercion: a differential effectiveness approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, C; Stoolmiller, M; Nelson, C

    2001-06-01

    The authors evaluated a coeducational program for teenagers on preventing sexual coercion in dating situations. Students examined individual and social attitudes underlying coercive sexual behavior and learned communication skills aimed at preventing or dealing with unwanted sexual advances. Instruction was enhanced by video and an interactive video "virtual date." Outcomes were assessed using sexual attitude scales with a sample of 458 high school students. Student health education classes were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a control condition. Findings, based on a latent variable model of differential effectiveness, showed that students in the treatment group with initial coercive attitude scores at or above the mean benefited significantly more than students with the same range of scores in the control group.

  1. Turning sex inside-out: Peripheral contributions to sexual differentiation of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift-Gallant Ashlyn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual differentiation of the nervous system occurs via the interplay of genetics, endocrinology and social experience through development. Much of the research into mechanisms of sexual differentiation has been driven by an implicit theoretical framework in which these causal factors act primarily and directly on sexually dimorphic neural populations within the central nervous system. This review will examine an alternative explanation by describing what is known about the role of peripheral structures and mechanisms (both neural and non-neural in producing sex differences in the central nervous system. The focus of the review will be on experimental evidence obtained from studies of androgenic masculinization of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus, but other systems will also be considered.

  2. Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...

  3. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  4. Sexual differentiation in three unconventional mammals: spotted hyenas, elephants and tammar wallabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Stephen E; Short, Roger V; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2005-11-01

    The present review explores sexual differentiation in three non-conventional species: the spotted hyena, the elephant and the tammar wallaby, selected because of the natural challenges they present for contemporary understanding of sexual differentiation. According to the prevailing view of mammalian sexual differentiation, originally proposed by Alfred Jost, secretion of androgen and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) by the fetal testes during critical stages of development accounts for the full range of sexually dimorphic urogenital traits observed at birth. Jost's concept was subsequently expanded to encompass sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Although the central focus of this review involves urogenital development, we assume that the novel mechanisms described in this article have potentially significant implications for sexual differentiation of brain and behavior, a transposition with precedent in the history of this field. Contrary to the "specific" requirements of Jost's formulation, female spotted hyenas and elephants initially develop male-type external genitalia prior to gonadal differentiation. In addition, the administration of anti-androgens to pregnant female spotted hyenas does not prevent the formation of a scrotum, pseudoscrotum, penis or penile clitoris in the offspring of treated females, although it is not yet clear whether the creation of masculine genitalia involves other steroids or whether there is a genetic mechanism bypassing a hormonal mediator. Wallabies, where sexual differentiation occurs in the pouch after birth, provide the most conclusive evidence for direct genetic control of sexual dimorphism, with the scrotum developing only in males and the pouch and mammary glands only in females, before differentiation of the gonads. The development of the pouch and mammary gland in females and the scrotum in males is controlled by genes on the X chromosome. In keeping with the "expanded" version of Jost's formulation, secretion

  5. Sexual Differentiation of Circadian Clock Function in the Adrenal Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloehn, Ian; Pillai, Savin B; Officer, Laurel; Klement, Claire; Gasser, Paul J; Evans, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in glucocorticoid production are associated with increased responsiveness of the adrenal gland in females. However, the adrenal-intrinsic mechanisms that establish sexual dimorphic function remain ill defined. Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock, which may contribute to sexual dimorphic adrenal function. Here we examine sex differences in the adrenal gland using an optical reporter of circadian clock function. Adrenal glands were cultured from male and female Period2::Luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice to assess clock function in vitro in real time. We confirm that there is a pronounced sex difference in the intrinsic capacity to sustain PER2::LUC rhythms in vitro, with higher amplitude rhythms in adrenal glands collected from males than from females. Changes in adrenal PER2::LUC rhythms over the reproductive life span implicate T as an important factor in driving sex differences in adrenal clock function. By directly manipulating hormone levels in adult mice in vivo, we demonstrate that T increases the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in adrenal glands of both male and female mice. In contrast, we find little evidence that ovarian hormones modify adrenal clock function. Lastly, we find that T in vitro can increase the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in male adrenals but not female adrenals, which suggests the existence of sex differences in the mechanisms of T action in vivo. Collectively these results reveal that activational effects of T alter circadian timekeeping in the adrenal gland, which may have implications for sex differences in stress reactivity and stress-related disorders.

  6. Brain Sexual Differentiation and Requirement of SRY: Why or Why Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl S. Rosenfeld

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain sexual differentiation is orchestrated by precise coordination of sex steroid hormones. In some species, programming of select male brain regions is dependent upon aromatization of testosterone to estrogen. In mammals, these hormones surge during the organizational and activational periods that occur during perinatal development and adulthood, respectively. In various fish and reptiles, incubation temperature during a critical embryonic period results in male or female sexual differentiation, but this can be overridden in males by early exposure to estrogenic chemicals. Testes development in mammals requires a Y chromosome and testis determining gene SRY (in humans/Sry (all other therian mammals, although there are notable exceptions. Two species of spiny rats: Amami spiny rat (Tokudaia osimensis and Tokunoshima spiny rat (Tokudaia tokunoshimensis and two species of mole voles (Ellobius lutescens and Ellobius tancrei, lack a Y chromosome/Sry and possess an XO chromosome system in both sexes. Such rodent species, prototherians (monotremes, who also lack Sry, and fish and reptile species that demonstrate temperature sex determination (TSD seemingly call into question the requirement of Sry for brain sexual differentiation. This review will consider brain regions expressing SRY/Sry in humans and rodents, respectively, and potential roles of SRY/Sry in the brain will be discussed. The evidence from various taxa disputing the requirement of Sry for brain sexual differentiation in mammals (therians and prototherians and certain fish and reptilian species will be examined. A comparative approach to address this question may elucidate other genes, pathways, and epigenetic modifications stimulating brain sexual differentiation in vertebrate species, including humans.

  7. [The harm to health of the under-age individuals as an objective criterion for the differentiation of criminal responsibilities for committing non-violent sexual offence against them].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbinov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The present publication is devoted to the search for the objective criterion for the differentiation of criminal responsibilities for committing non-violent sexual offence against the juveniles under the age of 16 years. It has been shown that the current version of articles 134 and 135 of the criminal code of the Russian Federation does not adequately reflect the true character and the social danger of such actions. The formal methods of the legal, logical, and concrete sociological analysis were employed to substantiate the necessity of differentiation of criminal liability for the non-violent sexual abuse depending on the degree of potential harm to the health of the under-age individuals.

  8. When a relationship is imperative, will young women knowingly place their sexual health at risk? A sample of African American adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiford, Jerris L; Seth, Puja; Fasula, Amy M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2017-08-01

    HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (HIV/STIs) are significant contributors to adolescent girls' morbidity in the US. Risks for HIV/STIs are increased among adolescent girls involved in the juvenile justice system, and African American adolescent girls comprise nearly 50% of adolescent girls in detention centres. Although HIV prevention programs focus on HIV/STI knowledge, increased knowledge may not be sufficient to reduce sexual risk. The present study examined the interactive effects of HIV/STI knowledge and the importance of being in a relationship (a relationship imperative) on sexual risk behaviours in a sample of detained African American adolescent girls. In all, 188 African American adolescent girls, 13-17 years of age, were recruited from a short-term detention facility in Atlanta, Georgia, and completed assessments on sexual risk behaviours, relationship characteristics, HIV/STI knowledge and several psychosocial risk factors. When girls endorsed a relationship imperative, higher HIV/STI knowledge was associated with low partner communication self-efficacy, inconsistent condom use and unprotected sex, when controlling for demographics and self-esteem. Young girls with high HIV/STI knowledge may have placed themselves at risk for HIV/STIs given the importance and value they place on being in a relationship. Contextual factors should be considered when developing interventions.

  9. Juvenile hormone III, hydroprene and a juvenogen as soldier caste differentiation regulators in three Reticulitermes species: potential of juvenile hormone analogues in termite control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdý, Ivan; Kuldová, Jelena; Hanus, Robert; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 9 (2006), s. 848-854 ISSN 1526-498X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4055104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termites * juvenile hormone Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.428, year: 2006

  10. Exploring the Overlap in Male Juvenile Sexual Offending and General Delinquency: Trauma, Alcohol Use, and Masculine Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam; Burton, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Burton and Meezan's (2004) finding that sexually aggressive youth are three to four times more likely to recidivate nonsexually than sexually, there is little to no research to date that explores this overlap in criminality. With a sample of 290 male sexually violent adjudicated and incarcerated youth, this study was able to successfully…

  11. Differential behavioural responses to venlafaxine exposure route, warming and acidification in juvenile fish (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Paula, José Ricardo; Camacho, Carolina; Pissarra, Vasco; Fogaça, Fabiola; Barbosa, Vera; Alves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Pedro Pousão; Barceló, Damià; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Marques, António; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2018-09-01

    Antidepressants, such as venlafaxine (VFX), which are considered emerging environmental pollutants, are increasingly more present in the marine environment, and recent evidence suggest that they might have adverse effects on fish behaviour. Furthermore, altered environmental conditions associated to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) can also have a determinant role on fish behaviour, fitness and survival. Yet, the underlying interactions between these environmental stressors (pharmaceuticals exposure and climate change) are still far from being fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess behavioural responses (in juvenile meagre (Argyrosomus regius) exposed to VFX via water ([VFX] ~20μgL -1 ) and via dietary sources ([VFX] ~160μgkg -1 dry weight), as well as to increased temperature (ΔT°C=+5°C) and high CO 2 levels (ΔpCO 2 ~1000μatm; equivalent to ΔpH=-0.4units). Overall, VFX bioaccumulation in fish plasma was enhanced under the combination of warming and acidification. VFX triggered fish exploration, whereas fish activity and shoal cohesion were reduced. Acidification alone decreased fish exploration and shoal cohesion, and reversed fish preference to turn leftwards compared to control conditions. Such alterations were further enhanced by VFX exposure. The combination of warming and acidification also reduced shoal cohesion and loss of lateralization, regardless of VFX exposure. The distinct behaviour observed when VFX contamination, acidification and warming acted alone or in combination highlighted the need to consider the likely interactive effects of seawater warming and acidification in future research regarding the toxicological aspects of chemical contaminants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  13. Darwin's "Mr. Arthrobalanus": Sexual Differentiation, Evolutionary Destiny and the Expert Eye of the Beholder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Roderick D

    2017-05-01

    Darwin's Cirripedia project was an exacting exercise in systematics, as well as an encrypted study of evolution in action. Darwin had a long-standing interest and expertise in marine invertebrates and their sexual arrangements. The surprising and revealing sexual differentiation he would uncover amongst barnacles represented an important step in his understanding of the origins of sexual reproduction. But it would prove difficult to reconcile these findings with his later theorizing. Moreover, the road to discovery was hardly straightforward. Darwin was both helped and hindered by the tacit expectations generated by his transformist theorizing, and had to overcome culturally-embedded assumptions about gender and reproductive roles. Significant observational backtracking was required to correct several oversights and misapprehensions, none more so than those relating to the chronically misunderstood "Mr. Arthrobalanus." With careful attention to chronology, this paper highlights some curious and overlooked aspects of Darwin's epic project.

  14. LOS DIARIOS ROJOS DE CARLOTA Y FLANAGAN. DOS APROXIMACIONES A LA EDUCACIÓN SEXUAL DESDE LA LITERATURA JUVENIL / CARLOTAS’S RED DIARIES AND FLANAGAN. TWO APPROACHES TO SEXUAL EDUCATION FROM YOUNG LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ibáñez Quintana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el presente trabajo analizaremos El Diario Rojo de Carlota y El Diario Rojo de Flanagan, dos libros que desde el ámbito de la Literatura Juvenil constituyen dos verdaderos y excelentes manuales de Educación Sexual para nuestros adolescentes. Ambas obras abordarán aspectos tan relevantes como la pubertad, la iniciación al sexo, la menstruación, los métodos anticonceptivos, las enfermedades de transmisión sexual, la respuesta sexual, los estereotipos masculinos y femeninos, la homosexualidad o la violencia de género, entre otros. Y lo harán con un enfoque didáctico, moderno y valiente, siempre próximo a la perspectiva, realidad y necesidades de los jóvenes. Abstract This study analyses Carlotas’s Red Diaries and Flanagan, two books that from the literature perspective, constitute two excellent sex education manuals for our teenagers. Both pieces deal with aspects so relevant as puberty, sex initiation, sex drive, contraceptives, sexually transmitted diseases, menstruation, feminine and masculine stereotypes, homosexuality and gender violence, among others. The books take a modern and didactic approach always from the youth’s perspective, reality and needs.

  15. Differential sexual survival of Drosophila melanogaster on copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinski, Michael A; Woodruff, Ronny C

    2017-04-01

    Based on studies of the influence of X-chromosomes on the viability of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to cadmium, and on the role of X-linked genes on copper homeostasis, we examined the effect of copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) on offspring viability using three independent, inbred D. melanogaster crosses (ensuring identical autosomes for males and females within each cross). Each cross was performed with attached X-chromosome females and males with a single X-chromosome. As female D. melanogaster have less metallothionein RNA expression than males, we predicted fewer female offspring than male offspring in crosses exposed to CuSO 4 , even though females have two copies of X-chromosome genes, possibly resulting in overdominant heterozygosity. In two of three crosses, CuSO 4 caused significantly higher numbers of male offspring compared to female offspring. We hypothesized that these gender-based viability differences to copper exposure are caused by X-chromosome ploidy and X-linked genetic variation affecting metallothionein expression. Observed differential offspring viability responses among crosses to copper exposure also showed that different genetic backgrounds (autosomal and/or X-chromosome) can result in significant differences in heavy metal and metallothionein regulation. These results suggest that the effect of copper on offspring viability depends on both genetic background and gender, as both factors can affect the regulation of metallothionein proteins as well as homeostasis of biologically necessary heavy metals.

  16. Clinical characteristics associated with paedophilia and child sex offending - Differentiating sexual preference from offence status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwinn, Hannah; Weiß, Simone; Tenbergen, Gilian; Amelung, Till; Födisch, Carina; Pohl, Alexander; Massau, Claudia; Kneer, Jonas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Kärgel, Christian; Wittfoth, Matthias; Jung, Stefanie; Drumkova, Krassimira; Schiltz, Kolja; Walter, Martin; Beier, Klaus M; Walter, Henrik; Ponseti, Jorge; Schiffer, Boris; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2018-06-01

    Contrary to public perception, child sex offending (CSO) and paedophilia are not the same. Only half of all cases of CSO are motivated by paedophilic preference, and a paedophilic preference does not necessarily lead to CSO. However, studies that investigated clinical factors accompanying and contributing to paedophilia so far mainly relied on paedophiles with a history of CSO. The aim of this study was to distinguish between factors associated with sexual preference (paedophile versus non-paedophile) and offender status (with versus without CSO). Accordingly, a 2 (sexual preference) × 2 (offender status) factorial design was used for a comprehensive clinical assessment of paedophiles with and without a history of CSO (n = 83, n = 79 respectively), child sex offenders without paedophilia (n = 32) and healthy controls (n = 148). Results indicated that psychiatric comorbidities, sexual dysfunctions and adverse childhood experiences were more common among paedophiles and child sex offenders than controls. Offenders and non-offenders differed in age, intelligence, educational level and experience of childhood sexual abuse, whereas paedophiles and non-paedophiles mainly differed in sexual characteristics (e.g., additional paraphilias, onset and current level of sexual activity). Regression analyses were more powerful in segregating offender status than sexual preference (mean classification accuracy: 76% versus 68%). In differentiating between offence- and preference-related factors this study improves clinical understanding of both phenomena and may be used to develop scientifically grounded CSO prevention and treatment programmes. It also highlights that some deviations are not traceable to just one of these two factors, thus raising the issue of the mechanism underlying both phenomena. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential Effects for Sexual Risk Behavior: An Application of Finite Mixture Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Kugler, Kari C.; Mathur, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the multiple factors that place individuals at risk for sexual risk behavior is critical for developing effective intervention programs. Regression-based methods are commonly used to estimate the average effects of risk factors, however such results can be difficult to translate to prevention implications at the individual level. Although differential effects can be examined to some extent by including interaction terms, as risk factors and moderators are added to the model inte...

  18. IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO THE FUNGICIDE PROCYMIDONE AND DIBUTYL PHTHALATE PRODUCE DOSE ADDITIVE DISRUPTIONS OF MALE RAT SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procymidone (PRO) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) alter male rat sexual differentiation by disrupting the androgen-signaling pathway via distinctly different cellular mechanisms of toxicity. DBP inhibits fetal Leydig cell androgen production whereas PRO binds AR and blocks androgen a...

  19. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN AND TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON PREGNANCY AND SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE AND FEMALE SD RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Sufficient levels of androgens during fetal sexual differentiation in the mammal produces the male phenotype, and the absence of androgens or the dysfunction of the androgen receptor can produce the female phenotype. In previous studies in our laboratory, adminis...

  20. Efficacy of an HIV/STI sexual risk-reduction intervention for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention centers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiClemente, Ralph J; Davis, Teaniese L; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Fasula, Amy M; Boyce, Lorin; Gelaude, Deborah; Gray, Simone C; Hardin, James; Rose, Eve; Carry, Monique; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; Staples-Horne, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Few HIV/STI interventions exist for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to reduce incident STIs, improve HIV-preventive behaviors, and enhance psychosocial outcomes. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among African American adolescent girls (13-17 years, N = 188) in juvenile detention from March 2011 to May 2012. Assessments occurred at baseline and 3- and 6-months post-randomization and included: audio computer-assisted self-interview, condom skills assessment, and self-collected vaginal swab to detect Chlamydia and gonorrhea. The Imara intervention included three individual-level sessions and four phone sessions; expedited partner therapy was offered to STI-positive adolescents. The comparison group received the usual care provided by the detention center: STI testing, treatment, and counseling. At the 6-month assessment (3-months post-intervention), Imara participants reported higher condom use self-efficacy (p incident Chlamydia or gonorrhea infections, condom use, or number of vaginal sex partners. Imara for detained African American adolescent girls can improve condom use skills and psychosocial outcomes; however, a critical need for interventions to reduce sexual risk remains.

  1. Differential regulation of msx genes in the development of the gonopodium, an intromittent organ, and of the "sword," a sexually selected trait of swordtail fishes (Xiphophorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauner, Hans; Begemann, Gerrit; Marí-Beffa, Manuel; Meyer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    The possession of a conspicuous extension of colored ventral rays of the caudal fin in male fish of swordtails (genus Xiphophorus) is a prominent example for a trait that evolved by sexual selection. To understand the evolutionary history of this so-called sword molecularly, it is of interest to unravel the developmental pathways responsible for extended growth of sword rays during development of swordtail males. We isolated two msx genes and showed that they are differentially regulated during sword outgrowth. During sword growth in juvenile males, as well as during testosterone-induced sword development and fin ray regeneration in the sword after amputation, expression of msxC is markedly up-regulated in the sword forming fin rays. In contrast, msxE/1 is not differentially expressed in ventral and dorsal male fin rays, suggesting a link between the development of male secondary sexual characters in fins and up-regulation of msxC expression. In addition, we showed that msx gene expression patterns differ significantly between Xiphophorus and zebrafish. We also included in our study the gonopodium, a testosterone-dependent anal fin modification that serves as a fertilization organ in males of live-bearing fishes. Our finding that increased levels of msxC expression are associated with the testosterone-induced outgrowth of the gonopodium might suggest either that at least parts of the signaling pathways that pattern the evolutionary older gonopodium have been coopted to evolve a sexually selected innovation such as the sword or that increased msxC expression may be inherent to the growth process of long fin rays in general.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, and its differential expression during caste differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Li

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT is an enzyme involved in one of the final steps of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in insects. It transfers a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to the carboxyl group of either farnesoic acid (FA or JH acid (JHA. Several genes coding for JHAMT have been cloned and characterized from insects from different orders, and they have been shown to play critical roles in metamorphosis and reproduction. However, the significance of JHAMT in Hymenopteran insects is unknown. We used RACE amplification method to clone JHAMT cDNA from the honey bee, Apis mellifera (AmJHAMT. The full length cDNA of AmJHAMT that we cloned is 1253bp long and encodes a 278-aa protein that shares 32-36% identity with known JHAMTs. A SAM-binding motif, conserved in the SAM-dependent methyltransferase (SAM-MT superfamily, is present in AmJHAMT. Its secondary structure also contains a typical SAM-MT fold. Most of the active sites bound with SAM and substrates (JHA or FA are conserved in AmJHAMT as in other JHAMT orthologs. Phylogenetic analysis clustered AmJHAMT with the other orthologs from Hymenoptera to form a major clade in the phylogenetic tree. Purified recombinant AmJHAMT protein expressed in E. coli was used to produce polyclonal antibodies and to verify the identity of AmJHAMT by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses revealed that queen larvae contained significantly higher levels of AmJHAMT mRNA and protein than worker larvae during the periods of caste development. The temporal profiles of both AmJHAMT mRNA and protein in queens and workers showed a similar pattern as the JH biosynthesis. These results suggest that the gene that we cloned codes for a functional JHAMT that catalyzes the final reactions of JH biosynthesis in honey bees. In addition, AmJHAMT may play an important role in honey bee caste differentiation.

  3. Juvenile social experience and differential age-related changes in the dendritic morphologies of subareas of the prefrontal cortex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmler, Brett T; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Nakahashi, Ayuno; Himmler, Stephanie M; Pellis, Sergio M; Kolb, Bryan

    2018-04-01

    Juvenile social interactions have been shown to influence the dendritic complexity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In particular, social play induces pruning of the cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas interacting with multiple partners, whether those interactions involve play or not, increases the complexity of cells in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies suggest that these changes differ in their stability during adulthood. In the present study, rats were reared in groups of either four (quads) or two (pairs) and the brains of the rats from each rearing condition were then harvested at 60 days (i.e., shortly after sexual maturity) and 100 days (i.e., fully adult). The rats housed with multiple partners had more complex neurons of the OFC at 60 days and this complexity declined to a comparable level to that of pair housed rats by 100 days. In contrast, the play-induced changes of the mPFC remained similar at both ages. These findings suggest that the changes in the PFC induced by different social experiences in the juvenile period differ in how long they are maintained in adulthood. Differences in the functions regulated by the OFC and the mPFC are considered with regard to these differences in the stability of juvenile-induced neural changes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains many blood ...

  5. Non-neural androgen receptors affect sexual differentiation of brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, D A; Swift-Gallant, A

    2018-02-01

    Although gonadal testosterone is the principal endocrine factor that promotes masculine traits in mammals, the development of a male phenotype requires local production of both androgenic and oestrogenic signals within target tissues. Much of our knowledge concerning androgenic components of testosterone signalling in sexual differentiation comes from studies of androgen receptor (Ar) loss of function mutants. Here, we review these studies of loss of Ar function and of AR overexpression either globally or selectively in the nervous system of mice. Global and neural mutations affect socio-sexual behaviour and the neuroanatomy of these mice in a sexually differentiated manner. Some masculine traits are affected by both global and neural mutation, indicative of neural mediation, whereas other masculine traits are affected only by global mutation, indicative of an obligatory non-neural androgen target. These results support a model in which multiple sites of androgen action coordinate to produce masculine phenotypes. Furthermore, AR overexpression does not always have a phenotype opposite to that of loss of Ar function mutants, indicative of a nonlinear relationship between androgen dose and masculine phenotype in some cases. Potential mechanisms of Ar gene function in non-neural targets in producing masculine phenotypes are discussed. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  6. Effects of methyl testosterone exposure on sexual differentiation in medaka, Oryzias latipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize effects of a known androgen on sexual differentiation and development of medaka, Oryzias latipes (d-rR strain), at two life stages. Embryos were injected with graded doses of methyl testosterone (MT) prior to epiboly. The occurrence of sex-reversal, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI) were evaluated in adults. Primary germ cells were counted and gonad volumes calculated for larvae to determine if sex-reversal could be detected at an early life stage. Sex-reversal of genetic females to phenotypic males was observed at both life stages. The GSI for phenotypic females was greater than for phenotypic males, while the GSI in XX males was similar to XY males. MT appeared to reduce the GSI of XX females exposed to MT but not sex-reversed. Our results indicate that embryonic exposure to androgens influences sexual development in medaka. Utilizing the d-rR strain of medaka allows detection of an effect as early as 2 weeks after chemical exposure making this a useful tool to screen chemicals for effects on sexual differentiation. Copyright (C) 2000.

  7. The effects of sex steroid treatments on sexual differentiation in a unisexual lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparens (Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy, A J; Crews, D

    1986-02-01

    Cnemidophorus uniparens is a parthenogenetic unisexual species of lizard in which each individual develops as a female, making it a unique animal model for the study of sexual differentiation. In one study, administration of exogenous testosterone before and/or after hatching influenced the development of the gonads, the accessory reproductive ducts, the renal sex segment of the mesonephric kidney, and the femoral glands, a secondary sex character. Testosterone treatment also affected the cross-sectional area of the gonad and the proportions of cortical and medullary tissues present in the developing gonad. The oviducts and femoral glands of testosterone-treated individuals were hypertrophied; the collecting tubules of the kidney of these animals contained granules, an androgen-dependent, sexually dimorphic character in squamate reptiles. In another study, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol were administered to C. uniparens embryos. No treatment effects on gonadal development were detected on the day of hatching. However, estradiol, but not testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, stimulated development of the oviducts. Taken together these studies suggest that androgen aromatization may play a role in sexual differentiation in lizards.

  8. Young men in juvenile detention centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gender, sexuality, masculinity and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Ferreira do; Uziel, Anna Paula; Hernández, Jimena de Garay

    2018-02-19

    This article presents results for young men's health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers. The study showed that these young men have been exposed to police and social violence from a very early age and have been deprived of their freedom due to involvement with the drug traffic, homicides, or episodes of sexual violence. The male and female health professionals that work with them report that the most common health problems are skin conditions, mental disorders, and sexually transmissible infections. Male chauvinism and rigid notions of gender and sexuality are important factors in the views of these young men on health (especially sexual and reproductive). Their discourse takes violence and paternity for granted as important signs in the public demonstration of masculinity. There is an urgent need to include discussions on gender and sexuality in health professionals' training and activities with these young men. It is also necessary to call attention to the strong influence of gender concepts, social group, and sexual orientation in practices, interpersonal relations, and health promotion.

  9. Young men in juvenile detention centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gender, sexuality, masculinity and health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Ferreira do Nascimento

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents results for young men’s health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers. The study showed that these young men have been exposed to police and social violence from a very early age and have been deprived of their freedom due to involvement with the drug traffic, homicides, or episodes of sexual violence. The male and female health professionals that work with them report that the most common health problems are skin conditions, mental disorders, and sexually transmissible infections. Male chauvinism and rigid notions of gender and sexuality are important factors in the views of these young men on health (especially sexual and reproductive. Their discourse takes violence and paternity for granted as important signs in the public demonstration of masculinity. There is an urgent need to include discussions on gender and sexuality in health professionals’ training and activities with these young men. It is also necessary to call attention to the strong influence of gender concepts, social group, and sexual orientation in practices, interpersonal relations, and health promotion.

  10. Differential expression of myogenic regulatory factor MyoD in pacu skeletal muscle (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg 1887: Serrasalminae, Characidae, Teleostei) during juvenile and adult growth phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Fernanda Losi Alves; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Pinhal, Danillo; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Martins, Cesar; Dal Pai-Silva, Maeli

    2008-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is the edible part of the fish. It grows by hypertrophy and hyperplasia, events regulated by differential expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). The study of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is very important in fish farming development. Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is one of the most important food species farmed in Brazil and has been extensively used in Brazilian aquaculture programs. The aim of this study was to analyze hyperplasia and hypertrophy and the MRF MyoD expression pattern in skeletal muscle of pacu (P. mesopotamicus) during juvenile and adult growth stages. Juvenile (n=5) and adult (n=5) fish were anaesthetized, sacrificed, and weight (g) and total length (cm) determined. White dorsal region muscle samples were collected and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Transverse sections (10 microm thick) were stained with Haematoxilin-Eosin (HE) for morphological and morphometric analysis. Smallest fiber diameter from 100 muscle fibers per animal was calculated in each growth phase. These fibers were grouped into three classes (50 microm) to evaluate hypertrophy and hyperplasia in white skeletal muscle. MyoD gene expression was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Juvenile and adult pacu skeletal muscle had similar morphology. The large number of fish confirms active hyperplasia. In adult fish, most fibers were over 50 microm diameter and denote more intense muscle fiber hypertrophy. The MyoD mRNA level in juveniles was higher than in adults. A consensus partial sequence for MyoD gene (338 base pairs) was obtained. The Pacu MyoD nucleotide sequence displayed high similarity among several vertebrates, including teleosts. The differential MyoD gene expression observed in pacu white muscle is possibly related to differences in growth patterns during the phases analyzed, with hyperplasia predominant in juveniles and hypertrophy in adult fish. These results should provide a foundation for

  11. In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Villalobos, Sergio A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of androgen signaling underlie sexual differentiation and congenital malformations of the urethra and vagina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Christine E.; Enriquez, Ana B.; Cohn, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital anomalies that affect sexual differentiation of genitourinary organs and secondary sex characters. A common cause of female genital virilization is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in which excess androgen production during development of 46XX females can result in vaginal atresia, masculinization of the urethra, a single urogenital sinus, and clitoral hypertrophy or ambiguous external genitalia. Development of the vagina depends on sexual differentiation of the urogenital sinus ridge, an epithelial thickening that forms where the sex ducts attach to the anterior urethra. In females, the sinus ridge descends posteriorly to allow the vaginal opening to form in the vulva, whereas in males and in females with CAH, androgens inhibit descent of the sinus ridge. The mechanisms that regulate development of the female urethra and vagina are largely unknown. Here we show that the timing and duration of, and the cell population targeted by, androgen signaling determine the position of vaginal attachment to the urethra. Manipulations of androgen signaling in utero reveal a temporal window of development when sinus ridge fate is determined. Cell type-specific genetic deletions of androgen receptor (Ar) identify a subpopulation of mesenchymal cells that regulate sinus ridge morphogenesis. These results reveal a common mechanism that coordinates development of the vagina and feminization of the urethra, which may account for development of a single urogenital sinus in females exposed to excessive androgen during a critical period of prenatal development. PMID:27821748

  13. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Deem, Sharon L.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Holliday, Casey M.; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Selcer, Kyle; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Fredrick S.; Velez, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 °C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 μg BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  14. Differential use of the Argentine shelf by wintering adults and juveniles southern giant petrels, Macronectes giganteus, from Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Gabriela S.; Quintana, Flavio

    2014-08-01

    To study habitat use and at-sea movements of southern giant petrels (SGP) during non-breeding period, we deployed 15 satellite transmitters (six adults, nine juveniles) at Isla Arce and Isla Gran Robredo colonies in Patagonia, Argentina. Birds were instrumented during 81.4 ± 37 days. Adult birds used 74% of the Argentine shelf concentrating mainly at the shelf break, middle shelf waters, and the surroundings of the colony. After fledging, juveniles spread to the Argentine, Uruguayan and Brazilian shelves within the South Atlantic. Adults alternated at-sea excursions (12 ± 5 days) with periods at the colony of 3 ± 0.3 days. Contrarily, juveniles moved first to the shelf break and then traveled northwards reaching the south of Brazil. There was some spatial overlap between age classes, but only during the first 30 days after juveniles had fledged; thereafter there was not overlap between the areas used by both age classes. The Argentine shelf is widely used by different species offering a suitable environment for foraging; this may be why adults SGP from Patagonian colonies spend all year-round within the Argentine shelf. The identification of used areas of non-breeding SGP fills a gap in the species knowledge contributing not only to the preservation the species, but also to the management of marine areas globally recognized as important for many other Procellariiformes.

  15. Evaluating the efficacy of DNA differential extraction methods for sexual assault evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sonja B; Buoncristiani, Martin R

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of sexual assault evidence, often a mixture of spermatozoa and victim epithelial cells, represents a significant portion of a forensic DNA laboratory's case load. Successful genotyping of sperm DNA from these mixed cell samples, particularly with low amounts of sperm, depends on maximizing sperm DNA recovery and minimizing non-sperm DNA carryover. For evaluating the efficacy of the differential extraction, we present a method which uses a Separation Potential Ratio (SPRED) to consider both sperm DNA recovery and non-sperm DNA removal as variables for determining separation efficiency. In addition, we describe how the ratio of male-to-female DNA in the sperm fraction may be estimated by using the SPRED of the differential extraction method in conjunction with the estimated ratio of male-to-female DNA initially present on the mixed swab. This approach may be useful for evaluating or modifying differential extraction methods, as we demonstrate by comparing experimental results obtained from the traditional differential extraction and the Erase Sperm Isolation Kit (PTC © ) procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcriptomic data analysis and differential gene expression of antioxidant pathways in king penguin juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus before and after acclimatization to marine life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm, “Transcriptome analysis in non-model species: a new method for the analysis of heterologous hybridization on microarrays” (Dégletagne et al., 2010 [1]. We focused on genes involved in multiple antioxidant pathways. For better clarity, these differentially expressed genes were clustered into six functional groups according to their role in controlling redox homeostasis. The data are related to a comprehensive research study on the ontogeny of antioxidant functions in king penguins, “Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus” (Rey et al., 2016 [2]. The raw microarray dataset supporting the present analyses has been deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO repository under accessions GEO: GSE17725 and GEO: GSE82344.

  17. Transcriptomic data analysis and differential gene expression of antioxidant pathways in king penguin juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus) before and after acclimatization to marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm , " Transcriptome analysis in non-model species: a new method for the analysis of heterologous hybridization on microarrays " (Dégletagne et al., 2010) [1] . We focused on genes involved in multiple antioxidant pathways. For better clarity, these differentially expressed genes were clustered into six functional groups according to their role in controlling redox homeostasis. The data are related to a comprehensive research study on the ontogeny of antioxidant functions in king penguins, "Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus)" (Rey et al., 2016) [2] . The raw microarray dataset supporting the present analyses has been deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository under accessions GEO: GSE17725 and GEO: GSE82344.

  18. Políticas de sexualidad juvenil y diferencias étnico-raciales en Colombia: reflexiones a partir de un estudio de caso Adolescent sexuality policy and ethnic/racial differences in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Viveros Vigoya

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las modalidades de 'gobierno de la sexualidad juvenil' puestas en obra por medio de las actividades educativas realizadas en los programas de salud sexual y reproductiva destinados a jóvenes colombianos, y sus efectos en la producción de subjetividades juveniles. Examina también las percepciones de quienes realizan estas intervenciones sobre las diferencias étnico-raciales existentes entre jóvenes y su incidencia en el quehacer de las y los funcionarios implicados en estos programas. La información se basa en la observación de dos experiencias de intervención en salud sexual y reproductiva con jóvenes escolarizados en Bogotá, y en las entrevistas a los y los coordinadores de los talleres de educación sexual y a las personas encargadas de las labores de consejería en cada uno de los programas.This article analyzes the particular modes of governance of adolescent sexuality that emerge from the educational activities carried out by sexual and reproductive health programs for young Colombians. It also analyzes their effects on the production of adolescent subjectivities. In addition, it examines the perception of those who carry out the pedagogic activities related to sexuality with adolescents and the way these perceptions are marked by ethnic/racial differences, as well as their influence on their professional performance. Field data are based on observation of two pilot programs on sexual and reproductive health among adolescent high school students in Bogotá, and on interviews with workshop coordinators and male and female counselors.

  19. Exploring mental health and substance use treatment needs of commercially sexually exploited youth participating in a specialty juvenile court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Mekeila C; Barnert, Elizabeth; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Ports, Kayleen; Bath, Eraka

    2018-03-20

    The study sought to: 1) describe the mental health and substance use profiles among participants of a specialty trafficking court program (the Succeed Though Achievement and Resilience Court); 2) describe youths' mental health and substance use treatment prior to participating in the program; and 3) examine whether abuse influences report of mental health problems and/or substance use. Retrospective case review of court files was performed on commercially sexually exploited youth who volunteered to participate in the court from 2012 to 2014 (N = 184). All participants were female. Mental health problems and report of substance use was high among this population. Substance use differed at statistically significant levels between youth with a documented abuse history compared to those with no abuse history. Substance use also differed by report of mental health problems. Unexpected findings included the high rate of hospitalization for mental health problems and relatively low substance use treatment prior to STAR Court participation. Opportunities for improvement in critical points of contact to identify commercially sexually exploited youth and address their health needs are discussed.

  20. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexualidad juvenil y cambio social: el caso de Portugal Youth sexuality and social change: the case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Machado-Pais

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar si, dentro de un marco de profundos cambios sociales, las nuevas generaciones estarán creando nuevos valores sociales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Aplicando el método de las generaciones, se utilizaron datos de una encuesta sobre valores y generaciones, hecho en 1996 a 2 012 individuos residentes en Portugal continental y representativos de la población portuguesa. Recurriendo al programa SPAD (Estadística para análisis de datos, se procedió a un análisis factorial de correspondencias múltiples en conjugación con un análisis de tipo cluster. RESULTADOS: Constatamos que las principales discontinuidades intergeneracionales se presentan en el área de las actitudes y prácticas sexuales. Comprobamos que los grupos y agregados resultantes del análisis tienen índices de sobrerrepresentación de generaciones específicas. Por ejemplo, los encuestados hedonistas se caracterizan por un elevado índice de sobrerrepresentación de jóvenes, en contraste con los inhibidos o los moralistas. CONCLUSIONES: Los jóvenes portugueses aparecen como una generación portadora de valores hedonistas y de carácter experimental en el plano de la vida sexual y amorosa. Sin embargo, se caracterizan al mismo tiempo por su vulnerabilidad a conductas de riesgo.OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the new generations are creating new social values in the current setting of deep social change. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using the generations method (Mannheim, a survey was conducted in 1996, among 2 012 residents of Portugal, to collect data on values and generations of the Portuguese population. The SPAD statistical analysis program was used to perform a multiple correspondence factorial analysis, in addition to a cluster-type analysis. RESULTS: The main generational gaps were found in sexual attitudes and practices. Findings showed that groups and aggregates have overrepresentation indices for specific generations, e.g., hedonistic interviewees are

  2. Does anti-androgen, flutamide cancel out the in vivo effects of the androgen, dihydrotestosterone on sexual development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if the effects of the androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the sexual development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) are canceled out by the anti-androgen, flutamide. Fish (60 days post hatch) were exposed to 250ng/L of DHT, 25μg/L of flutamide (Flu-low), 250μg/L of flutamide (Flu-high), DHT+Flu low and DHT+Flu high. After 35 days of exposure, lengths and weights of the fish were measured and the condition factor (CF) calculated; vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations were measured in tail tissue; sex steroid hormones (17β-estradiol [E2] and 11-keto testosterone [11-KT]) were measured in the head tissue and abdominal regions were used in histological investigation of the gonads. Treatment with DHT reduced the body-length of both male and female fish, an effect which was canceled out by low and high concentrations of flutamide. However, flutamide (low or high) could not nullify the DHT-induced reduction in the CF in either sex. The E2 levels were reduced only in female fish after exposure to DHT but returned to normal after treatment with Flu-high. DHT increased the levels of 11-KT and decreased the E2/11-KT ratio in both sexes. Flu-high, but not Flu-low, could nullify these effects. Both DHT and flutamide (low or high) induced VTG production and this effect persisted when both chemicals were co-administered. Treatment with DHT did not affect gonadal cell development in the testes. However, the female fish treated with DHT contained ovaries in early-vitellogenic stage in comparison to the pre-vitellogenic ovaries in control fish. Co-treatment with flutamide (low or high) resulted in oocyte atresia. The results from the present study suggest that treatment with Flu-high could cancel out DHT-induced effects only on the hormonal profile and body-length in both male and female fish. Juvenile fish co-treated with DHT and flutamide (low or high) had high VTG levels and low CF. In addition, the ovaries

  3. Effects of in ovo exposure of Imazalil and Atrazine on sexual differentiation in chick gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, J.; Ikeda, M. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Matsushita, S.; Iwasawa, T.; Ikeya, M. [Shizuoka Swine and Poultry Experiment Station, Kikugawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In contrast to mammals, the heterogametic sex (sex chromosome: ZW) in avian species is the genetic female whereas the homogametic (sex chromosome: ZZ) is the genetic male. The W chromosome positively controls early aromatase synthesis and consequently estrogen production. The presence of estrogens and their receptors plays a crucial role in female sexual differentiation. Chicken embryonic gonads are bipotential at an early stage. During development of the female, the left gonad differentiates to a single ovary/oviduct, and the right gonad regresses, developing a permanent female phenotype. This sexual differentiation occurs as a result of aromatase expression in the left gonad at day 6.5 and the production of estrogen from testosterone. In the male genotype, both gonads develop into two testes. The time- and sex-dependent expression of enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, which determine the ratio of androgens/estrogens produced by the gonads, has been extensively investigated during the last 5-6 year. These results show that the lack of estrogen synthesis in the male appears to be due to the extremely low levels of P450 aromatase expression. In female, extensive expression of the aromatase gene (around day 5-6 incubation), leading to estrogen synthesis, and specific expression of the estrogen receptor-mRNA in the left gonad result in the development of a functional left ovary. Experimental sex reversal has been performed using anti-estrogens, androgens, aromatase inhibitors and synthetic steroid. Differences between male and female gonadal differentiation and development are depended on the absence of aromatase and estrogen. On the one hand, differences between left and right ovarian development are depended on the specific expression of the estrogen receptor in the left gonad. Persistent chlorine-containing pesticide, imazalil is structurally similar to various imidazolecontaining chemicals used clinically such as the potent aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole and

  4. Migración juvenil indígena y ejercicio sexual en los Altos de Chiapas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Reartes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente nota de investigación da cuenta de los principales resultados de una investigación socioantropológica que desarrollamos en los Altos de Chiapas (2007-2012 y que tuvo como preocupación central aproximarnos a analizar las implicaciones del proceso migratorio interno y/o internacional (a Estados Unidos de jóvenes mujeres y varones tsotsiles en el ámbito de la sexualidad y la reproducción. Se documenta cómo la migración se erige como un proceso de vital importancia en la colocación de estas y estos jóvenes en situaciones y contextos que condicionan sus recursos y capacidad de gestión para prevenir embarazos e infecciones de transmisión sexual, dependiendo de su condición de género, escolaridad, experiencia y situación migratoria.

  5. Violencia sexual y grupos juveniles en el arzobispado de Toledo durante el siglo XVII : los casos de La Estrella de la Jara

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    Fernando Martínez Gil

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante los tribunales episcopales de la España moderna pasó una variada gama de causas civiles y criminales que iluminan aspectos inéditos de la cultura popular, los comportamientos y mentalidades de la época. El Archivo Diocesano de Toledo guarda innumerables procesos, todavía sin catalogar, relativos a conductas de religiosos y seglares que causaban escándalo público pero que no eran competencia de la Inquisición por no atentar contra los principios de la fe. Un caso insólito, al menos en relación con el resto de las causas, sobre unas violaciones colectivas cometidas en 1625 por los mozos solteros del pueblecito toledano de La Estrella, jurisdicción de Talavera de la Reina, sirve al autor para reflexionar sobre el uso de la violencia sexual y las formas juveniles de sociabilidad y diversión en la España rural del Antiguo Régimen.The episcopal tribunals of 17th century Spain have witnessed a wide range of civil and criminal cases which highiight unpublished aspects of thíe popular culture, behavioural pattems and mentality typical of the times. Innumerable triáis may still be found uncategorized in ttie Diocesan Archives in Toledo, triáis which relate to the conduct oflaymen as well as churchmen who causad public outcry but were not placed under the jurisdiction of the Inquisition so as not to commit any outrage against the principies of the faith. The writer highiights one unusual case, at least compared to the rest, which deals with a couple of collective rapes commited in 1625, by unmarried youths in the Toledan village of La Estrella, in the territory of Talavera de la Reina, in order to reflect upon the use of sexual violence and the forms of sociability and amusement employed by young people in rural Spain from the 16th to the 18th centuries.

  6. Toward Personalized Sexual Medicine (Part 1) : Integrating the “Dual Control Model” into Differential Drug Treatments for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and Female Sexual Arousal Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, J.; van Rooij, K.; Poels, S.; Goldstein, I.; Everaerd, W.; Koppeschaar, H.; Chivers, M.; Gerritsen, J.; van Ham, D.; Olivier, B.; Tuiten, A.

    In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women

  7. Sexual differentiation of the brain: a model for drug-induced alterations of the reproductive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The process of the sexual differentiation of the brain represents a valuable model system for the study of the chemical modification of the mammalian brain. Although there are numerous functional and structural sex differences in the adult brain, these are imposed on an essentially feminine or bipotential brain by testicular hormones during a critical phase of perinatal development in the rat. It is suggested that a relatively marked structural sex difference in the rat brain, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA), is a morphological signature of the permanent or organizational action of estradiol derived from the aromatization of testicular testosterone. The SDN-POA of the male rat is severalfold larger in volume and is composed of more neurons than that of the female. The observation that the mitotic formation of the neurons of the SDN-POA is specifically prolonged has enabled us to identify the time course and pathway of neuronal migration into the nucleus. Study of the development of the SDN-POA suggests that estradiol in the male increases the number of neurons which survive a phase of neuronal death by exerting a neurite growth promoting action and/or a direct neuronotrophic action. Finally, although it is clear that gonadal hormones have dramatic permanent effects on the brain during perinatal development, even after puberty and in adulthood gonadal steroids can alter neuronal structure and, perhaps as a corollary to this, have permanent effects on reproductive function. Although the brain may be most sensitive to gonadal hormones or exogenous chemical factors during perinatal development, such as sensitivity does not appear limited to this period

  8. Cell differentiation during sexual development of the fungus Sordaria macrospora requires ATP citrate lyase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrousian, M; Masloff, S; Pöggeler, S; Kück, U

    1999-01-01

    During sexual development, mycelial cells from most filamentous fungi differentiate into typical fruiting bodies. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the Sordaria macrospora developmental mutant per5, which exhibits a sterile phenotype with defects in fruiting body maturation. Cytological investigations revealed that the mutant strain forms only ascus precursors without any mature spores. Using an indexed cosmid library, we were able to complement the mutant to fertility by DNA-mediated transformation. A single cosmid clone, carrying a 3.5-kb region able to complement the mutant phenotype, has been identified. Sequencing of the 3.5-kb region revealed an open reading frame of 2.1 kb interrupted by a 66-bp intron. The predicted polypeptide (674 amino acids) shows significant homology to eukaryotic ATP citrate lyases (ACLs), with 62 to 65% amino acid identity, and the gene was named acl1. The molecular mass of the S. macrospora ACL1 polypeptide is 73 kDa, as was verified by Western blot analysis with a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged ACL1 polypeptide. Immunological in situ detection of the HA-tagged polypeptide demonstrated that ACL is located within the cytosol. Sequencing of the mutant acl1 gene revealed a 1-nucleotide transition within the coding region, resulting in an amino acid substitution within the predicted polypeptide. Further evidence that ACL1 is essential for fruiting body maturation comes from experiments in which truncated and mutated versions of the acl1 gene were used for transformation. None of these copies was able to reconstitute the fertile phenotype in transformed per5 recipient strains. ACLs are usually involved in the formation of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which is used for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols. Protein extracts from the mutant strain showed a drastic reduction in enzymatic activity compared to values obtained from the wild-type strain. Investigation of the time course of ACL

  9. Adolescents' Sexual Media Use and Willingness to Engage in Casual Sex: Differential Relations and Underlying Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F.; Peter, J.; Vandenbosch, L.

    The present study investigated the relationship between different types of sexual media use (i.e., sexually explicit internet material, sexually oriented reality TV, and sexy self-presentations on social network sites) and adolescents' willingness to engage in casual sex, as well as underlying

  10. Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation between locally adapted fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Martin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Oranth, Alexandra; Dzienko, Justina; Karau, Nora; Schießl, Angela; Stadler, Stefan; Wigh, Adriana; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Adaptation to ecologically heterogeneous environments can drive speciation. But what mechanisms maintain reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations? Using poeciliid fishes in a system with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites ( Poecilia mexicana) show high mortality (95 %) after 24 h when exposed to the toxicant, while locally adapted fish from sulfidic sites ( Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non-sulfidic water, but not in sulfidic water, whereas P. sulphuraria females never showed a preference. Increased costs of mate choice in sulfidic, hypoxic water, and the lack of selection for reinforcement due to the low survival of P. mexicana may explain the absence of a preference in P. sulphuraria females. Taken together, our study may be the first to demonstrate independent—but complementary—effects of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintaining differentiation between locally adapted fish populations.

  11. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  12. Proximate causes of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) of the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Mandt, M.T.; Macdonald, P.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The unresolved status of the proximate cause for sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs has practical consequence, because harvest recommendations rely on assumptions about sex-specific growth and maturity. We propose and evaluate competing hypotheses for the proximate cause of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) by comparing size and estimated age frequencies from spring-captured juveniles (n = 9,075) and adults (n = 36,274) to predictions from the competing hypotheses. We found that the number of identifiable juvenile size distributions was greater for females than males and the probability of remaining a juvenile was higher for females than males among older juveniles. These findings are consistent with males maturing earlier than females. Molt increments and mean sizes were similar for male and female juveniles, which is not consistent with differential growth. Among adults, one size distribution accounted for ???90% of females regardless of carapace wear. Also, size ratio of adult females to males was 1.26, and size ratio of the largest adult to largest juvenile female was 1.28. These observations are not consistent with females continuing to molt as adults. Differential-maturity is the most parsimonious explanation for sexual size dimorphism in Delaware Bay horseshoe crabs. In addition, because of a low frequency of juvenile females >195 mm relative to adult females and male-biased sex ratios starting at 105 mm, we hypothesize that females, more than males, migrate as older juveniles and mature in the ocean. Management implications include that (1) minimum size limits, as previously suggested, would not allocate harvest to older adults as intended because size does not indicate age among adult horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay population, and (2) the Shuster Horseshoe Crab Reserve, which has reduced harvest on the continental shelf, could be protecting older juveniles and newly mature females from harvest prior to their first

  13. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PHTHALATES DEHP, BBP AND DINP, BUT NOT DEP, DMP OR DOTP ALTERS SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mammals, exposure to antiandrogenic chemicals during sexual differentiation can produce malformations of the reproductive tract. Perinatal administration of AR antagonists like vinclozolin and procymidone or chemicals like di (2-bis) ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), that inhibit ...

  14. Juvenile Firesetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcohol use and alcohol/marijuana use during the most recent sexual experience differentially predict characteristics of the sexual experience among sexually active young adult drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Anne M; Garcia, Tracey A; Lee, Christine M; Lewis, Melissa A

    2018-07-01

    Few studies have examined associations between using alcohol only and using both alcohol and marijuana with sexual behavior on specific occasions. The current study examined alcohol and marijuana use during the most recent sexual experience in association with relationship characteristics, psychological issues, and condom use. Young adult drinkers aged 18-25 who reported not using a condom during sex in the past month were recruited nationally. An analytic subsample (N = 378) was identified based on substance use during the most recent sexual experience [53% female, 70% Caucasian; mean age = 22.42 years (SD = 1.90)]. Using logistic regression, two dummy codes compared the alcohol use only group (n = 197) and the both alcohol and marijuana group (n = 95) to the group who used neither substance (n = 86). Participant sex, drinking frequency, and number of sexual partners were included as covariates. The alcohol only group and the both alcohol and marijuana group had greater odds of being with a casual acquaintance and loss of respect compared to the group who used neither substance. The alcohol only group had greater odds of being with someone they just met and embarrassment compared to the group who used neither substance. No associations were found for condom use or emotional difficulties. Preventative interventions may need to address both alcohol and marijuana to more effectively reduce risky behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Attentional Bias for Pain and Sex, and Automatic Appraisals of Sexual Penetration: Differential Patterns in Dyspareunia vs Vaginismus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, Reinhilde J; Dewitte, Marieke D; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Peters, Madelon M L; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Current information processing models propose that heightened attention bias for sex-related threats (eg, pain) and lowered automatic incentive processes ("wanting") may play an important role in the impairment of sexual arousal and the development of sexual dysfunctions such as genitopelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD). Differential threat and incentive processing may also help explain the stronger persistence of coital avoidance in women with vaginismus compared to women with dyspareunia. As the first aim, we tested if women with GPPPD show (1) heightened attention for pain and sex, and (2) heightened threat and lower incentive associations with sexual penetration. Second, we examined whether the stronger persistence of coital avoidance in vaginismus vs dyspareunia might be explained by a stronger attentional bias or more dysfunctional automatic threat/incentive associations. Women with lifelong vaginismus (n = 37), dyspareunia (n = 29), and a no-symptoms comparison group (n = 51) completed a visual search task to assess attentional bias, and single target implicit-association tests to measure automatic sex-threat and sex-wanting associations. There were no group differences in attentional bias or automatic associations. Correlational analysis showed that slowed detection of sex stimuli and stronger automatic threat associations were related to lowered sexual arousal. The findings do not corroborate the view that attentional bias for pain or sex contributes to coital pain, or that differences in coital avoidance may be explained by differences in attentional bias or automatic threat/incentive associations. However, the correlational findings are consistent with the view that automatic threat associations and impaired attention for sex stimuli may interfere with the generation of sexual arousal. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  18. Generalized epilepsy syndromes and callosal thickness: Differential effects between patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and those with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulou, Stavroula; Kurth, Florian; Luders, Eileen; Savic, Ivanka

    2017-01-01

    The definition of two well-studied genetic generalized epilepsy syndromes (GGE) - juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone (GTCS) - suggests the absence of structural cerebral abnormalities. Nevertheless, there are various reports of such abnormalities (especially in JME), where effects mainly occur within thalamus and mesial prefrontal regions. This raises the question of whether JME is particularly linked to midline structure abnormalities, which may also involve the corpus callosum. We studied callosal morphology in a well-matched sample of 22 JME patients, 15 GTCS patients, and 42 controls (CTL) for all of whom we obtained T1-weighted data on a 3T MRI scanner. More specifically, we measured callosal thickness at 100 equidistant points across the callosal surface, and subsequently compared the three groups (JME, GTCS, and CTL) against each other. Significant differences between JME patients and controls were observed within the callosal genu, anterior midbody, and isthmus, with thinner regions in JME patients. There were no significant differences between GTCS patients and controls, and also not between JME patients and GTCS patients. The present outcomes point to callosal abnormalities in JME patients suggesting an impairment of interhemisperic communication between prefrontal, motor, parietal and temporal cortices. These findings further support the notion that structural aberrations are present and differentiated across GGE syndromes, with significant callosal deviations from normality in JME. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Do sex reversal procedures differentially affect agonistic behaviors and sex steroid levels depending on the sexual genotype in Nile tilapia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennotte, Vincent; Akonkwa, Balagizi; Mélard, Charles; Denoël, Mathieu; Cornil, Charlotte A; Rougeot, Carole

    2017-04-01

    In Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, phenotypic males and females with different sexual genotypes (XX, XY, YY) have particular behavioral and physiological traits. Compared to natural XX females and XY males, XY and YY females and XX males expressed higher level of aggressiveness that could be related to higher levels of 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone, respectively. Our results suggest that the presence of a Y chromosome increases aggressiveness in females. However, since the same relationship between aggressiveness and the Y chromosome is not observed in males, we can hypothesize that the differences in aggressiveness are not directly dependent on the genotype but on the sex reversal procedures applied on young fry during their sexual differentiation to produce these breeders. These hormonal treatments could have permanently modified the development of the brain and consequently influenced the behavior of adults independently of their genotype. In both hypotheses (genotype or sex reversal influence), the causes of behavioral modifications have to be searched in an early modification of the brain sexual differentiation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Differential incorporation of natural spawners vs. artificially planted salmon carcasses in a stream food web: Evidence from delta 15N of juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placement of salmon carcasses is a common restoration technique in Oregon and Washington streams, with the goal of improving food resources and productivity of juvenile salmon. To explore the effectiveness of this restoration technique, we measured the δ15N of juvenile coho salmo...

  1. Differential use of sensory information in sexual behavior as a function of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S; Cahill, E D

    1997-09-01

    Olfactory information is critical to mammalian sexual behavior. Based on parental investment theory the relative importance of olfaction compared with vision, touch, and hearing should be different for human males and females. In particular, because of its link to immunological profile and offspring viability, odor should be a more important determinant of sexual choice and arousal for females than for males. To test this hypothesis a questionnaire was developed and administered to 332 adults (166 males, 166 females). Subjects used a 1-7 scale to indicate how much they agreed with a series of statements concerning the importance of olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile information for their sexual responsivity. The data reveal that males rated visual and olfactory information as being equally important for selecting a lover, while females considered olfactory information to be the single most important variable in mate choice. Additionally, when considering sexual activity, females singled out body odor from all other sensory experiences as most able to negatively affect desire, while males regarded odors as much more neutral stimuli for sexual arousal. The present results support recent findings in mice and humans concerning the relation of female preferences in body odor and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility and can be explained by an evolutionary analysis of sex differences in reproductive strategies. This work represents the first direct examination of the role of different forms of sensory information in human sexual behavior.

  2. Physical and relational bullying and victimization: Differential relations with adolescent dating and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Andrew V; Marini, Zopito A; Volk, Anthony A; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2017-04-01

    Taking an evolutionary psychological perspective, we investigated whether involvement in bullying as a perpetrator or victim was more likely if adolescents reported having more dating and sexual partners than their peers, an indication of greater engagement in competition for mates. A total of 334 adolescents (173 boys, 160 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16 years (M = 13.6, SD = 1.3), recruited from community youth organizations, completed self-report measures of physical and relational bullying and victimization, as well as dating and sexual behavior. As predicted, pure physical bullying was positively associated with the number of dating and sexual partners, primarily for adolescent boys. Adolescent girls with more dating partners had greater odds of being relational bully-victims, in line with predictions. Finally, adolescent girls with more sexual partners were at greater risk of being physically victimized by peers, and greater involvement with dating and sexual partners was associated with higher odds of being a physical bully-victim. Results are discussed with respect to evolutionary theory and research in which adolescent boys may display strength and athleticism through physical bullying to facilitate intersexual selection, whereas relational bullying may be employed as a strategy to engage in intrasexual competition with rivals for mates. Aggr. Behav. 43:111-122, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Juvenile angiofibromer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne Daugaard; Jakobsen, John; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare, benign, rich vascular tumor, and approximately one new case is diagnosed in Denmark each year. It sits in the foramen sphenopalatinum and occurs in boys from 14 to 25 years of age. The most frequent initial symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Through...... the years, the treatment of juvenile angiofibroma has included many methods, including surgical excision, electrocoagulation, interstitial or external radiation therapy, cryosurgery, hormone administration and chemotherapy. Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery have proven to be the most effective treatments...

  5. To treat or not to treat? : Harmful sexual behavior in adolescence: Needs before risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, E.

    2018-01-01

    Juveniles with harmful sexual behavior constitute a heterogeneous group regarding treatment needs and reoffending patterns. In general, intensive mandated treatment aims at reducing recidivism risk and, therefore, criminogenic treatment needs. Sexual recidivism by juveniles, however, is scarce and

  6. "Brincar de osadia": sexualidade e socialização infanto-juvenil no universo de classes populares "Sex-daring games": sexuality and gender socialization in the working-class children's universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucélia Santos Bispo Ribeiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo focaliza o processo de socialização infanto-juvenil no que diz respeito ao gênero e sexualidade, a partir de uma perspectiva sócio-antropológica. O trabalho baseia-se em pesquisa de cunho etnográfico, que teve como alvo grupos de crianças de ambos os sexos, dos 5 aos 14 anos de idade, pertencentes a famílias das camadas populares de uma comunidade na Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil. O estudo mostrou que, apesar da forte influência da família e da escola na socialização primária, as crianças reproduzem e reelaboram representações sobre gênero e conduta sexual adequada, sobretudo com seus pares, principalmente no contexto de diferentes brincadeiras infantis. A pesquisa analisa as representações e as práticas dos grupos observados nesse processo socializador, revelando como gênero e sexualidade são construídos socialmente, dependendo dos contextos em que se dão as diferentes interações sociais.This article focuses on the socialization of children and youth with respect to gender and sexuality, from a socio-anthropological perspective. The work is based on ethnographic research in a group of 5-14-year-old boys and girls in a community in Baia de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brazil. Despite the strong influence of family and school in primary socialization, the children reproduced and re-elaborated norms and practices on appropriate gender and sexual conduct, especially among their peers, and primarily in the context of play. The research analyzes the children’s representations and practices in this socializing process, showing how gender and sexuality are socially constructed according to the contexts in which the different social interactions take place.

  7. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  8. An in vivo model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development: exposure to ethinyl estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a single injection of 0.5–2.5 ng EE2/egg can cause phenotypic sex-reversal of genetic males to females. Sex-reversals could be detected as early as 7 days post-hatch. Sex-reversed males had female-typical duct development and the secondary sex characteristics we measured were generally consistent with phenotype, with the exception of a few EE2-exposed XX and XY females which possessed ambiguous anal fins. Using discriminant analysis, we determined that the presence or absence of the secondary sex characteristic, a dorsal fin notch, was a very reliable indicator of gonadal sex. No instances of gonadal intersexes were observed. Ethinyl estradiol also appeared to reduce growth but not condition (weight-at-length) and exposed XX females appeared to have a higher incidence of atretic follicles relative to controls. Our results suggest that estrogenic chemicals may influence sexual differentiation and development and that the medaka model is well suited to assessing these effects.

  9. Differential induction of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco exposed to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Luo, Zhi; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Sun, Lin-Dan; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Hu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Cu downregulates lipogenesis and reduces lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue. •Mechanism of Cu affecting lipid metabolism is determined at the enzymatic and molecular levels. •Cu exposure differentially influences lipid metabolism between liver and adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of waterborne Cu exposure influencing lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (2 (control), 24 (low), 71 (medium), 198 (high) μg Cu/l, respectively) for 6 weeks. Waterborne Cu exposure had a negative effect on growth and several condition indices (condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and visceral adipose index). In liver, lipid content, activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) as well as mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) genes decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. However, activity and mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in liver increased. In VAT, G6PD, ME and LPL activities as well as the mRNA levels of FAS, LPL and PPARγ genes decreased in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The differential Pearson correlations between transcription factors (SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)), and the activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes were observed between liver and VAT. Thus, our study indicated that reduced lipid contents in liver and VAT after Cu exposure were attributable to the reduced activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes in these tissues. Different response patterns of several tested enzymes and genes to waterborne Cu

  10. Differential induction of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco exposed to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Luo, Zhi, E-mail: luozhi99@yahoo.com.cn; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Sun, Lin-Dan; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Hu, Wei

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Cu downregulates lipogenesis and reduces lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue. •Mechanism of Cu affecting lipid metabolism is determined at the enzymatic and molecular levels. •Cu exposure differentially influences lipid metabolism between liver and adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of waterborne Cu exposure influencing lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (2 (control), 24 (low), 71 (medium), 198 (high) μg Cu/l, respectively) for 6 weeks. Waterborne Cu exposure had a negative effect on growth and several condition indices (condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and visceral adipose index). In liver, lipid content, activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) as well as mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) genes decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. However, activity and mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in liver increased. In VAT, G6PD, ME and LPL activities as well as the mRNA levels of FAS, LPL and PPARγ genes decreased in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The differential Pearson correlations between transcription factors (SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)), and the activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes were observed between liver and VAT. Thus, our study indicated that reduced lipid contents in liver and VAT after Cu exposure were attributable to the reduced activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes in these tissues. Different response patterns of several tested enzymes and genes to waterborne Cu

  11. Phenotypic differentiation is associated with divergent sexual selection among closely related barn swallow populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilkins, M. R.; Karaardic, H.; Vortman, Y.; Parchman, T. L.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Petrželková, Adéla; Özkan, L.; Pap, P. L.; Hubbard, J. K.; Hund, A. K.; Safran, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 12 (2016), s. 2410-2421 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14045 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : birds * natural selection * population genetics * sexual selection & conflicts * speciation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2016

  12. Profile of disorders of sexual differentiation in the Northeast region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In our study, 32.26% presented with primary female infertility, 27.86% adolescent girls presented with primary amenorrhea, 16.29% presented with male infertility, 10.35% presented with ambiguous genitalia at birth or soon afterward, 6.60% were females who presented with delayed 2ry sexual characters and short stature, ...

  13. RNA sequencing reveals sexually dimorphic gene expression before gonadal differentiation in chicken and allows comprehensive annotation of the W-chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Birds have a ZZ male: ZW female sex chromosome system and while the Z-linked DMRT1 gene is necessary for testis development, the exact mechanism of sex determination in birds remains unsolved. This is partly due to the poor annotation of the W chromosome, which is speculated to carry a female determinant. Few genes have been mapped to the W and little is known of their expression. Results We used RNA-seq to produce a comprehensive profile of gene expression in chicken blastoderms and embryonic gonads prior to sexual differentiation. We found robust sexually dimorphic gene expression in both tissues pre-dating gonadogenesis, including sex-linked and autosomal genes. This supports the hypothesis that sexual differentiation at the molecular level is at least partly cell autonomous in birds. Different sets of genes were sexually dimorphic in the two tissues, indicating that molecular sexual differentiation is tissue specific. Further analyses allowed the assembly of full-length transcripts for 26 W chromosome genes, providing a view of the W transcriptome in embryonic tissues. This is the first extensive analysis of W-linked genes and their expression profiles in early avian embryos. Conclusion Sexual differentiation at the molecular level is established in chicken early in embryogenesis, before gonadal sex differentiation. We find that the W chromosome is more transcriptionally active than previously thought, expand the number of known genes to 26 and present complete coding sequences for these W genes. This includes two novel W-linked sequences and three small RNAs reassigned to the W from the Un_Random chromosome. PMID:23531366

  14. Differential investment in pre- vs. post-copulatory sexual selection reinforces a cross-continental reversal of sexual size dimorphism in Sepsis punctum (Diptera: Sepsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Blanckenhorn, W U; Schäfer, M A

    2012-11-01

    Theory predicts that males have a limited amount of resources to invest in reproduction, suggesting a trade-off between traits that enhance mate acquisition and those that enhance fertilization success. Here, we investigate the relationship between pre- and post-copulatory investment by comparing the mating behaviour and reproductive morphology of four European and five North American populations of the dung fly Sepsis punctum (Diptera) that display a reversal of sexual size dimorphism (SSD). We show that the geographic reversal in SSD between the continents (male biased in Europe, female biased in North America) is accompanied by differential investment in pre- vs. post-copulatory traits. We find higher remating rates in European populations, where larger males acquire more matings and consequently have evolved relatively larger testes and steeper hyper-allometry with body size. American populations, in sharp contrast, display much reduced, if any, effect of body size on those traits. Instead, North American males demonstrate an increased investment in mate acquisition prior to copulation, with more mounting attempts and a distinctive abdominal courtship display that is completely absent in Europe. When controlling for body size, relative female spermathecal size is similar on both continents, so we find no direct evidence for the co-evolution of male and female internal reproductive morphology. By comparing allopatric populations of the same species that apparently have evolved different mating systems and consequently SSD, we thus indirectly demonstrate differential investment in pre- vs. post-copulatory mechanisms increasing reproductive success. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Differential processing of social chemosignals obtained from potential partners in regards to gender and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Hoenen, Matthias; Pause, Bettina M

    2012-03-17

    On an individual level, human body odors carry information about whether a person is an eligible mate. The current studies investigate if body odors also transmit information about individuals being potential partners in more general terms, namely in regards to gender and sexual orientation. In study 1, 14 gay and 14 heterosexual men were presented with body odors obtained from potential partners (gay male and heterosexual female body odors, respectively) and heterosexual male body odor as a control. In study 2, 14 lesbian and 14 heterosexual women were presented with lesbian female and heterosexual male body odors representing body odors of potential partners, and heterosexual female body odor as a control. Central nervous processing was analyzed using chemosensory event-related potentials and current source density analysis (64-channel EEG recording). Gay and heterosexual men responded with shorter P2 latencies to the body odors of their preferred sexual partners, and lesbian women responded with shorter P2 latencies to body odors of their preferred gender. In response to heterosexual male body odors, lesbian women displayed the most pronounced P3 amplitude, and distinct neuronal activation in medial frontal and parietal neocortical areas. A similar pattern of neuronal activation was observed in gay men when presented with heterosexual male body odor. Both the early processing advantage (P2) for desirable partners' body odors as well as the enhanced evaluative processing (P3, CSD) of undesirable partners' body odors suggest that human body odors indeed carry information about individuals being potential partners in terms of gender and sexual orientation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C M; Estill, C T; Amodei, R; McKune, A; Gribbin, K P; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Roselli, C E

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) postpubertal scrotal circumference and sperm concentration. Prenatal T exposure did not alter ejaculate volume, sperm motility and morphology or testis morphology. There was, however, a trend for more T-exposed rams than controls to be classified as unsatisfactory potential breeders during breeding soundness examinations. Postnatal serum T concentrations were not affected by prenatal T exposure, nor was the expression of key testicular genes essential for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Basal serum LH did not differ between treatment groups, nor did pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. T-exposed rams, like control males, exhibited vigorous libido and were sexually attracted to estrous females. In summary, these results suggest that exposure to exogenous T during the first trimester of gestation can negatively impact spermatogenesis and compromise the reproductive fitness of rams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Juvenile Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile arthritis is the term used to describe ...

  18. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve 5 or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  19. Juvenile dispersal in Calomys venustus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Both spacing behaviour and dispersal movement are viewed as hierarchical processes in which the effects may be expressed at spatial scale. This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the presence of parents promotes the dispersal of juveniles from their natal nest and their father or mother home-range, in Calomys venustus.The study was carried out in four 0.25 ha fences (two controls and two experimentals), in a natural pasture. This study had two periods: Father Removal (FR) (August and December 1997; year one) and Mother Removal (MR) (August 1998 and January 1999; year two). For the FR treatment fathers were removed after juveniles were born, but in the MR treatment mothers were removed after the juveniles were weaned. The effect of parents on the dispersal distance of juveniles was analysed with respect to their natal nest and their mother and father home-range. Dispersal distance from the nest of C. venustus was independent of either male or female parent. Juveniles were more dispersing in relation to the centre of activity of their mothers than to that of their fathers, and females were more dispersing than males. Female juveniles overlap their home-range with their parents less than male juveniles do. The differences observed between female and male juveniles would be related to their different sexual maturation times, as well as to the female territoriality.

  20. Harmful or helpful: perceived solicitous and facilitative partner responses are differentially associated with pain and sexual satisfaction in women with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Glowacka, Maria; Delisle, Isabelle; Baxter, Mary Lou

    2012-09-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that negatively affects women's emotional, sexual, and relationship well-being. Recent studies have investigated the role of interpersonal variables, including partner responses. We examined whether solicitous and facilitative partner responses were differentially associated with vulvovaginal pain and sexual satisfaction in women with PVD by examining each predictor while controlling for the other. One hundred twenty-one women (M age = 30.60, SD = 10.53) with PVD or self-reported symptoms of PVD completed the solicitous subscale of the spouse response scale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, and the facilitative subscale of the Spouse Response Inventory. Participants also completed measures of pain, sexual function, sexual satisfaction, trait anxiety, and avoidance of pain and sexual behaviors (referred to as "avoidance"). Dependent measures were the (i) Pain Rating Index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire with reference to pain during vaginal intercourse and (ii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Controlling for trait anxiety and avoidance, higher solicitous partner responses were associated with higher vulvovaginal pain intensity (β = 0.20, P = 0.03), and higher facilitative partner responses were associated with lower pain intensity (β = -0.20, P = 0.04). Controlling for sexual function, trait anxiety, and avoidance, higher facilitative partner responses were associated with higher sexual satisfaction (β = 0.15, P = 0.05). Findings suggest that facilitative partner responses may aid in alleviating vulvovaginal pain and improving sexual satisfaction, whereas solicitous partner responses may contribute to greater pain. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Sex and hedgehog: roles of genes in the hedgehog signaling pathway in mammalian sexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Heather L; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2012-01-01

    The chromosome status of the mammalian embryo initiates a multistage process of sexual development in which the bipotential reproductive system establishes itself as either male or female. These events are governed by intricate cell-cell and interorgan communication that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The hedgehog signaling pathway was originally identified for its key role in the development of Drosophila, but is now recognized as a critical developmental regulator in many species, including humans. In addition to its developmental roles, the hedgehog signaling pathway also modulates adult organ function, and misregulation of this pathway often leads to diseases, such as cancer. The hedgehog signaling pathway acts through its morphogenetic ligands that signal from ligand-producing cells to target cells over a specified distance. The target cells then respond in a graded manner based on the concentration of the ligands that they are exposed to. Through this unique mechanism of action, the hedgehog signaling pathway elicits cell fate determination, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and cellular homeostasis. Here, we review current findings on the roles of hedgehog signaling in the sexually dimorphic development of the reproductive organs with an emphasis on mammals and comparative evidence in other species.

  2. Differential evolution of asexual and sexual females in a benign culture environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Terry W.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report one of the first investigations of evolvability of lifespan and reproduction in metazoans, examining both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. We tested effects on senescence of an environmental variable (simulated lake hydroperiod, the length of time an aquatic habitat is inundated), female reproductive physiology (asexual females that reproduce by ameiosis, versus sexual females reproducing by meiosis), and time in a benign culture environment (minimal, if any, external mortality factors). To do this we established chemostat cultures of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis s.s., and maintained the cultures for 385 d. Hydroperiod alone or in interaction with the effects of time in the benign environment (season) or reproductive physiology had no significant effect on the net reproductive rate, generation time, or rate of aging. Yet combining animals from both ephemeral and permanent hydroperiods revealed a 26% increase in asexual female lifespan across seasons (23% decrease in the rate of aging) and a 56% increase in asexual fecundity, suggesting that maintenance in benign laboratory conditions leads to slower aging. The relative stasis of traits for sexual females implies an impact of reproductive physiology on evolvability. In addition we found a positive correlation between fecundity and lifespan, suggesting an absence of trade-offs in life history traits in the benign laboratory environment. PMID:24795527

  3. The α-fetoprotein knock-out mouse model suggests that parental behavior is sexually differentiated under the influence of prenatal estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthieu; Pawluski, Jodi L.; Brock, Olivier; Douhard, Quentin; Bakker, Julie

    2010-01-01

    In rodent species, sexual differentiation of the brain for many reproductive processes depends largely on estradiol. This was recently confirmed again by using the α-fetoprotein knockout (AFP-KO) mouse model, which lacks the protective actions of α-fetoprotein against maternal estradiol and as a result represents a good model to determine the contribution of prenatal estradiol to the sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Female AFP-KO mice were defeminized and masculinized with regard to their neuroendocrine responses as well as sexual behavior. Since parental behavior is also strongly sexually differentiated in mice, we used the AFP-KO mouse model here to ask whether parental responses are differentiated prenatally under the influence of estradiol. It was found that AFP-KO females showed longer latencies to retrieve pups to the nest and also exhibited lower levels of crouching over the pups in the nest in comparison to WT females. In fact, they resembled males (WT and AFP-KO). Other measures of maternal behavior, for example the incidence of infanticide, tended to be higher in AFP-KO females than in WT females but this increase failed to reach statistical significance. The deficits observed in parental behavior of AFP-KO females could not be explained by any changes in olfactory function, novelty recognition or anxiety. Thus our results suggest that prenatal estradiol defeminizes the parental brain in mice. PMID:20109458

  4. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.U.S. EPA,...

  5. Cellular mechanisms of estradiol-mediated sexual differentiation of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher L; Schwarz, Jaclyn S; Dean, Shannon L; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2010-09-01

    Gonadal steroids organize the developing brain during a perinatal sensitive period and have enduring consequences for adult behavior. In male rodents testicular androgens are aromatized in neurons to estrogens and initiate multiple distinct cellular processes that ultimately determine the masculine phenotype. Within specific brain regions, overall cell number and dendritic morphology are the principal targets for hormonal organization. Recent advances have been made in elucidating the cellular mechanisms by which the neurological underpinnings of sexually dimorphic physiology and behavior are determined. These include estradiol-mediated prostaglandin synthesis, presynaptic release of glutamate, postsynaptic changes in glutamate receptors and changes in cell adhesion molecules. Sex differences in cell death are mediated by hormonal modulation of survival and death factors such as TNFalpha and Bcl-2/BAX. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hormonally-mediated Epigenetic Changes to Steroid Receptors in the Developing Brain: Implications for Sexual Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, allow environmental influences to alter long-term gene expression patterns and therefore may be a potential mediator of estradiol-induced organization of the neonatal brain. Here we review data that demonstrate sex and estradiol-induced differences in DNA methylation on the estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and progesterone receptor (PR) promoters in sexually dimorphic brain regions across development. Contrary to the overarching view of DNA methylation as a permanent modification directly tied to gene expression, these data demonstrate that methylation patterns on steroid hormone receptors change across the life span and do not necessarily predict expression. Although further exploration into the mechanism and significance of estradiol-induced alterations in DNA methylation patterns in the neonatal brain is necessary, these results provide preliminary evidence that epigenetic alterations can occur in response to early hormone exposure and may mediate estradiol-induced organization of sex differences in the neonatal brain. PMID:20800064

  7. Agresores sexuales juveniles: tipología y perfil psicosocial en función de la edad de sus víctimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benedicto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de mejorar la comprensión de los factores de riesgo implicados en los delitos sexuales cometidos por adolescentes, se han recopilado datos de 63 menores infractores que habían cometido al menos un delito sexual y cumplido una medida de internamiento en la Comunidad de Madrid por estos hechos entre los años 2006 y 2015. Para explorar posibles diferencias se han establecido dos grupos atendiendo a la clasificación basada en la edad de la víctima, distinguiendo entre adolescentes que agreden sexualmente a niños menores (AM y adolescentes que agreden sexualmente a iguales o adultos (AI. Los resultados indican que el grupo AM presenta un perfil caracterizado por una mayor victimización y aislamiento social, mientras que el grupo AI se caracteriza por una mayor presencia de otras conductas antisociales y agresivas. Finalmente se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados obtenidos para la intervención terapéutica con estos adolescentes.

  8. Timing sexual differentiation: full functional sex reversal achieved through silencing of a single insulin-like gene in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Weil, Simy; Rosen, Ohad; Sagi, Amir

    2012-03-01

    In Crustacea, an early evolutionary group (∼50 000 species) inhabiting most ecological niches, sex differentiation is regulated by a male-specific androgenic gland (AG). The identification of AG-specific insulin-like factors (IAGs) and genomic sex markers offers an opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sexual differentiation mechanism in crustaceans and other arthropods. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first full and functional sex reversal of male freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) through the silencing of a single IAG-encoding gene. These "neofemales" produced all-male progeny, as proven by sex-specific genomic markers. This finding offers an insight regarding the biology and evolution of sex differentiation regulation, with a novel perspective for the evolution of insulin-like peptides. Our results demonstrate how temporal intervention with a key regulating gene induces a determinative, extreme phenotypic shift. Our results also carry tremendous ecological and commercial implications. Invasive and pest crustacean species represent genuine concerns worldwide without an apparent solution. Such efforts might, therefore, benefit from sexual manipulations, as has been successfully realized with other arthropods. Commercially, such manipulation would be significant in sexually dimorphic cultured species, allowing the use of nonbreeding, monosex populations while dramatically increasing yield and possibly minimizing the invasion of exotic cultured species into the environment.

  9. A exploração sexual infanto-juvenil sob a ótica de membros da população

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Pereira Alberto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo versa sobre pesquisa desenvolvida em pontos de exploração sexual comercial de crianças e adolescentes (ESCCA com pessoas adultas, membros da população, acerca do conhecimento que estes tinham a respeito da ESCCA. Foi usado um roteiro com questões abertas e fechadas que versavam sobre a percepção e o conhecimento da ESCCA, características dos envolvidos e formas de enfrentamento. Os dados revelaram que os 15 participantes da pesquisa têm conhecimento do problema e de suas nuanças, causas, características, perfil das crianças e adolescentes e exploradores, modalidades, locais, relação da ESCCA com outras atividades de trabalho e com as redes de exploração. Pode-se constatar que, embora alguns participantes acreditem que a forma de enfrentar a ESCCA resida em políticas públicas e constatem, na cidade objeto da pesquisa, a existência de políticas sociais, não acreditam na eficácia dessas políticas nem acreditam nas leis.

  10. Is increased sexual behavior a symptom of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Stewart; Bell, Robinette; Graff, Adam; Goldenberg, David; Haase, Elizabeth; Downey, Jennifer I; Friedman, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    While there is consensus that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents, its diagnostic criteria are debated. Excessive sexual behavior has been reported in youth who may have juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD), and has been termed "hypersexuality." Although there is no universal definition of this term, this observation has led to a hypothesis that increased sexual behavior characterizes the bipolar syndrome in children and adolescents, and differentiates it from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although this hypothesis is plausible, evidence for it is incomplete, because testing it definitively would require both establishing a standard definition of hypersexuality in children and adolescents, and also reaching consensus about the other nonsexual criteria for pediatric bipolar disorder. In addition, studies to test it would need to control factors other than JBD that are known to increase sexual behavior in children and adolescents. These include sexual abuse and related posttraumatic stress disorder, excessive exposure to sexual stimuli, psychiatric illness in general, and social variables such as family chaos and social stress. Some of these factors might increase sexual behavior in youth with bipolar disorder through psychodynamic mechanisms rather than as a result of the illness itself. Therefore, further research is needed to determine whether increased sexual behavior can serve as a diagnostically valuable criterion for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, and whether it differentiates the disorder from other conditions known to be associated with increased sexual behavior in youth.

  11. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  12. Differential transcript profile of inhibitors with potential anti-venom role in the liver of juvenile and adult Bothrops jararaca snake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícera Maria Gomes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Snakes belonging to the Bothrops genus are vastly distributed in Central and South America and are responsible for most cases of reported snake bites in Latin America. The clinical manifestations of the envenomation caused by this genus are due to three major activities—proteolytic, hemorrhagic and coagulant—mediated by metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, phospholipases A2 and other toxic compounds present in snake venom. Interestingly, it was observed that snakes are resistant to the toxic effects of its own and other snake’s venoms. This natural immunity may occur due the absence of toxin target or the presence of molecules in the snake plasma able to neutralize such toxins. Methods In order to identify anti-venom molecules, we construct a cDNA library from the liver of B. jararaca snakes. Moreover, we analyzed the expression profile of four molecules—the already known anti-hemorrhagic factor Bj46a, one gamma-phospholipase A2 inhibitor, one inter-alpha inhibitor and one C1 plasma protease inhibitor—in the liver of juvenile and adult snakes by qPCR. Results The results revealed a 30-fold increase of gamma-phospholipase A2 inhibitor and a minor increase of the inter-alpha inhibitor (5-fold and of the C1 inhibitor (3-fold in adults. However, the Bj46a factor seems to be equally transcribed in adults and juveniles. Discussion The results suggest the up-regulation of different inhibitors observed in the adult snakes might be a physiological adaptation to the recurrent contact with their own and even other snake’s venoms throughout its lifespan. This is the first comparative analysis of ontogenetic variation of expression profiles of plasmatic proteins with potential anti-venom activities of the venomous snake B. jararaca. Furthermore, the present data contributes to the understanding of the natural resistance described in these snakes.

  13. Attentional bias for pain and sex, and automatic appraisals of sexual penetration : Differential patterns in dyspareunia versus vaginismus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, Reinhilde J.; Dewitte, Marieke D.; ter Kuile, Moniek M.; Peters, Madelon M.L.; Jong, de Peter J.

    Introduction Current information processing models propose that heightened attention bias for sex-related threats (eg, pain) and lowered automatic incentive processes (“wanting”) may play an important role in the impairment of sexual arousal and the development of sexual dysfunctions such as

  14. Juvenile Court Statistics - 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…

  15. Juvenile Court Statistics, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jacqueline; Vereb, Thomas S.

    This report presents information on juvenile court processing of youth in the U.S. during 1974. It is based on data gathered under the National Juvenile Court Statistical Reporting System. Findings can be summarized as follows: (1) 1,252,700 juvenile delinquency cases, excluding traffic offenses, were handled by courts in the U.S. in 1974; (2) the…

  16. Differential Patterns of Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Activation Predict Gender-Specific Changes in Sexual Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansosti, Alexandra A.; Bowman, Hilary C.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the initiation of sexual behavior is common among adolescents and young adults, some individuals express this behavior in a manner that significantly increases their risk for negative outcomes including sexually transmitted infections. Based on accumulating evidence, we have hypothesized that increased sexual risk behavior reflects, in part, an imbalance between neural circuits mediating approach and avoidance in particular as manifest by relatively increased ventral striatum (VS) activity and relatively decreased amygdala activity. Here, we test our hypothesis using data from seventy 18- to 22-year-old university students participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We found a significant three-way interaction between amygdala activation, VS activation, and gender predicting changes in the number of sexual partners over time. Although relatively increased VS activation predicted greater increases in sexual partners for both men and women, the effect in men was contingent on the presence of relatively decreased amygdala activation and the effect in women was contingent on the presence of relatively increased amygdala activation. These findings suggest unique gender differences in how complex interactions between neural circuit function contributing to approach and avoidance may be expressed as sexual risk behavior in young adults. As such, our findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, gender-specific strategies that may be more effective at curtailing sexual risk behavior. PMID:26063921

  17. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats disrupts brain sexual differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masahiko; Mitsui, Tetsuo; Setani, Kaoru; Tamura, Masashi; Kakeyama, Masaki; Sone, Hideko; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tomita, Takako

    2005-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on brain sexual differentiation were investigated. TCDD was orally administered to pregnant Holtzman rats on gestation day (GD) 15, and the activity of brain aromatase, a key enzyme for sexual differentiation, was measured in offspring on postnatal day (PND) 2. Changes in sexual dimorphisms of saccharin preference and the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) were examined in adult offspring. In controls, litter means of brain aromatase activity were higher in males than in females. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased the sex ratio of aromatase activity (male/female) on PND 2. Offspring were weaned on PND28 and the saccharin test was started on PND84. In controls, saccharin (0.25%) intake (g/kg body weight) was significantly higher in female offspring than in males. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly increased saccharin intake in male offspring compared with control males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither dose of TCDD influenced saccharin intake of female offspring. In controls, SDN-POA volume was significantly greater in males than in females at 14 weeks of age. Exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased SDN-POA volume in males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither doses of TCDD influenced the SDN-POA volume in female offspring. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposure dose-dependently induces demasculinization in male offspring by inhibiting brain aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area during central nervous system development

  18. [Sex education and prevention of sexual violence : Contributions to a differential-sensitive prevention of sexualised violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazlawik, Martin; Christmann, Bernd; Dekker, Arne

    2017-09-01

    Prevention of sexual violence against children and adolescents obtains high priority in educational contexts. This is due to the massive (possible) psychosocial impacts of sexual victimization as well as to the considerable prevalence rates that are reported in current studies. Preventive approaches are predominantly native to violence prevention and sex education where they are characterized by independent lines of tradition and positions. This contribution outlines their empirically largely unexplained relation with a focus on the history and development of the discourses of sex education. Diverging disciplinary attempts of positioning towards the prevention of sexual violence reveal an area of conflict between sex-positive and preventive educational objectives. A primacy of preventive contents is seen to be threatening a comprehensive sex education that emphasizes the positive aspects of sexuality. On the other hand, its standards are opposed to excluding and to tabooing sexual violence as a topic. Yet unfinished is therefore the search for a "third way" that might transfer the opposites of both approaches into integrative educational concepts. Unsettled questions about possible contributions of sex education to the prevention of sexual violence, and especially to which extent they are sensitive to difference are discussed based on international research and the theory of sex education.

  19. Differential movement patterns of juvenile Tengmalms owls (Aegolius funereus during the post-fledging dependence period in two years with contrasting prey abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kouba

    Full Text Available Fledgling behaviour and movement patterns throughout the post-fledging dependence period (PFDP, especially in relation to changing environmental conditions, have been rarely studied, despite the fact that this period is recognized as of crucial significance in terms of high mortality of juveniles. The PFDP can extend over quite a protracted period, particularly in birds of prey, and a knowledge of the movement patterns of individuals is fundamental for understanding mechanisms underlying survival, habitat use and dispersion. We radiotracked 39 fledglings of the Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus in two years with different availability of prey: 2010 (n = 29 and 2011 (n = 10 and obtained 1455 daily locations. Fledglings reached independence on average in 45 days after fledging in 2010 (n = 22 and 57 days in 2011 (n = 6. Within years, the most important measures influencing the distance moved from the nest box were age of fledglings and number of surviving siblings present. Individual home range size and duration of PFDP in particular were dependent on maximal number of siblings seen outside the nest box. In the season with low prey availability fledglings were observed at greater distances from the nest box than in the year with higher prey availability (mean distance: 350 m in 2010 and 650 m in 2011 and occupied larger home ranges (mean: 30.3 ha in 2010 and 57.7 ha in 2011. The main factor causing these differences between years was probably the different availability of prey in these two years, affecting breeding success and post-fledging survivorship of the Tengmalm's owls.

  20. Sexual identity, identity disclosure, and health care experiences: is there evidence for differential homophobia in primary care practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Petroll, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    Given extant health disparities among women who belong to the sexual minority, we must understand the ways in which access to and satisfaction with health care contribute to such disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore how sexual minority women's (SMW) health care experiences compared with those of their heterosexually identified counterparts. We also sought to investigate whether there were differences within SMW in this regard. Finally, we explored whether participant satisfaction and comfort with health care providers (HCPs) differed depending upon HCP knowledge of participants' sexual orientation. We administered surveys to 420 women including lesbian, gay, bisexual, or other "queer" identified women (n = 354) and heterosexually identified women (n = 66). Contrary to our expectations, we found that SMW were as likely to have had a recent health care appointment, to have been recommended and to have received similar diagnostic and preventive care, and to feel comfortable discussing their sexual health with their HCPs. They were, however, less likely to report being satisfied with their HCPs. We found no differences between lesbian SMW and non-lesbian SMW with respect to these indicators. We found important differences with respect to sexual orientation disclosure and health care satisfaction, however. Those participants whose HCPs purportedly knew of their minority sexual orientation reported greater satisfaction with their HCPs and greater comfort discussing their sexual health than those whose providers were presumably unaware. We discuss important clinical and research implications of these findings. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual jealousy is a basic emotion. Although it lacks a distinctive facial expression and is unlikely to solve problems of survival, it evolved because it solves adaptive problems of mating. Some adaptive functions are similar in men and women at one level of abstraction, such as warding off potential mate poachers and deterring relationship defection. Other functions are sex-differentiated, such as increasing paternity probability for men and monopolizing a mate's economic commitments for women. Dozens of studies have documented sex-differentiated design features of jealousy: The relative upset about sexual and emotional aspects of infidelity; processing speed and memorial recall of sexual and emotional infidelity cues; physiological distress to sexual and emotional infidelity cues; qualities of same-sex rivals that evoke jealousy, such as superior job prospects versus greater physical attractiveness; triggers of mate retention tactics; jealous interrogations following the discovery of infidelity; and whether an infidelity produces forgiveness or breakup. Although showing all the hallmarks of evolved functionality, sexual jealousy also leads to tremendous destruction, from humiliation to homicide. By these scientific theoretical and empirical criteria, sexual jealousy is properly considered not only "basic" but also "one of the most important emotions".

  2. Sexual dimorphic expression of DMRT1 and Sox9a during gonadal differentiation and hormone-induced sex reversal in the teleost fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kajiura-Kobayashi, Hiroko; Guan, Guijun; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    We examined the expression profiles of tDMRT1 and Sox9a during gonadal sex differentiation and hormone-induced sex reversal. tDMRT1 was detected in the gonial germ-cell-surrounding cells in XY fry specifically before the appearance of any signs of morphological sex differentiation, that is, sex differences in germ cell number and histogenesis, such as differentiation into intratesticular efferent duct or ovarian cavity. The signals became localized in the Sertoli and epithelial cells comprising the efferent duct during gonadal differentiation. After the induction of XY sex reversal with estrogen, tDMRT1 decreased and then disappeared completely. In contrast, tDMRT1 was expressed in the germ-cell-surrounding cells in XX sex reversal with androgen. On the other hand, Sox9a did not show sexual dimorphism before the appearance of sex differences in histogenesis and was not expressed in the efferent duct in the testis. These results suggest that tDMRT1 is a superior testicular differentiation marker in tilapia.

  3. De novo transcriptome assembly, functional annotation and differential gene expression analysis of juvenile and adult E. fetida, a model oligochaete used in ecotoxicological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Thunders

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earthworms are sensitive to toxic chemicals present in the soil and so are useful indicator organisms for soil health. Eisenia fetida are commonly used in ecotoxicological studies; therefore the assembly of a baseline transcriptome is important for subsequent analyses exploring the impact of toxin exposure on genome wide gene expression. Results This paper reports on the de novo transcriptome assembly of E. fetida using Trinity, a freely available software tool. Trinotate was used to carry out functional annotation of the Trinity generated transcriptome file and the transdecoder generated peptide sequence file along with BLASTX, BLASTP and HMMER searches and were loaded into a Sqlite3 database. To identify differentially expressed transcripts; each of the original sequence files were aligned to the de novo assembled transcriptome using Bowtie and then RSEM was used to estimate expression values based on the alignment. EdgeR was used to calculate differential expression between the two conditions, with an FDR corrected P value cut off of 0.001, this returned six significantly differentially expressed genes. Initial BLASTX hits of these putative genes included hits with annelid ferritin and lysozyme proteins, as well as fungal NADH cytochrome b5 reductase and senescence associated proteins. At a cut off of P = 0.01 there were a further 26 differentially expressed genes. Conclusion These data have been made publicly available, and to our knowledge represent the most comprehensive available transcriptome for E. fetida assembled from RNA sequencing data. This provides important groundwork for subsequent ecotoxicogenomic studies exploring the impact of the environment on global gene expression in E. fetida and other earthworm species.

  4. Comprehensive Identification of Sexual Dimorphism-Associated Differentially Expressed Genes in Two-Way Factorial Designed RNA-Seq Data on Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Caetano-Anolles

    Full Text Available Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica reach sexual maturity earlier, breed rapidly and successfully, and cost less and require less space than other birds raised commercially. Given the value of this species for food production and experimental use, more studies are necessary to determine chromosomal regions and genes associated with gender and breed-differentiation. This study employed Trinity and edgeR for transcriptome analysis of next-generation RNA-seq data, which included 4 tissues obtained from 3 different breeding lines of Japanese quail (random bred control, heavy weight, low weight. Differentially expressed genes shared between female and male tissue contrast groups were analyzed to identify genes related to sexual dimorphism as well as potential novel candidate genes for molecular sexing. Several of the genes identified in the present study as significant sex-related genes have been previously found in avian gene expression analyses (NIPBL, UBAP2, and other genes found differentially expressed in this study and not previously associated with sex-related differences may be considered potential candidates for molecular sexing (TERA, MYP0, PPR17, CASQ2. Additionally, other genes likely associated with neuronal and brain development (CHKA, NYAP, as well as body development and size differentiation (ANKRD26, GRP87 in quail were identified. Expression of homeobox protein regulating genes (HXC4, ISL1 shared between our two sex-related contrast groups (Female Brain vs. Male Brain and Ovary vs. Testis indicates that these genes may regulate sex-specific anatomical development. Results reveal genetic features of the quail breed and could allow for more effective molecular sexing as well as selective breeding for traits important in commercial production.

  5. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  6. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  7. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  8. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  9. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition, causes pup mortality and affects sexual differentiation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Risk assessment is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for single compounds. Humans are exposed to a mixture of chemicals and recent studies in our laboratory have shown that combined exposure to endocrine disrupters can cause adverse effects on male sexual development...... were gavaged during gestation and lactation with five doses of a mixture of the fungicides procymidone, mancozeb, epoxyconazole, tebuconazole and prochloraz. The mixture ratio was chosen according to the doses of each individual pesticide that produced no observable effects on pregnancy length and pup...... survival in our laboratory and the dose levels used ranged from 25 to 100% of this mixture. All dose levels caused increased gestation length and dose levels above 25% caused impaired parturition leading to markedly decreased number of live born offspring and high pup perinatal mortality. The sexual...

  10. Perfil clínico de 62 casos de distúrbios da diferenciação sexual Clinical profile of 62 cases of sexual differentiation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gabriel R. de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil clínico dos casos de distúrbios da diferenciação sexual em acompanhamento no Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia Luiz Capriglione, no Rio de Janeiro, nos últimos cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Revisão dos prontuários dos pacientes, com o diagnóstico de genitália ambígua em acompanhamento nos últimos cinco anos, segundo os critérios clínicos descritos por Danish, em 1982. O registro mais antigo foi feito em 1981 e o mais recente de junho de 2006. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 62 casos de genitália ambígua: 26 com registro do sexo feminino e 36 com registro do sexo masculino. O diagnóstico mais freqüente foi o de hiperplasia congênita de supra-renal (33,9%, seguido de quadros sindrômicos (14,5% e disgenesias gonadais (9,7%. A média de idade ao diagnóstico foi de 7,2 anos (de zero a 42 anos. CONCLUSÕES: A ambigüidade genital não é uma doença específica, mas um conjunto de alterações que direcionam o clínico a buscar diagnósticos específicos. A freqüência dessa afecção depende dos critérios diagnósticos utilizados. A adoção de critérios amplos aumenta a chance de detecção precoce do quadro bem como de cuidado adequado a crianças com distúrbios da diferenciação sexual.OBJECTIVE: To report patients with ambiguous genitalia assisted at the State Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the last five years. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all cases of ambiguous genitalia, classified according to Danish criteria (1982, who attended follow-up visits in the last five years. The oldest record is from 1981 and the most recent one, 2006. RESULTS: 62 patients with ambiguous genitalia were found: 26 of them assigned as females and 36 as males. The most frequent diagnosis was congenital adrenal hyperplasia (33.9%, followed by syndromic diseases (14.5% and gonadal dysgenesis (9.7%. The majority of patients with ambiguous genitalia were detected at

  11. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M.; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R.; Loveren, Henk van; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2012-01-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  12. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  13. Exploring the role of the internet in juvenile prostitution cases coming to the attention of law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Melissa; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ji, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory analysis examines the role of the Internet in juvenile prostitution cases coming to the attention of law enforcement. The National Juvenile Prostitution Study (N-JPS) collected information from a national sample of law enforcement agencies about the characteristics of juvenile prostitution cases. In comparison to non-Internet juvenile prostitution cases, Internet juvenile prostitution cases involved younger juveniles and police were more likely to treat juveniles as victims rather than offenders. In addition, these cases were significantly more likely to involve a family or acquaintance exploiter. This analysis suggests that the role of the Internet may impact legal and social service response to juveniles involved in prostitution. In addition, it highlights the need for interventions that acknowledge the vulnerabilities of youth involved in this type of commercial sexual exploitation.

  14. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Precocious pseudopuberty due to juvenile granulosa cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, G.A.; Farooq, N.

    2003-01-01

    A case of precocious puberty occurring in a young girl is presented. Vaginal bleeding and secondary sexual characteristics had occurred at 7 years of age associated with an abdominal mass. These findings were due to a functional juvenile granulosa cell tumor in the right ovary. Right adenectomy was performed. Histopathology was confirmatory. (author)

  16. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen

    2009-01-01

    was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results: The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...

  17. Influence of the brain sexual differentiation process on despair and antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine in the rat forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M L; Martínez-Mota, L; Estrada-Camarena, E; Fernández-Guasti, A

    2014-03-07

    Sex differences exist in the depressive disorder prevalence and response to treatment. Several studies suggest that females respond better than males to the action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), suggesting that gonadal hormones modulate mood and the response to these drugs. Sexual steroid hormones exert organizational actions (perennial and on early development) and activational effects (transient and on differentiated tissues). The aim of this study was to analyze sex differences in the forced swim test (FST) in animals without treatment and after fluoxetine (FLX, 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg). Initially, we compared male and female adult rats under control conditions or after altering their sexual differentiation process (at day 5 postnatally, PN, 60μg of testosterone propionate to females and male castration to induce or preclude masculinization, respectively). To further analyze if the sex differences depend on organizational or activational steroid hormone action we tested the same animals before and after adult gonadectomy. To prevent variations depending upon the estrous cycle, control and masculinized females were tested in estrus. Control females showed lower immobility and required lower doses of FLX (5mg/kg), to show an antidepressant-like effect, than males (10mg/kg), even after adult gonadectomy. In control males adult orchidectomy prevented FLX's action. Neonatally masculinized females exhibited analogous levels of immobility than control ones; before ovariectomy they responded to FLX similar to controls, but after the surgery they did not respond to fluoxetine. Neonatally orchidectomized males exhibited similar immobility values and response to FLX than control females. The findings suggest that the sex difference in despair depends on the hormones organizational effects and, in males, the response to FLX relies on organizational and activational actions. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mandatory Reporting Laws and Identification of Child Abuse and Neglect: Consideration of Differential Maltreatment Types, and a Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mathews

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory reporting laws have been created in many jurisdictions as a way of identifying cases of severe child maltreatment on the basis that cases will otherwise remain hidden. These laws usually apply to all four maltreatment types. Other jurisdictions have narrower approaches supplemented by differential response systems, and others still have chosen not to enact mandatory reporting laws for any type of maltreatment. In scholarly research and normative debates about mandatory reporting laws and their effects, the four major forms of child maltreatment—physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect—are often grouped together as if they are homogenous in nature, cause, and consequence. Yet, the heterogeneity of maltreatment types, and different reporting practices regarding them, must be acknowledged and explored when considering what legal and policy frameworks are best suited to identify and respond to cases. A related question which is often conjectured upon but seldom empirically explored, is whether reporting laws make a difference in case identification. This article first considers different types of child abuse and neglect, before exploring the nature and operation of mandatory reporting laws in different contexts. It then posits a differentiation thesis, arguing that different patterns of reporting between both reporter groups and maltreatment types must be acknowledged and analysed, and should inform discussions and assessments of optimal approaches in law, policy and practice. Finally, to contribute to the evidence base required to inform discussion, this article conducts an empirical cross-jurisdictional comparison of the reporting and identification of child sexual abuse in jurisdictions with and without mandatory reporting, and concludes that mandatory reporting laws appear to be associated with better case identification.

  19. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  20. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  1. Brain sexual differentiation and effects of cross-sex hormone therapy in transpeople: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Nienke M; Burke, Sarah M; den Heijer, Martin; Soleman, Remi S; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Veltman, Dick J; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P

    2017-12-01

    It is hypothesized that transpeople show sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. Various structural neuroimaging studies provide support for this notion, but little is known about the sexual differentiation of functional resting-state networks in transpeople. In this study we therefore aimed to determine whether brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns in transpeople are sex-typical or sex-atypical, before and after the start of cross-sex hormone therapy (CHT). We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance data in 36 transpeople (22 with female sex assigned at birth), first during gonadal suppression, and again four months after start of CHT, and in 37 cisgender people (20 females), both sessions without any hormonal intervention. We used independent component analysis to identify the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and left and right working memory network (WMN). These spatial maps were used for group comparisons. Within the DMN, SN, and left WMN similar FC patterns were found across groups. However, within the right WMN, cisgender males showed significantly greater FC in the right caudate nucleus than cisgender females. There was no such sex difference in FC among the transgender groups and they did not differ significantly from either of the cisgender groups. CHT (in transgender participants) and circulating sex steroids (in cisgender participants) did not affect FC. Our findings may suggest that cisgender males and females experience a dissimilar (early) differentiation of the right WMN and that such differentiation is less pronounced in transpeople. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  3. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male...

  4. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  5. VINCLOZOLIN (V) TREATMENT INDUCES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS AND INFERTILITY IN F1 MALE RATS WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL BUT NOT GONADAL DIFFERENTIATION. THE EFFECTS ARE NOT TRANSMITTED TO THE SUBSEQUENT GENERATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V produces adverse reproductive effects in male rats when administered during sexual differentiation by acting as an androgen-antagonist. It was recently reported that four generations of SD rats, derived from dams dosed via ip injection GD8-15 with 100 mg V/kg/day, displayed pro...

  6. The effects of differential prenatal and postnatal social enviroments on sexual maturation of young prairie deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D; Terman, C R

    1975-05-01

    We compared the influence of different social enviroments on sexual maturation of young prairie deermice. Between 12 and 48 hr after parturition, one-half of a litter from a population was exchanged with one-half of a litter from a bisexual pair. In each situation the remaining half-litter served as controls for the exchange procedure. The testes and vesicular weights of population-reared males were significantly larger than those of males reared by bisexual pairs, irrespective of prenatal enviroment. Generally, population-reared females also had larger reproductive organs than those reared by bisexual pairs, although these differences were not statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the adrenal weights of males or females, but females reared by bisexual pairs had larger absolute and relative adrenals than females reared in populations.

  7. Differential expression of secretogranin II and chromogranin A genes in the female rat pituitary through sexual maturation and estrous cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anouar, Y.; Duval, J.

    1991-01-01

    Secretogranin II (SgII) is a protein of pituitary secretory granules released by LHRH-stimulated gonadotrope cells. Estrogens and androgens are modulators of SgII release. Experiments were performed to determine the regulation of expression of the SgII gene in the female rat pituitary, during sexual maturation and according to the estrous cycle. Age- and cycle-related changes in SgII mRNA content were estimated through cytoplasmic slot blot; SgII content was determined by western blotting; maturation of the protein was controlled through [35S]sulfate labeling. Variations in chromogranin A (CgA), another protein of secretory granules, were analyzed in the same experimental conditions to assess the specificity of SgII regulation. The pituitary SgII concentration increased between days 7 and 21 (2.2-fold) and then declined to the initial 7-day-old value. Simultaneously, the CgA concentration went through a maximum between days 14 and 21 and then strongly dropped to barely detectable levels in the adult pituitary. The SgII mRNA concentration followed roughly the same pattern as the protein. Moreover, the sulfation level remained constant between days 14 and 60. These results demonstrated a regulatory mechanism operating, during sexual maturation, on the SgII gene and not on the protein processing or on storage/release steps. In the 4-day cycling females, the pituitary SgII mRNA and protein contents were the lowest during estrus. They then increased to their highest values in diestrus II. Moreover, the sulfation level of SgII was significantly higher during estrus than during any other stage. Due to its low content level, variations in pituitary CgA could not be demonstrated during the cycle

  8. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  9. Y-chromosomal DNA markers for discrimination of chemical substance and effluent effects on sexual differentiation in salmon.

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Luis O B; Smith, Jack L; Ikonomou, Michael G; Devlin, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Chinook salmon alevins were exposed during their labile period for sex differentiation to different concentrations of bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME), primary sewage effluent, secondary sewage effluent (SE), 17ss-estradiol, testosterone, and nonylphenol. After exposure for 29 days post hatching (DPH), fish were allowed to grow until 103 and 179 DPH, at which time their genetic sex was determined using Y-chromosomal DNA markers and their gonadal sex was determined by histology. Independent...

  10. Perinatal Exposure to Low Levels of the Environmental Antiandrogen Vinclozolin Alters Sex-Differentiated Social Play and Sexual Behaviors in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Nathan K.W.; Pelletier, Nicole C.; Cote, Joyce M.; Concannon, John B.; Jurdak, Nicole A.; Minott, Sara B.; Markowski, Vincent P.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of exposure to the antiandrogenic fungicide vinclozolin (Vz) on the development of two sex-differentiated behaviors that are organized by the perinatal actions of androgens. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered a daily oral dose of 0, 1.5, 3, 6, or 12 mg/kg Vz from the 14th day of gestation through postnatal day (PND)3. The social play behavior of juvenile offspring was examined on PND22 and again on PND34 during play sessions with a same-sex littermate. After they reached adulthood, the male offspring were examined with the ex copula penile reflex procedure to assess erectile function. Vz did not produce any gross maternal or neonatal toxicity, nor did it reduce the anogenital distance in male pups. We observed no effects of Vz on play behavior on PND22. However, the 12-mg/kg Vz dose significantly increased play behavior in the male offspring on PND34 compared with controls. The most dramatic increases were seen with the nape contact and pounce behavior components of play. The Vz effect was more pronounced in male than in female offspring. As adults, male offspring showed a significant reduction of erections at all dose levels during the ex copula penile reflex tests. The 12-mg/kg dose was also associated with an increase in seminal emissions. These effects demonstrate that perinatal Vz disrupts the development of androgen-mediated behavioral functions at exposure levels that do not produce obvious structural changes or weight reductions in androgen-sensitive reproductive organs. PMID:15929892

  11. Differential Risk for Homelessness Among US Male and Female Veterans With a Positive Screen for Military Sexual Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignone, Emily; Gundlapalli, Adi V; Blais, Rebecca K; Carter, Marjorie E; Suo, Ying; Samore, Matthew H; Kimerling, Rachel; Fargo, Jamison D

    2016-06-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) is associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes following military separation. Recent research suggests that MST may be a determinant in several factors associated with postdeployment homelessness. To evaluate MST as an independent risk factor for homelessness and to determine whether risk varies by sex. A retrospective cohort study of US veterans who used Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services between fiscal years 2004 and 2013 was conducted using administrative data from the Department of Defense and VHA. Included in the study were 601 892 US veterans deployed in Iraq or Afghanistan who separated from the military between fiscal years 2001 and 2011 and subsequently used VHA services. Positive response to screen for MST administered in VHA facilities. Administrative evidence of homelessness within 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years following the first VHA encounter after last deployment. The mean (SD) age of the 601 892 participants was 38.9 (9.4) years, 527 874 (87.7%) were male, 310 854 (51.6%) were white, and 382 361 (63.5%) were enlisted in the Army. Among veterans with a positive screen for MST, rates of homelessness were 1.6% within 30 days, 4.4% within 1 year, and 9.6% within 5 years, more than double the rates of veterans with a negative MST screen (0.7%, 1.8%, and 4.3%, respectively). A positive screen for MST was significantly and independently associated with postdeployment homelessness. In regression models adjusted for demographic and military service characteristics, odds of experiencing homelessness were higher among those who screened positive for MST compared with those who screened negative (30-day: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.89; 95% CI, 1.58-2.24; 1-year: AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 2.04-2.53; and 5-year: AOR, 2.63; 95% CI, 2.36-2.93). Military sexual trauma screen status remained independently associated with homelessness after adjusting for co-occurring mental health and substance abuse diagnoses

  12. Minireview: Hormones and Human Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex...

  13. Differentiating Characteristics of Juvenile Methamphetamine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Daniel; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Glaser, Brian A.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in characteristics and risk behaviors endorsed by detained adolescent methamphetamine users and compared them with other drug users. Subjects completed the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory and a questionnaire in which sociodemographics and behavioral information were explored and compared. Multivariate…

  14. Research in Human Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Joan; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Medical students' attitudes towards concepts in sexuality before and after a five-day sexuality course were tested at the University of Miami School of Medicine and evaluated with Osgood's Semantic Differential. Concepts rated were "my sexuality,""masturbation,""homosexuality," and "my role in understanding…

  15. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  16. Antibodies in juvenile-onset myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansley, Sarah L

    2016-11-01

    Juvenile-onset myositis is a highly heterogeneous disease. Myositis-specific and associated autoantibodies provide a potential means of subdividing patients into clinically homogenous subgroups. Given the increasing availability of autoantibody testing, this review explores the phenotypes associated with different autoantibodies in juvenile-onset myositis and the potential clinical utility of autoantibody testing. Autoantibodies can be identified in 60-70% of children with myositis and the recent discovery of novel myositis-associated autoantibodies in adult patients suggests this may increase in the near future. Detailed phenotype descriptions are now known for several autoantibodies commonly identified in juvenile-onset disease. Whilst there is insufficient evidence to recommend a differential treatment approach based on autoantibody status, it is becoming increasingly clear that some autoantibody subgroups are often treatment resistant and may benefit from a more aggressive approach. The validation of nonspecialised methods for myositis-specific autoantibody detection should lead to more widely available testing. In juvenile-onset disease, this will provide detailed prognostic information and in the future may also influence approach.

  17. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Papazian; Israel Alfonso; Nayle Araguez

    2009-01-01

    La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ) es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos) o sostenidos (posturas) y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nerv...

  18. Differential Regulation of Two-Tiered Plant Immunity and Sexual Reproduction by ANXUR Receptor-Like Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Hyunggon; Feng, Baomin; Hu, Zhangjian; Boisson-Dernier, Aurélien; Franck, Christina M; Meng, Xiangzong; Huang, Yanyan; Zhou, Jinggeng; Xu, Guangyuan; Wang, Taotao; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Plants have evolved two tiers of immune receptors to detect infections: cell surface-resident pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense microbial signatures and intracellular nucleotide binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins that recognize pathogen effectors. How PRRs and NLRs interconnect and activate the specific and overlapping plant immune responses remains elusive. A genetic screen for components controlling plant immunity identified ANXUR1 (ANX1), a malectin-like domain-containing receptor-like kinase, together with its homolog ANX2, as important negative regulators of both PRR- and NLR-mediated immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana ANX1 constitutively associates with the bacterial flagellin receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING2 (FLS2) and its coreceptor BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE1 (BAK1). Perception of flagellin by FLS2 promotes ANX1 association with BAK1, thereby interfering with FLS2-BAK1 complex formation to attenuate PRR signaling. In addition, ANX1 complexes with the NLR proteins RESISTANT TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE2 (RPS2) and RESISTANCE TO P. SYRINGAE PV MACULICOLA1. ANX1 promotes RPS2 degradation and attenuates RPS2-mediated cell death. Surprisingly, a mutation that affects ANX1 function in plant immunity does not disrupt its function in controlling pollen tube growth during fertilization. Our study thus reveals a molecular link between PRR and NLR protein complexes that both associate with cell surface-resident ANX1 and uncovers uncoupled functions of ANX1 and ANX2 during plant immunity and sexual reproduction. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of unknown aetiology in childhood and predominantly presents with peripheral arthritis. The disease is divided into several subgroups, according to demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease prognosis. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is one of the most frequent disease subtypes, is characterized by recurrent fever and rash. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, common among young female patients, is usually accompanied by anti-nuclear antibodie positivity and anterior uveitis. Seropositive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an analogue of adult rheumatoid arthritis, is seen in less than 10% of paediatric patients. Seronegative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an entity more specific for childhood, appears with widespread large- and small-joint involvement. Enthesitis-related arthritis is a separate disease subtype, characterized by enthesitis and asymmetric lower-extremity arthritis. This disease subtype represents the childhood form of adult spondyloarthropathies, with human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity and uveitis but commonly without axial skeleton involvement. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a psoriatic rash, accompanied by arthritis, nail pitting and dactylitis. Disease complications can vary from growth retardation and osteoporosis secondary to treatment and disease activity, to life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome with multi-organ insufficiency. With the advent of new therapeutics over the past 15 years, there has been a marked improvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis treatment and long-term outcome, without any sequelae. The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients involves teamwork, including an experienced paediatric rheumatologist, an ophthalmologist, an orthopaedist, a paediatric psychiatrist and a physiotherapist. The primary goals

  20. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  1. Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Indian Health Careers Indian Preference Loan Repayment Military Transition Student ... Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American Indians and Alaska Natives. Sexual assault ...

  2. Dimorfismo sexual en el acebo, Ilex aquifolium: ¿coste de la reproducción, selección sexual o diferenciación fisiológica? Sexual dimorphism in holly Ilex aquifolium: cost of reproduction, sexual selection or physiological differentiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ RAMÓN OBESO

    2002-03-01

    (Aquifoliaceae: cost of reproduction, sexual selection (pollen competition and physiological differentiation between sexes. Here we present both published and new experimental and observational results. At flowering, males allocated more in reproduction than females; however at fruiting females allocated about ten times more in terms of carbon and about five times more in terms of nitrogen than males. Both sexes did not differ in leaf dynamics. Branch RGR usually showed greater values in male branches, but the results depended on the ecological context. Tree growth rate, estimated from mean width of annual rings over 10-30 yr, was significantly higher for males. Experimental debbuding in reproductive branches of females accounted for an increase in RGR compared to branches that matured fruits. When competition among males was examined, there were significant differences among male trees in pollen production per flower. The experimental crossing of five males and five females demonstrated strong maternal effects on fecundity, while non significant differences among males were found in their probability of sire progeny. There were some physiological differences between sexes. The efficiency of photosynthesis of leaves (measured as Fv' / Fm' on nonfruiting branches of females was higher than for leaves on branches of male trees under low-light conditions. On the other side, the water-use efficiency, measured by carbon isotope discrimination, was greater in males under xeric conditions. These results are used to discuss the importance of the above mentioned hypothesis

  3. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male infant who presented with chronic anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding initially. Panendoscopy and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple polyposis throughout the entire alimentary tract leading to intussusception. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) bleeding scan revealed the possibility of gastrointestinal tract bleeding in the jejunum. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was excluded, whereas the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome was established. Results: Enteroscopic polypectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. However, polyps recurred and occupied the majority of the gastrointestinal tract in 6 months. Supportive management was given. The patient expired for severe sepsis at the age of 18 months. Conclusion: Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited disease, so it is not possible to prevent it. Concerning of its poor outcome and high mortality rate, it is important that we should increase awareness and education of the parents at its earliest stages. PMID:27631205

  4. [ABOUT JUVENILE NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, V; Meunier, P; Otto, B

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a young man with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. In this paper, we will first remind the clinical signs of this pathology and its radiological appearance (localisation and extensions). Then we will explain how radioembolisation techniques were used to facilitate the surgical intervention. Finally we will discuss the histology of this tumor.

  5. Naevoxanthoendothelioma (Synonym: Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Handa

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of naevoxanthoendothelioma juvenile xanthogranuloma is reported with rare features like late onset of the disease, involvement of liver and diffuse cutaneous lesions including cafe au lait spots and pigmented naevus. Final diagnosis could be achieved only on histopathology report.

  6. Trastornos de la diferenciación sexual: presentación de un caso de genitales ambiguos y revisión del tema Disorders of sexual differentiation: a case presentation of ambiguous genitalia and literature review on this topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoerquis Mejías Sánchez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos de la diferenciación sexual constituyen un grupo complejo de entidades y síndromes. El término estados intersexuales hace referencia a aquellos recién nacidos que presentan genitales ambiguos, esto es, sin evidencia clara sobre sexo asignable. Su frecuencia en nuestro medio es relativamente escasa. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido en el que, en el examen físico, presenta micropenisomía y escroto bífido. La fusión labioescrotal está alterada con rodetes separados que semejan labios mayores y una estructura que remeda un introito vaginal. En el estudio ultrasonográfico se descartó la presencia de útero y ovarios y se constató la presencia de testículos en canal inguinal. La cromatina sexual de células en interfase de la mucosa oral reveló la presencia de 0 % de cuerpo Barr y el estudio cromosómico mostró un cariotipo masculino normal (46, XY, por lo que se interpreta el caso como un pseudohermafroditismo masculino. Se realiza una revisión de los trastornos de la diferenciación sexual.Sexual differentiation disorders constitute a group of complex syndromes and entities. The term intersexual states makes reference to those newborns that present with ambiguos genitalia, that is, without any clear evidence of defined sex. Intersexuality may be classified as masculine and femenine pseudohermaphroditism and true hermaphroditism, which is caused by incomplete sexual differentiation in the male or virilization in the female. This disorder is relatively rare in our context, though knowledge increases more and more about it thanks to the development of molecular biology and the discovered involvement of genes in the normal sexual differentiation process. This article presented the case of a newborn whose dysmorphological exam at birth indicated positive findings in external genitalia such as micropenis and bifid scrotum. Labioscrotal fusion was upset with separated folds resembling labia majoris and a structure

  7. The Effects of Two Types of Exposure on Attitudes toward Aspects of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeUnes, Arnold; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tracks the attitude changes of a group of abnormal psychology students following a tour of a juvenile correctional facility and a presentation by four of the inmates. A 25-item semantic differential scale revealed a noticeable improvement in the students' attitudes towards juvenile delinquents after the visit. (MJP)

  8. Identificação sexual através do estudo anatômico do sistema urogenital em recém-eclodidos e jovens de Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae Sexual identification using anatomical study of urogenital system in hatchlings and juveniles of tracHemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Malvasio

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron, 1835 less than 12 months old are examined for sexual identification through anatomical study of urogenital system. Histological analysis is used to confirm sexual identification. It is concluded that accurate sexual identification is possible in hatchlings using gonadal morphology. Differences between testes and ovaries are clear so histological analysis is necessary for this species only in case of doubts.

  9. Effects of nitrate and atrazine on larval development and sexual differentiation in the northern leopard frog Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Carr, James A; Handy, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Pollution from agrochemicals may be contributing to the global decline in amphibian populations. Environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate and/or atrazine on anuran development and gonadal differentiation were tested. Four replicates of 20 tadpoles per tank (80/treatment) were exposed from Taylor-Kollros stage 2 to 3 to stage 23 to 34 to either 10 mg/L nitrate, 10 microg/L atrazine, a combined exposure of 10 mg/L nitrate plus 10 microg/L atrazine, or untreated controls. No treatment-dependent effects on weight, snout-vent or hind limb length, or time to forelimb emergence were observed. The proportions of females increased in all treatments compared to the controls, especially in the combined treatment (chi2 = 17.90, df = 6, p = 0.0065, combined = 66.4% female, control = 41% female). The frequency of intersex was low in all treatments. No treatment-related effects on the total number of spermatogenic cells were observed, but the ratio of cell types differed in that testes from animals in the treated groups exhibited more spermatogonia, fewer spermatocytes, and more spermatids than the control (significantly different, Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). Ovaries from animals treated with nitrate or atrazine exhibited larger immature (previtellogenic) and mature (vitellogenic) follicles, but ovaries from the combined treatment had larger immature follicles only. Testicular oocytes were observed in the nitrate-only and atrazine-only treatments, and the control treatment, but not the combined treatment. Overall, this study has demonstrated changes in sex ratios that are more marked in response to combined nitrate/atrazine exposure than with these chemicals alone. Histological evidence suggests that premature maturation of gonad may occur as a result of nitrate and/or atrazine exposure during larval development.

  10. Motivation, Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors of Juveniles in Compare to Wellbehaved Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Kupiec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contain results of research which participants were 104 juvenile delinquent and 294 adolescents from public schools. The statistic analyses show that juveniles have similar level of prosocial motivation as their well behaving peers from schools. However, gender is significant differentiation factor because girls have higher prosocial motivation and more frequently behave prosocially than boys in both compared groups. Juveniles exhibit less prosocial behavior than antisocial to relatives and friends, compared to their peers from schools, also. This paper include discussion of results and practical recommendations how we can develope motivation and prosocial behavior among juvenile delinquents.

  11. ADMINISTRATION OF POTENTIALLY ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDES (PROCYMIDONE, LINURON, IPRODIONE, CHLOZOLINATE, P,P'-DDE AND KETOCONAZOLE) AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES (DIBUTYL-AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE, PCB 169, AND ETHANE DIMETHANE SULPHONATE) DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION PRODUCES DIVERSE PROFILES OF REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS IN THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiandrogenic chemicals alter sexual differentiation by a variety of mechanisms, and as a consequence, they induce different profiles of effects. For example, in utero treatment with the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, flutamide, produces ventral prostate agenesis and testicu...

  12. Preventing Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina dos Reis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to problematize discourses about protection and care that have surrounded compulsory hospitalization by evidencing its use as a control and punishment mechanism that increases the social vulnerability of young drug users. For such, we analyze lawsuits involving juveniles who were consigned to psychiatric institutions for drug addiction treatment as a protection measure in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The analysis of the materials has evidenced discourses that have circumscribed young drug users and constructed this population as potentially dangerous subjects as well as a population category at risk. In this sense, we point out how compulsory hospitalization has emerged out of the lawsuits as a tool for prevention of juvenile delinquency.

  13. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  14. Differential gene expression patterns in developing sexually dimorphic rat brain regions exposed to antiandrogenic, estrogenic, or complex endocrine disruptor mixtures: glutamatergic synapses as target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver; Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Rehrauer, Hubert; Georgijevic, Jelena Kühn; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Schlumpf, Margret

    2015-04-01

    The study addressed the question whether gene expression patterns induced by different mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) administered in a higher dose range, corresponding to 450×, 200×, and 100× high-end human exposure levels, could be characterized in developing brain with respect to endocrine activity of mixture components, and which developmental processes were preferentially targeted. Three EDC mixtures, A-Mix (anti-androgenic mixture) with 8 antiandrogenic chemicals (di-n-butylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, vinclozolin, prochloraz, procymidone, linuron, epoxiconazole, and DDE), E-Mix (estrogenic mixture) with 4 estrogenic chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, and butylparaben), a complex mixture, AEP-Mix, containing the components of A-Mix and E-Mix plus paracetamol, and paracetamol alone, were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from gestation day 7 until weaning. General developmental endpoints were not affected by EDC mixtures or paracetamol. Gene expression was analyzed on postnatal day 6, during sexual brain differentiation, by exon microarray in medial preoptic area in the high-dose group, and by real-time RT-PCR in medial preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus in all dose groups. Expression patterns were mixture, sex, and region specific. Effects of the analgesic drug paracetamol, which exhibits antiandrogenic activity in peripheral systems, differed from those of A-Mix. All mixtures had a strong, mixture-specific impact on genes encoding for components of excitatory glutamatergic synapses and genes controlling migration and pathfinding of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, as well as genes linked with increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. Because development of glutamatergic synapses is regulated by sex steroids also in hippocampus, this may represent a general target of ECD mixtures.

  15. Sex Differences in Medium Spiny Neuron Excitability and Glutamatergic Synaptic Input: Heterogeneity Across Striatal Regions and Evidence for Estradiol-Dependent Sexual Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Cao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Steroid sex hormones and biological sex influence how the brain regulates motivated behavior, reward, and sensorimotor function in both normal and pathological contexts. Investigations into the underlying neural mechanisms have targeted the striatal brain regions, including the caudate–putamen, nucleus accumbens core (AcbC, and shell. These brain regions are of particular interest to neuroendocrinologists given that they express membrane-associated but not nuclear estrogen receptors, and also the well-established role of the sex steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (estradiol in modulating striatal dopamine systems. Indeed, output neurons of the striatum, the medium spiny neurons (MSNs, exhibit estradiol sensitivity and sex differences in electrophysiological properties. Here, we review sex differences in rat MSN glutamatergic synaptic input and intrinsic excitability across striatal regions, including evidence for estradiol-mediated sexual differentiation in the nucleus AcbC. In prepubertal animals, female MSNs in the caudate–putamen exhibit a greater intrinsic excitability relative to male MSNs, but no sex differences are detected in excitatory synaptic input. Alternatively, female MSNs in the nucleus AcbC exhibit increased excitatory synaptic input relative to male MSNs, but no sex differences in intrinsic excitability were detected. Increased excitatory synaptic input onto female MSNs in the nucleus AcbC is abolished after masculinizing estradiol or testosterone exposure during the neonatal critical period. No sex differences are detected in MSNs in prepubertal nucleus accumbens shell. Thus, despite possessing the same neuron type, striatal regions exhibit heterogeneity in sex differences in MSN electrophysiological properties, which likely contribute to the sex differences observed in striatal function.

  16. Juvenile Fibroadenoma. A Case Report and Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, Cesar Augusto; Castano Nohora; Sara Jorge Alberto

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of a 10 year old girl who attended to our institution with a big mass in his right breast with fast growing after menarca. The diagnosis of this mass was juvenile fibroadenoma of the breast. We also review key concepts about this entity, its clinical presentation, imaging findings, differential diagnosis treatment and prognosis

  17. Radioangiography in diagnosis of juvenile angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantarov, K.D.; Anyutin, R.G.; Ashikhmina, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    To study the blood supply of juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx 10 patients were examined (2 of them were examined twice). Four patients with the deseases of the nose and the nasopharynx of a nonvascular nature were in the control group. The authors used sup(99m)Tc for radioangiography. The investigations were made on the gamma-chamber ''Nuclear-Chicago'' connected to the computer ''Cina-200''. Ten patients with juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx showed rapid accumulation of the radioactive substance at the site of the tumour exceeding its concentration in the carotic arteries by 4-10 times. In unilateral localization of angiofibroma, its blood supply was provided mainly through the external carotic artery at the affection site or evenly through the both external carotic arteries. The data on dynamic distribution of the radioactive substance, scintiphotograms and clinical observations allow a distinct differentiation between juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx the adenoid tissue or any other tumour to determine the angiofibroma size as well as to follow the results of surgical and radiation treatment

  18. Dysregulated sexuality and high sexual desire: distinct constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Jason; Christoff, Kalina; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2010-10-01

    The literature on dysregulated sexuality, whether theoretical, clinical or empirical, has failed to differentiate the construct from high sexual desire. In this study, we tested three hypotheses which addressed this issue. A sample of 6458 men and 7938 women, some of whom had sought treatment for sexual compulsivity, addiction or impulsivity, completed an online survey comprised of various sexuality measures. Men and women who reported having sought treatment scored significantly higher on measures of dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire. For men, women, and those who had sought treatment, dysregulated sexuality was associated with increased sexual desire. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor model, indicating that, in both male and female participants, dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire variables loaded onto a single underlying factor. The results of this study suggest that dysregulated sexuality, as currently conceptualized, labelled, and measured, may simply be a marker of high sexual desire and the distress associated with managing a high degree of sexual thoughts, feelings, and needs.

  19. [Medical students' sexuality--development and fulfilment of sexual needs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Klasa, Katarzyna; Sobański, Jerzy A; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Dembińska, Edyta

    2012-01-01

    Education in human sexual physiology and pathology, as well as own sexual health of medical doctors determines in a large proportion the ability to talk with patients about their sexual disorders. Therefore the authors considered important to collect and assess data regarding sexual health and development of Medical Faculty students. Analysis of selected aspects of psychosexual development and sex life of IVth grade medical students. We applied the self-report Questionnaire of Satisfaction with Sexual Life (KSS2), an instrument created to assess sexual problems in patients treated with group psychotherapy. Medical students filled the questionnaire when attending the courses of Psychopathology of neurotic disorders or Psychotherapy. Analysis of the collected data revealed a relatively high differentiation of the studied group in regard of satisfaction and experiences with sexual life, attitudes towards masturbation, relationships and sexual activity. Regarding some aspects, significant differences between women and men occurred. A set of factors were identified, some of them may negatively influence medical doctor's competencies in the domain of sexual health. These are not having sexual debut or even lack of any erotic experiences and lack of sexual satisfaction. The results indicate a significant prevalence of factors, which may impede students education as well as taking into consideration the sexual issues during the medical interview. Assessment of influence of students' and doctors' own sexuality on their competencies in diagnostics and treatment requires further studies.

  20. Differential effects of central injections of D1 and D2 receptor agonists and antagonists on male sexual behavior in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleitz-Nelson, H K; Cornil, C A; Balthazart, J; Ball, G F

    2010-07-01

    A key brain site in the control of male sexual behavior is the medial pre-optic area (mPOA) where dopamine stimulates both D1 and D2 receptor subtypes. Research completed to date in Japanese quail has only utilized systemic injections and therefore much is unknown about the specific role played by dopamine in the brain and mPOA in particular. The present study investigated the role of D1 and D2 receptors on male sexual behavior by examining how intracerebroventricular injections and microinjections into the mPOA of D1 and D2 agonists and antagonists influenced appetitive and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior in male quail. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular injections at three doses of D1 or D2 agonists and antagonists. The results indicated that D1 receptors facilitated consummatory male sexual behavior, whereas D2 receptors inhibited both appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Experiment 3 examined the effects of the same compounds specifically injected in the mPOA and showed that, in this region, both receptors stimulated male sexual behaviors. Together, these data indicated that the stimulatory action of dopamine in the mPOA may require a combined activation of D1 and D2 receptors. Finally, the regulation of male sexual behavior by centrally infused dopaminergic compounds in a species lacking an intromittent organ suggested that dopamine action on male sexual behavior does not simply reflect the modulation of genital reflexes due to general arousal, but relates to the central control of sexual motivation. Together, these data support the claim that dopamine specifically regulates male sexual behavior.

  1. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  2. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and changes in sexual function are common. These physiological changes can include: A need for more stimulation ... page: Sexuality in later life. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/sexuality- ...

  3. Sexual Education

    OpenAIRE

    Býmová, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    The subject matter of this diploma thesis "Sexual Education" is sexual education in the Czech Republic, specifically dedicated to the study of the integration of sexual education into the educational process in schools and families.

  4. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  6. Desafios da contracepção juvenil: interseções entre gênero, sexualidade e saúde Challenges of youth contraception: intersections between gender, sexuality and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Reis Brandão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda, sob uma perspectiva socioantropológica, os desafios postos aos jovens na gestão da vida afetivo-sexual, no que tange à prevenção de gravidez imprevista. Discute algumas dificuldades por eles encontradas no manejo da contracepção, no decorrer de suas trajetórias afetivo-sexuais, identificando situações propensas à não-utilização de métodos anticonceptivos (MAC. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, cujo material empírico agrupa 73 entrevistas em profundidade, com jovens de ambos os sexos, de 18 a 24 anos de idade, provenientes de três capitais do país (Salvador, Rio de Janeiro e Porto Alegre e de dois segmentos sociais (popular e médio, que passaram por ao menos um episódio de gravidez na adolescência. A análise temática dos dados reúne elementos afins e recorrentes nas narrativas juvenis, além dos contrastes de gênero e classe social. Os resultados relativos às dificuldades dos jovens de usar continuamente os MAC foram agrupados em eixos temáticos: contexto do relacionamento; relação com a família no que tange à sexualidade; efeitos colaterais dos métodos hormonais; descuido com a contracepção; dificuldades dos serviços de saúde; “falha” dos MAC; forte concepção da paternidade nos segmentos populares; uso de preservativo com parceiras “desconhecidas”; uso de coito interrompido, sem conhecimento do ciclo menstrual da parceira.This paper shows, from a social anthropological perspective, the challenges faced by young people in managing their sexual and affective lives, when it comes to preventing unexpected pregnancy. It aims to discuss some of the difficulties young people have when dealing with contraception along their sexual and affective lives and also to identify circumstances in which they tend not to use contraceptive methods. A qualitative research is presented, in which empirical data consists of 73 in-depth interviews with young people of both sex, with age ranging from 18 to

  7. Influence of ERβ selective agonism during the neonatal period on the sexual differentiation of the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patisaul Heather B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that sexual differentiation of the rodent hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is principally orchestrated by estrogen during the perinatal period. Here we sought to better characterize the mechanistic role the beta form of the estrogen receptor (ERβ plays in this process. Methods To achieve this, we exposed neonatal female rats to three doses (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg of the ERβ selective agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN using estradiol benzoate (EB as a positive control. Measures included day of vaginal opening, estrous cycle quality, GnRH and Fos co-localization following ovariectomy and hormone priming, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH levels and quantification of hypothalamic kisspeptin immunoreactivity. A second set of females was then neonatally exposed to DPN, the ERα agonist propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT, DPN+PPT, or EB to compare the impact of ERα and ERβ selective agonism on kisspeptin gene expression in pre- and post-pubescent females. Results All three DPN doses significantly advanced the day of vaginal opening and induced premature anestrus. GnRH and Fos co-labeling, a marker of GnRH activation, following ovariectomy and hormone priming was reduced by approximately half at all doses; the magnitude of which was not as large as with EB or what we have previously observed with the ERα agonist PPT. LH levels were also correspondingly lower, compared to control females. No impact of DPN was observed on the density of kisspeptin immunoreactive (-ir fibers or cell bodies in the arcuate (ARC nucleus, and kisspeptin-ir was only significantly reduced by the middle (1 mg/kg DPN dose in the preoptic region. The second experiment revealed that EB, PPT and the combination of DPN+PPT significantly abrogated preoptic Kiss1 expression at both ages but ARC expression was only reduced by EB. Conclusion Our results indicate that selective agonism of ERβ is not sufficient to completely achieve male

  8. Long-term psychosocial adjustments, satisfaction related to gender and the family equations in disorders of sexual differentiation with male sex assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Bhardwaj, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpa; Ammini, A C; Gupta, Devendra K

    2010-10-01

    The varied management and counseling in disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) depends a lot on the socioeconomic structure. A follow-up study was designed to evaluate the outcome in terms of patient satisfaction with strong socio-cultural issues. Of the 1,134 DSD patients being followed up in pediatric intersex clinic, 60 adolescents and adults assigned male sex in childhood were called for follow-up. They were interviewed for psychosocial and family adjustments including level of acceptance of gender, social relationships and future expectations. The ages ranged from 15 to 25 years (mean, 19.3 ± 3.7 years). The disorders were male pseudo hermaphrodite (MPH)-43, mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD)-3, true hermaphrodite (TH)-7 and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)-7. Of all patients, 85% (51/60) felt satisfied with their gender assignment; 76.9% (46/60) did not feel comfortable with the opposite sex. Penile erections; ejaculation and masculine voice were present in 53, 44 and 47 patients. Facial hair was normal; sparse and absent in 16, 26 and 18 patients, respectively. Stretched penile length was 2.5-9 cm (median, 5.5 cm) and 16/60 patients were satisfied with their penile length; 28 patients required redo surgeries for scrotum diverticulum (1), proximal penile diverticulum (1), stricture urethra (2), hair in the urethra (3), vaginal pouch dilatation (1), orchiopexy (2), residual chordee correction (3), distal urethroplasty (4), urethral fistula repair (21), mastectomy (6) and testicular prosthesis (4). Family support was available to all 85% (51/60) of the patients who had good family relationships. However, only 15% (9/60) felt that they fitted into society. Peer relationships were considered 'good' by 43/60 and poor by 17/60. Two patients had got married and 44.8% (26/58) patients would consider marriage in future. Most patients (42/60) were worried about the smaller size of the phallus and lack of adequate semen, leading to apprehension before marriage. As

  9. Treatment of sexually compulsive adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, James

    2008-12-01

    We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The

  10. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  11. Poverty and crime: Uncovering the hidden face of sexual crimes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Key words: gender; poverty; sexual crimes; urban low-income communities; Ghana. 1Charlotte .... juvenile offences, and child delinquency cases. ... In effect, vulnerability has now become an integral aspect of poverty analysis and is looked.

  12. HIV/AIDS and African American men: urban-rural differentials in sexual behavior, HIV knowledge, and attitude towards condoms use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patrick Bassey; Sallar, Anthony M

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the differences and similarities in knowledge, attitude, beliefs, myths, and misconceptions; and the various high-risk behavioral factors that influence the rate of infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS among African American men in urban and rural communities of Mississippi. A cross-sectional sample survey was conducted on 466 African American men in 2 sites between 2005 and 2007. With the main outcome variables of knowledge, attitude/feelings, behavior/practices, and potentials for behavior change, we administered a 64-item, ethnically sensitive, gender-specific instrument to the subjects via a person-to-person interview. Of the 466 respondents (urban, 33%; rural, 67%), 70%, 14.4%, and 16.6%, respectively, were heterosexual, bisexual, and men who have sex with men (MSM). The number of the respondents' sexual partners in the previous 12 months were: 1 to 2 (54%), 3 to 4 (25.7%), and 5 or more (20.2%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 populations on HIV knowledge (p sexually transmitted infection testing history (p sexual partners (p = .038), unprotected sexual intercourse with drug users (p sexual limits prior to intercourse (p = .027). Although the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge and education were lower among urban than rural respondents, subjects' negative overall beliefs, attitude/feelings, behavior and potentials for behavioral change did not differ significantly among the African American men in the 2 communities.

  13. Juvenile hyperthyroidism: an experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, S; Bhansali, A; Velayutham, P; Masoodi, S R

    2006-04-01

    To analyze the clinical profile of juvenile hyperthyroidism at presentation, their treatment outcome; predictors of remission and relapse. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 56 patients with juvenile hyperthyroidism seen over a period of 16 years. A cohort of 38 females and 18 males with mean (+/-SD) age of 14.9 +/- 3.4 years (range 3 to 18 years) was analyzed. Majority of patients was in the age group of 12-16 years. Common symptoms observed at presentation were weight loss (82.1%), excessive sweating (78.6%), heat intolerance (76.8%), increased appetite (73.2%) and diarrhea in 48.2%. In addition, accelerated linear growth was observed in 7.1% of patients. Goiter was present in 98.2% of children; 94.5% of which was diffuse and 4.8% was multinodular. The mean ((+/-SD) T3 was 4.8 +/- 3.4 ng/mL (N, 0.6-1.6), T4 was 218 +/- 98 ng/mL (N, 60-155) and TSH was 0.44 +/- 0.36 (N, 0.5-5.5 microIU/mL). TMA positivity seen in 36.9% of patients. All patients were treated with carbimazole; subsequently 4 patients required thyroidectomy and one required radioactive iodine ablation. Mean (+/-SD) duration of follow-up in our patients was 4.9 +/- 3 years, ranging between 1.6 to 16 years and mean (+/-SD) duration of treatment was 34.4 +/- 22.6 months (range 12 to 120 months). Mean (+/-SD) duration to achieve euthyroidism was 5.2 +/- 4.7 months, ranging between 1-33 months. On intention to treat analysis, remission with carbimazole was achieved in 47.6%, remaining patients failed to achieve remission with drug treatment. Graves disease is the commonest cause of juvenile hyperthyroidism. Carbimazole is safe, effective, cheap, and easily available form of therapy. It is occasionally associated with serious side effects but requires prolonged follow up.

  14. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in juvenile suspects of sex offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Jansen, Lucres M; Doreleijers, Theo A; Vermeiren, Robert; Minderaa, Ruud B; Hartman, Catharina A

    2009-02-01

    To investigate autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in juvenile suspects of sex offenses. A group of 175 juvenile suspected sex offenders (all males, mean +/- SD age = 14.9 +/- 1.4 years) was compared with a matched healthy control group (N = 500, mean +/- SD age = 14.0 +/- 1.4 years) and a group of children with DSM-IV-diagnosed ASD (N = 114, mean +/- SD age = 14.2 +/- 1.9 years) with respect to autistic symptoms as measured by means of a standardized questionnaire, the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire. Furthermore, specific subgroups of sexual offenders, i.e., child molesters, solo peer offenders, and group offenders, were compared with regard to levels of ASD symptoms. The study was conducted from May 2003 to December 2006. Significantly higher levels of ASD symptoms were found in juvenile sex offenders than in healthy controls, while levels were lower than in the ASD group (F = 148.259, p symptoms than group offenders (F = 5.127, p symptoms are higher in juvenile suspects of sex offenses as compared to the healthy population, which argues for considering specific diagnostic assessment in this population, especially in solo offenders and child molesters. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  16. Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the corneoscleral limbus: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Imtiaz A; Al-Jishi, Zohair; Shamsi, Farrukh A; Riley, Fenwick

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign histiocytic cutaneous disorder mainly occurring in infants which may affect the eye. Ocular manifestations usually present in the form of iris lesions with secondary hyphema and glaucoma, but juvenile xanthogranuloma may also present as a corneoscleral limbal mass. We present the case of an 18-month-old female infant with ocular juvenile xanthogranuloma occurring as a corneoscleral limbal mass without associated cutaneous or systemic findings. The limbal mass lesion was excised by lamellar dissection and histopathological studies revealed histiocytes admixed with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils; foreign body and Touton giant cells present throughout the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. At 14-month follow-up, there was no recurrence of the limbal mass. The natural history of this uncommon ocular condition is discussed and the relevant literature reviewed. Juvenile xanthogranuloma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any corneoscleral limbal mass lesion, particularly in children.

  17. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on sexual differentiation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, M.; Suzuki, C.; Yamashita, J.; Tomita, T. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Tohyama, C. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    We have previously reported that in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 200 ng/kg) to malignant Holtzman rats induced demasculinization of sexually-dimorphic behavior and inhibited the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in male offspring. However, these effects of TCDD were not observed in higher dose (800 ng/kg) of TCDD-exposed male offspring. The shortening of anogenitgal distance and the decrease of the ventral prostate weight in male offspring by in utero and lactational TCDD exposure were reported and these effects of TCDD were observed in a dose-dependent manner. This study was undertaken to examine the influence of the TCDD exposure at the varying dosage levels on sexually dimorphic behavior and the development of SDN-POA.

  18. Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Kearl, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…

  19. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. King

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast masses in children, though rare, present a difficult clinical challenge as they can represent a wide variety of entities from benign fibroadenomas to phyllodes tumors. Rapidly growing or recurrent masses can be particularly concerning to patients, families and physicians alike. Clinical examination and conventional imaging modalities are not efficacious in distinguishing between different tumor types and surgical excision is often recommended for both final diagnosis and for treatment of large or rapidly growing masses. While surgical excision can result in significant long-term deformity of the breast there are some surgical techniques that can be used to limit deformity and/or aid in future reconstruction. Here we present a case of recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma with a review of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

  20. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A number of studies conducted under this project have demonstrated that many of the biological parameters used to calculate permissible levels of exposure of adults to radioactive materials are inappropriate for the rapidly growing infant or child or for the pregnant female. These include age-related differences in radionuclide deposition, distribution, and retention and associated differences in microdosimetry, as well as the greater intrinsic radiosensitivity of the immature organism. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed information on the metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. The continuing objective of this project is to obtain such information, which is needed to establish appropriate exposure limits for radionuclides of greatest potential hazard to these age groups

  1. Sexualidade juvenil de classes populares em Cabo Verde: os caminhos para a prostituição de jovens urbanas pobres The sexual culture of marginalized youth in Cape Verde: pathways to the prostitution of poor young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Gomes dos Anjos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta apontamentos sobre comportamento de jovens marginalizados em Cabo Verde e busca integrar essas notas etnográficas a teorias da masculinidade. Explorando os caminhos que levam à prostituição entre meninas pobres, o artigo focaliza como mudanças nas experiências da sexualidade conduziram a uma reversão de arranjos sociais prévios nos quais os homens eram 'caçadores de saia' e provedores, para este novo regime em que as mulheres buscam seus parceiros com base no desejo e buscam, inclusive na prostituição, os meios econômicos para sustentar tais relações. O artigo usa dados de entrevistas detalhadas, algumas discussões de grupo focais e observação participante para examinar percepções masculinas de caminhos femininos para a prostituição.The paper provides insights into the behavior of marginalized youth in Cape Verde and integrates these insights into theories of masculinities. Exploring the pathways to prostitution among young poor urban women and their relationship to their peers, the poor young men they interact with, the paper focuses on how a change in sexual norms has led to a reversal of previous social arrangements, in which men were the 'skirt chasers' and the providers, to ones in which women seek partners based on desire and have the economic means to sustain such relationships. The paper uses data from some in-depth interviews, some focus group discussions, and participant observation to examine male perceptions of pathways to female prostitution.

  2. The Importance of Adolescents' Sexually Outgoing Self-Concept: Differential Roles of Self- and Other-Generated Sexy Self-Presentations in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; de Vries, Dian A; Peter, Jochen

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between (exposure to) sexy self-presentations on social network sites (SNSs) and adolescents' sexual self-concept over time. Results from a three-wave panel study among 1,288 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17 years) showed that more frequent engagement in sexy self-presentation, rather than exposure to sexy self-presentations of others, on SNSs positively predicted the importance of being sexually outgoing (e.g., sexy, seductive, and wild) in adolescents' self-concept 6 months later.

  3. Plasma biomarkers in juvenile marine fish provide evidence for endocrine modulation potential of organotin compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byung Hwa; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Moonkoo; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2018-08-01

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), have been widely used to control marine fouling. Here, we show that organotin stimulation reduces the hormone levels in the plasma of two economically important aquaculture fish. Blood plasma samples were collected from juvenile red seabream and black rockfish exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of TBT and TPT for 14 days. The levels of two plasma biomarkers, namely the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (VTG) and the sex steroid 17β-estradiol (E2), were measured to determine the endocrine disrupting potential of the organotin compounds. Both organotin compounds were dose-dependently accumulated in the blood of two fish. Exposure to waterborne TBT and TBT significantly decreased the plasma VTG levels in both the juvenile fish in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the treatment with E2, a well-known VTG inducer, significantly increased the plasma VTG levels in both the fish. In addition, the mRNA levels of vtg were also downregulated in the liver tissues of both the fish at 100 and/or 1000 ng L -1 of TBT or TPT exposure. The plasma E2 titers were significantly suppressed at 100 and/or 1000 ng L -1 of TBT or TPT exposure for 14 days compared to their titer in the control. Since estrogen directly regulates vtg gene expression and VTG synthesis, our results reveal the endocrine disrupting potential of organotin compounds, and subsequently the endocrine modulation at early stage of fish can trigger further fluctuations in sexual differentiation, maturation, sex ration or egg production. In addition, the results demonstrate their effects on non-target organisms, particularly on animals reared in aquaculture and fisheries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Juvenile delinquency and correctional treatment in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    堀尾, 良弘; ホリオ, ヨシヒロ; Yoshihiro, Horio

    2006-01-01

    Japanese modernistic culture is influenced not a little from Britain. In looking at the Juvenile Law and the history of correctional treatment in Britain, understanding of today's juvenile delinquency and treatment deepen. Moreover, the background and issue of juvenile delinquency in Britain are also discussed. As a feature of the juvenile delinquency in Britain, the common field with Japan and the field peculiar to Britain became clear in each. It is common to the world that the juvenile del...

  5. Cibercriminalidad social juvenil: la cifra negra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Montiel Juan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El ciberespacio constituye un contexto básico de socialización para los nativos digitales, al tiempo que se configura como un espacio de oportunidad criminal en el que niños, niñas y jóvenes continúan siendo víctimas y agresores. Fenómenos como el cyberbullying, el ciberacoso sexual, el online grooming o el sexting constituyen formas de cibercriminalidad social que, según numerosos estudios sobre cibervictimización y ciberdelincuencia auto-revelada, implican a un importante número de menores en España cada año, especialmente en el caso del ciberbullying y el ciberacoso. Sin embargo, no reflejan lo mismo las estadísticas oficiales. A pesar de apuntar una tendencia creciente de la cibercriminalidad en los últimos años, representa menos de un 2% de todos los delitos conocidos y sólo se dispone de algunos datos fragmentarios sobre la implicación de menores en estos casos. Los datos muestran que este grupo de edad es el más afectado, con mucha diferencia, por los ciberdelitos sexuales, pero también son estos los ciberdelitos que más cometen.

    Por otra parte, las elevadas prevalencias reveladas por los estudios de cibervictimización y ciberdelincuencia auto-revelada no concuerdan con el escaso impacto del ciberdelito juvenil en las estadísticas oficiales y en los tribunales de justicia. Entre las posibles explicaciones destacan la transversalidad de estas formas de delincuencia, que pueden manifestarse en comportamientos ilícitos de muy diversa naturaleza, la ausencia de pruebas para su imputación y esclarecimiento, las dificultades técnicas para dejar constancia del componente cibernético al registrar el ilícito, así como la ausencia de denuncias por parte de las cibervíctimas.

    Las tasas de denuncia del online grooming y el cyberbullying son, en general, más bajas que sus equivalentes tradicionales (abuso sexual infantil y bullying. La elevada cifra negra de la cibercriminalidad social juvenil

  6. Group Work with Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews group work literature on juvenile delinquents. Presents overview of interventions, including positive peer culture, cognitive-behavioral treatment, psychoeducational treatment, treatment of learned behavior, action-oriented treatment, milieu therapy, parental involvement, assertiveness training, and music therapy. Discusses outcome…

  7. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Piero; Schreiber, Alberto; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22164185

  8. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  10. The importance of adolescents' sexually outgoing self-concept: Differential roles of self- and other-generated sexy self-presentations in social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F.; de Vries, D.A.; Peter, J.

    The present study investigated the relationships between (exposure to) sexy self-presentations on social network sites (SNSs) and adolescents' sexual self-concept over time. Results from a three-wave panel study among 1,288 Dutch adolescents (aged 13–17 years) showed that more frequent engagement in

  11. The nuclear receptor corepressor has organizational effects within the developing amygdala on juvenile social play and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Heather M; Kolodkin, Mira H; Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J; Auger, Anthony P

    2010-03-01

    Nuclear receptor function on DNA is regulated by the balanced recruitment of coregulatory complexes. Recruited proteins that increase gene expression are called coactivators, and those that decrease gene expression are called corepressors. Little is known about the role of corepressors, such as nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR), on the organization of behavior. We used real-time PCR to show that NCoR mRNA levels are sexually dimorphic, that females express higher levels of NCoR mRNA within the developing amygdala and hypothalamus, and that NCoR mRNA levels are reduced by estradiol treatment. To investigate the functional role of NCoR on juvenile social behavior, we infused small interfering RNA targeted against NCoR within the developing rat amygdala and assessed the enduring impact on juvenile social play behavior, sociability, and anxiety-like behavior. As expected, control males exhibited higher levels of juvenile social play than control females. Reducing NCoR expression during development further increased juvenile play in males only. Interestingly, decreased NCoR expression within the developing amygdala had lasting effects on increasing juvenile anxiety-like behavior in males and females. These data suggest that the corepressor NCoR functions to blunt sex differences in juvenile play behavior, a sexually dimorphic and hormone-dependent behavior, and appears critical for appropriate anxiety-like behavior in juvenile males and females.

  12. A Giant Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Doğan, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; Şalk, İsmail; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are locally growing highly vascular tumours. They are treated primarily by surgical excision ranging from open approach to endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old male with a giant nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma obliterating the pterygopalatine fossa bilaterally, invasing the sphenoid bone and extending to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically with endoscopic approach and discharged as cured without any complication. PMID:23714961

  13. Expression of prostaglandin synthases (pgds and pges) during zebrafish gonadal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Nielsen, Betina Frydenlund

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating whether the expression pattern of the membrane bound form of prostaglandin E2 synthase (pges) and especially the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (pgds) indicates involvement in gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish as has previously been found....... In this study, a sexually dimorphic expression of pgds was found in gonads of adult zebrafish with expression in testis but not in ovaries. To determine whether the sex-specific expression pattern of pgds was present in gonads of juvenile zebrafish and therefore could be an early marker of sex in zebrafish, we...... microdissected gonads from four randomly selected individual zebrafish for every second day in the period 2-20 days post hatch (dph) and 0-1 dph. The temporal expression of pgds and pges was investigated in the microdissected gonads, however, no differential expression that could indicate sex-specific difference...

  14. Expression of prostaglandin synthases (pgds and pges) duringzebrafishgonadal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E.; Nielsen, Betina F.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating whether the expression pattern of the membrane bound form of prostaglandin E-2 synthase (pges) and especially the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D-2 synthase (pgds) indicates involvement in gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish as has previously been found...... In this study, a sexually dimorphic expression of pgds was found in gonads of adult zebrafish with expression in testis but not in ovaries. To determine whether the sex-specific expression pattern of pgds was present in gonads of juvenile zebrafish and therefore could be an early marker of sex in zebrafish, we...... microdissected gonads from four randomly selected individual zebrafish for every second day in the period 2-20 days post hatch (dph) and 0-1 dph The temporal expression of pgds and pges was investigated in the microdissected gonads, however, no differential expression that could indicate sex-specific difference...

  15. Testicular juvenile granulosa cell tumor in a newborn: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiev, Borislav A; Alaish, Samuel M; Sun, Chen-Chih

    2007-07-01

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis of neonates and infants is an uncommon lesion frequently associated with abnormal sex chromosome and ambiguous genitalia. This report describes a juvenile granulosa cell tumor arising in the testis of a neonate. Chromosome analysis of the tumor showed a normal male karyotype 46 XY. Histopathology and immunohistochemical studies revealed the occurrence of 2 well-differentiated epithelial-like and smooth muscle-like components in the neoplasm. The morphologic clues leading to the correct diagnosis of juvenile granulosa cell tumor and the possible histogenesis are briefly discussed.

  16. Sexual Harassment: Why Men Don't Understand It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis-Schiff, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that men's confusion concerning sexual harassment stems primarily from the difficulty inherent in trying to differentiate between traditional male sexual behavior and sexual harassment. Describes the "5C" model of traditional heterosexual male sexuality (control, conquest, competition, climax, and confusion). Presents approaches for…

  17. Imaging findings of juvenile xanthogranuloma of the penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, Ray K. [Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States); Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA (United States); Choudhary, Arabinda K. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare benign self-limiting lesion presenting in early childhood. It is the commonest variant of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis and usually presents as a cutaneous mass. It might have a systemic component and also might be associated with other conditions, notably neurofibromatosis and juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia. Penile masses are unusual in childhood and we describe a case of JXG involving the penis. Although four cases of JXG of the penis have been reported in the literature, this is the first with imaging of the penile lesion. We discuss the clinical and radiological findings, differential diagnosis and management of these cases. High awareness of these lesions in the differential diagnosis of penile masses presenting in early childhood is important to avoid potentially unnecessary ablative genital surgery. Careful assessment should also be made for any systemic involvement and for associated pathologies. (orig.)

  18. Imaging findings of juvenile xanthogranuloma of the penis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, Ray K.; Choudhary, Arabinda K.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare benign self-limiting lesion presenting in early childhood. It is the commonest variant of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis and usually presents as a cutaneous mass. It might have a systemic component and also might be associated with other conditions, notably neurofibromatosis and juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia. Penile masses are unusual in childhood and we describe a case of JXG involving the penis. Although four cases of JXG of the penis have been reported in the literature, this is the first with imaging of the penile lesion. We discuss the clinical and radiological findings, differential diagnosis and management of these cases. High awareness of these lesions in the differential diagnosis of penile masses presenting in early childhood is important to avoid potentially unnecessary ablative genital surgery. Careful assessment should also be made for any systemic involvement and for associated pathologies. (orig.)

  19. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for rapidly growing infants or children and for pregnant women. Further dosimetry for an experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that most of the lifetime burden is derived from prenatal exposure and that milk contributes little in addition. Other measurements have confirmed a tentative observation that the lifetime burden in offspring is greater with near-term exposure than with exposure earlier in gestation. Additional results from a comparison of the embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am have confirmed that, on the basis of dose administered to the dam, the former has a greater effect on the conceptus. Pilot studies indicate that 233 U is teratogenic, acting as a chemical rather than as a radiological teratogen. Studies with 239 Pu-exposed pregnant rabbits have shown that maternal distribution differs from that in rodents; concentration patterns in the placenta and membranes also differed. 4 figures, 1 table

  20. [Localized eruptive juvenile xanthogranuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, S; Chiaverini, C; Rostain, G; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lacour, J-P

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytosis of young children characterized by solitary or multiple yellowish cutaneous nodules. Atypical skin lesions such as lichenoid eruptions, and pedunculated, maculopapular, plaque-like or linear lesions have been described. We report a case of eruptive XGJ en plaque in the left leg in an infant. A 13-month-old child presented asymptomatic eruptive, yellowish papules of the leg measuring 5 to 10mm since the age of 2months. There was no cutaneous infiltration between the lesions. Darier's sign was negative. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. The course of the disease comprised a gradual decrease in the number of active lesions with slight residual pigmentation. Our case was suggestive of JXG en plaque. Only 7 cases have been reported in the literature, all appearing before the age of 5months. The lesions corresponded mostly to an asymptomatic erythematous plaque studded with small yellowish/red nodules of variable localisation. Spontaneous involvement was noted in all cases. No systemic involvement was found. Herein we present a unique case of localised multiple JXG without evident clinical infiltrating plaque progressing with self-resolving flares. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, our emphasis is directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child, and for pregnant women. Recent results demonstrated that injection of pregnant rats with 23 Pu had the greatest effect on longevity and bone-tumor incidence of the offspring when exposure occurred at 19 days of gestation (dg); less effect at 15 dg and the least effect at 9 dg. Ongoing distribution studies are providing data which confirm our tentative explanation that marked variations in the anatomic distributions of bone tumors, with age at the time of injection, were attributable to age-related differences in 239 Pu microdosimetry and concentrations among skeletal components. Other studies, using a placental perfusion technique, have demonstrated that intravenous injection of 239 Pu in pregnant guinea pigs leads to a marked decrease in maternal blood flow to the placenta

  2. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  3. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal is reported. Emphasis is toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. Recent results have shown that injection of pregnant rats with 239 Pu increases the incidence and severity of adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver in the offspring; the magnitude of these effects is relatd to dose and prenatal age at exposure. Analysis of combined data from several experiments leads to the conclusion that perinatal rats are more sensitive to bone tumor induction by 239 Pu alpha-particle irradiation than are adults. Further histopathologic evaluations of material from earlier experiments have demonstrated that most of the increased incidence of thyroid tumors following 131 I exposure is attributable to follicular tumors. An analysis of the literature led to the conclusion that prenatal irradiation can lead to an increased or decreased incidence of tumors, depending on the specific details of the experimental design and system

  4. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. An experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that, while longevity is primarily dependent on radiation history, growth rate and adult body weight are related to the exposure and fitness of the foster dam. Results from an ongoing comparison of the dosimetry and embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am confirm that the former has a greater effect on the conceptus, on the basis of dose administered to the dam. Studies in the guinea-pig perfusion system have confirmed that maternal blood flow to the placenta is decreased by intravenous doses of 30 nCi/g 239 Pu and suggest that the threshold lies at approximately 5 nCi/g body weight. A dose of 30 nCi/g of 241 Am does not affect blood flow. Clearance of the two actinides is similar when blood flow effects are not considered. 3 figures, 3 tables

  5. Juvenile-onset hypothyroidism in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greco, D.S.; Peterson, M.E.; Cho, D.Y.; Markovits, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Juvenile-onset hypothyroidism was diagnosed in an adult mixed-breed dog examined because of quadraparesis. Unusual clinical signs attributable to juvenile-onset or congenital hypothyroidism included disproportionate dwarfism; enlarged, protruding tongue; mental dullness; and retention of a 'puppy' coat, which was soft and fluffy, without guard hairs. Radiography of the vertebral column and long bones revealed multiple areas of delayed epiphyseal closure and epiphyseal dysgenesis. Myelography demonstrated several intervertebral disk protrusions in the cervical and lumbar regions. Hypothyroidism was confirmed on the basis of a low basal serum thyroxine concentration that failed to increase after the administration of thyroid stimulating hormone. Other laboratory abnormalities included nonregenerative, normocytic, normochromic anemia; mild hypercalcemia; and an impaired growth hormone (GH) secretory response after xylazine administration. At necropsy, the thyroid gland was small and weighed only 0.2g. Microscopic examination of the thyroid gland revealed a loss of glandular tissue, which was replaced by adipose tissue along its periphery. Gross or microscopic abnormalities were not noted in the pituitary gland, and immunohistochemical staining of the pituitary gland revealed a normal number of GH-containing acidophils. This suggests that primary hypothyroidism may result in an impaired secretion of growth hormone, and that pituitary dwarfism or GH deficiency may be difficult to differentiate from hypothyroid dwarfism on the basis of provocative GH testing alone

  6. New tricks by an old dogma: mechanisms of the Organizational/Activational Hypothesis of steroid-mediated sexual differentiation of brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret M; Wright, Christopher L; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2009-05-01

    The hormonal regulation of sexual behavior has been the topic of study for over 50 years and yet controversies persist regarding the importance of early versus late events and the identity of the critical neural and cellular substrates. We have taken a mechanistic approach toward the masculinizing actions of the gonadal steroid estradiol, as a means to understand how organization of the neuroarchitechture during a perinatal sensitive period exerts enduring influences on adult behavior. We have identified important roles for prostaglandins, FAK and paxillin, PI3 kinase and glutamate, and determined that cell-to-cell signaling is a critical component of the early organizational events. We have further determined that the mechanisms mediating different components of sexual behavior are distinct and regionally specific. The multitude of mechanisms by which the steroid estradiol, exerts divergent effects on the developing nervous system provides for a multitude of phenotypes which can vary significantly both within and between the sexes.

  7. Differential effects of dopamine antagonists infused to the medial preoptic area on the sexual behavior of female rats primed with estrogen and progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M Dean; Pfaus, James G

    2012-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) is important for the control of appetitive aspects of sexual behavior in the female rat. Recently, following infusions of DA agonists to the mPOA of females primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) alone, we found that the ratio of D1R/D2R activity within the mPOA determines the expression of appetitive behaviors (Graham and Pfaus, 2010). To further the knowledge of this mechanism, the present experiments examined the effects of intra-mPOA infusions of selective DA receptor antagonists. Ovariectomized, sexually-experienced rats primed with EB and progesterone (P) were implanted bilaterally with cannulae aimed at the mPOA and infused with 4 doses (0, 0.25, 1.0 and 4.0 μg) of the nonselective D1R/D2R antagonist flupenthixol (FLU), and selective D1R or D2R antagonists, SCH 23390 (SCH) or raclopride (RAC), respectively, in a randomized order prior to tests of sexual behavior in bilevel chambers. The high dose of FLU significantly decreased solicitations, hops and darts, and pacing behavior. The high dose of SCH also significantly decreased solicitations. In contrast, the high dose of RAC produced an increase in pacing, and a trend toward an increase in solicitations but no other effect on sexual behavior. These results reinforce the idea that the ratio of D1R/D2R activity within the mPOA of female rats is critical for the expression of appetitive behaviors, and further that this ratio is altered by P which shifts the DA effect to a predominantly facilitative D1R activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual Essays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giles, James

    Through a series of interrelated essays, this book explores fundamental issues concerning gender, sexual and romantic attraction, sexual desire and fantasies, the sexual positions, age dysphoria, and the role of naked skin in human sexuality. It does so by exploring experiential, social, biological...... on sex. It is further argued that sexual desire is an existential need based on the experience of having a gendered body. A case study of age dysphoria is presented showing how the conclusions concerning concerning gender and desire apply in an atypical case. The body's fundamental role in sexuality......, and evolutionary aspects of sexual life. The author criticizes several popular views, rejecting both social constructionist accounts of gender and social constructionist and biological accounts of sexual desire. It is argued instead that gender roles and gender are often confused and that gender itself is based...

  9. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into the hearts of many parents. But talking to kids about sex is an important part of parenting. Children and ...

  10. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...

  11. Overview of the radiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.A.; Job-Deslandre, C.H.; Lalande, G.; Adamsbaum, C.

    2000-01-01

    Plain films remain the basic tool for diagnosis and follow-up evaluation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In this paper, we review the new classification of JIA: systemic arthritis, oligoarthritis (persistent), oligoarthritis (extended), polyarticular arthritis (rheumatoid factor negative), polyarticular arthritis (rheumatoid factor positive), enthesitis related arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and unclassified arthritis. We will also review regional abnormalities of three stages: an early stage, an intermediate stage, a late stage, as well as the differential diagnosis

  12. Female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic fre...

  13. Sexual Regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37 who reported how much they regretted having either engaged in, or passed up, their most recent casual sexual experience. Sex differences in sexual regret are not attenuated in this sexually egalitarian culture. The study revealed sex differences in worries about pregnancy, STIs, and reputation; however, these predictors did not succeed in accounting for the sex differences in regret engaging in casual sex. Sexual gratification and socio-sexual orientation both predicted the sex differences in casual sex regret. In contrast, only socio-sexual orientation attenuated the sex difference in regret passing up casual sex. Predictors of within-sex variation in casual sexual regret included worry about sexual reputation, experienced gratification during the encounter, and socio-sexual orientation. Discussion focuses on implications for the psychological design features of this relatively neglected emotion.

  14. Infantile sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2010-01-01

    When first presented, Freud´s theory of infantile sexuality was a scandal. Not only was the claim that the small child sucking at the mother´s breast experiences a kind of pleasure that Freud without hesitation named sexual, the theory also turned the common understanding of human sexuality up-si...

  15. PSYCHOSOCIAL PROFILE OF JUVENILE DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Jyoti; Dhavale, H.S.; Rathi, Anup

    1999-01-01

    A study of the complex relationships between the patient characteristics, family and environmental influences, physician's behaviour and the demands of the disease with its management in Juvenile Diabetics was taken up at a general hospital. 90 subjects were selected for the study and grouped into three. Group A consisted of 30 Juvenile Diabetics, Group B of 30 Adult Diabetics and Group C of 30 Normal healthy adolescents. The impact of the illness was measured on the Diabetes Impact Measurement Scale (DIMS), the behavioural deviations and the parental attitudes towards child rearing on the Fallstrom's Questionnaire (FQ) and the family environment on the Family Climate Scale (FCS). Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using DSM-IV criteria. Group A & B were compared on the DIMS and Group A & C on FQ & FCS. Adult diabetics had a greater impact of diabetes. Juvenile diabetics had significantly higher frequency of behavioural deviations as compared to controls. Also there was a higher number of responses on questions indicating an overprotecting attitude amongst parents of juvenile diabetics. There was an increased incidence of psychiatric morbidity in juvenile diabetics as compared to normal adolescents irrespective of the family environment. The results are discussed in relation to current literature. PMID:21430802

  16. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Bari, A.; Maqsud, A.; Khan, M. Z.; Ahmad, T. M.; Saira Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spectrum of clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and drug therapy in patients with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from October 2008 to October 2011. Methodology: All patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for JRA were enrolled. Their clinical features, investigations done and treatment received for JRA were noted. Statistical analysis of data was done on SPSS version 16.0 for obtaining descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 185 patients, 50.3% (n = 93) were females; 54% (n = 100) were between 10 - 15 years of age. Polyarthritis was found in 71.9% (n = 133) followed by oligoarthritis (22.7%, n = 42) and systemic onset disease (5.4%, n = 10). Morning stiffness (78%) and fever (68%) were the most common clinical presentations. All patients with systemic onset disease had fever (n = 10) followed by skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Uveitis was found in 2 patients, and both belonged to the oligoarticular group. Rheumatoid factor was found in 10.27% (n = 19) of all patients. All patients were given non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Disease modifying agents (methotrexate) were given to 43.8% (n = 81). Steroids were used in 61% (n = 113) of patients either with NSAIDs alone or NSAIDs plus methotrexate. Conclusion: Disease profile of JRA at the study centre showed that polyarthritis is the commonest type. Recognition of subtypes will help in planning the management of these patients. (author)

  17. Safe Harbor Legislation for Juvenile Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Myopic View of Improvements in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Mehlman-Orozco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current social and political realties have focused attention on human trafficking in the United States. Although new mechanisms for criminalizing offenders and protecting victims are increasingly funded and implemented across the country, empirical exploration into the efficacy of these interventions is lacking. This article uses yearly count data on juvenile prostitution arrests aggregated at the state level to explore the criminalization of commercial sexually exploited children post safe harbor policy implementation. Preliminary data from four states suggests that the passage of safe harbor laws may not reduce the number of juveniles arrested for prostitution crimes. Implications for future research are discussed.

  18. Working With Female Juvenile Delinquents: What Youth Practitioners Need to Know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy D. Patton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is organized in a way to help youth practitioners recognize the most pertinent issues faced by female juveniles and to provide help in guiding professional interactions, communication and decision-making. The guidelines discussed are suggestions for practice based on an empirical review of the literature. Recent research has identified ten characteristics of female juvenile offenders to consider when working with this population. These areas include: (a impaired cognitive functioning, (b low academic achievement, (c weak language skills, (d peer relationships, (e onset of menarche, (f early sexual experiences, (g mental illness, (h victimization (i low self-esteem and (j race.

  19. Biometrie sexual and ontogenetic dimorphism on the marine catfish Genidens genidens (Siluriformes, Ariidae in a tropical estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa G Paiva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the ontogenetic sexual dimorphism of Genidens genidens in Guanabara Bay, southeastern coast of Brazil. Altogether 378 specimens were anayzed (233 females and 145 males with total length ranging from 13.3 to 43.5 cm. Specimens were measured for 12 body measurements, sex was identified and maturity stages were recorded and classified. Pearson's linear correlation reveled a significant positive correlation between total length and all other body measures, except for base adipose fin, mouth depth and eye depth for immature females. Analyses nested PERMANOVA desing showed significant differences between maturity stages for each sex, between sexes considering or not maturity stages, indicating a variation in morphometric characteristics driven by sexual dimorphism. Differences among all maturity stages were also found, indicating an ontogenetic morphological difference. But immature individuals didn't differ between sexes indicating that differentiation patterns starts with sexual development. The most important measures differing males and females were related to head characteristics, which appears to be key parameters to evaluate sexual differences. Due to male incubation of fertilized eggs and juvenile individuals <59 mm in their oral cavity, head measures are proposed to be sex dimorphism not related to reproduction, but with post reproductive fase due to ecological and biological needs.

  20. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... The article is based on a desk review of existing literature on juvenile crime in the country. ... that Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system is transforming from being ... recommendations include expanding the Pre-trial Diversion ...

  1. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Sharon

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. Key Findings Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15–24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. Data Gaps and Recommendations Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.

  2. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  3. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  4. Sexual desire, not hypersexuality, is related to neurophysiological responses elicited by sexual images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn R. Steele

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modulation of sexual desires is, in some cases, necessary to avoid inappropriate or illegal sexual behavior (downregulation of sexual desire or to engage with a romantic partner (upregulation of sexual desire. Some have suggested that those who have difficulty downregulating their sexual desires be diagnosed as having a sexual “addiction”. This diagnosis is thought to be associated with sexual urges that feel out of control, high-frequency sexual behavior, consequences due to those behaviors, and poor ability to reduce those behaviors. However, such symptoms also may be better understood as a non-pathological variation of high sexual desire. Hypersexuals are thought to be relatively sexual reward sensitized, but also to have high exposure to visual sexual stimuli. Thus, the direction of neural responsivity to sexual stimuli expected was unclear. If these individuals exhibit habituation, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be diminished; if they merely have high sexual desire, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be increased. Neural responsivity to sexual stimuli in a sample of hypersexuals could differentiate these two competing explanations of symptoms. Methods: Fifty-two (13 female individuals who self-identified as having problems regulating their viewing of visual sexual stimuli viewed emotional (pleasant sexual, pleasant-non-sexual, neutral, and unpleasant photographs while electroencephalography was collected. Results: Larger P300 amplitude differences to pleasant sexual stimuli, relative to neutral stimuli, was negatively related to measures of sexual desire, but not related to measures of hypersexuality. Conclusion: Implications for understanding hypersexuality as high desire, rather than disordered, are discussed.

  5. Juvenile Sex Offending Through a Developmental Life Course Criminology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Current American policies and responses to juvenile sex offending have been criticized for being based on myths, misconceptions, and unsubstantiated claims. In spite of the criticism, no organizing framework has been proposed to guide policy development with respect to the prevention of juvenile sex offending. This article proposes a developmental life course (DLC) criminology perspective to investigate the origins, development, and termination of sex offending among youth. It also provides a review of the current state of knowledge regarding various parameters characterizing the development of sex offending (e.g., prevalence, age of onset, frequency, persistence, continuity in adulthood, and versatility). The review highlights some heterogeneity across these developmental parameters suggesting the presence of different sex offending patterns among youth. In fact, it is proposed that, based on the current knowledge, such heterogeneity can be accounted for by a dual taxonomy of adolescents involved in sexual offenses: (a) the adolescent-limited and (b) the high-rate/slow-desister. The DLC criminology approach and the dual taxonomy are proposed as organizing frameworks to conduct prospective longitudinal research to better understand the origins and development of sex offending and to guide policy development and responses to at-risk youth and those who have committed sexual offenses.

  6. Enhanced Striatal β1-Adrenergic Receptor Expression Following Hormone Loss in Adulthood Is Programmed by Both Early Sexual Differentiation and Puberty: A Study of Humans and Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Adam N.; Westenbroek, Christel; Hedges, Valerie L.; Becker, Jill B.; Mermelstein, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    After reproductive senescence or gonadectomy, changes occur in neural gene expression, ultimately altering brain function. The endocrine mechanisms underlying these changes in gene expression beyond immediate hormone loss are poorly understood. To investigate this, we measured changes in gene expression the dorsal striatum, where 17β-estradiol modulates catecholamine signaling. In human caudate, quantitative PCR determined a significant elevation in β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) expression in menopausal females when compared with similarly aged males. No differences were detected in β2-adrenergic and D1- and D2-dopamine receptor expression. Consistent with humans, adult ovariectomized female rats exhibited a similar increase in β1AR expression when compared with gonadectomized males. No sex difference in β1AR expression was detected between intact adults, prepubertal juveniles, or adults gonadectomized before puberty, indicating the necessity of pubertal development and adult ovariectomy. Additionally, increased β1AR expression in adult ovariectomized females was not observed if animals were masculinized/defeminized with testosterone injections as neonates. To generate a model system for assessing functional impact, increased β1AR expression was induced in female-derived cultured striatal neurons via exposure to and then removal of hormone-containing serum. Increased β1AR action on cAMP formation, cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and gene expression was observed. This up-regulation of β1AR action was eliminated with 17β-estradiol addition to the media, directly implicating this hormone as a regulator of β1AR expression. Beyond having implications for the known sex differences in striatal function and pathologies, these data collectively demonstrate that critical periods early in life and at puberty program adult gene responsiveness to hormone loss after gonadectomy and potentially reproductive senescence. PMID:23533220

  7. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  8. Juvenile Justice: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondak, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on the background and legal framework of the juvenile justice system, the issues that confront it, and the pressures for change, as well as noting some sources of information on the system. Available from American Association of Law Libraries, 53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1201, Chicago, Illinois 60604; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  9. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  10. Juvenile European anchovy otolith microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cermeño

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus has a complex incremental growth pattern that was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and optical microscope observations. Daily increments were identified and related to rhythmic growth patterns while double-band structures were identified as one increment. The causes of these growth patterns are discussed.

  11. CT appearance of juvenile angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Jun; Hara, Kazuo (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Fukuzumi, Akio; Uchida, Hideo

    1983-06-01

    Three verified cases of juvenile angiofibroma were presented. All of them were young and adolescent male CT proved to be an ideal tool in evaluating the extension of this tumor. The appearance on plain CT was multilobulated with displacement of the adjacent bony structures. On enhancement, there was intense staining of the tumor.

  12. What is Justice for Juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1997-01-01

    Provides background information and related learning activities for three areas of inquiry involving youth and violence: (1) "Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System"; (2) "The Literature of Crime and Poverty"; (3) "Youth Crime and Public Policy." Includes a list of six recommended Web sites. (MJP)

  13. Sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W

    2000-01-01

    We review the current state of sexual harassment theory, research, treatment, and prevention. Definitional problems and implications are discussed. An examination of the epidemiology of sexual harassment is presented, highlighting correlates that include characteristics of the organizational environment, the perpetrator, and the recipient of unwanted sexual behavior. Normative responses to sexual harassment and consequences are discussed. Descriptions of the most prevalent models of sexual harassment are offered and the empirical evidence for them is briefly reviewed. From there, the effect of model development and evaluation on the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment is considered. We comment on the steps that would need to be taken to develop viable prevention and treatment programs. Suggestions for fruitful avenues of research and theory development are offered.

  14. Girls With Mental Health Needs in the Juvenile Justice System: Challenges and Inequities Confronting a Vulnerable Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Magee; Poirier, Jeffrey M.; Garfinkel, Lili

    2005-01-01

    Recent trends show noticeable increases in the involvement of girls in the juvenile justice system. A disproportionately high number of these girls have co-occurring mental health diagnoses that are related in part to their victimization through sexual, physical, and emotional abuse. Many girls also come from unstable families, whereas others are…

  15. Sexual dimorphism and ageing in the human hyppocampus: Identification, validation and impact of differentially expressed genes by factorial microarray and network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Victor Guebel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: In the brain of elderly-healthy individuals, the effects of sexual dimorphism and those due to normal ageing appear overlapped. Discrimination of these two dimensions would powerfully contribute to a better understanding of the aetiology of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as sporadic Alzheimer. Methods: Following a system biology approach, top-down and bottom-up strategies were combined. First, public transcriptome data corresponding to the transition from adulthood to the ageing stage in normal, human hippocampus were analysed through an optimized microarray post-processing (Q-GDEMAR method together with a proper experimental design (full factorial analysis. Second, the identified genes were placed in context by building compatible networks. The subsequent ontology analyses carried out on these networks clarify the main functionalities involved. Results: Noticeably we could identify large sets of genes according to three groups: those that exclusively depend on the sex, those that exclusively depend on the age, and those that depend on the particular combinations of sex and age (interaction. The genes identified were validated against three independent sources (a proteomic study of ageing, a senescence database, and a mitochondrial genetic database. We arrived to several new inferences about the biological functions compromised during ageing in two ways: by taking into account the sex-independent effects of ageing, and considering the interaction between age and sex where pertinent. In particular, we discuss the impact of our findings on the functions of mitochondria, autophagy, mitophagia, and microRNAs.Conclusions: The evidence obtained herein supports the occurrence of significant neurobiological differences in the hippocampus, not only between adult and elderly individuals, but between old-healthy women and old-healthy men. Hence, to obtain realistic results in further analysis of the transition from the normal ageing to

  16. The DSM-5 dissociative-PTSD subtype: can levels of depression, anxiety, hostility, and sleeping difficulties differentiate between dissociative-PTSD and PTSD in rape and sexual assault victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Lauterbach, Dean; Elhai, Jon D

    2014-05-01

    The DSM-5 currently includes a dissociative-PTSD subtype within its nomenclature. Several studies have confirmed the dissociative-PTSD subtype in both American Veteran and American civilian samples. Studies have begun to assess specific factors which differentiate between dissociative vs. non-dissociative PTSD. The current study takes a novel approach to investigating the presence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype in its use of European victims of sexual assault and rape (N=351). Utilizing Latent Profile Analyses, we hypothesized that a discrete group of individuals would represent a dissociative-PTSD subtype. We additionally hypothesized that levels of depression, anger, hostility, and sleeping difficulties would differentiate dissociative-PTSD from a similarly severe form of PTSD in the absence of dissociation. Results concluded that there were four discrete groups termed baseline, moderate PTSD, high PTSD, and dissociative-PTSD. The dissociative-PTSD group encompassed 13.1% of the sample and evidenced significantly higher mean scores on measures of depression, anxiety, hostility, and sleeping difficulties. Implications are discussed in relation to both treatment planning and the newly published DSM-5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

    2009-12-01

    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  19. Sexual addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Thibaut, Florence

    2010-09-01

    The potential adverse consequences, personal distress, shame and guilt presented by patients who suffer from sexual addiction require a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenology and psychobiology of this disorder. A bibliographic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EBSCO databases with the following keywords: "sexual addiction," "hypersexuality," "compulsive sexual behavior," "behavioural addiction," "treatment," and "addiction." Several conceptualizations of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder have been proposed based on the models of, respectively, obsessive compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, out of control excessive sexual disorder, and addictive disorder. Despite the lack of robust scientific data, a number of clinical elements, such as the frequent preoccupation with this type of behavior, the time spent in sexual activities, the continuation of this behavior despite its negative consequences, the repeated and unsuccessful efforts made to reduce the behavior, are in favor of an addictive disorder. In addition there is a high comorbidity between excessive sexual behavior and other addictive behaviors. The phenomenology of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder favors its conceptualization as an addictive behavior, rather than an obsessive-compulsive, or an impulse control disorder. Moreover, the criteria that are quite close to those of addictive disorders were recently proposed for the future DSM-V in order to improve the characterization of this condition. Finally, controlled studies are warranted in order to establish clear guidelines for treatment of sexual addiction.

  20. Internet Sexualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  1. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  2. Sexual revolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekma, G.; Giami, A.

    2014-01-01

    The sexual revolution of 1960-1980 created a major break in attitudes and practices in Western societies. It created many new freedoms for gay men, youth and women, in terms of sexual imagery, information, and rights. Leftists denounced the revolution's consumerism whilst feminists lamented its

  3. Sexual Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Sexual Violence Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir April ... stop sexual violence before it begins. Understanding Sexual Violence Sexual violence is any sexual activity where consent ...

  4. Trait sexual motivation questionnaire: concept and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rudolf; Kagerer, Sabine; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Klucken, Tim; Wehrum-Osinsky, Sina

    2015-04-01

    Trait sexual motivation defines a psychological construct that reflects the long-lasting degree of motivation for sexual activities, which is assumed to be the result of biological and sociocultural influences. With this definition, it shares commonalities with other sexuality-related constructs like sexual desire, sexual drive, sexual needs, and sexual compulsivity. The Trait Sexual Motivation Questionnaire (TSMQ) was developed in order to measure trait sexual motivation with its different facets. Several steps were conducted: First, items were composed assessing sexual desire, the effort made to gain sex, as well as specific sexual behaviors. Factor analysis of the data of a first sample (n = 256) was conducted. Second, the factor solution was verified by a confirmatory factor analysis in a second sample (n = 498) and construct validity was demonstrated. Third, the temporal stability of the TSMQ was tested in a third study (n = 59). Questionnaire data. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that trait sexual motivation is best characterized by four subscales: Solitary Sexuality, Importance of Sex, Seeking Sexual Encounters, and Comparison with Others. It could be shown that the test quality of the questionnaire is high. Most importantly for the trait concept, the retest reliability after 1 year was r = 0.87. Our results indicate that the TSMQ is indeed a suitable tool for measuring long-lasting sexual motivation with high test quality and high construct validity. A future differentiation between trait and state sexual motivation might be helpful for clinical as well as forensic research. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Sexual assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø

    2015-01-01

    ) the relationship between victim and perpetrator. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the victims were aged 15-24 years. Seventy-five percent had met the perpetrator before the sexual assault and 70% reported the assault to the police. A physical injury was found in 53, and 27% sustained an anogenital lesion. Alcohol...... is important in creating an environment where women are not reluctant to seek help after a sexual assault. Young age and drinking alcohol were risk factors for sexual assault, and we need to address this when considering preventive strategies.......OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001...

  6. Sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.

  7. Internalised homophobia is differentially associated with sexual risk behaviour by race/ethnicity and HIV serostatus among substance-using men who have sex with men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansergh, Gordon; Spikes, Pilgrim; Flores, Stephen A; Koblin, Beryl A; McKirnan, David; Hudson, Sharon M; Colfax, Grant N

    2015-08-01

    There is a continuing need to identify factors associated with risk for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), including a need for further research in the ongoing scientific debate about the association of internalised homophobia and sexual risk due partly to the lack of specificity in analysis. We assess the association of internalised homophobia by race/ethnicity within HIV serostatus for a large sample of substance-using MSM at high risk of HIV acquisition or transmission. Convenience sample of substance-using (non-injection) MSM reporting unprotected anal sex in the prior 6 months residing in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco. The analytic sample included HIV-negative and HIV-positive black (n=391), Latino (n=220), and white (n=458) MSM. Internalised homophobia was assessed using a published four-item scale focusing on negative self-perceptions and feelings of their own sexual behaviour with men, or for being gay or bisexual. Analyses tested associations of internalised homophobia with recent risk behaviour, stratified by laboratory-confirmed HIV serostatus within race/ethnicity, and controlling for other demographic variables. In multivariate analysis, internalised homophobia was inversely associated (pbehaviour among white and Latino MSM. More research is needed to further identify nuanced differences in subpopulations of MSM, but these results suggest differentially targeted intervention messages for MSM by race/ethnicity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Developmental expression of DAX1 in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: lack of evidence for sexual dimorphism during sex differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Power Deborah M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DAX1 (NR0B1, a member of the nuclear receptors super family, has been shown to be involved in the genetic sex determination and in gonadal differentiation in several vertebrate species. In the aquaculture fish European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and in the generality of fish species, the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation have not been elucidated. The present study aimed at characterizing the European DAX1 gene and its developmental expression at the mRNA level. Methods A full length European sea bass DAX1 cDNA (sbDAX1 was isolated by screening a testis cDNA library. The structure of the DAX1 gene was determined by PCR and Southern blot. Multisequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis were used to compare the translated sbDAX1 product to that of other vertebrates. sbDAX1 expression was analysed by Northern blot and relative RT-PCR in adult tissues. Developmental expression of mRNA levels was analysed in groups of larvae grown either at 15°C or 20°C (masculinising temperature during the first 60 days, or two groups of fish selected for fast (mostly females and slow growth. Results The sbDAX1 is expressed as a single transcript in testis and ovary encoding a predicted protein of 301 amino acids. A polyglutamine stretch of variable length in different DAX1 proteins is present in the DNA binding domain. The sbDAX1 gene is composed of two exons, separated by a single 283 bp intron with conserved splice sites in same region of the ligand binding domain as other DAX1 genes. sbDAX1 mRNA is not restricted to the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis and is also detected in the gut, heart, gills, muscle and kidney. sbDAX1 mRNA was detected as early as 4 days post hatching (dph and expression was not affected by incubation temperature. Throughout gonadal sex differentiation (60–300 dph no dimorphic pattern of expression was observed. Conclusion The sbDAX1 gene and putative protein coding region is highly conserved

  9. Minireview: Hormones and human sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined.

  10. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  11. Violencia sexual

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Tadayuki Oshikata

    2003-01-01

    Resumo: A violência sexual é um crime clandestino e subnotificado, praticado contra a liberdade sexual da mulher. Provoca traumas físicos e psíquicos, além de expor a doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e gravidez indesejada. Existem poucos serviços no Brasil que oferecem um atendimento especializado para diagnosticar e tratar as mulheres vítimas de violência sexual. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar, através de um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo, 166 mulheres que compareceram na urgên...

  12. An unusual presentation of juvenile lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleshwar Bottu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of juvenile lupus varies widely ranging between 4 and 250 per 100,000 population. Most common organ involvement in juvenile lupus is kidney. Neurological, cutaneous and hematological involvements are also involved. Skeletal muscle involvement in the form of myositis is rare. Myositis as presenting manifestation in juvenile lupus is also unusual. Herein, we report one such case wherein myositis preceded the onset of lupus nephritis

  13. A Sexuality Education Discourses Framework: Conservative, Liberal, Critical, and Postmodern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    Sexuality education debates are layered with discourses based on markedly different constructions of sexuality. Rather than seeing these discourses as purely oppositional, this article frames them as complex and varied. It provides a new framework for understanding sexuality education which differentiates 28 discourses by orientation to education,…

  14. Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment at School. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…

  15. Impact of Work Experiences on Attitudes toward Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Alison M.; Gutek, Barbara A.

    1986-01-01

    Three theories account for individuals' perceptions of sexual harassment: (1) men and women view and define sexual harassment differently; (2) differential sexual experiences at work account for different perceptions; and (3) gender role "spillover" accounts for perceptual differences. A sample of 1,232 working men and women supports these…

  16. Germ cell transplantation using sexually competent fish: an approach for rapid propagation of endangered and valuable germlines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullip K Majhi

    Full Text Available The transplantation of germ cells into adult recipient gonads is a tool with wide applications in animal breeding and conservation of valuable and/or endangered species; it also provides a means for basic studies involving germ cell (GC proliferation and differentiation. Here we describe the establishment of a working model for xenogeneic germ cell transplantation (GCT in sexually competent fish. Spermatogonial cells isolated from juveniles of one species, the pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atherinopsidae, were surgically transplanted into the gonads of sexually mature Patagonian pejerrey O. hatcheri, which have been partially depleted of endogenous GCs by a combination of Busulfan (40 mg/kg and high water temperature (25 degrees C treatments. The observation of the donor cells' behavior showed that transplanted spermatogonial cells were able to recolonize the recipients' gonads and resume spermatogenesis within 6 months from the GCT. The presence of donor-derived gametes was confirmed by PCR in 20% of the surrogate O. hatcheri fathers at 6 months and crosses with O. bonariensis mothers produced hybrids and pure O. bonariensis, with donor-derived germline transmission rates of 1.2-13.3%. These findings indicate that transplantation of spermatogonial cells into sexually competent fish can shorten considerably the production time of donor-derived gametes and offspring and could play a vital role in germline conservation and propagation of valued and/or endangered fish species.

  17. Juvenile offenders: competence to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    This article details the legal background and assists the reader in the preparation and practical conduct of evaluations regarding juvenile adjudicative competency. The material is presented to be useful as a guide to direct questions of competency and covers aspects of evaluation that include: legal standard for competency to stand trial, developmental immaturity, current practice in juvenile competency to stand trial, forensic evaluation of juvenile competency to stand trial, organizing the evaluation, collateral sources of information, psychiatric evaluation of juvenile adjudicative competency, assessment of mental disorder and intellectual disability, assessment of developmental status, assessment of functional abilities for adjudicative competence, and reaching the forensic opinion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An empirical test of combined theory of juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkani Z

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile delinquency is a social problem disturbing families, social institutions and government agencies. Delinquent juveniles lose valuable opportunities concerning their education and occupation. This paper, has undertaken a field research on the causes of delinquency among juveniles arrested in the greater Tehran. The theoretical framework was established by combining the social control theory of Hirschi and the differential association theory of Sutherland and Cressy. The resultant theory made it possible to take account of both internal and external forces leading to delinquency. From 140 boys and 15 girls of under 18 arrested in 1992 in the greater Tehran, ninety boys and all girls were randomly chosen for interview. Four variables showing delinqueint acts and 81 independent variables concerning their personal characteristics, living environment and migrations, family support, beliefs and practices, association with criminals and pass-time activities and hobbies were measured. A factor analysis were applied to reduce the size of data matrix. Thus, one factor was found as a response variable representing the intensity of youth's delinquency. The independent variables were reduced to 28 factors. A multiple regression analysis showed that only 3 factors were enough to explain the intensity of delinquency. Those factors are the "attachment", "beliefs and attitudes" and "association with criminals"

  19. Lead reduces shell mass in juvenile garden snails (Helix aspersa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeby, Alan; Richmond, Larry; Herpe, Florian

    2002-01-01

    A high Pb diet causes differential depression of juvenile shell mass in populations of Helix. - In an earlier paper examining inherited tolerance to Pb, the shell growth of laboratory-bred offspring of Helix aspersa from contaminated sites was compared with that of juveniles from naieve populations on dosed and undosed diets. Eight-week-old snails were fed either 500 μg g -1 Pb or a control food in competitive trials between two populations. In the first series of trials, a parental history of exposure to Pb did not confer any advantage to either of two populations (BI and MI) competing with a naieve population (LE), whether Pb was present in the diet or not. However, in the analysis of their metal concentrations reported here, LE are found to retain higher levels of Pb in the soft tissues than either BI or MI. Compared to their siblings on the unleaded diet, dosed LE and BI juveniles had lower soft tissue concentrations of Ca and Mg. Although the growth in shell height is unaffected by diet, LE and BI juveniles build lighter shells on the Pb-dosed diet, achieving around 75% of the shell mass of their controls. In contrast, the shell weights of dosed MI juveniles are depressed by only 15% and show no change in the essential metal concentrations of their soft tissues. A second experiment using five populations fed only the dosed food show that the shell weight/soft tissue weight ratios are comparable to the dosed snails of the previous experiment. Building a lighter shell thus appears to be the common response of all Helix populations to a high Pb diet, at least amongst juveniles. The reduction in its mass means that less Ca and Mg is added to the shell and, along with the lowered soft tissue concentrations observed in some populations, may be a consequence of an increased effort to excrete Pb. The possibility that the MI population shows a genotypic adaptation, perhaps as some form of modification of its Ca metabolism, is briefly discussed

  20. Spacing behaviour of juvenile corn mice, Calomys musculinus , at the beginning of the breeding period, in absence of adult males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Andrea; Priotto, José; Sommaro, Lucia; Polop, Jaime

    2006-05-01

    This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the absence of fathers promotes a different spacing behaviour in juveniles Calomys musculinus at the beginning of the breeding period. The study was carried out in four 0.25-ha enclosures (two control and two experimental), in a natural pasture, between November 2003 and February 2004. In this study the fathers were removed from the experimental enclosures after juveniles were born. Home-range size depended on sex of juveniles and treatment (father removal). In control and experimental enclosures, female home-range sizes were always smaller than male home-ranges. Male home-ranges were always larger in experimental enclosures than in control enclosures. Treatment and overlap type (intra- and inter-sexual) were not independent. The overlap proportions of male home-ranges were greatest in experimental enclosures than in control enclosures, in both the overlap types (male/male, males/females). The intra- (females/females) and inter-sexual (females/males) overlap proportions of female home-ranges were independent of treatment. In C. musculinus, at the beginning of the breeding period and in absence of adult males, juvenile males increase their home-range size and therefore the degree of inter- and intra-sexual home-range overlap as a mechanism for enlarging the number of receptive females that they encounter.

  1. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  2. Enigmatic Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    ? Divided into three sections, Clinical Encounters in Sexuality begins with six chapters on important themes in queer theory: identity, desire, perversion, pleasure, discourse and ethics. Section two includes fourteen responses to the chapters in section one by practising psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic......: psychoanalytic and queer. The book is edited by two psychoanalytic practitioners — one Kleinian, one Freudian-Lacanian — who also have research expertise in sexuality studies. All pieces are new and have been commissioned....

  3. Female genital schistosomiasis--a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted disease: genital itch and vaginal discharge as indicators of genital Schistosoma haematobium morbidity in a cross-sectional study in endemic rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Kurewa, Edith Nyaradzai; Ndhlovu, Patricia D; Midzi, Nicholas; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Mason, Peter R; Gomo, Exnevia; Sandvik, Leiv; Mduluza, Takafira; Friis, Henrik; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar

    2008-12-01

    To examine the association between schistosomiasis and reproductive tract symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area of rural Zimbabwe. A total of 483 permanently resident adult women of Mupfure Ward aged 20-49 were interviewed and examined clinically, each providing three consecutive urine samples. Logistic regression analysis was used to control for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women with genital sandy patches had significantly more genital itch (P = 0.009) and perceived their discharge as abnormal (P = 0.003). Eighty percent of the women who had genital itch, yellow discharge, and childhood or current waterbody contact had sandy patches. Fifty-two percent of the women with genital sandy patches did not have detectable S. haematobium ova in urine. Genital schistosomiasis was associated with stress incontinence and pollakisuria, but not with menstrual irregularities, current or previous ulcers, or tumours. Genital schistosomiasis may be a differential diagnosis to the STDs in women who have been exposed to fresh water in endemic areas. Because of the chronic nature of the disease in adults, we suggest to pay special attention to the prevention of morbidity.

  4. The sexual cascade and the rise of pre-ejaculatory (Darwinian) sexual selection, sex roles, and sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Geoff A

    2014-08-21

    After brief historic overviews of sexual selection and sexual conflict, I argue that pre-ejaculatory sexual selection (the form of sexual selection discussed by Darwin) arose at a late stage in an inevitable succession of transitions flowing from the early evolution of syngamy to the evolution of copulation and sex roles. If certain conditions were met, this "sexual cascade" progressed inevitably, if not, sexual strategy remained fixed at a given stage. Prolonged evolutionary history of intense sperm competition/selection under external fertilization preceded the rise of advanced mobility, which generated pre-ejaculatory sexual selection, followed on land by internal fertilization and reduced sperm competition in the form of postcopulatory sexual selection. I develop a prospective model of the early evolution of mobility, which, as Darwin realized, was the catalyst for pre-ejaculatory sexual selection. Stages in the cascade should be regarded as consequential rather than separate phenomena and, as such, invalidate much current opposition to Darwin-Bateman sex roles. Potential for sexual conflict occurs throughout, greatly increasing later in the cascade, reaching its peak under precopulatory sexual selection when sex roles become highly differentiated. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Juvenile animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G; Piquero, Alex R

    2017-12-01

    There is a view that young people presenting with an animal cruelty and firesetting combination represent a uniquely risky group, but prior work has relied on samples with insufficient power. What is the prevalence of the co-occurrence of animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour among young delinquents? What other features correlate with this? We measured the prevalence of animal cruelty and firesetting among 292,649 juvenile offenders and used rare events logistic regression to examine demographic, criminal, mental health and family histories as correlates. The prevalence of animal cruelty was 0.59%, accounting for 1732 young people, and of firesetting 1.56% (n = 4553). The co-occurrence of these behaviours was rare: 0.17% (n = 498), but approximately twice that expected by chance based on the prevalence of each behaviour individually (0.59% × 1.56% = 0.009%). Rates were higher in males, older youths and Whites. Among historical variables, criminal history was the strongest correlate, followed by mental health problems, then familial and individual indicators. As only male gender and being a victim of sexual abuse increased the odds of evidencing both animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour substantially above the odds for each behaviour individually, there thus appears to be little that is unique to the co-occurrence. Our findings suggest that sensitivity to the occurrence of each is the best way forward, with rather familiar assessments and interventions offering some hope of reducing these seriously damaging behaviours. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Genomic Signatures of Sexual Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, Katja R; Nelson, Thomas C; Phillips, Patrick C

    2017-10-30

    Sexual conflict is a specific class of intergenomic conflict that describes the reciprocal sex-specific fitness costs generated by antagonistic reproductive interactions. The potential for sexual conflict is an inherent property of having a shared genome between the sexes and, therefore, is an extreme form of an environment-dependent fitness effect. In this way, many of the predictions from environment-dependent selection can be used to formulate expected patterns of genome evolution under sexual conflict. However, the pleiotropic and transmission constraints inherent to having alleles move across sex-specific backgrounds from generation to generation further modulate the anticipated signatures of selection. We outline methods for detecting candidate sexual conflict loci both across and within populations. Additionally, we consider the ability of genome scans to identify sexually antagonistic loci by modeling allele frequency changes within males and females due to a single generation of selection. In particular, we highlight the need to integrate genotype, phenotype, and functional information to truly distinguish sexual conflict from other forms of sexual differentiation. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the juvenile and adult stages of Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Cong, Wei; Elsheikha, Hany M; Liu, Guo-Hua; Ma, Jian-Gang; Huang, Wei-Yi; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-07-01

    Fasciola gigantica is regarded as the major liver fluke causing fasciolosis in livestock in tropical countries. Despite the significant economic and public health impacts of F. gigantica there are few studies on the pathogenesis of this parasite and our understanding is further limited by the lack of genome and transcriptome information. In this study, de novo Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to obtain a comprehensive transcriptome profile of the juvenile (42days post infection) and adult stages of F. gigantica. A total of 49,720 unigenes were produced from juvenile and adult stages of F. gigantica, with an average length of 1286 nucleotides (nt) and N50 of 2076nt. A total of 27,862 (56.03%) unigenes were annotated by BLAST similarity searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Because F. gigantica needs to feed and/or digest host tissues, some proteases (including cysteine proteases and aspartic proteases), which play a role in the degradation of host tissues (protein), have been paid more attention in the present study. A total of 6511 distinct genes were found differentially expressed between juveniles and adults, of which 3993 genes were up-regulated and 2518 genes were down-regulated in adults versus juveniles, respectively. Moreover, stage-specific differentially expressed genes were identified in juvenile (17,009) and adult (6517) F. gigantica. The significantly divergent pathways of differentially expressed genes included cAMP signaling pathway (226; 4.12%), proteoglycans in cancer (256; 4.67%) and focal adhesion (199; 3.63%). The transcription pattern also revealed two egg-laying-associated pathways: cGMP-PKG signaling pathway and TGF-β signaling pathway. This study provides the first comparative transcriptomic data concerning juvenile and adult stages of F. gigantica that will be of great value for future research efforts into understanding parasite pathogenesis and developing vaccines against this important parasite

  8. Juvenile Myasthenia Gravis: A Paediatric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Finnis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies are directed against the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, resulting in muscle weakness and fatigability. Juvenile myasthenia gravis (JMG is a rare condition of childhood and has many clinical features that are distinct from adult MG. Prepubertal children in particular have a higher prevalence of isolated ocular symptoms, lower frequency of acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and a higher probability of achieving remission. Diagnosis in young children can be complicated by the need to differentiate from congenital myasthenic syndromes, which do not have an autoimmune basis. Treatment commonly includes anticholinesterases, corticosteroids with or without steroid-sparing agents, and newer immune modulating agents. Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG are effective in preparation for surgery and in treatment of myasthenic crisis. Thymectomy increases remission rates. Diagnosis and management of children with JMG should take account of their developmental needs, natural history of the condition, and side-effect profiles of treatment options.

  9. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Patil

    2016-01-01

    The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khair...

  10. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  11. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  12. Treatment of Cushing's disease in juveniles with intestinal pituitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassar, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    Nine juvenile patients (five boys and four girls aged 10-18) with Cushing's disease were treated with pituitary implantation of 198 Au and/or 90 Y. No patient had any surgical complication from this procedure. At the latest assessment. 3 months to 17 years after operation, Cushing's disease was in remission in all the patients; the response time following operation was a few days to 3 months. Radiology of the pituitary fossa at time of pituitary implantation was normal in all patients and remains so. The final height in six patients is 149-172 cm (59-67.5 inches) and three patients who continue to grow have increased by 13.6 and 3 cm since implantation. Only one patient required full pituitary hormone replacement therapy, and he had been previously treated by external irradiation, and one other patient failed to complete puberty. In all the other seven sexual maturation is normal and one has fathered two children. It is concluded that pituitary implantation with interstitial irradiation is a satisfactory form of treatment for Cushing's disease in juveniles. (author)

  13. Experience of the Tocilizumab Application in Systemic Onset Juvenile Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Krasnopol’skaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides information on the unfavourable course of systemic onset juvenile arthritis, resistant to immunosuppressive therapy with methotrexate in combination with cyclosporine, and pulse therapy with methylprednisolone and methotrexate. We describe the successful use of genetically engineered biological drug tocilizumab in the patient with systemic onset juvenile arthritis. After the first injection, pain was already significantly reduced; after the second, fever was relieved and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs were cancelled; after the third, lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly disappeared and the child’s functional activity improved significantly. After 12 months of treatment, an inactive phase of the disease was achieved, the joints’ kinetics (with the exception of the right hip were almost entirely restored and the patient’s quality of life had significantly improved. At the same time, metabolic disorders and changes in the cardiovascular system were reversed. This example demonstrated the high effectiveness of interleukin-6 antagonist tocilizumab in systemic arthritis, which allowed arresting joint affection as well as extra-articular manifestations of the disease, providing normal puberty, the restoration of growth and sexual development.

  14. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  15. Moral development of solo juvenile sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; Hendriks, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral

  16. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  17. Using the Juvenile Justice Poster. Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson that can help students review and summarize what they have learned about the juvenile justice system. Explains that the students discuss how the juvenile justice system can be improved and conduct a survey on how it might be changed in the future. Provides a copy of the survey and directions. (CMK)

  18. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  19. Reformations in Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system | Ruparanganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children in conflict with the law are often stigmatized and shunned by society as they are perceived as a threat to society. Historically, Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system has been retributive and focused on punishing the juvenile offender. As a result, it has been criticised from a number of viewpoints, including the need to ...

  20. The challenge of juvenile Huntington disease: to test or not to test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsis, Georgios; Karadima, Georgia; Kladi, Athina; Panas, Marios

    2013-03-12

    In a cohort of patients with suspected juvenile-onset Huntington disease (HD), we compared HD expansion-positive and -negative cases in order to identify parameters that may allow differentiating between them and may act as a guide to clinicians contemplating genetic testing. We analyzed the clinical and genetic characteristics of 76 juvenile-onset patients referred consecutively for HD genetic testing over a 16-year period. In total, 24 patients were positive for the HD expansion (7.8% of our HD cohort). Mean age at onset of expanded cases was similar to unexpanded cases. All expanded cases had a family history of genetically confirmed HD compared to only 13.5% of unexpanded cases (p = 0.000). Clinical symptoms at onset or at presentation could not differentiate between expanded and unexpanded patients. Although criteria suggested by previous reports allowed statistical differentiation between the 2 groups, they were not sufficiently sensitive and specific to be used in clinical context and performed less satisfactorily than presence of a family history of HD alone. A diagnosis of juvenile HD should be primarily contemplated in symptomatic children with a family history of HD, although a proportion of these will test negative. With no family history of HD, juvenile HD is very unlikely and genetic testing should never delay searching for other causes. The specific nature of symptoms at onset or at presentation is of limited value in guiding the decision to test or not to test.

  1. Do juveniles bully more than young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L

    2002-04-01

    This study compares bullying behaviour among juvenile and young offenders and incorporates two different methods to measure bullying. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, one that measured bullying directly and one that measured behaviours indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying than young offenders. Juveniles reported significantly more physical, psychological or verbal and overall direct forms of bullying behaviour than young offenders. A number of differences were found between juveniles and young offenders with regard to the types of prisoners likely to become victims, who they would advise a victim to speak to and how bullying could be prevented. The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of aggression and how bullying behaviour can be defined and measured among prisoners. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Individual-Based Compulsive Sexual Behavior Scale: Its Development and Importance in Examining Compulsive Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Yaniv; Mikulincer, Mario

    2018-04-03

    Compulsive sexual behavior comprises individual-based (e.g., sexual fantasies, compulsive sexual thoughts, masturbation) and partnered (e.g., interpersonal sexual conquests, repeated infidelity) facets. Most instruments for assessing compulsive sexual behavior, however, focus less on the individual-based facet and specifically on fantasies and compulsive thoughts. In the current research, we developed and validated an individual-based compulsive sexual behavior scale (I-CSB). In Study 1 (N = 492), the factorial structure of the I-CSB was examined. In Study 2 (N = 406), we assessed I-CSB's convergent validity. In Study 3 (N = 112), we examined whether the I-CSB differentiates between individuals who suffer from compulsive sexual behavior and those who do not. Results revealed a four-factor structure for individual-based compulsive sexual behavior that is associated with an intense inner conflict regarding sexuality (high arousal contrasting with high sexual anxiety), and that accounts for approximately 75% of the differences between people with compulsive sexual behavior and controls. Results are discussed in light of the need for a broader understanding of compulsive sexual behavior.

  3. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  4. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis

  5. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis.

  6. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  7. Sexuality and Sexual Rights in Muslim Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Liz Ercevik Amado

    2009-01-01

    In August 2008, the Coalition for Sexual and Bodily Rights in Muslim Societies (CSBR) organized the CSBR Sexuality Institute, the first international Institute on sexuality and sexual rights in Muslim societies in Malaysia. Liz Amado presents how the Institute expanded the discourse, knowledge and thinking around sexuality in Muslim societies, as well as providing a unique space for the much needed exchange of information and experience among sexual rights advocates. Development (2009) 52, 59...

  8. Growing up with adversity: From juvenile justice involvement to criminal persistence and psychosocial problems in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Miranda, Ana; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of child maltreatment on juvenile justice involvement and future criminal life. However, little is known about the impact of other forms of adversity, beyond abuse and neglect, on juvenile delinquency and criminal persistence. The effect of early adversity on psychosocial problems is underexplored, particularly in juvenile delinquents. This study, using the Childhood Adverse Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, a tool accessing the exposure to different types of abuse, neglect and serious household dysfunction, explored the role of each adverse experience on juvenile justice involvement, persistence in crime and psychosocial problems during young adulthood. A Portuguese sample of 75 young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010/2011, and 240 young adults from a community sample completed ACE questionnaire and measures of psychosocial adjustment. Seven out of ten adverse experiences were significantly more prevalent in young adults with juvenile justice involvement than in the community sample, after matching the main demographic variables. The strongest predictor of juvenile justice involvement and criminal persistence during early adulthood was sexual abuse. Dimensions of child/adolescent emotional maltreatment and a mental illness in the household predicted a set of psychosocial problems in young adulthood. This study indicates that early adversity is significantly related to juvenile justice involvement, criminal persistence and psychosocial problems. This study also suggests that each experience has a different role in this process. There is an urgent need to screen, prevent and stop serious adversity. Future scientific directions and recommendations for policies are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exclusively endoscopic approach for juvenile angiofibroma in an adult – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Gawęcki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To demonstrate clinical, radiological, and diagnostic pitfalls of juvenile angiofibroma (JA in an adult.Study design: Retrospective analysis of a case report.Results: Juvenile angiofibroma in adults is a rare entity with only two cases reported in the literature, confirming thelow prevalence of the disease. We present a case of juvenile angiofibroma in an adult that preoperatively wassuspected to be a malignant disease. Effective treatment included surgical excision via an exclusively endoscopicapproach.Conclusions: Symptoms of JA in an adult may mimic a malignant process. However, in the case of unilateral epistaxis,rhinorrhea and nasal obstruction in an adult JA should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  10. Who gets a second chance? An investigation of Ohio's blended juvenile sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, Fred L; Waters, Nicole L; Hurst, Hunter

    2010-01-01

    Factors differentiating blended sentencing cases (Serious Youthful Offenders or SYOs) from conventional juvenile cases and cases transferred to the adult criminal court in Ohio were investigated using a two-stage probit. Conventional juvenile cases differed from cases selected for non-conventional processing (i.e., SYO or transfer) according to offense seriousness, number of prior Ohio Department of Youth Services placements, age and gender. Controlling for probability of selection for nonconventional processing, transfers differed from SYOs according to age, gender, and race. Minorities were significantly more likely than Whites to be transfers rather than SYOs, suggesting possible bias in the decision-making process. Objective risk and needs assessments should be used to identify the most suitable candidates for blended sentences and adult transfer and enhanced services should be provided to juvenile offenders given blended sentences.

  11. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gualberto Lescaille Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo, en un paciente del consultorio médico No. 9, que pertenece al Policlínico Integral Docente "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" de Marianao. Se reconoce la importancia de realizar una historia clínica detallada, así como un minucioso examen físico, por el médico de familia y el otorrinolaringólogo del área de salud, que incluyó la rinoscopia posterior, para poder llegar al diagnóstico de esa patología, y realizar la extirpación precoz del angiofibroma, mediante el proceder quirúrgico. Se concluyó que el diagnóstico clínico se correspondió con el histopatológico, y que la conducta quirúrgica temprana es resolutiva en la afección.It is presented a case of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a patient with this pathology, from the clicial practice No. 9, in Comprehensive Teaching Polyclinic "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" in Marianao. It recognizes the importance of a thorough clinical history and careful physical examination by the family physician and the otolaryngologist in this health area, including a posterior rhinoscopy, to diagnose this disease and to achieve early removal of the angiofibroma, by a surgical procedure. It was concluded that the clinical diagnosis corresponded to the histopathological diagnosis, and that early surgical treatment is resolute in this condition.

  13. A developmental taxonomy of juvenile sex offenders for theory, research, and prevention: the adolescent-limited and the high-rate slow desister

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lussier, P.; van den Berg, C.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the offending trajectories of juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) across and beyond adolescence. In doing so, the study examines the number, the rate, and the shape of nonsexual and sexual offending trajectories in a sample of JSOs followed retrospectively and prospectively

  14. A Developmental Taxonomy of Juvenile Sex Offenders for Theory, Research, and Prevention: The Adolescent-Limited and the High-Rate Slow Desister

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lussier, P; van den Berg, C.J.W.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Hendriks, J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the offending trajectories of juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) across and beyond adolescence. In doing so, the study examines the number, the rate, and the shape of nonsexual and sexual offending trajectories in a sample of JSOs followed retrospectively and prospectively

  15. Comorbidities and correlates of conduct disorder among male juvenile detainees in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bum-Sung; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Bongseog

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rate and distribution of comorbidities, severity of childhood maltreatment, and clinical characteristics of adolescents with conduct disorder detained in a juvenile detention center in South Korea. In total, 173 juvenile detainees were recruited. We analyzed the distribution of psychiatric disorders among the sample and compared the rate of comorbidities between groups with and without conduct disorder. We compared the two groups in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as severity of childhood maltreatment and psychiatric problems, using the Young Self Report (YSR) scale. A total of 95 (55%) of the detainees were diagnosed with conduct disorder, and 93 (96.9%) of them had at least one comorbid axis I psychiatric disorder. Detainees with conduct disorder had a higher number of comorbid psychiatric disorders; a higher rate of violent crime perpetration; had suffered more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse; and showed higher total YSR scores and externalizing behavior, somatic complaints, rule-breaking behavior, and aggressive behavior YSR subscale scores. Conduct disorder is a common psychiatric disorder among juvenile detainees in South Korea, who tend to commit more violent crimes and show more psychopathology than detainees who do not have conduct disorder. These findings highlight the importance of diagnosing and intervening in conduct disorder within the juvenile detention system.

  16. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  17. Distrustful, Conventional, Entitled, and Dysregulated: PID-5 Personality Facets Predict Hostile Masculinity and Sexual Violence in Community Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Tiffany D; King, Alan R

    2017-01-01

    Psychopathy and narcissism are known predictors of sexual violence, but they are broad personality constructs with limited utility in intervention and prevention efforts. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) assesses 25 specific personality facets residing in five higher order domains. The goal of this research was to test the PID-5 in a sexual aggression model, which also included hostile masculinity, juvenile delinquency, and five sexual assault indices. A nationwide sample of adult men ( N = 512) completed the online survey. Hostile masculinity and juvenile delinquency were expected to have direct paths to sexual violence in a structural equation model. Hostile masculinity was also hypothesized as a mediator between sexual violence and PID-5 facets related to narcissism and psychopathy. These hypotheses were largely supported. Overall, 29.5% of men reported perpetrating sexual violence at least once, and 24.2% reported multiple assaults. In the sexually violent sample, 45.7% endorsed completed rape as their most severe act. PID-5 Suspiciousness, Cognitive and Perceptual Dysregulation, Grandiosity, and a lack of Eccentricity emerged as indirect predictors of sexual violence. These PID-5 facets were mediated by hostile masculinity, which had a reliable path to sexual violence. Juvenile delinquency had a direct and indirect path to sexual assault. The model accounted for 48% of the variance in latent sexual violence, and the five sexual violence index R 2 s ranged from .53 to .82. This research adds specificity to sexual violence models by demonstrating the underlying maladaptive personality trait structures associated with sexual assault. It also provides a more precise personality profile for clinical use and prevention programs.

  18. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who is unable to consent. It also includes abusive sexual contact. It can happen to men, women or children. The attacker can be anyone - a current or former partner, a family member, a person in position of power or trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a ...

  20. Risky sexual

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... AMONG STUDENTS OF JIMMA UNIVERSITY, ETHIOPIA ... control, substance use, peer pressure, campus and outside ... Author: Gurmesa Tura E- mail: gurmesatura@gmail.com or gurmesa.tura@ju.edu.et .... following substances: alcohol, Khat cigarette, .... leading reason was sexual desire 106(42.9%).

  1. Sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Parental care includes a wide variety of traits that enhance offspring development and survival. It is taxonomically widespread and is central to the maintenance of biodiversity through its close association with other phenomena such as sexual selection, life-history evolution, sex allocation,

  2. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  3. Physiology of Women's Sexual Function: Basic Knowledge and New Findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonia, Andrea; Giraldi, Annamaria; Chivers, Meredith L

    2010-01-01

    Introduction.  Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. Aim.  To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing...... and responses is of paramount importance. A biopsychological paradigm was considered when reviewing currently available data, thus considering aspects of: (i) sexual differentiation of the brain, which is critical for sex differentiation in behavior; (ii) central neurobiology of sexual function, highlighting...... arousal in women in both procreation/reproduction and recreation/pleasure. The interaction between physiological and psychological states of women's sexual response, nonspecific sexual response, interoceptive awareness, and flexibility of sexual interests have also been addressed. Conclusion.  Further...

  4. Juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome. Interdisciplinary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Siuchnińska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM belongs to soft tissue pain syndromes of unknown cause, also referred to as “soft tissue rheumatism”. It is characterized by chronic widespread pain as well as additional symptoms such as fatigue, sleep and mood disturbance and cognitive problems. There is more and more data showing that this condition may start at a young age or even in childhood, adversely affecting development processes and resulting in dysfunctional social and family relationships. Because of the multifaceted character of fibromyalgia the efficient treatment of this disorder can be difficult and requires comprehensive care. This work reviews most recommended procedures used in integrated treatment programmes for juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFM.

  5. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  6. Law & psychiatry: punishing juveniles who kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-10-01

    Punishment of juvenile murderers forces policy makers to weigh the developmental immaturity of adolescents against the heinousness of their crimes. The U.S. Supreme Court has progressively limited the severity of punishments that can be imposed on juveniles, holding that their impulsivity, susceptibility to peer pressure, and more fluid character render them less culpable for their actions. Having eliminated the death penalty as a punishment, the Court recently struck down mandatory life sentences without prospect of parole. The decision is interesting for its emphasis on rehabilitation, opening the door to further restrictions on punitive sentences for juveniles-and perhaps for adults too.

  7. Differential diagnosis of disseminated periventricular calcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, P.; Piepgras, U.

    1986-01-01

    Juvenile disseminated periventricular calcifications may occur in tuberous sclerosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly, and in tuberculous meningitis. Cysticercosis, by contrast, does not result in corresponding intracerebral foci until an older age. Differential diagnosis is no problem if clinical findings are typical (tuberous sclerosis) or if serological verification is positive. However, any unclear clinical diagnosis can often be secured by CT. (orig.) [de

  8. Differential diagnosis of disseminated periventricular calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, P.; Piepgras, U.

    1986-08-01

    Juvenile disseminated periventricular calcifications may occur in tuberous sclerosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly, and in tuberculous meningitis. Cysticercosis, by contrast, does not result in corresponding intracerebral foci until an older age. Differential diagnosis is no problem if clinical findings are typical (tuberous sclerosis) or if serological verification is positive. However, any unclear clinical diagnosis can often be secured by CT.

  9. Maltreatment, family environment, and social risk factors: Determinants of the child welfare to juvenile justice transition among maltreated children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Sarah; Prince, Dana; Connell, Christian M; Caron, Colleen M; Kaufman, Joy S; Tebes, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    This study prospectively examines the transition from the child welfare system into the juvenile justice system among 10,850 maltreated children and adolescents and explores how patterns of risks, including severity and chronicity of maltreatment, adverse family environment, and social risk factors, affect service systems transition. Almost three percent of maltreated children and adolescents had their first juvenile justice adjudication within an average of approximately six years of their initial child protective services investigation (CPS). Social risk factors, including a child's age at index CPS investigation (older), gender (boys), and race/ethnicity (Black and Hispanic) significantly predicted the risk of transition into the juvenile justice system. Recurrence of maltreatment and experiencing at least one incident of neglect over the course of the study period also increased the risk of transition into the juvenile justice system. However, subtypes of maltreatment, including physical, sexual, and other types of abuse did not significantly predict the risk of juvenile justice system transition. Finally, family environment characterized by poverty also significantly increased the risk of juvenile justice system transition. These findings have important implications for developing and tailoring services for maltreated children, particularly those at-risk for transitioning into the juvenile justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexuality and intimacy among people living with serious mental illnesses: Factors contributing to sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, Kelsey A; Firmin, Ruth L; Salyers, Michelle P; Wright, Eric R

    2015-09-01

    Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N = 401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with 0 partners, 1 partner, or multiple partners over the past 3 months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions on the basis of consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Claves para entender las nuevas sensibilidades: Estudios sobre producciones culturales juveniles en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Carballo Villagra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de la academia costarricense, el estudio de la población joven se ha desarrollado generalmente a partir del interés por problemas socialmente visibles, como el embarazo adolescente, las prácticas sexuales de riesgo, etc. Sin embargo, en los últimos cinco años, varias investigaciones han llamado la atención sobre otras posibles formas de entender las dinámicas juveniles urbanas. Estas investigaciones proponen analizar las vivencias jóvenes desde producciones culturales como la música, el baile, la estética, el fútbol y los espacios callejeros. Pretendemos a partir de dichas investigaciones plantear algunas claves, como las hemos denominado, para continuar con el análisis y debate de las producciones juveniles como formas de entender las nuevas sensibilidades.

  12. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease to fight microbial invaders and facilitate tissue repair. Normally, the body stops the inflammatory response after healing is complete to prevent damage to its own cells and tissues. In people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis , the inflammatory ...

  14. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  15. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fresh, Kurt L

    2006-01-01

    Puget sound salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) spawn in freshwater and feed, grow and mature in marine waters, During their transition from freshwater to saltwater, juvenile salmon occupy nearshore ecosystems in Puget Sound...

  16. Protective factors in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending: a comparison between three subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Claudia E; Asscher, Jessica J

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the presence and impact of dynamic protective factors for delinquency in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending. Bipolar factors (factors with risk and protective factors being the ends of the same continuum) were examined in male adolescents with a history of sexual offenses against younger children (CSOs; n = 341), a history of sexual offenses against peers and/or adult victims (PSOs; n = 207), and a history of nonsexual violent offenses (VOs; n = 1,356). We conducted secondary analyses on data collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment and on general recidivism data. ANOVA, correlations, Fisher's z tests, and logistic regression analyses were applied. Results showed that, in VOs, the number of risk factors was greater than the number of protective factors, whereas in PSOs, and especially CSOs, the number of protective factors was greater than the number of risk factors. Protective factors appeared to be especially important for juveniles with a history of sexual offenses for two reasons. First, the impact of most protective factors on recidivism was larger among juveniles with a history of sexual offenses than among those with a history of violent offenses. Second, protective factors added to the predictive accuracy over and above risk factors in juveniles with a history of sexual offenses, but not in those with a history of violent offenses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. High temperatures influence sexual development differentially in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samadhan Krushna Phuge

    2017-06-20

    Jun 20, 2017 ... E) on the night of. 17 June 2011. Each pair .... days. At metamorphosis, the proportion of males and females in the control group (24°C) was ... cells (figure 2A); B, seminiferous tubule formation (figure 2D); and C, meiosis in ...

  18. High temperatures influence sexual development differentially

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, effect of differenttemperatures on gonadal development, sex ratio and metamorphosis was studied in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctiscyanophlyctis. The embryos of Gosner stage 7 were exposed to 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32 deg C up to tadpole stage 42. Theembryos (stage 7) were also exposed to ...

  19. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  20. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Adolescent sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions.

  2. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khairlanji, Lalasa Devi and Delta Meghwal Keywords: caste-patriarchy, Dalit women, POA Act, rape, sexual violence

  3. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: TRENDS (REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Selezneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he article analyzes the nature and internal structure of various types of crimes in which involved minors. Describes the main social factors contributing to this anomaly in the period of development of society. Investigated the motivation, the system and the types of crimes of minors in the Volgograd region, are the main trends of development of this phenomenon. The study also discusses the theoretical basis of the problem of the influence of economic stability on the species structure of juvenile delinquency. In this study the analysis of various types of deviance minors in different areas of the city of Volgograd. In the process of rapid modernization of communication processes most of today’s youth have not been able to quickly rebuild their behavior. Currently, the value-perception of the adolescents focused on the material benefits in terms of expanded economic interactions. In these conditions, social processes become increasingly removed from humane and spiritual orientations. The effective functioning of society in its interaction based on cooperation and understanding is of great importance to stimulate the positive trends in social sphere in modern Russia. The modern period of development, coupled with a drastic breaking of the foundations of life, the formation of new social relations and institutions and the destruction of the old, inevitably contributes to social tension, the reassessment of social and moral values and development of deviant behavior of minors. The advantages of this study are the involvement of local archives regional committees on Affairs of minors, was first introduced to active scientific revolution, as well as logical structuring and grouping of the main issues related to the dynamics and changes in the species structure of juvenile crime, which allowed us to perform a fairly extensive archive of statistical material. Based on this analysis, the authors made a

  4. Sexuality and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  5. Appraisal and control of sexual and non-sexual intrusive thoughts in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D A; Purdon, C; Byers, E S

    2000-05-01

    This study examined differences in the appraisal and thought control strategies associated with the perceived control of unwanted sexual and non-sexual intrusive thoughts. Eleven appraisal dimensions, subjective physiological arousal and 10 thought control strategies were measured in 171 university students who were administered the Revised Obsessive Intrusions Inventory-Sex Version, a self-report measure of unwanted intrusive thoughts. Thought-action fusion (TAF) likelihood was a significant unique predictor of the perceived controllability of respondents' most upsetting sexual and non-sexual intrusive thought. Moreover greater subjective physiological arousal was a significant predictor of reduced control over sexual intrusions, whereas worry that one might act on an intrusive thought and greater effort to control the intrusion were significant unique predictors of the control of non-sexual intrusive thoughts. Various thought control strategies were more often used in response to non-sexual than sexual cognitions. The results are discussed in terms of the differential role of various appraisal processes in the control of unwanted sexual and non-sexual thoughts.

  6. Calcinosis in juvenile dermatomyositis : a possible role for the vitamin K-dependent protein matrix Gla protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Summeren, M. J. H.; Spliet, W. G. M.; Van Royen-Kerkhof, A.; Vermeer, C.; Lilien, M.; Kuis, W.; Schurgers, L. J.

    Objectives. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein (MGP) is expressed in muscle biopsies of patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), and whether different forms of MGP are differentially expressed in JDM patients with and without

  7. Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Weichselbaumer

    2000-01-01

    Little research has been done to examine discrimination against gays and lesbians in the labor market. Badgett (1995) conducted the only previous study investigating labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians using a random data set. However, due to the structure of the data, the wage differential between heterosexuals and gays and lesbians that is found can not be directly assigned to employer discrimination. Some gays and lesbians might deploy passing strategies to hide their sexual orienta...

  8. Is Causal Attribution of Sexual Deviance the Source of Thinking Errors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Adult and juvenile offenders exhibit a number of cognitive distortions related to sexually offending behaviors. The latter may be attributed to their developmental deficiencies, the result of operant conditioning, psychological self-defense mechanisms and biases, influence of negative environmental factors or criminal subculture. A group of…

  9. [Bacteriological study on juvenile periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, N

    1991-02-01

    The predominant cultivable microflora of 23 pockets in 15 juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients was studied for the first time in China using the current anaerobic methodology. Samples were taken with sterile paper points and dispersed on a vortex mixer. Then the diluted samples were plated on the non-selective blood agar plates and selective MGB medium which favors the growth of Actinobacillus actimycetemcomitans (Aa) and incubated in anaerobic chamber for 5 days. From each sample 15 or more isolated colonies were picked in sequence without selection and subcultured. The isolates were identified mainly by Schrechenberger's 4 hour rapid methods for biochemical and fermentative tests and the chromatographic analysis of acid end products using ion-chromatography. The results were as follows: 1. The microflora of healthy sulci of 7 healthy young subjects was significantly different from that in the pocket of JP patients. The predominant species in healthy sulci were Streptococcus spp and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. 2. The species increased significantly in JP patients in prevalence and proportions was Eubacterium. Other species in high proportions were Bacteroides oris, B. melaninogenicus, B. gingivalis, Capnocytophaga sputigena, and Actinomyces meyeri, etc. 3. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any of the samples.

  10. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Persistent, recurrent problems with sexual response, desire, orgasm or pain — that distress you or strain your ... You have persistent or recurrent difficulty in achieving orgasm after sufficient sexual arousal and ongoing stimulation. Sexual ...

  11. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2017-04-01

    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a 'western-centric' focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South.

  12. Dating and Sexual Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Body Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Dating and sexual feelings Thinking about romance, starting to ... you learn how to stay healthy and strong. Dating older guys top If you date someone even ...

  13. Effects of Sexuality Information on Sexual Behavior and Control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant correlation between knowledge of sexuality and sexual ... Conclusion: It is recommended that instructors on sexuality education be ... youths facts of sexuality, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases to reduce the ...

  14. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christine Boyce

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This month two general practitioners (GPs describe their approach to sexual health consultations.The issue of a sexually active adolescent demonstrates some differences in legislation pertaining tothe requirement to involve the authorities, although in essence the young person can expect thesame response from these practitioners in two different health care systems. On the other hand apatient at risk of sexually transmitted infections is more likely to be referred to a specialistGenitourinary clinic in the UK although the protocols for screening and education are largely similar.Equally patients who are HIV positive can expect to receive the bulk of their care from specialistclinics in both countries.Midwives are the main stay of antenatal services in Australia and the UK with general practitionersminimally involved in routine cases. Also home births are a negigible proportion of all deliveries ineither country. When patients opt for a home birth our authors expressed the view that GPsgenerally do not have the skills or experience to be the main health professional in attendance.Therefore such births are primarily managed by midwives as the key health care professional. Thefocus of General practitioners is primarily to ensure that the patient is making an informed decisionabout delivering her baby at home. The GP is therefore still in an influential position to assist thewoman in making a decision about where to give birth. As a point of difference in Australia a homebirth would result in out of pocket expences for the mother.The views expressed below are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect health policy orpractice elsewhere in their countries. However we believe they offer an interesting perspective ontheir health care systems and commend the article to our readers.Please

  15. Intraspecific non-sexual interactions of Grammostola schulzei (Araneae: Theraphosidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson E Ferretti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific interactions of araneomorph spiders have received considerable attention, but there are few detailed studies on intraspecific interactions of mygalomorph spiders. Moreover, a thorough understanding of theraphosid biology and ecology is necessary from a conservation standpoint because natural populations may be threatened by habitat disturbances and captures for pet commerce. We described the behavior of conspecific individuals of Grammostola schulzei during non-sexual interactions, under laboratory conditions. Pairs of individuals involving adult males, adult females and juveniles were confronted and observed in resident and intruder conditions, totalizing 115 trials. When confronted two adult females, they retreated or grappled, and performed gaping display with bite attempts, usually resulted in severe injury of the intruder spiders. When confronted females with large juveniles, we frequently observed cannibalism on juveniles. Juveniles exposed to females or to other juveniles retreated or made leg tapping with forelegs and palpal drumming, which are common displays of courting adult males. Adult males courted and clasped some juveniles, but juveniles avoided or reject clasping. The behaviors observed during intraspecific interactions could play an important role determining spatial distribution and could lead to behavioral adaptations of territoriality. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1173-1182. Epub 2011 September 01.Hay pocos estudios detallados sobre las interacciones intraespecíficas de arañas migalomorfas. Por lo tanto, se describe el comportamiento de individuos conspecíficos de Grammostola schulzei durante interacciones nosexuales en condiciones de laboratorio. Se confrontaron y observaron pares de individuos involucrando machos adultos, hembras adultas y juveniles en condiciones de locatarios y visitantes, totalizando 115 encuentros. Cuando dos hembras adultas se enfrentaron, retrocedieron o lucharon adoptando elevaciones

  16. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  17. [Juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, C J; Job-Deslandre, C; Feldmann, J L

    1984-02-16

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with juvenile onset (under 17 years of age) is not infrequent. Thirty-six cases were studied, amounting to 18% of patients hospitalized between 1977 and 1981. The following criteria were used for diagnosis: radiologic sacroiliitis (typical AS), presence of HLA B27 and/or pelvic or vertebral clinical manifestations (possible AS). 31 patients (85%) were boys. Mean age at onset was 12.3 +/- 2.8 years. In three cases, AS was found in a member of the family of the propositus and in one case there was cutaneous psoriasis. Usually (29 cases) onset was in the lower limbs: arthritis of the knee (14 cases), hip (9 cases), ankle (7 cases) or painful heel (4 cases). During the course (with a mean follow-up of 11.2 +/- 7 years), 35 patients exhibited peripheral joint diseases and 25 had axial involvement. Ocular involvement was present in 5 cases. 10 patients had a modification of respiratory function. Radiologic sacroiliitis was found in 31 patients but with a delay of 5.3 +/- 2.6 years. Vertebral radiologic lesions were only seen in 11 patients. Radiologic hip involvement was frequent (20 cases) with complete destruction in 6 patients. Erosion and ossification of the calcaneum were observed in 15 cases. The ESR was above 20 mm/first hour in 26 cases (72%). 81% of these patients were HLA B27 positive. Functional prognosis was good: 16 patients (51.6%) led an almost normal life, 6 were bedridden (Steinbrocker's grade IV), 3 had severe impairment (grade III) and 6 had slight impairment (grade II).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Multidimensional sexual perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects.

  19. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis – an update on its diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common form of chronic arthritis in children and the most ... A swollen knee and uveitis in a young girl, for instance, is ..... Methotrexate for treating juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  20. 83 CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very .... The Nigerian criminal justice system, of which the juvenile justice system is an integral part, ... as instruments of security and justice but as weapons of oppression8.

  1. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish DNA species identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Many pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes) were collected in juvenile salmonid surveys in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) from 1998 to 2002. Often species identification of...

  2. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesher, Melissa S

    2015-06-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with months of severe widespread musculoskeletal pain. He was profoundly fatigued and unable to attend school. Laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, inflammatory markers, and thyroid function, was unrevealing. Physical examination was also normal except for multiple tender points. The patient was diagnosed with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome and referred for multidisciplinary treatment including physical therapy, exercise, and counseling, and his daily functioning gradually improves. Juvenile fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome that often severely limits patients' activities and can impede normal adolescent development. Effective treatment requires an understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and social factors contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain. The author reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, and treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia. Medications, particularly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, can be useful adjuncts to therapy. However, multimodal pain management including intensive physical therapy, exercise, counseling, and sleep hygiene is most effective in treating fibromyalgia. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Effect of TBT on Ruditapes decussatus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M R; Langston, W J; Bebianno, M J

    2006-06-01

    The effects of sublethal concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on growth of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were determined during exposure to TBT concentrations of 50, 100 and 250 ng l(-1) (as Sn) for a period up to two years. Length and weight of clams increased continuously in all treatments throughout the experimental period, and, overall, rates were not significantly influenced by TBT exposure, although final length and weight were inversely related to increasing TBT concentration. Juvenile R. decussatus therefore appear to be less sensitive to TBT than larval stages. Some juveniles exposed to TBT developed abnormal shell growth, laterally, changing the typical flattened shape of clams into a more "rounded" form. This characteristic was more visible in the anterior margins of valves than posteriorly, and mainly observed in clams exposed to TBT at 50 ng l(-1) (as Sn).

  4. Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the corneoscleral limbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoff, M; Perry, H D

    1995-07-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a rare and usually benign skin disease of unknown cause that occurs in infants and young children. We studied a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma of the corneoscleral limbus in a 17-year-old black boy, who presented with a 5-month history of a lump in the right eye. The lesion extended from the superior limbus, fanning out as it proceeded posteriorly for 6 mm with a width of 9 mm and a height of 2 to 3 mm. This yellow-orange mass was vascular and firmly fixed to the underlying tissue. The lesion was diagnosed as a dermoid and observed for 7 months without documented growth before an uneventful excisional biopsy was performed. The pathologic diagnosis showed the characteristic picture of juvenile xanthogranuloma with numerous Touton giant cells. Lipid stains provided further confirmation.

  5. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  6. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl término «delincuencia juvenil» fue acuñado en Inglaterra en el año 1815, “Se entiende por delincuencia juvenil el conjunto de delitos, contravenciones o comportamientos socialmente reprochables, que cometen las personas consideradas como jóvenes por la ley”1 . Cada Estado está sujeto a su propio sistema jurídico, para algunos es delincuente juvenil el adolescente que comete acciones sancionadas por la ley sin importar su gravedad, otros Estados sólo consideran como delincuente juvenil al joven que comete un acto delictivo grave.El fenómeno de la delincuencia juvenil es algo que se inscribe en los espacios de una sociedad en la cual su estructura material, y su formación social consecuente, se halla en una profunda crisis. Que jóvenes conformen bandas de delincuencia organizada nos está indicando que son el resultado de la misma criminalidad general que se ha apoderado de la sociedad en la perspectiva de lograr sobrevivir materialmente. El capitalismo no es sólo acumulación de riqueza sino concentración de la misma en muy pocas manos; y todo el sistema institucional y legal tiende a favorecer ese fenómeno porque éste constituye la supra estructura del modo de producción capitalista. Así como los adultos se organizan para delinquir, lo hacen los niños y los jóvenes a partir de una edad en la cual pueden percibir que la sociedad no es sana y no tienen porvenir humano en ella. Abandonados y sujetos a la violencia que engendra el sistema, ellos simplemente responden en una manifestación de reflejos condicionados que sostienen la sobrevivencia en forma instintiva; “los niños no saben de normas legales sino de formas de sobrevivir a semejante situación; el instinto de sobrevivencia no tiene edades ni la normatividad puede incidir en él”.Palabras ClavesDelincuencia juvenil, Jóvenes, Criminalidad, Familia, Factores, Acto delictivo, Responsabilidad Penal.AbstractThe term “juvenile delinquency” was coined in

  7. The Development of Female Sexual Behavior Requires Prepubertal Estradiol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, O.; Baum, M.J.; Bakker, J.

    2011-01-01

    The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence ofovarian sex hormone actions. However,inaprevious study, female aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to

  8. Disgust and sexual problems : Theoretical conceptualization and case illustrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter J.; van Lankveld, Jacques; Elgersma, Hermien J.; Borg, Charmaine

    There is increasing consensus that the present DSM IV-TR (2000) sexual disorders classification, of desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain is unsatisfactory. This differentiation seems neither adequate as a lead for understanding the mechanisms involved in these sexual problems nor appropriate as a guide

  9. A Multidimensional Comparison of Maritally and Sexually Dysfunctioned Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Phyllis; Snyder, Douglas K.

    The Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI) is a potential instrument for differentiating couples with specific sexual distress from those with more general marital complaints. Couples (N=45) expressing primary complaints of dissatisfaction with their sexual relationship and couples (N=45) expressing primary complaints of generalized marital distress…

  10. Role of Partner Novelty in Sexual Functioning: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    This review investigates whether sexual desire and arousal decline in response to partner familiarity, increase in response to partner novelty, and show differential responding in men and women. These questions were considered through the perspective of two leading evolutionary theories regarding human mating strategies: sexual strategies theory and attachment fertility theory. The hypotheses emerging from these theories were evaluated through a critical analysis of several areas of research including habituation of arousal to erotic stimuli, preferences regarding number of sexual partners, the effect of long-term monogamous relationships on sexual arousal and desire, and prevalence and risk factors associated with extradyadic behavior. The current literature best supports the predictions made by sexual strategies theory in that sexual functioning has evolved to promote short-term mating. Sexual arousal and desire appear to decrease in response to partner familiarity and increase in response to partner novelty in men and women. Evidence to date suggests this effect may be greater in men.

  11. Sexually selected females in the monogamous Western Australian seahorse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Moore, Glenn I; Jones, Adam G

    2007-02-22

    Studies of sexual selection in monogamous species have hitherto focused on sexual selection among males. Here, we provide empirical documentation that sexual selection can also act strongly on females in a natural population with a monogamous mating system. In our field-based genetic study of the monogamous Western Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, sexual selection differentials and gradients show that females are under stronger sexual selection than males: mated females are larger than unmated ones, whereas mated and unmated males do not differ in size. In addition, the opportunity for sexual selection (variance in mating success divided by its mean squared) for females is almost three times that for males. These results, which seem to be generated by a combination of a male preference for larger females and a female-biased adult sex ratio, indicate that substantial sexual selection on females is a potentially important but under-appreciated evolutionary phenomenon in monogamous species.

  12. Imágenes juveniles, medios y nuevos escenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Aguilera Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo nace del análisis de los discursos radiales producidos exclusivamente para jóvenes en Santiago de Chile. Aborda además las categorías comprensivas de la vida juvenil, la vida juvenil de los años 90, el imaginario juvenil des-simbolizado, hacia una comprensión de lo juvenil, dinámica social propuesta por los medios y estrategias comunicacionales.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Proteome-Wide Lysine Acetylation in Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a devastating parasitic disease caused by tremotodes of the genus Schistosoma. Eggs produced by sexually mature schistosomes are the causative agents of for pathogenesis and transmission. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of schistosome development and sexual maturation would facilitate the prevention and control of schistosomiasis. Acetylation of lysine is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification playing keys role in many biological processes including development in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To investigate the impacts of lysine acetylation on Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum development and sexual maturation, we used immunoaffinity-based acetyllysine peptide enrichment combined with mass spectrometry (MS, to perform the first comparative analysis of proteome-wide lysine acetylation in both female and male, juvenile (18 days post infection, 18 dpi and adult (28 dpi schistosome samples. In total, we identified 874 unique acetylated sites in 494 acetylated proteins. The four samples shared 47 acetylated sites and 46 proteins. More acetylated sites and proteins shared by both females and males were identified in 28 dpi adults (189 and 143, respectively than in 18 dpi schistosomula (76 and 59, respectively. More stage-unique acetylated sites and proteins were also identified in 28 dpi adults (494 and 210, respectively than in 18 dpi schistosomula (73 and 44, respectively. Functional annotation showed that in different developmental stages and genders, a number of proteins involving in muscle movement, glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, environmental stress resistance, antioxidation, etc., displayed distinct acetylation profiles, which was in accordance with the changes of their biological functions during schistosome development, suggesting that lysine acetylation modification exerted important regulatory roles in schistosome development. Taken together, our data provided the first

  14. The World of Juvenile Justice According to the Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozalski, Michael; Deignan, Marilyn; Engel, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Intended to be an instructive, yet sobering, introduction to the complex and disturbing nature of the juvenile justice system, this article details the "numbers," including selected percentages, ratios, and dollar amounts, that are relevant to developing a better understanding of the juvenile justice system. General statistics about juvenile and…

  15. Challenges and prospects of the juvenile justice administration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very little priority, despite Nigeria being signatory to the major international instruments relevant to the administration of juvenile justice. This is attributable to the history of the penal system of Nigeria, with laws guiding juvenile justice administration having ...

  16. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sexual Orientation KidsHealth / For Parents / Sexual Orientation What's in this ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the gender ( ...

  17. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  18. Assessment of juveniles testimonies’ validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dozortseva E.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of the English language publications concerning the history and the current state of differential psychological assessment of validity of testimonies produced by child and adolescent victims of crimes. The topicality of the problem in Russia is high due to the tendency of Russian specialists to use methodical means and instruments developed abroad in this sphere for forensic assessments of witness testimony veracity. A system of Statement Validity Analysis (SVA by means of Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA and Validity Checklist is described. The results of laboratory and field studies of validity of CBCA criteria on the basis of child and adult witnesses are discussed. The data display a good differentiating capacity of the method, however, a high level of error probability. The researchers recommend implementation of SVA in the criminal investigation process, but not in the forensic assessment. New perspective developments in the field of methods for differentiation of witness statements based on the real experience and fictional are noted. The conclusion is drawn that empirical studies and a special work for adaptation and development of new approaches should precede their implementation into Russian criminal investigation and forensic assessment practice

  19. Juvenile neurogenesis makes essential contributions to adult brain structure and plays a sex-dependent role in fear memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Daniel Cushman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal-neurogenesis (PNN contributes neurons to olfactory bulb (OB and dentate gyrus (DG throughout juvenile development, but the quantitative amount, temporal dynamics and functional roles of this contribution have not been defined. By using transgenic mouse models for cell lineage tracing and conditional cell ablation, we found that juvenile neurogenesis gradually increased the total number of granule neurons by approximately 40% in OB, and by 25% in DG, between two weeks and two months of age, and that total numbers remained stable thereafter. These findings indicate that the overwhelming majority of net postnatal neuronal addition in these regions occurs during the juvenile period and that adult neurogenesis contributes primarily to replacement of granule cells in both regions. Behavioral analysis in our conditional cell ablation mouse model showed that complete loss of PNN throughout both the juvenile and adult period produced a specific set of sex-dependent cognitive changes. We observed normal hippocampus-independent delay fear conditioning, but excessive generalization of fear to a novel auditory stimulus, which is consistent with a role for PNN in psychopathology. Standard contextual fear conditioning was intact, however, pre-exposure dependent contextual fear was impaired suggesting a specific role for PNN in incidental contextual learning. Contextual discrimination between two highly similar contexts was enhanced; suggesting either enhanced contextual pattern separation or impaired temporal integration. We also observed a reduced reliance on olfactory cues, consistent with a role for OB PNN in the efficient processing of olfactory information. Thus, juvenile neurogenesis adds substantively to the total numbers of granule neurons in OB and DG during periods of critical juvenile behavioral development, including weaning, early social interactions and sexual maturation, and plays a sex-dependent role in fear memories.

  20. Forensic differentiation between peripheral and menstrual blood in cases of alleged sexual assault-validating an immunochromatographic multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of human hemoglobin and D-dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkötter, Hannah; Dias Filho, Claudemir Rodrigues; Schwender, Kristina; Stadler, Christian; Vennemann, Marielle; Pacheco, Ana Claudia; Roca, Gabriela

    2018-05-01

    Sexual assault is a serious offense and identification of body fluids originating from sexual activity has been a crucial aspect of forensic investigations for a long time. While reliable tests for the detection of semen and saliva have been successfully implemented into forensic laboratories, the detection of other body fluids, such as vaginal or menstrual fluid, is more challenging. Especially, the discrimination between peripheral and menstrual blood can be highly relevant for police investigations because it provides potential evidence regarding the issue of consent. We report the forensic validation of an immunochromatographic test that allows for such discrimination in forensic stains, the SERATEC PMB test, and its performance on real casework samples. The PMB test is a duplex test combining human hemoglobin and D-dimer detection and was developed for the identification of blood and menstrual fluid, both at the crime scene and in the laboratory. The results of this study showed that the duplex D-dimer/hemoglobin assay reliably detects the presence of human hemoglobin and identifies samples containing menstrual fluid by detecting the presence of D-dimers. The method distinguished between menstrual and peripheral blood in a swab from a historical artifact and in real casework samples of alleged sexual assaults. Results show that the development of the new duplex test is a substantial progress towards analyzing and interpreting evidence from sexual assault cases.

  1. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour.......Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...

  2. Buffer or Brake? The Role of Sexuality-Specific Parenting in Adolescents’ Sexualized Media Consumption and Sexual Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Overbeek (Geertjan); van de Bongardt, D. (Daphne); Baams, L. (Laura)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractOne main source of sexual socialization lies within family interactions. Especially sexuality-specific parenting may determine adolescents’ sexual development—adolescents’ sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior, sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes—to a

  3. Buffer or Brake? The Role of Sexuality-Specific Parenting in Adolescents’ Sexualized Media Consumption and Sexual Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura

    2018-01-01

    One main source of sexual socialization lies within family interactions. Especially sexuality-specific parenting may determine adolescents’ sexual development—adolescents’ sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior, sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes—to a significant extent,

  4. Sexual Function Across Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Anita H; Harsh, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    Women experience multiple changes in social and reproductive statuses across the life span which can affect sexual functioning. Various phases of the sexual response cycle may be impacted and can lead to sexual dysfunction. Screening for sexual problems and consideration of contributing factors such as neurobiology, reproductive life events, medical problems, medication use, and depression can help guide appropriate treatment and thereby improve the sexual functioning and quality of life of affected women. Treatment options include psychotropic medications, hormone therapy, and psychotherapy.

  5. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  6. Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2010: Selected Findings. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report Series. Bulletin NCJ 241134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Sarah; Sickmund, Melissa; Sladky, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This bulletin is part of the "Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series." The "National Report" offers a comprehensive statistical overview of the problems of juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the response of the juvenile justice system. During each interim year, the bulletins in the "National…

  7. Sexuality and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.

  8. Exercise therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.; van Brussel, M.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; van der Net, J.; Kuis, W.; Helders, P. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise therapy is considered an important component of the treatment of arthritis. The efficacy of exercise therapy has been reviewed in adults with rheumatoid arthritis but not in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). To assess the effects of exercise therapy on functional ability,

  9. Program Performance Inventory: Six Juvenile Offender Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomalla, Terri Groff; Dougherty, Victoria J.

    This report describes the performance of 6 Connecticut juvenile justice alternative sanction programs in 14 qualitative areas: community reintegration; outcomes and evaluation; assessment methods; risk factors; escalation of criminal activity; family involvement; community involvement; work ethic and vocational training; education and life skills;…

  10. Radium rentention and dosimetry in juvenile beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Jones, C.W.; Bruenger, F.W.; Atherton, D.R.; Mays, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Retention of administered 226 Ra was substantially greater in beagles injected as 3-month-old juveniles than as 1.4-year-old adults, but the measured 222 Rn/ 226 Ra ratio in bone was significantly less in juveniles for about the first 600 days after injection. An equation that describes the total-body biological retention R in beagles injected with 226 Ra at 3 months of age at any time t (in days) after injection during the first 6.6 years is R = 0.331e/sup -0.206t/ + 0.245e/sup -0.00374t/ + 0.424e/sup -0.000114t/. The rate constant of the final term in the equation for juveniles is similar to that for young adults, suggesting that this component reflects the net turnover rate in the slowly remodeling component of adult bone. Compared to young adult beagles, animals injected as juveniles had a greater fraction of their retained 226 Ra in parts of the skeleton containing much cortical bone, such as paws, and a smaller fraction in those parts containing much trabecular bone

  11. Alteracioness cognitivas en familias con Parkinson juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Lopera Restrepo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Neurociencias de la Universidad de Antioquia reportó por primera vez en Colombia cuatro familias afecatas por la Enfermedad de Parkinson Familiar Juvenil portadoras de la mutación G736A en el gen Parkin.

  12. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currently...

  13. Do burn centers provide juvenile firesetter intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrns-Klas, Karla S; Wahl, Wendy L; Hemmila, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting activity accounts for a significant number of annual injuries and property damage, yet there is sparse information on intervention in the burn literature. To quantify juvenile firesetting intervention (JFSI) in burn centers, a 23-question survey was sent to all directors listed in the American Burn Association Burn Care Facilities Directory.Sixty-four out of 112 (57%) surveys were returned. This represents responses from 79% of currently verified burn centers. When queried on interventions provided to a juvenile firesetter admitted to their unit, 38% report having their own JFSI program and 38% refer the child to fire services. Two thirds of units without a JFSI program treat pediatric patients. Units that previously had a JFSI program report lack of staffing and funding as most common reasons for program discontinuation. Almost all (95%) stated that a visual tool demonstrating legal, financial, social, future, and career ramifications associated with juvenile firesetting would be beneficial to their unit. Many burn units that treat pediatric patients do not have JFSI and rely on external programs operated by fire services. Existing JFSI programs vary greatly in structure and method of delivery. Burn centers should be involved in JFSI, and most units would benefit from a new video toolkit to assist in providing appropriate JFSI. Study results highlight a need for burn centers to collaborate on evaluating effectiveness of JFSI programs and providing consistent intervention materials based on outcomes research.

  14. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography.

  15. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography. Images PMID:1444631

  16. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkenborg, M-L; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T; Von Buchwald, C

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning and surgical strategy. A 21-year-old male presented with increasing bilateral nasal obstruction and discharge. Examination revealed tumours bilaterally and imaging demonstrated non-contiguous tumours. Pre-operative angiography showed strictly ipsilateral vascular supplies requiring bilateral embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral symptoms. Our management, including successful pre-operative planning, enabled one-step total removal of both tumours and rapid patient recovery.

  17. Perceived Competence of Juvenile Delinquents and Nondelinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Peter G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Thirty male juvenile delinquents and 90 male high achievers, low achievers, and students with behavior problems were compared using an adapted version of Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Children. The Australian students (aged 12-15) were compared on 4 different domains of perceived competence--cognitive competence, social competence,…

  18. Factors Involved in Juveniles' Decisions about Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimler, Edward; Beach, Lee Roy

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether delinquency is the result of a rational decision. The Subjective Expected Utility (SEU) model from decision theory was used with male juvenile offenders (N=45) as the model of the decision process. Results showed that the SEU model predicted 62.7 percent of the subjects' decisions. (Author/RC)

  19. Juvenile Court Commitment Rates: The National Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosin, Michael

    There is less geographic variation in the commitment rate of juvenile offenders than is commonly assumed. Apparently, judges across the country develop a similar standard of what percentage of youths they face should be committed. This standard may be similar across the country because it represents broadly shared ideals. However, there is much…

  20. Smerte og smertemestring ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels; Thastum, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Pain is one of the primary symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA patients have reduced pain tolerance and pain threshold compared to healthy controls. In children with JIA the greater use of coping strategies such as problem-solving, positive self-statements and distraction consist...

  1. Biologisk terapi ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has undergone marked changes. There is substantial evidence that inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) like etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab show significant efficacy when standard therapy fails, and long-ter...

  2. Nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma: updating of radiotherapy results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Caballero Aguirrechu, Iraida; Reno Cespedes, Jesus; Perez Penna, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    The nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma is a uncommon benign tumor composed of fibrous connective tissue and many vascular spaces covered by endothelium. It is almost exclusive of male sex and of adolescents. Choice treatment is the exeresis without obviate other possibilities as the radiotherapy. The aim of present study was to show the results of this latter as therapeutical option

  3. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in children commonly presents with osteo articular manifestations that may mimic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. This may create considerable diagnostic difficulty and lead to delay in commencing appropriate treatment. Case: An eight year old boy who presented with multiple ...

  4. Molecular basis of juvenile hormone signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindra, Marek; Bellés, X.; Shinoda, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, Oct 09 (2015), s. 39-46 ISSN 2214-5745 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-23681S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * JH receptor * Drosophila melanogaster Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.719, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214574515001297

  5. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  6. Shortening the juvenile phase for flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higazy, M.K.M.T.

    1962-01-01

    Higazy tried to determine whether the duration of the juvenile phase for flowering was a fixed character or whether it could be influenced by external growth factors.

    Lunaria biennis was chosen as a cold-requiring biennial, Silene armeria as a long-day plant and Salvia

  7. The Diversity of Juvenile Sarcoidosis Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vougiouka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of juvenile sarcoidosis, emphasizing the variety of clinical manifestations. The child had uveitis, which is among the most common manifestations of the disease. However, fever of unknown origin, glomerulonephritis and lymphadenopathy were also noticed, underscoring the diversity of the clinical spectrum of the disease.

  8. Hypercaloric diet prevents sexual impairment induced by maternal food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M M; Macrini, D J; Teodorov, E; Bonamin, L V; Dalboni, L C; Coelho, C P; Chaves-Kirsten, G P; Florio, J C; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, N; Bondan, E F; Kirsten, T B

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal undernutrition impairs copulatory behavior and increases the tendency to become obese/overweight, which also reduces sexual behavior. Re-feeding rats prenatally undernourished with a normocaloric diet can restore their physiological conditions and copulatory behavior. Thus, the present study investigated whether a hypercaloric diet that is administered in rats during the juvenile period prevents sexual impairments that are caused by maternal food restriction and the tendency to become overweight/obese. Female rats were prenatally fed a 40% restricted diet from gestational day 2 to 18. The pups received a hypercaloric diet from postnatal day (PND) 23 to PND65 (food restricted hypercaloric [FRH] group) or laboratory chow (food restricted control [FRC] group). Pups from non-food-restricted dams received laboratory chow during the entire experiment (non-food-restricted [NFR] group). During the juvenile period and adulthood, body weight gain was evaluated weekly. The day of balanopreputial separation, sexual behavior, sexual organ weight, hypodermal adiposity, striatal dopamine and serotonin, serum testosterone, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The FRH group exhibited an increase in body weight on PND58 and PND65. The FRC group exhibited an increase in the latency to the first mount and intromission and an increase in serum TNF-α levels but a reduction of dopaminergic activity. The hypercaloric diet reversed all of these effects but increased adiposity. We concluded that the hypercaloric diet administered during the juvenile period attenuated reproductive impairments that were induced by maternal food restriction through increases in the energy expenditure but not the tendency to become overweight/obese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rethinking Gender and Sexuality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi Ghajarieh, Amir Biglar; Mozaheb, Mohammad Amin

    2012-01-01

    In this short article, the authors argues that gender and sexuality, considered different concepts in gender studies, are so intertwined that differentiating between the two may cause the exclusion of many gender identities in education regardless of being fit into the male or female spectrum. LGBT(Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) people…

  10. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eutsler, Eric P. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Horton, Daniel B. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Finkel, Terri [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Orlando, FL (United States); Averill, Lauren W. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  11. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eutsler, Eric P.; Horton, Daniel B.; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  12. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutsler, Eric P; Horton, Daniel B; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol.

  13. Disorders of sexual development and associated changes in the pituitary-gonadal axis in dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtels, J.J.C.W.M.; de Gier, J.; Kooistra, H.S.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Naan, E.C.; Zijlstra, C.; Okkens, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual differentiation depends on completion of chromosomal sex determination, gonadal differentiation, and development of the phenotypic sex. An irregularity in any of these three steps can lead to a disorder in sexual development (DSD). We examined nine dogs with DSD by abdominal

  14. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  15. Usage-Centered Design Approach in Design of Malaysia Sexuality Education (MSE) Courseware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S. L.; Jaafar, A.

    The problems amongst juveniles increased every year, especially rape case of minor. Therefore, the government of Malaysia has introduced the National Sexuality Education Guideline on 2005. An early study related to the perception of teachers and students toward the sexuality education curriculum taught in secondary schools currently was carried out in 2008. The study showed that there are big gaps between the perception of the teachers and the students towards several issues of Malaysia sexuality education today. The Malaysia Sexuality Education (MSE) courseware was designed based on few learning theories approach. Then MSE was executed through a comprehensive methodology which the model ADDIE integrated with Usage-Centered Design to achieve high usability courseware. In conclusion, the effort of developing the MSE is hopefully will be a solution to the current problem that happens in Malaysia sexuality education now.

  16. 76 FR 54978 - Special Immigrant Juvenile Petitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... physical or mental injury upon the child and sexual abuse or exploitation of a child. The law also... abuse, neglect (including severe and general neglect), sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. The basic definition of child abuse or neglect includes physical injury inflicted by other than accidental means upon a...

  17. Sexual Narcissism and the Perpetration of Sexual Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales—Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204

  18. Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K

    2010-08-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction).

  19. Normal male childhood and adolescent sexual interactions: implications for sexual orientation of the individual with intersex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2005-03-01

    Data provided by 24 adult men, 20 heterosexual and four homosexual, concerning parental, religious, geographic and explicit sexual innuendos, comments and childhood experiences are presented and discussed in an attempt to consider some of the multiple factors impacting the development of sexual orientation. All of the study subjects were normally developed males and were presumed to have been exposed to normal male levels of androgens prenatally. Since the experiences and perceptions reported are conditioned by a unique social environment that has been superimposed on a normal male typical prenatal CNS differentiation, the experiences of these men suggest that affirmation of masculinity, and openness in the realm of social and sexual interaction, may enhance the formation of a heterosexual orientation. Conversely, sexually explicit feedback with critical implications occurred commonly among the homosexual men, which they interpreted as implying an insufficient masculinity. Both innate factors and social influences impact sexual orientation; in some instances males appear to have been homosexual from early childhood onward, while in other cases there appears to have been some degree of conditioning and choice in sexual orientation. Regarding the intersexed male, this suggests that social interactions, particularly those provided by parents, have a major influence on the development of sexual orientation in the child, while all persons involved in these children's lives and particularly those who nurture must be prepared for any sexual orientation that develops.

  20. Sexual Minority Health and Health Risk Factors: Intersection Effects of Gender, Race, and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ning; Ruther, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Although population studies have documented the poorer health outcomes of sexual minorities, few have taken an intersectionality approach to examine how sexual orientation, gender, and race jointly affect these outcomes. Moreover, little is known about how behavioral risks and healthcare access contribute to health disparities by sexual, gender, and racial identities. Using ordered and binary logistic regression models in 2015, data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=62,302) were analyzed to study disparities in self-rated health and functional limitation. This study examined how gender and race interact with sexual identity to create health disparities, and how these disparities are attributable to differential exposure to behavioral risks and access to care. Conditional on sociodemographic factors, all sexual, gender, and racial minority groups, except straight white women, gay white men, and bisexual non-white men, reported worse self-rated health than straight white men (pnon-white men, were more likely to report a functional limitation than straight white men (pgender, and racial minority groups. Sexual, gender, and racial identities interact with one another in a complex way to affect health experiences. Efforts to improve sexual minority health should consider heterogeneity in health risks and health outcomes among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Technological advancements and Internet sexuality: does private access to the Internet influence online sexual behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneback, Kristian; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Ross, Michael W

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether demographic characteristics and sexual behavior online and offline were associated with private, respectively, nonprivate access to the Internet in a Web sample of people who use the Internet for sexual purposes. A total of 1,913 respondents completed an online questionnaire about Internet sexuality, and 1,614 reported using the Internet for sexual purposes. The majority of these respondents reported having access to an Internet-connected computer no one else had access to (62 percent women and 70 percent men). The results showed that it is possible to differentiate between those who have access to an Internet-connected computer no one else has access to and those who have shared access to an Internet-connected computer. Not only did they differ in demographic characteristics, but also in the sexual activities they engaged in on the Internet. Different patterns were found for women and men. For example, men who had private access to Internet-connected computers were more likely than those who had shared access to seek information about sexual issues. Thus, having access to Internet computers no one else has access to may promote sexual knowledge and health for men. The results of this study along with the technological development implies that in future research, attention should be paid to where and how people access the Internet in relation to online behavior in general and online sexual behavior in particular.

  2. Indian concepts on sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

  3. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  4. It Takes Two: Sexual Communication Patterns and the Sexual and Relational Adjustment of Couples Coping With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Kate M; Flynn, Michelle; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that is associated with sexual and relational consequences for women and their partners. Greater perceived quality of sexual communication has been associated with women's lower pain during intercourse and with couples' better sexual and relational well-being. Whether couples' collaborative (eg, expressing feelings or problem solving) and negative (eg, withdrawing or criticizing) sexual communication patterns (SCPs) are differentially associated with couples' adjustment to PVD is unknown. To examine associations between collaborative and negative SCPs and women's pain and the sexual and relationship adjustment of women with PVD and their partners. Women diagnosed with PVD (N = 87) and their partners completed the Sexual Communication Patterns Questionnaire and measurements of pain (women only), sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and relationship satisfaction. (i) Numerical rating scale of pain during intercourse, (ii) Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function, (iii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, (iv) Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised, and (v) Couple Satisfaction Index. When women reported greater collaborative SCP, they also reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. When women reported greater negative SCP, they reported less relationship satisfaction and had partners who reported greater sexual distress. When partners reported greater collaborative SCP, they also reported higher relationship satisfaction and had female partners who were less sexually distressed. When partners reported higher negative SCP, they also reported less relationship satisfaction. There were no associations between SCP and women's or partners' sexual functioning or women's pain. Collaborative SCP may benefit couples' sexual and relational well-being, whereas negative SCP may impede sexual and relational adjustment to PVD. Findings

  5. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Sexuality and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Can ... It's something everyone needs. Many people think that sexuality refers only to sexual intercourse. But sexuality includes ...

  6. Sexuality, aging, and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Susan Mary; Beeston, Derek

    2012-07-01

    Sexuality in later life and its relationship to dementia is a neglected topic: greater understanding of the area has the potential to contribute to the quality of life of people with dementia, their family members, and formal carers. We review current knowledge about sexuality, aging, and dementia. We undertook a review of the recent literature to examine of the following areas: what is known about sexuality and aging, and about attitudes to sexuality and aging; what is known about the relevance of sexuality and aging to people living with dementia and their care; and the management of sexual behaviors causing concern to others. Sexual activity decreases in frequency with increasing age but many older people remain sexually active; there is no age limit to sexual responsiveness; and sexuality is becoming more important to successive cohorts of older people, including people living with dementia and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered elderly people. Attitudes and beliefs toward sexuality and aging are strongly influenced by stereotypes and myths, not only among the general public but also among those working in health and social care. Professional bodies should include sexuality, aging, and dementia in their training curricula. More work is needed on the impact of environmental issues, particularly in group living situations, on older adults' sexuality, and on consent issues. Ethical decision-making frameworks can be useful in practice. Organizations should investigate how to support staff in avoiding a problem-orientated approach and focus on providing holistic person-centered care.

  7. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in juvenile detention: role of adverse life experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav P Bhatta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of multiple adverse life experiences (sexual abuse, homelessness, running away, and substance abuse in the family on suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adolescents at an urban juvenile detention facility in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample included a total of 3,156 adolescents processed at a juvenile detention facility in an urban area in Ohio between 2003 and 2007. The participants, interacting anonymously with a voice enabled computer, self-administered a questionnaire with 100 items related to health risk behaviors. RESULTS: Overall 19.0% reported ever having thought about suicide (suicide ideation and 11.9% reported ever having attempted suicide (suicide attempt. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis those reporting sexual abuse (Odds Ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval  = 2.08-3.63 and homelessness (1.51; 1.17-1.94 were associated with increased odds of suicide ideation, while sexual abuse (3.01; 2.22-4.08, homelessness (1.49; 1.12-1.98, and running away from home (1.38; 1.06-1.81 were associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. Those experiencing all four adverse events were 7.81 times more likely (2.41-25.37 to report having ever attempted suicide than those who experienced none of the adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of adverse life experiences and their association with suicidal behaviors in detained adolescents, these factors should not only be included in the suicide screening tools at the intake and during detention, but should also be used for the intervention programming for suicide prevention.

  8. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil Acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil Acupuncture in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialda Höfling P. Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a utilização da acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia submetidos a, pelo menos, 11 sessões semanais de acupuntura. As avaliações antes e após acupuntura incluíram dados demográficos, características da dor musculoesquelética, número de pontos dolorosos (NPD, escala visual analógica (EVA de dor, algiometria e índice miálgico (IM. Durante o estudo, os pacientes puderam usar analgésicos, amitriptilina e foram orientados a praticar atividade física aeróbica. Os resultados antes e após acupuntura foram comparados pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: Dos 38 pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil acompanhados em oito anos consecutivos, 13 tinham todas as informações nos prontuários e nas fichas de acupuntura e foram avaliados. Destes 13, sete obtiveram melhora nos três parâmetros analisados (número de pontos dolorosos, EVA de dor e IM. As medianas do número de pontos dolorosos e da EVA de dor foram significativamente maiores antes do tratamento quando comparados ao final do tratamento com as sessões de acupuntura [14 (11-18 versus 10 (0-15, p=0,005; 6 (2-10 versus 3 (0-10, p=0,045; respectivamente]. Em contraste, a mediana do IM foi significativamente menor antes do tratamento [3,4 (2,49-4,39 versus 4,2 (2,71-5,99, p=0,02]. Nenhum dos pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil apresentou eventos adversos associados à acupuntura. CONCLUSÕES: Acupuntura é uma modalidade de Medicina Tradicional Chinesa que pode ser utilizada nos pacientes pediátricos com fibromialgia. Futuros estudos controlados serão necessários.OBJETIVO: Describir el uso de acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo realizado en pacientes con fibromialgia juvenil (criterios del Colegio Americano de Reumatología sometidos a al menos 11 sesiones

  9. DI(N-BUTYL) PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE IN COMBINATION ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN A CUMULATIVE MANNER AS A RESULT OF DEPRESSED FETAL TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasticizers di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) and diehtylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) have similar modes of action: in utero exposure reduces testosterone (T) production in fetal male rats, inhibits reproductive tract differentiation, and induces reproductive organ malformations. In utero e...

  10. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score sexual problem), sexual distress (Female Sexual Distress Scale; score ≥ 15 indicates clinically significant distress), sexual satisfaction (Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction), and relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Your Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase arousal? • What can help me have an orgasm? • How can I minimize sexual pain? • How can ... difficulties. What are orgasmic problems? Not having an orgasm during sexual activity may not be a problem. ...

  12. Sexual Health and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pass through menopause and discover its effects on sexuality. And that’s something we can all be grateful for, since our understanding of how menopause and aging affect sexual health has grown a lot in ...

  13. Aging and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lesley

    2010-10-01

    Sexuality has become a medical issue in association with aging. This is due to a number of factors, including increasing age of survival, a positive societal construct that promotes sexuality as important for quality of life as we age, and the medicalisation of sexuality with the advent of prescription medications to treat sexual dysfunction. This article reviews the factors surrounding aging and sexuality and also considers special situations with age, such as institutionalised care and the possibility of elder abuse. Normal physiological changes with aging affect both genders in terms of sexual desire and performance. Other medical conditions increase with age, and these and their treatments will impact on sexuality and the way it can be expressed. Medical practitioners require an understanding of these changes in order to find ways to optimise sexual function in older patients.

  14. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early......The present study set out to investigate predictors of first time adolescent peer-on-peer sexual victimization (APSV) among 238 female Grade 9 students from 30 schools in Denmark. A prospective research design was utilized to examine the relationship among five potential predictors as measured...... sexual onset and failing to signal sexual boundaries did not. The present study identifies specific risk factors for first time sexual victimization that are potentially changeable. Thus, the results may inform prevention initiatives targeting initial experiences of APSV....

  15. Scleroderma and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scleroderma and Sexuality INTRODUCTION If you or your partner have been diagnosed with scleroderma, you may be wondering how this will ... will continue to find satisfaction and enjoyment through sexuality. If you are single, you may wonder how ...

  16. Rape and Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF 73K) | Appendix H: Data Tables for Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Perpetration (PDF 79K) | Appendix I: Data Tables for School Connectedness and Campus Climate (PDF 140K) | Appendix J: ...

  17. Number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness predict sexual victimization: do more partners equal more risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dave P; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness were examined as independent risk factors for sexual victimization among college women. Using a sample of 335 college women, this study examined the interaction of number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness on verbal sexual coercion and rape. Approximately 32% of the sample reported unwanted sexual intercourse, 6.9% (n = 23) experienced verbal sexual coercion, 17.9% (n = 60) experienced rape, and 7.2% (n = 24) experienced both. As number of sexual partners increased, instances of verbal sexual coercion increased for women low in relational sexual assertiveness but not for women high in relational sexual assertiveness. A similar relationship was not found for rape. Among women who experienced both verbal sexual coercion and rape, increases in number of partners in the context of low refusal and relational assertiveness were associated with increases in verbal sexual coercion and rape. Findings suggest sexual assertiveness is related to fewer experiences of sexual coercion.

  18. An Overview of Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, William F., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…

  19. Identifying Adolescent Patients at Risk for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Development of a Brief Sexual Health Screening Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Chung, Richard; Thompson, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the association between survey responses to health behaviors, personality/psychosocial factors, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to create a brief survey to identify youth at risk for contracting STIs. Participants included 200 racially diverse 14- to 18-year-old patients from a pediatric primary care clinic. Two sexual behavior variables and one peer norm variable were used to differentiate subgroups of individuals at risk of contracting a STI based on reported history of STIs using probability (decision tree) analyses. These items, as well as sexual orientation and having ever had oral sex, were used to create a brief sexual health screening (BSHS) survey. Each point increase in total BSHS score was associated with exponential growth in the percentage of sexually active adolescents reporting STIs. Findings suggest that the BSHS could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to quickly and accurately detect sexual risk among adolescent patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Sexual Desire Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the phys...

  1. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-01-01

    -mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). METHODS: Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual...

  2. Impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis on schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouaddi Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is the most common arthropathy of childhood. Different diseases affect school attendance to varying degrees. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA on Moroccan children’s schooling. Methods Thirty-three children with JIA were included in this study, having been previously diagnosed according to the classification criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR. Seventy-four healthy children were recruited to serve as controls. Data was obtained for all children on their school level, educational performance, and attendance. The rate of absenteeism due to health complications was noted. Results All healthy children were able to attend school (p Conclusions Our study suggested that the schooling of children with JIA was negatively impacted due to the disorder. More studies, with a larger sample of children, are needed to confirm our findings.

  3. Bacteriological study of juvenile periodontitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, N M; Xiao, X R; Zhang, L S; Ri, X Q; Zhang, J Z; Tong, Y H; Yang, M R; Xiao, Z R

    1991-09-01

    The predominant cultivable bacteria associated with juvenile periodontitis (JP) in China were studied for the first time. Subgingival plaque samples were taken on paper points from 23 diseased sites in 15 JP patients and from 7 healthy sites in 7 control subjects. Serially diluted plaque samples were plated on nonselective blood agar and on MGB agar, a selective medium for the isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Fifteen or more isolated colonies from each sample (in sequence without selection) were purified for identification. The results indicated that the microflora in healthy sulci of the 7 control subjects was significantly different from that in diseased sites of JP patients. The predominant species in healthy sulci were Streptococcus spp. and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. In JP patients, Eubacterium sp. was found in significantly higher frequency and proportion. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any samples. It appears that this species is not associated with juvenile periodontitis in China.

  4. Female youth who sexually coerce: prevalence, risk, and protective factors in two national high school surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Mossige, Svein; Långström, Niklas

    2011-12-01

    Sexual coercion is recognized as a serious societal problem. Correlates and risk factors of sexually abusive behavior in females are not well known. Etiological theory and empirical study of female perpetrators of sexual coercion are usually based on small or highly selected samples. Specifically, population-based data are needed to elucidate risk/protective factors. Main outcome measures include a self-report questionnaire containing 65 items tapping socio-demographic and health conditions, social relations, sexual victimization, conduct problems and a set of normative and deviant sexual cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. We used a 2003-2004 survey of sexual attitudes and experiences among high school students in Norway and Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates to sexually coercive behavior (response rate 80%); 4,363 females participated (Mean = 18.1 years). Thirty-seven women (0.8%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked someone into, used pressure, or forced somebody to have sex). Sexually coercive compared with non-coercive women were similar on socio-demographic variables, but reported less parental care and more parental overprotection, aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance misuse. Also, sexually coercive females reported more sexual lust, sex partners, penetrative sexual victimization, rape myths, use of violent porn, and friends more likely to use porn. When using the Swedish subsample to differentiate risk factors specific for sexual coercion from those for antisocial behavior in general, we found less cannabis use, but more sexual preoccupation, pro-rape attitudes, and friends using violent porn in sexually coercive compared with non-sex conduct problem females. Sexually coercive behavior in high school women was associated with general risk/needs factors for antisocial behavior, but also with specific sexuality-related risk factors. This differential effect has previously been overlooked, agrees with similar findings in men, and

  5. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Sarah; Sen, Ethan; Ramanan, Athimalaipet

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease of childhood, with JIA-associated uveitis its most common extra-articular manifestation. JIA-associated uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition and thus carries a considerable risk of morbidity. The aetiology of the condition is autoimmune in nature with the predominant involvement of CD4(+) T cells. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, particularly regarding interplay between geneti...

  7. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Timisoara ENT Department's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanescu, Gheorghe; Ruja, Steluta; Cotulbea, Stan

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a histologically benign, but very aggressive and destructive tumor found exclusively in young males. The management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has changed in recent years, but it still continues to be a challenge for the multidisciplinary head and neck surgical team. The purpose of this study was to review a series of 30 patients describing the treatment approach used and studying the outcome of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in the ENT Department Timisoara, Romania for a period of 30 years. The patients were diagnosed and treated during the years 1981-2011. All patients were male. Tumors were classified using Radkowski's staging system. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allowed for accurate diagnosis and staging of the tumors. Biopsies were not performed. Surgery represented the gold standard for treatment of juvenine nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients had the tumor removed by an external approach, endoscopic surgical approach not being employed in this series of patients. All patients were treated surgically. Surgical techniques performed were: Denker-Rouge technique in 13 cases (43.33%), paralateronasal technique in 7 cases (23.33%), retropalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%) and transpalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%). No preoperative tumor embolization was performed. The recurrence rate was 16.66%. The follow-up period ranged from 1 year to 12 years. Management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma remains a surgical challenge. Clinical evaluation and surgical experience are very important in selecting the proper approach. A multidisciplinary team, with an experienced surgeon and good collaboration with the anesthesiologist are needed for successful surgical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  9. BILATERAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION IN JUVENILE LOCALIZED SCLERODERMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Mackenzie L; Day, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    To describe a case of bilateral choroidal excavation in a patient with juvenile localized scleroderma. Case report. An asymptomatic 12-year-old boy with localized scleroderma presented for examination and was found to have bilateral areas of choroidal excavation temporal to the fovea. Previous reports of ocular complications of localized scleroderma have primarily described adnexal and anterior segment changes. This is the second report of choroidal changes in a patient with localized scleroderma, and the first in a pediatric patient.

  10. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re-evaluated...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  11. [Social and cultural determinants of juvenile deliquency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roché, Sébastian

    2004-01-01

    Our knowledge of juvenile delinquency has progressed considerably since the early 1980s, thanks to self-reported delinquency surveys. They teach us that the determinants of delinquent behaviors among teenagers are dependent on the facility with which the offense is committed, the internal motivation (frustration in the family and school, observational learning of the use of violence in the media) and the weakness of social reactions.

  12. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  13. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John F.; And Others

    As in many other areas of society, sexual harassment has become an important issue in education. It has left the educational community with many questions about what constitutes sexual harassment, how to prevent it, and how to deal with the legal problems that may arise concerning it. This report dispels several myths about sexual harassment in…

  14. Loneliness and Sexual Dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1987-01-01

    Argues that sexual dysfunctions result from early childhood experiences which were originally nonsexual in nature. Contends that psychological difficulties centered around problems of loneliness tend to generate certain sexual dysfunctions. Extends and explores suggestion that genesis of sexual conflicts is in nonsexual infant separation anxiety…

  15. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a ‘western-centric’ focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South. PMID:28490816

  16. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that seems sexual to an adult is not sexual to children. They think about it as play. Sex education should start at home at an early age. References Bushnell P and Lucas L. Questions and Answers About Sex. KidsHealth. ... Sexual Behavior in Children: What's Normal? http://www.mayoclinic. ...

  17. Diminished fronto-limbic functional connectivity in child sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Jonas; Borchardt, Viola; Kärgel, Christian; Sinke, Christopher; Massau, Claudia; Tenbergen, Gilian; Ponseti, Jorge; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus M; Schiffer, Boris; Schiltz, Kolja; Walter, Martin; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2018-02-22

    Child sexual abuse and neglect have been related to an increased risk for the development of a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and sexual problems and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Contrary to the large amount of research focusing on the negative mental health consequences of child sexual abuse, very little is known about the characteristics of child sexual offenders and the neuronal underpinnings contributing to child sexual offending. This study investigates differences in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between non-pedophilic child sexual offenders (N = 20; CSO-P) and matched healthy controls (N = 20; HC) using a seed-based approach. The focus of this investigation of rs-FC in CSO-P was put on prefrontal and limbic regions highly relevant for emotional and behavioral processing. Results revealed a significant reduction of rs-FC between the right centromedial amygdala and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in child sexual offenders compared to controls. Given that, in the healthy brain, there is a strong top-down inhibitory control of prefrontal over limbic structures, these results suggest that diminished rs-FC between the amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and may foster sexual deviance and sexual offending. A profound understanding of these concepts should contribute to a better understanding of the occurrence of child sexual offending, as well as further development of more differentiated and effective interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Amyloid beta precursor protein regulates male sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Ho; Bonthius, Paul J; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Bekiranov, Stefan; Rissman, Emilie F

    2010-07-28

    Sexual behavior is variable between individuals, ranging from celibacy to sexual addictions. Within normal populations of individual men, ranging from young to middle aged, testosterone levels do not correlate with libido. To study the genetic mechanisms that contribute to individual differences in male sexual behavior, we used hybrid B6D2F1 male mice, which are a cross between two common inbred strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J). Unlike most laboratory rodent species in which male sexual behavior is highly dependent upon gonadal steroids, sexual behavior in a large proportion of these hybrid male mice after castration is independent of gonadal steroid hormones and their receptors; thus, we have the ability to discover novel genes involved in this behavior. Gene expression arrays, validation of gene candidates, and transgenic mice that overexpress one of the genes of interest were used to reveal genes involved in maintenance of male sexual behavior. Several genes related to neuroprotection and neurodegeneration were differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of males that continued to mate after castration. Male mice overexpressing the human form of one of these candidate genes, amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), displayed enhanced sexual behavior before castration and maintained sexual activity for a longer duration after castration compared with controls. Our results reveal a novel and unexpected relationship between APP and male sexual behavior. We speculate that declining APP during normal aging in males may contribute to the loss of sexual function.

  19. Computed tomography of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheong Hee; Yoo, Shi Joon; Lee, Yul; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-02-15

    It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, extent, erosion and relationship of angiofibroma to surrounding structures such as pterygopalation fossa. It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, sphenoid sinus, and etc. CT of 20 patients with juvenile angiofibroma, which were examined for 5 yeas from February, 1979 to May, 1984 at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. All 20 patients of juvenile angiofibroma had tumors in nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity showing homogeneously dense-enhancing soft tissue mass on CT. There was extension of the tumor from nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity into paranasal sinus (60%, 12/20), pterygopalatine fossa (55%, 11/20), infratemporal fossa (30%, 6/20), posterior orbit (10%, 2/20) and cranial cavity (15%, 3/20). 2. Angiogrpahy usually adds little diagnostic information, but is still needed to identify the precise source of blood supply to the tumor, and to perform the pre-operative embolization. The use of CT has deferred angiography until just before surgery, permitting embolization at optimal time. 3. CT is almost always necessary to reveal accurately the full extent of the tumor, especially intracranial space in the axial and coronal planes with contrast enhancement. CT is useful both in diagnosis as a guide to angiography and in planning the adequate therapy of juvenile angiofibroma.

  20. Clinical presentation of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Heloísa H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation a group of patients with juvenile onset of Huntington disease. METHOD: All patients were interviewed following a structured clinical questioner. Patients were genotyped for the trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeat in the Huntington Disease gene. High resolution brain MRI was performed in all patients. RESULTS: We identified 4 patients with juvenile onset of disease among 50 patients with Huntington disease followed prospectively in our Neurogenetics clinic. Age at onset varied from 3 to 13 years, there were 2 boys, and 3 patients had a paternal inheritance of the disease. Expanded Huntington disease allele sizes varied from 41 to 69 trinucleotide repeats. The early onset patients presented with rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, dysarthria, seizures and ataxia. MRI showed severe volume loss of caudate and putamen nuclei (p=0.001 and reduced cerebral and cerebellum volumes (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: 8% of Huntington disease patients seen in our clinic had juvenile onset of the disease. They did not present with typical chorea as seen in adult onset Huntington disease. There was a predominance of rigidity and bradykinesia. Two other important clinical features were seizures and ataxia, which related with the imaging findings of early cortical atrophy and cerebellum volume loss.